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1

REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF HETEROGENEOUS SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Standard sampling and analysis methods for hazardous substances in contaminated soils currently are available and routinely employed. Standard methods inherently assume a homogeneous soil matrix and contaminant distribution; therefore only small sample quantities typically are p...

2

Analysis of large soil samples for actinides  

DOEpatents

A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

Maxwell, III; Sherrod L. (Aiken, SC)

2009-03-24

3

COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR SOIL VOC ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Data published by numerous researchers over the last decade demonstrate that there is a high degree of spatial variability in the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil at contaminated waste sites. This phenomenon is confounded by the use of a small sample aliqu...

4

Soil Core Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about one method used in environmental site assessments. They practice soil sampling by creating soil cores, studying soil profiles and characterizing soil profiles in borehole logs. They use their analysis to make predictions about what is going on in the soil and what it might mean to an engineer developing the area.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

5

Determining Bulk Density of Different Soil Samples and Data Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity combines field exercise soil collection with lab analysis of soil bulk density. Students develop a lab procedure to measure density and analyze data using Microsoft Excel computer software.

Leslie Kreller, Warroad High School, Warroad, MN, based on an activity from the MnSTEP Summer Chemistry Institute (2007).

6

Sampling error associated with collection and analysis of soil samples at explosives-contaminated sites  

SciTech Connect

This study assessed short-range spatial heterogeneity of explosives concentrations in surface soils. Samples collected 61 cm apart were analyzed individually and as composites by both colorimetric on-site methods and standard laboratory protocols. Ten locations were sampled at four installations and the results were used to estimate the relative contributions of analytical and sampling error. The major contaminant at seven of the ten sampling locations was TNT while 2,4-DNT, HMX, and ammonium picrate (AP) were each the major contaminant at one of the other three. Results from calorimetric on-site analysis were in excellent agreement with laboratory results, particularly for TNT and HMX. For five sampling locations, enormous short-range spatial heterogeneity was encountered and sampling error overwhelmed analytical error. For the other five sampling locations, short-range concentration variations were less extreme and normal distribution statistics were used to fractionate total error variances. Standard deviations due to sampling were greater than those due to analysis by factors ranging from 2.6 to 22.9, whether on-site or laboratory analyses were used. Site characterization was substantially improved using a composite sampling strategy. Overall, characterization of explosives-contaminated sites using a combination of composite sampling, in-field sample homogenization, and on-site calorimetric analysis is an efficient method of obtaining accurate and precise results that are representative of the area sampled.

Jenkins, T.F.; Brar, G.S.; Thorne, P.G. [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31

7

ANALYSIS OF SULFUR IN SOIL, PLANT AND SEDIMENT MATERIALS: SAMPLE HANDLING AND USE OF AN AUTOMATED ANALYZER  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods for analyzing soil, vegetation and sediment samples for total S and handling soil samples for analysis of S constituents were examined. ECO automated total S anelyzer (SC-132) was used for the analysis of vegetation, sediments and soil samples. esults from the LECO analyz...

8

NEW SOIL VOC SAMPLERS: EN CORE AND ACCU CORE SAMPLING/STORAGE DEVICES FOR VOC ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core{reg_sign} sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. An ASTM International (ASTM) standard practice, D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, describes use of the En Core sampler to collect and store a soil sample of approximately 5 grams or 25 grams for volatile organic analysis and specifies sample storage in the En Core sampler at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours; -7 to -21 C for up to 14 days; or 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -7 to -21 C for up to five days. This report discusses activities performed during the past year to promote and continue acceptance of the En Core samplers based on their performance to store soil samples for VOC analysis. The En Core sampler is designed to collect soil samples for VOC analysis at the soil surface. To date, a sampling tool for collecting and storing subsurface soil samples for VOC analysis is not available. Development of a subsurface VOC sampling/storage device was initiated in 1999. This device, which is called the Accu Core{trademark} sampler, is designed so that a soil sample can be collected below the surface using a dual-tube penetrometer and transported to the laboratory for analysis in the same container. Laboratory testing of the current Accu Core design shows that the device holds low-level concentrations of VOCs in soil samples during 48-hour storage at 4 {+-} 2 C and that the device is ready for field evaluation to generate additional performance data. This report discusses a field validation exercise that was attempted in Pennsylvania in 2004 and activities being performed to plan and conduct a field validation study in 2006. A draft ASTM practice describing use of the Accu Core sampler is being prepared. An update on the status of the ASTM practice is given in this report.

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr

2006-06-01

9

Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll  

SciTech Connect

Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island radioecology and dose assessment work.

Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.

1981-02-18

10

The use of Vacutainer tubes for collection of soil samples for helium analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of the helium concentration of soil samples collected and stored in Vacutainer-brand evacuated glass tubes show that Vacutainers are reliable containers for soil collection. Within the limits of reproducibility, helium content of soils appears to be independent of variations in soil temperature, barometric pressure, and quantity of soil moisture present in the sample.

Hinkle, Margaret E.; Kilburn, James E.

1979-01-01

11

Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

12

Mass spectrometer-pyrolysis experiment for atmospheric and soil sample analysis on the surface of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from the Viking mission will form the foundation for future in-depth investigations of atmosphere-surface interactions on Mars. The two Viking landers carried impressive instrumentation to obtain and analyze soil samples: the sites were observed by cameras, and the collector head was located on a long boom and allowed the collection of large samples at various depths. A selection of grain sizes was possible and a distribution system supplied a number of experiments with soil material. Despite stationary vehicles, a wide sampling field was reachable. The GCMS system, responsible for atmospheric as well as surface soil analysis, worked well on both landers. Atmospheric measurements resulted in the determination of the abundance of noble gases as well as of other molecular species. Isotopic composition measurements included the important ratios of C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, and Ar-36/Ar-40. To verify these past results and to advance detailed studies of noble gas isotope ratios and minor constituents, better instrument sensitivities, higher precision, and lower background contributions are required in future Mars missions. Soil analysis during the Viking mission concentrated on organic material. Heating cycles were performed to 500 C and only water and carbon dioxide were identified. Higher pyrolysis temperatures are of primary importance to advance our understanding of the mineralogy and gas loading of surface material and atmospheric exchange.

Mauersberger, Konrad; Mahaffy, Paul; Niemann, Hasso

1992-01-01

13

Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith  

DOEpatents

A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allows an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds. 11 figures.

Thompson, C.V.

1991-02-05

14

Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith  

DOEpatents

A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allow an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds.

Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN)

1991-01-01

15

Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Evaluation of Residual Chromium Contamination in the Subsurface Soil at 100-C-7  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) provides the requirements for sample collection and laboratory analysis to evaluate the extent of hexavalent chromium contamination present in the soil below the 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1 remedial action waste site excavations.

W. S. Thompson

2007-02-15

16

Laboratory analysis of soil hydraulic properties of G-5 soil samples  

SciTech Connect

The Hydrologic Testing Laboratory at DBS&A has completed laboratory tests on TA-54 samples from well G5 as specified by Daniel James and summarized in Table 1. Tables 2 through 8 give the results of the specified analyses. Raw laboratory data and graphical plots of data (where appropriate) are contained in Appendices A through G. Appendix H lists the methods used in these analyses. A detailed description of each method is available upon request. Several sample-specific observations are important for data interpretation. Sample G-5 @ 21.5 was a short core and showed indications of preferential flow. Sample G-5 @ 92.5 developed a visually apparent crack during drying which correlates with the higher air permeabilities observed at lower water contents. Several samples yielded negative estimates of extrapolated intrinsic permeability while measured apparent permeabilities were reasonable. For consistency, however, only intrinsic values are presented. While our defined task is to provide data for interpretation, the following comments are offered as a context for some of the common parameter extraction issues. Further details and a more comprehensive summary of TA-54 data can be found in Unsaturated hydraulic characteristics of the Bandelier tuff at TA-54 dated November 17, 1994.

NONE

1995-01-01

17

Sampling and Analysis for Lead in Water and Soil Samples on a University Campus: A Student Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a student research project that determined concentrations of lead in water drawn from selected drinking fountains and in selected soil samples on the campus of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. (18 references) (DDR)

Butala, Steven J.; Zarrabi, Kaveh

1995-01-01

18

Method development and sample processing of water, soil, and tissue for the analysis of total and organic mercury by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomic Fluorescence-based methods have been developed for measuring ultratrace levels of mercury (Hg) in environmental (water, soil) and biological (fish tissue) samples. In addition, methods for preparation of water, soil, and tissue samples have been developed. For the analysis of total Hg in soil, sediment and fish the samples are digested with concentrated nitric acid in sealed glass ampules, and

R. D. Jones; M. E. Jacobson; R. Jaffe; J. West-Thomas; C. Arfstrom; A. Alli

1995-01-01

19

ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND DUST SAMPLES FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)  

EPA Science Inventory

An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in house dust and soil. Soil and house dust samples were analyzed for PCB by both gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and ELISA methods. A correlati...

20

Static headspace analysis of volatile organic compounds in soil and vegetation samples for site characterization.  

SciTech Connect

Traditional methodologies for the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in subsurface soil are expensive, time-consuming processes that are often conducted on samples collected at random. The determination of VOCs in near-surface soils and vegetation is the foundation for a more efficient sampling strategy to characterize subsurface soil and improve understanding of environmental problems. In the absence of a standard methodology for the determination of VOCs in vegetation and in view of the high detection limits of the method for soils, we developed a methodology using headspace gas chromatography with an electron capture detector for the determination of low levels (parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion) of VOCs in soils and vegetation. The technique demonstrates good sensitivity, good recoveries of internal standards and surrogate compounds, good performance, and minimal waste. A case study involving application of this technique as a first-step vadose-zone characterization methodology is presented.

Alvarado, J. S.; Rose, C. M.; Environmental Research

2004-01-09

21

Express method of gamma-ray analysis of the soil blocks which have been sampled without a disturbance of the turf layer  

E-print Network

This paper presents method of gamma-analysis of the soil patterns sampled soon after of nuclear accident. The method does not require of sample preparation and intends for analysis of the soil samples with a non-homogeneous distribution of activity at the depth. Technique of calibration of the detector efficiency is considered, that have been used when soil blocks sampling by means of the non-disturbance method (by rings) after Chernobyl accident were measured.

Tertyshnik, E G

2012-01-01

22

Express method of gamma-ray analysis of the soil blocks which have been sampled without a disturbance of the turf layer  

E-print Network

This paper presents method of gamma-analysis of the soil patterns sampled soon after of nuclear accident. The method does not require of sample preparation and intends for analysis of the soil samples with a non-homogeneous distribution of activity at the depth. Technique of calibration of the detector efficiency is considered, that have been used when soil blocks sampling by means of the non-disturbance method (by rings) after Chernobyl accident were measured.

E. G. Tertyshnik; S. M. Vakulovsky

2012-03-05

23

Improving the Way You Soil Sample Soil sampling is generally not practiced often enough by Texas producers, and the usual  

E-print Network

-nitrogen/ac). Soil sampling to 6 inches is sufficient for phosphorus, potassium, micronutrient, and pH analysisImproving the Way You Soil Sample Issue Soil sampling is generally not practiced often enough. Dryland farms should be sampled for nitrogen every 2-3 years. Soil sampling and testing for phosphorus

Mukhtar, Saqib

24

Real-time multi ISFET\\/FIA soil analysis system with automatic sample extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful implementation of site-specific crop management relies on accurate quantification of spatial variation of important factors. Therefore, there is a tremendous need for the development of sensing technologies that will allow automated collection of soil, crop and pest data, to more accurately characterize within-field variability. The objective of this work was to develop an integrated multi-sensor soil analysis system. Ion-selective

S. J. Birrell; J. W. Hummel

2001-01-01

25

Soil Sample Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-resolution photo of the Martian surface near the Viking Lander 2 shows a few square meters (yards) at one of the possible spots for acquiring a soil sample. The sample will be collected next Saturday (September 11) by the Lander's trenching scoop and delivered to the spacecraft instruments. The rock in the right foreground is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) across. Most rocks appear to have vesicles, or small holes, in them. Such rocks on Earth can be produced by either volcanic processes or by hypervelocity impacts of meteorites. Some areas are lighter than others, suggesting the presence of two kinds of fine-grained materials, which also can be produced by both volcanic and impact processes. A nearby large impact crater, named Mie, may be the source of the rocks and fine-grained material at the landing site.

1976-01-01

26

STATISTICAL SAMPLING AND DATA ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Research is being conducted to develop approaches to improve soil and sediment sampling techniques, measurement design and geostatistics, and data analysis via chemometric, environmetric, and robust statistical methods. Improvements in sampling contaminated soil and other hetero...

27

EMERGING MODALITIES FOR SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS: SAMPLING STATISTICS AND ECONOMICS WORKSHOP.  

SciTech Connect

The workshop's main objectives are (1) to present the emerging modalities for analyzing carbon in soil, (2) to assess their error propagation, (3) to recommend new protocols and sampling strategies for the new instrumentation, and, (4) to compare the costs of the new methods with traditional chemical ones.

WIELOPOLSKI, L.

2006-04-01

28

Quantitative soil vapor as an alternative to traditional soil sampling for VOCs: Characterization and remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will present the results of a Soil Vapor Demonstration Project that compared pairs of soils and adjacent soil vapor samples. This study was conducted at the Aerojet General Corporation site in Rancho Cordova, CA. The author will describe the use of soil vapor sampling as a better alternative to traditional soil sampling and analysis for volatile organic compounds,

L. M. Preslo; T. Estes; M. C. Kraemer

1993-01-01

29

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING DUST AND SOIL SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF NEUTRAL PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.14)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP summarizes the method for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for analysis of neutral persistent organic pollutants. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry....

30

Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology  

DOEpatents

Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

Dahlgran, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

31

Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology  

DOEpatents

Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation uses encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration. 1 fig.

Dahlgran, J.R.

1999-08-17

32

COST ASSESSMENT OF STANDARD SOIL SAMPLING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, there has been increased interest in determining the potential for C sequestration with changes in land management. This paper will discuss the potential cost of standard soil sampling for this purpose. To determine the potential cost of soil C analysis on a field scale, many of the meth...

33

Compost Analysis Samples provided by the Soil, Water and Forage Testing Laboratory at Texas A&M, 2003  

E-print Network

Compost Analysis Samples provided by the Soil, Water and Forage Testing Laboratory at Texas A ppm ppm % % dS/m Dairy Manure Compost 0.6171 .2680 1.4345 3.5041 .2737 .4371 319.7 249.1 33.53 173.1 30.0 16.02 9.3 1.280 Dairy Manure Compost 1.0704 .3866 2.4949 6.7455 .5472 .7320 155.6 381.5 47

Mukhtar, Saqib

34

Development testing of the chemical analysis automation polychlorinated biphenyl standard analysis method during surface soils sampling at the David Witherspoon 1630 site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) project is developing standardized, software-driven, site-deployable robotic laboratory systems with the objective of lowering the per-sample analysis cost, decreasing sample turnaround time, and minimizing human exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials associated with DOE remediation projects. The first integrated system developed by the CAA project is designed to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content in soil

M. A. Hunt; L. N. Klatt; D. H. Thompson

1998-01-01

35

Development of a procedure for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides in vineyard soils and its application to real samples.  

PubMed

A procedure for multiresidue analysis was developed for the extraction and determination of 17 pesticides, including herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides, as well as certain degradation products, in vineyard soils from La Rioja region (Spain). Different solvents and mixtures were tested in spiked pesticide-free soils, and pesticides were comparatively evaluated by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Recoveries >70%, with relative standard deviations <9%, were obtained when a mixture of methanol/acetone or a mixture of methanol/CaCl2 0.01 M for the most polar compounds was selected as the extraction solvent. Method validation was accomplished with acceptable linearity (r(2) ? 0.987) within the concentration range of 0.005-1 ?g/mL corresponding to 1.667-333.4 ?g/kg and 0.835-167.1 ?g/kg for liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, respectively, and detection limits <0.4 ?g/kg for the compounds were studied. The extraction method was applied to 17 real vineyard soil samples, and terbuthylazine and its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine were the most ubiquitous compounds, as they were detected in the 100% of the soils analyzed. The presence of fungicides was also high, and the presence of insecticides was lower than other pesticides. The results confirm the usefulness of the optimized procedure for monitoring residues in vineyard soils. PMID:24910322

Pose-Juan, Eva; Herrero-Hernández, Eliseo; Álvarez-Martín, Alba; Sánchez-Martín, María J; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia

2014-08-01

36

Sampling Martian Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists were using the Moessbauer spectrometer on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit when something unexpected happened. The instrument's contact ring had been placed onto the ground as a reference point for placement of another instrument, the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, for analyzing the soil. After Spirit removed the Moessbauer from the target, the rover's microscopic imager revealed a gap in the imprint left behind in the soil. The gap, about a centimeter wide (less than half an inch), is visible on the left side of this mosaic of images. Scientists concluded that a small chunk of soil probably adhered to the contact ring on the front surface of the Moessbauer. Before anyone saw that soil may have adhered to the Moessbauer, that instrument was placed to analyze martian dust collected by a magnet on the rover. The team plans to take images to see if any soil is still attached to the Moessbauer. Spirit took these images on the rover's 240th martian day, or sol (Sept. 4, 2004).

2004-01-01

37

Soil and sediment sample analysis for the sequential determination of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides.  

PubMed

A new sequential method for the determination of both natural (U, Th) and anthropogenic (Sr, Cs, Pu, Am) radionuclides has been developed for application to soil and sediment samples. The procedure was optimised using a reference sediment (IAEA-368) and reference soils (IAEA-375 and IAEA-326). Reference materials were first digested using acids (leaching), 'total' acids on hot plate, and acids in microwave in order to compare the different digestion technique. Then, the separation and purification were made by anion exchange resin and selective extraction chromatography: transuranic (TRU) and strontium (SR) resins. Natural and anthropogenic alpha radionuclides were separated by uranium and tetravalent actinide (UTEVA) resin, considering different acid elution medium. Finally, alpha and gamma semiconductor spectrometer and liquid scintillation spectrometer were used to measure radionuclide activities. The results obtained for strontium-90, cesium-137, thorium-232, uranium-238, plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 isotopes by the proposed method for the reference materials provided excellent agreement with the recommended values and good chemical recoveries. Plutonium isotopes in alpha spectrometry planchet deposits could be also analysed by ICPMS. PMID:18371813

Michel, H; Levent, D; Barci, V; Barci-Funel, G; Hurel, C

2008-02-15

38

The sorption of sulfamethazine on soil samples: isotherms and error analysis.  

PubMed

In this paper, batch sorption of sulfamethazine on eight soil samples (six from Croatia and two from Bosnia and Hercegovina) with different organic matter contents ranging from 1.52 to 12.8% was investigated. The effects of various parameters such as agitation time, initial concentration, and ionic strength on the sulfamethazine sorption were studied. The experimental data were analysed using a one-parameter model, Linear isotherm, and two two-parameter models, the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The goodness of fit was measured using the linear regression and the determination coefficient (R(2)) value. Also, the equilibrium data of the two-parameter models were analysed using the residual root mean square error (RMSE), the sum of squares of errors (ERRSQ), and a composite fractional error function (HYBRID). Non-linear regression has better characteristics for analysing experimental data. The obtained sorption coefficients Kd (from 0.25 to 8.10 mL/g) and the Freundlich sorption coefficients KF (from 1.16 to 7.99 (?g/g)(mL/?g)(1/n)) exhibited quite low values, which indicated that sulfamethazine is weakly adsorbed on the evaluated soils, is highly mobile, and has a great potential to penetrate and pollute the ground water. The Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was used to estimate the apparent free energy of sorption. PMID:25163651

Mutavdži? Pavlovi?, Dragana; ?urkovi?, Lidija; Blažek, Dijana; Župan, Josip

2014-11-01

39

Soil Core Sample #2  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Soil core obtained from existing goose grazing lawn along the Smith River in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska.  Buried peat layer broken open.  Closer examination of the buried peat layer demonstrates that non-salt-tolerant vegetation from the past...

40

Soil Core Sample #1  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Soil core obtained from existing goose grazing lawn along the Smith River in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska.  The buried layer of peat beneath goose grazing lawn demonstrates that vegetation change has occurred in this area....

41

EMERGING MODALITES FOR SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS: SAMPLING STATISTICS AND ECONOMICS WORKSHOP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carbon is an integral part of the global C cycle and plays an important role in soil quality and productivity. In the last 20-30 years detailed knowledge of C balances and transport in the soil, on local, regional, and global scales emerged as being critically important for quantification of soil C ...

42

Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) equipment calibration for multielement analysis of soil and rock samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the importance to understand the behavior of the elements on different natural and/or anthropic processes, this study had as objective to verify the accuracy of a multielement analysis method for rocks characterization by using soil standards as calibration reference. An EDXRF equipment was used. The analyses were made on samples doped with known concentration of Mn, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr, for the obtainment of the calibration curves, and on a certified rock sample to check the accuracy of the analytical curves. Then, a set of rock samples from Rio Bonito, located in Figueira city, Paraná State, Brazil, were analyzed. The concentration values obtained, in ppm, for Mn, Rb, Sr and Zr varied, respectively, from 175 to 1084, 7.4 to 268, 28 to 2247 and 15 to 761.

de Moraes, Alex Silva; Tech, Lohane; Melquíades, Fábio Luiz; Bastos, Rodrigo Oliveira

2014-11-01

43

Sampling and analysis of soil from the old F-Area effluent ditch and its surrounding wetlands  

SciTech Connect

Four surface soil samples were collected from the wetlands at the old F-Area effluent ditch. All samples were collected near shallow well point locations except FHB012, which was collected from the effluent ditch stream sediment. Samples were analyzed for metals, Target Compound List volatile organic compounds, and gross radiological indicators. Barium, beryllium, and zinc were detected in all four samples and antimony was detected in three of four samples. These metals occur naturally in the wetland soils at the SRS. Comparisons of metals concentrations were male to concentration ranges taken from background wetland soil samples. These comparison, showed that barium and beryllium concentrations were within expected ranges while zinc and antimony concentrations were elevated above expected concentration ranges. Volatile organic compounds were detected in all four samples. Detected compounds included acetone, 2-butanone, chloromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and toluene. The only radionuclide detected in a significant quantities was tritium which was detected in all four samples.

Dixon, K.L.

1994-06-01

44

Soil Sampling Near Uranium Mine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Scientists Sarah Davis, Taylor Mills, and David Naftz collect soil samples near the Pinenut uranium mine. Mine features visible in the background include the gray ore stockpile at the far left, the head frame used to access the underground mine workings at mid left, and the detention pond conta...

45

Gas-chromatographic analysis of Mars soil samples at Rocknest site with the SAM instrument onboard Curiosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amongst the SAM suite of instruments [1], SAM-GC (Gas Chromatograph) is devoted to identify and quantify volatiles evolved from the thermal/chemical treatment of any soil sample collected by the Curiosity rover. The first soil samples analyzed with SAM were composed of sand collected at the Rocknest site. For their analysis, these samples were submitted to a pyrolysis at temperatures reaching about 900°C. For SAM-GC and GCMS analyses, different fractions of pyrolysates were collected at different temperature in the ambient-900°C range in order to discriminate potential different volatile fractions present in the solid sample. With the aim to search for potential organic molecules outgassed from the samples, a SAM-GC analytical channel composed of thermal-desorption injector and a MXT-CLP chromatographic column was used as it was designed for the separation of a wide range of volatile organic molecules. This channel is also equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) capable to detect the most abundant species (with abundances down to approximately 10-10 mol). It is thus complementary to the mass spectrometer detection for quantification of such species as this last instrument has not a linear response in this domain of high abundance, whereas it is significantly more sensitive than the TCD. The results obtained with this instrument for the analysis of Rocknest soil first show that the performances of SAM-GC are representative of those obtained during calibrations of the instrument in laboratory, as well as they are repeatable. Hence, the instrument performs nominally, making it the first GCMS running successfully on Mars since the Viking missions. Moreover, the complementarity of GC towards MS is also shown, either by allowing the quantification of the major species detected (as water), or by providing a chromatographic signal well resolved temporally which can be used to improve the QMS signal treatment. In the frame of research of organics, the SAM-GC analyses contribute to the identification of several methyl-chlorohydrocarbons [2,3], and of HCN in the gases evolved from the solid sample [4]. These detections strongly support the presence of perchlorates in the Rocknest soil. Since perchlorates have been detected with Phoenix lander [5] and then recently with Curiosity [6,2,3], the re-interpretation of the Viking data have to be seen under a new angle [7]. The non-detection of PAHs is also interesting to notice, when it is known that micrometeorites containing PAHs still bring this organic material to the Mars surface today. This lack of detection defines an upper limit on the content of PAHs in the martian soil at the Curiosity site, but it could also be indicative of the presence of chemical mechanisms that process this type of material at the surface. References: [1] Mahaffy, P. et al. (2012) Space Sci Rev, 170, 401-478. [2] Glavin, D. et al. (2013), LPSC. [3] Eigenbrode, J. et al. (2013), LPSC. [4] Stern, J. et al. (2013), LPSC. [5] Hecht, M. H. et al. (2009), Science, 32, 64-67. [6] Sutter, B. et al., (2013) LPSC. [7] Navarro-Gonzalez, R. (2010), J. Geophys. Res. 115, E12010. Acknowledgements: SAM-GC team acknowledges support from the French Space Agency (CNES), French National Programme of Planetology (PNP), National French Council (CNRS), Pierre Simon Laplace Institute, Institut Universitaire de France (IUF) and ESEP Labex.

Cabane, Michel; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Coscia, David; Buch, Aranaud; Teinturier, Samuel; Navarro-gonzalez, Rafael; Gaboriaud, Alain; Mahaffy, Paul; MSL science Team

2013-04-01

46

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING DUST AND SOIL SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.15)  

EPA Science Inventory

The method for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for analysis of polar persistent organic pollutants is summarized in this SOP. It covers the extraction, concentration, and derivatization of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry....

47

Eukaryotic diversity in historical soil samples.  

PubMed

The eukaryotic biodiversity in historical air-dried samples of Dutch agricultural soil has been assessed by random sequencing of an 18S rRNA gene library and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Representatives of nearly all taxa of eukaryotic soil microbes could be identified, demonstrating that it is possible to study eukaryotic microbiota in samples from soil archives that have been stored for more than 30 years at room temperature. In a pilot study, 41 sequences were retrieved that could be assigned to fungi and a variety of aerobic and anaerobic protists such as cercozoans, ciliates, xanthophytes (stramenopiles), heteroloboseans, and amoebozoans. A PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of samples collected between 1950 and 1975 revealed significant changes in the composition of the eukaryotic microbiota. PMID:16907756

Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Tzeneva, Vesela A; van der Staay, Georg W M; de Vos, Willem M; Smidt, Hauke; Hackstein, Johannes H P

2006-09-01

48

Estimation of uncertainty in the sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil in Brighton, UK.  

PubMed

The heterogeneity of environmental samples is increasingly recognised, yet rarely examined in organic contamination investigations. In this study soil samples from an ex-landfill site in Brighton, UK were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination by using a balanced sampling protocol. The analytical technique of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was found to be fit for purpose by the use of duplicate samples and the statistical analysis of variances, as well as of certified reference materials. The sampling uncertainty was found to significantly overweigh the analytical uncertainty, by a factor of 3 and 6 for PCBs and PAHs, respectively. The soil samples showed a general trend of PCB concentration that was under the recommended target level of 20 ng/g dry weight. It is possible that one site alongside the main road may exceed the 20 ng/g target level, after taking into consideration the overall measurement uncertainty (70.8%). The PAH contamination was more severe, with seven sites potentially exceeding the effect-range medium concentrations. The soil samples with relatively high PCB and PAH concentrations were all taken from the grass verge, which also had the highest soil organic carbon content. The measurement uncertainty which was largely due to sampling can be reduced by sampling at a high resolution spacing of 17 m, which is recommended in future field investigations of soil organic contamination. PMID:25128886

Zhou, John L; Siddiqui, Ertan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

2014-11-01

49

Quantitative soil vapor as an alternative to traditional soil sampling for VOCs: Characterization and remediation  

SciTech Connect

This paper will present the results of a Soil Vapor Demonstration Project that compared pairs of soils and adjacent soil vapor samples. This study was conducted at the Aerojet General Corporation site in Rancho Cordova, CA. The author will describe the use of soil vapor sampling as a better alternative to traditional soil sampling and analysis for volatile organic compounds, and as a tool to locate possible DNAPL. The paper will present how the Demonstration Project was performed to substantiate to the U.S. EPA and state agencies that soil vapor is a viable and quantitative sampling methodology. This approach utilized various soil properties including measured soil partitioning coefficients, to calculate VOC mass in soils based on soil vapor data and equilibrium conditions. The results showed that traditional soil samples underestimated the mass of VOCs present in over 90 percent of the soil/soil vapor pairs. The paper also will include observations of other physical parameters which were monitored during the program to assess the effect on the soil vapor concentrations. In addition, the flexibility, speed, and cost-effectiveness of sampling allowed for more comprehensive characterization with a higher level of confidence. The data collected demonstrated that the soil vapor technique provides a more comprehensive evaluation of VOC distribution in the vadose zone than traditional soil sampling.

Preslo, L.M.; Estes, T. (ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)); Kraemer, M.C.

1993-10-01

50

Analysis of Mars analogue soil samples using solid-phase microextraction, organic solvent extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are robust and abundant molecules in extraterrestrial environments. They are found ubiquitously in the interstellar medium and have been identified in extracts of meteorites collected on Earth. PAHs are important target molecules for planetary exploration missions that investigate the organic inventory of planets, moons and small bodies. This study is part of an interdisciplinary preparation phase to search for organic molecules and life on Mars. We have investigated PAH compounds in desert soils to determine their composition, distribution and stability. Soil samples (Mars analogue soils) were collected at desert areas of Utah in the vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), in the Arequipa region in Peru and from the Jutland region of Denmark. The aim of this study was to optimize the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for fast screening and determination of PAHs in soil samples. This method minimizes sample handling and preserves the chemical integrity of the sample. Complementary liquid extraction was used to obtain information on five- and six-ring PAH compounds. The measured concentrations of PAHs are, in general, very low, ranging from 1 to 60 ng g-1. The texture of soils is mostly sandy loam with few samples being 100 % silt. Collected soils are moderately basic with pH values of 8-9 except for the Salten Skov soil, which is slightly acidic. Although the diverse and variable microbial populations of the samples at the sample sites might have affected the levels and variety of PAHs detected, SPME appears to be a rapid, viable field sampling technique with implications for use on planetary missions.

Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; Foing, B. H.; Kanik, I.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

2011-07-01

51

Analysis of Mars Analogue Soil Samples Using Solid-Phase Microextraction, Organic Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are robust and abundant molecules in extraterrestrial environments. They are found ubiquitously in the interstellar medium and have been identified in extracts of meteorites collected on Earth. PAHs are important target molecules for planetary exploration missions that investigate the organic inventory of planets, moons and small bodies. This study is part of an interdisciplinary preparation phase to search for organic molecules and life on Mars. We have investigated PAH compounds in desert soils to determine their composition, distribution and stability. Soil samples (Mars analogue soils) were collected at desert areas of Utah in the vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), in the Arequipa region in Peru and from the Jutland region of Denmark. The aim of this study was to optimize the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for fast screening and determination of PAHs in soil samples. This method minimizes sample handling and preserves the chemical integrity of the sample. Complementary liquid extraction was used to obtain information on five- and six-ring PAH compounds. The measured concentrations of PAHs are, in general, very low, ranging from 1 to 60 ng g(sup -1). The texture of soils is mostly sandy loam with few samples being 100% silt. Collected soils are moderately basic with pH values of 8-9 except for the Salten Skov soil, which is slightly acidic. Although the diverse and variable microbial populations of the samples at the sample sites might have affected the levels and variety of PAHs detected, SPME appears to be a rapid, viable field sampling technique with implications for use on planetary missions.

Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; Foing, B. H.; Kanik, I.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

2011-01-01

52

DIRECT/DELAYED RESPONSE PROJECT: QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR SOIL SAMPLING, PREPARATION, AND ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) focuses on regions of the United States that have been identified as potentially sensitive to surface water acidification. The Northeastern Soil Survey includes the New England states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Conn...

53

Field Book for Describing and Sampling Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This field guide is useful for making or reading soil and site descriptions. The major sections address soil profile description, geomorphology, geology, soil taxonomy, soil map symbols, and field sampling strategies. Rock charts and timescales are provided to help with soil identification.

54

Field Book for Describing and Sampling Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This field guide is useful for making or reading soil and site descriptions. The major sections address soil profile description, geomorphology, geology, soil taxonomy, soil map symbols, and field sampling strategies. Rock charts and timescales are provided to help with soil identification.

2008-07-02

55

Soils âField Characterization, Collection, and Laboratory Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Field characterization of soil profiles in coniferous and deciduous settings; sample collection of soils from different horizons; laboratory analysis of soil moisture, soil organic carbon (by loss on ignition), and grain size distribution (by sieving)

Biswas, Abir

56

Gas-Chromatographic analysis of Mars soil samples with the SAM instrument onboard Curiosity - the 359 first sols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amongst the SAM suite of instruments, SAM-GC (Gas Chromatograph) is devoted to identify and quantify volatiles evolved from the thermal/chemical treatment of any soil sample collected by the Curiosity rover. The first soil samples analyzed with SAM were composed of windblown dust and sand collected at the Rocknest site, while the second site analyzed was a basin called “Yellowknife Bay” where two holes were drilled (John Klein & Cumberland) and analysis showed these sites to be a fluvio-lacustrine sediment.. For their analysis, these samples were subjected to a pyrolysis at temperatures reaching about 850°C. For SAM-GC and GCMS analyses, different fractions of pyrolysates were collected at different temperature in the ambient-900°C range in order to discriminate potential different volatile fractions present in the solid sample. With the aim to search for potential organic molecules outgassed from the samples, a SAM-GC analytical channel composed of a thermal-desorption injector and a MXT-CLP chromatographic column was used as it was designed for the separation of a wide range of volatile organic molecules. This channel is also equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) capable to detect the most abundant species (with abundances down to approximately 10-10mol). His channel is thus complementary to the mass spectrometer detection for quantification of such species, as this last instrument does not have linear response in this domain of high abundance, whereas it is significantly more sensitive than the TCD. The results obtained with this instrument first show that the performances of SAM-GC is representative of those obtained during calibrations of the instrument in laboratory, and also that results are repeatable. Hence, the instrument performs nominally, making it the first GCMS running successfully on Mars since the Viking missions (middle of the 70’s). Moreover, the complementarity of GC towards MS is also shown, both by allowing the quantification of the major species detected (as water), and by providing a chromatographic signal, that is well resolved temporally which can be used to improve the QMS signal treatment. In the frame of research of organics, the SAM-GC analyses contribute to the identification of several compounds even at trace levels, giving clues on the chemical content of both loose surface and rock materials. These detections are of course linked to the question of preservation and evolution of organic material in the Mars environment, and this will be discussed in further details.

Szopa, Cyril; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Mahaffy, Paul; Buch, Arnaud; Goutail, Jean Pierre; Cabane, Michel; Glavin, Daniel; Correia, Jean-Jacques; Coll, Patrice; Freissinet, Caroline; Meftah, Mustapha; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Brunner, Anna; Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Millan, Maeva; Pascalin

57

MCNP ESTIMATE OF THE SAMPLED VOLUME IN A NON-DESTRUCTIVE IN SITU SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS.  

SciTech Connect

Global warming, promoted by anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emission into the atmosphere, is partially mitigated by the photosynthesis processes of the terrestrial echo systems that act as atmospheric CO{sub 2} scrubbers and sequester carbon in soil. Switching from till to no till soils management practices in agriculture further augments this process. Carbon sequestration is also advanced by putting forward a carbon ''credit'' system whereby these can be traded between CO{sub 2} producers and sequesters. Implementation of carbon ''credit'' trade will be further promulgated by recent development of a non-destructive in situ carbon monitoring system based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Volumes and depth distributions defined by the 0.1, 1.0, 10, 50, and 90 percent neutron isofluxes, from a point source located at either 5 or 30 cm above the surface, were estimated using Monte Carlo calculations.

WIELOPOLSKI, L.; DIOSZEGI, I.; MITRA, S.

2004-05-03

58

Gas-Chromatographic analysis of Mars soil samples with the SAM instrument onboard Curiosity - the 180 first sols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amongst the SAM suite of instruments [1], SAM-GC (Gas Chromatograph) is devoted to identify and quantify volatiles evolved from the thermal/chemical treatment of any soil sample collected by the Curiosity rover. The first soil samples analyzed with SAM were composed of sand collected at the Rocknest site, when the second site analyzed was a basin called "Yellowkive Bay". For their analysis, these samples were submitted to a pyrolysis at temperatures reaching about 900°C. For SAM-GC and GCMS analyses, different fractions of pyrolysates were collected at different temperature in the ambient-900°C range in order to discriminate potential different volatile fractions present in the solid sample. With the aim to search for potential organic molecules outgassed from the samples, a SAM-GC analytical channel composed of thermal-desorption injector and a MXT-CLP chromatographic column was used as it was designed for the separation of a wide range of volatile organic molecules. This channel is also equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) capable to detect the most abundant species (with abundances down to approximately 10-10 mol). It is thus complementary to the mass spectrometer detection for quantification of such species as this last instrument has not a linear response in this domain of high abundance, whereas it is significantly more sensitive than the TCD. The results obtained with this instrument first show that the performances of SAM-GC are representative of those obtained during calibrations of the instrument in laboratory, as well as they are repeatable. Hence, the instrument performs nominally, making it the first GCMS running successfully on Mars since the Viking missions. Moreover, the complementarity of GC towards MS is also shown, either by allowing the quantification ofthe major species detected (as water), or by providing a chromatographic signal well resolved temporally which can be used to improve the QMS signal treatment. In the frame of research of organics, the SAM-GC analyses contribute to the identification of several methyl-chlorohydrocarbons, and of HCN in the gases evolved from the solid sample. These detections strongly support the presence of perchlorates in the Rocknest soil. Since perchlorates have been detected with Phoenix lander [2] and then recently with Curiosity, the re-interpretation of the Viking data have to be seen under a new angle [3]. The nondetection of PAHs is also interesting to notice, when it is known that micrometeorites containing PAHs still bring this organic material to the Mars surface today. This lack of detection defines an upper limit on the content of PAHs in the martian soil at the sites studied by Curiosity, but it could also be indicative of the presence of chemical mechanisms that process this type of material at the surface.

Szopa, C.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Coscia, D.; Buch, A.; Teinturier, S.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Goutail, J.-P.; Montaron, C.; Rigal, J.-B.; Poinsignon, P.; Guerrini, V.; Clerc, M.-S.; Meftah, M.; Soldani, L.; Mettetal, F.; Jerôme, M.; Philippon, C.; Galic, A.; Sablairolles, J.; Triqueneaux, S.; Chazot, D.; Toffolo, B.; Rakoto, F. Y.; Gaboriaud, A.; Mahaffy, P.

2013-09-01

59

SOIL SAMPLING DERELICT, UNDERUSED AND NEGLECTED  

E-print Network

SOIL SAMPLING DERELICT, UNDERUSED AND NEGLECTED LAND PRIOR TO GREENSPACE ESTABLISHMENT BPG NOTE 1 Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration Introduction Soil sampling (Figure 1) is an expensive. Context and timing Soil sampling should only take place once a site history has been ascertained

60

Geomorphic Analysis of Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are taken to a former plantation along a tidal river near Charleston, SC. The students are then shown how to sample and describe soils using an push-auger sampler, similar to those used in industry. After the demonstration, the students are taken to various locations on the plantation, including upland areas, wetlands, former agricultural areas, lowlands, and tidal marshes, to sample and make field descriptions of the various soils encountered. Students describe depths to horizons, soil color using Munsell Color Charts, soil texture, and any other pertinent properties. Students then prepare a formal technical write-up on the soils, their distribution, and how their sampling results compare to published soil data for the area. Designed for a geomorphology course Uses online and/or real-time data

Briget Doyle

61

Development of a gas chromatography compatible Sample Processing System (SPS) for the in-situ analysis of refractory organic matter in martian soil: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission a new sample preparation system (SPS) compatible with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC MS) has been developed for the in situ analysis of complex organic molecules in the Martian soil. The goal is to detect, if they exist, some of the key compounds that play an important role in life on Earth including carboxylic acids, amino acids and nucleobases. Before analysis by GC MS, all the targeted refractory compounds trapped in the soil sample must be extracted and chemically transformed (derivatization). The extraction is carried out in a two step process which requires the separation and evaporation of the extraction solvent in order to concentrate the organic compounds of interest. To improve the compatibility of the technique for spaceflight a one step procedure is performed using only a thermal processing for the extraction step. These two extraction methods are followed by a derivatization step which uses MTBSTFA (N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide). The sample preparation methods have been tested on “spiked” soil and on Atacama Desert soil coming from the aridest part of the desert located in Chile. All the targeted compounds have been detected by these two procedures, demonstrating the applicability of the technique for in-situ analysis. The one step procedure has been successfully tested on Atacama soil samples with a laboratory pilot reactor, developed for this study, within representative space operating conditions.

Buch, A.; Sternberg, R.; Szopa, C.; Freissinet, C.; Garnier, C.; Bekri, El J.; Rodier, C.; Navarro-González, R.; Raulin, F.; Cabane, M.; Stambouli, M.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.

2009-01-01

62

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS OF SOIL OR HOUSE DUST SAMPLES USING CHLORPYRIFOS ELISA SAMPLES (BCO-L-1.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

This abstract is included for completeness of documentation, but this SOP was not used in the study. The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for analyzing both Stage II and Stage III soil and vacuum-cleaner collected house dust samples, and Stage III air samples u...

63

Validation of a New Soil VOC Sampler: Revision of ASTM Practice D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, and Development of a Subsurface Sampling/Storage Device for VOC Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core{reg_sign} sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. An American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard practice, D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, describes use of the En Core sampler to collect and store a soil sample of approximately 5 grams or 25 grams for volatile organic analysis. To support the ASTM practice, a study was performed to estimate the precision of the performance of the 5-gram and 25-gram En Core samplers to store soil samples spiked with low concentrations of VOCs. This report discusses revision of ASTM Practice D 6418 to include information on the precision of the En Core devices and to reference an ASTM research report on the precision study. This report also discusses revision of the ASTM practice to list storage at -12 {+-} 2 C for up to 14 days and at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -12 {+-} 2C for up to 5 days as acceptable conditions for samples stored in the En Core devices. Data supporting use of these storage conditions are given in an appendix to the practice and are presented in the research report referenced for the precision study. Prior to this revision, storage in the device was specified at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours. The En Core sampler is designed to collect soil samples for VOC analysis at the soil surface. To date, a sampling tool for collecting and storing subsurface soil samples for VOC analysis does not exist. Development of a subsurface VOC sampling/storage device was initiated in 1999. This device, which is called the Accu Core sampler, is designed so that a soil sample can be collected below the surface using a penetrometer and transported to the laboratory for analysis in the same container. During the past year, prototype devices have been tested for their performance in storing soil samples containing low concentrations of VOCs. The Accu Core sampler testing is also described in this report.

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani

2003-09-15

64

Microbiological Detection Systems for Molecular Analysis of Environmental Water and Soil Samples  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple detection systems are being targeted to track various species and genotypes of pathogens found in environmental samples with the overreaching goal of developing analytical separation and detection techniques for Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi, Cryptosporidium parvum,...

65

Development testing of the chemical analysis automation polychlorinated biphenyl standard analysis method during surface soils sampling at the David Witherspoon 1630 site  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) project is developing standardized, software-driven, site-deployable robotic laboratory systems with the objective of lowering the per-sample analysis cost, decreasing sample turnaround time, and minimizing human exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials associated with DOE remediation projects. The first integrated system developed by the CAA project is designed to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content in soil matrices. A demonstration and development testing of this system was conducted in conjuction with surface soil characterization activities at the David Witherspoon 1630 Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The PCB system consists of five hardware standard laboratory modules (SLMs), one software SLM, the task sequence controller (TSC), and the human-computer interface (HCI). Four of the hardware SLMs included a four-channel Soxhlet extractor, a high-volume concentrator, a column cleanup, and a gas chromatograph. These SLMs performed the sample preparation and measurement steps within the total analysis protocol. The fifth hardware module was a robot that transports samples between the SLMs and the required consumable supplies to the SLMs. The software SLM is an automated data interpretation module that receives raw data from the gas chromatograph SLM and analyzes the data to yield the analyte information. The TSC is a software system that provides the scheduling, management of system resources, and the coordination of all SLM activities. The HCI is a graphical user interface that presents the automated laboratory to the analyst in terms of the analytical procedures and methods. Human control of the automated laboratory is accomplished via the HCI. Sample information required for processing by the automated laboratory is entered through the HCI. Information related to the sample and the system status is presented to the analyst via graphical icons.

Hunt, M.A.; Klatt, L.N.; Thompson, D.H. [and others

1998-02-01

66

Geochemistry - Soils Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students conduct a geochemical analysis of a soil. Each group chooses one of the following analyses: conductivity buffer solution, conductivity, acidity, mineralogy, grain size, or loss on ignition. As this lab falls somewhere between the middle and end of the course, students are versed in various chemical methods. This lab reinforces those skills while forcing students to organize their time and be patient with each other while conducting careful lab science. The samples used for this lab were from a Bronze-Age archaeological site in Kazakhstan, but any samples could be substituted. To encourage free-thinking concerning their representations (and interpretations in the follow-up lab), as little background information as possible was given.

Fadem, Cynthia

67

Characterization of Soil Samples of Enzyme Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are nine enzyme essays for distinguishing soil samples. Colorimetric methods are used to compare enzyme levels in soils from different sites. Each soil tested had its own spectrum of activity. Attention is drawn to applications of this technique in forensic science and in studies of soil fertility. (Author/AJ)

Freeland, P. W.

1977-01-01

68

Wavelet-based image analysis system for soil texture analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil texture is defined as the relative proportion of clay, silt and sand found in a given soil sample. It is an important physical property of soil that affects such phenomena as plant growth and agricultural fertility. Traditional methods used to determine soil texture are either time consuming (hydrometer), or subjective and experience-demanding (field tactile evaluation). Considering that textural patterns observed at soil surfaces are uniquely associated with soil textures, we propose an innovative approach to soil texture analysis, in which wavelet frames-based features representing texture contents of soil images are extracted and categorized by applying a maximum likelihood criterion. The soil texture analysis system has been tested successfully with an accuracy of 91% in classifying soil samples into one of three general categories of soil textures. In comparison with the common methods, this wavelet-based image analysis approach is convenient, efficient, fast, and objective.

Sun, Yun; Long, Zhiling; Jang, Ping-Rey; Plodinec, M. John

2003-05-01

69

COLLECTING REPRESENTATIVE SOIL SAMPLES FOR N AND P FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil fertilizer recommendations in modern crop production rely on laboratory analysis of representative soil samples. Regardless on where the samples were collected (grid points, management zones, or whole fields) the accuracy and precision of the fertilizer recommendation can be improved by consid...

70

Soil Solution Sampling for Organic Acids in Rice Paddy Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low molecular weight organic acids (OA), which are intermediates in the anaerobic decomposition of straw incorporated into submerged soils, have been implicated in causing toxicity to young rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. The objective of this study was to develop a method for measuring OA in soil solution in field and greenhouse studies. Three methods of soil solution sampling were

Olivyn R. Angeles; Sarah E. Johnson; Roland J. Buresh

2005-01-01

71

Soil Sampling Techniques For Alabama Grain Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characterizing the spatial variability of nutrients facilitates precision soil sampling. Questions exist regarding the best technique for directed soil sampling based on a priori knowledge of soil and crop patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate zone delineation techniques for Alabama grain fields to determine which method best minimized the soil test variability. Site one (25.8 ha) and site three (20.0 ha) were located in the Tennessee Valley region, and site two (24.2 ha) was located in the Coastal Plain region of Alabama. Tennessee Valley soils ranged from well drained Rhodic and Typic Paleudults to somewhat poorly drained Aquic Paleudults and Fluventic Dystrudepts. Coastal Plain s o i l s ranged from coarse-loamy Rhodic Kandiudults to loamy Arenic Kandiudults. Soils were sampled by grid soil sampling methods (grid sizes of 0.40 ha and 1 ha) consisting of: 1) twenty composited cores collected randomly throughout each grid (grid-cell sampling) and, 2) six composited cores collected randomly from a -3x3 m area at the center of each grid (grid-point sampling). Zones were established from 1) an Order 1 Soil Survey, 2) corn (Zea mays L.) yield maps, and 3) airborne remote sensing images. All soil properties were moderately to strongly spatially dependent as per semivariogram analyses. Differences in grid-point and grid-cell soil test values suggested grid-point sampling does not accurately represent grid values. Zones created by soil survey, yield data, and remote sensing images displayed lower coefficient of variations (8CV) for soil test values than overall field values, suggesting these techniques group soil test variability. However, few differences were observed between the three zone delineation techniques. Results suggest directed sampling using zone delineation techniques outlined in this paper would result in more efficient soil sampling for these Alabama grain fields.

Thompson, A. N.; Shaw, J. N.; Mask, P. L.; Touchton, J. T.; Rickman, D.

2003-01-01

72

Tree Fertilization Soil Analysis  

E-print Network

Tree Fertilization #12;Soil Analysis vs. Foliar Analysis #12;Macronutrients N P K Mg S Ca Micronutrients Fe Mn Zn Mo Cu Cl B #12;Complete fertilizer N P K #12;Fertilizer Analysis Percentages of N P K #12;ANSI A-300 Fertilizer Standard Standards are used to develop contract specifications. Fertilize

73

Alternative Sample Preparation of Soils for Gamma Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Standard laboratory procedures for preparation of soil samples for analysis by gamma spectroscopy typically utilize drying and grinding. Drying of soil samples can be accomplished using an oven for 8 to 16 hours or by air for several days or weeks. Dried samples are then sieved and / or ground to facilitate homogenization. The sample preparation process for soils adds significant time for analysis by gamma spectroscopy as the actual analysis is normally on the order of 1 hour or less. An alternative approach has been developed that significantly reduces sample preparation time for soil samples and that provides comparable results to those obtained by the standard method. The alternative approach utilizes a moisture analyzer to determine the percent moisture in each individual sample, which takes 15 to 45 minutes for each sample. The actual weight of the sample is then corrected by the percent moisture in order to report the results on the equivalent dry weight. This is especially important for samples that are for decision making associated with field activities where time is of the essence. This alternative sample preparation approach provides fast and efficient sample preparation of soils for gamma spectroscopy without reducing data quality or imparting bias. (authors)

Downey, H.T. [MACTEC, Portland, ME (United States); Jung, P.; Scarborough, R. [Sevenson Environmental Services, Niagara Falls, NY (United States)

2008-07-01

74

Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley Floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. In addition to this SAP, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19&D2) presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation.

NONE

1995-03-01

75

Eukaryotic diversity in historical soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eukaryotic biodiversity in historical air-dried samples of Dutch agricultural soil has been assessed by random sequencing of an 18S rRNA gene library and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Representatives of nearly all taxa of eukaryotic soil microbes could be identified, demonstrating that it is possible to study eukaryotic microbiota in samples from soil archives that have been stored for

S. Y. Moon-van der Staay; V. A. Tzeneva; Staay van der G. W. M; Vos de W. M; H. Smidt; J. H. P. Hackstein

2006-01-01

76

Thermodynamic analysis of the effect of strongly swelling polymer hydrogels on the physical state of soil and sediment samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of five Russian and foreign hydrogels on the water retention curve (WRC) and the related physical parameters of soils and sediments differing in their genesis and degree of dispersion has been considered on the basis of a proprietary version of the equilibrium centrifugation method. The new version of the method with the use of a high-speed centrifuge has allowed obtaining WRC in a wide range of matric potentials from 0 to 3000 J/kg (pF = 4.5) with the experimental estimation of almost all the soil-hydrological constants. The first analysis of strongly swelling polymer hydrogels (SSPHs) on WRC and the structural curves of the pore size distribution in heavy-textured soils has been performed, and the possibility has been shown of increasing their water capacity at the swelling of SSPHs in the region near water saturation. The most efficient is the use of SSPHs in light soils, which allows their water retention to be brought to the level of native loamy sands and loams in the SSPH content range of 0.1-0.3% of the enclosing coarse material. The best characteristics were observed for the Russian hydrogel VUM developed by the Institute of Technical Chemistry of the Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and produced by the Urals Plant for Chemical Reagents.

Smagin, A. V.; Sadovnikova, N. B.; Nikolaeva, E. I.

2014-02-01

77

Geochemical analysis of soils and sediments, Coeur d'Alene drainage basin, Idaho: sampling, analytical methods, and results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

(Fe), manganese (Mn), arsenic (As), and cadmium (Cd). In general inter-laboratory correlations are better for samples within the compositional range of the Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Analyses by EWU are the most accurate relative to the NIST standards (mean recoveries within 1% for Pb, Fe, Mn, and As, 3% for Zn and 5% for Cd) and are the most precise (within 7% of the mean at the 95% confidence interval). USGS-EDXRF is similarly accurate for Pb and Zn. XRAL and ACZ are relatively accurate for Pb (within 5-8% of certified NIST values), but were considerably less accurate for the other 5 elements of concern (10-25% of NIST values). However, analyses of sample splits by more than one laboratory reveal that, for some elements, XRAL (Pb, Mn, Cd) and ACZ (Pb, Mn, Zn, Fe) analyses were comparable to EWU analyses of the same samples (when values are within the range of NIST SRMs). These results suggest that, for some elements, XRAL and ACZ dissolutions are more effective on the matrix of the CdA samples than on the matrix of the NIST samples (obtained from soils around Butte, Montana). Splits of CdA samples analyzed by CHEMEX were the least accurate, yielding values 10-25% less than those of EWU.

Box, Stephen E.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Ikramuddin, Mohammed; Lindsay, James

2001-01-01

78

Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: Species stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10 ??C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present, but typically at low levels. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

Wolf, R.E.; Morman, S.A.; Hageman, P.L.; Hoefen, T.M.; Plumlee, G.S.

2011-01-01

79

Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: species, stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10° C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present, but typically at low levels.

Wolf, Ruth E.; Morman, Suzette A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

2011-01-01

80

Determination of support in soil sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-range variation of measurements of a soil characteristic is a function of the support (i.e., size, shape, and orientation of the physical sample taken at a sample point) of the soil samples. This short-range variance often shows up as a substantial component of the nugget effect in experimental semivariograms or estimated generalized covariance functions. Proper choice of support may substantially

Thomas H. Starks

1986-01-01

81

Single extraction schemes for soil analysis and related applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different kinds of elemental soil analysis, for the determination of ‘total’, ‘pseudo-total’ and ‘extractable’ soil contents and their different purposes are reviewed. In particular, methods for assessing the trace element and heavy metal status of soils by selective chemical extraction procedures is considered in detail. Sampling, and sample preparation for extraction are discussed and the use of air-dried soils

A. M. Ure

1996-01-01

82

Carbon and Sulfur Isotopic Composition of Rocknest Soil as Determined with the Sample Analysis at Mars(SAM) Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover got its first taste of solid Mars in the form of loose, unconsolidated materials (soil) acquired from an aeolian bedform designated Rocknest. Evolved gas analysis (EGA) revealed the presence of H2O as well as O-, C- and S-bearing phases in these samples. CheMin did not detect crystalline phases containing these gaseous species but did detect the presence of X-ray amorphous materials. In the absence of definitive mineralogical identification by CheMin, SAM EGA data can provide clues to the nature and/or mineralogy of volatile-bearing phases through examination of temperatures at which gases are evolved from solid samples. In addition, the isotopic composition of these gases, particularly when multiple sources contribute to a given EGA curve, may be used to identify possible formation scenarios and relationships between phases. Here we report C and S isotope ratios for CO2 and SO2 evolved from Rocknest soil samples as measured with SAM's quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS).

Franz, H. B.; McAdam, C.; Stern, J. C.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Sutter, B.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Jones, J. H.; Leshin, L. A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Niles, P. B.; Owen, T. C.; Raaen, E.; Steele, A.; Webster, C. R.

2013-01-01

83

Sampling Martian Soil (3-D)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

Scientists were using the Moessbauer spectrometer on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit when something unexpected happened. The instrument's contact ring had been placed onto the ground as a reference point for placement of another instrument, the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, for analyzing the soil. After Spirit removed the Moessbauer from the target, the rover's microscopic imager revealed a gap in the imprint left behind in the soil. The gap, about a centimeter wide (less than half an inch), is visible on the left side of this stereo view. Scientists concluded that a small chunk of soil probably adhered to the contact ring on the front surface of the Moessbauer. Before anyone saw that soil may have adhered to the Moessbauer, that instrument was placed to analyze martian dust collected by a magnet on the rover. The team plans to take images to see if any soil is still attached to the Moessbauer. Spirit took these images on the rover's 240th martian day, or sol (Sept. 4, 2004).

Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

2004-01-01

84

Ultramicroband array electrode. 1. Analysis of mercury in contaminated soils and flue gas exposed samples using a gold-plated iridium portable system by anodic stripping voltammetry.  

PubMed

The applicability of a gold-plated iridium Nano-Band array ultramicroelectrode (6 microm by 0.2 microm, 64-microm interspacing, 100 electrode bands) in the analysis of mercury using a portable system is demonstrated by anodic stripping voltammetry in real-life samples. Optimized measurement parameters, 0.1 M HCl electrolyte, plating potential of 0 mV, and staircase scan mode were identified. The dynamic linear range is 10-180 ppb at 5-s deposition time with 1.5 microC of gold plated. The experimental detection limit for Hg2+ in 0.1 M HCl was 0.5 ppb at a deposition time of 4 min and a scan rate of 10 V/s. Real-life samples, such as flue gas exposed samples from flue gas simulators could be analyzed within 5 min using the method of standard additions. We identified a field-portable extraction procedure for soil samples using 1:1 concentrated HNO3/30% H2O2 mixture, compatible with ASV and the iridium electrode. The detection limit for soils is 1 ppm. The results obtained using ASV are in good agreement with reference values using cold vapor atomic absorption for the sample matrixes studied here. To our knowledge, this is the first mercury application using a reusable iridium array ultramicroelectrode. The portable potentiostat is less than 500 g, and together with the portable digestion method, makes the Nano-Band Explorer system field applicable. PMID:16841944

Xiao, Li; Dietze, William; Nyasulu, Frazier; Mibeck, Blaise A F

2006-07-15

85

Actinide Recovery Method for Large Soil Samples  

SciTech Connect

A new Actinide Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides in very large soil samples. Diphonix Resin(r) is used eliminate soil matrix interferences and preconcentrate actinides after soil leaching or soil fusion. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin(r). After the resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be easily loaded onto small extraction-chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin(r), U-TEVA Resin(r) or TRU Resin(r) (Eichrom Industries). This method enables the application of small, selective extraction-columns to recover actinides from very large soil samples with high selectivity, consistent tracer recoveries and minimal liquid waste.

Maxwell, S.L. III [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Nichols, S.

1998-11-01

86

Non-destructive Analysis of Oil-Contaminated Soil Core Samples by X-ray Computed Tomography and Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry: a Case Study  

PubMed Central

Non-destructive measurements of contaminated soil core samples are desirable prior to destructive measurements because they allow obtaining gross information from the core samples without touching harmful chemical species. Medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) and time-domain low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry were applied to non-destructive measurements of sandy soil core samples from a real site contaminated with heavy oil. The medical CT visualized the spatial distribution of the bulk density averaged over the voxel of 0.31?×?0.31?×?2 mm3. The obtained CT images clearly showed an increase in the bulk density with increasing depth. Coupled analysis with in situ time-domain reflectometry logging suggests that this increase is derived from an increase in the water volume fraction of soils with depth (i.e., unsaturated to saturated transition). This was confirmed by supplementary analysis using high-resolution micro-focus X-ray CT at a resolution of ?10 ?m, which directly imaged the increase in pore water with depth. NMR transverse relaxation waveforms of protons were acquired non-destructively at 2.7 MHz by the Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence. The nature of viscous petroleum molecules having short transverse relaxation times (T2) compared to water molecules enabled us to distinguish the water-saturated portion from the oil-contaminated portion in the core sample using an M0–T2 plot, where M0 is the initial amplitude of the CPMG signal. The present study demonstrates that non-destructive core measurements by medical X-ray CT and low-field NMR provide information on the groundwater saturation level and oil-contaminated intervals, which is useful for constructing an adequate plan for subsequent destructive laboratory measurements of cores. PMID:21258437

Mitsuhata, Yuji; Nishiwaki, Junko; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Utsuzawa, Shin; Jinguuji, Motoharu

2010-01-01

87

Ultrasonic assisted extraction combined with titanium-plate based solid phase extraction for the analysis of PAHs in soil samples by HPLC-FLD.  

PubMed

In this work, ultrasonic assisted extraction combined with solid phase extraction (SPE) was applied in the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environment samples. A titania nanotubes/titanium plate was modified with n-octadecanethiol monolayer-protected Ag nanoparticles, and developed as the adsorbent in SPE of PAHs. Six different PAHs in soil samples were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. The experiment conditions including the deposition time of Ag nanoparticles, extraction solvent properties, the amount of extraction solvent, the amount of organic modifier, extraction time, and desorption solvent properties were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity and low limits of detection of 0.0015-0.4 ng g(-1) were obtained. The analysis of PAHs in real soil samples gave satisfactory recoveries ranging from 70.32% to 115.51% with 3.14%-13.56% intra-day relative standard deviations (RSD) and 4.92%-14.87% inter-day RSD. PMID:23601878

Pan, Di; Wang, Jianping; Chen, Chunyan; Huang, Chen'an; Cai, Qingyun; Yao, Shouzhuo

2013-04-15

88

Data analysis of the 1984 and 1986 soil sampling programs at Materials Disposal Area T in the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An environmental surveillance program for Materials Disposal Area T (MDA-T) at Los Alamos, New Mexico is described. The waste-use history of this disposal site is described, followed by a description of the materials and methods used to analyze data from two surface soil radionuclide sampling programs performed at this disposal site. The disposal site`s physical features are related to the spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration contours in an attempt to evaluate radionuclide migration mechanisms in and around the site. The usefulness of the data analysis efforts is evaluated and recommendations are made for future studies.

Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.

1993-09-01

89

SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) needs innovative methods and techniques to solve new and difficult sampling and analytical problems found at the numerous Superfund sites throughout th...

90

Optimizing Soil Moisture Sampling Locations for Validation Networks for SMAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite (SMAP) is scheduled for launch on Oct 2014. Global efforts are underway for establishment of soil moisture monitoring networks for both the pre- and post-launch validation and calibration of the SMAP products. In 2012 the SMAP Validation Experiment, SMAPVEX12, took place near Carman Manitoba, Canada where nearly 60 fields were sampled continuously over a 6 week period for soil moisture and several other parameters simultaneous to remotely sensed images of the sampling region. The locations of these sampling sites were mainly selected on the basis of accessibility, soil texture, and vegetation cover. Although these criteria are necessary to consider during sampling site selection, they do not guarantee optimal site placement to provide the most efficient representation of the studied area. In this analysis a method for optimization of sampling locations is presented which combines the state-of-art multi-objective optimization engine (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, NSGA-II), with the kriging interpolation technique to minimize the number of sampling sites while simultaneously minimizing the differences between the soil moisture map resulted from the kriging interpolation and soil moisture map from radar imaging. The algorithm is implemented in Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools, which is a multi-platform open-source GIS. The optimization framework is subject to the following three constraints:. A) sampling sites should be accessible to the crew on the ground, B) the number of sites located in a specific soil texture should be greater than or equal to a minimum value, and finally C) the number of sampling sites with a specific vegetation cover should be greater than or equal to a minimum constraint. The first constraint is implemented into the proposed model to keep the practicality of the approach. The second and third constraints are considered to guarantee that the collected samples from each soil texture categories or vegetation cover types are statistically meaningful. The proposed model is applied to the radar images from the Passive Active L-band System (PALS) collected during (SMAPVEX12). SMAPVEX12 lasted for 47 days, during which soil moisture varied significantly. The proposed model was applied to all of the collected images (17 images) during this time span. Optimized sampling site characteristics will be analyzed with surface characteristics and the trade off between the number of samples and estimated sampling error examined.

Roshani, E.; Berg, A. A.; Lindsay, J.

2013-12-01

91

The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization  

SciTech Connect

Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences accounted for almost 87% of the cost difference. The sum of these differences could result in a $34 per acre cost difference for the fertilization. Because of these differences, better analysis or better sampling methods may need to be done, or more samples collected, to ensure that the soil measurements are truly representative of the field’s spatial variability.

R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

2004-07-01

92

Optimal sampling and sample preparation for NIR-based prediction of field scale soil properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The representation of local soil variability with acceptable accuracy and precision is dependent on the spatial sampling strategy and can vary with a soil property. Therefore, soil mapping can be expensive when conventional soil analyses are involved. Visible near infrared spectroscopy (vis-NIR) is considered a cost-effective method due to labour savings and relative accuracy. However, savings may be offset by the costs associated with number of samples and sample preparation. The objective of this study was to find the most optimal way to predict field scale total organic carbon (TOC) and texture. To optimize the vis-NIR calibrations the effects of sample preparation and number of samples on the predictive ability of models with regard to the spatial distribution of TOC and texture were investigated. Conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHs) method was used to select 125 sampling locations from an agricultural field in Denmark, using electromagnetic induction (EMI) and digital elevation model (DEM) data. The soil samples were scanned in three states (field moist, air dried and sieved to 2 mm) with a vis-NIR spectrophotometer (LabSpec 5100, ASD Inc., USA). The Kennard-Stone algorithm was applied to select 50 representative soil spectra for the laboratory analysis of TOC and texture. In order to investigate how to minimize the costs of reference analysis, additional smaller subsets (15, 30 and 40) of samples were selected for calibration. The performance of field calibrations using spectra of soils at the three states as well as using different numbers of calibration samples was compared. Final models were then used to predict the remaining 75 samples. Maps of predicted soil properties where generated with Empirical Bayesian Kriging. The results demonstrated that regardless the state of the scanned soil, the regression models and the final prediction maps were similar for most of the soil properties. Nevertheless, as expected, models based on spectra from field moist soils showed the lowest predictive ability with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV): 0.62%, 1.51%, 1.08%, 2.4% for TOC, clay, silt and sand respectively, resulting also in less detailed maps. The best calibration models for TOC, clay and silt were obtained from air dried soils (RMSECV: 0.43%, 1.18%, 0.99%, 2.55%, respectively). Sieving improved the results of sand calibration only (RMSECV=2.13%). Despite the positive effect of drying the soils, very little improvement was gained and on average accounted for a 19% decrease in RMSECV, with the highest decrease in RMSECV reported for TOC (30%). In general, no substantial effect of sampling intensity on the predictive ability of calibration models was found. The only significant differences were recorded for sand calibrations between models based on 50 and 15 moist soil samples and for silt between models based on 50 and 15 sieved soil samples. The results from this study show that one can produce acceptable vis-NIR predictions without the necessity of sieving or even drying the soils and using as few as 15 samples for field calibrations. Nevertheless, the selection of sample preparation and number of samples is dependent on soil properties and should be adjusted to the precision needed.

Knadel, Maria; Peng, Yi; Schelde, Kirsten; Thomsen, Anton; Deng, Fan; Humlekrog Greve, Mogens

2013-04-01

93

How Well Does Zone Sampling Based On Soil Electrical Conductivity Maps Represent Soil Variability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

How Well Does Zone Sampling Based On Soil Electrical Conductivity Maps Represent Soil Variability. Dale L. Shaner A study was conducted determined if ECa-directed zone sampling could predict soil texture and soil organic matter (SOM) patterns of samples taken by a more intensive grid sample method...

94

GICHD mine dog testing project : soil sample results #5.  

SciTech Connect

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fifth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in June 2003.

Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

2004-01-01

95

GICHD mine dog testing project - soil sample results #4.  

SciTech Connect

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fourth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in April 2003 and Sarajevo, Bosnia collected in May 2003.

Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Wood, Tyson B.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

2003-08-01

96

GICHD Mine Dog Testing Project - Soil Sample Results No.3  

SciTech Connect

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the third batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in October 2002.

PHELAN, JAMES M.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; ARCHULETA, LUISA M.

2003-03-01

97

Soils as samples for the split Hopkinson bar  

SciTech Connect

Soils frequently exhibit one or more of the following characteristics which complicadte analysis of data from split Hopkinson bar tests or make test setup and execution difficult: low wave speed, high attenuation of acoustic energy, or insignificant structural strength. Low wave speed invalidates the assumption that the sample is deformed uniformly by the load at early times; but, use of a Lagrangian wave propagation analysis permits derivation of useful information from the standard suite of data. Use of gauges within the sample would facilitate this technique. High attenuation requires thin samples, which restricts the strain paths which can be achieved. The weakness of noncohesive soils presents difficulties in preparation, handling and control of boundary conditions. One simple solution is to support the sample in a rigid sleeve; this results in a uniaxial strain experiment so that the results are directly comparable to shock wave data. 10 references, 7 figures.

Gaffney, E.S.; Brown, J.A.; Felice, C.W.

1985-01-01

98

Analytical results, database management and quality assurance for analysis of soil and groundwater samples collected by cone penetrometer from the F and H Area seepage basins  

SciTech Connect

The Quantification of Soil Source Terms and Determination of the Geochemistry Controlling Distribution Coefficients (K{sub d} values) of Contaminants at the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB) study was designed to generate site-specific contaminant transport factors for contaminated groundwater downgradient of the Basins. The experimental approach employed in this study was to collect soil and its associated porewater from contaminated areas downgradient of the FHSB. Samples were collected over a wide range of geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, conductivity, and contaminant concentration) and were used to describe the partitioning of contaminants between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at the site. The partitioning behavior may be used to develop site-specific transport factors. This report summarizes the analytical procedures and results for both soil and porewater samples collected as part of this study and the database management of these data.

Boltz, D.R.; Johnson, W.H.; Serkiz, S.M.

1994-10-01

99

FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS ? (ABSTRACT)  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

100

FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS?  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

101

Real Time GIS Visualization of Soil Sampling  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes work accomplished at the Savannah River Site, a 300 square mile facility operated by Westinghouse for the U. S. Department of Energy. A major mission of the facility is the environmental cleanup of nuclear waste generated during the Sites 40 year span as the nation's tritium and weapons-grade plutonium production facility. Much of the remediation effort involves sampling soils in order to analyze and direct environmental restoration projects.

Aull, J.

1998-10-21

102

ASEPTIC SAMPLING OF UNCONSOLIDATED HEAVING SOILS IN SATURATED ZONES  

EPA Science Inventory

Collecting undisturbed subsurface soil samples in noncohesive, heaving sandy environments below the water table has been extremely difficult using conventional soil sampling equipment. everal modifications of the conventional hollow-stem auger coring procedures were adapted, whic...

103

Improved cryogenic coring device for sampling wetland soils  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the third in a series on the design and construction (Knaus 1986) and improvements (Knaus and Cahoon 1990) of a cryogenic soil-coring device (cryocorer). Freezing wetland soils in place during sampling eliminates compaction, dewatering, and loss of flocculent material at the water-sediment interface. The cryocorer is suitable for sampling soils of emergent marsh and mangrove forests as well as shallow water bottoms, although it has been used primarily for the former. A small-diameter frozen soil core minimizes disruption of the surface, can be evaluated immediately for overall quality, and can be used to measure soil profiles and subsample for further analysis. The cryocorer continues to be used in studies of wetland accretion and soil bulk density throughout the US. Concomitant with the increased use of the device, improvements in cryocorer design and application have occurred. Reported here are improvements in design that have been made since 1992 with references to wetland research in which the cryocorer has been used extensively.

Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C. [National Biological Service, Lafayette, LA (United States); Knaus, R.M. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1996-09-01

104

Soil description & analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will have been through lectures on weathering & erosion, sediments and soils. Students go to the field and pull soil cores across a hill. They describe & measure the horizons, determine soil texture and structure. Using the data, they create a fence diagram and verbally describe what they see. Then they relate the changes in the soil profile downhill to climate, weathering, and the local geology. Students get to learn how to express information in multiple ways & make connections between "different" lecture topics, creating a continuity in the class.

Koy, Karen

105

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF SOIL AND HOUSE DUST SAMPLES FOR GC/MS ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDE AND PAH (BCO-L-28.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe procedures for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retrieval durin...

106

Testing Your Soil: How to Collect and Send Samples  

E-print Network

Soil tests can be used to estimate the kinds and amounts of soil nutrients available to plants and as aids in determining fertilizer needs. This publication covers the three-step procedure for obtaining sample bags and instructions, collecting...

Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

2002-06-26

107

Lunar sample analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wide variety of lunar sample and meteorite studies were performed. Abstracts of the most recent reports are also attached. Experimental techniques employed have included scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, atomic absorption analysis and a variety of simulation studies.

Housley, R. M.

1986-01-01

108

[Spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration in a subalpine meadow at different sampling scales].  

PubMed

At four different sampling scales (10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 m) we measured soil respiration and the environmental factors affecting soil respiration in a subalpine meadow at Yundin mountain of Shanxi province. The purpose of the paper was to study the spatial heterogeneities of soil respiration and the environmental factors including soil temperature, soil moisture, total nitrogen, organic carbon, ratio of carbon and nitrogen, and total sulfur. Based on those measurements we analyzed the required sampling number at the four scales. The results showed that spatial variations of the soil respiration and environmental factors at all scales were in the middle range but for the soil temperature at 1.25 m and 2.5 m scales; and that the coefficients of variation in soil respiration and soil temperature increased with increasing sampling scale, but for total nitrogen, organic carbon, total sulfur and soil moisture the coefficients of variation decreased with increasing sampling scales. The environmental factors had different impacts on soil respiration at different sampling scales. Simple correlation analysis showed that at 10 m scale the relationship of soil respiration with total nitrogen (P < 0.01), organic carbon (P < 0.01) and soil temperature (P < 0.05) was significant, but not with total sulfur, C/N and soil moisture; at 5 m sampling scale it was highly significant with total nitrogen, organic carbon, but not with total sulfur, C/N and soil moisture and soil temperature; at 2.5 m scale it was highly significant with total nitrogen, organic carbon and soil moisture, but not with total sulfur, C/N, and soil temperature; and at the smallest sampling scale it was highly significant with total nitrogen, organic carbon and soil moisture, negatively significant with C/N, and negatively significant with soil temperature, but not with total sulfur. The required sampling numbers for 10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 m sampling scales within ± 10% and ± 20% of its actual mean at the 95% confidence level were 28, 21, 18, 14, and 7, 5, 4, 4, respectively. The results showed a decreasing trend of required sampling number with decreasing samoline scale. PMID:25639111

Li, Hong-Jian; Gao, Yu-Feng; Yan, Jun-Xia; Li, Jun-Jian

2014-11-01

109

Soil Sample Questionnaire --Field Crops Sample No. Field Identification Field Size acres  

E-print Network

Soil Sample Questionnaire -- Field Crops Date Sample No. Field Identification Field Size acres A completed questionnaire must accompany each sample. Retain a duplicate copy for your records. Number the samples and questionnaires for your own identification. Directions for obtaining soil samples

Norton, Jay B.

110

Soil separator and sampler and method of sampling  

DOEpatents

A soil sampler includes a fluidized bed for receiving a soil sample. The fluidized bed may be in communication with a vacuum for drawing air through the fluidized bed and suspending particulate matter of the soil sample in the air. In a method of sampling, the air may be drawn across a filter, separating the particulate matter. Optionally, a baffle or a cyclone may be included within the fluidized bed for disentrainment, or dedusting, so only the finest particulate matter, including asbestos, will be trapped on the filter. The filter may be removable, and may be tested to determine the content of asbestos and other hazardous particulate matter in the soil sample.

O'Brien, Barry H. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Ritter, Paul D. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2010-02-16

111

Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

2014-01-01

112

A concise method for mine soils analysis  

SciTech Connect

A large number of abandoned hard rock mines exist in Colorado and other mountain west states, many on public property. Public pressure and resulting policy changes have become a driving force in the reclamation of these sites. Two of the key reclamation issues for these sites in the occurrence of acid forming materials (AFMs) in mine soils, and acid mine drainage (AMD) issuing from mine audits. An AMD treatment system design project for the Forest Queen mine in Colorado's San Juan mountains raised the need for a simple, useable method for analysis of mine land soils, both for suitability as a construction material, and to determine the AFM content and potential for acid release. The authors have developed a simple, stepwise, go - no go test for the analysis of mine soils. Samples were collected from a variety of sites in the Silverton, CO area, and subjected to three tiers of tests including: paste pH, Eh, and 10% HCl fizz test; then total digestion in HNO{sub 3}/HCl, neutralization potential, exposure to meteoric water, and toxicity content leaching procedure (TCLP). All elemental analyses were performed with an inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometer. Elimination of samples via the first two testing tiers left two remaining samples, which were subsequently subjected to column and sequential batch tests, with further elemental analysis by ICP. Based on these tests, one sample was chosen for suitability as a constructing material for the Forest Queen treatment system basins. Further simplification, and testing on two pairs of independent soil samples, has resulted in a final analytical method suitable for general use.

Winkler, S.; Wildeman, T.; Robinson, R.; Herron, J.

1999-07-01

113

Germanium-76 Sample Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, and the first one gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on April 24, 2011. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility, a DOE user facility at PNNL, was used to make the required isotopic and chemical purity measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The results of this first analysis are reported here.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua

2011-04-01

114

Spectral soil analysis and inference systems: A powerful combination for solving the soil data crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is attracting much interest in the soil science community because it has a number of advantages over conventional methods of soil analyses. The techniques are more rapid, timely, cheaper and hence more efficient at obtaining the data when a large number of samples and analysis are required. Moreover, a single spectrum may be used to assess

Alex B. McBratney; Budiman Minasny; Raphael Viscarra Rossel

2006-01-01

115

Assessment of sampling strategy for explosives-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

An explosives-contaminated site was characterized using composite sampling, in-field sample homogenization and on-site analysis. Explosives contaminated sites demonstrate large short-range heterogeneity due to the crystalline nature and poor water solubility of the dispersed contaminants. The sampling strategy must be carefully planned in order to minimize sampling error and total uncertainty. The site investigated in this particular study is an anti-tank firing range that has been in-use for over 20 years. The ammunition fired at this range is a melt-cast explosive based on a mixture of HMX and TNT in the ratio of 70:30. Two previous preliminary sampling surveys of this site have shown high levels of HMX in soil samples collected nearby the targeted tanks. This particular site was chosen for a collaborative effort between the Canadian Department of National Defence and the USA Department of Defense to study sampling strategies and sample heterogeneity where HMX is the main contaminant. On-site colorimetric TNT and HMX methods and enzyme immunoassay TNT and RDX methods were used initially to evaluate if the sampling pattern used provided representative results. A 6 m square grid (36 m{sup 2}) pattern was established, including two of the targeted tanks. Seventeen grids were installed and composite samples were collected within those grids. Four surface composite samples were collected in each quadrant of each grid using a circular pattern that sampled about 10% of the top 5 cm of the surface. Replicates were collected to assess the representativeness achieved. Field analysis showed concentrations of HMX ranged from as high as 1640 mg/kg near one target to 2.1 mg/kg at a distance of 15 m from the target. On the other hand, TNT concentrations were much lower than would be expected based on the 70:30 composition ratio. Results from the colorimetric on-site analyses were in excellent agreement with laboratory results.

Thiboutot, S.; Ampleman, G. [Defence Research Establishment, Val-Belair, Quebec (Canada); Jenkins, T.F.; Walsh, M.E.; Thorne, P.G. [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States); Ranney, T.A. [Science and Technology Corp., Hanover, NH (United States); Grant, C.L. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Chemistry Dept.

1997-12-31

116

Study of seleniferous soils using instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

Soil samples from the seleniferous region of Punjab State in India were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutrons and high resolution ?-ray spectrometry. Samples were collected from three different depths namely surface, root and geological bed zones. Concentrations of 15 elements including selenium and arsenic were determined by relative method. For comparison purposes, soil samples collected from a non-seleniferous region were also analyzed. PMID:21334213

Srivastava, Alok; Bains, G S; Acharya, R; Reddy, A V R

2011-05-01

117

Sub-sampling and preparing forensic samples for pollen analysis.  

PubMed

The main forensic application of palynology is in providing associative evidence, assisting to prove or disprove a link between people and objects with places or with other people. Although identification and interpretation of pollen is a specialist job, sub-sampling and preparing pollen samples for analysis may be carried out by non-specialists. As few forensic laboratories have residing palynologists, laboratories may wish to reduce the cost of analysis or risk of contamination by doing their own sub-sampling and preparation. Presented is a practical guide for sub-sampling and preparing forensic samples for pollen analysis, providing a complete standard procedure for both the palynologist and non-specialist. Procedures for sub-sampling include a wide variety of materials commonly collected for forensic analysis (soil, clothing and other fabrics, footwear, twine and rope, firearms, granulated materials, plant and animal material, and illicit drugs), many of which palynologists will not be familiar with. Procedures for preparation of samples (pollen concentration) are presented as a detailed, step-by-step method. Minimizing the risks of laboratory and cross-sample contamination during sub-sampling and preparation is emphasized. PMID:15461105

Horrocks, Mark

2004-09-01

118

Animation of TEGA Sample Delivery and Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

This animation shows NASA's Phoenix Lander's Robotic Arm scoop delivering a sample to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and how samples are analyzed within the instrument.

TEGA has eight tiny ovens for measuring constituents in the atmosphere and in the soil, including possible organic constituents and the melting point of ice.

The scoop drops soil onto a fine mesh screen between TEGA's open doors. Some soil passes through the screen, which vibrates, into the throat of a funnel, where a spinning device called the 'whirligig' aids delivery into one half of a tiny oven. The soil sample is represented here by the white chip. The filled oven half then rotates and mates with the other oven half, closing the complete oven so sample heating can begin. The purple coil in this animation is the spring that moves the oven halves together.

Heating occurs at successively higher temperatures over several days. The energy required to heat the sample is measured to discover its thermal properties. Gases driven off during sample heating pass through tubing to the mass spectrometer for analysis.

Note that the exterior doors above the screen never close after sample delivery.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

119

TEGA Sample Delivery and Analysis (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

This animation shows NASA's Phoenix Lander's Robotic Arm scoop delivering a sample to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and how samples are analyzed within the instrument.

TEGA has eight tiny ovens for measuring constituents in the atmosphere and in the soil, including possible organic constituents and the melting point of ice.

The scoop drops soil onto a fine mesh screen between TEGA's open doors. Some soil passes through the screen, which vibrates, into the throat of a funnel, where a spinning device called the 'whirligig' aids delivery into one half of a tiny oven. The soil sample is represented here by the white chip. The filled oven half then rotates and mates with the other oven half, closing the complete oven so sample heating can begin. The purple coil in this animation is the spring that moves the oven halves together.

Heating occurs at successively higher temperatures over several days. The energy required to heat the sample is measured to discover its thermal properties. Gases driven off during sample heating pass through tubing to the mass spectrometer for analysis.

Note that the exterior doors above the screen never close after sample delivery.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

120

A computer program integrating a multichannel analyzer with gamma analysis for the estimation of sup 226 Ra concentration in soil samples  

SciTech Connect

A new hardware/software system has been implemented using the existing three-regions-of-interest method for determining the concentration of {sup 226}Ra in soil samples for the Pollutant Assessment Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Consisting of a personal computer containing a multichannel analyzer, the system utilizes a new program combining the multichannel analyzer with a program analyzing gamma-radiation spectra for {sup 226}Ra concentrations. This program uses a menu interface to minimize and simplify the tasks of system operation.

Wilson, J. E.

1992-08-01

121

A computer program integrating a multichannel analyzer with gamma analysis for the estimation of {sup 226} Ra concentration in soil samples  

SciTech Connect

A new hardware/software system has been implemented using the existing three-regions-of-interest method for determining the concentration of {sup 226}Ra in soil samples for the Pollutant Assessment Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Consisting of a personal computer containing a multichannel analyzer, the system utilizes a new program combining the multichannel analyzer with a program analyzing gamma-radiation spectra for {sup 226}Ra concentrations. This program uses a menu interface to minimize and simplify the tasks of system operation.

Wilson, J. E.

1992-08-01

122

Method of soil sampling following subsurface banding of solid manure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil sampling guidelines do not exist for fields fertilized with solid manures applied in bands. The objective of this work was to describe the distribution of mineral nutrients and total C and propose a method of taking soil samples that reflects the fertility level of a field following manure app...

123

Determination and correction of analytical biases and study on chemical mechanisms in the analysis of Cr(VI) in soil samples using EPA protocols  

SciTech Connect

EPA Methods 3060A (alkaline extraction) and 7196A (colorimetric measurement) currently constitute a pair of protocols for the measurement of Cr(VI) in environmental soil samples in EPA RCRA SW-846 Update 3. To identify the sources of possible biases, the authors applied the newly developed Speciated Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (SIDMS) as an alternative detection method to Method 7196A. SIDMS is capable of correcting for species transformation, while Method 7196A is not. In Method 3060A, soluble Cr(III) could be oxidized during extraction, resulting in positive errors of Cr(VI); Cr(VI) could be lost or reduced during neutralization, leading to negative errors of Cr(VI). When sand and soil extracts were analyzed, low recoveries were obtained with Method 7196A. However, SIDMS achieved approximately 100% recoveries. The influence of some soil matrix components on the detection of Cr(VI) using Method 7196A has been evaluated. As expected, reducing agents could cause low recoveries of Cr(VI). Surprisingly, the authors found that strong oxidizing agents could also result in low recoveries. They identify these method biases and discuss the mechanisms in this paper.

Huo, D.; Lu, Y.; Kingston, H.M. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1998-11-01

124

How Well Does Zone Sampling Based On Soil Electrical Conductivity Maps Represent Soil Variability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zone soil sampling is a method in which a field sampling is based on identifying homogenous areas using an easy to measure ancillary attribute such as apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa). This study determined if ECa-directed zone sampling in two fields in northeastern Colorado could correc...

125

Sample Analysis At Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The next landed missions to Mars, such as the planned Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars, will require sample analysis capabilities refined well beyond what has been flown to date. A key science objective driving this requirement is the determination of the carbon inventory of Mars, and particularly the detection of organic compounds. While the gas chromatograph mass spectrometers (GCMS) on the Viking landers did not detect any indigenous organics in near surface fines, it is possible that these measurements were not representative of Mars on the whole. That is, those compounds to which the GC/MS was sensitive would likely not have survived the strong oxidative decomposition in the regolith at the landing sites in question. The near surface fines could very well contain a significant quantity of refractory compounds that would not have been volatilized in the sample ovens on Viking. It is also possible that volatile organics exist on Mars in sedimentary, subsurface, or polar niches.

Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cabane, M.; Atreya, S. K.; Coll, P.; Cornish, T. J.; Harpold, D. N.; Israel, G.; Niemann, H. B.; Owen, T.

2003-01-01

126

Sample Analysis at Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The next landed missions to Mars, such as the planned Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars, will require sample analysis capabilities refined well beyond what has been flown to date. A key science objective driving this requirement is the determination of the carbon inventory of Mars, and particularly the detection of organic compounds. While the gas chromatograph mass spectrometers (GC/MS) on the Viking landers did not detect any indigenous organics in near surface fines, it is possible that these measurements were not representative of Mars on the whole. That is, those compounds to which the GC/MS was sensitive would likely not have survived the strong oxidative decomposition in the regolith at the landing sites in question. The near surface fines could very well contain a significant quantity of refractory compounds that would not have been volatilized in the sample ovens on Viking. It is also possible that volatile organics exist on Mars in sedimentary, subsurface, or polar niches.

Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cabane, M.; Atreya, S. K.; Coll, P.; Cornish, T. J.; Harpold, D. N.; Israel, G.; Niemann, H. B.; Owen, T.

2003-01-01

127

Determination of the rodenticides warfarin, diphenadione and chlorophacinone in soil samples by HPLC-DAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A HPLC-DAD method is described for the analysis of the rodenticides warfarin, diphenadione and chlorophacinone, together with the phenylurea herbicides isoproturon and diuron, in soil samples. The HPLC parameters have been optimised to provide baseline separation with symmetrical peakshapes in short analysis times. The sample preparation consists of Soxhlet extraction followed by SPE clean-up on cyanopropyl silica.

A. Medvedovici; F. David; P. Sandra

1997-01-01

128

Field portable XRF analysis of environmental samples.  

PubMed

One of the critical factors for successfully conducting contamination characterization, removal, and remedial operations at hazardous waste sites is rapid and appropriate response to analyze samples in a timely fashion. Turnaround time associated with off-site analysis is often too slow to support efficient utilization of the data. Field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) techniques provide viable and effective analytical approaches to meet on-site analysis needs for many types of environmental samples. Applications include the in situ analysis of metals in soils and sediments, thin films/particulates, and lead in paint. PMID:11267748

Kalnicky, D J; Singhvi, R

2001-05-01

129

Characterization of Apollo Bulk Soil Samples Under Simulated Lunar Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2012, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. To best understand the effects of the near surface-environment of the Moon, a consortium of four institutions with the capabilities of characterizing lunar samples was created. The goal of the Thermal Infrared Emission Studies of Lunar Surface Compositions Consortium (TIRES-LSCC) is to characterize Apollo bulk soil samples with a range of compositions and maturities in simulated lunar conditions to provide better context for the spectral effects due to varying compositions and soil maturity as well as for the interpretation of data obtained by the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer and future lunar and airless body thermal emission spectrometers. An initial set of thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the bulk lunar soil samples will be made in three of the laboratories included in the TIRES-LSCC: the Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) in RELAB at Brown University, the Simulated Lunar Environment chamber in the Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF) at the University of Oxford, and the Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). While the design and workings of each chamber are slightly different, the chambers are functionally similar. In each chamber, we simulate the lunar environment by: (1) pumping the chambers to vacuum pressures (<10-3 mbar), which is sufficient to simulate lunar heat transport processes within the sample, (2) cooling the chambers with liquid nitrogen to simulate the cold space environment that the Moon radiates into, and (3) heating the samples from below, above, or both to set-up thermal gradients similar to those experienced in the upper hundreds of microns at the lunar surface. Each laboratory and chamber has its own strengths and collaborating amongst multiple laboratories will provide us the unique opportunity to do a rigorous characterization of the lunar samples as well as cross-laboratory calibrations. Laboratory measurements of bulk lunar soil samples are compared with Diviner data to understand: (1) how to accurately simulate conditions of the near-surface environment of the Moon in the lab and (2) the difference between returned samples and undisturbed lunar soils in their native setting. Both are integral for constraining thermally derived compositions and properties of the lunar surface from current (Diviner) and future TIR datasets.

Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

2013-12-01

130

Laboratory measurement of the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide onto northern Chinese soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated soil surface resistance Rc to dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) onto different types of soils in laboratory experiments, using samples collected from the arid loess plateau and deserts of northern China. We evaluated the factors that affect Rc, which depends on the physical and chemical interaction between a trace constituent and the deposition surface. We observed that the values of Rc for SO 2 decreased with increase of soil weight and increased with SO 2 concentration, although surface coverage had little effect on Rc. The SO 2 uptake rate by all the northern Chinese soil samples seemed to be, on the whole, dependent on relative humidity (RH). In all of the northern Chinese soil samples, Rc was in the range 0.028-0.65 s mm -1, and was exponentially related to the effective surface area of each soil sample, regardless of RH. Wet chemical analysis of sulfur deposited onto the soil samples showed that oxidation ratio of sulfur(IV) to sulfur(VI) was related to RH, which might be related to complex interactions among the amount of water on the soil sample, the pH, and the metallic ions in the liquid phase.

Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko

131

Sample size in factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the factor analysis literature, much attention has be;;n given to the issue of sample size. It is widely understood that the use of larger samples in applica- tions of factor analysis tends to provide results such that sample factor loadings are more precise estimates of population loadings and are also more stable, or les s variable, across repeated sampling.

Robert C. MacCallum; Keith F. Widaman; Shaobo Zhang; Sehee Hong

1999-01-01

132

Extraction and determination of sulfonylurea herbicides in water and soil samples by using ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

An ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction (UASEME) with low-density extraction solvents was developed for the extraction of sulfonylurea herbicides from water and soil samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). In this technique, a surfactant was used as emulsifier which could enhance the dispersion of water-immiscible extraction solvent into aqueous phase and was favorable for the mass-transfer of the analytes from aqueous phase to organic phase. The target analytes were extracted into an extraction phase (Aliquat-336 in 1-octanol) and dispersed in an aqueous solution. After extraction and phase separation, the organic solvent on top of the solution was withdrawn into a syringe and 20 µL of it was injected into a HPLC instrument for analysis. Influential factors in extraction were investigated and optimized. Under optimum experimental conditions, calibration curve was linear in the concentration range from 1 to 100 µg/L, with coefficients of estimation (R(2) values) varying from 0.9928 to 0.9952, and satisfactory repeatabilities (4.7soil samples, was studied. The obtained results indicated that the proposed method is efficient, fast and inexpensive for extraction and determination of sulfonylurea herbicides in environmental aqueous and soil samples. PMID:25463855

Ghobadi, Masoomeh; Yamini, Yadollah; Ebrahimpour, Behnam

2015-02-01

133

Rapid method for determination of plutonium, americium and curium in large soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There\\u000a is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed\\u000a and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in large soil samples (100–200 g)\\u000a with high chemical recoveries

S. L. Maxwell

2008-01-01

134

Revisiting sample entropy analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We modify the definition of sample entropy (SaEn) by incorporating a time delay between the components of the block (from which the densities are estimated) and show that the modified method characterizes the complexity of the system better than the original version. We apply the modified SaEn to the standard deterministic systems and stochastic processes (uncorrelated and long range correlated (LRC) processes) and show that the underlying complexity of the system is better quantified by the modified method. We extend this analysis to the RR intervals of the normal and congestive heart failure (CHF) subjects (available via www.physionet.org) and show that there is a good degree of separation between the two groups.

Govindan, R. B.; Wilson, J. D.; Eswaran, H.; Lowery, C. L.; Preißl, H.

2007-03-01

135

Survival of hepatitis A and E viruses in soil samples.  

PubMed

Survival of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in soil samples spiked with respective viruses was analysed using real-time PCR. Virus-spiked soil samples were incubated at environmental temperature (ET) and 37°C and processed weekly. Both HAV and HEV were less stable at fluctuating ET than at 37°C. Of the 403 soil samples collected in the vicinity of Mutha river, India, 19.1% and 4.9% were found to be contaminated with HAV and HEV, respectively. PMID:21939469

Parashar, D; Khalkar, P; Arankalle, V A

2011-11-01

136

Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Isolates from Soil Samples in Tehran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect any warm blooded nucleated cells. One of the ways for human infection is ingestion of oocysts directly from soil or via infected fruits or vegetables. To survey the potential role of T. gondii oocyst in soil samples, the present study was conducted in Tehran City, Iran. Methods A total of 150 soil samples were collected around rubbish dumps, children's play ground, parks and public places. Oocysts recovery was performed by sodium nitrate flotation method on soil samples. For molecular detection, PCR reaction targeting B1 gene was performed and then, the positive results were confirmed using repetitive 529 bp DNA fragment in other PCR reaction. Finally, the positive samples were genotyped at the SAG2 locus. Results Toxoplasma DNA was found in 13 soil samples. After genotyping and RFLP analysis in SAG2 locus, nine positive samples were revealed type III, one positive sample was type I whereas three samples revealed mixed infection (type, I & III). Conclusion The predominant genotype in Tehran soil samples is type III. PMID:23914235

Tavalla, M; Oormazdi, H; Akhlaghi, L; Shojaee, S; Razmjou, E; Hadighi, R; Meamar, AR

2013-01-01

137

In situ analysis of Mars soil sample with the sam gcms instrumentation onboard Curiosity : interpretation and comparison of measurements done at Rocknest and Yelloknife bay sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterisation of the chemical and mineralogical composition of regolith samples collected with the Curiosity rover is a primary objective of the SAM experiment. These data should provide essential clues on the past habitability of Gale crater. Amongst the SAM suite of instruments [1], SAM-GC (Gas Chromatograph) is devoted to identify and quantify volatiles evolved from the thermal (heating up to about 900°C)/chemical (derivatization procedure) treatment of any soil sample collected by the Curiosity rover. With the aim to search for potential organic molecules outgassed from the samples, a SAM-GC analytical channel composed of thermal-desorption injector and a MXT-CLP chromatographic column was chosen to achieve all the measurements done up today, as it was designed for the separation of a wide range of volatile organic molecules. Three solid samples have been analyzed with GCMS, one sand sample collected at the Rocknest site, and two rock samples (John Klein and Cumberland respectively) collected at the Yellowknife Bay site using the Curiosity driller. All the measurements were successful and they produced complex chromatograms with both detectors used for SAM GC, i.e. a thermal conductivity detector and the SAM quandrupole mass spectrometer. Their interpretation already revealed the presence of an oxychlorine phase present in the sample which is at the origin of chlorohydrocarbons clearly identified [2] but this represents only a fraction of the GCMS signal recorded [3,4]. This work presents a systematic comparison of the GCMS measurements done for the different samples collected, supported by reference data obtained in laboratory with different spare models of the gas chromatograph, with the aim to bring new elements of interpretation of the SAM measurements. References: [1] Mahaffy, P. et al. (2012) Space Sci Rev, 170, 401-478. [2] Glavin, D. et al. (2013), JGR. [3] Leshin L. et al. (2013), Science, [4] Ming D. et al. (2013), Science, 32, 64-67. Acknowledgements: SAM-GC team acknowledges support from the French Space Agency (CNES), French National Programme of Planetology (PNP), National French Council (CNRS), Pierre Simon Laplace Institute, Institut Universitaire de France (IUF) and ESEP Labex.

Szopa, Cyril; Coll, Patrice; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Buch, Arnaud; Francois, Pascaline; Millan, Maeva; Teinturier, Sammy; Navarro-Gonzales, Rafael; Glavin, Daniel; Freissinet, Caro; Steele, Andrew; Eigenbrode, Jen; Mahaffy, Paul

2014-05-01

138

Analyses and description of soil samples from Mountain Lake and Peters Mountain Wilderness Study areas, Virginia and West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semiquantitative emission spectrographic analyses for 30 elements and atomic absorption analysis for zinc on 98 soil samples are reported here in detail. Location for all samples are in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. A few samples of soil developed on Lower Devonian sandstone and chert contain more barium and zinc than soils on other formations but do not suggest the occurrence of economic concentrations of either element.

Motooka, J.M.; Curtis, Craig A.; Lesure, Frank Gardner

1978-01-01

139

24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. 35.1315 Section 35.1315... § 35.1315 Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be collected and analyzed...

2014-04-01

140

24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. 35.1315 Section 35.1315... § 35.1315 Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be collected and analyzed...

2012-04-01

141

24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. 35.1315 Section 35.1315... § 35.1315 Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be collected and analyzed...

2013-04-01

142

24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. 35.1315 Section 35.1315... § 35.1315 Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be collected and analyzed...

2011-04-01

143

Using Soil Apparent Electrical Conductivity to Optimize Sampling of Soil Penetration Resistance and to Improve the Estimations of Spatial Patterns of Soil Compaction  

PubMed Central

This study presents a combined application of an EM38DD for assessing soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and a dual-sensor vertical penetrometer Veris-3000 for measuring soil electrical conductivity (ECveris) and soil resistance to penetration (PR). The measurements were made at a 6?ha field cropped with forage maize under no-tillage after sowing and located in Northwestern Spain. The objective was to use data from ECa for improving the estimation of soil PR. First, data of ECa were used to determine the optimized sampling scheme of the soil PR in 40 points. Then, correlation analysis showed a significant negative relationship between soil PR and ECa, ranging from ?0.36 to ?0.70 for the studied soil layers. The spatial dependence of soil PR was best described by spherical models in most soil layers. However, below 0.50?m the spatial pattern of soil PR showed pure nugget effect, which could be due to the limited number of PR data used in these layers as the values of this parameter often were above the range measured by our equipment (5.5?MPa). The use of ECa as secondary variable slightly improved the estimation of PR by universal cokriging, when compared with kriging. PMID:25610899

Siqueira, Glécio Machado; Dafonte, Jorge Dafonte; Bueno Lema, Javier; Valcárcel Armesto, Montserrat; Silva, Ênio Farias França e

2014-01-01

144

Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area  

SciTech Connect

This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP.

Stanisich, S.N.

1994-12-01

145

Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of estimated soil hydraulic parameters for simulating soil water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis has been carried out for the scalar parameters (soil hydraulic parameters (SHPs)), which govern the simulation of soil water content in the unsaturated soil zone. The study involves field experiments, which were conducted in real field conditions for wheat crop in Roorkee, India under irrigated conditions. Soil samples were taken for the soil profile of 60 cm depth at an interval of 15 cm in the experimental field to determine soil water retention curves (SWRCs). These experimentally determined SWRCs were used to estimate the SHPs by least square optimization under constrained conditions. Sensitivity of the SHPs estimated by various pedotransfer functions (PTFs), that relate various easily measurable soil properties like soil texture, bulk density and organic carbon content, is compared with lab derived parameters to simulate respective soil water retention curves. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using the monte carlo simulations and the one factor at a time approach. The different sets of SHPs, along with experimentally determined saturated permeability, are then used as input parameters in physically based, root water uptake model to ascertain the uncertainties in simulating soil water content. The generalised likelihood uncertainty estimation procedure (GLUE) was subsequently used to estimate the uncertainty bounds (UB) on the model predictions. It was found that the experimentally obtained SHPs were able to simulate the soil water contents with efficiencies of 70-80% at all the depths for the three irrigation treatments. The SHPs obtained from the PTFs, performed with varying uncertainties in simulating the soil water contents. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, Uncertainty estimation, Pedotransfer functions, Soil hydraulic parameters, Hydrological modelling

Gupta, Manika; Garg, Naveen Kumar; Srivastava, Prashant K.

2014-05-01

146

EG & G Mount Plant, December 1990 and January 1991, D & D soil box sampling  

SciTech Connect

Six hundred eighty-two (682) containers of soil were generated at Mound Plant between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of the excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program sites; these areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building Area. The soils from these areas are part of the Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. These containers of soil are currently in storage at Mound Plant. The purpose of this sampling and analysis was to demonstrate that the D&D soils comply with the waste acceptance requirements of the NTS, as presented In Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements (DOE 1988). The sealed waste packages, constructed of wood or metal, are currently being stored In Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound Plant. For additional historical information concerning the D&D soils, Including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data see the Sampling and Analysis Plan for Mound Plant D&D Soils Packages (EG&G 1991).

NONE

1991-04-01

147

Lunar sample analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of the lunar regolith under solar wind and micrometeorite bombardment is discussed as well as the size distribution of ultrafine iron in lunar soil. The most important characteristics of complex graphite, sulfide, arsenide, palladium, and platinum mineralization in a pegmatoid pyroxenite of the Stillwater Complex in Montana are examined. Oblique reflected light micrographs and backscattered electron SEM images of the graphite associations are included.

Housley, R. M.

1983-01-01

148

Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples  

PubMed Central

The mass attenuation coefficients (?s) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137Cs and 60Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2? × 2? NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained ?s values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. PMID:23179375

Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve

2013-01-01

149

Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples.  

PubMed

The mass attenuation coefficients (?s) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with (137)Cs and (60)Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2? × 2? NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of (137)Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained ?s values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. PMID:23179375

Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve

2013-05-01

150

Estimation of uncertainty arising from different soil sampling devices: the use of variogram parameters.  

PubMed

In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT), uncertainties due to field soil sampling were assessed. Three different sampling devices were applied in an agricultural area using the same sampling protocol. Cr, Sc and Zn mass fractions in the collected soil samples were measured by k(0)-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k(0)-INAA). For each element-device combination the experimental variograms were calculated using geostatistical tools. The variogram parameters were used to estimate the standard uncertainty arising from sampling. The sampling component represents the dominant contribution of the measurement uncertainty with a sampling uncertainty to measurement uncertainty ratio ranging between 0.6 and 0.9. The approach based on the use of variogram parameters leads to uncertainty values of the sampling component in agreement with those estimated by replicate sampling approach. PMID:17888487

de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Barbina, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Menegon, Sandro; Pati, Alessandra; Petruzzelli, Giannantonio; Sansone, Umberto; Van der Perk, Marcel

2008-01-01

151

Sample preparation and characterization for a study of environmentally acceptable endpoints for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

In the past, the interdisciplinary research effort required to investigate the acceptable cleanup endpoints for hydrocarbon-impacted soils has been limited by the lack of standardized soils for testing. To support the efforts of the various researchers participating in the EAE research initiative, soil samples were collected from ten sites representing hydrocarbon-impacted soils typical of exploration/production, refinery, and bulk storage terminal operations. The hydrocarbons in the standard soils include crude oil, mixed refinery products, diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Physical characterization included analysis of soil texture, water retention, particle density, nanoporosity, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, buffer capacity, organic carbon, sodium adsorption ratio, and clay mineralogy. Chemical characterization included analysis of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons, total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and metals, and TCLP for metals and organics. An analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions was performed on each soil to support the use of various models for assessing soil toxicity. Screening-level toxicity tests were conducted using Microtox{trademark}, plant seed germination and growth, and earthworm mortality and growth. Biodegradability screening tests were performed in slurry shake flasks to estimate the availability of hydrocarbon fractions to soil microorganisms.

Kreitinger, J.P.; Finn, J.T. [Remediation Technologies, Inc., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

152

Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Borehole Sampling at 118-B-1 Burial Ground  

SciTech Connect

The Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) Field Remediation Project has removed all of the disposed materials and contaminated soil from the 118-B-1 Burial Ground with the exception of tritium-contaminated soil that is believed to extend from the bottom of the present excavation to groundwater and is believed to contribute to tritium contamination observed at down-gradient monitoring Well 199-B8-6. This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) provides the requirements for sample collection and laboratory analysis for characterization of the vertical distribution of tritium contamination in the vadose zone soil below the 118-B-1 Burial Ground remedial action excavation.

W. S. Thompson

2007-04-02

153

Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples.  

PubMed

The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordão/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordão presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordão and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different concentrations of different metals. The advantages of using INAA are the multielementality, low detection limits and use of solid samples (no need of digestion). PMID:21367605

Galinha, C; Anawar, H M; Freitas, M C; Pacheco, A M G; Almeida-Silva, M; Coutinho, J; Maçãs, B; Almeida, A S

2011-11-01

154

[NIR spectral analysis for soil textural classification].  

PubMed

Using 25 soil samples with known textural compositions, 2 types of NIR instruments, 3 spectral methods associated with 3 spectrum ranges and 3 sampling intervals, the approach to soil textural classification was investigated. From the results obtained, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) The chemical information could be identified from the peak of the spectral curves, whereas the slope and intercept of spectral curves concerning soil texture resulted from the physical properties of soil samples. Moreover, the intensity of chemical and physical properties varied in different spectra; (2) The distinguishing ability of NIR was limited, depending on the classification criterion proposed; (3) Being tested with four classifaction criterions, the maximal predicting probability was 72%. In the case of sand < 70% and clay < 40%, the maximum was up to 85%; (4) Either acquiring scatter information from the surface of soil samples or extending spectral bands could improve the predicting probability. PMID:19798934

Zeng, Qing-Meng; Sun, Yu-Rui; Yan, Hong-Bing

2009-07-01

155

Soil organic carbon covariance with soil water content; a geostatistical analysis in cropland fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil texture has traditionally represented the rate of soil water drainage influencing soil water content (WC) in the soil characteristic curves, hydrological models and remote sensing field studies. Although soil organic carbon (OC) has been shown to significantly increase the water holding capacity of soil in individual field studies, evidence is required to consider soil OC as a significant factor in soil WC variability at the scale of a remote sensing footprint (25 km2). The relationship of soil OC to soil WC was evaluated over 50 fields during the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil WC field sampling campaign over southern Manitoba, Canada. On each field, soil WC was measured at 16 sample points, at 100 m spacing to 5 cm depth with Stevens hydra probe sensors on 16 sampling dates from June 7 to July 19, 2012. Soil cores were also taken at sampling sites on each field, each sampling day, to determine gravimetric moisture, bulk density and particle size distribution. On 4 of the sampling dates, soil OC was also determined by loss on ignition on the dried soil samples from all fields. Semivariograms were created from the field mean soil OC and field mean surface soil WC sampled at midrow, over all cropland fields and averaged over all sampling dates. The semivariogram models explained a distinct relationship of both soil OC and WC within the soil over a range of 5 km with a Gaussian curve. The variance in soil that soil OC and WC have in common was a similar Gaussian curve in the cross variogram. Following spatial interpolation with Kriging, the spatial maps of soil OC and WC were also very similar with high covariance over the majority of the sampling area. The close correlation between soil OC and WC suggests they are structurally related in the soil. Soil carbon could thus assist in improving downscaling methods for remotely sensed soil WC and act as a surrogate for interpolation of soil WC.

Manns, H. R.; Berg, A. A.; von Bertoldi, P.

2013-12-01

156

Chloride Analysis of the Soils Overlaying the Carrizo-Wilcox Aquifer  

E-print Network

soil auger has been utilized to take the soil samples at depths greater than twenty cm. Samples taken from less than twenty cm are retrieved with a hand auger. The samples were then oven dried at a temperature of 110 degrees Celsius. The analysis... CHLORIDE ANALYSIS OF THE SOILS OVERLAYING THE CARRIZZO-WILCOX AQUIFER An Undergraduate Research Scholars Thesis by EMERY WOLF Submitted to Honors and Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Wolf, Emery

2013-09-28

157

Standard soil sample preparation error and comparison of portable XRF to laboratory AA analytical results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to quantify and report error in the preparation and analysis of standard samples is developed. The process of constructing standard samples for use in work involving metal contamination of soil is reviewed. Error in the constructed concentration is determined as a function of electronic balance accuracy and precision, sample mass, and desired concentration. Typical results are presented for the construction of a suite of samples. Distribution of error in the analysis of standard sample concentrations by field portable X-ray fluorescence and laboratory atomic absorption is also investigated using six populations of constructed standards involving lead contamination. Typical construction error and observed analytical error are reported.

VanCott, R. J.; McDonald, B. J.; Seelos, A. G.

1999-02-01

158

Soil Still in Scoop After Sample-Delivery Attempt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows that soil remained inside the arm's scoop after an attempt to deliver a soil sample to a laboratory oven during the lander's 60th Martian day, or sol (July 26, 2008).

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

159

Sampling for Regional Monitoring of Nematode Communities in Agricultural Soils  

PubMed Central

Regional assessment of nematode communities to monitor the condition or ecological health of agricultural soils requires sampling programs with measures of known reliability and the ability to detect differences over time. Numbers of fields sampled in a region, samples taken per field, and subsamples assayed per sample must be balanced with cost to provide the best sampling scheme. We used components of variance from statewide surveys in North Carolina (1992) and Nebraska (1993) to estimate number of (i) fields to be sampled; (ii) 20-core, composite soil samples to be obtained for each field; and (iii) subsamples to be assayed for each composite sample to detect a specified amount of change in index values within a geographic region. Variances for these three components were used to estimate the degree of reliability for five ecologically based indices (four measures of maturity and one of diversity) of nematode communities. Total variance for maturity and diversity indices, based upon communities of free-living nematodes, was greater in North Carolina than in Nebraska; the opposite was true for indices based strictly upon maturity of communities of plant-parasitic nematodes or of all nematodes in soil. Variability within samples was greater in North Carolina than in Nebraska, especially for maturity indices based only upon free-living nematodes. We identified two possible sampling strategies for a regional survey: Option 1, with two independent samples per field and a single subsample assayed per sample, which would provide a reliability ratio value ?0.6 for most indices; and Option 2, with three independent samples per field and two subsamples assayed per sample, which would provide a reliability ratio value ?0.7 for several indices. When cost was considered, Option 1 was the better strategy. Number of fields to be sampled within a region or state varied with the index chosen; with specific indices, however, a 10% change in mean index value could be detected with a sample of 50 to 100 fields. PMID:19277135

Neher, D. A.; Campbell, C. L.

1996-01-01

160

Lunar sample analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flameless atomic abosrption, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, ferromagnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy, and Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to investigate the evolution of the lunar regolith, the transport of volatile trace metals, and the surface composition of lunar samples. The development of a model for lunar volcanic eruptions is also discussed.

Housley, R. M.

1978-01-01

161

Use of mass spectrometry coupled with a solids insertion probe to prescreen soil samples for environmental samples  

SciTech Connect

The contamination of air, water, and soils by a myriad of sources generates a large sample Currently, sample volume for hazardous constituent analyses is approximately half a million samples per year. The total analytical costs associated with this are astronomical. The analysis of these samples is vital in terms of assessing the types of contamination present and to what degree a site has been contaminated. The results of these analyses are very important for making an informed, knowledgeable decision as to the need for remediation and what type of remediation processes should be initiated based on site suitability vs non-action for the various sample sites. With an ever growing environmental consciousness in today`s society, the assessment and subsequent remediation of a site needs to be accomplished promptly despite the time constraints traditional methods place on such actions. In order to facilitate a rapid assessment, it is desirable to utilize instrumentation and equipment which afford the most information about a site allowing for optimization in environmental assessment while maintaining a realistic time schedule for the resulting remediation process. Because there are various types of environmental samples that can be taken at a site, different combinations of instrumentation and methods are required for assessing the level and type of contamination present whether it is in air, water, or soils. This study is limited to analyzing soil-like media that would normally fall under EPA Method 8270 which is used to analyze solid waste matrices, soils, and groundwater for semi-volatile organic compounds.

Check, C.E.; Bach, S.B.H. [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

162

Nearly pure Apollo 12 KREEP - Soil sample 12023  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is suggested that soil sample 12023, which was collected during the Apollo 12 mission from a 20 cm trench on the east rim of Sharp Crater, matured on a KREEP regolith surface, since its major element chemistry and FMR linewidth are indistinguishable from those of the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) soils. Attention is given to the distribution of the sample's major mineral components. It is suggested that the origin of 12023 may either be ejecta from Fra Mauro material, or ray material from the Copernicus crater.

Morris, R. V.; Warner, J. L.; Mckay, D. S.; Brown, R. W.

1977-01-01

163

Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas. PMID:24706600

Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabíola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

2014-01-01

164

RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY SOIL SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for samples up to 2 grams in emergency response situations. The actinides in soil method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha sources are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency soil samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinides in soil results were reported within 4-5 hours with excellent quality.

Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

2009-11-09

165

Mapping Soil Salinity with ECa-Directed Soil Sampling: History, Protocols, Guidelines, Applications, and Future Research Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil salinity is a spatially complex and dynamic property of soil that influences crop yields when the threshold salinity level is exceeded. Mapping soil salinity is necessary for soil classification, reclamation, crop selection, and site-specific irrigation management of salt-affected soils in the arid and semi-arid agricultural regions of the world. Because of its spatial and temporal heterogeneity soil salinity is difficult to map and monitor at field scales. There are various methods for characterizing soil salinity variability, but none of these approaches has been as extensively investigated and is as reliable and cost effective as apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) directed soil sampling. Geospatial measurements of ECa are well-suited for characterizing soil salinity spatial distribution because they are reliable, quick, and easy to take with GPS-based mobilized ECa measurement equipment. However, ECa is influenced by a variety of soil properties, which makes the measurement of soil salinity at field scale problematic. It is the goal of this presentation to provide an overview of the field-scale characterization of soil salinity distribution using ECa-directed soil sampling. A historical perspective, protocols and guidelines, strengths and limitations, applications, and future trends are presented for characterizing spatial and temporal variation in soil salinity using ECa-directed soil sampling. Land resource managers, farmers, extension specialists, soil classification specialists, and Natural Resource Conservation Service field staff are the beneficiaries of field-scale maps of soil salinity.

Corwin, Dennis

2014-05-01

166

Mid-Level Soil Sample for Oven Number Seven  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil from a sample called Burning Coals was delivered through the doors of cell number seven (left) of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 20, 2008, during the 85th Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed.

This image from Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera shows some of the soil on the screen beneath the doors. One of the cell's two doors is fully open, the other partially open.

This soil sample comes from an intermediate depth between the ground surface and the hard, underground icy layer at the Phoenix site.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

167

A quarantine protocol for analysis of returned extraterrestrial samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quarantine protocol is presented for analysis of samples of extraterrestrial material that might be returned from space to an Earth-orbiting quarantine facility. The protocol is designed to detect biologically active agents in extraterrestrial soil. Its goal is either to certify the sample safe to return to a terrestrial containment facility where extensive biological, chemical, geological and physical investigations can

J. R. Bagby; H. C. Sweet; D. L. Devincenzi

1983-01-01

168

Bioluminescent reporter bacteria detect contaminants in soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reporter strains of bacteria were tested using soil samples from several sites near a leaking fuel oil storage facility. The reporter bacteria utilized the bioluminescent lux genes from Vibrio fischeri, which were transcriptionally fused to catabolic gene sequences. The catabolic genes of interest specified the degradation of toluene (from the TOL plasmid) and naphthalene (from the NAH7 plasmid and from

R. S. Burlage; A. V. Palumbo; A. Heitzer; G. Sayler

2009-01-01

169

Acetone Production as a Result of Sodium Bisulfate Preservation of Soil Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of sodium bisulfate for field preservation of soil samples collected for the analysis of volatile organics (VOCs) can result in the formation of acetone. The work was performed at Camp Edwards, Massachusetts, as part of a multi-year investigation of the effects of training activities on the local environment. Preservation with sodium bisulfate was initiated in 1999 under regulatory

JAY L. CLAUSEN; MARILYN HOYT; ELIZABETH WESSLING; BRYCE STEARNS; BOSCO RAMIREZ; NIC KORTE

2004-01-01

170

SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS IN LARGE FIELDS USING A SCANNING SYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the issues hindering the implementation of carbon-credits trading protocols and a limiting factor in the comprehensive evaluation of large fields for carbon is the need for analyzing soil core samples in a laboratory. The procedures for careful analysis are labor-intensive, involving many ste...

171

Effect of sterilization on the scientific value of a returned Mars soil sample  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been proposed that a soil sample from Mars be sterilized prior to return to earth for analysis in order to prevent contamination of earth by hazardous microbial species potentially present in the sample. This paper summarizes experiments on the effect of various methods of sterilization of terrestrial soils on their biological and organic constituents. Sterilization by dry heat caused significant decreases in amino acid content, increases in amino acid racemization, and obliteration of cellular structure. Co-60 irradiation had little effect on amino acid racemization and morphology, and Co-60 irradiation combined with dry heat resulted in retention of some enzymatic activity. Treatment with chemical fixative preserved cellular structure

Devincenzi, D. L.

1977-01-01

172

Pragmatic soil survey design using flexible Latin hypercube sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review and give a practical example of Latin hypercube sampling in soil science using an approach we call flexible Latin hypercube sampling. Recent studies of soil properties in large and remote regions have highlighted problems with the conventional Latin hypercube sampling approach. It is often impractical to travel far from tracks and roads to collect samples, and survey planning should recognise this fact. Another problem is how to handle target sites that, for whatever reason, are impractical to sample - should one just move on to the next target or choose something in the locality that is accessible? Working within a Latin hypercube that spans the covariate space, selecting an alternative site is hard to do optimally. We propose flexible Latin hypercube sampling as a means of avoiding these problems. Flexible Latin hypercube sampling involves simulated annealing for optimally selecting accessible sites from a region. The sampling protocol also produces an ordered list of alternative sites close to the primary target site, should the primary target site prove inaccessible. We highlight the use of this design through a broad-scale sampling exercise in the Burdekin catchment of north Queensland, Australia. We highlight the robustness of our design through a simulation study where up to 50% of target sites may be inaccessible.

Clifford, David; Payne, James E.; Pringle, M. J.; Searle, Ross; Butler, Nathan

2014-06-01

173

Prototype SDSS for using probability analysis in soil contamination  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the benefits of applying spatial decision support system (SDSS) methodologies for assessing soil contamination problems. A nonparametric geostatistical technique, indicator kriging (IK), was used to determine the probability distributions for characterizing the uncertainty in the unsampled area. Such distributions over a contaminated site allow mapping of block maps of the probability above some maximum allowable limit, estimate the risks of decisions, and provide information for remediation assessment. Geographical information systems offer spatial analysis and data management capabilities that can benefit IK analysis. A prototype system, PASCA (Probability Analysis for Soil Contamination Assessment), was developed for this study. It utilizes a menu-driven interface to combine the Taiwan geographical database and models for IK analysis. PASCA was designed to specially aid users in preliminary screening of remediation priorities and in designating contaminated soil blocks that need additional sampling. The application of PASCA is analyzed through a case study involving the heavy metal cadmium.

Chiueh, P.T.; Lo, S.L. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Environmental Engineering; Lee, C.D. [Chung-Yuan Univ., Chung-Li (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1997-05-01

174

Metatranscriptomic Analysis of Arctic Peat Soil Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in meta-omics and particularly metatranscriptomic approaches have enabled detailed studies of the structure and function of microbial communities in many ecosystems. Molecular analyses of peat soils, ecosystems important to the global carbon balance, are still challenging due to the presence of coextracted substances that inhibit enzymes used in downstream applications. We sampled layers at different depths from two high-Arctic peat soils in Svalbard for metatranscriptome preparation. Here we show that enzyme inhibition in the preparation of metatranscriptomic libraries can be circumvented by linear amplification of diluted template RNA. A comparative analysis of mRNA-enriched and nonenriched metatranscriptomes showed that mRNA enrichment resulted in a 2-fold increase in the relative abundance of mRNA but biased the relative distribution of mRNA. The relative abundance of transcripts for cellulose degradation decreased with depth, while the transcripts for hemicellulose debranching increased, indicating that the polysaccharide composition of the peat was different in the deeper and older layers. Taxonomic annotation revealed that Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominating polysaccharide decomposers. The relative abundances of 16S rRNA and mRNA transcripts of methanogenic Archaea increased substantially with depth. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was the dominating pathway, followed by methanogenesis from formate. The relative abundances of 16S rRNA and mRNA assigned to the methanotrophic Methylococcaceae, primarily Methylobacter, increased with depth. In conclusion, linear amplification of total RNA and deep sequencing constituted the preferred method for metatranscriptomic preparation to enable high-resolution functional and taxonomic analyses of the active microbiota in Arctic peat soil. PMID:25015892

Tveit, Alexander T.

2014-01-01

175

An expert sample analysis planner  

SciTech Connect

Analytical chemists are faced with the problem of choosing an appropriate analytical technique for a particular sample and weighing the options as they affect precision, time, and cost. This paper describes a computer technique to assist managers in reviewing the alternatives and to match needs with the resources available. This paper proposes an expert system, knowledgeable of analytical chemistry techniques, to create sample plans. Sample planning is an appropriate topic for expert systems because scarce human expertise is required to complete sample plans. A sample plan is the description of how samples received at the Savannah River Laboratory are handled, controlled, measured, and dispositioned. Sample planning is difficult because multiple experts are needed, planning is not a static function, and planning is time consuming. An Expert Sample Analyses Planner (XSAP) is proposed to create sample plans for laboratory managers. XSAP supplements the scarce knowledge of analytical techniques creating sample plans based on analysis constraints, methods available, and time requirements. XSAP interacts with the chemist to suggest sample plans. XSAP considers equipment available locally, at other Savannah River laboratories, at other Department of Energy facilities, and at other commercial laboratories. XSAP allows options on scheduling: best solution, cheapest solution, best local solution, and fastest solution. 26 refs.

Spencer, W.A.; Parks, W.S.

1990-01-01

176

Statistical sample size for construction of soil liners  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for selecting the number of samples (i.e., the sample size) to be collected and tested during construction quality control of compacted soil liners. The sample size is selected to ensure that enough data are collected so the probability of excessive equivalent hydraulic conductivity (i.e., overall hydraulic conductivity) is greater than or equal to a predefined maximum value is below a specified value. The method requires computations that can be performed using a spreadsheet program. Charts are provided to select the sample size based on these computations. The sample size depends on the properties of the soil, their spatial variability, and the number of lifts in the liner. Regression models are used to relate spatial variability of construction-quality-control measurements (such as compaction data, Atterberg limits, and particle-size measurements) to variations in hydraulic conductivity at point scale. A three-dimensional stochastic model is then used to estimate the equivalent hydraulic conductivity of the soil liner for statistical parameters describing spatial variability of point-scale hydraulic conductivity. An asymptotic method is used to determine the precision of the estimate of equivalent hydraulic conductivity and the probability of excessive equivalent hydraulic conductivity.

Benson, C.H.; Zhai, H.; Rashad, S.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

1994-10-01

177

DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected VOC soil gas concentrations during ASVE. Five (5) SVE wells that were located closest to the air injection wells were used as monitoring points during the air sparging tests. The air sparging tests lasted 48 hours. Soil gas sample results indicate that sparging did not affect VOC concentrations in four of the five sparging wells, while results from one test did show an increase in soil gas concentrations.

Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

2012-09-20

178

Sampling design optimization for multivariate soil mapping, case study from Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct observations of the soil are important for two main reasons in Digital Soil Mapping (DSM). First, they are used to characterize the relationship between the soil property of interest and the auxiliary information. Second, they are used to improve the predictions based on the auxiliary information. Hence there is a strong necessity to elaborate a well-established soil sampling strategy based on geostatistical tools, prior knowledge and available resources before the samples are actually collected from the area of interest. Fieldwork and laboratory analyses are the most expensive and labor-intensive part of DSM, meanwhile the collected samples and the measured data have a remarkable influence on the spatial predictions and their uncertainty. Numerous sampling strategy optimization techniques developed in the past decades. One of these optimization techniques is Spatial Simulated Annealing (SSA) that has been frequently used in soil surveys to minimize the average universal kriging variance. The benefit of the technique is, that the surveyor can optimize the sampling design for fixed number of observations taking auxiliary information, previously collected samples and inaccessible areas into account. The requirements are the known form of the regression model and the spatial structure of the residuals of the model. Another restriction is, that the technique is able to optimize the sampling design for just one target soil variable. However, in practice a soil survey usually aims to describe the spatial distribution of not just one but several pedological variables. In the recent paper we present a procedure developed in R-code to simultaneously optimize the sampling design by SSA for two soil variables using spatially averaged universal kriging variance as optimization criterion. Soil Organic Matter (SOM) content and rooting depth were chosen for this purpose. The methodology is illustrated with a legacy data set from a study area in Central Hungary. Legacy soil data were collected in the end of the 1980s in the framework of the National Land Evaluation Programme. The auxiliary data were derived from the digital elevation model and from the land-use-map of the study area. Soil data were used to characterize the relationship among the soil variables and the auxiliary information and model the spatial structures of the residuals of the regression models. The known form of the regression models and semivariogram models were used through SSA to optimize a completely new sampling design for 120 soil observations. The optimization process was done twice. First separately for SOM content and rooting depth and second for both soil variables simultaneously based on the combined form of regression models and spatial structures of the residuals. The optimized sampling designs were compared and evaluated by various statistical, geostatistical and spatial statistical (point pattern analysis) tools to examine how they depend on the regression models and semivariogram models and how they cover the geographical and feature space. In the near future, we want to extend the methodology for more than two pedological variables. Acknowledgement: Our work has been supported by the Hungarian National Scientific Research Foundation (OTKA, Grant No. K105167).

Szatmári, Gábor; Pásztor, László; Barta, Károly

2014-05-01

179

Bioluminescent reporter bacteria detect contaminants in soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reporter strains of bacteria were tested using soil samples from several sites near a leaking fuel oil storage facility. The\\u000a reporter bacteria utilized the bioluminescentlux genes fromVibrio fischeri, which were transcriptionally fused to catabolic gene sequences. The catabolic genes of interest specified the degradation\\u000a of toluene (from the TOL plasmid) and naphthalene (from the NAH7 plasmid and from a NAH

Robert S. Burlage; Anthony V. Palumbo; Armin Heitzer; Gary Sayler

1994-01-01

180

SEM-EDS analysis and discrimination of forensic soil.  

PubMed

Soils vary among different areas, and have some characteristics because of the natural effects and transfers made by human and other living beings in time. So that forensic examination of soil is not only concerned with the analysis of naturally occurring rocks, minerals, vegetation, and animal matter. It also includes the detection of such manufactured materials such as ions from synthetic fertilizers and from different environments (e.g., nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate) as environmental artifacts (e.g., lead or objects as glass, paint chips, asphalt, brick fragments, and cinders) whose presence may impart soil with characteristics that will make it unique to a particular location. Many screening and analytical methods have been applied for determining the characteristics which differentiate and discriminate the forensic soil samples but none of them easily standardized. Some of the methods that applied in forensic laboratories in forensic soil discrimination are the color comparison of the normal air-dried (dehumidified) and overheated soil samples, macroscopic observation, and low-power stereo-microscopic observation, determination of anionic composition by capillary electrophoresis (CE), and the elemental composition by scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and other high sensitivity techniques. The objective of this study was to show the effect of the application of 9 tonnes/cm2 pressure on the elemental compositions obtained by SEM-EDS technique and comparing the discrimination power of the pressed-homogenized and not homogenized forensic soil samples. For this purpose soil samples from 17 different locations of Istanbul were collected. Aliquots of the well mixed samples were dried in an oven at 110-120 degrees C and sieved by using 0.5 mm sieve and then the undersieve fraction(<0.5 mm) of these samples put on an adhesive tape placed on a stub. About 100-150 mg aliquots of dried, sieved samples were pressed under 9 tonnes/cm2 pressure by KBr disk preparation apparatus of an infrared spectrophotometer. Surfaces of the randomized particles and the pressed disks of the soil samples were scanned and the elemental compositions were determined with scanning electron microscope JEO-JSM-5600 equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer OXFORD Link-ISIS-300. The samples from top of the sieves were examined with stereo-microscope equipped with JVC-TK-128DE color video camera and JVC-GV-PT2, digital video printer. Natural and artificial materials that have characteristic features were identified. Then for additional confirmation all soil samples were dried at 120 degrees C and over 780 degrees C and their colors compared. We concluded that pressing the whole sieved soil samples under 9 tonnes/cm2 pressure results in smashing over the harder particles into the softer matrix and results in homogenization of the soil sample. The elemental compositions of these samples obtained by SEM-EDS with 10-fold less standard deviation (S.D.) values and so that with more reproducibility and discrimination power. PMID:15066711

Cengiz, Salih; Cengiz Karaca, Ali; Cakir, Ismail; Bülent Uner, H; Sevindik, Aytekin

2004-04-20

181

Analysis of hexazinone in soil by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay  

SciTech Connect

A tube enzyme immunoassay (ELA) procedure was developed for the determination of the triazine herbicide hexazinone in soil. The antibody was polyclonal and was prepared by employing metabolite A (3-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-6-dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione of hexazinone conjugated to bovine serum albumin as the immunogen. Hexazinone was extracted from soil by shaking with methanol-water 80/20 for 10 min and allowed to set overnight before reshaking for 5 min. Aliquots for EIA analysis were diluted in such a way as to always contain 8% methanol. Reproducibility results for both standards and samples were good. A correlation coefficient of 0.9562 was obtained for 76 soil samples run by EIA vs. HPLC. Of the eight known metabolites of hexazinone, 7 were tested for cross-reactivity and 5 were shown to be cross-reactive.

Bushway, R.J.; Perkins, L.B.; Reed, A.W. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

182

Season and soil management affect soil microbial communities estimated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis in a continuous cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of soil management on seasonal changes in soil microbial communities were examined in a continuously cropped field of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Soil samples from each plot treated with cattle manure compost (CMC), grass compost (GRC) and chemical fertilizers (CHF) were taken at monthly intervals from April 2003 to March 2004.

Hiroyasu Tabuchi; Kotaro Kato; Ichio Nioh

2008-01-01

183

Multivariate analysis of soil heavy metal pollution and landscape pattern in Changhua county in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied factor analysis and landscape indices of 55 sampling sites in Changhua county in Taiwan to characterize the factor patterns of eight soil heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) and the interrelation patterns of these soil heavy metals, landscape and human activities. The landscape analysis results indicated that landscape indices can elucidate spatial

Yu-Pin Lin; Tung-Po Teng; Tsun-Kuo Chang

2002-01-01

184

Microscope Image of a Martian Soil Surface Sample  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the closest view of the material underneath NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This sample was taken from the top centimeter of the Martian soil, and this image from the lander's Optical Microscope demonstrates its overall composition.

The soil is mostly composed of fine orange particles, and also contains larger grains, about a tenth of a millimeter in diameter, and of various colors. The soil is sticky, keeping together as a slab of material on the supporting substrate even though the substrate is tilted to the vertical.

The fine orange grains are at or below the resolution of the Optical Microscope. Mixed into the soil is a small amount&mdashabout 0.5 percent&mdashof white grains, possibly of a salt. The larger grains range from black to almost transparent in appearance. At the bottom of the image, the shadows of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) beams are visible. This image is 1 millimeter x 2 millimeters.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

185

340 Representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

Olander, A.R., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-07

186

340 Representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

Olander, A.R., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-21

187

340 representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

Halgren, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-09-09

188

DNA Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Genotoxic Compounds in Soil Samples  

PubMed Central

An electrochemical DNA-based biosensor is proposed as a fast and easy screening method for the detection of genotoxic compounds in soil samples. The biosensor was assembled by immobilising double stranded Calf thymus DNA on screen-printed electrodes. The interactions between DNA and environmental pollutants can cause variations of the electrochemical proprieties of DNA when they cause a DNA damage. Preliminary studies were performed using benzene, naphthalene and anthracene derivatives as model compounds. The effect of these compounds on the surface-confined DNA was found to be linearly related to their concentration in solution. On the other hand, the objective was to optimise the ultrasonic extraction conditions of these compounds from artificially spiked soil samples. Then, the applicability of such a biosensor was evaluated by analysing soil samples from an Italian region with ecological risk (ACNA of Cengio, SV). DNA biosensor for qualitative analysis of soil presented a good correlation with a semi-quantitative method for aromatic ring systems determination as fixed wavelength fluorescence and interestingly, according results were found also with other bioassays. This kind of biosensors represent a new, easy and fast way of analysis of polluted sites, therefore they can be used as early warnings devices in areas with ecological risk as in situ measurement.

Bagni, Graziana; Hernandez, Silvia; Mascini, Marco; Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Marconi, Simona

2005-01-01

189

Optimum sampling setup for chamber-based measurements of soil respiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil respiration is known to be highly variable in space and time. The temporal variabilty is quite easy to capture by simply using an appropriate frequency of automated measurements. The spatial variability, however, is more cumbersome in case representative average fluxes are required. Within this study we propose a method based on the concept of temporally persistent spatial structures to measure most accurate average fluxes with a minimum sampling effort. We simultaneously measured soil heterotrophic respiration, soil water content and soil temperature at 48 to 76 locations within a 13- by 14-m bare soil plot for 15 measurement dates. The plot was located in an agricultural field. A standard LICOR chamber setup covering a surface area of 0.032 m2 was applied. A geostatistical data analyses indicated a mean range of spatial auto-correlation of 2.7 m. We detected rather high coefficients of variation of heterotrophic respiration between 0.13 and 0.80, with an average of 0.33. The number of observations required to estimate average respiration fluxes at a 5% error level ranged between 5 and 123. The analysis of the temporal persistence revealed that a subset of 17 sampling locations is sufficient to estimate average respiration fluxes at a tolerable root mean square error of 0.15 g C m-2 d-1. Using only eight selected locations resulted in a respective error of 0.24 g C m-2 d-1.

Herbst, Michael; Prolingheuer, Nils; Graf, Alexander; Weihermüller, Lutz; Huisman, Sander; Vereecken, Harry

2010-05-01

190

Environmental Immunoassays: Alternative Techniques for Soil and Water Analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of soil and water samples for environmental studies and compliance testing can be formidable, time consuming, and costly. As a consequence, immunochemical techniques have become popular for environmental analysis because they are reliable, rapid, and cost effective. During the past 5 years, the use of immunoassays for environmental monitoring has increased substantially, and their use as an integral analytical tool in many environmental laboratories is now commonplace. This chapter will present the basic concept of immunoassays, recent advances in the development of immunochemical methods, and examples of successful applications of immunoassays in environmental analysis.

Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.

1996-01-01

191

Sample Collection of Ash and Burned Soils from the October 2007 Southern California Wildfires  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between November 2 through 9, 2007 scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected samples of ash and burned soils from 28 sites in six areas burned as a result of the Southern California wildfires of October 2007, including the Harris, Witch, Santiago, Ammo, Canyon, and Grass Valley Fires. The primary goal of this sampling and analysis effort was to understand how differences in ash and burned soil composition relate to vegetation type, underlying bedrock geology, burn intensity, and residential versus wildland. Sampling sites were chosen with the input of local experts from the USGS Water Resources and Biological Resources Disciplines to help understand possible effects of the fires on water supplies, ecosystems, and endangered species. The sampling was also carried out in conjunction with detailed field analysis of the spectral reflectance characteristics of the ash, so that chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the field samples could be used to help interpret data collected as part of an airborne, hyperspectral remote-sensing survey of several of the burned areas in mid-late November, 2007. This report presents an overview of the field sampling methodologies used to collect the samples, includes representative photos of the sites sampled, and summarizes important characteristics of each of the collection sites. In this report we use the term 'ash' to refer collectively to white mineral ash, which results from full combustion of vegetation and black charred organic matter from partial combustion of vegetation or other materials. These materials were found to be intermingled as a deposited residue on the soil surface following the Southern California fires of 2007.

Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Martin, Deborah A.; Rochester, Carlton; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Mendez, Greg; Reichard, Eric G.; Fisher, Robert N.

2009-01-01

192

Differential thermal analysis of lunar soil simulant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential thermal analysis of a lunar soil simulant, 'Minnesota Lunar Simulant-1' (MLS-1) was performed. The MLS-1 was tested in as-received form (in glass form) and with another silica. The silica addition was seen to depress nucleation events which lead to a better glass former.

Tucker, D.; Setzer, A.

1991-01-01

193

Probabilistic Analysis of the Compressibility of Soils  

E-print Network

for NGES ................................................................................................. 37 3.1. Initial void ratio and clay fraction for the one-dimensional compression tests... PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE COMPRESSIBILITY OF SOILS A Dissertation by BYOUNG CHAN JUNG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR...

Jung, Byoung C.

2010-07-14

194

A comparison of rock and soil samples for geochemical mapping of two porphyry-metal systems in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paired rock and soil samples were collected at widely spaced locations in large segments of the porphyry-metal systems of the Montezuma district in central Colorado and of a northwestward extension of the Summitville district into Crater Creek in southern Colorado. The paired samples do not covary closely enough for one sample medium to proxy for the other. However, the areal distributions of elements in both rocks and soils in these two districts conform to alteration zoning as defined by mineralogy. Differing geochemical patterns of rocks and soils reflect species-dependent responses to weathering. Soils appear to be statistically enriched in ore elements and depleted in rock elements as compared to the matching rocks. These differences are largely artificial s owing to different methods of sample preparation and chemical analysis for rocks and for soils. The distributions of metals in soils delineate the occurrence of ore-metal minerals mostly from vein deposits whereas the distributions of metals in rocks conform to zones of pervasive hydrothermal alteration and to the distribution of varied mineral deposits among these zones. Rock and soil samples are equally useful s of comparable map resolution and complement one another as a basis for geochemically mapping these porphyry-metal systems.

Neuerburg, George J.; Barton, H.N.; Watterson, J.R.; Welsch, E.P.

1978-01-01

195

Author's personal copy Soil total carbon analysis in Hawaiian soils with visible, near-infrared and  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Soil total carbon analysis in Hawaiian soils with visible, near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy Agriculture Hawaii Mid-infrared Soil carbon Visible near-infrared Accurate assessment of DRS for Ct prediction of Hawaiian ag- ricultural soils by creating visible, near-infrared (VNIR

Grunwald, Sabine

196

Speciation analysis of orthophosphate and myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in soil- and plant-related samples by high-performance ion chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel method based on high-performance ion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry employing strong anion exchange chromatography with HNO3 gradient elution for simultaneous analysis of orthophosphate and myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6 ) in soil solution and plant extracts is presented. As inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of phosphorus at m/z 31 is hampered by N-based interferences, (31)P was measured as (31)P(16)O(+) at m/z 47 employing dynamic reaction cell technique with O2 as reaction gas. Orthophosphate and IP6 were separated within a total chromatographic run-time of 12 min revealing a limit of detection of 0.3 ?mol/L. The coefficients of determination obtained in a working range of 1-100 and 1-30 ?mol/L were 0.9991 for orthophosphate and 0.9968 for IP6, respectively. The method was successfully applied to extracts from three different soils as well as root and shoot extracts of Brassica napus L. The precision of three independently prepared soil extracts was in the range of 4-10% relative standard deviation for PO4 (3-) and 3-8% relative standard deviation for IP6. Soil adsorption/desorption kinetics for IP6/orthophosphate were performed for investigating the sorption behavior of the two P species in the experimental soils. PMID:24788687

Rugova, Ariana; Puschenreiter, Markus; Santner, Jakob; Fischer, Lisa; Neubauer, Stefan; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

2014-07-01

197

Spectral Reflectance Methodology in Comparison to Traditional Soil Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional soil analyses are expensive, time-consuming, and may also result in environmental pollutants. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a methodology to measure soil attributes using spectral reflectance (SR) as an alternative to traditional meth- ods. Tropical Brazilian soils were sampled over a 196-ha area divided into grids. Samples (n 5 184) were obtained from the

Marcos Rafael Nanni; José Alexandre M. Demattê

2006-01-01

198

The relationship of surface chemistry and albedo of lunar soil samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relation between the albedo and the surface iron concentration (determined by Auger electron spectroscopy) of lunar soil samples is described. The effect of solar wind sputtering on the surface chemistry and albedo of the soil is discussed.

Gold, T.; Bilson, E.; Baron, R. L.

1977-01-01

199

An investigation of arsenic contamination in Peninsular Malaysia based on Centella asiatica and soil samples.  

PubMed

The first objective of this study was to provide data of arsenic (As) levels in Peninsular Malaysia based on soil samples and accumulation of As in Centella asiatica collected from 12 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia. The second objective was to assess the accumulation of As in transplanted C. asiatica between control and semi-polluted or polluted sites. Four sites were selected which were UPM (clean site), Balakong (semi-polluted site), Seri Kembangan (semi-polluted site) and Juru (polluted site). The As concentrations of plant and soil samples were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The As levels ranged from 9.38 to 57.05 ?g/g dw in soils, 0.21 to 4.33 ?g/g dw in leaves, 0.18 to 1.83 ?g/g dw in stems and 1.32-20.76 ?g/g dw in roots. All sampling sites had As levels exceeding the CCME guideline (12 ?g/g dw) except for Kelantan, P. Pauh, and Senawang with P. Klang having the highest As in soil (57.05 ?g/g dw). In C. asiatica, As accumulation was highest in roots followed by leaves and stems. When the As level in soils were higher, the uptake of As in plants would also be increased. After the transplantation of plants to semi-polluted and polluted sites for 3 weeks, all concentration factors were greater than 50 % of the initial As level. The elimination factor was around 39 % when the plants were transplanted back to the clean sites for 3 weeks. The findings of the present study indicated that the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica are ideal biomonitors of As contamination. The present data results the most comprehensive data obtained on As levels in Malaysia. PMID:22821327

Ong, G H; Yap, C K; Maziah, M; Suhaimi, H; Tan, S G

2013-04-01

200

Methods of soil P analysis in archaeology Vance T. Holliday a,*, William G. Gartner b  

E-print Network

Methods of soil P analysis in archaeology Vance T. Holliday a,*, William G. Gartner b a Departments activity. A wide variety of methods have been developed in both soil science and in archaeology to extract of human input and activity we subjected samples from three very different archaeological sites (Lubbock

Holliday, Vance T.

201

Metallic phases in the Luna 24 soil samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The metal and sulfide phases in the Luna 24 soil samples were studied with the optical microscope and the electron microprobe. The compositions of the metal particles fall into three groups based on their Ni and Co contents: (1) Samples of meteoritic composition which have undergone metamorphism on the lunar surface. (2) Samples of submeteoritic, low Ni and low Co contents, including most of the metal particles observed. These particles are contained in glass and agglutinate particles and were probably formed by the mixing of meteoritic metal with lunar metal produced by the reduction of silicates during shock-impact. (3) Samples of high-CO content probably formed by mixing of meteoritic material with high-Co metal from the mare basalt or by fractional crystallization from a metal silicate melt. The sulfide minerals were also studied. These are almost pure FeS, and crystallized from a late stage liquid in the mare basalt. Three high-Ni sulfides were also found in the glass phase of agglutinates.

Friel, J. J.; Goldstein, J. I.

1977-01-01

202

Ultrasonic dispersion of soils for routine particle size analysis: Recommended procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic techniques were found to be more effective than standard mechanical techniques to disperse soils for routine particle size analysis (i.e., using a dispersing agent and mechanical mixing). Soil samples were tested using an ultrasonic homogenizer at various power outputs. The samples varied widely in texture and mineralogy, and included sands, silts, clays, volcanic soils, and soils high in organic matter. A combination of chemical and ultrasonic disperson techniques were used in all tests. Hydrometer techniques were used for particle size analysis. For most materials tested, clay percentage values indicated that ultrasonic dispersion was more complete than mechanical dispersion. Soils high in volcanic ash or iron oxides showed 10 to 20 wt% more clay when using ultrasonic mixing rather than mechanical mixing. The recommended procedure requires ultrasonic dispersion of a 20-g to 40-g sample for 15 min at 300 W with a 1.9-cm-diameter ultrasonic homogenizer.

Heller, P. R.; Hayden, R. F.; Gee, G. W.

1984-11-01

203

Ultrasonic dispersion of soils for routine particle size analysis: recommended procedures  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic techniques were found to be more effective than standard mechanical techniques to disperse soils for routine particle-size analysis (i.e., using a dispersing agent and mechanical mixing). Soil samples were tested using an ultrasonic homogenizer at various power outputs. The samples varied widely in texture and mineralogy, and included sands, silts, clays, volcanic soils, and soils high in organic matter. A combination of chemical and ultrasonic dispersion techniques were used in all tests. Hydrometer techniques were used for particle-size analysis. For most materials tested, clay percentage values indicated that ultrasonic dispersion was more complete than mechanical dispersion. Soils high in volcanic ash or iron oxides showed 10 to 20 wt % more clay when using ultrasonic mixing rather than mechanical mixing. The recommended procedure requires ultrasonic dispersion of a 20- to 40-g sample for 15 min at 300 W with a 1.9-cm-diameter ultrasonic homogenizer. 12 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Heller, P.R.; Hayden, R.E.; Gee, G.W.

1984-11-01

204

QA/QC requirements for physical properties sampling and analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of an assessment of the available information concerning US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements and guidance applicable to sampling, handling, and analyzing physical parameter samples at Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation sites. Geotechnical testing laboratories measure the following physical properties of soil and sediment samples collected during CERCLA remedial investigations (RI) at the Hanford Site: moisture content, grain size by sieve, grain size by hydrometer, specific gravity, bulk density/porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and permeability of rocks by flowing air. Geotechnical testing laboratories also measure the following chemical parameters of soil and sediment samples collected during Hanford Site CERCLA RI: calcium carbonate and saturated column leach testing. Physical parameter data are used for (1) characterization of vadose and saturated zone geology and hydrogeology, (2) selection of monitoring well screen sizes, (3) to support modeling and analysis of the vadose and saturated zones, and (4) for engineering design. The objectives of this report are to determine the QA/QC levels accepted in the EPA Region 10 for the sampling, handling, and analysis of soil samples for physical parameters during CERCLA RI.

Innis, B.E.

1993-07-21

205

Characterization of soil organic matter composition in of top and sub soil samples from colluvial and eroded sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During erosion, soil particles (i.e., clay sized particles) can be transported along hillslopes from hilltop to foot slope forming the colluvic soil at topographic depressions. The objective was to compare soil organic matter (SOM) content and composition and SOM fractions from eroded with those of soils from colluvic and unaffected sites. Soil samples were from different relief positions along a hillslope including Haplic Regosol (HR), Colluvic Regolsol (CR), Haplic Luvisol (HL), and eroded Luvisol (eL). Also the run-off fractions from two erosion experiments were analyzed. A sequential extraction procedure was adapted to separate particles (POM) from water (OM(W)) and pyrophosphate soluble organic matter (OM(PY)) fractions. Soil samples and fractions were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The content of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the colluvic soil (CR) was 2-times higher as in the eroded soil (HR). The OM(W) fraction represented about 5 % of SOC while OM(PY) was up to 80% except for the HR samples. The FTIR spectra of all soil samples were very similar except for HR, where the absorption band at 1450cm-1 due indicated the presence of carbonate. Despite the similarity, the FTIR spectra indicated differences in the content of carboxyl (C=O) and alkyl (CH) groups: highest intensities of C=O absorption band was in the spectra from HR samples for water and pyrophosphate soluble OM fractions. This higher C=O group content suggested a potentially higher cation exchange capacity of the SOM. However, the FTIR spectra indicated a lower wettability for the HR soil. For the runoff samples, the SOM composition changed with rainfall duration. The results suggest that erosion changes not only the content but also the composition of SOM.

Ellerbrock, Ruth; Gerke, Horst

2013-04-01

206

Temporal changes of soil physic-chemical properties at different soil depths during larch afforestation by multivariate analysis of covariance  

PubMed Central

Soil physic-chemical properties differ at different depths; however, differences in afforestation-induced temporal changes at different soil depths are seldom reported. By examining 19 parameters, the temporal changes and their interactions with soil depth in a large chronosequence dataset (159 plots; 636 profiles; 2544 samples) of larch plantations were checked by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). No linear temporal changes were found in 9 parameters (N, K, N:P, available forms of N, P, K and ratios of N: available N, P: available P and K: available K), while marked linear changes were found in the rest 10 parameters. Four of them showed divergent temporal changes between surface and deep soils. At surface soils, changing rates were 262.1 g·kg?1·year?1 for SOM, 438.9 mg·g?1·year?1 for C:P, 5.3 mg·g?1·year?1 for C:K, and ?3.23 mg·cm?3·year?1 for bulk density, while contrary tendencies were found in deeper soils. These divergences resulted in much moderated or no changes in the overall 80-cm soil profile. The other six parameters showed significant temporal changes for overall 0–80-cm soil profile (P: ?4.10 mg·kg?1·year?1; pH: ?0.0061 unit·year?1; C:N: 167.1 mg·g?1·year?1; K:P: 371.5 mg·g?1 year?1; N:K: ?0.242 mg·g?1·year?1; EC: 0.169 ?S·cm?1·year?1), but without significant differences at different soil depths (P > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of deep soils in studying physic-chemical changes of soil properties, and the temporal changes occurred in both surface and deep soils should be fully considered for forest management and soil nutrient balance. PMID:24772281

Wang, Hui-Mei; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Zijun; Zu, Yuan-Gang

2014-01-01

207

Collecting cometary soil samples? Development of the ROSETTA sample acquisition system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the reference scenario of the ROSETTA CNRS mission, the Sample Acquisition System is mounted on the Comet Lander. Its tasks are to acquire three kinds of cometary samples and to transfer them to the Earth Return Capsule. Operations are to be performed in vacuum and microgravity, on a probably rough and dusty surface, in a largely unknown material, at temperatures in the order of 100 K. The concept and operation of the Sample Acquisition System are presented. The design of the prototype corer and surface sampling tool, and of the equipment for testing them at cryogenic temperatures in ambient conditions and in vacuum in various materials representing cometary soil, are described. Results of recent preliminary tests performed in low temperature thermal vacuum in a cometary analog ice-dust mixture are provided.

Coste, P. A.; Fenzi, M.; Eiden, Michael

1993-01-01

208

MULTISENSOR ISFET SYSTEM FOR SOIL ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs) and flow injection analysis (FIA) was investigated for use as a system for real-time soil nitrate sensing. Conventional ion- selective electrodes were used to evaluate 8 different membranes (ligand\\/plasticizer combinations) with respect to their sensitivity to nitrate, lower detection limits, and selectivity against interferences from other ions. A complete ISFET\\/FIA system was designed

S. J. BIRRELL; J. W. HUMMEL

209

RAPID METHOD FOR PLUTONIUM, AMERICIUM AND CURIUM IN VERY LARGE SOIL SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in very large soil samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multistage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines an acid leach step and innovative matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. This method is unique in that it provides high tracer recoveries and effective removal of interferences with small extraction chromatography columns instead of large ion exchange resin columns that generate large amounts of acid waste. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

Maxwell, S

2007-01-08

210

Surface soil sampling plan for the 200-UP-2 operable unit  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Description of Work (DOW) is to provide detailed guidance for implementation of the field activities outlined in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit Work Plan. This work plan provides the basis for conducting a limited field investigation (LFI) in the unit, with the DOW outlining the protocols and procedures to be utilized in performing the surface soil sampling. As outlined in the Work Plan, the data to be collected in the LFI will be utilized to determine the need for, and possible selection of, an Interim Remedial Measure (IRM). In order to do that, detailed information on the current nature and extent of contamination in surface soils at selected management units is required for assessment in conjunction with the existing areas of highest concentration for each unit. Field screening efforts using surface radiation surveys will allow for surface soil samples to be collected from those points that represent the highest contaminant concentrations. Analysis of these samples will provide data on the types and concentrations of the contaminants of concern.

Mitchell, R.M.

1994-05-01

211

A Simple Centrifugation Method for obtaining Small Samples of Soil Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the course of some investigations of seasonal variations in the available cation content of soils in Denbighshire (North Wales), samples of the soil solution were needed. The soils are classed as loams and silty loams, and moisture contents ranged from 30 to 47 per cent.

Brian E. Davies; R. I. Davies

1963-01-01

212

Martian Soil Ready for Robotic Laboratory Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander scooped up this Martian soil on the mission's 11th Martian day, or sol, after landing (June 5, 2008) as the first soil sample for delivery to the laboratory on the lander deck.

The material includes a light-toned clod possibly from crusted surface of the ground, similar in appearance to clods observed near a foot of the lander.

This approximately true-color view of the contents of the scoop on the Robotic Arm comes from combining separate images taken by the Robotic Arm Camera on Sol 11, using illumination by red, green and blue light-emitting diodes on the camera.

The scoop loaded with this sample was poised over an open sample-delivery door of Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer at the end of Sol 11, ready to be dumped into the instrument on the next sol.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

213

Occurrence of [i]Leptospira[/i] DNA in water and soil samples collected in eastern Poland.  

PubMed

Leptospira is an important re-emerging zoonotic human pathogen, disseminated by sick and carrier animals, water and soil. Weather calamities, such as flooding or cyclones favour the spreading of these bacteria. To check a potential role of natural water and soil in the persistence and spread of Leptospira on the territory of eastern Poland, 40 samples of natural water and 40 samples of soil were collected from areas exposed to flooding, and 64 samples of natural water and 68 samples of soil were collected from areas not exposed to flooding. Samples of water were taken from various reservoirs (rivers, natural lakes, artificial lakes, canals, ponds, farm wells) and samples of soils were taken at the distance of 1-3 meters from the edge of the reservoirs. The samples were examined for the presence of Leptospira DNA by nested-PCR. Two out of 40 samples of water (5.0%) collected from the area exposed to flooding showed the presence of Leptospira DNA, while all 40 samples of soil from this area were negative. All samples of water and soil (64 and 68, respectively) collected from the areas not exposed to flooding were negative. No significant difference were found between the results obtained in the areas exposed and not exposed to flooding. In conclusion, these results suggest that water and soil have only limited significance in the persistence and dissemination of Leptospira in eastern Poland. PMID:25528911

Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zaj?c, Violetta; Wasi?ski, Bernard; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Sawczyn, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2014-11-26

214

Evaluation of sampling techniques to characterize topographically-dependent variability for soil moisture downscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Downscaling methods have been proposed to estimate catchment-scale soil moisture patterns from coarser resolution patterns. These methods usually infer the fine-scale variability in soil moisture using variations in ancillary variables like topographic attributes that have relationships to soil moisture. Previously, such relationships have been observed in catchments using soil moisture observations taken on uniform grids at hundreds of locations on multiple dates, but collecting data in this manner limits the applicability of this approach. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of two strategic sampling techniques for characterizing the relationships between topographic attributes and soil moisture for the purpose of constraining downscaling methods. The strategic sampling methods are conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS) and stratified random sampling (SRS). Each sampling method is used to select a limited number of locations or dates for soil moisture monitoring at three catchments with detailed soil moisture datasets. These samples are then used to calibrate two available downscaling methods, and the effectiveness of the sampling methods is evaluated by the ability of the downscaling methods to reproduce the known soil moisture patterns. cLHS outperforms random sampling in almost every case considered. SRS usually performs better than cLHS when very few locations are sampled, but it can perform worse than random sampling for intermediate and large numbers of locations.

Werbylo, Kevin L.; Niemann, Jeffrey D.

2014-08-01

215

forEnvironmentalManagementofMilitaryLands Guide to Sampling Soil  

E-print Network

off-road when soils are excessively wet. Soil compaction is most often characterized by changes..............................................................................................................................................................8 Introduction Vehicle traffic and foot trampling in military training areas can result in varying

216

Effective soil moisture sampling depth of L-band radiometry: A case study M.J. Escorihuela a,  

E-print Network

Effective soil moisture sampling depth of L-band radiometry: A case study M.J. Escorihuela a, , A Keywords: Soil moisture Passive microwave SMOS Roughness Sampling depth The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of the soil moisture sampling depth in the parameterization of soil emission in microwave

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

IMPACT OF SAMPLING FREQUENCY ON SOIL CO2 FLUX ESTIMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carbon dioxide flux from soil is a key indicator of soil organic C decomposition, and field estimates of CO2 fluxes are a critical component in soil C budget calculations. Often cumulative CO2-C flux is computed from weekly or biweekly measurements; however the consequences of this procedure, speci...

218

Changes in the enzymatic activity of soil samples upon their storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the duration and conditions of storage of soil samples on the activity of soil enzymes (catalase, ?-fructofuranosidase, and dehydrogenase) was studied for the main soils of southern Russia (different subtypes of chernozems, chestnut soils, brown forest soils, gray forest soils, solonetzes, and solonchaks). The following soil storage conditions were tested: (1) the air-dry state at room temperature, (2) the airdry state at a low positive (in a refrigerator, +4°C) temperature, (3) naturally moist samples at a low positive temperature, and (4) naturally moist samples at a negative (in a freezer, -5°C) temperature. It was found that the sample storing caused significant changes in the enzymatic activities, which depended on the soil type, the land use, the type of enzyme, and the duration and conditions of the sample storage. In the course of the storage, the changes in the enzymatic activity had a nonlinear character. The maximum changes were observed in the initial period (up to 12 weeks). Then, a very gradual decrease in the activity of the studied enzymes was observed. Upon the long-term (>12 weeks) storage under the different conditions, the difference in the activities of the soil enzymes became less pronounced. The storage of soil samples in the air-dried state at room temperature can be recommended for mass investigations.

Dadenko, E. V.; Kazeev, K. Sh.; Kolesnikov, S. I.; Val'Kov, V. F.

2009-12-01

219

Phosphatase activity in Antarctica soil samples as a biosignature of extant life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial activities have been detected in such extreme terrestrial environments as deep lithosphere, a submarine hydrothermal systems, stratosphere, and Antarctica. Microorganisms have adapted to such harsh environments by evolving their biomolecules. Some of these biomolecules such as enzymes might have different characteristics from those of organisms in ordinary environments. Many biosignatures (or biomarkers) have been proposed to detect microbial activities in such extreme environments. A number of techniques are proposed to evaluate biological activities in extreme environments including cultivation methods, assay of metabolism, and analysis of bioorganic compounds like amino acids and DNA. Enzyme activities are useful signature of extant life in extreme environments. Among many enzymes, phosphatase could be a good indicator of biological activities, since phosphate esters are essential for all the living terrestrial organisms. In addition, alkaline phosphatase is known as a typical zinc-containing metalloenzyme and quite stable in environments. We analyzed phosphatase activities in Antarctica soil samples to see whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. In addition, we characterized phosphatases extracted from the Antarctica soil samples, and compared with those obtained from other types of environments. Antarctica surface environments are quite severe environments for life since it is extremely cold and dry and exposed to strong UV and cosmic rays. We tried to evaluate biological activities in Antarctica by measuring phosphatase activities. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are measured spectrophotometrically after mixing the powdered sample and p-nitrophenyl phosphate solution (pH 6.5 for ACP, pH 8.0 for ALP). ALP was characterized after extraction from soils with Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0), where the activity was measured fluorometrically with 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (pH 8.0) as a substance. The soil of Site 8 (near a penguin rookery) showed almost the same level of ACP and ALP activities as usual surface soil sampled in YNU campus, while the soil of Sites 1-7 showed much less activities. ALP in the extract from the soil of Site 8 was characterized. It showed the maximal at 338 K, while ALP from the campus soil showed the maximal at 358 K. Gel filtration chromatography showed that the ALP activity was found only in the fraction whose molecular weights were over 60000. The ALP activity was diminished with EDTA and was recovered with addition of zinc ion. The present results showed that zinc-containing metalloenzymes, which had lower optimum temperature than those in usual environments, are present in Antarctica soil. It was suggested that phosphatases are good bio-signatures for extant life in extreme environments.

Sato, Shuji; Itoh, Yuki; Takano, Yoshinori; Fukui, Manabu; Kaneko, Takeo; Kobayashi, Kensei

220

Transfer of Radium226 from Soil to Rice: A Comparison of Sampling Area Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to limited numbers of radium-226 (Ra) soil-to-plant transfer data, it has been difficult to analyze the sampling area differences. In this study, we measured Ra concentrations in brown rice and associated soils collected from 61 locations throughout Japan and obtained soil-to-rice transfer factors (TFs). Concentrations of Ra in the soils collected in southwestern Japan were higher than those in

Shigeo UCHIDA; Keiko TAGAMI

2009-01-01

221

Identifying sampling locations for field-scale soil moisture estimation using K-means clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

and understanding the impact of field-scale soil moisture patterns is currently limited by the time and resources required to do sufficient monitoring. This study uses K-means clustering to find critical sampling points to estimate field-scale near-surface soil moisture. Points within the field are clustered based upon topographic and soils data and the points representing the center of those clusters are identified as the critical sampling points. Soil moisture observations at 42 sites across the growing seasons of 4 years were collected several times per week. Using soil moisture observations at the critical sampling points and the number of points within each cluster, a weighted average is found and used as the estimated mean field-scale soil moisture. Field-scale soil moisture estimations from this method are compared to the rank stability approach (RSA) to find optimal sampling locations based upon temporal soil moisture data. The clustering approach on soil and topography data resulted in field-scale average moisture estimates that were as good or better than RSA, but without the need for exhaustive presampling of soil moisture. Using an electromagnetic inductance map as a proxy for soils data significantly improved the estimates over those obtained based on topography alone.

Van Arkel, Zach; Kaleita, Amy L.

2014-08-01

222

Assessment of natural radioactivity levels and associated dose rates in soil samples from Northern Rajasthan, India.  

PubMed

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) has been carried out in 40 soil samples collected from four districts of the Northern Rajasthan, India using gamma-ray spectrometry with an NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentrations of the samples range from 38±9 to 65±11 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 52 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 8±8 to 32±9 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 19 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and from 929±185 to 1894±249 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1627 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. The measured activity concentration of (226)Ra and (40)K in soil was higher and for (232)Th was lower than the worldwide range. Radium equivalent activities were calculated for the soil samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these soils in the construction of buildings. The calculated average radium equivalent activity was 205±20 Bq kg(-1), which is less than the recommended limit of 370 Bq kg(-1) by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The total absorbed dose rate calculated from the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K ranges from 77 to 123 nGy h(-1) with an average value of 103 nGy h(-1). The mean external (Hex) and internal hazard indices (Hin) for the area under study were determined to be 0.55 and 0.69, respectively. The corresponding average annual effective dose was found to be 0.63 mSv. PMID:23943368

Duggal, Vikas; Rani, Asha; Mehra, Rohit; Ramola, R C

2014-01-01

223

Emerging techniques for soil analysis via mid-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmittance and diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) spectroscopy in the mid-IR range are well-established methods for soil analysis. Over the last five years, additional mid-IR techniques have been investigated, and in particular: 1. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Attenuated total reflectance is commonly used for analysis of liquids and powders for which simple transmittance measurements are not possible. The method relies on a crystal with a high refractive index, which is in contact with the sample and serves as a waveguide for the IR radiation. The radiation beam is directed in such a way that it hits the crystal/sample interface several times, each time penetrating a few microns into the sample. Since the penetration depth is limited to a few microns, very good contact between the sample and the crystal must be ensured, which can be achieved by working with samples close to water saturation. However, the strong absorbance of water in the mid-infrared range as well as the absorbance of some soil constituents (e.g., calcium carbonate) interfere with some of the absorbance bands of interest. This has led to the development of several post-processing methods for analysis of the spectra. The FTIR-ATR technique has been successfully applied to soil classification as well as to determination of nitrate concentration [1, 6-8, 10]. Furthermore, Shaviv et al. [12] demonstrated the possibility of using fiber optics as an ATR devise for direct determination of nitrate concentration in soil extracts. Recently, Du et al. [5] showed that it is possible to differentiate between 14N and 15N in such spectra, which opens very promising opportunities for developing FTIR-ATR based methods for investigating nitrogen transformation in soils by tracing changes in N-isotopic species. 2. Photo-acoustic spectroscopy Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is based on absorption-induced heating of the sample, which produces pressure fluctuations in a surrounding gas. These fluctuations are recorded by a microphone and constitute the PAS signal. The major advantage of this method is that it is suitable for highly absorbing solid samples such as soils without any special pretreatment. This method has been applied successfully to soil classification and to quantitative determination of soil properties such as available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, organic matter or calcium carbonate content [2-4]. 3. FTIR-based determination of ion concentration using ion-exchange membranes In addition to the previous direct methods, mid-infrared spectroscopy can also be used to estimate nutrient availability or ion availability indirectly by combining FTIR with ion-exchange membranes. Such membranes are commonly used in studies dealing with nutrient availability, in which standard chemical methods are used to determine the amount of nutrients sorbed onto the membranes. Chemical analysis can be replaced by mid-IR spectroscopy of the loaded membrane, using either the transmittance or photo-acoustic technique depending on the type of membrane [9, 11]. The present work reviews these techniques and the chemometrics tools required for accurate interpretation of the spectra and discusses the potentials and limitations of each method. References 1. Borenstein A., R. Linker, I. Shmulevich and A. Shaviv (2006). Determination of soil nitrate and water content using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 60: 1267-1272. 2. Du, C., R. Linker and A. Shaviv (2007). Characterization of soils using photoacoustic mid-infrared spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 61: 1063-1067. 3. Du, C., R. Linker and A. Shaviv (2008). Identification of agricultural Mediterranean soils using mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Geoderma, 143: 85-90. 4. Du, C., J. Zhou, H. Wang, X. Chen, A. Zhu and J. Zhang (2008). Determiantion of soil properties using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Vibrational Spectroscopy (In press). 5. Du, C., R. Linker, A. Shaviv and Z. Jianmin. In situ evaluation of net nitrification rate in Terra rossa soil using FTIR-ATR

Linker, R.; Shaviv, A.

2009-04-01

224

Random sampling or geostatistical modelling? Choosing between design-based and model-based sampling strategies for soil (with discussion)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical sampling theory has been repeatedly identified with classical statistics which assumes that data are identically and independently distributed. This explains the switch of many soil scientists from design-based sampling strategies, based on classical sampling theory, to the model-based approach, which is based on geostatistics. However, in design-based sampling, independence has a different meaning and is determined by the sampling

D. J. Brus; J. J. de Gruijter

1997-01-01

225

Characterization of mineral phases of agricultural soil samples of Colombian coffee using Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectrometry (MS) of 57Fe were used to characterize mineral phases of samples taken from the productive layer (horizon A) of agricultural coffee soil from Tolima (Colombia). Chemical analysis shows the chemical and textural parameters of samples from two different regions of Tolima, i.e., Ibagué and Santa Isabel. By XRD phases like illite (I), andesine (A) and quartz (Q) in both samples were identified. The quantity of these phases is different for the two samples. The MS spectra taken at room temperature were adjusted by using five doublets, three of them associated to Fe + 3 type sites and the other two to Fe + 2 type sites. According to their isomer shift and quadrupole splitting the presence of phases like illite (detected by DRX), nontronite and biotite (not detected by XRD) can be postulated.

Rodríguez, Humberto Bustos; Lozano, Dagoberto Oyola; Martínez, Yebrayl Antonio Rojas; Pinilla, Marlene Rivera; Alcázar, German Antonio Pérez

2012-03-01

226

A simple method for determination of natural and depleted uranium in surface soil samples.  

PubMed

A simple and efficient method for determination of uranium content in surface soil samples contaminated with depleted uranium, by gamma ray spectrometry is presented. The content of natural uranium and depleted uranium, as well as the activity ratio (235)U/(238)U of depleted uranium, were determined in contaminated surface soil samples by application of this method. PMID:20022756

Vukanac, I; Novkovi?, D; Kandi?, A; Djurasevi?, M; Milosevi?, Z

2010-01-01

227

FRESHWATER ASSAY USING SOIL ELUATES AS SAMPLE MATERIAL (SINGLE LABORATORY EVALUATION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Chlorophyta assay, which uses soil as sample material, has been a useful bioassessment technique for screening hazardous waste site problems. n eluate is prepared from a 125-gram soil sample and then diluted into three separate concentrations prior to being tested using Selen...

228

Leachate Geochemical Results for Ash and Burned Soil Samples from the October 2007 Southern California Wildfires  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is the second release of leachate geochemical data included as part of a multidisciplinary study of ash and burned soil samples from the October 2007 wildfires in southern California. Geochemical data for the first set of samples were released in an Open-File Report (Plumlee and others, 2007). This study is a continuation of that work. The objectives of this leaching study are to aid in understanding the interactions of ash and burned soil with rainfall. For this study, 12 samples collected in early November 2007 were leached using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Field Leach Test (FLT). Following leaching, sub-samples of the leachate were analyzed for pH and specific conductance. The leachate was then filtered, and aliquots were preserved for geochemical analysis. This report presents leachate geochemical data for pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, anions using ion chromatography (I.C.), cations using inductively coupled plasma?atomic mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and mercury by continuous flow injection?cold vapor?atomic fluorescence (CVAFS).

Hageman, Philip L.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Martin, Deborah A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Adams, Monique; Lamothe, Paul J.; Anthony, Michael W.

2008-01-01

229

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling and analysis requirements for the characterization of ambient particles are reviewed. The choice of sampling equipment and characterization procedures for ambient particles are often dictated by the objectives of the experiment. The paper describes the procedures and the...

230

Monitoring the soil degradation by Metastatistical Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of fractal toolbox to capture the critical behavior of soil structural patterns during the chemical and physical degradation was documented by our numerous experiments (Oleschko et al., 2008 a; 2008 b). The spatio-temporal dynamics of these patterns was measured and mapped with high precision in terms of fractal descriptors. All tested fractal techniques were able to detect the statistically significant differences in structure between the perfect spongy and massive patterns of uncultivated and sodium-saline agricultural soils, respectively. For instance, the Hurst exponent, extracted from the Chernoze? micromorphological images and from the time series of its physical and mechanical properties measured in situ, detected the roughness decrease (and therefore the increase in H - from 0.17 to 0.30 for images) derived from the loss of original structure complexity. The combined use of different fractal descriptors brings statistical precision into the quantification of natural system degradation and provides a means for objective soil structure comparison (Oleschko et al., 2000). The ability of fractal parameters to capture critical behavior and phase transition was documented for different contrasting situations, including from Andosols deforestation and erosion, to Vertisols high fructuring and consolidation. The Hurst exponent is used to measure the type of persistence and degree of complexity of structure dynamics. We conclude that there is an urgent need to select and adopt a standardized toolbox for fractal analysis and complexity measures in Earth Sciences. We propose to use the second-order (meta-) statistics as subtle measures of complexity (Atmanspacher et al., 1997). The high degree of correlation was documented between the fractal and high-order statistical descriptors (four central moments of stochastic variable distribution) used to the system heterogeneity and variability analysis. We proposed to call this combined fractal/statistical toolbox Metastatistical Analysis and recommend it to the projects directed to soil degradation monitoring. References: 1. Oleschko, K., B.S. Figueroa, M.E. Miranda, M.A. Vuelvas and E.R. Solleiro, Soil & Till. Res. 55, 43 (2000). 2. Oleschko, K., Korvin, G., Figueroa S. B., Vuelvas, M.A., Balankin, A., Flores L., Carreño, D. Fractal radar scattering from soil. Physical Review E.67, 041403, 2003. 3. Zamora-Castro S., Oleschko, K. Flores, L., Ventura, E. Jr., Parrot, J.-F., 2008. Fractal mapping of pore and solids attributes. Vadose Zone Journal, v. 7, Issue2: 473-492. 4. Oleschko, K., Korvin, G., Muñoz, A., Velásquez, J., Miranda, M.E., Carreon, D., Flores, L., Martínez, M., Velásquez-Valle, M., Brambilla, F., Parrot, J.-F. Ronquillo, G., 2008. Fractal mapping of soil moisture content from remote sensed multi-scale data. Nonlinear Proceses in Geophysics Journal, 15: 711-725. 5. Atmanspacher, H., Räth, Ch., Wiedenmann, G., 1997. Statistics and meta-statistics in the concept of complexity. Physica A, 234: 819-829.

Oleschko, K.; Gaona, C.; Tarquis, A.

2009-04-01

231

137Cs re-sampling as a method for soil erosion assessment in Alpine grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decades, radioactive fallout 137Cs has been used as a tracer to provide information on soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, the method may produce relatively large uncertainties in Alpine grasslands. The latter difficulties are caused by a combination of (i) the heterogeneous distribution of atmospheric 137Cs Chernobyl fallout, (ii) the partly snow covered ground in Alpine areas during the fallout event in April 1986, which results in inhomogeneous 137Cs distribution during snow melt and (iii) uncertainties in finding undisturbed references sites in the geomorphological and anthropogenic highly active slopes of the Alps. To overcome these difficulties, our aim is to replace the classical 137Cs approach, where an undisturbed reference site is compared to erosional sites, with a re-sampling approach, where we re-sample sites which have already been measured for 137Cs inventories in the past. Thus, we use temporal instead of spatial reference. The study area is located in the Central Swiss Alps in the Urseren Valley. Potential erosional sites have been sampled in 2007 and re-sampled in 2012. Two different grassland types were investigated: hayfield (2 sites) and pasture without dwarf shrubs (3 sites). For each site, 4 to 9 sampling points have been defined, and at each point two soil samples have been collected. To reduce the random error, the two soil samples were bulked prior to gamma-analysis. 137Cs inventories of the two sampling years were calculated and used to assess recent soil erosion in the experimental sites. Our results show that within the 5 years measurable soil erosion and deposition processes have occurred within the sites, as indicated by the relevant difference between the 137Cs inventories of 2007 and 2012. 64% of the sites exhibit a decrease in 137Cs inventories, 20% of the sites an increase, and the remaining 16% no significant difference. In particular, hayfield sites have been affected by erosion processes, mostly due to high snow glide and avalanche dynamic, whereas pasture inventories indicate both deposition and erosion. Resulting re-sampling erosion rates for the period of 2007-2012 indicate high erosion rates of >20 t ha-1 yr-1, which confirm previous studies. The 137Cs re-sampling method has also been successfully tested to verify the appropriateness of reference sites. Reference sites in the study area, defined and sampled in 2010, have been re-sampled in 2013. Sites which did not show a considerable difference in 137Cs inventories, may subsequently be used to apply the classical 137Cs approach. The 137Cs re-sampling approach represents an effective and reliable method to assess short term erosion in Alpine grasslands, and a useful addition for the 137Cs classical approach, in validating the suitability of reference sites.

Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bissig, Nicole; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

2014-05-01

232

Soil and waste analysis for environmental risk assessment in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

In France today, analysis of soil and waste after digestion by strong acids is a technique used for the estimation of environmental risks due to soil pollution and spreading of wastes on cultivated soils. The technique of digestion by strong acid accounts for total or ‘near total’ content of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn. Risk

T. Sterckeman; A. Gomez; H. Ciesielski

1996-01-01

233

FIELD SAMPLING PROTOCOLS AND ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

I have been asked to speak again to the environmental science class regarding actual research scenarios related to my work at Kerr Lab. I plan to discuss sampling protocols along with various field analyses performed during sampling activities. Many of the students have never see...

234

Sampling Issues in Bibliometric Analysis  

E-print Network

Bibliometricians face several issues when drawing and analyzing samples of citation records for their research. Drawing samples that are too small may make it difficult or impossible for studies to achieve their goals, while drawing samples that are too large may drain resources that could be better used for other purposes. This paper considers three common situations and offers advice for dealing with each. First, an entire population of records is available for an institution. We argue that, even though all records have been collected, the use of inferential statistics and significance testing is both common and desirable. Second, because of limited resources or other factors, a sample of records needs to be drawn. We demonstrate how power analyses can be used to determine in advance how large the sample needs to be to achieve the study's goals. Third, the sample size may already be determined, either because the data have already been collected or because resources are limited. We show how power analyses c...

Williams, Richard

2014-01-01

235

Quantitative Field Testing Heterodera glycines from Metagenomic DNA Samples Isolated Directly from Soil under Agronomic Production  

PubMed Central

A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the Heterodera glycines ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated-78 gene was developed. The procedure estimated the quantity of H. glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from field soil under agronomic production. The estimation of H. glycines quantity was determined in soil samples having other soil dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including Hoplolaimus, predatory nematodes including Mononchus, free-living nematodes and biomass. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from field soil. PMID:24587100

Li, Yan; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

2014-01-01

236

A rapid gas chromatography technique for measuring respiration rates in incubated soil samples and pure cultures of soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid gas chromatography technique is described for determining CO2 evolution and O2 consumption in incubated soil samples and pure cultures of soil microorganisms. Both CO2 and O2 were quantitatively detected with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). Carbon dioxide was analyzed on a chromosorb 102 column, and O2 on a molecular sieve 5A column. Respiration rates can be easily obtained

J. T. Trevors

1983-01-01

237

Sample processor for chemical analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is provided which can process numerous samples that must be chemically analyzed by the application of fluids such as liquid reagents, solvents and purge gases, as well as the application of dumps for receiving the applied fluid after they pass across the sample, in a manner that permits numerous samples to be processed in a relatively short time and with minimal manpower. The processor includes a rotor which can hold numerous cartridges containing inert or adsorbent material for holding samples, and a pair of stators on opposite sides of the rotor. The stators form stations spaced along the path of the cartridges which lie in the rotor, and each station can include an aperture in one stator through which a fluid can be applied to a cartridge resting at that station, and an aperture in the other stator which can receive the fluid which has passed through the cartridge. The stators are sealed to the ends of the cartridges lying on the rotor, to thereby isolate the stations from one another.

Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor)

1980-01-01

238

Selenium speciation in acidic environmental samples: application to acid rain-soil interaction at Mount Etna volcano.  

PubMed

Speciation plays a crucial role in elemental mobility. However, trace level selenium (Se) speciation analyses in aqueous samples from acidic environments are hampered due to adsorption of the analytes (i.e. selenate, selenite) on precipitates. Such solid phases can form during pH adaptation up till now necessary for chromatographic separation. Thermodynamic calculations in this study predicted that a pH<4 is needed to prevent precipitation of Al and Fe phases. Therefore, a speciation method with a low pH eluent that matches the natural sample pH of acid rain-soil interaction samples from Etna volcano was developed. With a mobile phase containing 20mM ammonium citrate at pH 3, selenate and selenite could be separated in different acidic media (spiked water, rain, soil leachates) in <10 min with a LOQ of 0.2 ?g L(-1) using (78)Se for detection. Applying this speciation analysis to study acid rain-soil interaction using synthetic rain based on H(2)SO(4) and soil samples collected at the flanks of Etna volcano demonstrated the dominance of selenate over selenite in leachates from samples collected close to the volcanic craters. This suggests that competitive behavior with sulfate present in acid rain might be a key factor in Se mobilization. The developed speciation method can significantly contribute to understand Se cycling in acidic, Al/Fe rich environments. PMID:21621241

Floor, Geerke H; Iglesías, Mònica; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Corvini, Philippe F X; Lenz, Markus

2011-09-01

239

Shrinkage anisotropy characteristics from soil structure and initial sample/layer size  

E-print Network

The objective of this work is a physical prediction of such soil shrinkage anisotropy characteristics as variation with drying of (i) different sample/layer sizes and (ii) the shrinkage geometry factor. With that, a new presentation of the shrinkage anisotropy concept is suggested through the sample/layer size ratios. The work objective is reached in two steps. First, the relations are derived between the indicated soil shrinkage anisotropy characteristics and three different shrinkage curves of a soil relating to: small samples (without cracking at shrinkage), sufficiently large samples (with internal cracking), and layers of similar thickness. Then, the results of a recent work with respect to the physical prediction of the three shrinkage curves are used. These results connect the shrinkage curves with the initial sample size/layer thickness as well as characteristics of soil texture and structure (both inter- and intra-aggregate) as physical parameters. The parameters determining the reference shrinkage c...

Chertkov, V Y

2014-01-01

240

Characterization of Microbial Consortia in Paddy Rice Soil by Phospholipid Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial biomass and community structure in paddy rice soil during the vegetation period of rice were estimated by analysis\\u000a of their phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), hydroxy fatty acids of lipopolysaccharides (LPS-HYFA), and phospholipid ether lipids\\u000a (PLEL) directly extracted from the soil. A clear change in the composition of the community structure at different sampling\\u000a periods was observed, indicated by the

Q. Bai; A. Gattinger; L. Zelles

2000-01-01

241

Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This database was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical data from central Colorado in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessment, and medical geology. The Microsoft Access database serves as a geochemical data warehouse in support of the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 70 analytical laboratory and field methods for 47,478 rock, sediment, soil, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of the USGS or by contract with commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects. In addition, geochemical data from 7,470 sediment and soil samples collected and analyzed under the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (henceforth called NURE) have been included in this database. In addition to data from 2,377 samples collected and analyzed under CCAP, this dataset includes archived geochemical data originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database (used by the USGS from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s) and the in-house PLUTO database (used by the USGS from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s). All of these data are maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB and from the NURE database were used to generate most of this dataset. In addition, USGS data that have been excluded previously from the NGDB because the data predate earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons, have been included in the CCAP Geochemical Database and are planned to be added to the NGDB.

Granitto, Matthew; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

2010-01-01

242

Somatic mutation frequencies in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia grown in soil samples from the Bikini Island.  

PubMed

Somatic pink mutation frequencies in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia BNL 02 clone grown for 76 days in two soil samples taken from the Bikini Island (where a hydrogen bomb explosion test had been conducted in 1954) were investigated. A significantly high mutation frequency (2.58 +/- 0.17 pink mutant events per 10(3) hairs or 1.34 +/- 0.09 pink mutant events per 10(4) hair-cell divisions) was observed for the plant grown in one of the two Bikini soil samples, as compared to the control plants (1.70 +/- 0.14 or 0.88 +/- 0.07, respectively) grown in the field soil of Saitama University. The soil sample which caused the significant increase in mutation frequency contained 6,880 +/- 330 mBq/g 137Cs, 62.5 +/- 4.4 mBq/g 60Co, and some other nuclides; a 150 microR/hr exposure rate being measured on the surface of the soil sample. The effective cumulative external exposures measured for the inflorescences of the plant grown in this soil sample averaged at most 60.8 mR, being too small to explain the significant elevation in mutation frequency observed. On the other hand, internal exposure due to uptake of radioactive nuclides was estimated to be 125 mrad (1.25 mGy) as an accumulated effective dose, mainly based on a gamma-spectrometrical analysis. However, it seemed highly likely that this value of internal exposure was a considerable underestimate, and the internal exposure was considered to be more significant than the external exposure. PMID:2064800

Ichikawa, S; Ishii, C

1991-02-01

243

Conceptual designs for in situ analysis of Mars soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A goal of this research is to develop conceptual designs for instrumentation to perform in situ measurements of the Martian soil in order to determine the existence and nature of any reactive chemicals. Our approach involves assessment and critical review of the Viking biology results which indicated the presence of a soil oxidant, an investigation of the possible application of standard soil science techniques to the analysis of Martian soil, and a preliminary consideration of non-standard methods that may be necessary for use in the highly oxidizing Martian soil. Based on our preliminary analysis, we have developed strawman concepts for standard soil analysis on Mars, including pH, suitable for use on a Mars rover mission. In addition, we have devised a method for the determination of the possible strong oxidants on Mars.

Mckay, C. P.; Zent, A. P.; Hartman, H.

1991-01-01

244

Analysis of acoustic emission in cohesionless soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic emission is a widely used nondestructive technique for identification of structural damage. The AE technique relies on transient energy waves generated by the materials during their failure. As for soils, the basic causes of acoustic emission are the mechanisms which are responsible for shearing of soils. Mobilization of shear strength within a soil itself and the interaction of the

Jeyisanker Mathiyaparanam

2006-01-01

245

SoilEngineering: A Microsoft Excel ® spreadsheet © program for geotechnical and geophysical analysis of soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

SoilEngineering is a user-friendly, interactive Microsoft Excel® spreadsheet program for the geotechnical and geophysical analysis of soils. The influence of soil behavior on earthquake characteristics and\\/or structural design is one of the major elements in investigating earthquake forces, and thus the structural response with static and dynamic loads. With its interactive nature, the program provides the user with an opportunity

Ferhat Ozcep

2010-01-01

246

Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

G. L. Schwendiman

2006-07-27

247

EPA COMPARES THREE SOIL-GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS FOR VAPOR INTRUSION INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This newsletter article summarizes the finding of "U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Comparison of Geoprobe PRT, AMS GVP Soil-Gas Sampling Systems with Dedicated Vapor Probes in Sandy Soils at the Raymark Superfund Site, EPA/600/R-06/11, November 2006. " ...

248

High productivity analysis of 15 N and 13 C in soil\\/plant research  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line sample preparation and analysis enables faster testing of hypotheses in biological research, particularly in field experiments where many samples must be processed to integrate spatial variability. Soil scientists were first to recognise the need for a fast, easy-to-use15N analyser to replace the isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) and Kjeldahl-Rittenberg sample preparation. Development has since led to a variety of

A. Barrie; S. T. Brookes; S. J. Prosser; S. Debney

1995-01-01

249

A meta-analysis of the publicly available bacterial and archaeal sequence diversity in saline soils.  

PubMed

An integrated view of bacterial and archaeal diversity in saline soil habitats is essential for understanding the biological and ecological processes and exploiting potential of microbial resources from such environments. This study examined the collective bacterial and archaeal diversity in saline soils using a meta-analysis approach. All available 16S rDNA sequences recovered from saline soils were retrieved from publicly available databases and subjected to phylogenetic and statistical analyses. A total of 9,043 bacterial and 1,039 archaeal sequences, each longer than 250 bp, were examined. The bacterial sequences were assigned into 5,784 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, based on ?97 % sequence identity), representing 24 known bacterial phyla, with Proteobacteria (44.9 %), Actinobacteria (12.3 %), Firmicutes (10.4 %), Acidobacteria (9.0 %), Bacteroidetes (6.8 %), and Chloroflexi (5.9 %) being predominant. Lysobacter (12.8 %) was the dominant bacterial genus in saline soils, followed by Sphingomonas (4.5 %), Halomonas (2.5 %), and Gemmatimonas (2.5 %). Archaeal sequences were assigned to 602 OTUs, primarily from the phyla Euryarchaeota (88.7 %) and Crenarchaeota (11.3 %). Halorubrum and Thermofilum were the dominant archaeal genera in saline soils. Rarefaction analysis indicated that less than 25 % of bacterial diversity, and approximately 50 % of archaeal diversity, in saline soil habitats has been sampled. This analysis of the global bacterial and archaeal diversity in saline soil habitats can guide future studies to further examine the microbial diversity of saline soils. PMID:23756871

Ma, Bin; Gong, Jun

2013-12-01

250

Situ soil sampling probe system with heated transfer line  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed both to an improved in situ penetrometer probe and to a heated, flexible transfer line. The line and probe may be implemented together in a penetrometer system in which the transfer line is used to connect the probe to a collector/analyzer at the surface. The probe comprises a heater that controls a temperature of a geologic medium surrounding the probe. At least one carrier gas port and vapor collection port are located on an external side wall of the probe. The carrier gas port provides a carrier gas into the geologic medium, and the collection port captures vapors from the geologic medium for analysis. In the transfer line, a flexible collection line that conveys a collected fluid, i.e., vapor, sample to a collector/analyzer. A flexible carrier gas line conveys a carrier gas to facilitate the collection of the sample. A system heating the collection line is also provided. Preferably the collection line is electrically conductive so that an electrical power source can generate a current through it so that the internal resistance generates heat.

Robbat, Jr., Albert (Andover, MA)

2002-01-01

251

Spatial distributions and seasonal variations of organochlorine pesticides in water and soil samples in Bolu, Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, a total of 75 water samples (38 groundwater and 37 surface water samples) and 54 surface soil samples were collected from the five districts of Bolu, which is located in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey in the summer season of 2009. In the autumn season, 17 water samples (surface water and groundwater samples) and 17 soil samples were collected within the city center to observe the seasonal changes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Groundwater and surface water samples were extracted using solid phase extraction. Soil samples were extracted ultrasonically. Sixteen OCP compounds in the standard solution were detected by a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Therefore, the method validation was performed for those 16 OCP compounds. However, 13 OCP compounds could be observed in the samples. The concentrations of most OCPs were higher in samples collected in the summer than those in the autumn. The most frequently observed pesticides were endosulfan sulfate and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in groundwater samples, ?-HCH in surface water samples, and endosulfan sulfate in soil samples. The average concentration of endosulfan sulfate was the highest in water and soil samples. Compared to the literature values, the average concentrations in this study were lower values. Spatial distribution of OCPs was evaluated with the aid of contour maps for the five districts of Bolu. Generally, agricultural processes affected the water and soil quality in the region. However, non-agricultural areas were also affected by pesticides. The concentrations of pesticides were below the legal limits of European directives for each pesticide. PMID:25663404

Karadeniz, Hatice; Yenisoy-Karaka?, Serpil

2015-03-01

252

Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary  

SciTech Connect

A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

1981-07-23

253

Sampling protocol recommendations for measuring soil organic carbon stocks in the tropics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the tropics, there is an urgent need for cost effective sampling approaches to quantify soil organic carbon (SOC) changes associated with land-use change given the lack of reliable data. The tropics are especially important considering the high deforestation rates, the huge belowground carbon pool and the fast soil carbon turnover rates. In the framework of a pan-tropic (Peru, Cameroon and Indonesia) land-use change study, some highly relevant recommendations on the SOC stocks sampling approaches have emerged. In this study, where we focused on deeply weathered mineral soils, we quantified changes in SOC stock following land-use change (deforestation and subsequent establishment of other land-uses). We used a space-for-time substitution sampling approach, measured SOC stocks in the top three meters of soil and compared recently converted land-uses with adjacent reference forest plots. In each respective region we investigated the most predominant land-use trajectories. In total 157 plots were established across the three countries, where soil samples were taken to a depth of three meters from a central soil pit and from the topsoil (to 0.5m) from 12 pooled composite samples. Finding 1 - soil depth: despite the fact that the majority of SOC stock from the three meter profile is found below one meter depth (50 to 60 percent of total SOC stock), the significant changes in SOC were only measured in the top meter of soil, while the subsoil carbon stock remained relatively unchanged by the land-use conversion. The only exception was for older (>50 yrs) cacao plantations in Cameroon where significant decreases were found below one meter. Finding 2 - pooled composite samples taken across the plot provided more spatially representative estimates of SOC stocks than samples taken from the central soil pit.

van Straaten, Oliver; Veldkamp, Edzo; Corre, Marife D.

2013-04-01

254

Statistical Analysis Techniques for Small Sample Sizes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The small sample sizes problem which is encountered when dealing with analysis of space-flight data is examined. Because of such a amount of data available, careful analyses are essential to extract the maximum amount of information with acceptable accuracy. Statistical analysis of small samples is described. The background material necessary for understanding statistical hypothesis testing is outlined and the various tests which can be done on small samples are explained. Emphasis is on the underlying assumptions of each test and on considerations needed to choose the most appropriate test for a given type of analysis.

Navard, S. E.

1984-01-01

255

Microbial colonisation in diverse surface soil types in Surtsey and diversity analysis of its subsurface microbiota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colonisation of life on Surtsey has been observed systematically since the formation of the island 50 years ago. Although the first colonisers were prokaryotes, such as bacteria and blue-green algae, most studies have been focusing on settlement of plants and animals but less on microbial succession. To explore microbial colonization in diverse soils and the influence of associate vegetation and birds on numbers of environmental bacteria, we collected 45 samples from different soils types on the surface of the island. Total viable bacterial counts were performed with plate count at 22, 30 and 37 °C for all soils samples and the amount of organic matter and nitrogen (N) was measured. Selected samples were also tested for coliforms, faecal coliforms aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The deep subsurface biosphere was investigated by collecting liquid subsurface samples from a 182 m borehole with a special sampler. Diversity analysis of uncultivated biota in samples was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis and cultivation. Correlation was observed between N deficits and the number of microorganisms in surface soils samples. The lowest number of bacteria (1 × 104-1 × 105 g-1) was detected in almost pure pumice but the count was significant higher (1 × 106-1 × 109 g-1) in vegetated soil or pumice with bird droppings. The number of faecal bacteria correlated also to the total number of bacteria and type of soil. Bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae were only detected in vegetated and samples containing bird droppings. The human pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria were not in any sample. Both thermophilic bacteria and archaea 16S rDNA sequences were found in the subsurface samples collected at 145 m and 172 m depth at 80 °C and 54 °C, respectively, but no growth was observed in enrichments. The microbiota sequences generally showed low affiliation to any known 16S rRNA gene sequences.

Marteinsson, V.; Klonowski, A.; Reynisson, E.; Vannier, P.; Sigurdsson, B. D.; Ólafsson, M.

2014-09-01

256

Integrating legacy soil information in a Digital Soil Mapping approach based on a modified conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One crucial component of a Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) framework is outlined by geo-referenced soil observations. Nevertheless, highly informative legacy soil information, acquired by traditional soil surveys, is often neglected due to lacking accordance with specific statistical DSM designs. The focus of this study is to integrate legacy data into a state-of-the-art DSM approach, based on a modified conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) design and Random Forest. Furthermore, by means of the cLHS modification the scope of actually unique cLHS sampling locations is widened in order to compensate limited accessability in the field. As well, the maximally stratified cLHS design is not diluted by the modification. Exemplarily the target variables of the modelling are represented by sand and clay fractions. The study site is a small mountainous hydrological catchment of 4.2 km² in the reservoir of the Three Gorges Dam in Central China. The modification is accomplished by demarcating the histogram borders of each cLHS stratum, which are based on the multivariate cLHS feature space. Thereby, all potential sample locations per stratum are identified. This provides a possibility to integrate legacy data samples that match one of the newly created sample locations, and flexibility with respect to field accessibility. Consequently, six legacy data samples, taken from a total sample size of n = 30 were integrated into the sampling design and for all strata several potential sample locations are identified. The comparability of the modified and standard cLHS data sets is approved by (i) identifying their feature space coverage with respect to the cLHS stratifying variables, and (ii) by assessing the Random Forest accuracy estimates.

Stumpf, Felix; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Schoenbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Scholten, Thomas

2014-05-01

257

APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE FOR SAMPLING SOIL PROFILES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A conventional soil-solution sampler was modified to prevent loss of volatiles, which tend to escape from the liquid sample during sample collection. The sampler is connected to a purging chamber, which is in turn connected to a trap packed with Tenax resin. The sample is collect...

258

EVALUATION OF VAPOR EQUILIBRATION AND IMPACT OF PURGE VOLUME ON SOIL-GAS SAMPLING RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sequential sampling was utilized at the Raymark Superfund site to evaluate attainment of vapor equilibration and the impact of purge volume on soil-gas sample results. A simple mass-balance equation indicates that removal of three to five internal volumes of a sample system shou...

259

MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

260

A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils is described. Samples can be obtained within a stratigraphic interval of 2-3 cm, to a depth of 60-80 cm, and with little or no contamination of the samples by sediment or air. ?? 1974.

Nowlan, G.A.; Carollo, C.

1974-01-01

261

Organic vs. Conventional Grassland Management: Do 15N and 13C Isotopic Signatures of Hay and Soil Samples Differ?  

PubMed Central

Distinguishing organic and conventional products is a major issue of food security and authenticity. Previous studies successfully used stable isotopes to separate organic and conventional products, but up to now, this approach was not tested for organic grassland hay and soil. Moreover, isotopic abundances could be a powerful tool to elucidate differences in ecosystem functioning and driving mechanisms of element cycling in organic and conventional management systems. Here, we studied the ?15N and ?13C isotopic composition of soil and hay samples of 21 organic and 34 conventional grasslands in two German regions. We also used ??15N (?15N plant - ?15N soil) to characterize nitrogen dynamics. In order to detect temporal trends, isotopic abundances in organic grasslands were related to the time since certification. Furthermore, discriminant analysis was used to test whether the respective management type can be deduced from observed isotopic abundances. Isotopic analyses revealed no significant differences in ?13C in hay and ?15N in both soil and hay between management types, but showed that ?13C abundances were significantly lower in soil of organic compared to conventional grasslands. ??15N values implied that management types did not substantially differ in nitrogen cycling. Only ?13C in soil and hay showed significant negative relationships with the time since certification. Thus, our result suggest that organic grasslands suffered less from drought stress compared to conventional grasslands most likely due to a benefit of higher plant species richness, as previously shown by manipulative biodiversity experiments. Finally, it was possible to correctly classify about two third of the samples according to their management using isotopic abundances in soil and hay. However, as more than half of the organic samples were incorrectly classified, we infer that more research is needed to improve this approach before it can be efficiently used in practice. PMID:24205126

Klaus, Valentin H.; Hölzel, Norbert; Prati, Daniel; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Fischer, Markus; Kleinebecker, Till

2013-01-01

262

Organic vs. conventional grassland management: do (15)N and (13)C isotopic signatures of hay and soil samples differ?  

PubMed

Distinguishing organic and conventional products is a major issue of food security and authenticity. Previous studies successfully used stable isotopes to separate organic and conventional products, but up to now, this approach was not tested for organic grassland hay and soil. Moreover, isotopic abundances could be a powerful tool to elucidate differences in ecosystem functioning and driving mechanisms of element cycling in organic and conventional management systems. Here, we studied the ?(15)N and ?(13)C isotopic composition of soil and hay samples of 21 organic and 34 conventional grasslands in two German regions. We also used ??(15)N (?(15)N plant - ?(15)N soil) to characterize nitrogen dynamics. In order to detect temporal trends, isotopic abundances in organic grasslands were related to the time since certification. Furthermore, discriminant analysis was used to test whether the respective management type can be deduced from observed isotopic abundances. Isotopic analyses revealed no significant differences in ?(13)C in hay and ?(15)N in both soil and hay between management types, but showed that ?(13)C abundances were significantly lower in soil of organic compared to conventional grasslands. ??(15)N values implied that management types did not substantially differ in nitrogen cycling. Only ?(13)C in soil and hay showed significant negative relationships with the time since certification. Thus, our result suggest that organic grasslands suffered less from drought stress compared to conventional grasslands most likely due to a benefit of higher plant species richness, as previously shown by manipulative biodiversity experiments. Finally, it was possible to correctly classify about two third of the samples according to their management using isotopic abundances in soil and hay. However, as more than half of the organic samples were incorrectly classified, we infer that more research is needed to improve this approach before it can be efficiently used in practice. PMID:24205126

Klaus, Valentin H; Hölzel, Norbert; Prati, Daniel; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Fischer, Markus; Kleinebecker, Till

2013-01-01

263

MICROBIOLOGICAL FIELD SAMPLING AND INSTRUMENTATION IN THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AND GROUND-WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter emphasizes the importance of microbiological sampling of soil and ground water with respect to human heath risks, laws and regulations dealing with safe drinking water, and more prevalent subsurface monitoring activities associated with chlorinated organic compounds,...

264

Distribution of Uranium, Plutonium, and Am-241 in Soil Samples from Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The uranium isotopic composition of the soils from the Idaho National Laboratory at two sample sites and depths is compared to previously measured total concentrations of 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 241Am.

Choiniere, Andrea D.; Payne, Rosara F.; Knaack, Charles M.; Smith, Steven C.; Clark, Sue B.

2009-12-01

265

NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--ANALYSIS OF SOIL FOR ARSENIC (RTI/ACS-AP-209-123)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this protocol is to provide guidelines for the analysis of soil samples for arsenic. This method involves the extraction of the analyte from soil samples using a 50% ultra-pure nitric acid, and subsequent analysis by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrome...

266

Continuum soil modeling in the static analysis of buried structures  

SciTech Connect

Soil loading traditionally has been modeled as a hydrostatic pressure, a practice acceptable for many design applications. In the analyses of buried structure with predictive goals, soil compliance and load redistribution in the presence of soil plasticity are important factors to consider in determining the appropriate response of the structure. In the analysis of existing buried waste-storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, three soil-tank interaction modeling considerations are addressed. First, the soil interacts with the tank as the tank expands and contracts during thermal cycles associated with changes in the heat generated by the waste material as a result of additions and subtractions of the waste. Second, the soil transfers loads from the surface to the tank and provides support by resisting radial displacement of the tank haunch. Third, conventional finite-element mesh development causes artificial stress concentrations in the soil associated with differential settlement.

Julyk, L.J.; Marlow, R.S.; Moore, C.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Day, J.P.; Dyrness, A.D. [Advent Engineering Services, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)

1993-10-01

267

Radioactivity Levels and Gamma-Ray Dose Rate in Soil Samples from Kohistan (Pakistan) Using Gamma-Ray Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and an anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs is carried out in some soil samples collected from Kohistan district of N.W.F.P. (Pakistan), using gamma-ray spectrometry. The gamma spectrometry is operated using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector coupled with a computer based high resolution multi channel analyzer. The specific activity in soil ranges from 24.72 to 78.48Bq·kg-1 for 226Ra, 21.73 to 75.28Bq·kg-1 for 232Th, 7.06 to 14.9Bq·kg-1 for 137Cs and 298.46 to 570.77Bq·kg-1 for 40K with the mean values of 42.11, 43.27, 9.5 and 418.27Bq·kg-1, respectively. The radium equivalent activity in all the soil samples is lower than the safe limit set in the OECD report (370Bq·kg-1). Man-made radionuclide 137Cs is also present in detectable amount in all soil samples. Presence of 137Cs indicates that the samples in this remote area also receive some fallout from nuclear accident in Chernobyl power plant in 1986. The internal and external hazard indices have the mean values of 0.48 and 0.37 respectively. Absorbed dose rates and effective dose equivalents are also determined for the samples. The concentration of radionuclides found in the soil samples during the present study is nominal and does not pose any potential health hazard to the general public.

Hasan, M. Khan; Ismail, M.; K., Khan; Akhter, P.

2011-01-01

268

Spatial Variation in Soil Properties among North American Ecosystems and Guidelines for Sampling Designs  

PubMed Central

Soils are highly variable at many spatial scales, which makes designing studies to accurately estimate the mean value of soil properties across space challenging. The spatial correlation structure is critical to develop robust sampling strategies (e.g., sample size and sample spacing). Current guidelines for designing studies recommend conducting preliminary investigation(s) to characterize this structure, but are rarely followed and sampling designs are often defined by logistics rather than quantitative considerations. The spatial variability of soils was assessed across ?1 ha at 60 sites. Sites were chosen to represent key US ecosystems as part of a scaling strategy deployed by the National Ecological Observatory Network. We measured soil temperature (Ts) and water content (SWC) because these properties mediate biological/biogeochemical processes below- and above-ground, and quantified spatial variability using semivariograms to estimate spatial correlation. We developed quantitative guidelines to inform sample size and sample spacing for future soil studies, e.g., 20 samples were sufficient to measure Ts to within 10% of the mean with 90% confidence at every temperate and sub-tropical site during the growing season, whereas an order of magnitude more samples were needed to meet this accuracy at some high-latitude sites. SWC was significantly more variable than Ts at most sites, resulting in at least 10× more SWC samples needed to meet the same accuracy requirement. Previous studies investigated the relationship between the mean and variability (i.e., sill) of SWC across space at individual sites across time and have often (but not always) observed the variance or standard deviation peaking at intermediate values of SWC and decreasing at low and high SWC. Finally, we quantified how far apart samples must be spaced to be statistically independent. Semivariance structures from 10 of the 12-dominant soil orders across the US were estimated, advancing our continental-scale understanding of soil behavior. PMID:24465377

Loescher, Henry; Ayres, Edward; Duffy, Paul; Luo, Hongyan; Brunke, Max

2014-01-01

269

Spatial variation in soil properties among North American ecosystems and guidelines for sampling designs.  

PubMed

Soils are highly variable at many spatial scales, which makes designing studies to accurately estimate the mean value of soil properties across space challenging. The spatial correlation structure is critical to develop robust sampling strategies (e.g., sample size and sample spacing). Current guidelines for designing studies recommend conducting preliminary investigation(s) to characterize this structure, but are rarely followed and sampling designs are often defined by logistics rather than quantitative considerations. The spatial variability of soils was assessed across ?1 ha at 60 sites. Sites were chosen to represent key US ecosystems as part of a scaling strategy deployed by the National Ecological Observatory Network. We measured soil temperature (Ts) and water content (SWC) because these properties mediate biological/biogeochemical processes below- and above-ground, and quantified spatial variability using semivariograms to estimate spatial correlation. We developed quantitative guidelines to inform sample size and sample spacing for future soil studies, e.g., 20 samples were sufficient to measure Ts to within 10% of the mean with 90% confidence at every temperate and sub-tropical site during the growing season, whereas an order of magnitude more samples were needed to meet this accuracy at some high-latitude sites. SWC was significantly more variable than Ts at most sites, resulting in at least 10× more SWC samples needed to meet the same accuracy requirement. Previous studies investigated the relationship between the mean and variability (i.e., sill) of SWC across space at individual sites across time and have often (but not always) observed the variance or standard deviation peaking at intermediate values of SWC and decreasing at low and high SWC. Finally, we quantified how far apart samples must be spaced to be statistically independent. Semivariance structures from 10 of the 12-dominant soil orders across the US were estimated, advancing our continental-scale understanding of soil behavior. PMID:24465377

Loescher, Henry; Ayres, Edward; Duffy, Paul; Luo, Hongyan; Brunke, Max

2014-01-01

270

Drive tube 60009 - A chemical study of magnetic separates of size fractions from five strata. [lunar soil analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each bulk soil and both the magnetic and nonmagnetic components of the 90-150 micron and below 20 micron fractions of five soils from drive tube 60009 were analyzed. Samples were analyzed for FeO, Na2O, Sc, Cr, Co, Ni, Hf, Ta, Th, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Lu by neutron activation analysis. Several samples were fused and analyzed for major elements by electron microprobe analysis. Compositional variations are not systematically related to depth. The compositions of the five soils studied are well explained by a two-component mixing model whose end members are a submature Apollo 16-type soil and an extremely immature anorthositic material similar to 60025. There is evidence that the anorthositic component had received a small amount of exposure before these soils were mixed. After mixing, the soils received little exposure suggesting mixing and deposition on a rapid time scale.

Blanchard, D. P.; Jacobs, J. W.; Brannon, J. C.; Brown, R. W.

1976-01-01

271

Protein Sample Preparation and Analysis Application Manual  

E-print Network

Protein Sample Preparation and Analysis Application Manual Technical Guide #12;Pall is the world and smart collaborations. Pall Life Sciences partners with our customers in the search for solutions to real-world

Lebendiker, Mario

272

Experimental analysis of municipal solid waste samples  

E-print Network

In the analysis of municipal solid waste consolidation, large-scale devices are usually used to measure the compression and hydraulic conductivity parameters. The use of those devices is justified due to difficulties in probing undisturbed samples...

Mendoza Sanchez, Itza

2002-01-01

273

ASSAY FOR FLUORESCEIN DIACETATE HYDROLYTIC ACTIVITY: OPTIMIZATION FOR SOIL SAMPLES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the increased interest in integrated soil bioecosystem studies, there has been a need to have a method of measuring overall microbial activity potential. Hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (3',6'-diacetylfluorescein [FDA]) has been suggested as a possible method because the ubiquitous lipase, ...

274

An Improved Method for Soil Sampling at Small Increments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Measurement of soil bulk density and volumetric water content in small depth increments is a tedious and time-consuming task, but very important in many research applications. We designed an electric sampler to improve accuracy and decrease labor requirements. The new method works even in loose, dry...

275

DDT and HCH isomer levels in soils, carrot root and carrot leaf samples.  

PubMed

Agricultural cultivation assists organochlorine pesticide migration from contaminated soils to growing plants. This phenomenon is caused by retention processes that modify volatile pesticide exchange between soil, air and plants. The aim of the study was to monitor organochlorine pesticide (HCB, alpha- and gamma-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT, pp'DDT) levels and compare these concentrations in soil, carrot roots and carrot leaves. Fifty soil samples, 50 carrot root and 50 carrot leaf samples were taken from the same fields and analyzed by GLC-ECD. The results reveal organochlorine pesticide diffusion from agricultural soils to growing carrot plants and their vapors adsorption by leaves. Within the carrot plant, organochlorine pesticides accumulate especially in carrot root peel, 3-7 times more than in root flesh. PMID:18626561

Waliszewski, S M; Carvajal, O; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Amador-Muñoz, O; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Hayward-Jones, P M; Valencia-Quintana, R

2008-10-01

276

Gene expression analysis reveals a gene set discriminatory to different metals in soil.  

PubMed

Environmental pollution is a worldwide problem, and metals are the largest group of contaminants in soil. Microarray toxicogenomic studies with ecologically relevant organisms, such as springtails, supplement traditional ecotoxicological research but are presently rather descriptive. Classifier analysis, a more analytical application of the microarray technique, is able to predict biological classes of unknown samples. We used the uncorrelated shrunken centroid method to classify gene expression profiles of the springtail Folsomia candida exposed to soil spiked with six different metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, lead, and zinc). We identified a gene set (classifier) of 188 genes that can discriminate between six different metals present in soil, which allowed us to predict the correct classes for samples of an independent test set with an accuracy of 83% (error rate = 0.17). This study shows further that in order to apply classifier analysis to actual contaminated field soil samples, more insight and information is needed on the transcriptional responses of soil organisms to different soil types (properties) and mixtures of contaminants. PMID:20133373

Nota, Benjamin; Verweij, Rudo A; Molenaar, Douwe; Ylstra, Bauke; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick

2010-05-01

277

Methyl tert -butyl ether biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from soil samples of gasoline-polluted sites in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial consortia obtained from soil samples of gasoline-polluted sites were individually enriched with pentane, hexane, isooctane and toluene. Cometabolism with methyl tert-butyl ether, (MTBE), gave maximum degradation rates of 49, 12, 32 and 0 mg gprotein-1 h-1, respectively. MTBE was fully degraded even when pentane was completely depleted with a cometabolic coefficient of 1 mgMTBE mgpentane-1. The analysis of 16S rDNA from isolated microorganisms in

Marcia Morales; Elia Velázquez; Janet Jan; Sergio Revah; Uriel González; Elías Razo-Flores

2004-01-01

278

Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metal concentration in soils of Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India - Spectroscopical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic activities increase the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil environment. Soil pollution significantly reduces environmental quality and affects the human health. In the present study soil samples were collected at different locations of Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India for heavy metal analysis. The samples were analyzed for twelve selected heavy metals (Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn) using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy. Heavy metals concentration in soil were investigated using enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF) and pollution load index (PLI) to determine metal accumulation, distribution and its pollution status. Heavy metal toxicity risk was assessed using soil quality guidelines (SQGs) given by target and intervention values of Dutch soil standards. The concentration of Ni, Co, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ti, K, Al, Mg were mainly controlled by natural sources. Multivariate statistical methods such as correlation matrix, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied for the identification of heavy metal sources (anthropogenic/natural origin). Geo-statistical methods such as kirging identified hot spots of metal contamination in road areas influenced mainly by presence of natural rocks.

Chandrasekaran, A.; Ravisankar, R.; Harikrishnan, N.; Satapathy, K. K.; Prasad, M. V. R.; Kanagasabapathy, K. V.

2015-02-01

279

Bioaccessibility of uranium in soil samples from Port Hope, Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

Adequate assessment of human health risk of uranium contamination at hazardous waste sites, which is an important step in determining the cleanup strategy, is based on bioavailability data. Bioavailability of uranium from contaminated soil has not been properly determined yet. Bioaccessibility is an in vitro conservative estimate of bioavailability and is thus frequently used for site-specific risk assessment. Bioaccessibility of uranium was measured in 33 soil samples from the Port Hope area in Ontario, Canada, by the physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Higher bioaccessibility values in the gastric plus intestinal phase, 48.4% ± 16.8%, than in the gastric phase, 20.8% ± 11.7%, are very probably the result of more efficient extraction of uranium from soil by intestinal fluid rich in carbonate ions. The observed variability of measured bioaccessibility values is discussed in light of the results of scanning electron microscope examination of the soil samples. Uranium bioaccessibility values in both gastric (acidic) and gastric plus intestinal (neutral) phases are higher in soil samples with smaller uranium-bearing particles and lower in samples where the uranium-bearing particles are larger. We postulate that the most important reason for variability of measured bioaccessibility values in Port Hope soil samples may be the difference in particle size of uranium-bearing particles. PMID:22852839

Jovanovic, Slobodan V; Pan, Pujing; Wong, Larry

2012-08-21

280

Quantitative Analysis of Simulated Erosion for Different Soils  

E-print Network

Quantitative Analysis of Simulated Erosion for Different Soils Zhongxian Chen chenz5@cs as a function of shear stress over the surface of the soil. This model is appli- cable to small-scale erosion Hurricane Katrina. We present a computer simulation of erosion to study the de- velopment of the rills

281

A micro?pipette method for soil mechanical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of soil texture, particularly the clay (<2 ?m) fraction, is an important measurement in most soil investigations. In this study a modified method for mechanical analysis was evaluated that eliminated the need for bulky laboratory equipment and long settling times associated with standard pipette and hydrometer methods. Termed a “micro?pipette”; method, the modified procedure uses 2 to 4 g

W. P. Miller; D. M. Miller

1987-01-01

282

SEM–EDS analysis and discrimination of forensic soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils vary among different areas, and have some characteristics because of the natural effects and transfers made by human and other living beings in time. So that forensic examination of soil is not only concerned with the analysis of naturally occurring rocks, minerals, vegetation, and animal matter. It also includes the detection of such manufactured materials such as ions from

Salih Cengiz; Ali Cengiz Karaca; ?smail Çak?r; H. Bülent Üner; Aytekin Sevindik

2004-01-01

283

Heavy metal accumulation and source analysis in greenhouse soils of Wuwei District, Gansu Province, China.  

PubMed

Greenhouse soils and arable (wheat field) soil samples were collected to identify the effects of greenhouse cultivation on the accumulation of six heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, and Ni) and to evaluate the likely sources responsible for heavy metal accumulation in the irrigated desert soils of Wuwei District, China. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, and Ni were 0.421, 33.85, 85.31, 20.76, 53.12, and 28.59 mg kg(-1), respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in greenhouse soils were 60, 23, and 14 % higher than those in arable soils and 263, 40, and 25 % higher than background concentrations of natural soils in the study area, respectively. These results indicated that Cd, Cu, and Zn accumulation occurred in the greenhouse soils, and Cd was the most problematically accumulated heavy metal, followed by Cu and Zn. There was a significant positive correlation between the concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in greenhouse soils and the number of years under cultivation (P?analysis and principal component analysis suggested that the accumulation of Cd, Cu, and Zn in greenhouse soils resulted mainly from fertilizer applications. Our results indicated that the excessive and long-term use of fertilizers and livestock manures with high heavy metal levels leads to the accumulation of heavy metals in soils. Therefore, rational fertilization programs and reductions in the concentrations of heavy metals in both fertilizers and manure must be recommended to maintain a safe concentration of heavy metals in greenhouse soils. PMID:25430008

Bai, L Y; Zeng, X B; Su, S M; Duan, R; Wang, Y N; Gao, X

2014-11-28

284

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area....

285

LABORATORY METHODS FOR SOIL AN FOLIAR ANALYSIS IN LONG-TERM ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The principal objective of this methods manual is to present methods for the analysis of soil and plant tissue samples taken as part of a long-term environmental study to evaluate the effects of acid rain on terrestrial systems. hrough the use of these standardized methods, it is...

286

Continuous versus pulse neutron induced gamma spectroscopy for soil carbon analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neutron induced gamma spectra analysis (NGA) provides a means of measuring carbon in large soil volumes without destructive sampling. Calibration of the NGA system must account for system background and the interference of other nuclei on the carbon peak at 4.43 MeV. Accounting for these factors pro...

287

Soil microbial biomass and respiration measurements: An automated technique based on infra-red gas analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated system for continuous soil respiration and microbial biomass measurements based on Infra Red Gas Analysis was constructed. The switching device is computer controlled and allows hourly measurements of up to 24 samples when switching intervals of 2.5 min are selected. This allows the use of the substrate-induced respiration method for biomass determination. A software package to run the

O. Heinemeyer; H. Insam; E. A. Kaiser; G. Walenzik

1989-01-01

288

Thermal analysis to derive energetic quality parameters of soil organic matter?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have dealt with thermal analysis for characterisation of soil and soil organic matter. It is a versatile tool assessing various physicochemical properties of the sample during heating and/or cooling. Especially the combination of different detection methods is highly promising. In this contribution, we will discuss the combination of thermogravimetry (TGA) with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in one single thermal analysis device. TGA alone helps distinguishment of soil and soil organic matter fractions with respect to their resistance towards combustion and allows a quantitative assignment of thermolabile and recalcitrant OM fractions. Combination with DSC in the same device, allows determination of energy transformation during the combustion process. Therefore, it becomes possible to determine not only the calorific value of the organic matter, but also of its fractions. We will show the potential of using the calorific values of OM fractions as quality parameter - exemplified for the analysis of soils polluted with organic matter from the olive oil production. The pollution history of these samples is largely unknown. As expected, TGA indicated a relative enrichment of the labile carbon fraction in contaminated samples with respect to the controls. The calorific values of the thermolabile and the recalcitrant fractions differ from each other, and those of the recalcitrant fractions of the polluted samples were higher than of those of the unpolluted controls. Further analyses showed correlation of the calorific value of this fraction with soil water repellency and the carbon isotopic ratio. The synthesis of our current data suggests that the content of thermolabile fraction, the isotopic ratio and calorific value of the recalcitrant fraction are useful indicators for characterizing the degree of decomposition of OMW organic matter. In this contribution, we will further discuss the potential of using the energetic parameters a quality parameter for soil organic matter.

Peikert, Benjamin; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

2014-05-01

289

Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis: Sample analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure conditions in atomic oxygen (ESCA) was performed on an SSL-100/206 Small Spot Spectrometer. All data were taken with the use of a low voltage electron flood gun and a charge neutralization screen to minimize charging effects on the data. The X-ray spot size and electron flood gun voltage used are recorded on the individual spectra as are the instrumental resolutions. Two types of spectra were obtained for each specimen: (1) general surveys, and (2) high resolution spectra. The two types of data reduction performed are: (1) semiquantitative compositional analysis, and (2) peak fitting. The materials analyzed are: (1) kapton 4, 5, and 6, (2) HDPE 19, 20, and 21, and (3) PVDF 4, 5, and 6.

Carter, W. B.

1989-01-01

290

Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

291

Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a north american perspective.  

PubMed

Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced. PMID:23673928

Lawrence, Gregory B; Fernandez, Ivan J; Richter, Daniel D; Ross, Donald S; Hazlett, Paul W; Bailey, Scott W; Ouimet, Rock; Warby, Richard A F; Johnson, Arthur H; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M; Lapenis, Andrew G; Sullivan, Timothy J

2013-01-01

292

Geoestatistical analysis of soil properties in the South of Alicante: soil salinity.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern coast of Alicante province (southeast of Spain) was largely occupied by a large lagoon until the eighteenth century when drainage infrastructures were built to turn much of the wetlands into irrigated farmlands. This area has a semiarid Mediterranean climate and the shortage of sufficient quality water for irrigation is a serious problem for agriculture and wetland maintenance. This study analyzes the spatial distribution of soil properties and their relationship with land-covers by the use of geostatistics and geographical information systems (GIS) as a tool for land-reclamation and management. A field campaign was conducted and 98 soil samples were collected and spatially referenced with a GPS. Soils of the study area are Calcic Fluvisols according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB, 2006). Soil samples were air dried at room temperature and sieve at 2mm (soil fraction to be analysed). Four soil properties were analysed: 1) electrical conductivity (EC) (1:5 w/v water extraction), 2) pH, 3) equivalent carbonates (Porta et al., 1986), and 4) soil organic matter (SOM) by wet chemical oxidation (Walkley and Black, 1934) with potassium dichromate oxidation (Nelson and Sommers, 1982). Geostatistics was used to model the spatial distribution of soil properties. The convex hull of soil samples was used to delimit the area to map. Semivariograms were applied to study the spatial pattern of the four soil properties and ordinary Kriging was used to predict their spatial distribution. Descriptive statistics (mean ± standard deviation) showed that in general terms the soils studied was moderately saline (2.44 ± 0.32 dS×m-1), with a basic pH (8.22 ± 0.32), low soil organic matter content (1.41 ± 0.37 %) and abundant equivalent carbonates (46.1 ± 4.3 %). Electrical conductivity, pH and SOM properties were significantly correlated according with the Pearson bivariate correlation test (with P4 dS×m-1) or non-saline (EC

Melendez-Pastor, I.; Ayguadé, H.; Lag, A.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Gomez, I.

2010-05-01

293

Sampling and analysis of gases and vapors  

SciTech Connect

Techniques which were available to the industrial hygienist for evaluating exposures to gases and vapors in the work environment were described. The applications and limitations of several sampling media and techniques were presented. General sampling considerations discussed included sampling strategies, and operational limits of sampling and analysis. Sampling media for gases and vapors included solid sorbents, activated charcoal, silica gel, porous polymers, tenax, proapaks, chromosorbs, XAD resins, other solid sorbents, multistage air sampling tubes, liquid absorbers, passive samplers, and flexible plastic bags/partially evacuated rigid containers. Desorption of contaminants and collection efficiency of solid sorbents were also discussed. Analytical techniques considered include gas chromatography, flame ionization detector, nitrogen/phosphorus detector, flame photometric detector, electron capture detector, hall conductivity detector, thermal conductivity detector, photoionization detector, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, volumetric methods, and ion chromatography. Quality assurance was discussed.

Coffman, M.A.; Singh, J.

1991-08-01

294

Analysis of remotely sensed data for detecting soil limitations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 1971 and 1972 a detailed study was conducted on a fallow field in the proposed Oahe Irrigation Project to determine the relationship between the tonal variation observed on aerial photographs and the properties of eroded soil. Correlation and regression analysis of digitized, multiemulsion, color infrared film (2443) data and detailed field data revealed a highly significant correlation between film transmittance and several soil properties indicative of the erosion limitation. Computer classification of the multiemulsion film data resulted in maps portraying the eroded soil and the normal soil. Both correlation and computer classification results were best using the reflectance data from the red spectral band. The results showed film transmittance was actually measuring the reflectivity of the soil surface which was increased by the incorporation of the light colored, calcareous parent material exposed by erosion or tillage on soils with thin surface horizons.

Benson, L. A.; Frazee, C. J.; Waltz, F. A.

1973-01-01

295

Determining a Soil's Textural Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students use screen sieves to determine the percent of sand, silt, and clay in a soil sample. They then use a tertiary soil diagram to determine the generic soil name of their sample. Students will learn to use particle size analysis as a tool to determine a soil's texture and understand the role of sand, silt, and clay sized particles in a soil. The site has a link to obtain the required soil diagram.

296

Analysis of heavy metal sources in soil using kriging interpolation on principal components.  

PubMed

Anniston, Alabama has a long history of operation of foundries and other heavy industry. We assessed the extent of heavy metal contamination in soils by determining the concentrations of 11 heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Hg, Ni, V, and Zn) based on 2046 soil samples collected from 595 industrial and residential sites. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was adopted to characterize the distribution of heavy metals in soil in this region. In addition, a geostatistical technique (kriging) was used to create regional distribution maps for the interpolation of nonpoint sources of heavy metal contamination using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. There were significant differences found between sampling zones in the concentrations of heavy metals, with the exception of the levels of Ni. Three main components explaining the heavy metal variability in soils were identified. The results suggest that Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn were associated with anthropogenic activities, such as the operations of some foundries and major railroads, which released these heavy metals, whereas the presence of Co, Mn, and V were controlled by natural sources, such as soil texture, pedogenesis, and soil hydrology. In general terms, the soil levels of heavy metals analyzed in this study were higher than those reported in previous studies in other industrial and residential communities. PMID:24693925

Ha, Hoehun; Olson, James R; Bian, Ling; Rogerson, Peter A

2014-05-01

297

Application of a Permethrin Immunosorbent Assay Method to Residential Soil and Dust Samples  

EPA Science Inventory

A low-cost, high throughput bioanalytical screening method was developed for monitoring cis/trans-permethrin in dust and soil samples. The method consisted of a simple sample preparation procedure [sonication with dichloromethane followed by a solvent exchange into methanol:wate...

298

Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil samples from Spain.  

PubMed

Soil analyses were carried out to evaluate the contamination caused by PCDDs and PCDFs in different soil samples. Monitoring was undertaken at different locations throughout Spain, from 1993 to 1999. A total of 230 samples were analysed. The levels ranged from 0.10 pg I-TEQ/g to 1.08 ng I-TEQ/g. Differences in dioxin levels were observed as a function of the sampling site, with levels at the industrial sites exceeding those at the control sites. PMID:11513116

Eljarrat, E; Caixach, J; Rivera, J

2001-09-01

299

Balloon and core sampling for determining bulk density of alluvial desert soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples were collected from major strata in the upper 5 m of an alluvial soil profile in the Amargosa Desert of southern Nevada to compare rubber-balloon and drive-core bulk-density measurement methods. Outside the range of fine-soil texture, where soil consistency was either very loose or very hard, the core method appeared to sample inaccurately, resulting in bulk-density values less than those determined by the balloon method. Under the severe sampling conditions encountered, large decreases in the relative accuracy of the core method were not directly related to rock-fragment content, but were related to extremes in the cohesiveness of the strata sampled. -from Author

Andraski, B.J.

1991-01-01

300

A quarantine protocol for analysis of returned extraterrestrial samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quarantine protocol is presented for analysis of samples of extraterrestrial material that might be returned from space to an Earth-orbiting quarantine facility. The protocol is designed to detect biologically active agents in extraterrestrial soil. Its goal is either to certify the sample safe to return to a terrestrial containment facility where extensive biological, chemical, geological and physical investigations can be conducted, or to detect ``biological effects'' thus dictating second order testing. The protocol requires 46 grams of a one kilogram returned sample plus 54 grams to be reserved for second order testing should that become necessary. The protocol operates at two levels. First, it seeks to detect the presence of any replicating organisms or toxic substances using chemical analyses, microscopy, metabolic tests, and microbiological culturing techniques. The second level involves hazard evaluation by adding any agents found at the first level (or the extraterrestrial soil) to challenge cultures of terrestrial species. The specific types of experiments and the means of executing them were chosen by participants in an American Society for Engineering Education Summer Systems Design Group to provide maximum life detection sensitivity, yet are compatible with a small crew operating behind biological barriers in a condition of weightlessness.

Bagby, J. R.; Sweet, H. C.; Devincenzi, D. L.

301

Effect of sampling and diagnostic effort on the assessment of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis and drug efficacy: a meta-analysis of six drug efficacy trials and one epidemiological survey.  

PubMed

SUMMARY It is generally recommended to perform multiple stool examinations in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy when assessing the impact of mass drug administration programmes to control human intestinal worm infections and determining efficacy of the drugs administered. However, the collection and diagnostic work-up of multiple stool samples increases costs and workload. It has been hypothesized that these increased efforts provide more accurate results when infection and drug efficacy are summarized by prevalence (proportion of subjects infected) and cure rate (CR, proportion of infected subjects that become egg-negative after drug administration), respectively, but not when these indicators are expressed in terms of infection intensity and egg reduction rate (ERR). We performed a meta-analysis of six drug efficacy trials and one epidemiological survey. We compared prevalence and intensity of infection, CR and ERR based on collection of one or two stool samples that were processed with single or duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. We found that the accuracy of prevalence estimates and CR was lowest with the minimal sampling effort, but that this was not the case for estimating infection intensity and ERR. Hence, a single Kato-Katz thick smear is sufficient for reporting infection intensity and ERR following drug treatment. PMID:24725546

Levecke, Bruno; Brooker, Simon J; Knopp, Stefanie; Steinmann, Peter; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose Carlos; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Vercruysse, Jozef

2014-12-01

302

Continuous versus pulse neutron induced gamma spectroscopy for soil carbon analysis.  

PubMed

Neutron induced gamma spectra analysis (NGA) provides a means of measuring carbon in large soil volumes without destructive sampling. Calibration of the NGA system must account for system background and the interference of other nuclei on the carbon peak at 4.43MeV. Accounting for these factors produced measurements in agreement with theoretical considerations. The continuous NGA mode was twice as fast and just as accurate as the pulse mode, thus this mode was preferable for routine soil carbon analysis. PMID:25497322

Kavetskiy, A; Yakubova, G; Torbert, H A; Prior, S A

2015-02-01

303

Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The <2-mm fraction of each sample was analyzed for Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural pathogens. Collection, preservation and analysis of samples for both organic compounds and microbial characterization add a great degree of complication to the sampling and preservation protocols and a significant increase to the cost for a continental-scale survey. Both these issues must be considered carefully prior to adopting these parameters as part of the soil geochemical survey of North America.

Smith, D.B.; Woodruff, L.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W.F.; Garrett, R.G.; Kilburn, J.E.; Goldhaber, M.B.

2009-01-01

304

ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS - GETTING IT RIGHT  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State was established in the 1940s as part of the Manhattan Project. Hanford's role was to produce weapons-grade nuclear material for defense, and by 1989, when the Site's mission changed from operations to cleanup, Hanford had produced more than 60 percent of the nation's plutonium. The legacy of Hanford's production years is enormous in terms of nuclear and hazardous waste, especially the 270 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater and the 5 million cubic yards of contaminated soil. Managing the contaminated soil and groundwater are particularly important because the Columbia River, the lifeblood of the northwest and the nation's eighth largest river, bounds the Site. Fluor Hanford's Soil & Groundwater Remediation Project (S&GRP) integrates all of the activities that deal with remediating and monitoring the groundwater across the Site. The S&GRP uses a detailed series of steps to record, track, and verify information. The Sample and Data Management (SDM) Process consists of 10 integrated steps that start with the data quality objectives process that establishes the mechanism for collecting the right information with the right people. The process ends with data quality assessment, which is used to ensure that all quantitative data (e.g., field screening, fixed laboratory) are the right type, and of adequate quality to support the decision-making process. Steps 3 through 10 of the process are production steps and are integrated electronically. The detailed plans, procedures, and systems used day-to-day by the SDM process require a high degree of accuracy and reliability. Tools must be incorporated into the processes that minimize errors. This paper discusses all of the elements of the SDM process in detail.

CONNELL CW

2008-01-22

305

Liquid-solid sample preparation followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction determination of multiclass pesticides in soil.  

PubMed

This paper describes development and validation of a multiresidue method for the determination of five pesticides (terbufos, prochloraz, chloridazon, pendimethalin, and fluorochloridone) belonging to different pesticide groups in soil samples by GC/MS, followed by its application in the analysis of some agricultural soil samples. The method is based on a headspace solid-phase microextraction method. Microextraction conditions, namely temperature, extraction time, and NaCI content, were tested and optimized using a 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane fiber. Three extraction solvents [methanol, methanol-acetone (1 + 1, v/v), and methanol-acetone-hexane (2 + 2 + 1, v/v/v)] and the optimum number of extraction steps within the sample preparation stage were optimized for the extraction procedure. LOD values for all the studied compounds were less than 12 microg/kg. Recovery values for multiple analyses of soil samples fortified at 30 microg/kg of each pesticide were higher than 64%. The method was proven to be repeatable, with RSD lower than 15%. PMID:23175962

Durovi?, Rada D; Dordevi?, Tijana M; Santri?, Ljiljana R

2012-01-01

306

RESULTS FROM EPA FUNDED RESEARCH PROGRAMS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF PURGE VOLUME, SAMPLE VOLUME, SAMPLE FLOW RATE AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS ON SOIL GAS CONCENTRATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two research studies funded and overseen by EPA have been conducted since October 2006 on soil gas sampling methods and variations in shallow soil gas concentrations with the purpose of improving our understanding of soil gas methods and data for vapor intrusion applications. Al...

307

Can we talk the same language in reporting soil tests and plant analysis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some problem areas connected with soil testing and with reporting soil test and plant analysis results are explored, A uniform system for reporting soil test results is suggested as a step towards further standardization of soil test methods within and among states. Four categories are suggested as a common terminology for soil test and plant analysis results. These are: deficient,

D. R. Christenson

1971-01-01

308

Isolation and partial characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from soil and marine samples.  

PubMed

In the present study the potential of indigenous bacterial isolates from soil rhizosphere and marine environment to promote plant growth was determined. Eight bacterial strains isolated from soil and marine samples were characterized for the phosphate solubilizing activity. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of phosphate solubilization is done. MIC of antibiotic and heavy metals were checked for these strains. Strains show a diverse pattern of antibiotic and heavy metals resistance. PMID:25176242

Mujahid, Talat Yasmeen; Siddiqui, Khaizran; Ahmed, Rifat; Kazmi, Shahana U; Ahmed, Nuzhat

2014-09-01

309

Determination of Phthalate Esters in Soil Samples by Microwave Assisted Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed for the determination of phthalate esters (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate,\\u000a di-n-butyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate and di-(2-ethylhextyl) phthalate) in soil samples. The method was based on microwave-assisted\\u000a extraction of soil using acetonitrile as extractant. Phthalate esters in the extract were determined by high performance liquid\\u000a chromatography with variable wavelength detector. Microwave-assisted extraction operational parameters,

Pei Liang; Linlin Zhang; Lili Peng; Qian Li; Ehong Zhao

2010-01-01

310

Optimal spatial sampling techniques for ground truth data in microwave remote sensing of soil moisture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper examines optimal sampling techniques for obtaining accurate spatial averages of soil moisture, at various depths and for cell sizes in the range 2.5-40 acres, with a minimum number of samples. Both simple random sampling and stratified sampling procedures are used to reach a set of recommended sample sizes for each depth and for each cell size. Major conclusions from statistical sampling test results are that (1) the number of samples required decreases with increasing depth; (2) when the total number of samples cannot be prespecified or the moisture in only one single layer is of interest, then a simple random sample procedure should be used which is based on the observed mean and SD for data from a single field; (3) when the total number of samples can be prespecified and the objective is to measure the soil moisture profile with depth, then stratified random sampling based on optimal allocation should be used; and (4) decreasing the sensor resolution cell size leads to fairly large decreases in samples sizes with stratified sampling procedures, whereas only a moderate decrease is obtained in simple random sampling procedures.

Rao, R. G. S.; Ulaby, F. T.

1977-01-01

311

LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF SOILS AND SPOILS BPG NOTE 2  

E-print Network

LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF SOILS AND SPOILS BPG NOTE 2 Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration of achieving production of sustainable greenspace. Chemical analysis is often considered to have a relatively, for example, when vegetation fails. It is important to stress that sensibly chosen chemical analysis

312

Sedimentation Time Measurements of Soil Particles by Light Scattering and Determination of Chromium, Lead, and Iron in Soil Samples via ICP  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of soil samples, using light scattering and Inductively Coupled Plasma spectrometry (ICP) to determine colloid sedimentation rates and the quantity of chromium, lead, and iron in the sample is described. It shows the physical and chemical behavior of solid components in soil, and how such pollutant binding colloid surfaces directly…

Todebush, Patricia Metthe; Geiger, Franz M.

2005-01-01

313

Aggregicoccus edonensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an unusually aggregating myxobacterium isolated from a soil sample.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A novel myxobacterium MCy1366T (Ar1733) was isolated in 1981 from a soil sample collected from a region near Tokyo, Japan. It displayed general myxobacterial features like Gram negative staining, rod shaped vegetative cells, gliding on solid surfaces, microbial lytic activity, fruiting body-like aggregates and myxospore-like structures. The strain was mesophilic, aerobic and showed chemoheterotrophic mode of nutrition. It was resistant to many antibiotics like cephalosporin C, kanamycin, gentamycin, hygromycin B, polymyxin and bacitracin and the key fatty acids of whole cell hydrolysates were iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, and iso-C17:0 2-OH. The genomic G+C content of the novel strain is 65.6 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence showed highest similarity (97.60%) to "Stigmatella koreensis" strain KYC-1019 (not validly described taxon, GenBank accession no. EF112185). The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and MALDI-TOF data revealed a novel branch in the family Myxococcaceae. DNA-DNA hybridization showed only 28% similarity between the novel strain and the closest species, Corallococcus exiguus DSM 14696T (97% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). A recent isolate from a Switzerland soil sample and designated reference strain, MCy10622 displayed 99.9% 16S rRNA gene similarity and showed almost the same characteristics with MCy1366T. Since some morphological features like fruiting body like aggregates were barely reproducible in the type strain, the newly isolated strain MCy10622 was also intensively studied. On the basis of a comprehensive taxonomic study, we propose a novel genus and species, Aggregicoccus edonensis gen. nov., sp. nov., for strain MCy1366T and MCy10622. The type strain for the genus Aggregicoccus is MCy1366T (=DSM 27872T =NCCB 100468T). PMID:24591423

Sood, Sakshi; Awal, Ram Prasad; Wink, Joachim; Mohr, Kathrin Irene; Rohde, Manfred; Stadler, Marc; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie; Schumann, Peter; Garcia, Ronald; Müller, Rolf

2014-03-01

314

LRO Diviner Soil Composition Measurements - Lunar Sample Ground Truth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1,2] includes three thermal infrared channels spanning the wavelength ranges 7.55-8.05 microns 8.10-8.40 microns, and 8.38-8.68 microns. These "8 micron" bands were specifically selected to measure the "Christiansen feature". The wavelength location of this feature, referred to herein as CF, is particularly sensitive to silicate minerals including plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine the major crystalline components of lunar rocks and soil. The general trend is that lower CF values are correlated with higher silica content and higher CF values are correlated with lower silica content. In a companion abstract, Greenhagen et al. [3] discuss the details of lunar mineral identification using Diviner data.

Allen, Carlton C.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.

2010-01-01

315

The influence of Alpine soil properties on shallow movement hazards, investigated through factor analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain watersheds are particularly vulnerable to extreme meteorological events, such as high intensity rainfall, and mountain soils often show pronounced fragility and low resilience due to severe environmental conditions. Alpine soil vulnerability is partly intrinsic but in part related to climate change (mainly precipitation regimes), and is enhanced by the abandonment of rural mountain areas that reduced the land maintenance actions traditionally carried out by farmers and local populations in the past. Soil hazards are related to different processes such as water erosion, loss of consistency, surface runoff and sediment transport, often occurring simultaneously and interacting with each other. Therefore, the overall effects on soil are not easy to quantify as they can be evaluated from different soil chemical and physical properties, referring to specific soil loss phenomena such as soil erosion, soil liquefaction, loss of consistency etc. In this study, we focus our attention on a mountain region in the NW Italian Alps (Valle d'Aosta), which suffered from diffuse soil instability phenomena in recent years, as a consequence of extreme rainfall events and general abandonment of the agricultural activities in marginal areas. The main effects were a large number of shallow landislides involving limited soil depths (less than 1 m), affecting considerable surfaces in the lower and middle part of the slopes. These events caused loss of human lives in the year 2000 and therefore raised the attention on land maintenance issues. Surface (topsoil: 0-20 cm) and subsurface (subsoil: 20-70 cm) samples were characterised chemically and physically (pH, carbon and nitrogen contents, cation exchange capacity, texture, aggregate stability, Atterberg limits etc.) and they showed very different soil properties. Topsoils were characterised by better stability, structure, and consistency. The differences between the two depths were potential trigger factors for shallow soil movements involving the upper soil horizons. We assessed a great number of soil properties that are known to be related to vulnerability to the main hazards present in the area. These properties were evaluated at the two depths and a factor analysis was performed to simplify the dataset interpretation, and to hypothesise the most decisive parameters that were potentially related to vulnerability. The factors (soil structure, aggregation, consistency, texture and parent material, cation exchange complex and other chemical properties) were a first step towards identifying soil quality indexes in the studied environment.

Stanchi, S.; Freppaz, M.; Zanini, E.

2012-06-01

316

An instrument design and sample strategy for measuring soil respiration in the coastal temperate rain forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal temperate rainforest (CTR) along the northwest coast of North America is a large and complex mosaic of forests and wetlands located on an undulating terrain ranging from sea level to thousands of meters in elevation. This biome stores a dynamic portion of the total carbon stock of North America. The fate of the terrestrial carbon stock is of concern due to the potential for mobilization and export of this store to both the atmosphere as carbon respiration flux and ocean as dissolved organic and inorganic carbon flux. Soil respiration is the largest export vector in the system and must be accurately measured to gain any comprehensive understanding of how carbon moves though this system. Suitable monitoring tools capable of measuring carbon fluxes at small spatial scales are essential for our understanding of carbon dynamics at larger spatial scales within this complex assemblage of ecosystems. We have adapted instrumentation and developed a sampling strategy for optimizing replication of soil respiration measurements to quantify differences among spatially complex landscape units of the CTR. We start with the design of the instrument to ease the technological, ergonomic and financial barriers that technicians encounter in monitoring the efflux of CO2 from the soil. Our sampling strategy optimizes the physical efforts of the field work and manages for the high variation of flux measurements encountered in this difficult environment of rough terrain, dense vegetation and wet climate. Our soil respirometer incorporates an infra-red gas analyzer (LiCor Inc. LI-820) and an 8300 cm3 soil respiration chamber; the device is durable, lightweight, easy to operate and can be built for under $5000 per unit. The modest unit price allows for a multiple unit fleet to be deployed and operated in an intensive field monitoring campaign. We use a large 346 cm2 collar to accommodate as much micro spatial variation as feasible and to facilitate repeated measures for tracking temporal trends. Our collar design minimizes root interference yet provides a highly stable platform for coupling with the respirometer. Meso-scale variability characterized by large down woody debris, wind throw pits and mounds and surface roots is negotiated with by a hexagonal array of seven collars at two meter spacing (sample pod). Landscape scale variability is managed through stratification and replication amongst ecosystem types arrayed across a hydrologic gradient from bogs to forested wetlands to upland forests. Our strategy has allowed us to gather data sets consisting of approximately 1800 total observations with approximately 600 measurements per replication per year. Mean coefficients of variation (CV) at the collar (micro-scale) were approximately 0.67. The pod level mean CV was reduced to approximately 0.29 at the pod (meso-scale). The CV at the vegetation strata were 0.43, 0.18 and 0.21 for bog, forested wetland and upland forest respectively. With temperature and hydrological data we are able to measure and model carbon dynamics in this large and complex environment. The analysis of variability at the three spatial scales has confirmed that our approach is capturing and constraining the variability.

Nay, S. M.; D'Amore, D. V.

2009-12-01

317

Diversity of Microorganisms Isolated from the Soil Sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing Region  

PubMed Central

Artificially cultivating Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. Furthermore, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, it is important to determine the natural habitat of its fruiting body. This study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus habitat to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates were selected for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, based on their growth characteristics and colony morphology. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the bacterial isolates were divided into two monophyletic clusters which had significant hits to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, respectively. Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were present in C. rutilus habitat. This was the first reported examination of the microbiological ecology of C. rutilus. PMID:21448282

Wang, Peng; Liu, Yu; Yin, Yonggang; Jin, Haojie; Wang, Shouxian; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Shuang; Geng, Xiaoli

2011-01-01

318

Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region.  

PubMed

Artificially cultivating Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. Furthermore, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, it is important to determine the natural habitat of its fruiting body. This study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus habitat to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates were selected for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, based on their growth characteristics and colony morphology. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the bacterial isolates were divided into two monophyletic clusters which had significant hits to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, respectively. Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were present in C. rutilus habitat. This was the first reported examination of the microbiological ecology of C. rutilus. PMID:21448282

Wang, Peng; Liu, Yu; Yin, Yonggang; Jin, Haojie; Wang, Shouxian; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Shuang; Geng, Xiaoli

2011-01-01

319

Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for FY 2001  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility.

LAURICELLA, T.L.

2000-09-27

320

A comparative analysis of trace metal pollution parity between sandy and shaly soils: evidence from two mechanic villages in the Imo River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal enrichment parity in sandy and shaly mechanic village (MV) soils was studied in order to explain the technical\\u000a and economic imperatives of setting an environmentally friendly MV on either soil. Okigwe (shaly) and Nekede (sandy) mechanic\\u000a village soils in the Imo River basin Nigeria were tested and compared. Spectroscopic analysis of the soil samples collected\\u000a from three surface

Michael A. Nwachukwu; Huan Feng; Jude Alinnor; Maureen Nwachukwu

321

COAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS: METHODS AND MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides information on coal sampling and analysis (CSD) techniques and procedures and presents a statistical model for estimating SO2 emissions. (New Source Performance Standards for large coal-fired boilers and certain State Implementation Plans require operators to ...

322

Samples Undergo Liquid Chromatograph Column Analysis  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing the largest oil spill yet recorded. Samples from the oil spill were collected by Louisiana USGS scientists Greg Swayze and Charlie Demas and sent for analysis in Menlo Park, CA. Following the dissolution of the sam...

2010-05-25

323

Analysis of Picattiny Sample for Trace Explosives  

SciTech Connect

The sample received from Picatinny Arsenal was analyzed for trace amounts of high explosives (HE). A complete wash of the surface was performed, concentrated, and analyzed using two sensitive analysis techniques that are capable of detecting numerous types of explosives. No explosives were detected with either test.

Klunder, G; Whipple, R; Carman, L; Spackman, P E; Reynolds, J; Alcaraz, A

2008-05-23

324

Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for total carbon quantification in soil samples  

SciTech Connect

The increase of greenhouse gas (i.e., CO{sub 2}) levels in the atmosphere has caused noticeable climate change. Many nations are currently looking into methods of permanent underground storage for CO{sub 2} in an attempt to mitigate this problem. The goal of this work is to develop a process for studying the total carbon content in soils before, during, and after CO{sub 2} injection to ensure that no leakage is occurring or to determine how much is leaking if it is occurring and what effect it will have on the ecosystem between the injection formation and the atmosphere. In this study, we quantitatively determine the total carbon concentration in soil using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A soil sample from Starkville, Mississippi, USA was mixed with different amounts of carbon powder, which was used as a calibration for additional carbon in soil. Test samples were prepared by adding different but known amounts of carbon powder to a soil sample and then mixing with polyvinyl alcohol binder before being pressed into pellets. LIBS spectra of the test samples were collected and analyzed to obtain optimized conditions for the measurement of total carbon in soil with LIBS. The total carbon content in the samples was also measured by a carbon analyzer, and the data (average of triplicates) were used as a reference in developing calibration curves for a modified version of the single linear regression model and the multiple linear regression model. The calibration data were then used to determine the total carbon concentration of an unknown sample. This work is intended to be used in the initial development of a miniaturized, field-portable LIBS analyzer for CO{sub 2} leak detection.

McIntyre, D.; Ayyalasomayajula, K.; Yu-Yueh, F.; Singh, J.; Jain, J.

2012-01-01

325

Rate distortion performance analysis of nested sampling and coprime sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, rate distortion performance of nested sampling and coprime sampling is studied. It is shown that with the increasing of distortion, the data rate decreases. With these two sparse sampling algorithms, the data rate is proved to be much less than that without sparse sampling. With the increasing of sampling spacings, the data rate decreases at certain distortion, which is because with more sparse sampling, less number of bits is required to represent the information. We also prove that with the same sampling pairs, the rate of nested sampling is less than that of coprime sampling at the same distortion. The reason is that nested sampling collects a little less number of samples than coprime sampling with the same length of data, which is a little sparser than coprime sampling.

Chen, Junjie; Liang, Qilian

2014-12-01

326

Natural radioactivity in surface soil samples from dwelling areas in Tehran city, Iran.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to determine radioactivity concentrations in surface soil samples of the city of Tehran and associated potential radiological hazards. The natural radionuclide ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) contents were determined for 50 locations throughout the geological surface formations in a representative area in the city of Tehran, Iran, using high-resolution gamma-spectrometric analysis. The range of activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil from the studied areas varies from 30.5±0.6 to 45.4±0.9, 27.3±0.5 to 57.1±1.1 and 328.0±4.6 to 768.5±13.4 Bq kg(-1) with overall mean values of 38.8±0.7, 43.4±0.8 and 555.1±8.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The mean radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index to quantify the internal exposure to radon and its daughter products, as well as the gamma activity concentration index for each sample are 143.6±4.6 Bq kg(-1), 0.39, 0.49 and 0.53, respectively. The average estimated radium equivalent is comparable with reported values for many countries in the world. Therefore, these areas may not pose radiological risks to the inhabitants due to harmful effects of the ionising radiation from the natural radioactivity in soil. The calculated average external and internal hazard indexes were found to be less than unity, as a recommended safe level. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for calculating the absorbed dose rate in the outdoor air at 1 m above the ground level. The absorbed dose rates resulting from those concentrations ranged from 48.1 to 88.7 nGy h(-1). Assuming a 20 % occupancy factor proposed by UNSCEAR, 2000, the corresponding effective dose rates in outdoor air equivalent to the population were calculated to be between 0.06 and 0.11 mSv y(-1). The measurement results and calculated values obtained from this study indicate that the dwelling areas in Tehran city, Iran, have background radioactivity levels within natural limits. PMID:24014681

Asgharizadeh, F; Ghannadi, M; Samani, A B; Meftahi, M; Shalibayk, M; Sahafipour, S A; Gooya, E S

2013-09-01

327

Guidance for characterizing explosives contaminated soils: Sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods  

SciTech Connect

A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling due to the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult due to the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of samples, and extracting larger samples. On-site analytical methods are essential to more economical and improved characterization. On-site methods might suffer in terms of precision and accuracy, but this is more than offset by the increased number of samples that can be run. While verification using a standard analytical procedure should be part of any quality assurance program, reducing the number of samples analyzed by the more expensive methods can result in significantly reduced costs. Often 70 to 90% of the soil samples analyzed during an explosives site investigation do not contain detectable levels of contamination. Two basic types of on-site analytical methods are in wide use for explosives in soil, calorimetric and immunoassay. Calorimetric methods generally detect broad classes of compounds such as nitroaromatics or nitramines, while immunoassay methods are more compound specific. Since TNT or RDX is usually present in explosive-contaminated soils, the use of procedures designed to detect only these or similar compounds can be very effective.

Crockett, A.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Craig, H.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Portland, OR (United States). Oregon Operations Office; Jenkins, T.F. [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States); Sisk, W.E. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD (United States)

1996-09-01

328

Comparative Analysis for Polluted Agricultural Soils with Arsenic, Lead, and Mercury in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The use of mercury in Mexico has been associated with the mining industry of Zacatecas. This activity has polluted several areas currently used for agriculture. The main objective of this study was to investigate the heavy metal concentration (Hg, As and Pb) in soil of Guadalupe Zacatecas in order to justify a further environmental risk assessment in the site. A 2X3 km grid was used for the sampling process and 20 soil samples were taken. The analysis was developed using EPA SW 846: 3050B/6010B method for arsenic and metals and EPA SW 846: 7471A for total mercury. It was concluded that there are heavy metals in agricultural soils used for corn and bean farming. For this it is required to make an environmental risk assessment and a bioavailability study in order to determine if there's a risk for heavy metals bioaccumulation in animals or human beings or metal lixiviation to aquifers.

Yarto-Ramirez, Mario; Santos-Santos, Elvira; Gavilan-Garcia, Arturo; Castro-Diaz, Jose; Gavilan-Garcia, Irma Cruz; Rosiles, Rene; Suarez, Sara

2004-03-31

329

Molecular microbial diversity of a soil sample and detection of ammonia oxidizers from Cape Evans, Mcmurdo Dry Valley, Antarctica.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to estimate the uncultured eubacterial diversity of a soil sample collected below a dead seal, Cape Evans, McMurdo, Antarctica by an SSU rDNA gene library approach. Our study by sequencing of clones from SSU rDNA gene library approach revealed high diversity in the soil sample from Antarctica. More than 50% of clones showed homology to Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group; sequences also belonged to alpha, beta, gamma proteobacteria, Thermus-Deinococcus and high GC gram-positive group; Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rDNA clones showed the presence of species belonging to Cytophaga spp., Vitellibacter vladivostokensis, Aequorivita lipolytica, Aequorivita crocea, Flavobacterium spp., Flexibacter sp., Subsaxibacter broadyi, Bacteroidetes, Roseobacter sp., Sphingomonas baekryungensis, Nitrosospira sp., Nitrosomonas cryotolerans, Psychrobacter spp., Chromohalobacter sp., Psychrobacter okhotskensis, Psychrobacter fozii, Psychrobacter urativorans, Rubrobacter radiotolerans, Marinobacter sp., Rubrobacteridae, Desulfotomaculum aeronauticum and Deinococcus sp. The presence of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in Antarctica soil was confirmed by the presence of the amoA gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed grouping of clones with their respective groups. PMID:16517136

Shravage, Bhupendra V; Dayananda, Kannayakanahalli M; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

2007-01-01

330

Interactive computer code for dynamic and soil structure interaction analysis  

SciTech Connect

A new interactive computer code is presented in this paper for dynamic and soil-structure interaction (SSI) analyses. The computer program FETA (Finite Element Transient Analysis) is a self contained interactive graphics environment for IBM-PC`s that is used for the development of structural and soil models as well as post-processing dynamic analysis output. Full 3-D isometric views of the soil-structure system, animation of displacements, frequency and time domain responses at nodes, and response spectra are all graphically available simply by pointing and clicking with a mouse. FETA`s finite element solver performs 2-D and 3-D frequency and time domain soil-structure interaction analyses. The solver can be directly accessed from the graphical interface on a PC, or run on a number of other computer platforms.

Mulliken, J.S.

1995-12-01

331

High dimensional reflectance analysis of soil organic matter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent breakthroughs in remote-sensing technology have led to the development of high spectral resolution imaging sensors for observation of earth surface features. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic matter content and composition on narrowband soil reflectance across the visible and reflective infrared spectral ranges. Organic matter from four Indiana agricultural soils, ranging in organic C content from 0.99 to 1.72 percent, was extracted, fractionated, and purified. Six components of each soil were isolated and prepared for spectral analysis. Reflectance was measured in 210 narrow bands in the 400- to 2500-nm wavelength range. Statistical analysis of reflectance values indicated the potential of high dimensional reflectance data in specific visible, near-infrared, and middle-infrared bands to provide information about soil organic C content, but not organic matter composition. These bands also responded significantly to Fe- and Mn-oxide content.

Henderson, T. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Franzmeier, D. P.; Stott, D. E.; Coster, D. C.

1992-01-01

332

Urine sample preparation for proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

Sample preparation for both environmental and more importantly biological matrices is a bottleneck of all kinds of analytical processes. In the case of proteomic analysis this element is even more important due to the amount of cross-reactions that should be taken into consideration. The incorporation of new post-translational modifications, protein hydrolysis, or even its degradation is possible as side effects of proteins sample processing. If protocols are evaluated appropriately, then identification of such proteins does not bring difficulties. However, if structural changes are provided without sufficient attention then protein sequence coverage will be reduced or even identification of such proteins could be impossible. This review summarizes obstacles and achievements in protein sample preparation of urine for proteome analysis using different tools for mass spectrometry analysis. The main aim is to present comprehensively the idea of urine application as a valuable matrix. This article is dedicated to sample preparation and application of urine mainly in novel cancer biomarkers discovery. PMID:25132110

Olszowy, Pawel; Buszewski, Boguslaw

2014-10-01

333

OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

Brisson, M

2009-04-01

334

Soil moisture optimal sampling strategy for Sentinel 1 validation super-sites in Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture (SM) exhibits a high temporal and spatial variability that is dependent not only on the rainfall distribution, but also on the topography of the area, physical properties of soil and vegetation characteristics. Large variability does not allow on certain estimation of SM in the surface layer based on ground point measurements, especially in large spatial scales. Remote sensing measurements allow estimating the spatial distribution of SM in the surface layer on the Earth, better than point measurements, however they require validation. This study attempts to characterize the SM distribution by determining its spatial variability in relation to the number and location of ground point measurements. The strategy takes into account the gravimetric and TDR measurements with different sampling steps, abundance and distribution of measuring points on scales of arable field, wetland and commune (areas: 0.01, 1 and 140 km2 respectively), taking into account the different status of SM. Mean values of SM were lowly sensitive on changes in the number and arrangement of sampling, however parameters describing the dispersion responded in a more significant manner. Spatial analysis showed autocorrelations of the SM, which lengths depended on the number and the distribution of points within the adopted grids. Directional analysis revealed a differentiated anisotropy of SM for different grids and numbers of measuring points. It can therefore be concluded that both the number of samples, as well as their layout on the experimental area, were reflected in the parameters characterizing the SM distribution. This suggests the need of using at least two variants of sampling, differing in the number and positioning of the measurement points, wherein the number of them must be at least 20. This is due to the value of the standard error and range of spatial variability, which show little change with the increase in the number of samples above this figure. Gravimetric method gives a more varied distribution of SM than those derived from TDR measurements. It should be noted that reducing the number of samples in the measuring grid leads to flattening the distribution of SM from both methods and increasing the estimation error at the same time. Grid of sensors for permanent measurement points should include points that have similar distributions of SM in the vicinity. Results of the analysis including number, the maximum correlation ranges and the acceptable estimation error should be taken into account when choosing of the measurement points. Adoption or possible adjustment of the distribution of the measurement points should be verified by performing additional measuring campaigns during the dry and wet periods. Presented approach seems to be appropriate for creation of regional-scale test (super) sites, to validate products of satellites equipped with SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), operating in C-band, with spatial resolution suited to single field scale, as for example: ERS-1, ERS-2, Radarsat and Sentinel-1, which is going to be launched in next few months. The work was partially funded by the Government of Poland through an ESA Contract under the PECS ELBARA_PD project No. 4000107897/13/NL/KML.

Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lukowski, Mateusz; Marczewski, Wojciech; Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Jerzy; Rojek, Edyta; Slominska, Ewa; Slominski, Jan

2014-05-01

335

Germanium-76 Sample Analysis: Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia. The first one-gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on April 24, 2011. The second one-gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on July 12, 2011. The third sample, which came from the first large shipment of germanium from the vendor, was received from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on September 13, 2011. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility, a DOE user facility at PNNL, was used to make the required isotopic and chemical purity measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The results of these analyses are reported here. The isotopic composition of a sample of natural germanium was also measured twice. Differences in the result between these two measurements led to a re-measurement of the second 76Ge sample.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua; Engelhard, Mark H.

2011-09-19

336

Microwave soil moisture measurements and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An effort to develop a model that simulates the distribution of water content and of temperature in bare soil is documented. The field experimental set up designed to acquire the data to test this model is described. The microwave signature acquisition system (MSAS) field measurements acquired in Colby, Kansas during the summer of 1978 are pesented.

Newton, R. W.; Howell, T. A.; Nieber, J. L.; Vanbavel, C. H. M. (principal investigators)

1980-01-01

337

Determination of Natural Beryllium (Be) in Soil and Swipe Samples Utilizing Yttrium/Beryllium Ratio  

SciTech Connect

1. Objective: A method to determine whether beryllium (Be) components in surface swipe samples are from a natural source is needed. 2. Methods: Soil samples and surface swipes from area facilities were analyzed for marker elements to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be). To be useful, the natural marker element must be present at reasonably consistent levels across the site, must correlate with the Be concentration, and not have the potential to be present from non-natural sources. 3. Results: The research on marker elements used to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be) concentrations demonstrates a clear correlation between Be and yttrium (Y) in natural soils on the Nevada National Security Site. The Y/Be ratio is proposed as a method to characterize the source of Be in soil and surface swipe samples and to aid in recommendations for follow up actions. Swipe samples are analyzed using an ICP/MS method and compared with results from soil samples. Natural soil constituent levels and the Y/Be Ratio range is determined for the occupied and historical facilities and surrounding areas. Y/Be ratios within the statistical range established indicate the Be is from a natural source. Y/Be ratios lower than this range indicate the presence of another Be source, and may then be correlated to alloy, ceramic, or other operational sources by the ratios of copper, nickel, cobalt, uranium, and/or niobium. Example case studies of evaluations of buildings with historical operational beryllium usage, current ongoing technical processes, and heavy equipment used in large building demolitions are included demonstrating the value of the ratio approach. 4. Conclusions: This differentiation is valuable as there is no known correlation between natural beryllium in soil and beryllium disease.

None

2010-09-30

338

Rapid Test Methods for the Field Screening of Heavy Metals in Soil Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, rapid test methods for field screening of soil for Cu, Ni, and Pb content are presented. They are based\\u000a on commercially obtainable Microquant tests (Merck, Germany), which are originally developed for water analysis. The same\\u000a type of color reaction was also used for the determination of heavy metals in soil extracts: Reagents to form colored metal

Marija Jozic; Thomas Peer; Hans Malissa

2009-01-01

339

Sampling and Data Analysis for Environmental Microbiology  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of the literature indicates the importance of statistical analysis in applied and environmental microbiology. Sampling designs are particularly important for successful studies, and it is highly recommended that researchers review their sampling design before heading to the laboratory or the field. Most statisticians have numerous stories of scientists who approached them after their study was complete only to have to tell them that the data they gathered could not be used to test the hypothesis they wanted to address. Once the data are gathered, a large and complex body of statistical techniques are available for analysis of the data. Those methods include both numerical and graphical techniques for exploratory characterization of the data. Hypothesis testing and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are techniques that can be used to compare the mean and variance of two or more groups of samples. Regression can be used to examine the relationships between sets of variables and is often used to examine the dependence of microbiological populations on microbiological parameters. Multivariate statistics provides several methods that can be used for interpretation of datasets with a large number of variables and to partition samples into similar groups, a task that is very common in taxonomy, but also has applications in other fields of microbiology. Geostatistics and other techniques have been used to examine the spatial distribution of microorganisms. The objectives of this chapter are to provide a brief survey of some of the statistical techniques that can be used for sample design and data analysis of microbiological data in environmental studies, and to provide some examples of their use from the literature.

Murray, Christopher J.

2001-06-01

340

Multisubstrate Isotope Labeling and Metagenomic Analysis of Active Soil Bacterial Communities  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Soil microbial diversity represents the largest global reservoir of novel microorganisms and enzymes. In this study, we coupled functional metagenomics and DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using multiple plant-derived carbon substrates and diverse soils to characterize active soil bacterial communities and their glycoside hydrolase genes, which have value for industrial applications. We incubated samples from three disparate Canadian soils (tundra, temperate rainforest, and agricultural) with five native carbon (12C) or stable-isotope-labeled (13C) carbohydrates (glucose, cellobiose, xylose, arabinose, and cellulose). Indicator species analysis revealed high specificity and fidelity for many uncultured and unclassified bacterial taxa in the heavy DNA for all soils and substrates. Among characterized taxa, Actinomycetales (Salinibacterium), Rhizobiales (Devosia), Rhodospirillales (Telmatospirillum), and Caulobacterales (Phenylobacterium and Asticcacaulis) were bacterial indicator species for the heavy substrates and soils tested. Both Actinomycetales and Caulobacterales (Phenylobacterium) were associated with metabolism of cellulose, and Alphaproteobacteria were associated with the metabolism of arabinose; members of the order Rhizobiales were strongly associated with the metabolism of xylose. Annotated metagenomic data suggested diverse glycoside hydrolase gene representation within the pooled heavy DNA. By screening 2,876 cloned fragments derived from the 13C-labeled DNA isolated from soils incubated with cellulose, we demonstrate the power of combining DNA-SIP, multiple-displacement amplification (MDA), and functional metagenomics by efficiently isolating multiple clones with activity on carboxymethyl cellulose and fluorogenic proxy substrates for carbohydrate-active enzymes. PMID:25028422

Verastegui, Y.; Cheng, J.; Engel, K.; Kolczynski, D.; Mortimer, S.; Lavigne, J.; Montalibet, J.; Romantsov, T.; Hall, M.; McConkey, B. J.; Rose, D. R.; Tomashek, J. J.; Scott, B. R.

2014-01-01

341

Evaluation of soil fertility in the succession of karst rocky desertification using principal component analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expanding of karst rocky desertification (RD) area in southwestern China has led to destructed ecosystem and local economic development lagging behind. It is important to understand the soil fertility at RD regions for the sustainable management of karst lands. The effects of the succession of RD on soil fertility were studied by investigating the stands and analyzing the soil samples with different RD grades in the central Hunan province, China, using the principal component analysis method. The results showed that the succession of RD had different impacts on soil fertility indicators. The changing trend of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorous (AP), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) out of 19 selected indicators in different RD regions was: potential RD (PRD) > light RD (LRD) > moderate RD (MRD) > intensive RD (IRD), whereas the changing trend of other indicators was not entirely consistent with the succession of RD. The degradation trend of soil fertility was basically parallel to the aggravation of RD, and the strength of integrated soil fertility was in the order of PRD > MRD > LRD > IRD. The TOC, total phosphorus (TP), cation exchange capacity (CEC), MBC, MBN, microbial mass phosphorous (MBP), and bulk density (BD) could be regarded as the key indicators to evaluate the soil fertility due to their close correlations to the integrated fertility.

Xie, L. W.; Zhong, J.; Cao, F. X.; Li, J. J.; Wu, L. C.

2014-12-01

342

Hayabusa Recovery, Curation and Preliminary Sample Analysis: Lessons Learned from Recent Sample Return Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I describe lessons learned from my participation on the Hayabusa Mission, which returned regolith grains from asteroid Itokawa in 2010 [1], comparing this with the recently returned Stardust Spacecraft, which sampled the Jupiter Family comet Wild 2. Spacecraft Recovery Operations: The mission Science and Curation teams must actively participate in planning, testing and implementing spacecraft recovery operations. The crash of the Genesis spacecraft underscored the importance of thinking through multiple contingency scenarios and practicing field recovery for these potential circumstances. Having the contingency supplies on-hand was critical, and at least one full year of planning for Stardust and Hayabusa recovery operations was necessary. Care must be taken to coordinate recovery operations with local organizations and inform relevant government bodies well in advance. Recovery plans for both Stardust and Hayabusa had to be adjusted for unexpectedly wet landing site conditions. Documentation of every step of spacecraft recovery and deintegration was necessary, and collection and analysis of launch and landing site soils was critical. We found the operation of the Woomera Text Range (South Australia) to be excellent in the case of Hayabusa, and in many respects this site is superior to the Utah Test and Training Range (used for Stardust) in the USA. Recovery operations for all recovered spacecraft suffered from the lack of a hermetic seal for the samples. Mission engineers should be pushed to provide hermetic seals for returned samples. Sample Curation Issues: More than two full years were required to prepare curation facilities for Stardust and Hayabusa. Despite this seemingly adequate lead time, major changes to curation procedures were required once the actual state of the returned samples became apparent. Sample databases must be fully implemented before sample return for Stardust we did not adequately think through all of the possible sub sampling and analytical activities before settling on a database design - Hayabusa has done a better job of this. Also, analysis teams must not be permitted to devise their own sample naming schemes. The sample handling and storage facilities for Hayabusa are the finest that exist, and we are now modifying Stardust curation to take advantage of the Hayabusa facilities. Remote storage of a sample subset is desirable. Preliminary Examination (PE) of Samples: There must be some determination of the state and quantity of the returned samples, to provide a necessary guide to persons requesting samples and oversight committees tasked with sample curation oversight. Hayabusa s sample PE, which is called HASPET, was designed so that late additions to the analysis protocols were possible, as new analytical techniques became available. A small but representative number of recovered grains are being subjected to in-depth characterization. The bulk of the recovered samples are being left untouched, to limit contamination. The HASPET plan takes maximum advantage of the unique strengths of sample return missions

Zolensky, Michael E.

2011-01-01

343

Extensive Diversity of Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacteria Recovered from Sonoran Desert Soil and Description of Nine New Species of the Genus Deinococcus Obtained from a Single Soil Sample  

PubMed Central

The ionizing-radiation-resistant fractions of two soil bacterial communities were investigated by exposing an arid soil from the Sonoran Desert and a nonarid soil from a Louisiana forest to various doses of ionizing radiation using a 60Co source. The numbers of surviving bacteria decreased as the dose of gamma radiation to which the soils were exposed increased. Bacterial isolates surviving doses of 30 kGy were recovered from the Sonoran Desert soil, while no isolates were recovered from the nonarid forest soil after exposure to doses greater than 13 kGy. The phylogenetic diversities of the surviving culturable bacteria were compared for the two soils using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In addition to a bacterial population that was more resistant to higher doses of ionizing radiation, the diversity of the isolates was greater in the arid soil. The taxonomic diversity of the isolates recovered was found to decrease as the level of ionizing-radiation exposure increased. Bacterial isolates of the genera Deinococcus, Geodermatophilus, and Hymenobacter were still recovered from the arid soil after exposure to doses of 17 to 30 kGy. The recovery of large numbers of extremely ionizing-radiation-resistant bacteria from an arid soil and not from a nonarid soil provides further ecological support for the hypothesis that the ionizing-radiation resistance phenotype is a consequence of the evolution of other DNA repair systems that protect cells against commonly encountered environmental stressors, such as desiccation. The diverse group of bacterial strains isolated from the arid soil sample included 60 Deinococcus strains, the characterization of which revealed nine novel species of this genus. PMID:16151108

Rainey, Fred A.; Ray, Keren; Ferreira, Margarida; Gatz, Bridget Z.; Nobre, M. Fernanda; Bagaley, Danielle; Rash, Brian A.; Park, Mie-Jung; Earl, Ashlee M.; Shank, Nicole C.; Small, Alanna M.; Henk, Margaret C.; Battista, John R.; Kämpfer, Peter; da Costa, Milton S.

2005-01-01

344

Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus.

Rossabi, Joseph (105 Michael Ct., Aiken, SC 29801); May, Christopher P. (5002 Hesperus Dr., Columbia, MD 21044); Pemberton, Bradley E. (131 Glencarin Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Shinn, Jim (Box 65, RFD. #1, South Royalton, VT 05068); Sprague, Keith (Box 234 Rte. 14, Brookfield, VT 05036)

1999-01-01

345

Particle track densities in double drive tube 60009/10. [in plagioclase of lunar soil samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements are reported of particle track densities in grains from a suite of eleven samples from the Apollo 16 double drive tube 60009/10. All of the samples studied in 60009 show a clearly bimodal distribution of track densities in plagioclase. This bimodal distribution is interpreted to indicate a mixing of a relatively immature soil with a relatively mature soil. This mixing was not followed by any appreciable reworking which would have altered the distribution. The three lower samples in 60010 also show a bimodal distribution. However, the three uppermost samples show a unimodal distribution. The percentage of high track density plagioclase grains shows a good correlation with the other maturity indices of agglutinate content and the ferromagnetic resonance intensity.

Blanford, G. E.; Wood, G. C.; Mckay, D. S.

1977-01-01

346

Elemental Analysis and Comparison of Bulk Soil Using LA-ICP-MS and LIBS methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental analysis methods utilizing Laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) were developed and used in the characterization of soil samples from the US and Canada as part of a comprehensive forensic evaluation of soils. A LA-ICP-MS method was recently optimized for analysis and comparison between different soil samples in an environmental forensic application [1,2] and LIBS has recently attracted the interest of analytical chemists and forensic laboratories as a simpler, lower cost alternative to the more established analytical methods. In developing a LIBS method, there are many parameters to consider, including laser wavelength, spectral resolution, sensitivity, and matrix effects. The first LIBS method using a 266 nm laser for forensic soil analysis has also been recently reported by our group [3]. The results of an inter-laboratory comparison involving thirteen (13) laboratories conducting bulk elemental analysis by various methods are also reported. The aims of the inter-laboratory tests were: a) to evaluate the inter-laboratory performance of three methods (LA-ICP-MS, µXRF and LIBS) in terms of accuracy (bias), precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) and sensitivity using standard reference materials (SRMs); b) to evaluate the newly released NIST SRM 2710a, which supersedes 2710; and c) to evaluate the utility of LIBS as an alternative technique to LA-ICP-MS and µXRF for bulk analysis of soils. Each sample and standard was homogenized in a high-speed ball mill and pressed into pellets. Participants were instructed to measure the following elements: 7Li, 25Mg, 27Al, 42Ca, 45Sc, 47,49Ti, 51V, 55Mn, 88Sr, 137Ba, 206,207,208 Pb (LA-ICP-MS); Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Zr, Pb (µXRF); Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr, Ti, Zr (LIBS). For both LIBS and µXRF, the choice of appropriate spectral lines was determined by the user, optimizing for linearity, sensitivity and precision. Results for both LA-ICP-MS and µXRF were generally consistent for most elements, resulting in good intra-laboratory precision (< 8 % RSD for LA-ICP-MS; < 20 % RSD for µXRF) and low bias (< 10% for LA-ICP-MS; < 35 % for µXRF), which are important characteristics for forensic comparison of soils. Linear calibration curves were also obtained for both µXRF and LIBS. Results for LIBS showed good precision (< 15 %) and bias (< 15 %) for most elements. Limits of detection for trace and minor elements were in the 0.01 - 1 ppm range for LA-ICP-MS and 1 to 200 ppm for LIBS. Finally, the results of a study comparing the bulk elemental composition from soil collected in different locations in Florida and in Canada for the purposes of providing forensic information as part of a broader forensic examination of soil samples are also reported. 1. L Arroyo, T Trejos, P.R. Gardinali, and J.R. Almirall, Optimization and Validation of a LA-ICP-MS Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Soils and Sediments, Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 2009, 64(1), 14-25. 2. L Arroyo, T Trejos, T Hosick, S Machemer, JR. Almirall, and PR Gardinali, Analysis of Soils and Sediments by Laser Ablation ICP-MS: An Innovative Tool for Environmental Forensics, J. of Environmental Forensics, 2010, 11(4), 315-327. 3. SC Jantzi and JR. Almirall, Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Analytical and Bioanalyt. Chem, 2011, 400(10) 3341-3351.

Almirall, J.

2012-04-01

347

Three-dimensional dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis in the time domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new numerical procedure is proposed for the analysis of three-dimensional dynamic soil- structure interaction in the time domain. In this study, the soil is modelled as a linear elastic solid, however the methods developed can be adapted to include the effects of soil nonlinear- ities and hysteretic damping in the soil. A substructure method, in which the unbounded soil

Xiong Zhang; J. L. Wegner; J. B. Haddow

1999-01-01

348

Astrobiology Sample Analysis as a Design Driver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This effort supports the Astrobiology Objective 8 the Search for LIFE ON MARS PAST AND PRESENT -(Astrobiology Program Office, 1998, p.7). The essential trade analysis is between returning very small samples to the Earth while protecting them versus in situ analysis on Mars. Developing these explicit parameters encompasses design, instrumentation, system integration, human factors and surface operations for both alternatives. This allocation of capability approach incorporates a "humans and machines in the loop" model that recognizes that every exploration system involves both humans and automated systems. The question is where in the loop they occur whether on Earth, in the Mars Base, in the rover or creeping over the Mars surface.

Cohen, Marc M.

2001-01-01

349

Simple and accessible analytical methods for the determination of mercury in soil and coal samples.  

PubMed

Simple and accessible analytical methods compared to conventional methods such as US EPA Method 7471B and ASTM-D6414 for the determination of mercury (Hg) in soil and coal samples are proposed. The new methods are consisted of fewer steps without the Hg oxidizing step consequently eliminating a step necessary to reduce excess oxidant. In the proposed methods, a Hg extraction is an inexpensive and accessible step utilizing a disposable test tube and a heating block instead of an expensive autoclave vessel and a specially-designed microwave. Also, a common laboratory vacuum filtration was used for the extracts instead of centrifugation. As for the optimal conditions, first, best acids for extracting Hg from soil and coal samples was investigated using certified reference materials (CRMs). Among common laboratory acids (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, and aqua regia), aqua regia was most effective for the soil CRM whereas HNO3 was for the coal CRM. Next, the optimal heating temperature and time for Hg extraction were evaluated. The most effective Hg extraction was obtained at 120°C for 30min for soil CRM and at 70°C for 90min for coal CRM. Further tests using selected CRMs showed that all the measured values were within the allowable certification range. Finally, actual soil and coal samples were analyzed using the new methods and the US EPA Method 7473. The relative standard deviation values of 1.71-6.55% for soil and 0.97-12.11% for coal samples were obtained proving that the proposed methods were not only simple and accessible but also accurate. PMID:23683353

Park, Chul Hee; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Lauren Jong-Eun; Lee, Tai Gyu

2013-09-01

350

Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

2014-09-01

351

Optimal spatial stratification in design-based sampling using digital soil maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design-based method for sampling is most appropriate for estimating the total or average concentration in an area. The efficiency of a sampling scheme, in terms of precision and cost, is mostly governed by the distribution of the sampling units in the space-time universe. It is known that optimal stratification and allocation of sample sizes will lead to higher accuracy and lower cost of estimation. There are various stratification strategies that have been proposed: equal area, and stratification by ancillary variables, and stratification based on digital soil maps. Equal-area stratification works best if no information on an area is available. However in most situations ancillary variables will be available for the area. Here we can recognise the readily (and cheaply) available information: digital elevation models and aerial photography or satellite imagery or land use information. In addition, soil property map (of the target variable) along with its uncertainty generated from digital mapping approaches can be used. Here we propose an optimum method for stratification based on map of the target variable (soil pH) which takes into account geographical coordinates, model predictions and its uncertainty. An application of the technique for estimating the mean soil pH in a farm in New South Wales will be illustrated.

de Gruijter, Jaap; McBratney, Alex; Minasny, Budiman

2014-05-01

352

DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF CHLOROPHENOXY ACID HERBICIDES FROM SOIL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Extraction of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides from soil samples with supercritical carbon dioxide as extractant and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and methyl iodide as derivatization agents was investigated. The extraction was carried out at 400 atm and 80 C for 15 min static, follow...

353

Soil and Water ? What is Detectable through Microbiological Sample Preparation Techniques  

EPA Science Inventory

The concerns of a potential terrorist?s use of biological agents in soil and ground water are articulated by comparisons to major illnesses in this Country involving contaminated drinking water sources. Objectives are focused on the importance of sample preparation in the rapid, ...

354

DESIGNING A CONTAMINATED SOIL SAMPLING STRATEGY FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

E-print Network

if an old site contamination may have harmful effects on human health in view of the planned or current use hot spots as a preliminary site investigation usually is nor to allow the calculation of contaminated2001-88 DESIGNING A CONTAMINATED SOIL SAMPLING STRATEGY FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT L

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

355

Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the ALE Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Reach National Monument consists of several units, one of which is the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) Unit. This unit is approximately 311 km2 of shrub-steppe habitat located to the south and west of Highway 240. To fulfill internal U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Historical soil monitoring conducted on ALE indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the Authorized Limits. However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the ALE Unit were below the Authorized Limits. This report contains the results of 50 additional soil samples. The 50 soil samples collected from the ALE Unit all had concentrations of radionuclides far below the Authorized Limits. The average concentrations for all detectable radionuclides were less than the estimated Hanford Site background. Furthermore, the maximum observed soil concentrations for the radionuclides included in the Authorized Limits would result in a potential annual dose of 0.14 mrem assuming the most probable use scenario, a recreational visitor. This potential dose is well below the DOE 100-mrem per year dose limit for a member of the public. Spatial analysis of the results indicated no observable statistically significant differences between radionuclide concentrations across the ALE Unit. Furthermore, the results of the biota dose assessment screen, which used the ResRad Biota code, indicated that the concentrations of radionuclides in ALE Unit soil pose no significant health risk to biota.

Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

2007-04-01

356

On-line purge and trap GC-MS for monitoring 1,3-dichloropropene in agricultural water and soil samples.  

PubMed

A simple and reliable method using on-line purge and trap gas chromatography mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of the fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-DCP) in agricultural water and soil samples. The proposed analytical methodology was validated in the target environmental matrices by the analysis of spiked blank matrix samples. Limit of detection values of 0.05 microg/L for water and 0.005 microg/Kg for soils were obtained, while limits of quantitation were of 0.1 microg/L for water and 0.01 mg/kg for soils. Good recoveries (93-104%) and precision values (< 6%) were obtained for the target compound in the studied matrices. This methodology has been successfully applied to the analysis of incurred groundwater samples from an agricultural area, The Campo de Dalías (Almería, South Spain), although 1,3-DCP was not detected. The method was also applied to soil samples from greenhouse treated with a soil fumigant containing 1,3-DCP. PMID:19161653

Frenich, Antonia Garrido; Aguado, Salvador Cortés; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Arrebola, Francisco Javier

2009-01-01

357

Soil Studies: Applying Acid-Base Chemistry to Environmental Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laboratory activities for chemistry students focus attention on the use of acid-base chemistry to examine environmental conditions. After using standard laboratory procedures to analyze soil and rainwater samples, students use web-based resources to interpret their findings. Uses CBL probes and graphing calculators to gather and analyze data and…

West, Donna M.; Sterling, Donna R.

2001-01-01

358

DIVISION S-8--NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT & SOIL & PLANT ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

kriging and inverse-distance sample size or the number of possible pairwise compari- weighting were interpolation (Isaaks and Srivastava, 1989), in-tial scales has proven invaluable for pest management creases accuracy (Weber and Englund, 1992), or has(Weisz et al., 1995), crop and soil management (Hosseini little

Clarke, Keith

359

[Near infrared spectrum analysis and meaning of the soil in 512 earthquake surface rupture zone in Pingtong, Sichuan].  

PubMed

Through modern near infrared spectrum, the authors analyzed the yellow soil from the rupture zone located in Ping- tong town,Pingwu, Sichuan province. By rapid identification of the characteristic of peak absorption of mineral particles, the result shows that the soil samples mainly composed of calcite, dolomite, muscovite, sericite, illite, smectite; talc, tremolite, actinolite, chlorite, etc. And the mineral compositions of the soil is basically the same with the yellow soil in Sichuan region. By analyzing and comparing it was revealed that part of mineral compositions of the soil are in accordance with the characteristics of the rock mineral compositions below the rupture zone, indicating that part of the minerals of the soil's evolution is closely related to the rock compositions in this area; and the compositions of the clay mineral in the rupture zone is similar to the Ma Lan loess in the north of China, so it is presumed that the clay minerals in these two kinds of soil have the same genetic type. The characteristic of the mineral composition of the soil is in accordance with evolution characteristics of the rocks which is bellow the rupture zone, also it was demonstrated that the results of soil minerals near-infrared analysis can effectively analyze the mineral particles in the soil and indicate the pedogenic environment. Therefore, the result shows the feasibility of adopting modern near-infrared spectrum for rapid analysis of mineral particles of the soil and research of geology. Meanwhile, the results can be the foundation of this region's soil mineral analysis, and also provide new ideas and methods for the future research of soil minerals and the earthquake rupture zone. PMID:25508716

Yi, Ze-bang; Cao, Jian-jin; Luo, Song-ying; Wang, Zheng-yang; Liao, Yi-peng

2014-08-01

360

Detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in Complex Soil and Air Samples Using Next-Generation Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Bacillus anthracis is the potentially lethal etiologic agent of anthrax disease, and is a significant concern in the realm of biodefense. One of the cornerstones of an effective biodefense strategy is the ability to detect infectious agents with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in the context of a complex sample background. The nature of the B. anthracis genome, however, renders specific detection difficult, due to close homology with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We therefore elected to determine the efficacy of next-generation sequencing analysis and microarrays for detection of B. anthracis in an environmental background. We applied next-generation sequencing to titrated genome copy numbers of B. anthracis in the presence of background nucleic acid extracted from aerosol and soil samples. We found next-generation sequencing to be capable of detecting as few as 10 genomic equivalents of B. anthracis DNA per nanogram of background nucleic acid. Detection was accomplished by mapping reads to either a defined subset of reference genomes or to the full GenBank database. Moreover, sequence data obtained from B. anthracis could be reliably distinguished from sequence data mapping to either B. cereus or B. thuringiensis. We also demonstrated the efficacy of a microbial census microarray in detecting B. anthracis in the same samples, representing a cost-effective and high-throughput approach, complementary to next-generation sequencing. Our results, in combination with the capacity of sequencing for providing insights into the genomic characteristics of complex and novel organisms, suggest that these platforms should be considered important components of a biosurveillance strategy. PMID:24039948

Be, Nicholas A.; Thissen, James B.; Gardner, Shea N.; McLoughlin, Kevin S.; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y.; Koshinsky, Heather; Ellingson, Sally R.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Jackson, Paul J.; Jaing, Crystal J.

2013-01-01

361

Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessments, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessments, and studies in medical geology. This Microsoft Access database serves as a data archive in support of present and future Alaskan geologic and geochemical projects, and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses. The analytical results were determined by 85 laboratory and field analytical methods on 264,095 rock, sediment, soil, mineral and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed in USGS laboratories or, under contracts, in commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects from 1962 to 2009. In addition, mineralogical data from 18,138 nonmagnetic heavy mineral concentrate samples are included in this database. The AGDB includes historical geochemical data originally archived in the USGS Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database, used from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s and the USGS PLUTO database used from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. All of these data are currently maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB were used to generate most of the AGDB data set. These data were checked for accuracy regarding sample location, sample media type, and analytical methods used. This arduous process of reviewing, verifying and, where necessary, editing all USGS geochemical data resulted in a significantly improved Alaska geochemical dataset. USGS data that were not previously in the NGDB because the data predate the earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons, are included here in the AGDB and will be added to the NGDB. The AGDB data provided here are the most accurate and complete to date, and should be useful for a wide variety of geochemical studies. The AGDB data provided in the linked database may be updated or changed periodically. The data on the DVD and in the data downloads provided with this report are current as of date of publication.

Granitto, Matthew; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Labay, Keith A.

2011-01-01

362

Multiscale analysis of depth-dependent soil penetration resistance in a tropical soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil penetration resistance (PR) is widely used because it is linked to basic soil properties; it is correlated to root growth and plant production and is also used as a practical tool for assessing soil compaction and to evaluate the effects of soil management. This study investigates how results from multifractal analysis can quantify key elements of depth-dependent PR profiles and how this information can be used at the field scale. We analyzed multifractality of 50 PR vertical profiles, measured from 0 to 40 cm depth and randomly located on a 6.5 ha sugar cane field in north-eastern Brazil. According to the Soil Taxonomy, the studied soil was classified as an Orthic Podsol The scaling property of each profile was typified by singularity and Rényi spectra estimated by the method of moments. The Hurst exponent was used to parameterize the autocorrelation of the vertical PR data sets. Singularity and Rènyi spectra showed the vertical PR data sets exhibited a well-defined multifractal structure. Hurst exponent values were close to one indicating strong persistence in PR variation with soil depth. Also Hurst exponent was negatively and significantly correlated to coefficient of variation (CV) and skewness of the depth-dependent PR. Multifractal analysis added valuable information to describe the spatial arrangement of depth-dependent penetrometer data sets, which was not taken into account by classical statistical indices. Multifractal parameters were mapped over the experimental field and compared with mean, maximum and minimum values of PR; these maps showed the multifractal approach also may complete information provided by descriptive statistics at the field scale.

Paiva De Lima, Renato; Santos, Djail; Medeiros Bezerra, Joel; Machado Siqueira, Glécio; Paz González, Antonio

2013-04-01

363

Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis--part III: sampling plans and sample preparations.  

PubMed

The findings in this paper are based on the results of our drug homogeneity studies and particle size investigations. Using that information, a general sampling plan (depicted in the form of a flow-chart) was devised that could be applied to the quantitative instrumental analysis of the most common illicit drugs: namely heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, cannabis resin, MDMA tablets and herbal cannabis in 'bud' form (type I). Other more heterogeneous forms of cannabis (type II) were found to require alternative, more traditional sampling methods. A table was constructed which shows the sampling uncertainty expected when a particular number of random increments are taken and combined to form a single primary sample. It also includes a recommended increment size; which is 1 g for powdered drugs and cannabis resin, 1 tablet for MDMA and 1 bud for herbal cannabis in bud form (type I). By referring to that table, individual laboratories can ensure that the sampling uncertainty for a particular drug seizure can be minimised, such that it lies in the same region as their analytical uncertainty for that drug. The table shows that assuming a laboratory wishes to quantitatively analyse a seizure of powdered drug or cannabis resin with a 'typical' heterogeneity, a primary sample of 15×1 g increments is generally appropriate. The appropriate primary sample for MDMA tablets is 20 tablets, while for herbal cannabis (in bud form) 50 buds were found to be appropriate. Our study also showed that, for a suitably homogenised primary sample of the most common powdered drugs, an analytical sample size of between 20 and 35 mg was appropriate and for herbal cannabis the appropriate amount was 200 mg. The need to ensure that the results from duplicate or multiple incremental sampling were compared, to demonstrate whether or not a particular seized material has a 'typical' heterogeneity and that the sampling procedure applied has resulted in a 'correct sample', was highlighted and the setting up of suitable control charts (R or S charts), for quality control purposes, was strongly recommended and examples given. Furthermore, although this particular study relates to the sampling of illicit drugs, it should be remembered that it is based on general sampling theory and therefore the same approach could be applied to other disciplines where 'correct sampling' of powders and solids is important. PMID:24815616

Csesztregi, T; Bovens, M; Dujourdy, L; Franc, A; Nagy, J

2014-08-01

364

Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC): A new device to support high resolution soil and sediment sampling for agri-environmental assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil and sediment related research for terrestrial agri-environmental assessments requires accurate depth incremental sampling of soil and exposed sediment profiles. Existing coring equipment does not allow collecting soil/sediment increments at millimetre resolution. Therefore, the authors have designed an economic, portable, hand-operated surface soil/sediment sampler - the Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC) - which allows extensive control of soil/sediment sampling process and easy recovery of the material collected by using a simple screw-thread extraction system. In comparison with existing sampling tools, the FISC has the following advantages and benefits: (i) it permits sampling of soil/sediment samples at the top of the profile; (ii) it is easy to adjust so as to collect soil/sediment at mm resolution; (iii) it is simple to operate by one single person; (iv) incremental samples can be performed in the field or at the laboratory; (v) it permits precise evaluation of bulk density at millimetre vertical resolution; and (vi) sample size can be tailored to analytical requirements. To illustrate the usefulness of the FISC in sampling soil and sediments for 7Be - a well-known cosmogenic soil tracer and fingerprinting tool - measurements, the sampler was tested in a forested soil located 45 km southeast of Vienna in Austria. The fine resolution increments of 7Be (i.e. 2.5 mm) affects directly the measurement of the 7Be total inventory but above all impacts the shape of the 7Be exponential profile which is needed to assess soil movement rates. The FISC can improve the determination of the depth distributions of other Fallout Radionuclides (FRN) - such as 137Cs, 210Pbexand239+240Pu - which are frequently used for soil erosion and sediment transport studies and/or sediment fingerprinting. Such a device also offers great potential to investigate FRN depth distributions associated with fallout events such as that associated with nuclear emergencies. Furthermore, prior to remediation activities - such as topsoil removal - in contaminated soils and sediments (e.g. by heavy metals, pesticides or nuclear power plant accident releases), basic environmental assessment often requires the determination of the extent and the depth penetration of the different contaminants, precision that can be provided by using the FISC.

Mabit, Lionel; Meusburger, Katrin; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Owens, Philip N.; Toloza, Arsenio; Alewell, Christine

2014-05-01

365

Effects of Tillage and Sampling Depth on the Distribution of Phosphorus and Nitrogen Forms in Manure Applied Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Estimating N and P forms in environmental and agricultural soils can be influenced by tillage practices and sampling depths. Historically, soil sampling depth used to estimate nutrients is about 15 cm because most plant roots grow to that depth. Under conventional tillage (CT) nutrients are mixed in...

366

Water vapor weathering of Taurus-Littrow orange soil - A pore-structure analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pore-volume analysis was performed on water vapor adsorption data previously obtained on a fresh sample of Taurus-Littrow orange soil, and the analysis was repeated on the same sample after its exposure to moist air for a period of approximately six months. The results indicate that exposure of an outgassed sample to high relative pressures of water vapor can result in the formation of substantial micropore structure, the precise amount being dependent on the sample pretreatment, particularly the outgassing temperature. Micropore formation is explained in terms of water penetration into surface defects. In contrast, long-term exposure to moist air at low relative pressures appears to reverse the process with the elimination of micropores and enlargement of mesopores possibly through surface diffusion of metastable adsorbent material. The results are considered with reference to the storage of lunar samples.

Cadenhead, D. A.; Mikhail, R. S.

1975-01-01

367

SALI chemical analysis of provided samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SRI has completed the chemical analysis of all the samples supplied by NASA. The final batch of four samples consisted of: one inch diameter MgF2 mirror, control 1200-ID-FL3; one inch diameter neat resin, PMR-15, AO171-IV-55, half exposed and half unexposed; one inch diameter chromic acid anodized, EOIM-3 120-47 aluminum disc; and AO-exposed and unexposed samples of fullerene extract material in powdered form, pressed into In foil for analysis. Chemical analyses of the surfaces were performed by the surface analysis by laser ionization (SALI) method. The analyses emphasize surface contamination or general organic composition. SALI uses nonselective photoionization of sputtered or desorbed atoms and molecules above but close (approximately one mm) to the surface, followed by time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. In these studies, we used laser-induced desorption by 5-ns pulse-width 355-nm light (10-100 mJ/sq cm) and single-photon ionization (SPI) by coherent 118-nm radiation (at approximately 5 x 10(exp 5) W/sq cm). SPI was chosen primarily for its ability to obtain molecular information, whereas multiphoton ionization (not used in the present studies) is intended primarily for elemental and small molecule information. In addition to these four samples, the Au mirror (EOIM-3 200-11, sample four) was depth profiled again. Argon ion sputtering was used together with photoionization with intense 355-nm radiation (35-ps pulsewidths). Depth profiles are similar to those reported earlier, showing reproducibility. No chromium was found in the sample above noise level; its presence could at most be at the trace level. Somewhat more Ni appears to be present in the Au layer in the unexposed side, indicating thermal diffusion without chemical enhancement. The result of the presence of oxygen is apparently to tie-up/draw out the Ni as an oxide at the surface. The exposed region has a brownish tint appearance to the naked eye.

Becker, Christopher H.

1993-01-01

368

Microextraction sample preparation techniques in biomedical analysis.  

PubMed

Biologically active compounds are found in biological samples at relatively low concentration levels. The sample preparation of target compounds from biological, pharmaceutical, environmental, and food matrices is one of the most time-consuming steps in the analytical procedure. The microextraction techniques are dominant. Metabolomic studies also require application of proper analytical technique for the determination of endogenic metabolites present in biological matrix on trace concentration levels. Due to the reproducibility of data, precision, relatively low cost of the appropriate analysis, simplicity of the determination, and the possibility of direct combination of those techniques with other methods (combination types on-line and off-line), they have become the most widespread in routine determinations. Additionally, sample pretreatment procedures have to be more selective, cheap, quick, and environmentally friendly. This review summarizes the current achievements and applications of microextraction techniques. The main aim is to deal with the utilization of different types of sorbents for microextraction and emphasize the use of new synthesized sorbents as well as to bring together studies concerning the systematic approach to method development. This review is dedicated to the description of microextraction techniques and their application in biomedical analysis. PMID:25132413

Szultka, Malgorzata; Pomastowski, Pawel; Railean-Plugaru, Viorica; Buszewski, Boguslaw

2014-11-01

369

Detection of organophosphorous pesticides in soil samples with multiwalled carbon nanotubes coating SPME fiber.  

PubMed

A headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique using stainless steel fiber coated with 20 ?m multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gas chromatography with thermionic specific detector (GC-TSD) was developed to determine organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) in soil. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as extraction time and temperature, ionic strength, the volume of water added to the soil, sample solution volume to headspace volume ratio, desorption time, and desorption temperature were investigated and optimized. Compared to commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 7 ?m) fiber, the PDMS fiber was better to be corrected as phorate, whereas the MWCNTs fiber gave slightly better results for methyl parathion, chlorpyrifos and parathion. The optimized SPME method was applied to analyze OPPs in spiked soil samples. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) for the four pesticides were <0.216 ng g(-1), and their calibration curves were all linear (r (2) ? 0.9908) in the range from 1 to 200 ng g(-1). The precision (RSD, n = 6) for peak areas was 6.5 %-8.8 %. The recovery of the OPPs spiked real soil samples at 50 and 150 ng g(-1) ranged from 89.7 % to 102.9 % and 94.3 % to 118.1 %, respectively. PMID:25227428

Feng, Xilan; Li, Ying; Jing, Ruijun; Jiang, Xiaoying; Tian, Mengkui

2014-12-01

370

An integrated approach to soil structure, shrinkage, and cracking in samples and layers  

E-print Network

A recent model showed how a clay shrinkage curve is step-by-step transformed into the shrinkage curve of an aggregated soil at any clay content if it is measured on samples so small that cracks do not occur at shrinkage. Such a shrinkage curve was called a reference curve. The present work generalizes this model to any soil sample size or layer thickness, i.e., to any crack contribution to the shrinkage curve. The approach is based on: (i) recently suggested features of an intra-aggregate structure; (ii) detailed accounting for the contributions to the soil volume and water content during shrinkage; and (iii) new concepts of lacunar factor, crack factor, and critical sample size. The following input parameters are needed for the prediction: (i) all parameters determining the basic dependence of the reference shrinkage curve; (ii) parameters determining the critical sample size (structural porosity and minimum and maximum aggregate size at maximum swelling); and (iii) initial sample size or layer thickness. A ...

Chertkov, V Y

2014-01-01

371

Analysis of volatile phase transport in soils using natural radon gas as a tracer  

SciTech Connect

We have conducted a field study of soil gas transport processes using radon gas as a naturally occurring tracer. The .experiment monitored soil gas radon activity, soil moisture, and soil temperature at three depths in the shallow soil column; barometric pressure, rainfall and wind speed were monitored at the soil surface. Linear and multiple regression analysis of the data sets has shown that the gas phase radon activities under natural environmental conditions are influenced by soil moisture content, barometric pressure variations, soil temperature and soil structure. The effect of wind speed on subsurface radon activities under our field conditions has not been demonstrated.

Chen, C.; Thomas, D.M.

1992-12-31

372

Analysis of beryllium and depleted uranium: An overview of detection methods in aerosols and soils  

SciTech Connect

We conducted a survey of commercially available methods for analysis of beryllium and depleted uranium in aerosols and soils to find a reliable, cost-effective, and sufficiently precise method for researchers involved in environmental testing at the Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona. Criteria used for evaluation include cost, method of analysis, specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, applicability, and commercial availability. We found that atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace meets these criteria for testing samples for beryllium. We found that this method can also be used to test samples for depleted uranium. However, atomic absorption with graphite furnace is not as sensitive a measurement method for depleted uranium as it is for beryllium, so we recommend that quality control of depleted uranium analysis be maintained by testing 10 of every 1000 samples by neutron activation analysis. We also evaluated 45 companies and institutions that provide analyses of beryllium and depleted uranium. 5 refs., 1 tab.

Camins, I.; Shinn, J.H.

1988-06-01

373

Lysobacter thermophilus sp. nov., isolated from a geothermal soil sample in Tengchong, south-west China.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative and aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 77875(T), was isolated from a geothermal soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, south-west China. Bacterial growth occurred from 37 to 65 °C (optimum 50 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and 0-1 % NaCl (w/v). Cells were rod-shaped and colonies were convex, circular, smooth, yellow and non-transparent. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain YIM 77875(T) belongs to the genus Lysobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain YIM 77875(T) and other species of the genus Lysobacter were all below 94.7 %. The polar lipids of strain YIM 77875(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and five unknown phospholipids. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-8 and the G+C content was 68.8 mol%. Major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(11:0). On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, as well as genotypic data, strain YIM 77875(T) represents a novel species, Lysobacter thermophilus sp. nov., in the genus Lysobacter. The type strain is YIM 77875(T) (CCTCC AB 2012064(T) = KCTC 32020(T)). PMID:22706524

Wei, Da-Qiao; Yu, Tian-Tian; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Zhou, En-Min; Song, Zhao-Qi; Yin, Yi-Rui; Ming, Hong; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

2012-11-01

374

Evaluation of soil water stable isotope analysis by H2O(liquid)-H2O(vapor) equilibration method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental tracers like stable isotopes of water (?18O, ?2H) have proven to be valuable tools to study water flow and transport processes in soils. Recently, a new technique for soil water isotope analysis has been developed that employs a vapor phase being in isothermal equilibrium with the liquid phase of interest. This has increased the potential application of water stable isotopes in unsaturated zone studies as it supersedes laborious extraction of soil water. However, uncertainties of analysis and influencing factors need to be considered. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate different methodologies of analysing stable isotopes in soil water in order to reduce measurement uncertainty. The methodologies included different preparation procedures of soil cores for equilibration of vapor and soil water as well as raw data correction. Two different inflatable sample containers (freezer bags, bags containing a metal layer) and equilibration atmospheres (N2, dry air) were tested. The results showed that uncertainties for ?18O were higher compared to ?2H that cannot be attributed to any specific detail of the processing routine. Particularly, soil samples with high contents of organic matter showed an apparent isotope enrichment which is indicative for fractionation due to evaporation. However, comparison of water samples obtained from suction cups with the local meteoric water line indicated negligible fractionation processes in the investigated soils. Therefore, a method was developed to correct the raw data reducing the uncertainties of the analysis.. We conclude that the evaluated method is advantageous over traditional methods regarding simplicity, resource requirements and sample throughput but careful consideration needs to be made regarding sample handling and data processing. Thus, stable isotopes of water are still a good tool to determine water flow and transport processes in the unsaturated zone.

Gralher, Benjamin; Stumpp, Christine

2014-05-01

375

A proposal for the analysis of nitrocellulose in soil or compost  

SciTech Connect

Currently, there is no ``standard`` analytical method for the measurement of nitrocellulose (NC) in soil or compost. At the present, an indirect method is used. This method extracts the NC from soil or compost, separates out nitrate or nitrite ions, hydrolyzes the NC nitrogroups, and measures the liberated nitrite colorimetrically. Major weaknesses are that the %N content or degree of nitrate substitution (DS) of the NC must be known to convert the nitrate measurements to NC concentrations, incomplete separation of nitrate/nitrite ions coextracted from the soil leads to over-estimation of NC, and incomplete extraction and/or hydrolysis of the NC cause a low bias to the NC estimations. Additionally, the method provides no information about the condition of the NC. Characterization of the molecular weight distribution and detection of functional groups in addition to nitrate ester would be highly useful in developing and applying remediation technologies. This paper proposes a size exclusion chromatography (SEC)-based method for analysis of NC in soil, compost, or other sample matrices. The method has the potential to provide both quantitative and qualitative information. The proposed method is described and some of the factors which must be addressed in method development and validation are discussed. SEC has much potential as a tool for guiding the development and application of remediation technologies for NC contaminated soils and other matrices. The extraction of NC from soil without deterioration is probably the main technical difficulty to overcome. Development of an analytical method is encouraged.

Griest, W.H.

1993-12-31

376

Ancient coins: cluster analysis applied to find a correlation between corrosion process and burial soil characteristics  

PubMed Central

Although it is well known that any material degrades faster when exposed to an aggressive environment as well as that "aggressive" cannot be univocally defined as depending also on the chemical-physical characteristics of material, few researches on the identification of the most significant parameters influencing the corrosion of metallic object are available. A series of ancient coins, coming from the archaeological excavation of Palazzo Valentini (Rome) were collected together with soils, both near and far from them, and then analysed using different analytical techniques looking for a correlation between the corrosion products covering the coins and the chemical-physical soil characteristics. The content of soluble salts in the water-bearing stratum and surfacing in the archaeological site, was also measured. The obtained results stress the influence of alkaline soils on formation of patina. Cerussite, probably due to the circulation of water in layers rich in marble and plaster fragments, was the main corrosion product identified by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Copper, lead and vanadium were found in soil surrounding coins. By measuring conductivity, pH and soluble salts content of the washing solutions from both coins and soils, we could easily separate coins coming from different stratigraphic units of the site. Data were treated by cluster and multivariate analysis, revealing a correlation between part of the coins and the nearby soil samples. PMID:22594444

2012-01-01

377

Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory`s many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory`s boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department.

NONE

1994-12-31

378

Field sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods for explosives in soil  

SciTech Connect

A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling because of the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult because of the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of the samples, and extracting larger samples. This publication is intended to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods for detecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils, and is not intended to include discussions of the safety issues associated with sites contaminated with explosive residues.

Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

1996-12-01

379

X-ray fluorescence and gamma-ray spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis for topographic studies in agricultural soil.  

PubMed

Physical and chemical properties of soils play a major role in the evaluation of different geochemical signature, soil quality, discrimination of land use type, soil provenance and soil degradation. The objectives of the present study are the soil elemental characterization and soil differentiation in topographic sequence and depth, using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) as well as gamma-ray spectrometry data combined with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The study area is an agricultural region of Boa Vista catchment which is located at Guamiranga municipality, Brazil. PCA analysis was performed with four different data sets: spectral data from EDXRF, spectral data from gamma-ray spectrometry, concentration values from EDXRF measurements and concentration values from gamma-ray spectrometry. All PCAs showed similar results, confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis, allowing the data grouping into top, bottom and riparian zone samples, i.e. the samples were separated due to its landscape position. The two hillslopes present the same behavior independent of the land use history. There are distinctive and characteristic patterns in the analyzed soil. The methodologies presented are promising and could be used to infer significant information about the region to be studied. PMID:25464179

de Castilhos, Natara D B; Melquiades, Fábio L; Thomaz, Edivaldo L; Bastos, Rodrigo Oliveira

2014-10-15

380

Image Analysis to Estimate Mulch Residue in Soil  

PubMed Central

Mulching is used to improve the condition of agricultural soils by covering the soil with different materials, mainly black polyethylene (PE). However, problems derived from its use are how to remove it from the field and, in the case of it remaining in the soil, the possible effects on it. One possible solution is to use biodegradable plastic (BD) or paper (PP), as mulch, which could present an alternative, reducing nonrecyclable waste and decreasing the environmental pollution associated with it. Determination of mulch residues in the ground is one of the basic requirements to estimate the potential of each material to degrade. This study has the goal of evaluating the residue of several mulch materials over a crop campaign in Central Spain through image analysis. Color images were acquired under similar lighting conditions at the experimental field. Different thresholding methods were applied to binarize the histogram values of the image saturation plane in order to show the best contrast between soil and mulch. Then the percentage of white pixels (i.e., soil area) was used to calculate the mulch deterioration. A comparison of thresholding methods and the different mulch materials based on percentage of bare soil area obtained is shown. PMID:25309953

Moreno, Carmen; Mancebo, Ignacio; Saa, Antonio; Moreno, Marta M.

2014-01-01

381

Image analysis to estimate mulch residue in soil.  

PubMed

Mulching is used to improve the condition of agricultural soils by covering the soil with different materials, mainly black polyethylene (PE). However, problems derived from its use are how to remove it from the field and, in the case of it remaining in the soil, the possible effects on it. One possible solution is to use biodegradable plastic (BD) or paper (PP), as mulch, which could present an alternative, reducing nonrecyclable waste and decreasing the environmental pollution associated with it. Determination of mulch residues in the ground is one of the basic requirements to estimate the potential of each material to degrade. This study has the goal of evaluating the residue of several mulch materials over a crop campaign in Central Spain through image analysis. Color images were acquired under similar lighting conditions at the experimental field. Different thresholding methods were applied to binarize the histogram values of the image saturation plane in order to show the best contrast between soil and mulch. Then the percentage of white pixels (i.e., soil area) was used to calculate the mulch deterioration. A comparison of thresholding methods and the different mulch materials based on percentage of bare soil area obtained is shown. PMID:25309953

Moreno, Carmen; Mancebo, Ignacio; Saa, Antonio; Moreno, Marta M

2014-01-01

382

Use of a field portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzer to determine the concentration of lead and other metals in soil samples.  

PubMed

Field portable methods are often needed in risk characterization, assessment and management to rapidly determine metal concentrations in environmental samples. Examples are for determining: "hot spots" of soil contamination, whether dust wipe lead levels meet housing occupancy standards, and worker respiratory protection levels. For over 30 years portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzers have been available for the in situ, non-destructive, measurement of lead in paint. Recent advances made possible their use for analysis of airborne dust filter samples, soil, and dust wipes. Research at the University of Cincinnati with the NITON 700 Series XRF instrument (40 millicurie Cadmium 109 source, L X-Rays) demonstrated its proficiency on air sample filters (NIOSH Method No. 7702, "Lead by Field Portable XRF; limit of detection 6 microg per sample; working range 17-1,500 microg/m3 air). Research with lead dust wipe samples from housing has also shown promising results. This XRF instrument was used in 1997 in Poland on copper smelter area soil samples with the cooperation of the Wroclaw Medical Academy and the Foundation for the Children from the Copper Basin (Legnica). Geometric mean soil lead concentrations were 200 ppm with the portable XRF, 201 ppm with laboratory-based XRF (Kevex) and 190 ppm using atomic absorption (AA). Correlations of field portable XRF and AA results were excellent for samples sieved to less than 125 micrometers with R-squared values of 0.997, 0.957, and 0.976 for lead, copper and zinc respectively. Similarly, correlations were excellent for soil sieved to less than 250 micrometers, where R-squared values were 0. 924, 0.973, and 0.937 for lead, copper and zinc, respectively. The field portable XRF instrument appears to be useful for the determination of soil pollution by these metals in industrial regions. PMID:10384212

Clark, S; Menrath, W; Chen, M; Roda, S; Succop, P

1999-01-01

383

BEAST: Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site presents a free downloadable program for "testing evolutionary hypotheses without conditioning on a single tree topology." Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees, or BEAST, was created by Alexei Drummond and Andrew Rambaut of the Evolutionary Biology Group at the University of Oxford. The latest version (v1.0.2) is bug-free and ready for download. The Web site includes detailed information on what BEAST can do, and what researchers can expect to find in future versions of the program.

384

Testing of Icy-Soil Sample Delivery in Simulated Martian Conditions (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

This movie clip shows testing under simulated Mars conditions on Earth in preparation for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander using its robotic arm for delivering a sample to the doors of a laboratory oven.

The icy soil used in the testing flowed easily from the scoop during all tests at Martian temperatures. On Mars, icy soil has stuck to the scoop, a surprise that may be related to composition of the soil at the landing site.

This testing was done at Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corp., New York, which supplied the Phoenix scoop.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

385

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of dioxins in contaminated sediment and soil samples  

PubMed Central

A 96-microwell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was evaluated to determine PCDDs/PCDFs in sediment and soil samples from an EPA Superfund site. Samples were prepared and analyzed by both the ELISA and a gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) method. Comparable method precision, accuracy, and detection level (8 ng kg?1) were achieved by the ELISA method with respect to GC/HRMS. However, the extraction and cleanup method developed for the ELISA requires refinement for the soil type that yielded a waxy residue after sample processing. Four types of statistical analyses (Pearson correlation coefficient, paired t-test, nonparametric tests, and McNemar’s test of association) were performed to determine whether the two methods produced statistically different results. The log-transformed ELISA-derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin values and logtransformed GC/HRMS-derived TEQ values were significantly correlated (r = 0.79) at the 0.05 level. The median difference in values between ELISA and GC/HRMS was not significant at the 0.05 level. Low false negative and false positive rates (<10%) were observed for the ELISA when compared to the GC/HRMS at 1000 ng TEQ kg?1. The findings suggest that immunochemical technology could be a complementary monitoring tool for determining concentrations at the 1000 ng TEQ kg?1 action level for contaminated sediment and soil. The ELISA could also be used in an analytical triage approach to screen and rank samples prior to instrumental analysis. PMID:18313102

Van Emon, Jeanette M.; Chuang, Jane C.; Lordo, Robert A.; Schrock, Mary E.; Nichkova, Mikaela; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

2010-01-01

386

Estimation of ecotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in soil based on HPLC-GCXGC analysis.  

PubMed

Detailed HPLC-GCXGC/FID (high performance liquid chromatography followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection) analysis of oil-contaminated soils was performed to interpret results of selected acute ecotoxicity assays. For the five ecotoxicity assays tested, plant seed germination and Microtox were selected as most sensitive for evaluating ecotoxicity of the oil in the soil phase and in the leaching water, respectively. The measured toxicity for cress when testing the soil samples did not correspond to TPH concentration in the soil. A detailed chemical composition analysis of the oil contamination using HPLC-GCXGC/FID allows to better predict the ecotoxicological risk and leaching potential of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. Cress biomass production per plant was well correlated to the total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration (R2=0.79, n=6), while cress seed germination was correlated (R2=0.82, n=6) with total concentration of "highly water-soluble aromatic hydrocarbons" (HSaromatics). The observed ecotoxicity of the leaching water for Microtox-bacteria related well to calculated (based on the HPLC-GCXGC/FID results) petroleum hydrocarbon equilibrium concentrations in water. PMID:19879629

Mao, Debin; Lookman, Richard; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Weltens, Reinhilde; Vanermen, Guido; De Brucker, Nicole; Diels, Ludo

2009-12-01

387

HIGHLY SENSITIVE DIOXIN IMMUNOASSAY AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO SOIL AND BIOTA SAMPLES. (R825433)  

EPA Science Inventory

Tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD) is a well-known highly toxic compound that is present in nearly all components of the global ecosystem, including air, soil, sediment, fish and humans. Dioxin analysis is equipment intensive and expensive requiring low ppt or even ppq ...

388

Incremental soil sampling root water uptake, or be great through others  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ray Allmaras pursued several research topics in relation to residue and tillage research. He looked for new tools to help explain soil responses to tillage, including disk permeameters and image analysis. The incremental sampler developed by Pikul and Allmaras allowed small-depth increment, volumetr...

389

Micromechanical Analysis of Geosynthetic-Soil Interaction Under Cyclic Loading  

E-print Network

Micromechanical Analysis of Geosynthetic-Soil Interaction under Cyclic Loading By Anil Bhandari B.E., Tribhuvan University, Nepal, 2003 M.E., Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, 2006 Submitted to graduate degree program... ____________________ Committee members Dr. Anil Misra ____________________ Dr. Robert L. Parsons ____________________ Dr. Steven D. Schrock ____________________ Dr. W. Lynn Watney Date defended: ________ i The Dissertation Committee for Anil Bhandari certifies...

Bhandari, Anil

2010-05-28

390

Piles in liquefiable soils: seismic analysis and design issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general picture of the current state of the art and the emerging technology for dealing effectively with the design and analysis of pile foundations in liquefiable soils is presented. Two distinct design cases are considered and illustrated by case histories. One is pile response to strong shaking accompanied by the development of high pore water pressures or liquefaction and

W. D. L Finn; N Fujita

2002-01-01

391

The trace element content of top-soil and wild edible mushroom samples collected in Tuscany, Italy.  

PubMed

The amount of the trace elements As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn was measured in top soils and edible mushrooms, Boletus edulis, Macrolepiota procera, collected at five distinct green microhabitats inside the Lucca province, North-Central Italy (years 2008-2009). Results showed a top soil element content within the Italian statutory limits. Concerning the amount of mushroom elements, we observed significant species-differences obtaining higher levels of Ni, Rb, and Se in B. edulis or As, Pb, Cu in M. procera. Bioaccumulation factors (BCFs: element in mushroom/element in soil) resulted species-dependent and element-selective: in particular, B. edulis preferentially accumulated Se (BCFs varying from 14 to 153), while M. procera mainly concentrated Cu (BCFs varying from 5 to 15). As well, both species displayed between-site BCF differences. By a multivariate principal component approach, cluster analysis (CA), we could resolve two main clusters of soil element composition, corresponding to the most ecologically divergent sites. Besides, CA showed no cluster relating to element contents of B. edulis at the different collection sites, while a separation in groups was found for M. procera composition with respect to harvesting locations, suggesting uptake systems, in this saprotrophic species, sensitive to microhabitat. Regarding consumer safety, Cd, Hg, Pb levels resulted sometime relevant in present samples, never reaching values from current literature on mushrooms collected in urban-polluted areas. Our findings encourage a deeper assessment of the molecular mechanisms of metal intake by edible mushrooms, encompassing genetic biochemical and geo-ecological variables, with particular awareness to element bioavailability in soils and fungi. PMID:22371035

Giannaccini, Gino; Betti, Laura; Palego, Lionella; Mascia, Giovanni; Schmid, Lara; Lanza, Mario; Mela, Antonio; Fabbrini, Laura; Biondi, Luciano; Lucacchini, Antonio

2012-12-01

392

Remote robot manipulator coupled with remote-controlled guide vehicle for soil sampling in hazardous waste sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The important initial step for remediation of hazardous waste is contaminant analysis since the cleanup operation can not begin until the contaminants in hazardous waste sites have been clearly identified. Ames Laboratory, one of the U.S. Department of Energy sites, has developed a robotic sampling system for automation of real-time contaminant analysis in situ which will provide the advantage of lowering the cost per sample, eliminating personnel exposure to hazardous environments, and allowing quicker results. Successful accomplishment of real-time contaminant analysis will require a remote manipulator to perform the sampling tasks in remote and unstructured surroundings, and a remote-controlled guide vehicle to move a remote manipulator into the desired sampling location. This thesis focuses on the design and construction of a remote-controlled guide vehicle to move the robotic sampling system into the contaminated field to obtain soil samples at the desired locations, the development of an integrated dynamic model of a remote manipulator, the identification of dynamic parameters in the integrated dynamic model, and the design of a mobile robotic sampling system. A four-wheeled vehicle prototype has been constructed and its performance tested manually in the field to verify the design requirements. To remotely control the vehicle, mechanical requirements to activate the brake, throttle, transmission, and steering linkages were determined based on experimental results. A teleoperated control utilizing hundred feet long umbilical cords was first employed to remotely control the vehicle. Next, the vehicle was modified to remotely operate in the field by radio control without the aid of long umbilical cords, satisfying all the design specifications. To reduce modeling error in the robotic system, the integrated dynamic system comprised of a remote manipulator (located on a trailer pulled by the remote-controlled guide vehicle) and its drive system has been modeled. The friction model as a function of velocity is included. The dynamic parameters such as velocity-dependent friction and gravity torque in the integrated dynamic model have been determined based on experimental results. Finally, a robotic arm, a sampling tool, and a soil recovery fixture for a mobile robotic sampling system to be mounted on the remote-controlled guide vehicle have been designed and analyzed. The integrated dynamic model for the robotic arm (mounted on the remote-controlled guide vehicle) and its drive system has also been developed.

Kim, Kiho

393

Artificial neural network data analysis for classification of soils based on their radionuclide content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The artificial neural network (ANN) data analysis method was used to recognize and classify soils of an unknown geographic origin. A total of 103 soil samples were differentiated into classes according to the regions in Serbia and Montenegro from which they were collected. Their radionuclide (226Ra, 238U, 235U, 40K, 134Cs, 137Cs, 232Th, and 7Be) activities detected by gamma-ray spectrometry were then used as inputs to ANN. Five different training algorithms with different numbers of samples in training sets were tested and compared in order to find the one with the minimum root mean square error (RMSE). The best predictive power for the classification of soils from the fifteen regions was achieved using a network with seven hidden layer nodes and 2500 training epochs using the online back-propagation randomized training algorithm. With the optimized ANN, most soil samples not included in the ANN training data set were correctly classified at an average rate of 92%.

Dragovi?, S.; Onjia, A.

2007-09-01

394

Quantification of trace arsenic in soils by field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: considerations for sample preparation and measurement conditions.  

PubMed

Recent technological improvements have led to the widespread adoption of field portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) by governmental agencies, environmental consultancies and research institutions. FP-XRF units often include analysis modes specifically designed for the quantification of trace elements in soils. Using these modes, X-ray tube based FP-XRF units can offer almost "point and shoot" ease of use and results comparable to those of laboratory based instruments. Nevertheless, FP-XRF analysis is sensitive to spectral interferences as well as physical and chemical matrix effects which can result in decreased precision and accuracy. In this study, an X-ray tube-based FP-XRF analyser was used to determine trace (low ppm) concentrations of As in a floodplain soil. The effect of different sample preparation and analysis conditions on precision and accuracy were systematically evaluated. We propose strategies to minimise sources of error and maximise data precision and accuracy, achieving in situ limits of detection and precision of 6.8 ppm and 14.4%RSD, respectively for arsenic. We demonstrate that soil moisture, even in relatively dry soils, dramatically affects analytical performance with a signal loss of 37% recorded for arsenic at 20 wt% soil moisture relative to dry soil. We also highlight the importance of the use of certified reference materials and independent measurement methods to ensure accurate correction of field values. PMID:22819961

Parsons, Chris; Margui Grabulosa, Eva; Pili, Eric; Floor, Geerke H; Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Charlet, Laurent

2013-11-15

395

Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.  

PubMed

Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3? × 3?] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated. PMID:23509393

Issa, Shams A M

2013-01-01

396

Does wildfire ash block soil pores? A micromorphological analysis of burned soils.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in runoff and erosion after forest wildfires are often attributed to the removal of surface cover, the formation of water repellent soils, and sealing of the soil surface by ash. The latter process involves clogging of pores by ash as well as rainsplash induced compaction of the ash layer. However, few studies have directly addressed the hydrologic role of ash and no studies have documented ash sealing in a forest fire environment. In an attempt to determine whether ash contributes to reduced infiltration after fire we conducted a micromorphological analysis of soils collected before and after three controlled pile burns at the Lubrecht Experimental Forest in western Montana. The burns were conducted with a fuel load of 90 Mg ha-1 on sites dominated by Lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta) with scattered Douglas fir ( Pseudotoga menziesii), sandy loam soils and a mean of 99% ground cover (litter, duff and live vegetation). Soil cores were collected before burning, immediately after burning and after the burned areas had been subjected to simulated rainfall at an intensity of 80 mm hr-1 for 1 hour. The cores were impregnated with resin from which thin sections were made and microscopically analyzed to determine the vertical distribution of organic material, ash, mineral soil and porosity. Burning consumed all of the surface litter and duff and formed a <1cm layer of black and gray ash above the mineral soil, indicating a moderate severity burn. The mean soil temperature in the upper 1 cm of the mineral soil was 70° C, and there was no detectable increase in water repellency. Rainfall simulations conducted before and after the fires indicated that burning reduced the infiltration capacity from a pre-fire mean of 87 mm hr-1 to a post-fire mean of 35 mm hr-1. Prior to burning the upper 1 cm of the soil was comprised of 41% non- ash organic material, 4% clastic material and 55% pore space. After burning the porosity in the upper 1 cm decreased to 36% and the solid component consisted primarily of black and white ash (34% and 7% respectively). The biggest decrease in porosity was in the upper 2 mm of the soil where porosity decreased from 62 to 22% with a corresponding increase in the proportion of ash. Following the rainfall simulations the black ash content of the upper 1 cm decreased to 21%, suggesting that ash particles were removed in the runoff. However the remaining ash particles became noticeably more aligned parallel to the soil surface. Our observations indicate that ash may contribute to reduced infiltration after fire in two ways: 1) by filling pore space, and 2) by orienting parallel to the soil surface, so creating a thin water repellent organic layer in the upper few millimeters of the soil.

Balfour, V.; Woods, S. W.

2007-12-01

397

Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 95. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during FY 95 to characterize possible radionuclide movement out of Area G through surface water and entrained sediment runoff. Soil samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. The single-stage water samples were analyzed for tritium and plutonium isotopes. All radiochemical data was compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and 94 and reported in LA-12986 and LA-13165-PR. Six surface soils were also submitted for metal analyses. These data were included with similar data generated for soil samples collected during FY 94 and compared with metals in background samples collected at the Area G expansion area.

Childs, M.; Conrad, R.

1997-09-01

398

Effect of the water temperature and soil moisture on the erodibility of chernozem samples: A model experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The close almost functional relationship of the erosion rate and, hence, the erodibility of model soil samples with the temperature of the water used in the experiments has been shown. This suggests that the rupture of bonds between the particles of eroded soil samples is due to the electrostatic forces appearing between the monomolecular water layers around the adjacent soil aggregates similarly oriented with respect to the soil solid phase rather than to the hydraulic forces. The erosion parameters of the samples also strongly depend on the soil moisture. The lowest erosion rate of the heavy loamy chernozem samples is observed at an initial water content of 22-24%. The erosion rate increases and the variability of the results is reduced with both decreasing and increasing the initial water content.

Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Dobrovol'skaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.

2014-07-01

399

BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS WITH SAMPLING AND SAMPLE PRESERVATION SPECIFICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Current federal regulations (40CFR 503) specify that under certain conditions treated municipal biosolids must be analyzed for fecal coliform or salmonellae. The regulations state that representative samples of biosolids must be collected and analyzed using standard methods. Th...

400

Experimental parameters optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis in order to determine selected elements in some industrial soils in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is optimization of the experimental parameters for analysis of soil matrix by instrumental neutron activation analysis and quantitative determination of barium, cerium, lanthanum, rubidium, scandium and thorium in soil samples collected from industrialized urban areas near Istanbul. Samples were irradiated in TRIGA MARK II Research Reactor of Istanbul Technical University. Two types of reference materials were used to check the accuracy of the applied method. The achieved results were found to be in compliance with certified values of the reference materials. The calculated En numbers for mentioned elements were found to be less than 1. The presented data of element concentrations in soil samples will help to trace the pollution as an impact of urbanization and industrialization, as well as providing database for future studies.

Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay; Nur Esen, Ayse; Erenturk, Sema

2014-08-01

401

Investigating the Origin of Chlorohydrocarbons Detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument at Rocknest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for organic compounds on Mars, including molecules of either abiotic or biological origin is one of the key goals of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Previously the Viking and Phoenix Lander missions searched for organic compounds, but did not find any definitive evidence of martian organic material in the soils. The Viking pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) instruments did not detect any organic compounds of martian or exogenous origin above a level of a few parts-per-billion (ppb) in the near surface regolith at either landing site [1]. Viking did detect chloromethane and dichloromethane at pmol levels (up to 40 ppb) after heating the soil samples up to 500 C (Table 1), although it was originally argued that the chlorohydrocarbons were derived from cleaning solvents used on the instrument hardware, and not from the soil samples themselves [1]. More recently, it was suggested that the chlorohydrocarbons detected by Viking may have been formed by oxidation of indigenous organic matter during pyrolysis of the soil in the presence of perchlorates [2]. Although it is unknown if the Viking soils contained perchlorates, Phoenix did reveal relatively high concentrations (0.6 wt%) of perchlorate salt in the icy regolith [3], therefore, it is possible that the chlorohydrocarbons detected by Viking were produced, at least partially, during the experiments [2,4]. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on MSL analyzed the organic composition of the soil at Rocknest in Gale Crater using a combination of pyrolysis evolved gas analysis (EGA) and GCMS. One empty cup procedural blank followed by multiple EGA-GCMS analyses of the Rocknest soil were carried out. Here we will discuss the results from these SAM measurements at Rocknest and the steps taken to determine the source of the chlorohydrocarbons.

Glavin, D.; Archer, D.; Brunner, A.; Buch, A.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Conrad, P.; Coscia, D.; Dworkin J.; Eigenbrode, J.; Freissinet, C.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, M.; McKay, C.; Miller, K.; Ming, D.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Steele, A.; Summons, R. E.; Sutter, B.; Szopa, C.; Teinturier, S.

2013-01-01

402

Emerging techniques for soil analysis via mid-infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmittance and diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) spectroscopy in the mid-IR range are well-established methods for soil analysis. Over the last five years, additional mid-IR techniques have been investigated, and in particular: 1. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Attenuated total reflectance is commonly used for analysis of liquids and powders for which simple transmittance measurements are not possible. The method relies on a

R. Linker; A. Shaviv

2009-01-01

403

Tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer demonstration sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) is the primary document describing field and laboratory activities and requirements for the tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer (CP) demonstration. It is written in accordance with Hanford Tank Initiative Tank 241-AX-104 Upper Vadose Zone Demonstration Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999). This technology demonstration, to be conducted at tank 241-AX-104, is being performed by the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) Project as a part of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval Program (EM-30) and the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) Tanks Focus Area. Sample results obtained as part of this demonstration will provide additional information for subsequent revisions to the Retrieval Performance Evaluation (RPE) report (Jacobs 1998). The RPE Report is the result of an evaluation of a single tank farm (AX Tank Farm) used as the basis for demonstrating a methodology for developing the data and analyses necessary to support making tank waste retrieval decisions within the context of tank farm closure requirements. The RPE includes a study of vadose zone contaminant transport mechanisms, including analysis of projected tank leak characteristics, hydrogeologic characteristics of tank farm soils, and the observed distribution of contaminants in the vadose zone in the tank farms. With limited characterization information available, large uncertainties exist as to the nature and extent of contaminants that may exist in the upper vadose zone in the AX Tank Farm. Traditionally, data has been collected from soils in the vadose zone through the installation of boreholes and wells. Soil samples are collected as the bore hole is advanced and samples are screened on site and/or sent to a laboratory for analysis. Some in-situ geophysical methods of contaminant analysis can be used to evaluate radionuclide levels in the soils adjacent to an existing borehole. However, geophysical methods require compensation for well casing interference and soil moisture content and may not be successful in some conditions. In some cases the level of interference must be estimated due to uncertainties regarding the materials used in well construction and soil conditions, Well casing deployment used for many in-situ geophysical methods is relatively expensive and geophysical methods do not generally provide real time values for contaminants. In addition, some of these methods are not practical within the boundaries of the tank farm due to physical constraints, such as underground piping and other hardware. The CP technologies could facilitate future characterization of vadose zone soils by providing vadose zone data in near real-time, reducing the number of soil samples and boreholes required, and reducing characterization costs.

FIELD, J.G.

1999-02-02

404

Environmental radiation levels in soil and sediment samples collected from floating water from a land runway resulting from heavy rains in the Jeddah region, KSA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural radiation levels in soil and sediment samples collected from floating water from a land runway resulting from heavy rains in the Jeddah region as well as the activity in the population of its surrounding environments were studied. In the regions surrounding Jeddah, the movements of floating water may increase the concentration of radioactivity due to the movement of soil due to heavy rains. In addition, the technological development of industry, agriculture and other sources around the Jeddah region has increased environmental pollution, resulting in noticeable concentrations of radioactivity. The measured activity concentrations of 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 208Tl, 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra in the studied area suggest that they are within the world average for soils and sediments, except those for water sample no. 4; the concentration in this sample was five times higher than the world average concentration (this water is not consumable). Herein, the radioactivity concentrations that were obtained from the analysis of soil and sediment samples that were collected from the investigated area are discussed. Additionally, the absorbed dose rate (D), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) and annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) were evaluated. For the soil and sediment samples, the average radioactivity concentrations were determined for each site and are expressed in Becquerels per kilogram (Bq/kg) of dry weight, while for the measurement of both the 226Ra and 228Ra isotopes in the water samples, the activity concentration is expressed in picoCuries per liter (pCi/l). The obtained results were compared with other measurements from different countries. The movement of floating water around the Jeddah region increases the concentration of radioactivity due to the movement of soils with heavy rains.

Mohery, M.; Baz, Shadiah; Kelany, Adel M.; Abdallah, A. M.

2014-04-01

405

Protocols and guidelines for field-scale measurement of soil salinity distribution with ECa-directed soil sampling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil salinity is a spatially complex and dynamic property of soil that influences crop yields when the threshold salinity level is exceeded. The mapping and monitoring of soil salinity is necessary for reclamation, crop selection, and site-specific irrigation management of salt-affected soils in th...

406

Multiscale analysis of nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms in soils developed over sandstone and basic parent materials with contrasting texture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mono- and multifractal analysis of soil nitrogen adsorption isotherms (NAI) have been proven to be useful, allowing a better characterization of soil surface properties and soil porous system. Multiscale analysis of nitrogen desorption isotherms (NDI), which was less frequently performed, can also provide very valuable information. The multifractal theory was used to analyse both soil adsorption and desorption isotherms from soils developed over contrasting parent material and with different texture. We sampled 32 soil horizons from 6 soil profiles in neighbouring sites from São Paulo State, Brazil. Three of the profiles, developed over sandstone, were sandy loam or loamy, whereas the other three profiles, developed over weathered sediments or basic parent material, were clayey textured. Soil specific surface area (SSA) varied, from about 3.0 to 46 m2 g-1. Surface parameters showed a strong correlation with clay content, but they were not correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC). The scaling properties of both nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms from all the studied soil horizons could be fitted reasonably well with multifractal models. Multifractal parameters from NAIs and NDIs showed great differences. The singularity spectra, f(?) of the desorption isotherms had an asymmetrically long left part and its asymmetry was in general higher compared with adsorption isotherms. Moreover, adsorption isotherms behaved like more clustered measures, showing lower entropy dimension, D1, smaller correlation dimension, D2, and higher heterogeneity than desorption isotherms. Differences in multifractal behaviour of NAIs and NDIs had been proven to be mainly related to the characteristics of the hysteretic loop measured at high relative pressures. Several multifractal parameters extracted from NAIs and NDIs also distinguished between sandy-loam and loam soils and clayey soils. Multifractal parameters calculated from NAIs and NDIs provide new insight to assess soil surface properties.

Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Marinho, Mara de A.; de Abreu, Cleide A.

2014-05-01

407

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus fengqiuensis FJAT-14578, Isolated from a Soil Sample in China  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the first high-quality draft genome sequence of Bacillus fengqiuensis FJAT-14578, isolated from a soil sample collected from China. The genome size was 5,569,389 bp, with a 40.93 mol% G+C content. The number of tRNAs was 69 and of rRNAs was 10 (5S, 16S, and 23S). PMID:25377706

Liu, Guo-Hong; Tang, Jian-Yang; Che, Jian-Mei; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Su, Ming-Xing; Wang, Jie-Ping; Chen, Qian-Qian

2014-01-01