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1

REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF HETEROGENEOUS SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Standard sampling and analysis methods for hazardous substances in contaminated soils currently are available and routinely employed. Standard methods inherently assume a homogeneous soil matrix and contaminant distribution; therefore only small sample quantities typically are p...

2

Analysis of large soil samples for actinides  

SciTech Connect

A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

Maxwell, III; Sherrod L. (Aiken, SC)

2009-03-24

3

COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR SOIL VOC ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Data published by numerous researchers over the last decade demonstrate that there is a high degree of spatial variability in the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil at contaminated waste sites. This phenomenon is confounded by the use of a small sample aliqu...

4

SOIL SAMPLE COLLECTION AND HANDLING FOR VOLATILE ORGANICS ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The guidance document will detail the Region I EPA New England requirements for the collection of soil samples for volatile organics analysis by SW-846, Method 5035. The guidance will describe the project planning process for the collection of soil samples for volatile organics ...

5

INNOVATIONS IN SOIL SAMPLING AND DATA ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Successful research outcomes from the VOC in soils work will provide the Agency with methods and techniques that provide the accurate VOC concentrations so that decisions related to a contaminated site can be made to optimize the protectiveness to the environment and human health...

6

Uncertainty analysis of sample locations within digital soil mapping approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

In digital soil mapping the spatial distribution of soil classes or properties is quantified by formulating empirical spatial or non-spatial soil inference systems between soil observations and spatially referenced environmental covariates. Uncertainty about the location of soil samples, however, will inflate the uncertainty in these predictive relationships. In this study we demonstrate the influence of location error on digital soil

Rosina Grimm; Thorsten Behrens

2010-01-01

7

Preparing Soil Samples for Volatile Organic Compound Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three equilibrium headspace and three solvent extraction methods of preparing soil samples for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were compared. Soil samples were spiked with five gasoline range aromatic compounds and four chlorinated compounds...

A. D. Hewitt

1997-01-01

8

Determining Bulk Density of Different Soil Samples and Data Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity combines field exercise soil collection with lab analysis of soil bulk density. Students develop a lab procedure to measure density and analyze data using Microsoft Excel computer software.

Leslie Kreller, Warroad High School, Warroad, MN, based on an activity from the MnSTEP Summer Chemistry Institute (2007).

9

1. SOIL SAMPLING, HANDLING, PREPARATION AND STORAGE FOR ANALYSIS OF DRIED SAMPLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sampling program for the analysis of ASS should be designed so that the risks of disturbing these soils can be understood and to provide information that can be used to develop an appropriate management strategy. How detailed the investigation is and how intense the analysis is will depend on the characteristics of the site (particularly site variability), the type

CR Ahern; B Blunden; AE McElnea

10

Soil sample handling for routine analysis of plant-available soil potassium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil K extraction with neutral 1 M ammonium-acetate (NH4OAc) based on air-dried or oven-dried samples is the most widely used soil test for K. It has long been recognized that sample drying often increases K extracted by this test. An NH4OAc K test based on field-moist samples (MK) was used until 1988 by the Iowa State University laboratory but was

Brian Edward Hill

2009-01-01

11

Analysis of Mineral Soil Analog Samples with a Pulsed UV-Laser Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we were focusing on setting up a new pulsed UV laser source combined with a laboratory Raman spectrometer and apply this setup to the analysis of powdered planetary mineral soil analog samples.

Hilchenbach, M.; Lang, T.; Neumann, J.; Tarcea, N.

2010-03-01

12

ANALYSIS OF SULFUR IN SOIL, PLANT AND SEDIMENT MATERIALS: SAMPLE HANDLING AND USE OF AN AUTOMATED ANALYZER  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods for analyzing soil, vegetation and sediment samples for total S and handling soil samples for analysis of S constituents were examined. ECO automated total S anelyzer (SC-132) was used for the analysis of vegetation, sediments and soil samples. esults from the LECO analyz...

13

Elemental analysis of agricultural soil samples by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In agriculture, elements essential to vital processes are also called nutrients. A suitable and reliable particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methodology for content determination of essential nutrients in soil samples was developed and its effectiveness proved. The PIXE method is applied to intermediate thickness samples, whose mass per area unit are smaller than 1?g/cm2. Precision and accuracy of the method was estimated after repeated measurements of a single reference material: CRM PACS-2 (estuarine sediment) with a matrix quite similar to the soil samples measured. This paper reports the results of elemental measurements in soil samples. A discussion of agricultural soil sample preparation for PIXE analysis is also presented.

Cruvinel, Paulo E.; Flocchini, Robert G.; Artaxo, Paulo; Crestana, Silvio; Herrmann, Paulo S. P., Jr.

1999-04-01

14

Neutron Activation Analysis of Soil Samples from Different Parts of Abuja Metropolis  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: A study was carried out on the concentrations of constituent (major, minor and trace) elements present in soil samples collected from different parts of Abuja Metropolis and their effect on the surrounding. In carrying out the analysis, the best and most convenient method being the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) otherwise known as Non-Destructive Neutron Activation Analysis (NDNAA)

B. E. Kogo; E. N. Gajere; J. K. Ogunmola; J. O. Ogbole

15

Soil characterization by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence: sampling strategy for in situ analysis.  

PubMed

This work describes a sampling strategy that will allow the use of portable EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) instruments for "in situ" soil analysis. The methodology covers a general approach to planning field investigations for any type of environmental studies and it was applied for a soil characterization study in the zone of Campana, Argentina, by evaluating data coming from an EDXRF spectrometer with a radioisotope excitation source. Simulating non-treated sampled as "in situ" samples and a soil characterization for Campana area was intended. "In situ" EDXRF methodology is a powerful analytical modality with the advantage of providing data immediately, allowing a fast general screening of the soil composition. PMID:16038489

Custo, Graciela; Boeykens, Susana; Dawidowski, L; Fox, L; Gómez, D; Luna, F; Vázquez, Cristina

2005-07-01

16

Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of ¹³⁷Cs, ⁹°Sr, \\/sup 239 +240\\/Pu and ²⁴¹Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island

W. L. Robison; V. E. Noshkin

1981-01-01

17

Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).  

PubMed

A method for the quantitative elemental analysis of surface soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed and applied to the analysis of bulk soil samples for discrimination between specimens. The use of a 266 nm laser for LIBS analysis is reported for the first time in forensic soil analysis. Optimization of the LIBS method is discussed, and the results compared favorably to a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method previously developed. Precision for both methods was <10% for most elements. LIBS limits of detection were <33 ppm and bias <40% for most elements. In a proof of principle study, the LIBS method successfully discriminated samples from two different sites in Dade County, FL. Analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc test and Student's t test resulted in 100% discrimination with no type I or type II errors. Principal components analysis (PCA) resulted in clear groupings of the two sites. A correct classification rate of 99.4% was obtained with linear discriminant analysis using leave-one-out validation. Similar results were obtained when the same samples were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, showing that LIBS can provide similar information to LA-ICP-MS. In a forensic sampling/spatial heterogeneity study, the variation between sites, between sub-plots, between samples and within samples was examined on three similar Dade sites. The closer the sampling locations, the closer the grouping on a PCA plot and the higher the misclassification rate. These results underscore the importance of careful sampling for geographic site characterization. PMID:21461623

Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

2011-04-02

18

Laboratory analysis of soil hydraulic properties of TA-49 soil samples. Volume I: Report summary  

SciTech Connect

The Hydrologic Testing Laboratory at Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc. (DBS&A) has completed laboratory tests on TA-49 soil samples as specified by Mr. Daniel A. James and summarized in Table 1. Tables 2 through 12 give the results of the specified analyses. Raw laboratory data and graphical plots of data (where appropriate) are contained in Appendices A through K. Appendix L lists the methods used in these analyses. A detailed description of each method is available upon request. Thermal properties were calculated using methods reviewed by Campbell and covered in more detail in Appendix K. Typically, soil thermal conductivities are determined using empirical fitting parameters (five in this case), Some assumptions are also made in the equations used to reduce the raw data. In addition to the requested thermal property measurements, calculated values are also presented as the best available internal check on data quality. For both thermal conductivities and specific heats, calculated and measured values are consistent and the functions often cross. Interestingly, measured thermal conductivities tend to be higher than calculated thermal conductivities around typically encountered in situ moisture contents ({plus_minus}5 percent). While we do not venture an explanation of the difference, sensitivity testing of any problem requiring nonisothermal modeling across this range is in order.

NONE

1995-04-01

19

Geostatistical and multivariate statistical analysis of heavily and manifoldly contaminated soil samples.  

PubMed

The surroundings of the former Kremikovtzi steel mill near Sofia (Bulgaria) are influenced by various emissions from the factory. In addition to steel and alloys, they produce different products based on inorganic compounds in different smelters. Soil in this region is multiply contaminated. We collected 65 soil samples and analyzed 15 elements by different methods of atomic spectroscopy for a survey of this field site. Here we present a novel hybrid approach for environmental risk assessment of polluted soil combining geostatistical methods and source apportionment modeling. We could distinguish areas with heavily and slightly polluted soils in the vicinity of the iron smelter by applying unsupervised pattern recognition methods. This result was supported by geostatistical methods such as semivariogram analysis and kriging. The modes of action of the metals examined differ significantly in such a way that iron and lead account for the main pollutants of the iron smelter, whereas, e.g., arsenic shows a haphazard distribution. The application of factor analysis and source-apportionment modeling on absolute principal component scores revealed novel information about the composition of the emissions from the different stacks. It is possible to estimate the impact of every element examined on the pollution due to their emission source. This investigation allows an objective assessment of the different spatial distributions of the elements examined in the soil of the Kremikovtzi region. The geostatistical analysis illustrates this distribution and is supported by multivariate statistical analysis revealing relations between the elements. PMID:20155412

Schaefer, Kristin; Einax, Jürgen W; Simeonov, Vasil; Tsakovski, Stefan

2010-02-14

20

Tank farms backlog soil sample and analysis results supporting a contained-in determination  

SciTech Connect

Soil waste is generated from Tank Farms and associated Tank Farms facilities operations. The soil is a mixed waste because it is an environmental media which contains tank waste, a listed mixed waste. The soil is designated with the listed waste codes (FOO1 through F005) which have been applied to all tank wastes. The scope of this report includes Tank Farms soil managed under the Backlog program. The Backlog Tank Farm soil in storage consists of drums and 5 boxes (originally 828 drums). The Backlog Waste Program dealt with 2276 containers of solid waste generated by Tank Farms operations during the time period from 1989 through early 1993. The containers were mismanaged by being left in the field for an extended period of time without being placed into permitted storage. As a corrective action for this situation, these containers were placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) pending additional characterization. The Backlog Waste Analysis Plan (BWAP) (RL 1993) was written to define how Backlog wastes would be evaluated for proper designation and storage. The BWAP was approved in August 1993 and all work required by the BWAP was completed by July 1994. This document presents results of testing performed in 1992 & 1996 that supports the attainment of a Contained-In Determination for Tank Farm Backlog soils. The analytical data contained in this report is evaluated against a prescribed decision rule. If the decision rule is satisfied then the Washington State Department of ecology (Ecology) may grant a Contained-In Determination. A Contained-In Determination for disposal to an unlined burial trench will be requested from Ecology . The decision rule and testing requirements provided by Ecology are described in the Tank Farms Backlog Soil Sample Analysis Plan (SAP) (WHC 1996).

Jackson, C.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-27

21

RESIDENTIAL SOIL SAMPLING PLAN: COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD X-RAY FLUORESCENCE (XRF) ANALYSIS AND SAMPLE PREPARATION.  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past, Region 10 has relied exclusively on fixed-site laboratory analyses of soil samples for Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies and Risk Assessments. The objectives of this sampling effort included soil analyses for removal and remedial actions as well as collecti...

22

Sampling and Analysis for Lead in Water and Soil Samples on a University Campus: A Student Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a student research project that determined concentrations of lead in water drawn from selected drinking fountains and in selected soil samples on the campus of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. (18 references) (DDR)|

Butala, Steven J.; Zarrabi, Kaveh

1995-01-01

23

Sampling and Analysis for Lead in Water and Soil Samples on a University Campus: A Student Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a student research project that determined concentrations of lead in water drawn from selected drinking fountains and in selected soil samples on the campus of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. (18 references) (DDR)

Butala, Steven J.; Zarrabi, Kaveh

1995-01-01

24

Laboratory analysis of soil hydraulic properties of G-5 soil samples  

SciTech Connect

The Hydrologic Testing Laboratory at DBS&A has completed laboratory tests on TA-54 samples from well G5 as specified by Daniel James and summarized in Table 1. Tables 2 through 8 give the results of the specified analyses. Raw laboratory data and graphical plots of data (where appropriate) are contained in Appendices A through G. Appendix H lists the methods used in these analyses. A detailed description of each method is available upon request. Several sample-specific observations are important for data interpretation. Sample G-5 @ 21.5 was a short core and showed indications of preferential flow. Sample G-5 @ 92.5 developed a visually apparent crack during drying which correlates with the higher air permeabilities observed at lower water contents. Several samples yielded negative estimates of extrapolated intrinsic permeability while measured apparent permeabilities were reasonable. For consistency, however, only intrinsic values are presented. While our defined task is to provide data for interpretation, the following comments are offered as a context for some of the common parameter extraction issues. Further details and a more comprehensive summary of TA-54 data can be found in Unsaturated hydraulic characteristics of the Bandelier tuff at TA-54 dated November 17, 1994.

NONE

1995-01-01

25

IN SITU NON-INVASIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS: SAMPLE SIZE AND GEOSTATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS.  

SciTech Connect

I discuss a new approach for quantitative carbon analysis in soil based on INS. Although this INS method is not simple, it offers critical advantages not available with other newly emerging modalities. The key advantages of the INS system include the following: (1) It is a non-destructive method, i.e., no samples of any kind are taken. A neutron generator placed above the ground irradiates the soil, stimulating carbon characteristic gamma-ray emission that is counted by a detection system also placed above the ground. (2) The INS system can undertake multielemental analysis, so expanding its usefulness. (3) It can be used either in static or scanning modes. (4) The volume sampled by the INS method is large with a large footprint; when operating in a scanning mode, the sampled volume is continuous. (5) Except for a moderate initial cost of about $100,000 for the system, no additional expenses are required for its operation over two to three years after which a NG has to be replenished with a new tube at an approximate cost of $10,000, this regardless of the number of sites analyzed. In light of these characteristics, the INS system appears invaluable for monitoring changes in the carbon content in the field. For this purpose no calibration is required; by establishing a carbon index, changes in carbon yield can be followed with time in exactly the same location, thus giving a percent change. On the other hand, with calibration, it can be used to determine the carbon stock in the ground, thus estimating the soil's carbon inventory. However, this requires revising the standard practices for deciding upon the number of sites required to attain a given confidence level, in particular for the purposes of upward scaling. Then, geostatistical considerations should be incorporated in considering properly the averaging effects of the large volumes sampled by the INS system that would require revising standard practices in the field for determining the number of spots to be sampled. It is highly desirable to assess properly the sampled volume for reporting the absolute value of the measured carbon. At the same time, increasing the number of detectors surrounding the NG can reduce error propagation. In the present work, only the volume irradiated by the neutrons was estimated. It should be pointed that the carbon yield is also affected by the neutron energy spectrum that changes with depth. Thus, all these considerations must be considered carefully when evaluating the detectors' configuration and the resulting counting efficiency. In summary, INS system is a novel approach for non-destructive carbon analysis in soil with very unique features. It should contribute in assessing soil carbon inventories and assist in understanding belowground carbon processes. The complexity of carbon distribution in soil requires a special attention when calibrating the INS system, and a consensus developed on the most favorable way to report carbon abundance. Clearly, this will affect the calibration procedures.

WIELOPOLSKI, L.

2005-04-01

26

Poly-use multi-level sampling system for soil-gas transport analysis in the vadose zone.  

PubMed

Soil-gas turnover is important in the global cycling of greenhouse gases. The analysis of soil-gas profiles provides quantitative information on below-ground turnover and fluxes. We developed a poly-use multi-level sampling system (PMLS) for soil-gas sampling, water-content and temperature measurement with high depth resolution and minimal soil disturbance. It is based on perforated access tubes (ATs) permanently installed in the soil. A multi-level sampler allows extraction of soil-gas samples from 20 locations within 1 m depth, while a capacitance probe is used to measure volumetric water contents. During idle times, the ATs are sealed and can be equipped with temperature sensors. Proof-of-concept experiments in a field lysimeter showed good agreement of soil-gas samples and water-content measurements compared with conventional techniques, while a successfully performed gas-tracer test demonstrated the feasibility of the PMLS to determine soil-gas diffusion coefficients in situ. A field application of the PMLS to quantify oxidation of atmospheric CH4 in a field lysimeter and in the forefield of a receding glacier yielded activity coefficients and soil-atmosphere fluxes well in agreement with previous studies. With numerous options for customization, the presented tool extends the methodological choices to investigate soil-gas transport in the vadose zone. PMID:23962070

Nauer, Philipp A; Chiri, Eleonora; Schroth, Martin H

2013-09-10

27

A field method to store samples from temperate mountain grassland soils for analysis of phospholipid fatty acids  

PubMed Central

The storage of soil samples for PLFA analysis can lead to shifts in the microbial community composition. We show here that conserving samples in RNAlater, which is already widely used to store samples for DNA and RNA analysis, proved to be as sufficient as freezing at ?20 °C and preferable over storage at 4 °C for temperate mountain grassland soil. The total amount of extracted PLFAs was not changed by any storage treatment. Storage at 4 °C led to an alteration of seven out of thirty individual biomarkers, while freezing and storage in RNAlater caused changes in the amount of fungal biomarkers but had no effect on any other microbial group. We therefore suggest that RNAlater could be used to preserve soil samples for PLFA analysis when immediate extraction or freezing of samples is not possible, for example during sampling campaigns in remote areas or during transport and shipping.

Schnecker, Jorg; Wild, Birgit; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Richter, Andreas

2012-01-01

28

A field method to store samples from temperate mountain grassland soils for analysis of phospholipid fatty acids.  

PubMed

The storage of soil samples for PLFA analysis can lead to shifts in the microbial community composition. We show here that conserving samples in RNAlater, which is already widely used to store samples for DNA and RNA analysis, proved to be as sufficient as freezing at -20 °C and preferable over storage at 4 °C for temperate mountain grassland soil. The total amount of extracted PLFAs was not changed by any storage treatment. Storage at 4 °C led to an alteration of seven out of thirty individual biomarkers, while freezing and storage in RNAlater caused changes in the amount of fungal biomarkers but had no effect on any other microbial group. We therefore suggest that RNAlater could be used to preserve soil samples for PLFA analysis when immediate extraction or freezing of samples is not possible, for example during sampling campaigns in remote areas or during transport and shipping. PMID:22865936

Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Richter, Andreas

2012-08-01

29

Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Evaluation of Residual Chromium Contamination in the Subsurface Soil at 100-C-7  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) provides the requirements for sample collection and laboratory analysis to evaluate the extent of hexavalent chromium contamination present in the soil below the 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1 remedial action waste site excavations.

W. S. Thompson

2007-02-15

30

Assessing NIR & MIR Spectral Analysis as a Method for Soil C Estimation Across a Network of Sampling Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring soil C stocks is critical to assess the impact of future climate and land use change on carbon sinks and sources in agricultural lands. A benchmark network for soil carbon monitoring of stock changes is being designed for US agricultural lands with 3000-5000 sites anticipated and re-sampling on a 5- to10-year basis. Approximately 1000 sites would be sampled per year producing around 15,000 soil samples to be processed for total, organic, and inorganic carbon, as well as bulk density and nitrogen. Laboratory processing of soil samples is cost and time intensive, therefore we are testing the efficacy of using near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectral methods for estimating soil carbon. As part of an initial implementation of national soil carbon monitoring, we collected over 1800 soil samples from 45 cropland sites in the mid-continental region of the U.S. Samples were processed using standard laboratory methods to determine the variables above. Carbon and nitrogen were determined by dry combustion and inorganic carbon was estimated with an acid-pressure test. 600 samples are being scanned using a bench- top NIR reflectance spectrometer (30 g of 2 mm oven-dried soil and 30 g of 8 mm air-dried soil) and 500 samples using a MIR Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) with a DRIFT reflectance accessory (0.2 g oven-dried ground soil). Lab-measured carbon will be compared to spectrally-estimated carbon contents using Partial Least Squares (PLS) multivariate statistical approach. PLS attempts to develop a soil C predictive model that can then be used to estimate C in soil samples not lab-processed. The spectral analysis of soil samples either whole or partially processed can potentially save both funding resources and time to process samples. This is particularly relevant for the implementation of a national monitoring network for soil carbon. This poster will discuss our methods, initial results and potential for using NIR and MIR spectral approaches to either replace or augment traditional lab-based carbon analyses of soils.

Spencer, S.; Ogle, S.; Borch, T.; Rock, B.

2008-12-01

31

Sampling and analysis plan for the 105-F and 105DR Phase III below-grade structures and underlying soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan presents the rationale and strategy for radiological surveys and the sampling and analysis activities proposed in support of Phase III of the 105-F\\/105-DR Interim Safe Storage Project. The purpose of the proposed surveys and sampling and analysis activities is the characterization of the Phase III below-grade structures and underlying soils to support their verification of

Day

1999-01-01

32

Sampling and analysis plan for Mount Plant D & D soils packages, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

There are currently 682 containers of soils in storage at Mound Plant, generated between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program sites. These areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building area. The soils from these areas are part of Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. The sealed waste packages, constructed of either wood or metal, are currently being stored in Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound facility. At a meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada on October, 26, 1990, DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE-NV) and NTS representatives requested that the Mound Plant D&D soils proposed for shipment to NTS be sampled for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) constituents. On December 14, 1990, DOE-NV also requested that additional analyses be performed on the soils from one of the soils boxes for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), particle size distribution, and free liquids. The purpose of this plan is to document the proposed sampling and analyses of the packages of D&D soils produced prior to October 31, 1990. In order to provide a thorough description of the soils excavated from the WTS and SM areas, sections 1.1 and 1.2 provide historical Information concerning the D&D soils, including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data.

NONE

1991-02-01

33

Classification of soil samples according to their geographic origin using gamma-ray spectrometry and principal component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A principal component analysis (PCA) was used for classification of soil samples from different locations in Serbia and Montenegro. Based on activities of radionuclides (226Ra, 238U, 235U, 40K, 134Cs, 137Cs, 232Th and 7Be) detected by gamma-ray spectrometry, the classification of soils according to their geographical origin was performed. Application of PCA to our experimental data resulted in satisfactory classification rate

Snežana Dragovi?; Antonije Onjia

2006-01-01

34

STATISTICAL SAMPLING AND DATA ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Research is being conducted to develop approaches to improve soil and sediment sampling techniques, measurement design and geostatistics, and data analysis via chemometric, environmetric, and robust statistical methods. Improvements in sampling contaminated soil and other hetero...

35

EMERGING MODALITIES FOR SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS: SAMPLING STATISTICS AND ECONOMICS WORKSHOP.  

SciTech Connect

The workshop's main objectives are (1) to present the emerging modalities for analyzing carbon in soil, (2) to assess their error propagation, (3) to recommend new protocols and sampling strategies for the new instrumentation, and, (4) to compare the costs of the new methods with traditional chemical ones.

WIELOPOLSKI, L.

2006-04-01

36

Radon emanation from soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil or bedrock beneath a building is one of the sources of radon gas in the indoor air. The 238U content of samples of the soil or the bedrock can be measured by gamma ray spectrometry and is of interest because the uranium content in the soil is a precursor of the presence of the radon gas in the

C Baixeras; B Erlandsson; G Jönsson

2001-01-01

37

Characterization and analysis of oil-contaminated soil samples from the Fort Lewis coal-liquefaction pilot plant. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to physically and chemically characterize soil samples contaminated with SRC-II liquids and to estimate the potential leachate composition resulting from the interaction of SRC-II, native soil and surface water. Physical characterization of the soil samples included analysis for pH, cation exchange capacity, and loss on ignition. Chemical characterization of the simulated rainwater leachates included analysis for total organics (TCO), carboxylic acids, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs), organic contaminants by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry and gravimetric determinations. The results of the chemical analysis of the leachates from the soil samples show that the majority of the spill components are located in the 6 to 18 foot region. Of the compounds identified, phenolic materials are the most abundant, with the remaining compounds being an order of magnitude or less in concentration. No PNAs with molecular weights over 230, PCBs, or carboxylic acids were detected. Geohydrologic studies show the spill-contaminated soil to be porous. The water table at the spill site is 32 feet below the surface. The ground water flows away from the plant and toward a nearby lake and Puget Sound. This spill is of little danger to human health, but the nearby lakes should be monitored for phenolic levels. 8 figures, 11 tables. (ATT)

Not Available

1982-04-01

38

Estimating the spatial scale of herbicide and soil interactions by nested sampling, hierarchical analysis of variance and residual maximum likelihood.  

PubMed

An unbalanced nested sampling design was used to investigate the spatial scale of soil and herbicide interactions at the field scale. A hierarchical analysis of variance based on residual maximum likelihood (REML) was used to analyse the data and provide a first estimate of the variogram. Soil samples were taken at 108 locations at a range of separating distances in a 9 ha field to explore small and medium scale spatial variation. Soil organic matter content, pH, particle size distribution, microbial biomass and the degradation and sorption of the herbicide, isoproturon, were determined for each soil sample. A large proportion of the spatial variation in isoproturon degradation and sorption occurred at sampling intervals less than 60 m, however, the sampling design did not resolve the variation present at scales greater than this. A sampling interval of 20-25 m should ensure that the main spatial structures are identified for isoproturon degradation rate and sorption without too great a loss of information in this field. PMID:19185962

Price, Oliver R; Oliver, Margaret A; Walker, Allan; Wood, Martin

2009-01-31

39

European soil sampling guidelines for soil pollution studies.  

PubMed

The soil sampling guidelines used in European countries (ESSG), as kindly provided by the national institutions which participated in the project, have been recorded, studied, evaluated and presented in this paper. The aim has been to ascertain what soil sampling guidelines exist in Europe; to detect similarities and differences (comparable results), advantages and deficiencies; to identify incompatible strategies and evaluate how methodologies might affect data quality; to investigate sources of deviations or uncertainties; to improve comparability and representativeness of soil sampling; to investigate the need for harmonised sampling guidelines; and to develop suggestions for standard operating procedures (SOP). Soil sampling guidelines throughout Europe differ as to whether they are applied by law, or used throughout the country. In some countries these are ISO/DIS related or based (ISO 10381-1, 1995; ISO 10381-2, 1995), or are produced by a scientific society or a standardisation body. As far as sampling strategy is concerned, not all sampling guidelines clearly describe the sampling scale, the specifications for contamination risk precautions, the sampling plan and protocol structure and the pre-analysis treatment of the soil samples. The purpose for sampling, in descending order of frequency, is soil pollution, soil fertilisation, general soil monitoring, background risk assessment, or else it is not specified. The majority of countries do not sample the top organic matter separately. Sampling depth is either related to the morphogenetic horizon or to ad hoc sampling depth, which is not specified in all cases. They suggest mass- and volume-related soil sampling, while the sampling pattern is not presented in all national guidelines. The criteria for area, site, unit, sub-unit, and point selection are mainly based on pedology and land use, following the history and pre-screening information or geology, or is site related. Some guidelines suggest the division of sampling units into sub-units. The sampling pattern is mainly grid sampling, grid and random sampling, or not mentioned. Sampling density inside the sampling unit either varies greatly or it is not mentioned, while the size of the sampling unit varies widely. Most guidelines require the collection of composite instead of simple samples, while some prefer sampling soil profiles. In the European SSG many technical details and steps are either not defined or vary, while in the pre-analysis treatment quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) approaches are used either both in the lab and in the field, or only in the field, or are not mentioned. The common points and the points in which harmonisation could be started or achieved are discussed. PMID:11213188

Theocharopoulos, S P; Wagner, G; Sprengart, J; Mohr, M E; Desaules, A; Muntau, H; Christou, M; Quevauviller, P

2001-01-01

40

Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology  

DOEpatents

Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation uses encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration. 1 fig.

Dahlgran, J.R.

1999-08-17

41

Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology  

DOEpatents

Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

Dahlgran, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

42

Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology  

DOEpatents

Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation are described using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

Dahlgran, James R.

1997-12-01

43

Soil sampling and analysis plan for the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility closure activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amendment V.13.B.b to the approved closure plan (DOE-RL 1995a) requires that a soil sampling and analysis plan be prepared and submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for review and approval. Amendment V.13.B.c requires that a diagram of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility unit (the treatment, storage, and disposal [TSD] unit) boundary that is to

Sonnichsen

1997-01-01

44

Selective solid-phase extraction using molecularly imprinted polymer for analysis of methamidophos in water and soil samples.  

PubMed

An analytical methodology for the analysis of methamidophos in water and soil samples incorporating a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction process using methamidophos-imprinted polymer was developed. Binding study demonstrated that the polymer exhibited excellent affinity and high selectivity to the methamidophos. Evidence was also found by FT-IR analysis that hydrogen bonding between the CO(2)H in the polymer cavities and the NH(2) and P=O of the template was the origin of methamidophos recognition. The use of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction improved the accuracy and precision of the GC method and lowered the limit of detection. The recovery of methamidophos extracted from a 10.0 g soil sample at the 100 ng/g spike level was 95.4%. The limit of detection was 3.8 ng/g. The recovery of methamidophos extracted from 100 mL tap and river water at 1 ng/mL spike level was 96.1% and 95.8%, and the limits of detection were 10 and 13 ng/L respectively. These molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedures enabled selective extraction of polar methamidophos successfully from water and soil samples, demonstrating the potential of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for rapid, selective, and cost-effective sample pretreatment. PMID:21389628

Shen, Zhong-Lan; Yuan, Dong; Su, Qing-De; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Yan-Ming

2011-03-07

45

Soil sampling and analysis plan for the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility closure activities  

SciTech Connect

Amendment V.13.B.b to the approved closure plan (DOE-RL 1995a) requires that a soil sampling and analysis plan be prepared and submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for review and approval. Amendment V.13.B.c requires that a diagram of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility unit (the treatment, storage, and disposal [TSD] unit) boundary that is to be closed, including the maximum extent of operation, be prepared and submitted as part is of the soil sampling and analysis plan. This document describes the sampling and analysis that is to be performed in response to these requirements and amends the closure plan. Specifically, this document supersedes Section 6.2, lines 43--46, and Section 7.3.6 of the closure plan. Results from the analysis will be compared to cleanup levels identified in the closure plan. These cleanup levels will be established using residential exposure assumptions in accordance with the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Cleanup Regulation (Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-340) as required in Amendment V.13.B.I. Results of all sampling, including the raw analytical data, a summary of analytical results, a data validation package, and a narrative summary with conclusions will be provided to Ecology as specified in Amendment V.13.B.e. The results and process used to collect and analyze the soil samples will be certified by a licensed professional engineer. These results and a certificate of closure for the balance of the TSD unit, as outlined in Chapter 7.0 of the approved closure plan (storage shed, concrete pad, burn building, scrubber, and reaction tanks), will provide the basis for a closure determination.

Sonnichsen, J.C.

1997-05-01

46

Guide to soil sampling and analysis on the national forests of the Inland Northwest United States. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

This guide gives general information on soil collection methods, sample analysis, and data translation. Then, for soil scientists or students working in the Inland Northwest United States, we look at particulars on sampling Andisols on National Forests in Idaho, Montana, Washington, and Oregon.

Page-Dumroese, D.; Harvey, A.; Jurgensen, M.

1995-10-01

47

Polytopic vector analysis of soil, dust, and serum samples to evaluate exposure sources of PCDD/Fs.  

PubMed

As part of the University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study, soil, household dust, and serum samples were collected from more than 750 households in five populations around the city of Midland and in Jackson and Calhoun Counties, Michigan, USA. Polytopic vector analysis, a type of receptor model, was applied to better understand the potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans found in these samples and to quantify the contributions of the sources in each matrix across populations. The results indicated that source signatures found in soil are similar to those found in dust, reflecting various combustion profiles, pentachlorophenol, and graphite electrode sludge. The profiles associated with contamination in the Tittabawassee River, likely related to historical discharges from the Dow Chemical Company facility in Midland, exhibited the largest differences among the regional populations sampled. Differences in serum source contributions among the study populations were consistent with some of the regional differences observed in soil samples. However, the age trends of these differences suggested that they are related to past exposures, rather than ongoing sources. PMID:22806962

Towey, Timothy P; Barabás, Noémi; Demond, Avery; Franzblau, Alfred; Garabrant, David H; Gillespie, Brenda W; Lepkowski, James; Adriaens, Peter

2012-08-09

48

Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described.

Fleischhauer, H.L.

1985-10-01

49

Laboratory analysis of soil hydraulic properties of CDBM 2 and CDBM 3 samples  

SciTech Connect

Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc. (DBS&A) was requested by Dr. Alan Stoker of Los Alamos National Laboratory to perform laboratory analysis for properties of CDBM 2 and CDBM 3 samples, as outlined in Subcontract No. 9-XTI-027EE-1. The scope of work included conducting tests for the following properties: Initial moisture content, dry bulk density, and calculated porosity; Saturated hydraulic conductivity; Moisture characteristics; Unsaturated hydraulic properties (calculated); and Transient outflow.

NONE

1992-12-01

50

Phobos-grunt soil sampling device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of the Phobos-Grunt spacecraft mission is to sample Phobos soil and delivery it to Earth. Soil sampling is performed by means of a soil sampling device. The article covers the structure of the soil sampling device, its main functions and operation cyclogram.

Alexashkin, S. N.; Zaiko, Yu. K.; Sutugin, S. E.; Kozlov, O. E.

2012-12-01

51

Soil-gas sampling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for soil-gas sampling is described, comprising: (a) at least one passive vapor collector comprising an assembly which contains sorbent materials, and (b) a means for protecting, inserting and retrieving the vapor collector from in-ground locations comprising at least one liquid water penetration resistant vapor-permeable porous flexible expanded polytetrafluoroethylene containers which encloses the passive vapor collector (a).

Bailey, C.E.; Stutman, M.B.

1993-08-17

52

DIRECT/DELAYED RESPONSE PROJECT: QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR SOIL SAMPLING, PREPARATION, AND ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) focuses on regions of the United States that have been identified as potentially sensitive to surface water acidification. The Northeastern Soil Survey includes the New England states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Conn...

53

Field Book for Describing and Sampling Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This field guide is useful for making or reading soil and site descriptions. The major sections address soil profile description, geomorphology, geology, soil taxonomy, soil map symbols, and field sampling strategies. Rock charts and timescales are provided to help with soil identification.

54

Soil pesticide residue degradation and soil sample management procedures for environmental forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall goal of this project was to examine soil sampling procedures of each state regulatory agency that regulates pesticide use in that state, and to offer a standardized soil sampling protocol. ^ A survey of each SLA was conducted to determine the types of containers that are typically used when collecting soil samples for pesticide residue analysis and, on

George N. Saxton

2004-01-01

55

Analysis of Mars analogue soil samples using solid-phase microextraction, organic solvent extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are robust and abundant molecules in extraterrestrial environments. They are found ubiquitously in the interstellar medium and have been identified in extracts of meteorites collected on Earth. PAHs are important target molecules for planetary exploration missions that investigate the organic inventory of planets, moons and small bodies. This study is part of an interdisciplinary preparation phase to search for organic molecules and life on Mars. We have investigated PAH compounds in desert soils to determine their composition, distribution and stability. Soil samples (Mars analogue soils) were collected at desert areas of Utah in the vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), in the Arequipa region in Peru and from the Jutland region of Denmark. The aim of this study was to optimize the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for fast screening and determination of PAHs in soil samples. This method minimizes sample handling and preserves the chemical integrity of the sample. Complementary liquid extraction was used to obtain information on five- and six-ring PAH compounds. The measured concentrations of PAHs are, in general, very low, ranging from 1 to 60 ng g-1. The texture of soils is mostly sandy loam with few samples being 100 % silt. Collected soils are moderately basic with pH values of 8-9 except for the Salten Skov soil, which is slightly acidic. Although the diverse and variable microbial populations of the samples at the sample sites might have affected the levels and variety of PAHs detected, SPME appears to be a rapid, viable field sampling technique with implications for use on planetary missions.

Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; Foing, B. H.; Kanik, I.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

2011-07-01

56

Reversed phase liquid chromatography trace analysis of pesticides in soil by on-column sample pumping large volume injection and UV detection.  

PubMed

The idea of utilization of one hydraulic line of a common commercial HPLC pump for direct on-column sample pumping injection of large sample volumes, 20 mL, was further investigated with the aim to develop multicomponent pesticides trace residues HPLC method in gram soil samples. Target pesticides group involve asulam, atrazine, 2,4-D, PCA, propazine, simazine, 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid, 2-(4-chloro-2-tolyloxy) propionic acid, chlortoluron, metoxuron, epoxiconazole. The results proved the applicability of this approach in experiments with mixtures of analytes at low ng/mL levels. Analysis of 20 mL of soil leachates and extracts of fortified soil samples containing these pesticides at the 10-50 ng/g level (in dry soil) revealed good figures of merit, also in the presence of large excess of humics. LODs achieved by detection at 220 nm evaluated from calibration runs of spiked soil extracts by Hubaux et al. method ranged from 5-12 ng per injected volume. For 20 mL large volume injection it represents 0.25-0.6 ng/mL of diluted soil extract, or 2.5-6 ng/mL of crude extract, or 6-5 ng/g dry soil. Recoveries of pesticides at concentration levels approaching half of maximum allowable concentration of pesticides in soil (100 ng/g) ranged from 85 to 98% with acceptable reproducibility, except asulam and metoxuron. PMID:19548212

Hutta, Milan; Chalányová, Mária; Halko, Radoslav; Góra, Róbert; Dokupilová, Svetlana; Rybár, Ivan

2009-06-01

57

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS OF SOIL OR HOUSE DUST SAMPLES USING CHLORPYRIFOS ELISA SAMPLES (BCO-L-1.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

This abstract is included for completeness of documentation, but this SOP was not used in the study. The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for analyzing both Stage II and Stage III soil and vacuum-cleaner collected house dust samples, and Stage III air samples u...

58

Microbiological Detection Systems for Molecular Analysis of Environmental Water and Soil Samples  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple detection systems are being targeted to track various species and genotypes of pathogens found in environmental samples with the overreaching goal of developing analytical separation and detection techniques for Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi, Cryptosporidium parvum,...

59

Bacterial diversity in a soil sample from a subtropical Australian environment as determined by 16S rDNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the genetic diver- sity of streptomycetes in an acid forested soil sample from Mt. Coot-tha, Brisbane, Australia, cells were mechani- cally lysed within the soil matrix and genomic DNA was isolated and purified. 16S ribosomal (r)DNA was am- plified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using one primer conserved for members of the domain Bacteria

E. STACK; BRANIYr W. LIESACX; B. M. GOEBEL

60

Analysis of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soil samples for the assessment of the average effective dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides namely 238Ra, 232Th and 40K are measured for soil samples collected from different locations of Faridkot and Mansa districts of Punjab. HPGe detector,\\u000a based on high-resolution gamma spectrometry system is used for the measurement of activity concentration. The range of activity\\u000a concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the soil from the studied

Rohit Mehra; Surinder Singh; Kulwant Singh

2009-01-01

61

Characterization of Soil Samples of Enzyme Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described are nine enzyme essays for distinguishing soil samples. Colorimetric methods are used to compare enzyme levels in soils from different sites. Each soil tested had its own spectrum of activity. Attention is drawn to applications of this technique in forensic science and in studies of soil fertility. (Author/AJ)|

Freeland, P. W.

1977-01-01

62

PREPARATION OF SOIL SAMPLING PROTOCOLS: SAMPLING TECHNIQUES AND STRATEGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The document serves as a companion document to the Soil Sampling Quality Assurance User's Guide, Second Edition. he two documents together provide methods, techniques, and procedures for designing a variety of soil measurement programs and associated Quality Assurance Program Pla...

63

Sampling for validation of digital soil maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in digital soil mapping around the world means that appropriate and efficient sampling strategies are needed for validation. Data used for calibrating a digital soil mapping model typically are non-random samples. In such a case we recommend collection of additional independent data and validation of the soil map by a design-based sampling strategy involving probability sampling and design-based

D. J. Brus; B. Kempen; G. B. M. Heuvelink

2011-01-01

64

Automated elemental analysis: A rapid and reliable but expensive measurement of total carbon and nitrogen in plant and soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a commercial automated CHN elemental analyzer was evaluated by comparison with classical wet methods and with another commercial analyzer. With proper standardization, calibration, and sample preparation, the Perkin?Elmer 2400 CHN elemental analyzer was shown to give reliable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) analyses of plant and soil materials. Precision was demonstrated by the consistent reference rice straw

R. R. Jimenez; J. K. Ladha

1993-01-01

65

Development testing of the chemical analysis automation polychlorinated biphenyl standard analysis method during surface soils sampling at the David Witherspoon 1630 site  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) project is developing standardized, software-driven, site-deployable robotic laboratory systems with the objective of lowering the per-sample analysis cost, decreasing sample turnaround time, and minimizing human exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials associated with DOE remediation projects. The first integrated system developed by the CAA project is designed to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content in soil matrices. A demonstration and development testing of this system was conducted in conjuction with surface soil characterization activities at the David Witherspoon 1630 Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The PCB system consists of five hardware standard laboratory modules (SLMs), one software SLM, the task sequence controller (TSC), and the human-computer interface (HCI). Four of the hardware SLMs included a four-channel Soxhlet extractor, a high-volume concentrator, a column cleanup, and a gas chromatograph. These SLMs performed the sample preparation and measurement steps within the total analysis protocol. The fifth hardware module was a robot that transports samples between the SLMs and the required consumable supplies to the SLMs. The software SLM is an automated data interpretation module that receives raw data from the gas chromatograph SLM and analyzes the data to yield the analyte information. The TSC is a software system that provides the scheduling, management of system resources, and the coordination of all SLM activities. The HCI is a graphical user interface that presents the automated laboratory to the analyst in terms of the analytical procedures and methods. Human control of the automated laboratory is accomplished via the HCI. Sample information required for processing by the automated laboratory is entered through the HCI. Information related to the sample and the system status is presented to the analyst via graphical icons.

Hunt, M.A.; Klatt, L.N.; Thompson, D.H. [and others

1998-02-01

66

Soil Studies: Physical and Chemical Analysis, Native and Retort Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains data from the physical and chemical analysis of native soils and retort soils from the Geokinetics Oil Shale Site, Uintah County, Utah. Four native soil types were sampled: loam, JR loam, Havre silt loam, and Luhon loam. Samples from ...

E. R. Olgeirson

1979-01-01

67

Sample pretreatment optimization for the analysis of short chain chlorinated paraffins in soil with gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Accurately quantifying short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in soil samples with gas chromatograph coupled with electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) is difficult because many other polychlorinated pollutants are present in the sample matrices. These pollutants (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and toxaphene) can cause serious interferences during SCCPs analysis with GC-MS. Four main columns packed with different adsorbents, including silica gel, Florisil and alumina, were investigated in this study to determine their performance for separating interfering pollutants from SCCPs. These experimental results suggest that the optimum cleanup procedure uses a silica gel column and a multilayer silica gel-Florisil composite column. This procedure completely separated 22 PCB congeners, 23 OCPs and three toxaphene congeners from SCCPs. However, p,p'-DDD, cis-nonachlor and o,p'-DDD were not completely removed and only 53% of the total toxaphene was removed. This optimized method was successfully and effectively applied for removing interfering pollutants from real soil samples. SCCPs in 17 soil samples from different land use areas within a suburban region were analyzed with the established method. The concentrations of SCCPs in these samples were between 7 and 541 ng g(-1) (mean: 84 ng g(-1)). Similar homologue SCCPs patterns were observed between the soil samples collected from different land use areas. In addition, lower chlorinated (Cl(6/7)) C(10)- and C(11)- SCCPs were the dominant congeners. PMID:23287694

Chen, Laiguo; Huang, Yumei; Han, Shuang; Feng, Yongbin; Jiang, Guo; Tang, Caiming; Ye, Zhixiang; Zhan, Wei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Sukun

2012-12-13

68

European soil sampling guidelines for soil pollution studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil sampling guidelines used in European countries (ESSG), as kindly provided by the national institutions which participated in the project, have been recorded, studied, evaluated and presented in this paper. The aim has been to ascertain what soil sampling guidelines exist in Europe; to detect similarities and differences (comparable results), advantages and deficiencies; to identify incompatible strategies and evaluate

S. P Theocharopoulos; G Wagner; J Sprengart; M.-E Mohr; A Desaules; H Muntau; M Christou; P Quevauviller

2001-01-01

69

Quantifying uncertainty of the reference sampling procedure used at Dornach under different soil conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reference sampling procedure, used in the CEEM soil project on a single test area at Dornach, had been applied under different soil conditions in a sampling proficiency test and in the Swiss national soil-monitoring network related to pollution (NABO). Methods of analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to quantify sampling and analytical uncertainty. The soil sampling procedure and the

P. Lischer; R. Dahinden; A. Desaules

2001-01-01

70

Selective solid-phase extraction using molecularly imprinted polymer for the analysis of polar organophosphorus pesticides in water and soil samples.  

PubMed

An analytical methodology for the analysis of four polar organophophorus pesticides (monocrotophos, mevinphos, phosphamidon, omethoate) in water and soil samples incorporating a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) process using a monocrotophos-imprinted polymer was developed. Binding study demonstrated that the polymer showed excellent affinity and high selectivity to monocrotophos. The MISPE procedure including the clean-up step to remove any interferences was optimized. The accuracy and selectivity of the MISPE process developed were verified using a non-imprinted (blank) polymer and a classical ENVI-18 cartridge as the SPE matrix during control experiments. The use of MISPE improved the accuracy and precision of the GC method and lowered the limit of detection. The recoveries of four polar organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) extracted from 1 L of river water at a 100 ng/L spike level were in the range of 77.5-99.1%. The recoveries of organophosphorus pesticides extracted from a 5-g soil sample at the 100 microg/kg level were in the range of 79.3-93.5%. The limit of detection varied from 10 to 32 ng/L in water and from 12 to 34 microg/kg in soil samples. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) enabled the selective extraction of four organophosphorus pesticides successfully from water and soil samples, demonstrating the potential of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for rapid, selective, and cost-effective sample pretreatment. PMID:16199222

Zhu, Xiaolan; Yang, Jun; Su, Qingde; Cai, Jibao; Gao, Yun

2005-10-28

71

Simultaneous analysis of endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, and their metabolites in natural soil and water samples using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Analysis of endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, and their nonpolar metabolites in extracts from environmental aqueous and soil samples was performed using a gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) technique. Full-scan GC-MS analysis showed poor sensitivity for some of the metabolites (endodiol and endosulfan ether). A multisegment MS/MS method was developed and MS/MS parameter isolation time, excitation time, excitation voltage, and maximum excitation energy were optimized for chosen precursor ions to enhance selectivity and sensitivity of the analysis. The use of MS/MS with optimized parameters quantified analytes with significantly higher accuracy, and detection limits were lowered to ~1/6th compared with the full-scan method. Co-eluting compounds, chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon, were also analyzed successfully in the MS/MS mode by choosing exclusive precursor ions. Analysis of soil and water phase samples from contaminated soil slurry bioreactors showed that the MS/MS method could provide more reliable estimates of these pesticide and metabolites (especially those present in low concentrations) by annulling interferences from soil organic matter. PMID:23595690

Tiwari, Manoj K; Guha, Saumyen

2013-04-18

72

Alternative Sample Preparation of Soils for Gamma Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Standard laboratory procedures for preparation of soil samples for analysis by gamma spectroscopy typically utilize drying and grinding. Drying of soil samples can be accomplished using an oven for 8 to 16 hours or by air for several days or weeks. Dried samples are then sieved and / or ground to facilitate homogenization. The sample preparation process for soils adds significant time for analysis by gamma spectroscopy as the actual analysis is normally on the order of 1 hour or less. An alternative approach has been developed that significantly reduces sample preparation time for soil samples and that provides comparable results to those obtained by the standard method. The alternative approach utilizes a moisture analyzer to determine the percent moisture in each individual sample, which takes 15 to 45 minutes for each sample. The actual weight of the sample is then corrected by the percent moisture in order to report the results on the equivalent dry weight. This is especially important for samples that are for decision making associated with field activities where time is of the essence. This alternative sample preparation approach provides fast and efficient sample preparation of soils for gamma spectroscopy without reducing data quality or imparting bias. (authors)

Downey, H.T. [MACTEC, Portland, ME (United States); Jung, P.; Scarborough, R. [Sevenson Environmental Services, Niagara Falls, NY (United States)

2008-07-01

73

Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley Floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. In addition to this SAP, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19&D2) presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation.

NONE

1995-03-01

74

Upscaling riparian DOC exports to streams in the boreal Krycklan Catchment, Northern Sweden: Combining snapshot samples of riparian soil water with terrain analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a major component of the biogeochemical cycle and plays an important role in the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Wetlands and riparian peat soils are the most prominent sources of stream DOC in boreal systems. In Krycklan, previous snapshot campaigns have revealed a considerable variability of stream DOC concentrations. This variability should be related to varying flow pathways and DOC concentrations of hydrologically connected wetlands and riparian soils. However, until today only little is known about the spatio-temporal patterns of flow pathways and soil water DOC concentrations in riparian peats and wetlands. Moreover, most currently available tools for terrain analysis are inadequate for deriving hydrological flow pathways in the riparian zone. In this study we present data from 6 snapshot campaigns at the Krycklan riparian observatory. The observatory is a unique experimental design strategy for monitoring the interaction between soil and stream water chemistry based on 13 riparian plots with lysimeters installed at 5 soil depths. More than 600 samples were analyzed and related to automatically recorded groundwater tables and stream discharge. A riparian flow model was established by extrapolating local groundwater-discharge relations to the entire catchment based on a novel terrain analysis routine. Combining the riparian DOC measurements with the riparian flow model allowed to upscale riparian DOC exports and, thus, to estimate stream DOC concentrations for the entire stream network. Preliminary results indicate a good agreement between predicted and observed stream DOC concentrations.

Grabs, Thomas; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin; Lyon, Steve; Seibert, Jan

2010-05-01

75

Geomorphic Analysis of Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are taken to a former plantation along a tidal river near Charleston, SC. The students are then shown how to sample and describe soils using an push-auger sampler, similar to those used in industry. After the demonstration, the students are taken to various locations on the plantation, including upland areas, wetlands, former agricultural areas, lowlands, and tidal marshes, to sample and make field descriptions of the various soils encountered. Students describe depths to horizons, soil color using Munsell Color Charts, soil texture, and any other pertinent properties. Students then prepare a formal technical write-up on the soils, their distribution, and how their sampling results compare to published soil data for the area. Designed for a geomorphology course Uses online and/or real-time data

Doyle, Briget

76

SOIL SAMPLING QUALITY ASSURANCE USER'S GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The inherent inseparability of a cost-effective Soil Sampling Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) Plan from the objectives of a soil monitoring program is emphasized. Required precisions and confidence levels for the data cannot be defined until the decisions which will be ...

77

Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. It is an addendum to a previously issued document, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19&D2), which presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation. The strategy presented in the SAP is to divide the investigation into three component parts: a large-scale characterization of the floodplain; a fine-scale characterization of the floodplain beginning with a known contaminated location; and a stream sediment characterization. During the large-scale and the fine-scale characterizations, soil and biota samples (i.e., small mammals, earthworms, and vegetation) will be collected in order to characterize the nature and extent of floodplain soil contamination and the impact of this contamination on floodplain biota. The fine-scale characterization will begin with an investigation of a site corresponding to the location noted in the Remedial Investigation Work Plan (ES/ER-19&D2) as an area where uranium and PCBs are concentrated in discrete strata. During this fine-scale characterization, a 1 m deep soil profile excavation will be dug into the creek berm, and individual soil strata in the excavation will be screened for alpha radiation, PCBs, and VOCs. After the laboratory analysis results are received, biota samples will be collected in the vicinity of those locations.

NONE

1994-11-01

78

Actinide Recovery Method for Large Soil Samples  

SciTech Connect

A new Actinide Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides in very large soil samples. Diphonix Resin(r) is used eliminate soil matrix interferences and preconcentrate actinides after soil leaching or soil fusion. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin(r). After the resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be easily loaded onto small extraction-chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin(r), U-TEVA Resin(r) or TRU Resin(r) (Eichrom Industries). This method enables the application of small, selective extraction-columns to recover actinides from very large soil samples with high selectivity, consistent tracer recoveries and minimal liquid waste.

Maxwell, S.L. III [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Nichols, S.

1998-11-01

79

Geochemistry - Soils Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students conduct a geochemical analysis of a soil. Each group chooses one of the following analyses: conductivity buffer solution, conductivity, acidity, mineralogy, grain size, or loss on ignition. As this lab falls somewhere between the middle and end of the course, students are versed in various chemical methods. This lab reinforces those skills while forcing students to organize their time and be patient with each other while conducting careful lab science. The samples used for this lab were from a Bronze-Age archaeological site in Kazakhstan, but any samples could be substituted. To encourage free-thinking concerning their representations (and interpretations in the follow-up lab), as little background information as possible was given.

Fadem, Cynthia

80

SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) needs innovative methods and techniques to solve new and difficult sampling and analytical problems found at the numerous Superfund sites throughout th...

81

Sampling for Chemical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review, designed to make analysts aware of uncertainties introduced into analytical measurements during sampling, is organized under these headings: general considerations; theory; standards; and applications related to mineralogy, soils, sediments, metallurgy, atmosphere, water, biology, agriculture and food, medical and clinical areas, oil…

Kratochvil, Byron; And Others

1984-01-01

82

Sampling for Chemical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review, designed to make analysts aware of uncertainties introduced into analytical measurements during sampling, is organized under these headings: general considerations; theory; standards; and applications related to mineralogy, soils, sediments, metallurgy, atmosphere, water, biology, agriculture and food, medical and clinical areas, oil…

Kratochvil, Byron; And Others

1984-01-01

83

Groundwater Sampling and Soil Gas Data Analysis, Distler Brickyard Superfund Site, Hardin County, Kentucky -- June - August 2000  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of groundwater and soil gas sampling conducted at the Distler Brickyard Site, Hardin County, Kentucky, June-August, 2000. The purpose of the sampling activities was to address remaining data gaps regarding the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) for remediation of chloroethene/ane contamination. Specifically, data gaps fall into four categories: 1) effect of seasonal recharge on contaminant concentrations, 2) geochemical conditions in the Fine Grained Alluvium (FGA), 3) conditions along the flowpath between Wells GW-11 and MW-3, and 4) the extent of aerobic degradation in the Coarse Grained Alluvium (CGA). A data collection strategy composed of both groundwater sampling and passive soil vapor sampling devices (Gore-Sorbers?) was used. The Gore-Sorber? technology was used to collect data from the FGA, which because of its low hydraulic conductivity and variable saturation makes collection of groundwater samples problematic. Gore-Sorbers were deployed in 15 wells, most of them being in the FGA, and groundwater samples were collected in 17 wells, which were mostly in the CGA. Both sampling methods were utilized in a subset of wells (7) in order to determine the general comparability of results obtained from each method. Results indicate that water levels in both the FGA and CGA were higher in June-August 2000 than in October 1999, likely due to increased infiltration of precipitation through the FGA during the wetter months. Redox conditions in the FGA and downgradient CGA were iron-reducing, less reducing than in October-1999. In general, concentrations of chloroethenes/anes were higher in June-August 2000 than October 1999. Trichloroethene (TCE) was present at concentrations as high as 65 µg/L in the FGA and 19 µg/L in the CGA. This is substantially higher than the maximum concentration in October 1999 of 11 µg/L. The following conclusions were drawn from these data collection activities: 1) two potential contaminant source areas remain at the site, 2) redox conditions are less reducing than October 1999, 3) anaerobic reductive dechlorination (ARD) continues to take place in the FGA, and 4) seasonal fluctuations in recharge affect water levels, redox conditions, contaminant concentrations, and ARD reactions. Possible final remedial response actions include 1) monitored natural attenuation, 2) monitored natural attenuation with physical source removal, or 3) monitored natural attenuation with source removal via enhanced ARD. All of these remedies will require the collection of additional data in three areas: 1) the nature and extent of the GW-3/UDBW-11 source area and the flux rate and fate of contaminants from it, 2) the magnitude and timing of recharge fluctuations, and 3) the local hydraulic gradient and groundwater flow directions. Each remedy may also have specific additional data collection requirements. This document will serve as the basis for the selection of the appropriate remedy by the state and federal regulators.

Martin, Jennifer Pauline; Peterson, Lance Nutting; Taylor, C. J.

2000-11-01

84

Quantitative evaluation of the CEEM soil sampling intercomparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the CEEM soil project was to compare and to test the soil sampling and sample preparation guidelines used in the member states of the European Union and Switzerland for investigations of background and large-scale contamination of soils, soil monitoring and environmental risk assessments. The results of the comparative evaluation of the sampling guidelines demonstrated that, in soil

G Wagner; P Lischer; S Theocharopoulos; H Muntau; A Desaules; P. h Quevauviller

2001-01-01

85

Non-destructive Analysis of Oil-Contaminated Soil Core Samples by X-ray Computed Tomography and Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry: a Case Study  

PubMed Central

Non-destructive measurements of contaminated soil core samples are desirable prior to destructive measurements because they allow obtaining gross information from the core samples without touching harmful chemical species. Medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) and time-domain low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry were applied to non-destructive measurements of sandy soil core samples from a real site contaminated with heavy oil. The medical CT visualized the spatial distribution of the bulk density averaged over the voxel of 0.31?×?0.31?×?2 mm3. The obtained CT images clearly showed an increase in the bulk density with increasing depth. Coupled analysis with in situ time-domain reflectometry logging suggests that this increase is derived from an increase in the water volume fraction of soils with depth (i.e., unsaturated to saturated transition). This was confirmed by supplementary analysis using high-resolution micro-focus X-ray CT at a resolution of ?10 ?m, which directly imaged the increase in pore water with depth. NMR transverse relaxation waveforms of protons were acquired non-destructively at 2.7 MHz by the Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence. The nature of viscous petroleum molecules having short transverse relaxation times (T2) compared to water molecules enabled us to distinguish the water-saturated portion from the oil-contaminated portion in the core sample using an M0–T2 plot, where M0 is the initial amplitude of the CPMG signal. The present study demonstrates that non-destructive core measurements by medical X-ray CT and low-field NMR provide information on the groundwater saturation level and oil-contaminated intervals, which is useful for constructing an adequate plan for subsequent destructive laboratory measurements of cores.

Mitsuhata, Yuji; Nishiwaki, Junko; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Utsuzawa, Shin; Jinguuji, Motoharu

2010-01-01

86

Determination of support in soil sampling  

SciTech Connect

Short-range variation of measurements of a soil characteristic is a function of the support (i.e., size, shape, and orientation of the physical sample taken at a sample point) of the soil samples. This short-range variance often shows up as a substantial component of the ''nugget effect'' in experimental semivariograms or estimated generalized covariance functions. Proper choice of support may substantially reduce short-range variance (or nugget) of measurements made at sample points and thereby reduce estimation variance in point or block kriging based on these measurements. Appropriate variance formulas and an example are given for determination of support when support is an array of vertical cores (or bucket auger samples) of equal depth and diameter.

Starks, T.H.

1986-08-01

87

GEOSTATISTICAL STRATEGY FOR SOIL SAMPLING: THE SURVEY AND THE CENSUS  

EPA Science Inventory

This article develops a soil sampling strategy for spatially correlated variables using the tools of geostatistical analysis. With a minimum of equations, the logic of geostatistical analysis is traced from the modeling of a semi-variogram to the output isomaps of pollution estim...

88

Geostatistical strategy for soil sampling: the survey and the census  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soil sampling strategy for spatially correlated variables using the tools of geostatistical analysis is developed. With a minimum of equations, the logic of geostatistical analysis is traced from the modeling of a semi-variogram to the output isomaps of pollution estimates and their standard deviations. These algorithms provide a method to balance precision, accuracy, and costs. Their axiomatic assumptions dictate

George T. Flatman; Angelo A. Yfantis

1984-01-01

89

Optimizing the soil sample collection strategy to identify maximum volatile organic compound concentrations in soil borings  

SciTech Connect

The primary focus of the initial stages of a remedial investigation is to collect useful data for source identification and determination of the extent of soil contamination. To achieve this goal, soil samples should be collected at locations where the maximum concentration of contaminants exist. This study was conducted to determine the optimum strategy for selecting soil sample locations within a boring. Analytical results from soil samples collected during the remedial investigation of a Department of Defense Superfund site were used for the analysis. Trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE) results were compared with organic vapor monitor (OVM) readings, lithologies, and organic carbon content to determine if these parameters can be used to choose soil sample locations in the field that contain the maximum concentration of these analytes within a soil boring or interval. The OVM was a handheld photoionization detector (PID) for screening the soil core to indicate areas of VOC contamination. The TCE and PCE concentrations were compared across lithologic contacts and within each lithologic interval. The organic content used for this analysis was visually estimated by the geologist during soil logging.

Siebenmann, K. (Radian Corp., Sacramento, CA (United States))

1993-10-01

90

Sample analysis at Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next landed missions to Mars, such as the planned Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars, will require sample analysis capabilities refined well beyond what has been flown to date. A key science objective driving this requirement is the determination of the carbon inventory of Mars, and particularly the detection of organic compounds. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite consists

P. Coll; M. Cabane; P. R. Mahaffy; W. B. Brinckerhoff

2004-01-01

91

Non-destructive Analysis of Oil-Contaminated Soil Core Samples by X-ray Computed Tomography and Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry: a Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-destructive measurements of contaminated soil core samples are desirable prior to destructive measurements because they\\u000a allow obtaining gross information from the core samples without touching harmful chemical species. Medical X-ray computed\\u000a tomography (CT) and time-domain low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry were applied to non-destructive measurements\\u000a of sandy soil core samples from a real site contaminated with heavy oil. The

Yoshito Nakashima; Yuji Mitsuhata; Junko Nishiwaki; Yoshishige Kawabe; Shin Utsuzawa; Motoharu Jinguuji

2011-01-01

92

Optimal sampling and sample preparation for NIR-based prediction of field scale soil properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The representation of local soil variability with acceptable accuracy and precision is dependent on the spatial sampling strategy and can vary with a soil property. Therefore, soil mapping can be expensive when conventional soil analyses are involved. Visible near infrared spectroscopy (vis-NIR) is considered a cost-effective method due to labour savings and relative accuracy. However, savings may be offset by the costs associated with number of samples and sample preparation. The objective of this study was to find the most optimal way to predict field scale total organic carbon (TOC) and texture. To optimize the vis-NIR calibrations the effects of sample preparation and number of samples on the predictive ability of models with regard to the spatial distribution of TOC and texture were investigated. Conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHs) method was used to select 125 sampling locations from an agricultural field in Denmark, using electromagnetic induction (EMI) and digital elevation model (DEM) data. The soil samples were scanned in three states (field moist, air dried and sieved to 2 mm) with a vis-NIR spectrophotometer (LabSpec 5100, ASD Inc., USA). The Kennard-Stone algorithm was applied to select 50 representative soil spectra for the laboratory analysis of TOC and texture. In order to investigate how to minimize the costs of reference analysis, additional smaller subsets (15, 30 and 40) of samples were selected for calibration. The performance of field calibrations using spectra of soils at the three states as well as using different numbers of calibration samples was compared. Final models were then used to predict the remaining 75 samples. Maps of predicted soil properties where generated with Empirical Bayesian Kriging. The results demonstrated that regardless the state of the scanned soil, the regression models and the final prediction maps were similar for most of the soil properties. Nevertheless, as expected, models based on spectra from field moist soils showed the lowest predictive ability with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV): 0.62%, 1.51%, 1.08%, 2.4% for TOC, clay, silt and sand respectively, resulting also in less detailed maps. The best calibration models for TOC, clay and silt were obtained from air dried soils (RMSECV: 0.43%, 1.18%, 0.99%, 2.55%, respectively). Sieving improved the results of sand calibration only (RMSECV=2.13%). Despite the positive effect of drying the soils, very little improvement was gained and on average accounted for a 19% decrease in RMSECV, with the highest decrease in RMSECV reported for TOC (30%). In general, no substantial effect of sampling intensity on the predictive ability of calibration models was found. The only significant differences were recorded for sand calibrations between models based on 50 and 15 moist soil samples and for silt between models based on 50 and 15 sieved soil samples. The results from this study show that one can produce acceptable vis-NIR predictions without the necessity of sieving or even drying the soils and using as few as 15 samples for field calibrations. Nevertheless, the selection of sample preparation and number of samples is dependent on soil properties and should be adjusted to the precision needed.

Knadel, Maria; Peng, Yi; Schelde, Kirsten; Thomsen, Anton; Deng, Fan; Humlekrog Greve, Mogens

2013-04-01

93

GICHD mine dog testing project - soil sample results #4.  

SciTech Connect

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fourth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in April 2003 and Sarajevo, Bosnia collected in May 2003.

Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Wood, Tyson B.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

2003-08-01

94

GICHD Mine Dog Testing Project - Soil Sample Results No.3  

SciTech Connect

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the third batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in October 2002.

PHELAN, JAMES M.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; ARCHULETA, LUISA M.

2003-03-01

95

GICHD mine dog testing project : soil sample results #5.  

SciTech Connect

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fifth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in June 2003.

Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

2004-01-01

96

Sampling for High-Resolution Soil Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When doing sensing for high-resolution soil mapping, one has to decide on the disposition of the sensor, which is a special\\u000a case of spatial sampling. To optimise the pattern of measurements, a cost model and a quality model are proposed. The quality\\u000a model reflects the coverage of the geographic space, and this is illustrated with some practical experiments. Optimisation\\u000a of

J. J. de Gruijter; A. B. McBratney; J. Taylor

97

Soils as samples for the split Hopkinson bar  

SciTech Connect

Soils frequently exhibit one or more of the following characteristics which complicadte analysis of data from split Hopkinson bar tests or make test setup and execution difficult: low wave speed, high attenuation of acoustic energy, or insignificant structural strength. Low wave speed invalidates the assumption that the sample is deformed uniformly by the load at early times; but, use of a Lagrangian wave propagation analysis permits derivation of useful information from the standard suite of data. Use of gauges within the sample would facilitate this technique. High attenuation requires thin samples, which restricts the strain paths which can be achieved. The weakness of noncohesive soils presents difficulties in preparation, handling and control of boundary conditions. One simple solution is to support the sample in a rigid sleeve; this results in a uniaxial strain experiment so that the results are directly comparable to shock wave data. 10 references, 7 figures.

Gaffney, E.S.; Brown, J.A.; Felice, C.W.

1985-01-01

98

Variograms of Ancillary Data to Aid Sampling for Soil Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide reliable estimates for mapping soil properties for precision agriculture requires intensive sampling and costly laboratory analyses. If the spatial structure of ancillary data, such as yield, digital information from aerial photographs, and soil electrical conductivity (EC) measurements, relates to that of soil properties they could be used to guide the sampling intensity for soil surveys. Variograms of permanent

Ruth Kerry; Margaret A. Oliver

2003-01-01

99

Analysis of water and soil from the wetlands of Upper Three Runs Creek. Volume 2B: Analytical data packages, January--February 1992 sampling  

SciTech Connect

Shallow water and soils along Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and associated wetlands between SRS Road F and Cato Road were sampled for nonradioactive and radioactive constituents. The sampling program is associated with risk evaluations being performed for various regulatory documents in these areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC selected fifty sampling sites bordering the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB), and the Sanitary Landfill (SL). The analytical results from this study provided information on the water and soil quality in UTRC and its associated wetlands. The analytical results from this investigation indicated that the primary constituents and radiological indicators detected in the shallow water and soils were tritium, gross alpha, radium 226, total radium and strontium 90. This investigation involved the collection of shallow water samples during the Fall of 1991 and the Spring of 1992 at fifty (50) sampling locations. Sampling was performed during these periods to incorporate high and low water table periods. Samples were collected from three sections along UTRC denoted as Phase I (MWMF), Phase II (FHSB) and Phase III (SL). One vibracored soil sample was also collected in each phase during the Fall of 1991. This document is compiled of experimental data obtained from the sampling procedures.

Haselow, L.A.; Rogers, V.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Riordan, C.J. [Metcalf and Eddy (United States); Eidson, G.W.; Herring, M.K. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

1992-08-01

100

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS PROTOCOLS  

SciTech Connect

Radiological sampling and analyses are performed to collect data for a variety of specific reasons covering a wide range of projects. These activities include: Effluent monitoring; Environmental surveillance; Emergency response; Routine ambient monitoring; Background assessments; Nuclear license termination; Remediation; Deactivation and decommissioning (D&D); and Waste management. In this chapter, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs at nuclear operating facilities and radiological sampling and analysis plans for remediation and D&D activities will be discussed.

Jannik, T; P Fledderman, P

2007-02-09

101

NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, AND PAH ANALYSIS (F05)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to outline the necessary steps for sampling soil from the yard, the food garden, and the foundation of the respondent's home. Composite samples were sent to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to be sieved and divided. One fraction was analyzed for me...

102

ASEPTIC SAMPLING OF UNCONSOLIDATED HEAVING SOILS IN SATURATED ZONES  

EPA Science Inventory

Collecting undisturbed subsurface soil samples in noncohesive, heaving sandy environments below the water table has been extremely difficult using conventional soil sampling equipment. everal modifications of the conventional hollow-stem auger coring procedures were adapted, whic...

103

Improved cryogenic coring device for sampling wetland soils  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the third in a series on the design and construction (Knaus 1986) and improvements (Knaus and Cahoon 1990) of a cryogenic soil-coring device (cryocorer). Freezing wetland soils in place during sampling eliminates compaction, dewatering, and loss of flocculent material at the water-sediment interface. The cryocorer is suitable for sampling soils of emergent marsh and mangrove forests as well as shallow water bottoms, although it has been used primarily for the former. A small-diameter frozen soil core minimizes disruption of the surface, can be evaluated immediately for overall quality, and can be used to measure soil profiles and subsample for further analysis. The cryocorer continues to be used in studies of wetland accretion and soil bulk density throughout the US. Concomitant with the increased use of the device, improvements in cryocorer design and application have occurred. Reported here are improvements in design that have been made since 1992 with references to wetland research in which the cryocorer has been used extensively.

Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C. [National Biological Service, Lafayette, LA (United States); Knaus, R.M. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1996-09-01

104

Analysis of triazolopyrimidine herbicides in soils using field-enhanced sample injection-coelectroosmotic capillary electrophoresis combined with solid-phase extraction.  

PubMed

In this work, a combined methodology using off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE), on-line field-enhanced sample injection (FESI) and coelectroosmotic capillary electrophoresis with UV detection (CE-UV) is developed for the trace analysis of five triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilide pesticides (i.e., flumetsulam, florasulam, cloransulam-methyl, diclosulam and metosulam). An adequate background electrolyte (BGE) was obtained for the separation of these pesticides using hexadimethrine bromide (HDB) as electroosmotic flow (EOF) modifier. This BGE consisted of 0.00042% HDB, 11 mM formic acid, 16 mM ammonium carbonate and 2.5 mM alpha-CD solution at pH 7.6. The use of this running buffer together with the FESI preconcentration method provided limits of detection (LODs) in the low microg/L range (i.e., between 13.0 and 31.5 microg/L). The optimized FESI-CE-UV method was combined with off-line SPE using C(18) cartridges and applied to the determination of the selected group of pesticides in soil samples. Recovery percentages ranged between 50 and 84% in these samples with LODs between 18 and 34 microg/kg. This work shows the great possibilities of the combined use of SPE-FESI-CE-UV to improve CE sensitivity allowing the achievement of LODs similar to other analytical techniques as GC or HPLC. PMID:16212970

Hernández-Borges, Javier; García-Montelongo, Francisco J; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

2005-10-05

105

Use of Gamma Ray Spectroscopy Measurements for Assessment of the Average Effective Dose from the Analysis of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in Soil Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides: 238Ra , 232Th, and 40K were measured in soil samples collected from two districts of the Punjab. A HPGe detector, based on high-resolution gamma spectrometry system was used for their measurement. The range of activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in the soil from the studied areas varied from 25 Bq·kg-1 to

Rohit Mehra

2009-01-01

106

Sample analysis at Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next landed missions to Mars, such as the planned Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars, will require sample analysis capabilities refined well beyond what has been flown to date. A key science objective driving this requirement is the determination of the carbon inventory of Mars, and particularly the detection of organic compounds. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite consists of a group of tightly-integrated experiments that would analyze samples delivered directly from a coring drill or by a facility sample processing and delivery (SPAD) mechanism. SAM consists of an advanced GC/MS system and a laser desorption mass spectrometer (LDMS). The combined capabilities of these techniques can address Mars science objectives with much improved sensitivity, resolution, and analytical breadth over what has been previously possible in situ. The GC/MS system analyzes the bulk composition (both molecular and isotopic) of solid-phase and atmospheric samples. Solid samples are introduced with a highly flexible chemical derivatization/pyrolysis subsystem (Pyr/GC/MS) that is significantly more capable than the mass spectrometers on Viking. The LDMS analyzes local elemental and molecular composition in solid samples vaporized and ionized with a pulsed laser. We will describe how each of these capabilities has particular strengths that can achieve key measurement objectives at Mars. In addition, the close codevelopment of the GC/MS and LDMS along with a sample manipulation system enables the the sharing of resources, the correlation of results, and the utilization of certain approaches that would not be possible with separate instruments. For instance, the same samples could be analyzed with more than one technique, increasing efficiency and providing cross-checks for quantification. There is also the possibility of combining methods, such as by permitting TOF-MS analyses of evolved gas (Pyr/EI-TOF-MS) or GC/MS analyses of laser evaporated gas (LD-GC/MS).

Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Sam Team

107

Effect of sampling depth on bicarbonate soil phosphorus test values  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three field experiments involving five levels of application of phosphorus (P) on three different lateritic ironstone gravel soils in south-western Australia, soil samples were collected from dry soil, one year after P application in one experiment or two years after in the other two experiments, to measure the amount of P extracted by sodium bicarbonate (soil test P). The

M. D. A. Bolland

1992-01-01

108

Germanium-76 Sample Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, and the first one gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on April 24, 2011. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility, a DOE user facility at PNNL, was used to make the required isotopic and chemical purity measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The results of this first analysis are reported here.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua

2011-04-01

109

NID Copper Sample Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

2011-09-12

110

DIRECT/DELAYED RESPONSE PROJECT: FIELD OPERATIONS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE REPORT FOR SOIL SAMPLING AND PREPARATION IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES. VOLUME 1. SAMPLING  

EPA Science Inventory

The Direct/Delayed Response Project Soil Survey includes the mapping, characterization, sampling, preparation, and analysis of soils in order to assess watershed response to acidic deposition within various regions of the United States. Soil samples collected by sampling crews in...

111

NID Copper Sample Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

2011-02-01

112

VALIDATION OF A NEW SOIL VOC SAMPLER: PERFORMANCE OF THE EN CORE SAMPLER AT -7 C AND -21 C AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACCU CORE SUBSURFACE SAMPLING/STORAGE DEVICE FOR VOC ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core{reg_sign} sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. An ASTM International (ASTM) standard practice, D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, describes use of the En Core sampler to collect and store a soil sample of approximately five grams or 25 grams for volatile organic analysis. Prior to the study described in this report, D 6418 specified sample storage in the En Core sampler at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours; at -12 {+-} 2 C for up to 14 days; or at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -12 {+-} 2 C for up to five days to minimize loss of volatile compounds due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. The study described in this report was conducted to evaluate the performance of the disposable En Core sampler to store low concentrations of VOCs in soil at -7 {+-} 1 C and -21 {+-} 2 C. In the study, data on the performance of the En Core sampler to store soils spiked with low-level concentrations of VOCs at 4 {+-} 2 C for 48 hours followed by storage at -7 {+-} 1 C for five days, at -7 {+-} 1 C for 14 days, at 4 {+-} 2 C for 48 hours followed by storage at -21 {+-} 2 C for five days, and at -21 {+-} 2 C for 14 days were generated. Based on these data, a new revision of D 6418 was prepared and balloted in ASTM. The new revision, which was approved on February 1, 2004, now specifies sample storage in the En Core sampler at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours; -7 to -21 C for up to 14 days; or 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -7 to -21 C for up to five days. The En Core sampler is designed to collect soil samples for VOC analysis at the soil surface. To date, a sampling tool for collecting and storing subsurface soil samples for VOC analysis does not exist. Development of a subsurface VOC sampling/storage device was initiated in 1999. This device, which is called the Accu Core sampler, is designed so that a soil sample can be collected below the surface using a dual-tube penetrometer and transported to the laboratory for analysis in the same container. During the past year, prototype devices have been tested for their performance in storing soil samples containing low concentrations of VOCs. Evaluation of the various Accu Core prototypes and the design selected for additional validation testing are described in this report.

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

2004-05-01

113

226Ra, 232Th and 40K analysis in soil samples from some areas of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh, India using gamma ray spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity concentrations and the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radio nuclides viz. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in soil samples collected from some areas of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh, using gamma ray spectrometry. The soil activity ranges from 18.22 to 90.30Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, 34.80 to 124.68Bqkg-1 for 232Th and 80.42 to 181.41Bqkg-1 for 40K with

Surinder Singh; Asha Rani; Rakesh Kumar Mahajan

2005-01-01

114

U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF SOIL/HOUSE DUST SAMPLES FOR GC/MS ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDES AND PAH (BCO-L-28.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe procedures for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of pesticides and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retriev...

115

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF METALS FROM SOIL, DUST, AIR FILTER, AND SURFACE AND DERMAL SAMPLES FOR AA (GRAPHITE FURNACE OR FLAME) OR ICP-AES ANALYSIS (BCO-L-3.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe the acid digestion of soil, house dust, air filter, and surface or dermal wipe samples for analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emissions spectrometry (ICP-AES) and/or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) or fl...

116

Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Kocaeli basin, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city of Kocaeli is in the western part of Anatolia in Turkey and has a population of approximately 1.000.000. There is no information about radioactivity in the Kocaeli soils samples so far. For this reason, the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in soil samples from 27 different sampling stations in Kocaeli Basin and its surroundings have been determined. The

B. Karakelle; N. Öztürk; A. Köse; A. Varinlio?brevelu; A. Y. Erkol; F. Yilmaz

2002-01-01

117

Determination of ammonium in soil extracts and water samples by an ammonia electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interference and recovery tests reported indicate that the Orion ammonia electrode can be used satisfactorily for determination of ammonium in soil extracts and water samples. The electrode method of analysis described is rapid, simple, and precise, and its results agree closely with those obtained by a distillation?titration method of determining ammonium in soil extracts and water samples.

W. L. Banwart; M. A. Tabatabai; J. M. Bremner

1972-01-01

118

A Comparison of Soil-Water Sampling Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The representativeness of soil pore water extracted by suction lysimeters in ground-water monitoring studies is a problem that often confounds interpretation of measured data. Current soil water sampling techniques cannot identify the soil volume from which a pore water sample is extracted, neither macroscopic, microscopic, or preferential flowpath. This research was undertaken to compare values of extracted suction lysimeters samples from intact soil cores with samples obtained by the direct extraction methods to determine what portion of soil pore water is sampled by each method. Intact soil cores (30 centimeter (cm) diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites - a sandy soil near Altamonte Springs, Florida and a clayey soil near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. Isotopically labeled water (O18? - analyzed by mass spectrometry) and bromide concentrations (KBr- - measured using ion chromatography) from water samples taken by suction lysimeters was compared with samples obtained by direct extraction methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Water samples collected by direct extraction were about 0.25 ? more negative (depleted) than that collected by suction lysimeter values from a sandy soil and about 2-7 ? more negative from a well structured clayey soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well-structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced previous pore water, suction lysimeters will collect a representative sample of soil pore water from the sampled depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeter should be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The data also indicate that each extraction method be use to sample a different component of soil-pore water. Centrifugation can be used with success, particularly for efficient sampling of large areas. Azeotropic distillation is more appropriate when strict qualitative and quantitative data on sorption/desorption and various types of kinetic studies may be needed.

Tindall, J. A.; Figueroa-Johnson, M.; Friedel, M. J.

2007-12-01

119

Selective trace analysis of sulfonylurea herbicides in water and soil samples based on solid-phase extraction using a molecularly imprinted polymer.  

PubMed

A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized using the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl (MSM) as a template, 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid as a functional monomer, divinylbenzene as a cross-linker, and dichloromethane as a porogen. This polymer was used as a solid-phase extraction material for the quantitative enrichment of five sulfonylureas (nicosulfuron, thifensulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, sulfometuron-methyl, and chlorsulfuron) in natural water and soil samples and off-line coupled to a reversed-phase HPLC/diode array detection (HPLC/DAD). Washing solvent was optimized in terms of kind and volume for removing the matrix constituents nonspecifically adsorbed on the MIP. It has been shown that the nonspecific binding ability of the sulfonylureas to the polymer largely increased along with increasing the concentration of Ca2+ ions in the water sample, whereas complexation of divalent ions with EDTA eliminated this interference completely. The stability of MIP was tested by consecutive percolation of water sample, and it was shown that the performance of the MIP did not vary even after 200 enrichment and desorption cycles. Recoveries of the five sulfonylureas extracted from 1 L of tap water and surface water samples such as river water and rainwater at a 50 ng/L spike level were not lower than 96%. The recoveries of sulfonylureas extracted from 10-g soil sample at the 50 microg/kg level were in the range of 71-139%. Depending on the particular compound, the limit of detection varied from 2 to 14 ng/L in water and from 5 to 12 microg/kg in soil samples. The MIP was also compared with a commercially available C-18 column and an immunoaffinity support with encapsulated polyclonal anti-MSM antibodies in sol-gel glass. PMID:12521169

Zhu, Qing-Zhi; Degelmann, Petra; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

2002-12-15

120

Geostatistical Analysis of Palmerton Soil Survey Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes statistical and geostatistical analyses of data from a soil sampling survey. Soil sampling was performed, in October and November 1985, to obtain information on the level, extent, and spatial structure of metal pollution of the soil in...

T. H. Starks A. R. Sparks K. W. Brown

1987-01-01

121

Hopping diffusion of helium isotopes from samples of lunar soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a detailed study of diffusion of helium isotopes from a sample of lunar soil (weight, 3.3 mg; bulk grain size, <74 ?m; sampling depth, 118 cm in a 1.6-m-long core of lunar soil brought from the Moon by the Soviet automatic station Luna-24). The studies have been performed using step heating in the temperature range 300-1000°C in combination with a mass spectrometric isotope analysis of helium extracted at each temperature step. It has been demonstrated that the diffusion does not obey Fick’s law, which should be attributed to a large number of radiation damages in crystals of lunar soil minerals and can be described in terms of the formalism accepted for jump diffusion. The diffusion activation energy for both helium isotopes (4He, 3He) has been found to be identical and equal to 0.5 eV, and the frequency factors amount to 0.51 and 0.59 s-1, respectively. The random errors ? in the determination of these parameters are approximately equal to 5%. The lunar soil delivered to the Earth loses helium during the storage. At the beginning of the storage at room temperature, one gram of the lunar material under investigation loses approximately 3 × 109 helium atoms every second. It has been revealed that the jump diffusion of helium exhibits a strong isotopic effect: the light isotope 3He escapes at substantially higher rates. In order to prevent helium losses accompanied by isotope fractionation, the brought lunar soil should be stored at a low temperature.

Anufriev, G. S.

2010-10-01

122

Study on a pattern classification method of soil quality based on simplified learning sample dataset  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on the massive soil information in current soil quality grade evaluation, this paper constructed an intelligent classification approach of soil quality grade depending on classical sampling techniques and disordered multiclassification Logistic regression model. As a case study to determine the learning sample capacity under certain confidence level and estimation accuracy, and use c-means algorithm to automatically extract the simplified learning sample dataset from the cultivated soil quality grade evaluation database for the study area, Long chuan county in Guangdong province, a disordered Logistic classifier model was then built and the calculation analysis steps of soil quality grade intelligent classification were given. The result indicated that the soil quality grade can be effectively learned and predicted by the extracted simplified dataset through this method, which changed the traditional method for soil quality grade evaluation. ?? 2011 IEEE.

Zhang, J.; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Tian, Y.

2011-01-01

123

Field sampling of residual aviation gasoline in sandy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two complementary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured field extrusion of core barrels into pint-size Mason jars, while the second consisted of laboratory partitioning of intact stainless steel core sleeves. Soil samples removed from the Mason jars (in

D. W. Ostendorf; E. S. Hinlein; Xie Yuefeng; L. E. Leach

2009-01-01

124

Sample size in factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the factor analysis literature, much attention has be;;n given to the issue of sample size. It is widely understood that the use of larger samples in applica- tions of factor analysis tends to provide results such that sample factor loadings are more precise estimates of population loadings and are also more stable, or les s variable, across repeated sampling.

Robert C. MacCallum; Keith F. Widaman; Shaobo Zhang; Sehee Hong

1999-01-01

125

A computer program integrating a multichannel analyzer with gamma analysis for the estimation of {sup 226} Ra concentration in soil samples  

SciTech Connect

A new hardware/software system has been implemented using the existing three-regions-of-interest method for determining the concentration of {sup 226}Ra in soil samples for the Pollutant Assessment Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Consisting of a personal computer containing a multichannel analyzer, the system utilizes a new program combining the multichannel analyzer with a program analyzing gamma-radiation spectra for {sup 226}Ra concentrations. This program uses a menu interface to minimize and simplify the tasks of system operation.

Wilson, J. E.

1992-08-01

126

A computer program integrating a multichannel analyzer with gamma analysis for the estimation of sup 226 Ra concentration in soil samples  

SciTech Connect

A new hardware/software system has been implemented using the existing three-regions-of-interest method for determining the concentration of {sup 226}Ra in soil samples for the Pollutant Assessment Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Consisting of a personal computer containing a multichannel analyzer, the system utilizes a new program combining the multichannel analyzer with a program analyzing gamma-radiation spectra for {sup 226}Ra concentrations. This program uses a menu interface to minimize and simplify the tasks of system operation.

Wilson, J. E.

1992-08-01

127

Lunar Sample Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wide variety of lunar sample and meteorite studies were performed. Abstracts of the most recent reports are also attached. Experimental techniques employed have included scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectrosc...

R. M. Housley

1986-01-01

128

Expert sample analysis planner.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analytical chemists are faced with the problem of choosing an appropriate analytical technique for a particular sample and weighing the options as they affect precision, time, and cost. This paper describes a computer technique to assist managers in revie...

W. A. Spencer W. S. Parks

1990-01-01

129

The Bidirectional Reflectance of Apollo 11 Soil Sample 10084  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the bidirectional reflectance of Apollo 11 soil sample 10084 using the Bloomsburg University Goniometer (BUG) and fit the measured reflectances using Hapke’s photometric model that includes the effects of large-scale roughness.

Foote, E. J.; Paige, D. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Grundy, W. M.; Shepard, M. T.

2009-03-01

130

Lead sorption onto thermally treated soil samples from Irbid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open burning of waste at dumpsites sites may alter many physical and chemical properties of underlining soil layers including\\u000a its ability to retard the migration of potential contaminants, such as lead, through the vadose zone. In this study, lead\\u000a sorption onto soil samples from Irbid that were subjected to high temperatures has been investigated. These samples were collected\\u000a from ground

Wa’il Y. Abu-El-Sha’r; Assal E. Haddad

2007-01-01

131

Hopping diffusion of helium isotopes from samples of lunar soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a detailed study of diffusion of helium isotopes from a sample of lunar soil (weight, 3.3 mg; bulk grain\\u000a size, <74 ?m; sampling depth, 118 cm in a 1.6-m-long core of lunar soil brought from the Moon by the Soviet automatic station\\u000a Luna-24). The studies have been performed using step heating in the temperature range 300–1000°C

G. S. Anufriev

2010-01-01

132

Hopping diffusion of helium isotopes from samples of lunar soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a detailed study of diffusion of helium isotopes from a sample of lunar soil (weight, 3.3 mg; bulk grain size, <74 mum; sampling depth, 118 cm in a 1.6-m-long core of lunar soil brought from the Moon by the Soviet automatic station Luna-24). The studies have been performed using step heating in the temperature range 300-1000°C

G. S. Anufriev

2010-01-01

133

Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples.  

PubMed

The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordão/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordão presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordão and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different concentrations of different metals. The advantages of using INAA are the multielementality, low detection limits and use of solid samples (no need of digestion). PMID:21367605

Galinha, C; Anawar, H M; Freitas, M C; Pacheco, A M G; Almeida-Silva, M; Coutinho, J; Maçãs, B; Almeida, A S

2011-03-01

134

Influence of soil sample depth on soil test results in continuous no?till fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under continuous no?till management, acid?forming fertilizers tend to reduce surface soil pH. Low pH is known to deactivate the triazine herbicides. It is questionable whether soil samples from the traditional 0–20 cm depth accurately reflect pH at the surface (0–2.5 cm). Soil samples were taken from an established no?till corn test which had received up to 270 kg N\\/ha annually.

M. J. Letaw; V. A. Bandel; M. S. McIntosh

1984-01-01

135

Quantifying uncertainty of the reference sampling procedure used at Dornach under different soil conditions.  

PubMed

The reference sampling procedure, used in the CEEM soil project on a single test area at Dornach, had been applied under different soil conditions in a sampling proficiency test and in the Swiss national soil-monitoring network related to pollution (NABO). Methods of analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to quantify sampling and analytical uncertainty. The soil sampling procedure and the chemical analysis were considered as two parts of the same measurement process and the so-called 'top-down' approach was used to quantify their combined contribution to the uncertainty. By this approach a systematic error of one sampler or of one laboratory becomes a random error when assessed as part of a multi-sampler or multi-laboratory comparison. PMID:11213174

Lischer, P; Dahinden, R; Desaules, A

2001-01-01

136

Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples  

PubMed Central

The mass attenuation coefficients (?s) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137Cs and 60Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2? × 2? NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained ?s values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics.

Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve

2013-01-01

137

Rapid method for determination of plutonium, americium and curium in large soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There\\u000a is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed\\u000a and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in large soil samples (100–200 g)\\u000a with high chemical recoveries

S. L. Maxwell

2008-01-01

138

Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Borehole Sampling at 118-B-1 Burial Ground  

SciTech Connect

The Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) Field Remediation Project has removed all of the disposed materials and contaminated soil from the 118-B-1 Burial Ground with the exception of tritium-contaminated soil that is believed to extend from the bottom of the present excavation to groundwater and is believed to contribute to tritium contamination observed at down-gradient monitoring Well 199-B8-6. This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) provides the requirements for sample collection and laboratory analysis for characterization of the vertical distribution of tritium contamination in the vadose zone soil below the 118-B-1 Burial Ground remedial action excavation.

W. S. Thompson

2007-04-02

139

Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Isolates from Soil Samples in Tehran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect any warm blooded nucleated cells. One of the ways for human infection is ingestion of oocysts directly from soil or via infected fruits or vegetables. To survey the potential role of T. gondii oocyst in soil samples, the present study was conducted in Tehran City, Iran. Methods A total of 150 soil samples were collected around rubbish dumps, children's play ground, parks and public places. Oocysts recovery was performed by sodium nitrate flotation method on soil samples. For molecular detection, PCR reaction targeting B1 gene was performed and then, the positive results were confirmed using repetitive 529 bp DNA fragment in other PCR reaction. Finally, the positive samples were genotyped at the SAG2 locus. Results Toxoplasma DNA was found in 13 soil samples. After genotyping and RFLP analysis in SAG2 locus, nine positive samples were revealed type III, one positive sample was type I whereas three samples revealed mixed infection (type, I & III). Conclusion The predominant genotype in Tehran soil samples is type III.

Tavalla, M; Oormazdi, H; Akhlaghi, L; Shojaee, S; Razmjou, E; Hadighi, R; Meamar, AR

2013-01-01

140

Trace elements of soil samples from mining area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The affect of mining activity on the environment has been long of public concern. The present paper deals with the elemental analysis of soil samples from a mine and the area around it, located in E 48°59? and N 34°11? in Hamadan province of Iran. Elemental analysis was done using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Spectra analysis and quantification was done using GUPIX software. Besides the major elements Si, P, K, Ca, Mn and Fe the other elements, namely Cl, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Pb were also present. Arsenic could be detected in some samples only. The presence of Ba and Ce needs more investigations by other techniques due to overlap of the L X-rays of these elements with the K X-rays of the major elements Mn and Fe, etc. Many elements V, Cr, As and Pb are known to be toxic and needs further understanding and proper handling in the mining process.

Oswal, Mumtaz; Bedi, Harneet; Hajivaliei, M.; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, K. P.

2010-06-01

141

Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area  

SciTech Connect

This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP.

Stanisich, S.N.

1994-12-01

142

Monitoring of radionuclides in soil and bone samples from Austria.  

PubMed

The activity concentrations of anthropogenic (??Sr, ¹³?Cs) and natural (²³?U, ²³²Th, ??K, ²¹?Pb) radionuclides were determined in eight soil profiles from three different regions in Austria (Styria, Carinthia and Salzburg). A direct correlation between the activity concentration of ??Sr and ¹³?Cs in soil samples and site altitude was found. ??Sr and ²¹?Pb activity concentrations were also determined in bone ash of deer hunted in these regions. Additional bone samples were collected all over Austria. Totally 39 deer bones were investigated for this work, and some values were adopted from our earlier publications to give an overview of samples collected from sites covering a broad range of altitudes. The bone and soil samples were collected in the time period of 2001-2009. The ??Sr values in deer bones are directly proportional to the values in the respective soil samples and also to the age of the animals. For the ??Sr and ²¹?Pb determinations in bone samples first Pb was separated on a Dowex column, then Sr was purified using Sr·Spec® resin. In soil samples an additional hydroxide precipitation was employed to eliminate interfering iron. For the first time also the 3M Empore® Sr Rad disk method was successfully applied to bone samples. With this method the chemical procedure can be shortened by more than a factor of 2. The ??Sr and ²¹?Pb fractions were measured by liquid scintillation counting, while the chemical yields were determined by ICP-MS. The activity concentrations of ??K, ²³?U, ²³²Th and ¹³?Cs in soil samples were evaluated using gamma-ray spectrometry. The investigation was part of the PhD work of the first author. PMID:22370651

Wallova, Gabriela; Kandler, Norbert; Wallner, Gabriele

2011-12-28

143

Analysis of triazolopyrimidine herbicides in soils using field-enhanced sample injection-coelectroosmotic capillary electrophoresis combined with solid-phase extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a combined methodology using off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE), on-line field-enhanced sample injection (FESI) and coelectroosmotic capillary electrophoresis with UV detection (CE-UV) is developed for the trace analysis of five triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilide pesticides (i.e., flumetsulam, florasulam, cloransulam-methyl, diclosulam and metosulam). An adequate background electrolyte (BGE) was obtained for the separation of these pesticides using hexadimethrine bromide (HDB) as

Javier Hernández-Borges; Francisco J. García-Montelongo; Alejandro Cifuentes; Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Delgado

2005-01-01

144

EG & G Mount Plant, December 1990 and January 1991, D & D soil box sampling  

SciTech Connect

Six hundred eighty-two (682) containers of soil were generated at Mound Plant between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of the excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program sites; these areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building Area. The soils from these areas are part of the Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. These containers of soil are currently in storage at Mound Plant. The purpose of this sampling and analysis was to demonstrate that the D&D soils comply with the waste acceptance requirements of the NTS, as presented In Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements (DOE 1988). The sealed waste packages, constructed of wood or metal, are currently being stored In Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound Plant. For additional historical information concerning the D&D soils, Including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data see the Sampling and Analysis Plan for Mound Plant D&D Soils Packages (EG&G 1991).

NONE

1991-04-01

145

Sampling and analysis of rain  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on the chemical analysis of acid rain as given at a conference on the sampling of atmospheric precipitations. Topics considered at the conference included the measurement of pH and acidity, quality control of rainwater analysis, the analysis of rain by ion chromatography, atmospheric sulfur analysis using rateometric colorimetry, precipitation chemistry measurements, and the updating process in precipitation quality networks.

Campbell, S.A.

1983-01-01

146

Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

1992-11-01

147

Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

1992-11-01

148

Assays and screening of alpha contaminated soils using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy of thick soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to estimating concentrations of alpha-emitting contaminants (e.g. U, Th, Ra, Pu, Am) in soil samples has been evaluated. The Victoreen Alpha Activity Monitor has been designed to empirically assay soil samples using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy, of thick soil samples. Pre-processing of the soil samples is minimal, involving only drying the soils and milling them to reduce inhomoceneities.

K. E. Meyer; A. C. Lucas; S. Padovan

1995-01-01

149

Spatial Variability Analysis of Soil Physical Properties of Alluvial Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

ited on sandy or on loamy sediments. Therefore, it is important to study not only the extent of surface spatial Analysis and interpretation of spatial variability of soils is a key- variability, but also the distribution of subsurface and stone in site-specific farming. Soil survey maps may have up to 0.41- ha inclusions of dissimilar soils within a mapping unit.

Javed Iqbal; John A. Thomasson; Johnie N. Jenkins; Phillip R. Owens; Frank D. Whisler

2005-01-01

150

Determination of heavy metals in soil, mushroom and plant samples by atomic absorption spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil, mushroom and plant samples collected from Tokat, Turkey have been determined by flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after dry ashing, wet ashing and microwave digestion. The study of sample preparation procedures showed that the microwave digestion method was the best. Good accuracy was assured by the analysis of standard reference

Mustafa Tüzen

2003-01-01

151

Genetic identification of degraded DNA samples buried in different types of soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological samples buried in different types of soil are often found in crime scenes. These samples are usually highly degraded which difficult their analysis. Several factors contribute to the degradation of biological material including temperature variation, humidity, UV light and especially the presence of microorganisms.Blood was collected from three non-related male donors and blood stains were made in fabrics such

V. Bogas; M. Carvalho; M. J. Anjos; M. F. Pinheiro; F. Corte-Real

2009-01-01

152

The effect of sample size in studies of soil microbial community structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replicate soil samples of 0.01, 0.1, 0.25, 1.0 and 10.0 g were taken from a single, large, homogenized sample from a field maintained as continuous meadow. The samples were processed for direct enumeration of bacterial cells and community structure assays by DGGE analysis of PCR-amplified 16S-rDNA fragments from whole community extracts. The goal was to determine the sample size or

Sanghoon Kang; Aaron L. Mills

2006-01-01

153

Estimation of uncertainty arising from different soil sampling devices: the use of variogram parameters.  

PubMed

In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT), uncertainties due to field soil sampling were assessed. Three different sampling devices were applied in an agricultural area using the same sampling protocol. Cr, Sc and Zn mass fractions in the collected soil samples were measured by k(0)-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k(0)-INAA). For each element-device combination the experimental variograms were calculated using geostatistical tools. The variogram parameters were used to estimate the standard uncertainty arising from sampling. The sampling component represents the dominant contribution of the measurement uncertainty with a sampling uncertainty to measurement uncertainty ratio ranging between 0.6 and 0.9. The approach based on the use of variogram parameters leads to uncertainty values of the sampling component in agreement with those estimated by replicate sampling approach. PMID:17888487

de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Barbina, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Menegon, Sandro; Pati, Alessandra; Petruzzelli, Giannantonio; Sansone, Umberto; Van der Perk, Marcel

2007-09-20

154

An expert sample analysis planner  

SciTech Connect

Analytical chemists are faced with the problem of choosing an appropriate analytical technique for a particular sample and weighing the options as they affect precision, time, and cost. This paper describes a computer technique to assist managers in reviewing the alternatives and to match needs with the resources available. This paper proposes an expert system, knowledgeable of analytical chemistry techniques, to create sample plans. Sample planning is an appropriate topic for expert systems because scarce human expertise is required to complete sample plans. A sample plan is the description of how samples received at the Savannah River Laboratory are handled, controlled, measured, and dispositioned. Sample planning is difficult because multiple experts are needed, planning is not a static function, and planning is time consuming. An Expert Sample Analyses Planner (XSAP) is proposed to create sample plans for laboratory managers. XSAP supplements the scarce knowledge of analytical techniques creating sample plans based on analysis constraints, methods available, and time requirements. XSAP interacts with the chemist to suggest sample plans. XSAP considers equipment available locally, at other Savannah River laboratories, at other Department of Energy facilities, and at other commercial laboratories. XSAP allows options on scheduling: best solution, cheapest solution, best local solution, and fastest solution. 26 refs.

Spencer, W.A.; Parks, W.S.

1990-01-01

155

GEOSTATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PALMERTON SOIL SURVEY DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes statistical and geostatistical analyses of data from a soil sampling survey. Soil sampling was performed, in October and November 1985, to obtain information on the level, extent, and spatial structure of metal pollution of the soil in and around the Palmerton...

156

DIRECT/DELAYED RESPONSE PROJECT: FIELD OPERATIONS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE REPORT FOR SOIL SAMPLING AND PREPARATION IN THE SOUTHERN BLUE RIDGE PROVINCE OF THE UNITED STATES. VOLUME 1. SAMPLING  

EPA Science Inventory

The Direct/Delayed Response Project Soil Survey includes the mapping, characterization, sampling, preparation, and analysis of soils in order to assess watershed response to acidic deposition within various regions of the United States. Soil samples collected by sampling crews in...

157

Spatial and temporal influences on bacterial profiling of forensic soil samples.  

PubMed

Bacterial content may be helpful in differentiating forensic soil samples; however, the effectiveness of bacterial profiling depends on several factors, including uniqueness among different habitat types, the level of heterogeneity within a habitat, and changes in bacterial communities over time. To examine these, soils from five diverse habitats were tested over a 1 year period using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis. Soil samples were collected at central locations monthly, and 10 feet in cardinal directions quarterly. Similarity indices were found to be least related among habitats, while the greatest bacterial similarities existed among collection locations within a habitat. Temporally, however, bacterial content varied considerably, and there was substantial overlap in similarity indices among habitats during different parts of the year. Taken together, the results indicate that while bacterial DNA profiling may be useful for forensic soil analysis, certain variables, particularly time, must be considered. PMID:18471210

Meyers, Melissa S; Foran, David R

2008-05-01

158

RAPID DETERMINATION OF RADIOSTRONTIUM IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

A new method for the determination of radiostrontium in large soil samples has been developed at the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of strontium in large soil samples for the measurement of strontium isotopes by gas flow proportional counting. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD) or Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. The method employs a novel pre-concentration step that utilizes an iron hydroxide precipitation (enhanced with calcium phosphate) followed by a final calcium fluoride precipitation to remove silicates and other matrix components. The pre-concentration steps, in combination with a rapid Sr Resin separation using vacuum box technology, allow very large soil samples to be analyzed for {sup 89,90}Sr using gas flow proportional counting with a lower method detection limit. The calcium fluoride precipitation eliminates column flow problems typically associated with large amounts of silicates in large soil samples.

Maxwell, S.

2012-05-24

159

RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY SOIL SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for samples up to 2 grams in emergency response situations. The actinides in soil method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha sources are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency soil samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinides in soil results were reported within 4-5 hours with excellent quality.

Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

2009-11-09

160

Cryofacial Analysis of Permafrost Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic structure of soils, specifically the patterns formed by ice inclusions and massive ice in permafrost, depends on the genesis of soils and the way they are transformed into a perennially frozen state. Katasonov (1963) recognized that the analysis of relationship between the patterns of cryogenic structure and the processes of permafrost formation (he termed 'cryofacial analysis') is a powerful tool for understanding of genesis of permafrost in relation to different sediment types. He applied cryofacial analysis to Late Pleistocene syngenetic permafrost (yedoma) and to permafrost formed during freezing of thaw bulbs under drained lakes in the continuous permafrost zone. Our long-term studies of cryogenic structure in Alaska and Russia found that cryofacial analysis can be applied to all types of permafrost soil. We described the evolution of cryogenic structure associated with alluvial chronosequences on arctic floodplains in Russia and Alaska and found the differing cryofacies are highly related to patterns of ecosystem development. Cryogenic structure of glacial-lacustrine deposits in several parts of Alaska is similar to cryogenic structure of these deposits in differing permafrost areas in Russia. Cryofacial analysis is extremely useful in recognition of later modifications of permafrost when compared soils are identical in composition. For example, we differentiated original syngenetic permafrost from permafrost modified by thermokarst and thermal erosion in the CRREL permafrost tunnel at Fox, Alaska on the basis of differences in cryogenic structure. We identified unique cryogenic structures associated with the transient zone of the upper permafrost and with the formation of thermokarst-cave ice. Cryofacial analysis showed that parts of permafrost which were previously thawed after fire can be easily distinguished from parts unaffected by thawing. Cryofacial analysis helped in recognizing areas in central and northern Alaska unaffected by the last glaciation. Finally, the study of basal ice under contemporary glaciers makes possible detection of buried glacial ice along the margins of the Arctic Ocean.

Shur, Y.; Kanevskiy, M.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Fortier, D.

2008-12-01

161

Spatial Interpolation and Sample Size Optimization for Soil Copper (Cu) Investigation in Cropland Soil at County Scale Using Cokriging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge on spatial distribution and sampling size optimization of soil copper (Cu) could lay solid foundations for environmetal quality survey of agricultural soils at county scale. In this investigation, cokriging method was used to conduct the interpolation of Cu concentraiton in cropland soil in Shuangliu County, Sichuan Province, China. Based on the original 623 physicochmically measured soil samples, 560, 498,

Su PANG; Ting-xuan LI; Yong-dong WANG; Hai-ying YU; Xi LI

2009-01-01

162

DIRECT/DELAYED RESPONSE PROJECT: FIELD OPERATIONS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE REPORT FOR SOIL SAMPLING AND PREPARATION IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES. VOLUME 2. PREPARATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Direct/Delayed Response Project Soil Survey includes the mapping, characterization, sampling, preparation, and analysis of soils in order to assess watershed response to acidic deposition within various regions of the United States. Soil samples collected by sampling crews in...

163

Application of headspace analysis for the determination of volatile organic compounds in contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that headspace analysis is more reliable than the purge?and?trap method for the quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil samples. The major shortcoming of the headspace analysis in the case of soil samples is the inability of water to fully extract the soil contaminants. Experiments were conducted to fully understand the limitations and applicability of

S. G. Pavlostathis; G. N. Mathavan

1992-01-01

164

Identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways using high frequency sampling, REE aqueous sampling and soil characterization at Koiliaris Critical Zone Observatory, Crete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Koiliaris River watershed is a Critical Zone Observatory that represents severely degraded soils due to intensive agricultural activities and biophysical factors. It has typical Mediterranean soils under the imminent threat of desertification which is expected to intensify due to projected climate change. High frequency hydro-chemical monitoring with targeted sampling for Rare Earth Elements (REE) analysis of different water bodies and

Daniel Moraetis; Fotini Stamati; Manolis Kotronakis; Tasoula Fragia; Nikolaos Paranychnianakis; Nikolaos P. Nikolaidis

2011-01-01

165

Sampling the soil in long-term forest plots: the implications of spatial variation.  

PubMed

Long-term monitoring of forest soils as part of a pan-European network to detect environmental change depends on an accurate determination of the mean of the soil properties at each monitoring event. Forest soil is known to be very variable spatially, however. A study was undertaken to explore and quantify this variability at three forest monitoring plots in Britain. Detailed soil sampling was carried out, and the data from the chemical analyses were analysed by classical statistics and geostatistics. An analysis of variance showed that there were no consistent effects from the sample sites in relation to the position of the trees. The variogram analysis showed that there was spatial dependence at each site for several variables and some varied in an apparently periodic way. An optimal sampling analysis based on the multivariate variogram for each site suggested that a bulked sample from 36 cores would reduce error to an acceptable level. Future sampling should be designed so that it neither targets nor avoids trees and disturbed ground. This can be achieved best by using a stratified random sampling design. PMID:16311827

Kirwan, N; Oliver, M A; Moffat, A J; Morgan, G W

2005-12-01

166

Statistical sample size for construction of soil liners  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for selecting the number of samples (i.e., the sample size) to be collected and tested during construction quality control of compacted soil liners. The sample size is selected to ensure that enough data are collected so the probability of excessive equivalent hydraulic conductivity (i.e., overall hydraulic conductivity) is greater than or equal to a predefined maximum value is below a specified value. The method requires computations that can be performed using a spreadsheet program. Charts are provided to select the sample size based on these computations. The sample size depends on the properties of the soil, their spatial variability, and the number of lifts in the liner. Regression models are used to relate spatial variability of construction-quality-control measurements (such as compaction data, Atterberg limits, and particle-size measurements) to variations in hydraulic conductivity at point scale. A three-dimensional stochastic model is then used to estimate the equivalent hydraulic conductivity of the soil liner for statistical parameters describing spatial variability of point-scale hydraulic conductivity. An asymptotic method is used to determine the precision of the estimate of equivalent hydraulic conductivity and the probability of excessive equivalent hydraulic conductivity.

Benson, C.H.; Zhai, H.; Rashad, S.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

1994-10-01

167

The role of different soil sample digestion methods on trace elements analysis: a comparison of ICP-MS and INAA measurement results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of trace-element concentration in soil, sediment and waste, is generally a combination of a digestion procedure\\u000a for dissolution of elements and a subsequent measurement of the dissolved elements. “Partial” and “total” digestion methods\\u000a can be used in environmental monitoring activities. To compare measurement results obtained by different methods, it is crucial\\u000a to determine and to maintain control of

Stefania Gaudino; Chiara Galas; Maria Belli; Sabrina Barbizzi; Paolo de Zorzi; Radojko Ja?imovi?; Zvonka Jeran; Alessandra Pati; Umberto Sansone

2007-01-01

168

340 representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

Halgren, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-09-09

169

340 Representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

Olander, A.R., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-21

170

340 Representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

Olander; Westinghouse Hanford

1996-01-01

171

340 representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

Halgren; Westinghouse Hanford

1996-01-01

172

Determination of nitrite in soil extracts and water samples by a nitrogen oxide electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work to evaluate the Orion nitrogen oxide electrode indicated that this electrode can be used satisfactorily for determination of nitrite in soil extracts and water samples. The electrode method of analysis described is simple, rapid, and precise, and its results agree closely with those obtained by the colorimetric method of Griess?Ilosvay. The electrode method has the advantage that its results

M. A. Tabatabai

1974-01-01

173

Natural radioactivity measurements in soil samples from Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radium, thorium and potassium analysis have been made in soil samples collected from some villages of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India using gamma ray spectrometry. The work has been undertaken keeping in view the health hazard effects of these radioelements in the environment. The results for radium activity are also compared using track etch technique employing radon alpha method developed

Surinder Singh; Baldev Singh; Ajay Kumar

2003-01-01

174

Determination of chemical warfare agents in soil and material samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas Chromatographic method for the determination of phenylarsenic compounds (sternutators) and their metabolites in soil\\u000a and material samples is described. The chemical warfare agents (CWA), but not their hydrolysis and oxidation products, can\\u000a be detected with GC\\/ECD. After derivatization with thiols or dithiols, the sum of diphenylarsenic and phenylarsenic compounds\\u000a can be determined with GC\\/ECD.\\u000a \\u000a The comparison of the

Rainer Haas; Alfred Krippendorf

1997-01-01

175

Salttolerant phenol-degrading microorganisms isolated from Amazonian soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two phenol-degrading microorganisms were isolated from Amazonian rain forest soil samples after enrichment in the presence of phenol and a high salt concentration. The yeast Candida tropicalis and the bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis were identified using several techniques, including staining, morphological observation and biochemical tests, fatty acid profiles and 16S\\/18S rRNA sequencing. Both isolates, A. faecalis and C. tropicalis, were used

Artur Eduardo Ribeiro Bastos; David Henry Moon; Antonio Rossi; Jack Thomas Trevors; Siu Mui Tsai

2000-01-01

176

The application of classification tree analysis to soil type prediction in a desert landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification tree analysis is evaluated as a predictive soil mapping technique for developing a preliminary soil map for neighboring site from samples extracted from an existing soil map. The objective of the research is to help guide future soil mapping in a nearby area. In order to determine the best overall modeling approach several variations were explored: the dependent variable

P. Scull; J. Franklin; O. A. Chadwick

2005-01-01

177

Soil Development and Sampling Strategies for the Returned Martian Surface Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sampling of the Martian surface materials should be based on the experience gained from the study of soils and rocks collected in cold, dry environments, i.e., dry valleys of Antarctica. Previous studies have suggested that some of our best terrestrial an...

E. K. Gibson

1988-01-01

178

Two Step Sample Return Mission of Martian Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are proposing a Mars (or Lunar) Sample Return scheme whereby a sample of regolith is acquired directly into a Mars (or Lunar) Ascent Vehicle using a pneumatic system. We envisage 3 pneumatic tubes to be embedded inside the 3 legs of the lander (for redundancy). Upon landing, the legs will burry themselves into the regolith and the tubes will fill up with regolith. With one puff of gas injected at the base of the tubes, the regolith can be lifted into a sampling chamber onboard of the Mars Ascent Vehicle. An additional chamber can acquire atmospheric gas and dust. The MSR will require 1) an actuator to open/close sampling chamber and 2) a valve to open gas cylinder. In the recent NASA funded study conducted at Mars pressures we have shown that it is possible lift over 5000 grams of soil with only 1 gram of gas.

Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.; Craft, J.; Chu, P.; Mungas, G.

2009-12-01

179

A Model for Agro-Economic Analysis of Soil pH Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core soil sampling followed by laboratory analysis is the traditional method used to map soil pH prior to variable rate application (VRA) of lime on cropland. A recently developed automated soil sampling system capable of measuring soil pH on-the-go has significantly increased sampling resolution. However, adoption of such systems must be justified economically. This paper presents a method for assessing

V. I. Adamchuk; M. T. Morgan; James M. Lowenberg-Deboer

2004-01-01

180

RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new rapid method for the determination of ²³Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron\\/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid

S. Maxwell; B. Culligan; G. Noyes

2010-01-01

181

Rapid separation method for 237Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new rapid method for the determination of 237Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron\\/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid

Sherrod L. Maxwell; Brian K. Culligan; Gary W. Noyes

2011-01-01

182

Negative Effects of Sample Pooling on PCR-based Estimates of Soil Microbial Richness and Community Structure.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, we examined the effect of various pooling strategies on the characterization of soil microbial community composition and phylotype richness estimates. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) profiles were determined from soil samples that were (i) unpooled (extracted an...

183

Identification of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in soil by reverse sample genome probing.  

PubMed

Bacteria with limited genomic cross-hybridization were isolated from soil contaminated with C5+, a mixture of hydrocarbons, and identified by partial 16S rRNA sequencing. Filters containing denatured genomic DNAs were used in a reverse sample genome probe (RSGP) procedure for analysis of the effect of an easily degradable compound (toluene) and a highly recalcitrant compound (dicyclopentadiene [DCPD]) on community composition. Hybridization with labeled total-community DNA isolated from soil exposed to toluene indicated enrichment of several Pseudomonas spp., which were subsequently found to be capable of toluene mineralization. Hybridization with labeled total-community DNA isolated from soil exposed to DCPD indicated enrichment of a Pseudomonas sp. or a Sphingomonas sp. These two bacteria appeared capable of producing oxygenated DCPD derivatives in the soil environment, but mineralization could not be shown. These results demonstrate that bacteria, which metabolize degradable or recalcitrant hydrocarbons, can be identified by the RSGP procedure. PMID:16349504

Shen, Y; Stehmeier, L G; Voordouw, G

1998-02-01

184

Identification of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Soil by Reverse Sample Genome Probing  

PubMed Central

Bacteria with limited genomic cross-hybridization were isolated from soil contaminated with C5+, a mixture of hydrocarbons, and identified by partial 16S rRNA sequencing. Filters containing denatured genomic DNAs were used in a reverse sample genome probe (RSGP) procedure for analysis of the effect of an easily degradable compound (toluene) and a highly recalcitrant compound (dicyclopentadiene [DCPD]) on community composition. Hybridization with labeled total-community DNA isolated from soil exposed to toluene indicated enrichment of several Pseudomonas spp., which were subsequently found to be capable of toluene mineralization. Hybridization with labeled total-community DNA isolated from soil exposed to DCPD indicated enrichment of a Pseudomonas sp. or a Sphingomonas sp. These two bacteria appeared capable of producing oxygenated DCPD derivatives in the soil environment, but mineralization could not be shown. These results demonstrate that bacteria, which metabolize degradable or recalcitrant hydrocarbons, can be identified by the RSGP procedure.

Shen, Yin; Stehmeier, Lester G.; Voordouw, Gerrit

1998-01-01

185

a Digital Image Method for Analysis of Soil Pores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of porosity and pore size distribution provide important data on the physical properties of soils. This paper presents a digital image method for the analysis of soil pores. In the analysis of soil thin sections, the image threshold separating pore space from the surrounding solid, as well as the capillary pore size threshold separating air pores and capillary pores, was obtained by analysis of the thin sections of calibration samples where values of total porosity and capillary porosity were pre-determined by traditional soil physics methods (IM). The total porosity and capillary porosity, as well as percentages of pores of a particular size, of all samples of similar soil type can then be determined by these image thresholds in thin section image analysis. The maximum capillary pore size in soils can also be determined. Because the thresholds for the total porosity and capillary porosity are determined based on physical soil characteristics in this method, the error associated with existing methods (caused by subjective threshold estimates) was overcome. Small variations in results proved that this method has good accuracy and is acceptable. Any personal computer and flatbed scanner, along with any commercial remote sensing software (ENVI, PCI, ERDAS, etc.) and Geographic Information System software (ArcGIS, ArcView, SuperMap, etc.) are sufficient to complete the method. In addition, the method can also be used for analysis of pore shapes and arrangements.

Jiang, Shufang; Kang, Yaohu; Sun, Zeqiang

186

Interlaboratory evaluation of the ISO standard 11063 “Soil quality — Method to directly extract DNA from soil samples”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracting DNA directly from micro-organisms living in soil is a crucial step for the molecular analysis of soil microbial communities. However, the use of a plethora of different soil DNA extraction protocols, each with its own bias, makes accurate data comparison difficult. To overcome this problem, a method for soil DNA extraction was proposed to the International Organization for Standardization

I. Petric; L. Philippot; C. Abbate; A. Bispo; T. Chesnot; S. Hallin; K. Laval; T. Lebeau; P. Lemanceau; C. Leyval; K. Lindström; P. Pandard; E. Romero; A. Sarr; M. Schloter; P. Simonet; K. Smalla; B.-M. Wilke; F. Martin-Laurent

2011-01-01

187

GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1: ASSESSING SOIL SPLITTING PROTOCOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Five soil sample splitting methods (riffle splitting, paper cone riffle splitting, fractional shoveling, coning and quartering, and grab sampling) were evaluated with synthetic samples to verify Pierre Gy sampling theory expectations. Individually prepared samples consisting of l...

188

Livermore Big Trees Park 1998 soil sampling plan  

SciTech Connect

This sampling plan sets out the sampling goals, rationale, locations, and procedures for a plan to determine the extent of plutonium in soil above background levels in Big Trees Park and identify any possible pathways by which plutonium may have reached the park. The public is invited to witness the sampling at Big Trees Park. The plan has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists with guidance from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Radiologic Health and Environmental Health Investigations Branches of the California Health Services Department (CDHS-RHB and CDHS-EHIB), and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Input from citizens and community organizations was also received during an over-70-day public comment period.

Bainer, R. W.

1998-10-01

189

Use of an ammonia electrode for determination of ammonium in Kjeldahl analysis of soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distillation step in total N analysis of soil by the Kjeldahl method can be eliminated by use of the Orion ammonia electrode for determination of the ammonium formed by Kjeldahl digestion of the soil sample. The electrode method of analysis is rapid, simple, and precise, and it gives quantitative recovery of ammonium added to Kjeldahl digests of soils. The

J. M. Bremner; M. A. Tabatabai

1972-01-01

190

Natural radioactivity in the soil samples of Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on concentrations of primordial radionuclides in soil samples of Botswana were carried out. Measurements were made by gamma spectrometry employing a 41% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The activity of 226Ra was found to vary in the range 6.1–97.4Bqkg?1 with a mean value of 34.8Bqkg?1, 232Th in 7.4–110.0Bqkg?1 with a mean value of 41.8Bqkg?1 and that of 40K between 33.5

V. R. K. Murty; N. Karunakara

2008-01-01

191

Natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from some areas of Himachal Pradesh, India using ?-ray spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

226Ra, 232Th and 40K analysis has been carried out in soil samples collected from some areas of Himachal Pradesh, India using ?-ray spectrometry. The measured activity in soil ranges from 42.09 to 79.63Bqkg?1, 52.83 to 105.81Bqkg?1 and 95.33 to 160.30Bqkg?1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K with the mean values of 57.34, 82.22 and 135.75Bqkg?1, respectively. The measured activity concentration of

Asha Rani; Surinder Singh

2005-01-01

192

Soil-Vapor Versus Discrete Soil Sample Measurements for VOCs in the Near-Surface Vadose Zone, Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soil vapor samples were taken from 1 m beneath the ground surface at 16 different locations. Measured trichloroethene (TCE) in these samples was compared to that obtained for a collocated sample of the soil matrix. The linear slope (0.806) and strong corr...

A. D. Hewitt

1998-01-01

193

Soil-Vapor Versus Discrete Soil Sample Measurements for VOCs in the Near-Surface Vadose Zone, Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soil vapor samples were taken from 1m beneath the ground surface at 16 different locations. Measured trichloroethene (TCE) in these samples was compared to that obtained for a collocated sample of the soil matrix. The linear slope (0.806) and strong corre...

A. D. Hewitt

1998-01-01

194

Rapid and sensitive determination of tellurium in soil and plant samples by sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work, we report a rapid and highly sensitive analytical method for the determination of tellurium in soil and plant samples using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). Soil and plant samples were digested using Aqua regia. After appropriate dilution, Te in soil and plant samples was directly analyzed without any separation and preconcentration. This simple sample preparation approach avoided to a maximum extent any contamination and loss of Te prior to the analysis. The developed analytical method was validated by the analysis of soil/sediment and plant reference materials. Satisfactory detection limits of 0.17ngg(-1) for soil and 0.02ngg(-1) for plant samples were achieved, which meant that the developed method was applicable to studying the soil-to-plant transfer factor of Te. Our work represents for the first time that data on the soil-to-plant transfer factor of Te were obtained for Japanese samples which can be used for the estimation of internal radiation dose of radioactive tellurium due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. PMID:24148390

Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

2013-05-16

195

Sampling and analysis plan for the preoperational environmental survey of the spent nuclear fuel project facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document represents the sampling analysis plan for conducting environmental sampling of soil, vegetation, litter, cryptogams, and small mammals at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities in support of the preoperational environmental survey.

R. M. Mitchell

1999-01-01

196

Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated water and soil samples by immunological and chromatographic methods  

SciTech Connect

An immunoassay was developed that can be used for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water, landfill leachate, and soil. As test format an indirect competitive microtiter plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was applied. While groundwater samples from a former manufactured gas plant site could be analyzed directly, soil and landfill leachate had to be extracted and required at least a 100-fold dilution prior to immunochemical measurement. PAHs could be recovered from fortified reference soils as well as aged field samples with high yield using 1-h ultrasonication with acetonitrile. Extraction efficiency was comparable to Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonication with tetrahydrogurane. Recovery was lower with agitation but would still be acceptable for use in an on-site field test to provide rapid, semiquantitative, and reliable test results for making environmental decisions such as identifying hot spots, site mapping, monitoring of remediation processes, and selecting site samples for laboratory analysis. Classification of ELISA data showed that it was possible to estimate the PAH contamination in soils with about 5% false positive and 5% false negative results that may have arisen from heterogeneity of samples, cross-reactivity of compounds with a similar structure, humic acids, or unknown interferences.

Knopp, D.; Seifert, M.; Vaeaenaenen, V.; Niessner, R.

2000-05-15

197

Assessment of the Water-Extractable Genotoxic Potential of Soil Samples from Contaminated Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening method for the evaluation of the water-extractable genotoxic potential of soil is proposed. Due to the low sensitivity of genotoxicity test systems, PAD-1 resin was used as solid phase to concentrate less hydrophilic compounds from aqueous soil extracts. Concentrated and nonconcentrated aqueous soil extracts from 19 soil samples were evaluated using three genotoxicity assays: the umu test according

Heike Ehrlichmann; Wolfgang Dott; Adolf Eisentraeger

2000-01-01

198

Vapor sampling and analysis plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and anal...

C. S. Homi

1995-01-01

199

Sample Drying Effects on Lead Bioaccessibility in Reduced Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk-assessment tests of contaminated wetland soils often use ex- perimental protocols that artificially oxidize the soils. Oxidation may impact bioavailability of contaminants from the soils, creating erro- neous results and leading to improper management and remediation. The goal of this study was to determine if oxygenation of reduced sediments and soils influences Pb bioaccessibility measurements. The study site is located

Olha Furman; Daniel G. Strawn; Steve McGeehan

2007-01-01

200

Small-Scale DNA Sample Preparation Method for Field PCR Detection of Microbial Cells and Spores in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient, nonselective methods to obtain DNA from the environment are needed for rapid and thorough analysis of introduced microorganisms in environmental samples and for analysis of microbial community diversity in soil. A small-scale procedure to rapidly extract and purify DNA from soils was developed for in-the-field use. Amounts of DNA released from bacterial vegetative cells, bacterial endospores, and fungal conidia

CHERYL R. KUSKE; KAYSIE L. BANTON; DANTE L. ADORADA; PETER C. STARK; KAREN K. HILL; PAUL J. JACKSON

1998-01-01

201

Chemical Analysis of Argonne Premium Coal Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The Chemical Analysis of Argonne Premium Coal Samples: An Introduction; Rehydration of Desiccated Argonne Premium Coal Samples; Determination of 62 Elements in 8 Argonne Premium Coal Ash Samples by Automated Semiquantitative Direct-Current Arc A...

C. A. Palmer

1997-01-01

202

Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document details the plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for waste ...

J. M. Jones

1995-01-01

203

Kriging analysis of soil properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Soil as a landscape body contains wide ranges of physical, chemical, morphological, and mineralogical properties, both laterally\\u000a and vertically. Soils with similar properties and environments are expected to behave similarly. A statement on land use potential\\u000a will depend in part on the precision and accuracy of the statements that can be made about the soils. This information

Gilbert C. Sigua; Wayne H. Hudnall

2008-01-01

204

U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF METALS FROM SOIL, DUST, AIR FILTER, AND SURFACE AND DERMAL WIPE SAMPLES FOR AA (GRAPHITE FURNACE OR FLAME) OR ICP-AES ANALYSIS (BCO-L-3.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe the acid digestion of soil, house dust, air filter, and surface or dermal wipe samples for analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emissions spectrometry (ICP-AES) and/or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) or fl...

205

EVALUATING COKRIGING FOR IMPROVING SOIL NUTRIENT SAMPLING EFFICIENCY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variability of soil texture and soil nitrate-N, P, and K was studied in two center-pivot irrigated fields (89 ha total). Two soil texture components (clay and silt) were found to be correlated with soil nitrate-N, P, and K, and were used as auxiliary variables in the cokriging procedure to estimate soil nitrate-N, P, and K at unsampled locations.

S. Han; S. M. Schneider; R. G. Evans

206

Chapter 11 Optimization of Sample Configurations for Digital Mapping of Soil Properties with Universal Kriging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital soil mapping makes extensive use of auxiliary information, such as that contained in remote sensing images and digital elevation models. However, it cannot do without taking samples of the soil itself. Therefore, methods and guidelines need to be developed that assist users in designing spatial sample configurations for use in digital soil mapping. Existing geostatistical methods are insufficient because

Gerard B. M. Heuvelink; Dick J. Brus; Jaap J. de Gruijter

2006-01-01

207

Purposive Sampling for Digital Soil Mapping for Areas with Limited Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital soil mapping requires two basic pieces of information: spatial in- formation on the environmental conditions which co-vary with the soil conditions and the information on relationship between the set of environment covariates and soil conditions. The former falls into the category of GIS\\/remote sensing analy- sis. The latter is often obtained through extensive field sampling. Extensive field sampling is

A. Xing Zhu; Lin Yang; Baolin Li; Chengzhi Qin; Edward English; James E. Burt; Chenghu Zhou

208

Comparison of batch mode and dynamic physiologically based bioaccessibility tests for PAHs in soil samples.  

PubMed

A fed state in vitro methodology capable of use in commercial testing laboratories has been developed for measuring the human ingestion bioaccessibility of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil (Fed ORganic Estimation human Simulation Test- FOREhST). The protocol for measuring PAHs in the simulated gastro-intestinal fluids used methanolic KOH saponification followed by a combination of polymeric sorbent solid phase extraction and silica sorbent cartridges for sample cleanup and preconcentration. The analysis was carried out using high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The repeatability of the method, assessed by the measurement of the bioaccessibility of 6 PAHs (benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[ah]anthracene, and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene) in eleven gas works soils, was approximately 10% RSD. The method compared well with the results from an independent dynamic human simulation reactor comprising of the stomach, duodenal and colon compartments tested on the same soils. The measured bioaccessible fraction of the soils varied from 10-60% for soils containing 10-300 mg kg(-1) PAH (the sum of the six studied) with total organic carbon concentrations in the soils ranging from 1-13%. A multiple regression model showed that the PAH bioaccessible fraction could be explained using the PAH compound, the soil type and the total PAH to soil organic carbon content. The method described here has potential for site specific detailed quantitative risk assessment either to modify the risk estimation or to contribute to the risk evaluation. PMID:20201516

Cave, Mark R; Wragg, Joanna; Harrison, Ian; Vane, Christopher H; Wiele, Tom Van de; Groeve, Eva De; Nathanail, C Paul; Ashmore, Matthew; Thomas, Russell; Robinson, Jamie; Daly, Paddy

2010-04-01

209

Soil Analysis for Organic Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic farming according to EU 2092\\/91 aims at closed nutrient cycles, which means that external nutrient inputs are kept to a minimum. By comparison, conventional farming is input orientated, focusing on high crop productivity. Soil analytical methods for organic farming comprise physical, biological, chemical, and energetic soil tests. The spade diagnosis is an old field test to obtain “in situ”

Silvia Haneklaus; Ewald Schnug; Hans Marten Paulsen; Ingo Hagel

2005-01-01

210

HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF A SILT LOAM SOIL AS AFFECTED BY SAMPLE LENGTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil hydraulic conductivity is often measured with small laboratory samples. Due to sampling artifacts or spatial variability, smallscale laboratory samples may not yield representative conductivity measurements. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of sample length on the saturated and nearsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K). An undis- turbed soil core of 9 cm diameter and 25 cm length

P. Fuentes; M. Flury

211

Environmental and spatial characterisation of bacterial community composition in soil to inform sampling strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil physicochemical properties and microbial communities are highly heterogeneous and vary widely over spatial scales, necessitating careful consideration of sampling strategies to provide representative and reproducible soil samples across field sites. To achieve this, the study aimed to establish appropriate sampling methodology and to determine links between the variability of parameters, utilising two sampling strategies. The first (design 1) involved

Kate L. Baker; Silke Langenheder; Graeme W. Nicol; Dean Ricketts; Kenneth Killham; Colin D. Campbell; James I. Prosser

2009-01-01

212

Sample Collection of Ash and Burned Soils from the October 2007 Southern California Wildfires  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between November 2 through 9, 2007 scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected samples of ash and burned soils from 28 sites in six areas burned as a result of the Southern California wildfires of October 2007, including the Harris, Witch, Santiago, Ammo, Canyon, and Grass Valley Fires. The primary goal of this sampling and analysis effort was to understand how differences in ash and burned soil composition relate to vegetation type, underlying bedrock geology, burn intensity, and residential versus wildland. Sampling sites were chosen with the input of local experts from the USGS Water Resources and Biological Resources Disciplines to help understand possible effects of the fires on water supplies, ecosystems, and endangered species. The sampling was also carried out in conjunction with detailed field analysis of the spectral reflectance characteristics of the ash, so that chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the field samples could be used to help interpret data collected as part of an airborne, hyperspectral remote-sensing survey of several of the burned areas in mid-late November, 2007. This report presents an overview of the field sampling methodologies used to collect the samples, includes representative photos of the sites sampled, and summarizes important characteristics of each of the collection sites. In this report we use the term 'ash' to refer collectively to white mineral ash, which results from full combustion of vegetation and black charred organic matter from partial combustion of vegetation or other materials. These materials were found to be intermingled as a deposited residue on the soil surface following the Southern California fires of 2007.

Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Martin, Deborah A.; Rochester, Carlton; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Mendez, Greg; Reichard, Eric G.; Fisher, Robert N.

2009-01-01

213

Estimation and potential improvement of the quality of legacy soil samples for digital soil mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legacy soil data form an important resource for digital soil mapping and are essential for calibration of models for predicting soil properties from environmental variables. Such data arise from traditional soil survey. Methods of soil survey are generally empirical and based on the mental development of the surveyor, correlating soil with underlying geology, landforms, vegetation and air-photo interpretation. There are

F. Carré; Alex B. McBratney; B. Minasny

2007-01-01

214

QA/QC requirements for physical properties sampling and analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of an assessment of the available information concerning US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements and guidance applicable to sampling, handling, and analyzing physical parameter samples at Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation sites. Geotechnical testing laboratories measure the following physical properties of soil and sediment samples collected during CERCLA remedial investigations (RI) at the Hanford Site: moisture content, grain size by sieve, grain size by hydrometer, specific gravity, bulk density/porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and permeability of rocks by flowing air. Geotechnical testing laboratories also measure the following chemical parameters of soil and sediment samples collected during Hanford Site CERCLA RI: calcium carbonate and saturated column leach testing. Physical parameter data are used for (1) characterization of vadose and saturated zone geology and hydrogeology, (2) selection of monitoring well screen sizes, (3) to support modeling and analysis of the vadose and saturated zones, and (4) for engineering design. The objectives of this report are to determine the QA/QC levels accepted in the EPA Region 10 for the sampling, handling, and analysis of soil samples for physical parameters during CERCLA RI.

Innis, B.E.

1993-07-21

215

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and air: statistical analysis and classification by the SIMCA method  

SciTech Connect

Soil samples from 12 locations in Norway have been analyzed for 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The same unsubstituted PAH have been determined in air samples collected near an aluminum reduction plant. Analysis by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the selected ion mode showed concentrations in soil ranging from less than 1 ppb (detection limit) to 993 ppb for individual unsubstituted PAH. The highest concentrations are found close to aluminum plants. Correlation analysis and SIMCA pattern recognition show that the patterns of unsubstituted PAH in soils samples collected close to aluminum plants are different from those in soil samples collected from other areas. Soil samples from a bog environment show a somewhat different pattern of PAH than other soil samples. 43 references, 6 figures, 5 tables.

Vogt, N.B.; Brakstad, F.; Thrane, K.; Nordenson, S.; Krane, J.; Aamot, E.; Kolset, K.; Esbensen, K.; Steinnes, E.

1987-01-01

216

Precise and rapid determination of 238U\\/ 235U and uranium concentration in soil samples using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium isotopic composition and concentration have been determined on over 500 soil samples from the Greenham Common Air Base and surrounding Berkshire, UK, to detect potential contamination from nuclear sources. Due to the large number of samples involved in this study and the potentially subtle nature of the contamination a new method of analysis was developed which is both rapid

Rex N Taylor; Ian W Croudace; Phillip E Warwick; Stephen J Dee

1998-01-01

217

Fysisch-Chemische Analyses van Bodem-Monsters en Topografische Beschrijving van Bemonsterde Locaties t.b.v. het Project 'Bodemclassificatie' (Physico-Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples and Topographical Description of Sampled Locations on Behalf of the Project 'Soil Classification').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nematode fauna are used as an instrument for assessing biological quality of soils. To assess the quality of soils an ecological typology based on the freeliving nematode fauna is in development. Therefore knowledge on the relationship between the presenc...

S. van den Berg R. G. M. de Goede F. I. Kappers

1990-01-01

218

Framework of Concepts for Soil Survey Using Probability Sampling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Available soil survey information is mainly qualitative. However, there is a growing need for information with quantified accuracy. Therefore statistical methodology should be applied to collect and analyze data. The study concentrates on soil survey usin...

P. Domburg J. J. de Gruijter

1992-01-01

219

Analysis Inside the Box -- Studying Rock and Soil in Biological Quarantine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-destructive, non-contact analysis of rock and soil samples, using X-ray tomography and Raman spectroscopy, can yield geologically useful information. Such techniques may be required for preliminary characterization of samples returned from Mars.

Allen, C. C.; Tsapin, A. I.; Kuebler, K.; Haskin, L.; Wang, A.

2002-03-01

220

Microscopic Investigation of Martian Soil Samples at the Phoenix Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used the optical and atomic force microscopes (OM and AFM) of the MECA microscopy station on Phoenix (M. Hecht et al., Microscopy Capabilities of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer , JGR accepted for publication) to image samples within reach of the robot arm and delivered to sets of substrates mounted in a sample wheel. For loading the sample, the wheel was pushed out of the MECA enclosure, exposing only one set of substrates: strong and weak magnets, micro-buckets, silicone and silicon featuring grids of micromachined small holes and posts to capture particles. A thickness of up to 200 micrometers of material can be brought into the microscopy station under a leveling blade before the samples are rotated into the field of view of the microscopes as the substrates are tilted from horizontal to vertical. This tilt can cause the loss of a portion of the material depending on the relative strength of the adhesion forces compared to Martian gravity. The time constraints of sample delivery have so far ensured that any ice would have sublimed prior to delivery. From OM images of fully loaded substrates the particles found so far can be very coarsely grouped into three different categories: 1. subrounded strongly magnetic grains, of both a rough and glassy appearance with different shades of yellow, red, brown and black color in a size range of 50 to 100 micrometers, comprising about 10% of the sample volume; 2. small white flecks of a few micrometers in size, about 0.5% of the sample volume; 3. a majority component of a fine, uniformly coloured orange-reddish dust forming agglomerations from a few tens of microns in diameter to below the resolution of the OM with less magnetic attraction than the larger grains. Using populations on more sparsely populated substrates a size distribution could be estimated. The particle size distribution increases with decreasing size until cut off by the 4-micrometer resolution limit of the OM. The AFM confirmed the presence of these smaller particles, down to the submicrometer scale. These often appeared flat and angular. It is hypothesized that the soil observed so far consists of magnetic minerals at various stages of degradation, with the most degraded including a proportion of flattened micrometer-sized clay particles, together with a distinct but small proportion of pale mineral or salt grains.

Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Hecht, M. H.; Marshall, J.; Team, M. M.

2008-12-01

221

MAPPING SOIL PROPERTIES USING ECA-DIRECTED SAMPLING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Characterizing spatial variability is an important consideration of any landscape-scale soil-related problem, such as solute transport, precision agriculture, and soil quality assessment, to mention just a few. Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is a quick, reliable measurement that is fre...

222

IMPACT OF SAMPLING FREQUENCY ON SOIL CO2 FLUX ESTIMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carbon dioxide flux from soil is a key indicator of soil organic C decomposition, and field estimates of CO2 fluxes are a critical component in soil C budget calculations. Often cumulative CO2-C flux is computed from weekly or biweekly measurements; however the consequences of this procedure, speci...

223

Combination of comprehensive geophysical measurements and conventional soil sampling for high resolution soil mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of the FP7-EU project iSOIL ``Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping'' is to develop new and to improve existing strategies and innovative methods for generating accurate, high-resolution soil property maps. Thus we will develop, validate, and evaluate concepts and strategies for transferring measured physical parameter distributions into soil property, soil

U. Werban; A. Nuesch; T. Vienken; P. Dietrich; T. Behrens

2010-01-01

224

Probing dissolved organic matter in the critical zone: a comparison between in situ sampling and aqueous soil extracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyzing dissolved organic matter (DOM) of soil solution constitutes an integral activity in critical zone science as important insights to nutrient and carbon cycling and mineral weathering processes can be gained. Soil solution can be obtained by a variety of approaches such as by in situ zero-tension and tension samplers or by performing soil extracts in the lab. It is generally preferred to obtain soil solution in situ with the least amount of disturbance. However, in water limited environments, such as in southwestern US, in situ sampling is only possible during few hydrologic events and soil extracts are often employed. In order to evaluate the performance of different sampling approaches for OM analysis, results from aqueous soil extracts were compared with in situ samples obtained from suction cups and passive capillary wick samplers (PCAP's). Soil from an OA-horizon of mixed conifer forest Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory (JRB-CZO) in NM was sampled twice and in situ samples from co-located suction cups and PCAPs were collected 7 times during the 2011 snowmelt period. Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations (DOC and DN) as well as OM quality (FTIR, fluorescence spectroscopy and PARAFAC) were analyzed. The aqueous soil extracts (solid:solution = 1:5 mass basis) showed highest DOC and lowest DN concentrations whereas samples collected in-situ had lower DOC and higher DN concentrations. PARAFAC analysis using a four component model showed a dominance of fluorescence in region I and II (protein-like fluorescence) for samples collected in situ indicating the presence of more bio-molecules (proteins). In contrast, the dominant PARAFAC component of the soil extract was found in region 3 (fulvic acid-like fluorescence). FTIR analysis showed high intensity band at 1600 cm-1 in the case of the aqueous soil extract that correspond to asymmetric stretching of carboxyl groups. These preliminary results indicate that aqueous soil extracts likely lead to the underestimation of the amount of biomolecules and the overestimation of fulvic acid contents of soil solutions.

Perdrial, J. N.; Perdrial, N.; Harpold, A. A.; Peterson, A. M.; Vasquez, A.; Chorover, J.

2011-12-01

225

Conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling: Optimal Sample Size for Digital Soil Mapping of Arid Rangelands in Utah, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) is a type of stratified random sampling that accurately represents the variability\\u000a of environmental covariates in feature space. As the smallest possible sample is important for efficient field work, what\\u000a is the optimal sample size for digital soil mapping? An optimal sample size accurately represents the variability in the environmental\\u000a covariates and provides enough samples

C. W. Brungard; J. L. Boettinger

226

Thermal analysis of whole soils and sediment.  

PubMed

Thermal analysis techniques were utilized to investigate the thermal properties of two soils and a lignite coal obtained from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS), and sediment obtained from The Netherlands. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed glass transition behavior of each sample at temperatures ranging from 52 degrees C for Pahokee peat (euic, hyperthermic Lithic Medisaprists), 55 degrees C for a Netherlands (B8) sediment, 64 degrees C for Elliott loam (fine, illitic, mesic Aquic Arguidolls), to 70 degrees C for Gascoyne leonardite. Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) revealed glass transition behavior at similar temperatures, and quantified constant-pressure specific heat capacity (Cp) at 0 degrees C from 0.6 J g(-1) degrees C(-1) for Elliott loam and 0.8 J g(-1) degrees C(-1) for the leonardite, to 1.0 J g(-1) degrees C(-1) for the peat and the sediment. Glass transition behavior showed no distinct correlation to elemental composition, although Gascoyne Leonardite and Pahokee peat each demonstrated glass transition behavior similar to that reported for humic acids derived from these materials. Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) revealed a large thermal expansion followed by a matrix collapse for each sample between 20 and 30 degrees C, suggesting the occurrence of transition behavior of unknown origin. Thermal transitions occurring at higher temperatures more representative of glass transition behavior were revealed for the sediment and the peat. PMID:14964387

DeLapp, Rossane C; LeBoeuf, Eugene J

227

Natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from some areas of Himachal Pradesh, India using ?-ray spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

226Ra, 232Th and 40K analysis has been carried out in soil samples collected from some areas of Himachal Pradesh, India using ?-ray spectrometry. The measured activity in soil ranges from 42.09 to 79.63 Bq kg -1, 52.83 to 105.81 Bq kg -1 and 95.33 to 160.30 Bq kg -1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K with the mean values of 57.34, 82.22 and 135.75 Bq kg -1, respectively. The measured activity concentration of 226Ra and 232Th in soil samples collected from these areas is higher and for 40K is lower than the world average. The radium equivalent activity in all the soil samples is lower than the safe limit set in the OECD report (370 Bq kg -1). The value of the external exposure dose has been determined from the content of these radionuclides in soil. It has been observed that on the average, the outdoor terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate is about 83.28 nGy h -1. The study yields an annual effective dose in the range of 0.07-0.13 mSv. The average value of annual effective dose lies in the global range of outdoor radiation exposure given in United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) [(2000). Effects and risks of ionizing radiations. UN, NY]. The activity concentration of 238U has also been determined using fission track technique and the values range from 3.26 to 7.71 mg kg -1 with a mean value of 4.38 mg kg -1.

Rani, Asha; Singh, Surinder

228

Performance evaluation soil samples for volatile organic compounds utilizing solvent encapsulation technology  

SciTech Connect

A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was encapsulated and mixed with a soil to produce a product suitable for use as a double blind source of VOCs in a soil performance evaluation sample. Two independent laboratories analyzed the standard encapsulated VOC/soil mixture for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene by using US EPA SW-846 Method 5035 in conjunction with SW-846 Method 8020. One laboratory received the sample as a single blind standard, while the other laboratory received the sample as a double blind standard. The percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) for triplicate analyses ranged from 2 to 13%. The lowest %RSD was for m/p-xylene (2%) from the sample analyzed as a double blind sample. Analytical results from these pilot studies indicate that it is possible to prepare standard soil samples contaminated with known amounts of VOCs which will enable soil samples to be submitted to environmental analytical laboratories as a truly blind sample.

Dahlgran, J. [Dept. of Energy, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Thies, C. [Thies Technology, St. Louis, MO (United States)

1999-05-01

229

Mercury and arsenic pollution in soil and biological samples around the mining town of Obuasi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of soils, plantain (Musa paradisiaca), water fern (Ceratopteris cornuta), elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), cassava (Manihot esculenta) and mud fish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis) were collected from Obuasi and its environs, which is the most active gold mining town in Ghana. The distribution of mercury and arsenic in these samples from fourteen sampling sites was determined. The annual average surficial soil concentrations

E. H. Amonoo-Neizer; David Nyamah; S. B. Bakiamoh

1996-01-01

230

Levels of PAHs in soil and vegetation samples from Tarragona County, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 24 soil and 12 wild chard samples collected in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain), an area with an important number of chemical and petrochemical industries. Samples were also collected in urban\\/residential zones and in presumably unpolluted sites (control samples). In soils, the sum of the 16 PAHs ranged between 1002

M. Nadal; M. Schuhmacher; J. L. Domingo

2004-01-01

231

MGA Analysis on Elevated 238 Pu Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plutonium gamma-ray data analysis, in the 100-keV region, using MGA has been improved to overcome the original maximum limit of 2% 238Pu relative plutonium content in a sample in order to perform an analysis. MGA analysis results of elevated 238Pu samples are compared to the results from mass spectrometry.

Wang, T. F.; Moody, K. J.; Raschke, K. E.; Ruhter, W. D.

2002-10-01

232

[Determination of cadmium in soil slurry samples by GFAAS using ammonium oxalate as disperstant].  

PubMed

A method for the determination of trace cadmium in soil slurry samples by GFAAS was optimized. The factors that influence the performances of cadmium at different chemical modifier were investigated. The effect of background has also been studied. It is found that the slurry of soil samples was most stable with ammonium oxalate as disperstant. The results show that the determination of trace cadmium in soil slurry samples could performed. PMID:15822318

Gan, W; Sui, M; He, Y

1999-12-01

233

Radioactivity Levels and Gamma-Ray Dose Rate in Soil Samples from Kohistan (Pakistan) Using Gamma-Ray Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and an anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs is carried out in some soil samples collected from Kohistan district of N.W.F.P. (Pakistan), using gamma-ray spectrometry. The gamma spectrometry is operated using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector coupled with a computer based high resolution multi channel analyzer. The specific activity in soil ranges

M. Khan Hasan; M. Ismail; K. Khan; P. Akhter

2011-01-01

234

Classification of soil samples according to geographic origin using gamma-ray spectrometry and pattern recognition methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate data analysis methods were used to recognize and classify soils of unknown geographic origin. A total of 103 soil samples were differentiated into classes, according to regions in Serbia and Montenegro from which they were collected. Their radionuclide (226Ra, 238U, 235U, 40K, 134Cs, 137Cs, 232Th and 7Be) activities detected by gamma-ray spectrometry were then used as the inputs in

Snezana Dragovic; Antonije Onjia

2007-01-01

235

DIRECT/DELAYED RESPONSE PROJECT: FIELD OPERATIONS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE REPORT FOR SOIL SAMPLING AND PREPARATION IN THE SOUTHERN BLUE RIDGE PROVINCE OF THE UNITED STATES. VOLUME 2. PREPARATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Direct/Delayed Response Project Soil Survey includes the mapping, characterization, sampling, preparation, and analysis of soils in order to assess watershed response to acidic deposition within various regions of the United States. Soil samples collected by sampling crews in...

236

A quantitative method to detect explosives and other selected semivolatiles in soil samples by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The current methods for hazardous waste site characterization are time consuming, cumbersome, and expensive. Typically, characterization requires a preliminary site assessment and subsequent sampling of potentially contaminated soils and waters. The samples are sent to laboratories for analysis using EPA-certified methods. It is often necessary to repeat the entire sampling-analysis cycle to characterize a site completely and accurately. For these reasons, new methods of site assessment and characterization are continually being researched. TWs paper describes a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy method that rapidly screens soil samples from potentially hazardous waste sites. Analysis of a soil sample by FTIR takes approximately 10 minutes. The method has been developed to identify and quantify explosives in the field and is directly applicable to selected volatile organics, semivolatile organics, and pesticides. The soil samples are desorbed in a CDS 122 thermal desorption unit under vacuum into a variable pathlength, long-path cell heated to 180{degrees}C. The spectral data, 128 co-added scans at I cm{sup {minus}l} resolution, are collected and stored using a Nicolet 60SX FTIR spectrometer. Classical least squares (CLS) analysis has been used to obtain quantitative results.

Clapper-Gowdy, M.; Demirgian, J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Lang, K.; Robaittaille, G. (Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States))

1992-01-01

237

Quantitative Field Testing Rotylenchulus reniformis DNA from Metagenomic Samples Isolated Directly from Soil  

PubMed Central

A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the ?-tubulin gene determined the number of Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira 1940 in metagenomic DNA samples isolated from soil. Of note, this outcome was in the presence of other soil-dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including its sister genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from soil.

Showmaker, Kurt; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

2011-01-01

238

Experimental quantification of bulk sampling volume of ECH2O soil moisture sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently developed, relatively low-cost, ECH2O soil moisture sensors have re- ceived considerable attention by both laboratory and field scientists. For these sensors to be in- stalled properly, the sampling volume that defines the volume of soil zone where the soil mois- ture affects the sensor readings has to be known. These dielectric sensors comprise plus and ground prongs, where the

Anuchit Limsuwat; Toshihiro Sakaki; Tissa H. Illangasekare

2009-01-01

239

RAPID METHOD FOR PLUTONIUM, AMERICIUM AND CURIUM IN VERY LARGE SOIL SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in very large soil samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multistage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines an acid leach step and innovative matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. This method is unique in that it provides high tracer recoveries and effective removal of interferences with small extraction chromatography columns instead of large ion exchange resin columns that generate large amounts of acid waste. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

Maxwell, S

2007-01-08

240

Development of the Analysis Method for the Radioactivity Concentration Estimation of Soils for a Regulatory Clearance  

SciTech Connect

In this study, for the analysis of a radioactivity concentration of soil, a sampling and an analyzing method were developed. To create homogeneity of the contents for each drum, big particles such as pebbles, rocks and scraps of concrete were removed after pouring the soil into a tray. And then the soil in the tray was mixed thoroughly. A 10 X 10 grid was used to partition the soil into 100 sections. 2 liter of soil was sampled out of 30 randomly pre-selected sections. Only 1 liter of the soil out of 2 liters was used for the spectrometry analysis. The remaining 1 liter of soil was stored for a validation purpose. For a verification of the sampling process, 3 samples were taken from each drum and analyzed. 5 drums were used for the verification. And the results show that this sampling method has about a 9% sampling error. Also, the analysis results of the 865 drums of soil showed that the major nuclides in the soils were Co-60 and Cs-137 while a small amount of Mn-54, Fe-59, I-131, Cs-134 and Eu-152 were detected as {gamma}-emitters. About 73% of the soils had a total radioactivity concentration below 0.1 Bq/g, while the soils with more than 0.4 Bq/g of a radioactivity concentration were only 3%. Based on the guide for the regulatory clearance criteria recommended by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), about 73% of the soils can be regulatory cleared without any treatment. Also, the remaining soils can be regulatory cleared after a further storage. Only 3% of the soils are considered to be necessary for a decontamination treatment. The results of this study can be applied to the treatment of radioactive soils generated in a large amount during the decommissioning of a nuclear facility. (authors)

Dae-Seok Hong; Jong-Sik Shon; Tae-Kuk Kim [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, P.O.Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, Korea, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Han-Seok Cho [Chungnam National University, 220, Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, 305-764 Daejeon-city (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

241

Rapid separation method for 237Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples.  

PubMed

A new rapid method for the determination of (237)Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. PMID:21459009

Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Noyes, Gary W

2011-01-31

242

Spatial analysis of archaeal community structure in grassland soil.  

PubMed

The complex structure of soil and the heterogeneity of resources available to microorganisms have implications for sampling regimens when the structure and diversity of microbial communities are analyzed. To assess the heterogeneity in community structure, archaeal communities, which typically contain sequences belonging to the nonthermophilic Crenarchaeota, were examined at two contrasting spatial scales by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis followed by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis of 16S rRNA- and ribosomal DNA-derived profiles. A macroscale analysis was carried out with soil cores taken at 2-m intervals along triplicate 8-m transects from both managed (improved) and natural (unimproved) grassland rhizosphere soils. A microscale analysis was carried out with a single soil core by assessing the effects of both sample size (10, 1, and 0.1 g) and distance between samples. The much reduced complexity of archaeal profiles compared to the complexity typical of the bacterial community facilitated visual comparison of profiles based on band presence and revealed different levels of heterogeneity between sets of samples. At the macroscale level, heterogeneity over the transect could not be related to grassland type. Substantial heterogeneity was observed across both improved and unimproved transects, except for one improved transect that exhibited substantial homogeneity, so that profiles for a single core were largely representative of the entire transect. At the smaller scale, the heterogeneity of the archaeal community structure varied with sample size within a single 8- by 8-cm core. The archaeal DGGE profiles for replicate 10-g soil samples were similar, while those for 1-g samples and 0.1-g samples showed greater heterogeneity. In addition, there was no relationship between the archaeal profiles and the distance between 1- or 0.1-g samples, although relationships between community structure and distance of separation may occur at a smaller scale. Our findings demonstrate the care required when workers attempt to obtain a representative picture of microbial community structure in the soil environment. PMID:14660394

Nicol, Graeme W; Glover, L Anne; Prosser, James I

2003-12-01

243

Vapor sampling and analysis plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from both SST and DST tanks

Homi, C.S.

1995-10-10

244

Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for the purpose o...

R. D. Schreiber

1995-01-01

245

Riverland ERA cleanup sampling and analysis plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the Riverland Expedited Response Action taking place at the Hanford Reservation. Characterization of potential waste sites within the Riverland ERA boundaries was conducted in October and November 1992. This sampling and analysis plan contains two parts: The field sampling plan (Part 1) and the quality assurance project plan (Part 2). The field sampling plan describes the activities

Heiden

1993-01-01

246

Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the

C Koester; C Thompson; T Doerr; R Scripsick

2005-01-01

247

From the micro-scale to the habitat: Assessment of soil bacterial community structure as shown by soil structure directed sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural structural units of a luvisol under maize crop were studied to assess if soil structure directed sampling could improve the understanding of arrangements of bacteria in spatially constraint location. Three habitats were defined: (i) soil around fine lateral roots (rhizo-aggregates), (ii) soil close to basal roots (core clods) and (iii) unplanted soil between rows (bare soil clods). These habitats

Benoît Remenant; Geneviève L. Grundmann; Lucile Jocteur-Monrozier

2009-01-01

248

Radionuclide Activities in Contaminated Soils: Effects of Sampling Bias on Remediation of Coarse-Grained Soils in Hanford Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a limited set of particle size-contaminant concentration data is available for soils from the Hanford Site. These data are based on bench-scale tests on single soil samples from one waste site each in operable units 100-BC-1, 100-DR-1, and 100-FR-1, and three samples from the North Pond 300-FF-1 operable unit. The objective of this study was to 1) examine available

Shas V. Mattigod; Wayne J. Martin

2001-01-01

249

Fipronil Insecticide and Soil-Sample Handling Techniques of State Regulatory Agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project was to examine soil-sample handling techniques used by state regulatory agencies that regulate pesticides and their impact on soil-residue levels of the insecticide fipronil and to offer a standardized soil-sampling protocol. In the United States, the pesticide user industry is large for both agricultural and non-agricultural applications. The United States Environmental Protection Agency regulates pesticide

George N. Saxton; Bernie Engel

2007-01-01

250

Spatial variability of soil sampling for salinity studies in Southwest Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the technology for soil sampling of large agricultural fields which are inherently variable in both space and time. Three several hundred ha fields in southwest Iran initially sampled on an arbitrarily selected grid of 80 m to ascertain soil salinity levels were analyzed using both geostatistical and classical statistical methods. The results from two fields showed that

S. Hajrasuliha; N. Baniabbassi; J. Metthey; D. R. Nielsen

1980-01-01

251

FRESHWATER ASSAY USING SOIL ELUATES AS SAMPLE MATERIAL (SINGLE LABORATORY EVALUATION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Chlorophyta assay, which uses soil as sample material, has been a useful bioassessment technique for screening hazardous waste site problems. n eluate is prepared from a 125-gram soil sample and then diluted into three separate concentrations prior to being tested using Selen...

252

Permethrin Insecticide and Soil Sample Handling Techniques of State Regulatory Agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project was to examine soil sample handling procedures of each state regulatory agency that regulates pesticides, and to offer a standardized soil sampling protocol. In the United States, the pesticide user industry is large for both agricultural and non-agricultural uses. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulates pesticide use on a federal level. Each state

George N. Saxton; Bernie Engel

2005-01-01

253

Amounts of particulate radionuclides and their reaction constants in radionuclide migration test using undisturbed samples of aerated sandy soil layers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The amounts and the reaction constants of particulate (sup 60)Co and (sup 137)Cs were estimated from the results of radionuclide migration tests for undisturbed samples of an aerated sandy soil layer by using inverse analysis. It was found that the amount...

H. Ogawa S. Takebe M. Senoo

1994-01-01

254

Application of Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy in Soil Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil analysis has become routine work for soil management and crop production. However, laboratory analysis–based determination of soil properties is expensive and time consuming, which is not suitable for precision agriculture. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) appears as an alternative and fast technique to measure soil properties and has had wide application; in particular, a new method called infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS)

Changwen Du; Jianmin Zhou

2011-01-01

255

Erosion Modeling in Central China - Soil Data Acquisition by Conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling and Incorporation of Legacy Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Three Gorges Dam at the Yangtze River in Central China outlines a prominent example of human-induced environmental impacts. Throughout one year the water table at the main river fluctuates about 30m due to impoundment and drainage activities. The dynamic water table implicates a range of georisks such as soil erosion, mass movements, sediment transport and diffuse matter inputs into the reservoir. Within the framework of the joint Sino-German project YANGTZE GEO, the subproject "Soil Erosion" deals with soil erosion risks and sediment transport pathways into the reservoir. The study site is a small catchment (4.8 km²) in Badong, approximately 100 km upstream the dam. It is characterized by scattered plots of agricultural landuse and resettlements in a largely wooded, steep sloping and mountainous area. Our research is focused on data acquisition and processing to develop a process-oriented erosion model. Hereby, area-covering knowledge of specific soil properties in the catchment is an intrinsic input parameter. This will be acquired by means of digital soil mapping (DSM). Thereby, soil properties are estimated by covariates. The functions are calibrated by soil property samples. The DSM approach is based on an appropriate sample design, which reflects the heterogeneity of the catchment, regarding the covariates with influence on the relevant soil properties. In this approach the covariates, processed by a digital terrain analysis, are outlined by the slope, altitude, profile curvature, plane curvature, and the aspect. For the development of the sample design, we chose the Conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) procedure (Minasny and McBratney, 2006). It provides an efficient method of sampling variables from their multivariate distribution. Thereby, a sample size n from multiple variables is drawn such that for each variable the sample is marginally maximally stratified. The method ensures the maximal stratification by two features: First, number of strata equals the sample size n and secondly, the probability of falling in each of the strata is n-¹ (McKay et al., 1979). We extended the classical cLHS with extremes (Schmidt et al., 2012) approach by incorporating legacy data of previous field campaigns. Instead of identifying precise sample locations by CLHS, we demarcate the multivariate attribute space of the samples based on the histogram borders of each stratum. This widens the spatial scope of the actual CLHS sample locations and allows the incorporation of legacy data lying within that scope. Furthermore, this approach provides an extended potential regarding the accessibility of sample sites in the field.

Stumpf, Felix; Schönbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

2013-04-01

256

Chemical Analysis of Soils: An Environmental Chemistry Laboratory for Undergraduate Science Majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful management of conflicting uses of soils, which include food production as well as disposal of hazardous wastes, requires an understanding of soil characteristics that affect the mobility and fate of soil contaminants and nutrients. Soil chemistry, however, is often neglected in environmental chemistry courses. This laboratory exercise is designed to make this topic more accessible to instructors who teach environmental chemistry laboratories, as well as to their students. In this laboratory exercise, undergraduate science students evaluate soil samples for various parameters related to suitability for crop production and capability for retention of contaminants. The lab emphasizes the heterogeneous nature of soil and the difficulty of obtaining representative samples for analysis. One of the first steps in any chemical analysis is to obtain a representative analytical sample from a bulk sample, yet undergraduate students rarely do this in practice. In this lab, students attempt to obtain a representative analytical sample from a large soil sample. They compare their individual data with the mean and standard deviation compiled from the whole class. Soil water, calcium carbonate, organic matter, pH, and salinity are measured. Soil texture and octanol-water partitioning are demonstrated.

Willey, Joan D.; Avery, G. Brooks, Jr.; Manock, John J.; Skrabal, Stephen A.; Stehman, Charles F.

1999-12-01

257

Elemental Analysis Manual: Section 2 Sample Preparation  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Elemental Analysis Manual: Section 2 Sample Preparation. Table of Contents. ... 2.1.1 FOOD EDIBLE PORTION. 2.1.2 CANDY PREPARATION. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

258

Accumulated Waste Sampling and Analysis Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Accumulated Waste Sampling and Analysis Management Plan (AWSAMP) has been prepared in response to the AWP and the Accumulated Waste Characterization Work Plan (SAIC 1992). The scope of the AWSAMP includes: A review and compilation of existing waste c...

1992-01-01

259

Riverland ERA cleanup sampling and analysis plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the Riverland Expedited Response Action taking place at the Hanford Reservation. Characterization of potential waste sites within the Riverland ERA boundaries was conducted in October and November 1992. This sampling and analysis pla...

C. E. Heiden

1993-01-01

260

N Basin task: Sampling and analysis plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this plan is to define the strategy and the methods that will be used to sample and analyze the radioactive residual materials in the 105N Basin Areas shown in Figure 1 and in the 107N Baisn Recirculation Facility locations shown in Figure 2. This plan includes: the objective and goals of this sampling and analysis activity; the

Lamm

1990-01-01

261

Soil Property Mapping Over Large Areas Using Sparse Ad-hoc Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on spatial variation of soil properties over large areas is a critical input for environmental modeling at the regional to continental scales. Yet, quality information on soil spatial variation over large areas is rather difficult to obtain due to the large number of field samples needed and the required global representation on field samples by existing mapping techniques. Due to the constraints of field conditions and project budget and the complexity of spatial variation of soil properties the collected samples are often sparse and ad-hoc (poor global representation) in nature. As a result field sampling can rarely meet these requirements (both the number of samples and the sound global representation). The soil property maps derived based on these samples using existing mapping techniques are not only at low quality but also lack the information on the uncertainty introduced by samples’ poor global representation. The lack of uncertainty information in the derived soil property maps also prevents proper uncertainty assessment of model outputs when the derived soil information is used as the input to environmental models. This paper presents a new approach to map soil properties and quantify uncertainty in the derived soil property maps over large areas using sparse and ad-hoc samples. The underlying assumption of this new approach is the soil-landscape concept which stipulates that the more similar the environment conditions between two locations the more similar the soil property values are between the two sites. Under this assumption each sample can be considered as a representative over areas of similar environmental conditions. The level of representation by an individual sample to an unsampled location can be approximated by the similarity between their respective environmental conditions. Based on this “individual representation” concept and with a Case-based Reasoning (CBR) approach soil property values at unsampled locations can be predicted based on their environmental similarity to individual samples. Furthermore, the uncertainty associated with each prediction is related to the similarity and can thus be quantified. A case study over the Illy Region, a 50,000 km2 area in Xinjiang, Northwest China, has demonstrated that the predicted spatial variation of soil organic matter of top layer is of good quality and the quantified uncertainty is positively correlated with prediction residuals. This suggests that the approach can be an effective alternative for mapping soil property and quantifying uncertainty over large areas with sparse and ad-hoc samples.

Zhu, A.; Liu, J.; Qin, C.; Zhang, S.; Chen, Y.; Ma, X.; Solim Group

2010-12-01

262

Simultaneous analysis of SbIII, SbV and TMSb by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry detection: application to antimony speciation in soil samples.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to develop a method for the simultaneous separation and detection of antimonite (Sb(III)), antimonate (Sb(V)) and trimethyl antinmony (TMSb) species in soils, using ultrasonic-aided citric acid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry separation and detection. The extractions were performed using various chemical solutions. The separation was conducted on a PRP-X100 anion exchange column (25 cm × 4.1 mm i.d., 10 µm) using an isocratic elution program. The various factors of the elution procedure, e.g., pH, elution concentration and retention time, were optimized for the best separation of the three Sb species. It was found that two consecutive extractions using 100 mmol/L citric acid at pH 2.03 resulted in the highest extraction efficiency, 53%. The optimal elution procedure was obtained by using 200 mmol/L ammonium tartrate with 4% methanol as the mobile phase at pH 5.0. Under these conditions, the retention times for Sb(III), Sb(V) and TMSb species were 3.8, 2.1 and 6.8 min with detection limits of 0.03, 0.02 and 0.05 µg/L, respectively. Spiked recoveries for Sb(III), Sb(V) and TMSb ranged from 88 to 118%. The proposed method is reliable for antimony speciation in soil samples. PMID:23019249

Ge, Zhaofeng; Wei, Chaoyang

2012-09-27

263

Antibacterial activity of the streptomycetes isolated from marine soil sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptomyces species are the source of 70% of known antibiotics and they live in the soil where they encounter antibiotics produced by competing microbes, including other actinomycetes. Antibacterial activity of streptomycetes isolated from muttukkad area in Tamil Nadu has been studied. A total of 50 streptomycetes were subjected to primary screening by cross streak method against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, S.epidermidis)

S. Usha Nandhini; M. Masilamani Selvam

2011-01-01

264

Distantly sampled soils carry few species in common  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial phylogenetic structure of soils from four distinctly different sites in South and North America was analyzed. One hundred and thirty-nine thousand sequences of the V9 region of the small subunit of the bacterial ribosomal RNA gene generated for a previous study were used for this work. Whereas the previous work estimated levels of species richness, this study details

Roberta R Fulthorpe; Luiz F W Roesch; Alberto Riva; Eric W Triplett

2008-01-01

265

40 CFR 761.292 - Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and analysis of individual samples and composite samples. 761.292 Section 761...and analysis of individual samples and composite samples. Use either Method 3500B...extraction of PCBs from individual and composite samples of PCB remediation waste....

2013-07-01

266

Oxidation of atmospheric methane in soil: Measurements in the field, in soil cores and in soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane fluxes and vertical profiles of CH4 mixing ratios were measured in different German soils both in situ and in soil cores. Atmospheric CH4 was oxidized in the soil by microorganisms resulting in an average CH4 flux of -1.39+\\/-1.5 mumol-CH4 m-2 h-1. Methane deposition showed only a weak positive correlation (r2=0.38) with soil temperature but a relatively strong negative correlation

Matthias Koschorreck; Ralf Conrad

1993-01-01

267

Characterisation of a reference site for quantifying uncertainties related to soil sampling.  

PubMed

The paper reports a methodology adopted to face problems related to quality assurance in soil sampling. The SOILSAMP project, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT), is aimed at (i) establishing protocols for soil sampling in different environments; (ii) assessing uncertainties associated with different soil sampling methods in order to select the "fit-for-purpose" method; (iii) qualifying, in term of trace elements spatial variability, a reference site for national and international inter-comparison exercises. Preliminary results and considerations are illustrated. PMID:14554003

Barbizzi, Sabrina; de Zorzi, Paolo; Belli, Maria; Pati, Alessandra; Sansone, Umberto; Stellato, Luisa; Barbina, Maria; Deluisa, Andrea; Menegon, Sandro; Coletti, Valter

2004-01-01

268

High priority tank sampling and analysis report  

SciTech Connect

In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Board issued Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) which noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In response, the US Department of Energy, in May 1996, issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan`s objectives, concentrating on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks for near term core sampling and analysis, which along with sampling and analysis of other non-High Priority tanks, could provide the scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and.measure safety related phenomenology of the waste. When the analysis results of the High Priority and other-tank sampling were reviewed, it was expected that a series of 12 questions, 9 related to safety issues and 3 related to planning for the disposal process, should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. This report discusses the execution of the Implementation Plan and the results achieved in addressing the questions. Through sampling and analysis, all nine safety related questions have been answered and extensive data for the three disposal planning related questions have been collected, allowing for key decision making. Many more tanks than the original 28 High Priority tanks identified in the Implementation Plan were sampled and analyzed. Twenty-one High Priority tanks and 85 other tanks were core sampled and used to address the questions. Thirty-eight additional tanks were auger or grab sampled and used. A total of condensed phase samples from 144 tanks were used. Vapor samples for 82 of the tanks were used to address questions needing vapor analysis results. Additional High Priority and other tanks used to address specific questions provided comparable information to that expected from the original plan. Simultaneously, a robust systems integrated approach for establishing near term sampling requirements has been established as part of the Tank Waste Remediation System`s culture. No further sampling and analysis will be conducted for the sole purpose of addressing the 12 questions in the Implementation Plan. Characterization sampling and analysis will continue in support of other requirements and decision making as identified through application of the systems integrated approach.

Brown, T.M.

1998-03-24

269

Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary  

SciTech Connect

A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

1981-07-23

270

Sampling and analysis of gases and vapors  

SciTech Connect

Techniques which were available to the industrial hygienist for evaluating exposures to gases and vapors in the work environment were described. The applications and limitations of several sampling media and techniques were presented. General sampling considerations discussed included sampling strategies, and operational limits of sampling and analysis. Sampling media for gases and vapors included solid sorbents, activated charcoal, silica gel, porous polymers, tenax, proapaks, chromosorbs, XAD resins, other solid sorbents, multistage air sampling tubes, liquid absorbers, passive samplers, and flexible plastic bags/partially evacuated rigid containers. Desorption of contaminants and collection efficiency of solid sorbents were also discussed. Analytical techniques considered include gas chromatography, flame ionization detector, nitrogen/phosphorus detector, flame photometric detector, electron capture detector, hall conductivity detector, thermal conductivity detector, photoionization detector, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, volumetric methods, and ion chromatography. Quality assurance was discussed.

Coffman, M.A.; Singh, J.

1991-08-01

271

Quantitative Field Testing Rotylenchulus reniformis DNA from Metagenomic Samples Isolated Directly from Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the ?-tubulin gene determined the number of Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira 1940 in metagenomic DNA samples isolated from soil. Of note, this outcome was in the presence of other soil-dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including its sister genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated

Kurt Showmaker; Gary W. Lawrence; Shien Lu; Clarissa Balbalian; Vincent P. Klink

2011-01-01

272

Relationship between Clay Content, Clay Type, and Shrinkage Properties of Soil Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

of shrinkage curves on undisturbed core samples allowed improvement of the knowledge of soil shrinking behav- The availability of methods for quasi-continuous measurements of ior, and to develop shrinkage curve models with differ- soil shrinkage curves allowed the development of new models. The ent sets of parameters, as reviewed in Braudeau et al. exponential (XP) model allows the calculation of

Pascal Boivin; Patricia Garnier; Daniel Tessier

2004-01-01

273

EPA COMPARES THREE SOIL-GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS FOR VAPOR INTRUSION INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This newsletter article summarizes the finding of "U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Comparison of Geoprobe PRT, AMS GVP Soil-Gas Sampling Systems with Dedicated Vapor Probes in Sandy Soils at the Raymark Superfund Site, EPA/600/R-06/11, November 2006. " ...

274

Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil samples using flotation-assisted homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction.  

PubMed

In this study, flotation-assisted homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction (FA-HLLME) was developed as a fast, simple, and efficient method for extraction of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis. A special home-made extraction cell was designed to facilitate collection of the low-density extraction solvent without a need for centrifugation. In this method, PAHs were extracted from soil samples into methanol and water (1:1, v/v) using ultrasound in two steps followed by filtration as a clean-up step. The filtrate was added into the home-made extraction cell contained mixture of 1.0 mL methanol (homogenous solvent) and 150.0 ?L toluene (extraction solvent). Using N(2) flotation, the dispersed extraction solvent was transferred to the surface of the mixture and was collected by means of a micro-syringe. Then, 2 ?L of the collected organic solvent was injected into the GC-FID for subsequent analysis. Under optimal conditions, linearity of the method was in the range of 40-1000 ?g kg(-1) soil (dry weight). The relative standard deviations in real samples varied from 5.9 to 15.2% (n=4). The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze the target PAHs in soil samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:23084825

Hosseini, Majid Haji; Rezaee, Mohammad; Mashayekhi, Hossein Ali; Akbarian, Saeid; Mizani, Farhang; Pourjavid, Mohammad Reza

2012-10-03

275

ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS - GETTING IT RIGHT  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State was established in the 1940s as part of the Manhattan Project. Hanford's role was to produce weapons-grade nuclear material for defense, and by 1989, when the Site's mission changed from operations to cleanup, Hanford had produced more than 60 percent of the nation's plutonium. The legacy of Hanford's production years is enormous in terms of nuclear and hazardous waste, especially the 270 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater and the 5 million cubic yards of contaminated soil. Managing the contaminated soil and groundwater are particularly important because the Columbia River, the lifeblood of the northwest and the nation's eighth largest river, bounds the Site. Fluor Hanford's Soil & Groundwater Remediation Project (S&GRP) integrates all of the activities that deal with remediating and monitoring the groundwater across the Site. The S&GRP uses a detailed series of steps to record, track, and verify information. The Sample and Data Management (SDM) Process consists of 10 integrated steps that start with the data quality objectives process that establishes the mechanism for collecting the right information with the right people. The process ends with data quality assessment, which is used to ensure that all quantitative data (e.g., field screening, fixed laboratory) are the right type, and of adequate quality to support the decision-making process. Steps 3 through 10 of the process are production steps and are integrated electronically. The detailed plans, procedures, and systems used day-to-day by the SDM process require a high degree of accuracy and reliability. Tools must be incorporated into the processes that minimize errors. This paper discusses all of the elements of the SDM process in detail.

CONNELL CW

2008-01-22

276

Studying soil properties using visible and near infrared spectral analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is carried out inside the DIGISOIL Project, whose purposes are the integration and improvement of in situ and proximal measurement technologies, for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going form the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in digital soil mapping. The study area is located in the Virginio river basin, about 30 km south of Firenze, in the Chianti area, where soils with agricultural suitability have a high economic value connected to the production of internationally famous wines and olive oils. The most common soil threats, such as erosion and landslide, may determine huge economic losses, which must be considered in farming management practices. This basin has a length of about 23 km for a basin area of around 60,3 Km2. Geological formations outcropping in the area are Pliocene to Pleistocene marine and lacustrine sediments in beds with almost horizontal bedding. Vineyards, olive groves and annual crops are the main types of land use. A typical Mediterranean climate prevails with a dry summer followed by intense and sometimes prolonged rainfall in autumn, decreasing in winter. In this study, three types of VNIR and SWIR techniques, operating at different scales and in different environments (laboratory spectroscopy, portable field spectroscopy) are integrated to rapidly quantify various soil characteristics, in order to acquire data for assessing the risk of occurrence for typically agricultural practice-related soil threats (swelling, compaction, erosion, landslides, organic matter decline, ect.) and to collect ground data in order to build up a spectral library to be used in image analysis from air-borne and satellite sensors. Difficulties encountered in imaging spectroscopy, such as influence of measurements conditions, atmospheric attenuation, scene dependency and sampling representation are investigated and mathematical pre-treatments, using proper algorithms, are applied and tested. Data on detection limits of ground-based, airborne and satellite sensors are also provided. The problem of the influence of soil moisture and soil roughness on reflectance is also examined. Spectral indexes, derived from absorption features, are related to laboratory results on clay minerals, carbonate and iron content, soil moisture and organic matter amount, in order to investigate the potential of hyperspectral sensors to estimate soil properties, using empirical prediction models.

Moretti, S.; Garfagnoli, F.; Innocenti, L.; Chiarantini, L.

2009-04-01

277

Spectrogoniometry and modeling of martian and lunar analog samples and Apollo soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new visible/near-infrared multispectral reflectance measurements of seven lunar soil simulants, two Apollo soils, and eight martian analog samples as functions of illumination and emission angles using the Bloomsburg University Goniometer. By modeling these data with Hapke theory, we provide constraints on photometric parameters (single scattering albedo, phase function parameters, macroscopic roughness, and opposition effect parameters) to provide additional "ground truth" photometric properties to assist analyses of spacecraft data. A wide range of modeled photometric properties were variably related to albedo, color, grain size, and surface texture. Finer-grained samples here have high single-scattering albedo values compared to their coarser-grained counterparts, as well as lower macroscopic roughness values. The Mars analog samples and Apollo soils exhibit slightly lower opposition effect width parameter values than the lunar analogs, whereas the opposition effect magnitude is not well constrained by the models. The Mars analog soils are typically relatively backscattering and consistent with fairly rough particles with a moderate density of internal scatterers, similar to the in situ observations of some soils by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit. Some lunar analog soil models result in moderately-forward scattering behaviors, as do the two Apollo soils. Other fine-grained and/or glass-rich lunar analog samples populate a narrowly forward-scattering regime similar to model results from observations of some rover tracks observed by the MER Opportunity rover and some dust-poor "gray" rocks by the Spirit rover. An experiment to mimic the spherule-rich soils observed by Opportunity demonstrated a large decrease in single-scattering albedo compared to spherule-free soil surfaces, as well as increased surface roughness, narrow opposition effects, and a significant increase in backscattering, similar to some of the Opportunity soils. Phase reddening effects are documented in many soils as an increase in near-infrared/visible ratios with phase angle. Some samples exhibit falloffs in these ratio phase curves at phase angles beyond 50-80° that are likely related to an increased importance of surface scattering at high phase angles. None of the lunar analog soils perfectly match the modeled photometric parameters of the two Apollo soils. The phase reddening nature of the mare soil included an upturn in ratio values at phase angles <10° that was not observed for the highland sample. It remains to be verified whether this is a consistent observation between mare and highland samples.

Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Shepard, Michael K.; Grundy, William M.; Paige, David A.; Foote, Emily J.

2013-03-01

278

Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

G. L. Schwendiman

2006-07-27

279

Influence of soil type and extraction conditions on perchlorate analysis by ion chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perchlorate is a stable anion that has been introduced into the environment through activities related to its production and use as a solid rocket propellant. Perchlorate is thought to transport through soils without being adsorbed; thus, for determination of perchlorate in soil, samples are typically extracted with water prior to analysis. The completeness of extraction depends on perchlorate existing as

Denise K. MacMillan; Shana R. Dalton; Anthony J. Bednar; Scott A. Waisner; Prem N. Arora

2007-01-01

280

A Multivariate Analysis of Soil Yeasts Isolated from a Latitudinal Gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast isolates from soil samples collected from a latitudinal gradient (>77°S to >64°N) were subjected to multivariate analysis to produce a statistical foundation for observed relationships between habitat characteristics and the distribution of yeast taxa (at various systematic levels) in soil microbial communities. Combinations of temperature, rainfall (highly correlated with net primary productivity), and electrical conductivity (EC) could explain up

Helen S. Vishniac

2006-01-01

281

Joint Analysis of Multiple Metagenomic Samples  

PubMed Central

The availability of metagenomic sequencing data, generated by sequencing DNA pooled from multiple microbes living jointly, has increased sharply in the last few years with developments in sequencing technology. Characterizing the contents of metagenomic samples is a challenging task, which has been extensively attempted by both supervised and unsupervised techniques, each with its own limitations. Common to practically all the methods is the processing of single samples only; when multiple samples are sequenced, each is analyzed separately and the results are combined. In this paper we propose to perform a combined analysis of a set of samples in order to obtain a better characterization of each of the samples, and provide two applications of this principle. First, we use an unsupervised probabilistic mixture model to infer hidden components shared across metagenomic samples. We incorporate the model in a novel framework for studying association of microbial sequence elements with phenotypes, analogous to the genome-wide association studies performed on human genomes: We demonstrate that stratification may result in false discoveries of such associations, and that the components inferred by the model can be used to correct for this stratification. Second, we propose a novel read clustering (also termed “binning”) algorithm which operates on multiple samples simultaneously, leveraging on the assumption that the different samples contain the same microbial species, possibly in different proportions. We show that integrating information across multiple samples yields more precise binning on each of the samples. Moreover, for both applications we demonstrate that given a fixed depth of coverage, the average per-sample performance generally increases with the number of sequenced samples as long as the per-sample coverage is high enough.

Baran, Yael; Halperin, Eran

2012-01-01

282

Developments in the Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Chlorophenoxy Acid Herbicides from Soil Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extraction of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides from soil samples with supercritical carbon dioxide as extractant and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and methyl iodide as derivatization agents was investigated. The extraction was carried out at 400 atm and 80 de...

V. Lopez-Avila N. S. Dodhiwala W. F. Beckert

1993-01-01

283

DEVELOPMENT IN THE SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF CHLOROPHENOXY ACID HERBICIDES FROM SOIL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Extraction of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides from soil samples with supercritical carbon dioxide as extractand and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and methyl iodide as derivatization agents was investigated by the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. he extraction was carri...

284

Depleted uranium in Kosovo: results of a survey by gamma spectrometry on soil samples.  

PubMed

The presence of depleted uranium in the soil of former Yugoslavia after the 1999 conflict raised great public concern all over the world. The so-called Balkan-syndrome is often linked with depleted uranium contamination. An excellent compilation of data about DU and its possible impact on health and environment can be found in the 1999 UNEP report and publications from the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute. Unfortunately, very few systematic and reliable data on the possible depleted uranium concentrations were until now available. Some of these rare data are only available on the web, without adequate information about the experimental procedure used. To clarify the situation, a systematic survey was started in the summer of 2000 as a collaborative effort between Ghent University (Physics Laboratory) and the Belgian Ministry of Defense (Medical Service). From 50 sites selected all over Kosovo, 150 soil samples were measured in the laboratory with a high-resolution gamma-spectrometer. Some sites (14) were explicitly selected based on military information on the use of depleted uranium munitions in the vicinity. After careful analysis we can conclude that there is no indication of any depleted uranium contamination on these 50 sites with a minimal detectable activity of 15 Bq; this corresponds approximately to 1 mg depleted uranium in a typical sample (100-150 g). PMID:12240731

Uyttenhove, J; Lemmens, M; Zizi, M

2002-10-01

285

Preliminary Program for Mars Samples Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goals of the French Mars exploration program are the development of a netlander for geophysical studies. This project is conducted in the framework of a consortium of European partners (Finland, Germany and Belgium), and an orbiter vehicle of the future Mars sample return mission (MSR) is being developed in cooperation with NASA. Also, we discuss the preparatory program for volatile and rare gas analysis, sample pollution, site selection and Astrobiology.

Maurel, Marie-Christine; Counil, Jean-Louis

2004-06-01

286

MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

287

Reduction of soil water spatial sampling density using scaled semivariograms and simulated annealing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial sampling density influences the reliability and feasibility of environmental studies. Optimizing spatial sampling schemes is important, particularly when multiple observations must be repeated over extended periods.The goal of this study was to develop a sampling density reduction method for a network of 57 soil water content (SWC) measurement locations in an 8-ha microwatershed, given observations taken at five different

R. A Ferreyra; H. P Apeztegu??a; R Sereno; J. W Jones

2002-01-01

288

A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils is described. Samples can be obtained within a stratigraphic interval of 2-3 cm, to a depth of 60-80 cm, and with little or no contamination of the samples by sediment or air. ?? 1974.

Nowlan, G. A.; Carollo, C.

1974-01-01

289

Ultrasonic dispersion of soils for routine particle size analysis: recommended procedures  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic techniques were found to be more effective than standard mechanical techniques to disperse soils for routine particle-size analysis (i.e., using a dispersing agent and mechanical mixing). Soil samples were tested using an ultrasonic homogenizer at various power outputs. The samples varied widely in texture and mineralogy, and included sands, silts, clays, volcanic soils, and soils high in organic matter. A combination of chemical and ultrasonic dispersion techniques were used in all tests. Hydrometer techniques were used for particle-size analysis. For most materials tested, clay percentage values indicated that ultrasonic dispersion was more complete than mechanical dispersion. Soils high in volcanic ash or iron oxides showed 10 to 20 wt % more clay when using ultrasonic mixing rather than mechanical mixing. The recommended procedure requires ultrasonic dispersion of a 20- to 40-g sample for 15 min at 300 W with a 1.9-cm-diameter ultrasonic homogenizer. 12 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Heller, P.R.; Hayden, R.E.; Gee, G.W.

1984-11-01

290

Levels of 3\\/Fs in soil samples in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated dibenzo p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/Fs) were determined in 24 soil samples collected near a municipal solid waste incinerator (Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain). Soil samples were obtained at various sites within 1.5 km from the stack. Total PCDD\\/F concentrations ranged from 0.225 to 5.80 ng TEQ\\/kg dry matter (d.m.) with a median value of 0.799 ng TEQ\\/kg and a mean value

M. Schuhmacher; S. Granero; A. Xifró; J. L. Domingo; J. Rivera; E. Eljarrat

1998-01-01

291

Factors affecting survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua in soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the ability of several strains of L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua strains to survive in local soil samples in vitro. Survival of three L. monocytogenes strains, EGDe, CD83, and CD1038, and three L. innocua strains, CLIP, FH2117, FH2152, was monitored in soil samples by direct enumeration of colony-forming units on selective agar.\\u000a The study did not demonstrate any

Heather P. McLaughlin; Pat G. Casey; Jeni Cotter; Cormac G. M. Gahan; Colin Hill

292

Determination of radium isotopes in soil samples by alpha-spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and accurate method for determination of radium isotopes in soil samples by ?-spectrometry has been developed 225Ra, which is in equilibrium with its mother 229Th, was used as a yield tracer. Radium in soil samples was fused together with Na2CO3 and Na2O2 at 600 °C, leached with HNO3, HCl and HF, preconcentrated by coprecipitation with BaSO4, separated from

Gugang Jia; G. Torri; R. Ocone

2007-01-01

293

Measurement of radionuclides and absorbed dose rates in soil samples of Peshawar, Pakistan, using gamma ray spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of gamma-emitting radionuclides in nature, i.e. Ra, Th, K and Cs, has been carried out in soil samples collected from Peshawar University Campus and surrounding areas using a high purity germanium detector coupled with a computer-based high-resolution multichannel analyser. The activity concentrations in soil ranged from 30.20±0.65 to 61.90±0.95, 50.10±0.54 to 102.80±1.04, 373.60±4.56 to 1082±11.38 and 9.50±0.11 to

Hasan M. Khan; Muhammad Ismail; Muhammad Abid Zia; Khalid Khan

2012-01-01

294

Soil organic carbon stocks in southeast Germany as affected by land use, soil type and sampling depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise estimations of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are of decided importance for the detection of carbon sequestration or emission potential induced by land use changes. For Germany, a comprehensive, land use-specific SOC data set has not yet been compiled. We evaluated a unique data set of 1460 soil profiles in southeast Germany in order to calculate representative SOC stocks to a depth of 1 m for the main land use types. The results showed that grassland soils stored the highest amount of SOC, with a median value of 11.8 kg m-2, whereas considerably lower stocks of 9.8 and 9.0 kg m-2 were found for forest and cropland soils, respectively. However, the differences between extensively used land (grassland, forest) and cropland were much lower compared with results from other studies in central European countries. The depth distribution of SOC showed that despite low SOC concentrations in A horizons of cropland soils, their stocks were not considerably lower compared with other land uses. This was due to a deepening of the topsoil compared with grassland soils. Higher grassland SOC stocks were caused by an accumulation of SOC in the B horizon which was attributable to a high proportion of C-rich Gleysols within grassland soils. The incorporation of subsoil SOC stocks revealed that land use may not be the main controlling factor for SOC storage and highlighted the importance of pedogenetic properties, particularly in grassland soils. We recommend that pedogenetic soil information should be included in SOC stock estimations as well as in carbon sequestration studies. Our results further indicate that SOC depletion in cropland soils due to cultivation is probably often overestimated because tillage-induced deepening of the topsoil was ignored by studies with fixed depths. The application of modelled parameters in SOC inventories is generally questioned, because SOC stocks, calculated with pedotransfer functions, were systematically biased, particularly for forest soils. Therefore, we propose that in future SOC inventories, soils should be sampled down to the parent material and completely analyzed by horizon instead of depth increments in order to increase the accuracy of SOC stock estimations and to elucidate pedogenetic effects on SOC storage. A land use-specific and soil type-specific quantification of functional SOC pools with different turnover times would make it possible to estimate the future development of SOC stocks under a changing climate.

Wiesmeier, M.; von Lützow, M.; Spörlein, P.; Geuß, U.; Hangen, E.; Reischl, A.; Schilling, B.; Kögel-Knabner, I.

2012-04-01

295

An integrative hierarchical stepwise sampling strategy for spatial sampling and its application in digital soil mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling design plays an important role in spatial modeling. Existing methods often require a large amount of samples to achieve desired mapping accuracy, but imply considerable cost. When there are not enough resources for collecting a large set of samples at once, stepwise sampling approach is often the only option for collecting the needed large sample set, especially in the

Lin Yang; A-Xing Zhu; Feng Qi; Cheng-Zhi Qin; Baolin Li; Tao Pei

2012-01-01

296

Microcomputer Analysis of Children's Language Samples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The workshop paper examines the use of microcomputer packages to analyze spontaneous language samples of children with communication disorders. Advantages of computerized analysis are seen to include time saving, more efficient data management, and increased objectivity. To help consumers determine which programs to buy, four aspects are…

Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Rice, Mabel L.

297

Exploratory Factor Analysis with Small Sample Sizes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes ("N"), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for "N" below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required "N" for…

de Winter, J. C. F.; Dodou, D.; Wieringa, P. A.

2009-01-01

298

Advances in Sample Introduction for Elemental Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report includes a brief summary of new techniques and advances in sample introduction for use in atomic spectrochemical analysis. Included in the review are new kinds of nebulizers, including the Babington system, the jet-impact nebulizer, and the fr...

G. M. Hieftje

1981-01-01

299

COAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS: METHODS AND MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides information on coal sampling and analysis (CSD) techniques and procedures and presents a statistical model for estimating SO2 emissions. (New Source Performance Standards for large coal-fired boilers and certain State Implementation Plans require operators to ...

300

Exploratory Factor Analysis with Small Sample Sizes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes ("N"), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for "N" below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required "N" for different…

de Winter, J. C. F.; Dodou, D.; Wieringa, P. A.

2009-01-01

301

TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR INORGANIC SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual presents the state-of-the-art of inorganic sampling and analysis (ISA) procedures in a standardized format that makes the methodology readily available to professionals in the field. Because of the breadth of ISA, a system was developed to avoid burying specific method...

302

Analysis of Picattiny Sample for Trace Explosives  

SciTech Connect

The sample received from Picatinny Arsenal was analyzed for trace amounts of high explosives (HE). A complete wash of the surface was performed, concentrated, and analyzed using two sensitive analysis techniques that are capable of detecting numerous types of explosives. No explosives were detected with either test.

Klunder, G; Whipple, R; Carman, L; Spackman, P E; Reynolds, J; Alcaraz, A

2008-05-23

303

PCDDs and PCDFs in soil and river sediment samples from a rural area in the United States of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1994, we collected 36 soil samples and 61 sediment samples from southern Mississippi, USA. Each sample was analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs by HRMS using either a polar or a non-polar HRGC column. Although most Cl4 ? Cl8 PCDDs and PCDFs were detected in each sample, PCDD levels (particularly Cl7 ? Cl8) were higher in sediment than soil samples.

C. Rappe; R. Andersson; M. Bonner; K. Cooper; H. Fiedler; F. Howell; S. E. Kulp; C. Lau

1997-01-01

304

Results of analyses of fur samples from the San Joaquin Kit Fox and associated soil and water samples from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Tupman, California  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of the elemental content of fur from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and of water and soil from kit fox habitats could be used to make inferences concerning the cause of an observed decline in the kit fox population on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Fur samples that had been collected previously from NPR-1, another oil field (NPR-2), and two sites with no oil development were subjected to neutron activation analysis. In addition, soil samples were collected from the home ranges of individual foxes from undisturbed portions of major soil types on NPR-1 and from wastewater samples were collected from tanks and sumps and subjected to neutron activation analysis. Most elemental concentrations in fur were highest at Camp Roberts and lowest on the undeveloped portions of NPR-I. Fur concentrations were intermediate on the developed oil fields but were correlated with percent disturbance and with number of wells on NPR-1 and NPR-2. The fact that most elements covaried across the range of sites suggests that some pervasive source such as soil was responsible. However, fur concentrations were not correlated with soft concentrations. The kit foxes on the developed portion of NPR-1 did not have concentrations of elements in fur relative to other sites that would account for the population decline in the early 1980s. The oil-related elements As, Ba, and V were elevated in fox fur from oil fields, but only As was sufficiently elevated to suggest a risk of toxicity in individual foxes. However, arsenic concentrations suggestive of sublethal toxicity were found in only 0.56% of foxes from developed oil fields, too few to account for a population decline.

Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Kato, T.T. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States))

1992-12-01

305

Sampling and analysis plan for Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), Wayne, New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This field sampling plan describes the methodology to perform an independent radiological verification survey and chemical characterization of a remediated area of the subpile at the Wayne Interim Storage Site, Wayne, New Jersey.Data obtained from collection and analysis of systematic and biased soil samples will be used to assess the status of remediation at the site and verify the final

K. S. Brown; M. E. Murray; R. E. Rodriguez

1998-01-01

306

Sampling and analysis plan for RCRA closure activities at 218-E-8 Borrow Pit Demolition Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of this document is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis activities associated with the proposed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) clean closure of the 218-E-8 West Ash Pit Demolition Site. The borrow pit was used for demolition of discarded explosive chemicals, asbestos disposal, tumbleweed incineration, and storage of hazardous waste. Soil samples will be taken

1994-01-01

307

Microlunatus aurantiacus sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, mesophilic strain, designated YIM 45721T, was isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample in Yunnan Province, China. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis, strain YIM 45721T was assigned to the genus Microlunatus and was most closely related to the type strain of Microlunatus phosphovorus (98.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Chemotaxonomic data, including cell-wall peptidoglycan structure, menaquinones and fatty acid profile, supported affiliation of strain YIM 45721T to the genus Microlunatus. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests enabled strain YIM 45721T to be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from M. phosphovorus. Therefore, strain YIM 45721T represents a novel species of the genus Microlunatus, for which the name Microlunatus aurantiacus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 45721T (=CCTCC AB 206067T=DSM 18424T). PMID:18676472

Wang, Yong-Xia; Cai, Man; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Tang, Shu-Kun; Xu, Li-Hua; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

2008-08-01

308

Soil sampling. Technical engineering and design guides as adapted from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, No. 30  

SciTech Connect

This manual provides both technical guidance for conducting soil sampling operations, and the best methods for handling and storage of samples obtained in support of geotechnical investigations. The principles, equipment, procedures, and limitations for obtaining, handling, and preserving soil samples are discussed. Since the highest quality samples are often obtained at the least cost by using a variety of equipment and techniques, this manual surveys the different devices and techniques that have been developed for drilling and sampling geotechnical materials ranging from soil to rocks. The manual further suggests the various types of sampling devices best suited to obtain samples of various soil types encountered during geotechnical investigations.

NONE

2000-07-01

309

Analysis of TNT and related compounds in vapor and solid phase in different types of soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosives contain small amounts of dinitrotoluene (DNT). DNT exhibit a higher vapor pressure than TNT which indicates higher concentration of DNT than of TNT in the vapor phase of the explosive. Analysis of soil samples reveal extended information compared to air samples and thereby increases the probability for chemical detection. Detected substances in soil samples are TNT and related compounds. Therefore, sampling of DNT in vapor phase near the ground or soil solid phase may be an efficient approach to detect buried land mines or unexploded ordnance (UXO) containing TNT. Charges of TNT has been placed both in desiccators ane in a set of different types of soil in the laboratory. Analysis of air samples repeatedly taken in desiccators during a period of 299 days shows a perpetually higher concentration of DNT than of TNT. TNT was also placed in outdoor test beds where the presence of DNT in vapor phase near to the ground were confirmed, as well as TNT and related compounds in soil samples. In mine affected areas, air sample near to the ground over buried miens and soil sampling near the same miens were performed.

Kjellstrom, Ann H.; Sarholm, Lena M.

2000-08-01

310

OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

Brisson, M

2009-04-01

311

Germanium-76 Sample Analysis: Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia. The first one-gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on April 24, 2011. The second one-gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on July 12, 2011. The third sample, which came from the first large shipment of germanium from the vendor, was received from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on September 13, 2011. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility, a DOE user facility at PNNL, was used to make the required isotopic and chemical purity measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The results of these analyses are reported here. The isotopic composition of a sample of natural germanium was also measured twice. Differences in the result between these two measurements led to a re-measurement of the second 76Ge sample.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua; Engelhard, Mark H.

2011-09-19

312

Rapid assessment of soil and groundwater tritium by vegetation sampling  

SciTech Connect

A rapid and relatively inexpensive technique for defining the extent of groundwater contamination by tritium has been investigated. The technique uses existing vegetation to sample the groundwater. Water taken up by deep rooted trees is collected by enclosing tree branches in clear plastic bags. Water evaporated from the leaves condenses on the inner surface of the bag. The water is removed from the bag with a syringe. The bags can be sampled many times. Tritium in the water is detected by liquid scintillation counting. The water collected in the bags has no color and counts as well as distilled water reference samples. The technique was used in an area of known tritium contamination and proved to be useful in defining the extent of tritium contamination.

Murphy, C.E. Jr.

1995-09-01

313

Quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental soil and sediment samples.  

PubMed

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitative determination of Aroclors 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260 in soil and sediments was developed and its performance compared with that of gas chromatography (GC). The detection limits for Aroclors 1242 and 1248 in soil are 10.5 and 9 ng/g, respectively. The assay linear dynamic range is 50-1333 ng/g. Cross-reactivity of the assay with 37 structurally related potential cocontaminants in environmental soil samples was examined; none of the chlorinated anisoles, benzenes, or phenols exhibited >3% cross-reactivity, with <0.1% cross-reactivity being the norm. Soil spike recoveries of 107% and 104% were obtained for Aroclors 1242 and 1248, respectively, for a spike level of 5 mg/kg, with corresponding relative standard deviations of 14% and 17%. One hundred forty-eight environmental soil, sediment, and paper pulp samples, obtained from two EPA listed Superfund sites, were analyzed by ELISA and standard GC methods. Samples were extracted for ELISA analysis by shaking with methanol. Additional extractions of the same samples were performed either with supercritical carbon dioxide or by Soxhlet extraction with methanol. ELISA results for both the supercritical fluid and the Soxhlet extracts were in close agreement with the GC results, while the ELISA results for the methanol shake extracts were not. The data for the environmental samples demonstrated the capability of the ELISA to provide accurate results and reinforced the dependence of any detection method, including ELISA, on appropriate extraction procedures. PMID:21619232

Johnson, J C; Van Emon, J M

1996-01-01

314

A rapid technique for the recovery of strongyloid infective larvae from pasture and soil samples.  

PubMed

A technique is described for the recovery of infective larvae of strongyloid nematodes from sediment resulting from the washing of pasture and soil samples. The process of recovery and counting of larvae is described by a model based on the binomial distribution. Tests of the technique have shown that it will recover approximately 50% of the larvae present in samples of pasture sediment of either 7.5 or 12.5 ml in volume after centrifugation. The efficiency of the technique was independent of the number of larvae present in samples of pasture sediment. The technique was shown to be less efficient and more variable in recovery of larvae from samples of soil sediment. Estimations in efficiency of recovery from soil sediment ranged from 64 to 110.2% and a significant effect of volume of sediment on recovery was detected. PMID:7393617

Young, R R; Trajstman, A C

1980-06-01

315

Application of a Permethrin Immunosorbent Assay Method to Residential Soil and Dust Samples  

EPA Science Inventory

A low-cost, high throughput bioanalytical screening method was developed for monitoring cis/trans-permethrin in dust and soil samples. The method consisted of a simple sample preparation procedure [sonication with dichloromethane followed by a solvent exchange into methanol:wate...

316

Calculation of coincidence summing corrections for a specific small soil sample geometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previously, a system was developed at the INEL for measuring the gamma-ray emitting nuclides in small soil samples for the purpose of environmental monitoring. These samples were counted close to a approx 20% Ge detector and, therefore, it was necessary t...

R. G. Helmer R. J. Gehrke

1996-01-01

317

Radioactivity measurements in soil samples collected in the Republic of Srpska  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2005 and 2006, soil samples were collected from different regions in the Republic of Srpska, in order to evaluate their radioactivity. During the war that lasted from 1994 to 1995, it is known that some locations in the Republic of Srpska were imposed upon by NATO forces. Sampled locations were chosen far away from the bombed places in order

Marija Jankovi?; Dragana Todorovi?; Milovan Savanovi?

2008-01-01

318

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area....

319

Time sequence particulate sampling and nuclear analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is given of a series of time-sequence sampling devices for atmospheric particles. The samplers considered are all designed around the sensitive analytical capabilities of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and other charged particle nuclear techniques. Time-sequence samplers, collecting for subsequent chemical (elemental) analysis, are distinguished from automatic devices giving instantaneous readings (optical devices), and automated samplers, which collect multiple samples on discrete substrates. Time-sequence samplers discussed typically sample from 30 to 200 intervals on a single set of substrates. The versatile interpretive possibilities from the multi-elemental, time- and size resolved data are illustrated with examples from industrial hygiene, mesoscale transport, crustal aerosol and visibility studies. Factors that have limited wide-spread acceptance of these samplers are discussed, and suggestions given for further lines of development.

Annegarn, H. J.; Cahill, T. A.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Zucchiatti, A.

1988-02-01

320

A novel in situ method for sampling urban soil dust: particle size distribution, trace metal concentrations, and stable lead isotopes.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel in situ sampling method was utilized to investigate the concentrations of trace metals and Pb isotope compositions among different particle size fractions in soil dust, bulk surface soil, and corresponding road dust samples collected within an urban environment. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility of using soil dust samples to determine trace metal contamination and potential risks in urban areas in comparison with related bulk surface soil and road dust. The results of total metal loadings and Pb isotope ratios revealed that soil dust is more sensitive than bulk surface soil to anthropogenic contamination in urban areas. The new in situ method is effective at collecting different particle size fractions of soil dust from the surface of urban soils, and that soil dust is a critical indicator of anthropogenic contamination and potential human exposure in urban settings. PMID:23466731

Bi, Xiangyang; Liang, Siyuan; Li, Xiangdong

2013-03-06

321

Silicate melt inclusions and glasses in lunar soil fragments from the Luna 16 core sample  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 2000 fragments were studied microscopically, and electron microprobe analyses were made of 39 selected areas, from a few square mm of polished surface, through 75- to 425-??m fragments of lunar soil from two samples of the Luna 16 core. The silicate melt inclusions and glasses differ in important details from those observed earlier in the Apollo samples. Melt inclusions in olivine contain epitaxially oriented daughter crystals, but also show a similar epitaxy around the outside of the crystals not observed in previous lunar samples. Melt inclusions in ilmenite suggest trapping at successive stages in a differentiation sequence. There is abundant evidence for late-stage silicate liquid immiscibility, with melt compositions similar but not identical to those from Apollo 11 and 12. A comparison of the alkali ratio of any given bulk rock analysis with that of its late-stage, high-silica melt shows gross differences for different rocks. This is pertinent to understanding late-stage differentiation processes. Glass fragments and spherules exhibit a wide range of crystallization textures, reflecting their wide range of compositions and cooling histories. No significant differences were found between the two portions of core examined (Zones A and D). ?? 1972.

Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P. W.

1972-01-01

322

High-level parasitic contamination of soil sampled in Ibadan metropolis.  

PubMed

Soil transmitted helminthes infections are common chronic human infections worldwide, this has been recognized as an important health problem, particularly in developing countries. The study was conducted within Ibadan metropolis in Oyo State, south western Nigeria between September 2008 and March 2009 to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite in soil samples within the city. A total of 102 soil samples were collected from different sources from five local government areas ranging from refuse dumps, vegetable farms, school play grounds, abattoir, hospital, vicinity of house, gutter and road side. Two different methods of concentrating ova/cysts of parasites were used to analyze the samples--the zinc sulphate floatation technique and concentrated glucose solution method. Fifty-seven (55.9%) soil samples were positive for one or more parasites. These included; hookworm (37.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (20%), Entamoeba histolytica (18.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (17.3%), Trichuris trichiura (6.7%) respectively. The total number of parasites recovered was 75 (73.5%) and 74 (98.7) of these were recovered by the zinc sulphate floatation technique while only 44% was recovered by the concentrated normal saline-glucose solution technique. This study thus established the high prevalence rate of intestinal parasites in the soil sampled in Ibadan city and this obviously is one major means by which residents are at risk of parasitic diseases and also one of the means of vegetable contamination. PMID:22783681

Ogbolu, D O; Alli, O A Terry; Amoo, A O J; Olaosun, I I; Ilozavbie, G W; Olusoga-Ogbolu, F F

2011-12-01

323

Iodine129 measurements in soil samples from Dolon village near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abtract  Dolon village, located about 60 km from the border of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, is known to be heavily contaminated\\u000a by the first USSR atomic bomb test in August 1949. Soil samples around Dolon were taken in October 2005 in an attempt to evaluate\\u000a internal thyroid dose arising from incorporation of radioiodine isotopes (mainly 131I). Iodine-129 in soil was measured

Satoru Endo; Junpei Tomita; Kenichi Tanaka; Masayoshi Yamamoto; Satoshi Fukutani; Tetsuji Imanaka; Aya Sakaguchi; Hikaru Amano; Hidehisa Kawamura; Hisao Kawamura; Kazbek N. Apsalikov; Boris I. Gusev; Neil E. Whitehead; Sergey Shinkarev; Masaharu Hoshi

2008-01-01

324

Emerging techniques for soil analysis via mid-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmittance and diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) spectroscopy in the mid-IR range are well-established methods for soil analysis. Over the last five years, additional mid-IR techniques have been investigated, and in particular: 1. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Attenuated total reflectance is commonly used for analysis of liquids and powders for which simple transmittance measurements are not possible. The method relies on a crystal with a high refractive index, which is in contact with the sample and serves as a waveguide for the IR radiation. The radiation beam is directed in such a way that it hits the crystal/sample interface several times, each time penetrating a few microns into the sample. Since the penetration depth is limited to a few microns, very good contact between the sample and the crystal must be ensured, which can be achieved by working with samples close to water saturation. However, the strong absorbance of water in the mid-infrared range as well as the absorbance of some soil constituents (e.g., calcium carbonate) interfere with some of the absorbance bands of interest. This has led to the development of several post-processing methods for analysis of the spectra. The FTIR-ATR technique has been successfully applied to soil classification as well as to determination of nitrate concentration [1, 6-8, 10]. Furthermore, Shaviv et al. [12] demonstrated the possibility of using fiber optics as an ATR devise for direct determination of nitrate concentration in soil extracts. Recently, Du et al. [5] showed that it is possible to differentiate between 14N and 15N in such spectra, which opens very promising opportunities for developing FTIR-ATR based methods for investigating nitrogen transformation in soils by tracing changes in N-isotopic species. 2. Photo-acoustic spectroscopy Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is based on absorption-induced heating of the sample, which produces pressure fluctuations in a surrounding gas. These fluctuations are recorded by a microphone and constitute the PAS signal. The major advantage of this method is that it is suitable for highly absorbing solid samples such as soils without any special pretreatment. This method has been applied successfully to soil classification and to quantitative determination of soil properties such as available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, organic matter or calcium carbonate content [2-4]. 3. FTIR-based determination of ion concentration using ion-exchange membranes In addition to the previous direct methods, mid-infrared spectroscopy can also be used to estimate nutrient availability or ion availability indirectly by combining FTIR with ion-exchange membranes. Such membranes are commonly used in studies dealing with nutrient availability, in which standard chemical methods are used to determine the amount of nutrients sorbed onto the membranes. Chemical analysis can be replaced by mid-IR spectroscopy of the loaded membrane, using either the transmittance or photo-acoustic technique depending on the type of membrane [9, 11]. The present work reviews these techniques and the chemometrics tools required for accurate interpretation of the spectra and discusses the potentials and limitations of each method. References 1. Borenstein A., R. Linker, I. Shmulevich and A. Shaviv (2006). Determination of soil nitrate and water content using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 60: 1267-1272. 2. Du, C., R. Linker and A. Shaviv (2007). Characterization of soils using photoacoustic mid-infrared spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 61: 1063-1067. 3. Du, C., R. Linker and A. Shaviv (2008). Identification of agricultural Mediterranean soils using mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Geoderma, 143: 85-90. 4. Du, C., J. Zhou, H. Wang, X. Chen, A. Zhu and J. Zhang (2008). Determiantion of soil properties using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Vibrational Spectroscopy (In press). 5. Du, C., R. Linker, A. Shaviv and Z. Jianmin. In situ evaluation of net nitrification rate in Terra rossa soil using FTIR-ATR

Linker, R.; Shaviv, A.

2009-04-01

325

Adsorption of carbon monoxide by samples of soils and peat-sand mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of carbon monoxide (CO) by loose samples of natural soils and artificial organomineral mixtures depending on the water content was studied in laboratory experiments. The highest adsorption of CO was found for the samples of 100% organic soil modifier and its 80% mixture with sand (200 µg of CO/kg per hour and more). The lowest CO adsorption (10-15 µg of CO/kg per hour) was observed for an Arenosol. The addition of 5 wt % of the modifier to the desert sand increased the adsorption of CO to 50-55 µg of CO/kg per hour, as was typical for the chernozem and soddy-podzolic soil. The adsorption of CO as depending on the water content in the samples was a unimodal function, and the adsorption levels corresponded to the optimum soil water content (about 0.4-0.6 of the maximum water capacity). On the basis of the results, the Arid Grow soil modifier was recommended as a highly efficient agent for the regulation of the gas function of soils in urban areas subjected to increased CO emissions from vehicles and industrial enterprises.

Smagin, A. V.; Sadovnikova, N. B.; Mazanova, V. S.; Dolzhich, A. R.

2009-11-01

326

Monitoring the soil degradation by Metastatistical Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of fractal toolbox to capture the critical behavior of soil structural patterns during the chemical and physical degradation was documented by our numerous experiments (Oleschko et al., 2008 a; 2008 b). The spatio-temporal dynamics of these patterns was measured and mapped with high precision in terms of fractal descriptors. All tested fractal techniques were able to detect the statistically significant differences in structure between the perfect spongy and massive patterns of uncultivated and sodium-saline agricultural soils, respectively. For instance, the Hurst exponent, extracted from the Chernoze? micromorphological images and from the time series of its physical and mechanical properties measured in situ, detected the roughness decrease (and therefore the increase in H - from 0.17 to 0.30 for images) derived from the loss of original structure complexity. The combined use of different fractal descriptors brings statistical precision into the quantification of natural system degradation and provides a means for objective soil structure comparison (Oleschko et al., 2000). The ability of fractal parameters to capture critical behavior and phase transition was documented for different contrasting situations, including from Andosols deforestation and erosion, to Vertisols high fructuring and consolidation. The Hurst exponent is used to measure the type of persistence and degree of complexity of structure dynamics. We conclude that there is an urgent need to select and adopt a standardized toolbox for fractal analysis and complexity measures in Earth Sciences. We propose to use the second-order (meta-) statistics as subtle measures of complexity (Atmanspacher et al., 1997). The high degree of correlation was documented between the fractal and high-order statistical descriptors (four central moments of stochastic variable distribution) used to the system heterogeneity and variability analysis. We proposed to call this combined fractal/statistical toolbox Metastatistical Analysis and recommend it to the projects directed to soil degradation monitoring. References: 1. Oleschko, K., B.S. Figueroa, M.E. Miranda, M.A. Vuelvas and E.R. Solleiro, Soil & Till. Res. 55, 43 (2000). 2. Oleschko, K., Korvin, G., Figueroa S. B., Vuelvas, M.A., Balankin, A., Flores L., Carreño, D. Fractal radar scattering from soil. Physical Review E.67, 041403, 2003. 3. Zamora-Castro S., Oleschko, K. Flores, L., Ventura, E. Jr., Parrot, J.-F., 2008. Fractal mapping of pore and solids attributes. Vadose Zone Journal, v. 7, Issue2: 473-492. 4. Oleschko, K., Korvin, G., Muñoz, A., Velásquez, J., Miranda, M.E., Carreon, D., Flores, L., Martínez, M., Velásquez-Valle, M., Brambilla, F., Parrot, J.-F. Ronquillo, G., 2008. Fractal mapping of soil moisture content from remote sensed multi-scale data. Nonlinear Proceses in Geophysics Journal, 15: 711-725. 5. Atmanspacher, H., Räth, Ch., Wiedenmann, G., 1997. Statistics and meta-statistics in the concept of complexity. Physica A, 234: 819-829.

Oleschko, K.; Gaona, C.; Tarquis, A.

2009-04-01

327

Evaluation of plant availability of rare earth elements in soils by chemical fractionation and multiple regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case field study describes the distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) in different soil fractions obtained by a sequential extraction procedure and plant availability with single correlation and multiple regression analysis. Soil and plant samples were collected from a rural region of Beijing, China. Plant samples (corn, rice) were segmented into grain, stem, leaf and root. The results indicated

Fuliang Li; Xiaoquan Shan; Tianhong Zhang; Shuzhen Zhang

1998-01-01

328

A comparison of optical and X-ray CT technique for void analysis in soil thin section  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of X-ray computed tomography (CT) in soil micromorphology has motivated researchers to quantify soil structure, particularly void space, for three dimensional analysis. The objective of this study was comparison of optical and a proposed CT method for void space determination, using a set of four thin section samples. The thin section samples were imaged for optical data using

Thomas R. Elliot; Richard J. Heck

2007-01-01

329

Soil Retaining Structures: Development of models for structural analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of this thesis is the development of models for the structural analysis of soil retaining structures. The soil retaining structures being looked at are; block revetments, flexible retaining walls and bored tunnels in soft soil. Within this context typical structural behavior of these structures is discussed too. The emphasis within the context of model development is on the

K. J. Bakker

2000-01-01

330

Sampling frequency and the analysis of light-trapping data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct extrapolation of light-trapping samples to non-sampled nights may violate sampling assumptions and give rise to mis-leading results, as in 2 recent papers. Sampling objectives, sampling frequency and data analysis are all interdependent.

E. G. White

1988-01-01

331

Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for FY 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility.

2000-01-01

332

Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for FY 2001  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility.

LAURICELLA, T.L.

2000-09-27

333

Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction Considering Complicated Soil Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI) is an important consideration and cannot be neglected in the seismic design\\u000a of structures on soft soil. Various methods have been developed to consider SSI effects and are currently being used. However,\\u000a most of the approaches including a general finite element method cannot appropriately consider the properties and characteristics\\u000a of the sites with complicated

Jang Ho Park; Kwan-soon Park; Ok Seung-yong

2006-01-01

334

A novel method for sampling bacteria on plant root and soil surfaces at the microhabitat scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the first method for sampling bacteria at a spatial scale approximating a microhabitat. At the core of this method is the use of tungsten rods with laser-cut tips of known surface area (0.013 mm2). Exposed plant root or soil surfaces were viewed with a dissecting microscope and micro-sampling rods were guided to sample sites using a micro-manipulator. Bacteria

Paul G. Dennis; Anthony J. Miller; Ian M. Clark; Richard G. Taylor; Eugenia Valsami-Jones; Penny R. Hirsch

2008-01-01

335

Soil [N] modulates soil C cycling in CO2-fumigated tree stands: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Under elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, soil carbon (C) inputs are typically enhanced, suggesting larger soil C sequestration potential. However, soil C losses also increase and progressive nitrogen (N) limitation to plant growth may reduce the CO(2) effect on soil C inputs with time. We compiled a data set from 131 manipulation experiments, and used meta-analysis to test the hypotheses that: (1) elevated atmospheric CO(2) stimulates soil C inputs more than C losses, resulting in increasing soil C stocks; and (2) that these responses are modulated by N. Our results confirm that elevated CO(2) induces a C allocation shift towards below-ground biomass compartments. However, the increased soil C inputs were offset by increased heterotrophic respiration (Rh), such that soil C content was not affected by elevated CO(2). Soil N concentration strongly interacted with CO(2) fumigation: the effect of elevated CO(2) on fine root biomass and -production and on microbial activity increased with increasing soil N concentration, while the effect on soil C content decreased with increasing soil N concentration. These results suggest that both plant growth and microbial activity responses to elevated CO(2) are modulated by N availability, and that it is essential to account for soil N concentration in C cycling analyses. PMID:20573048

Dieleman, W I J; Luyssaert, S; Rey, A; de Angelis, P; Barton, C V M; Broadmeadow, M S J; Broadmeadow, S B; Chigwerewe, K S; Crookshanks, M; Dufrêne, E; Jarvis, P G; Kasurinen, A; Kellomäki, S; Le Dantec, V; Liberloo, M; Marek, M; Medlyn, B; Pokorný, R; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G; Temperton, V M; Tingey, D; Urban, O; Ceulemans, R; Janssens, I A

2010-12-01

336

The Effects of Conventional Soil Sampling Methods on the Engineering Properties of Cohesive Soils in Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive literature study is presented. Eighteen hundred samples from six sampling sites representing several typical geologic formations of Louisiana were obtained. About 1700 field and 6500 laboratory tests were performed. Engineering properties ...

A. Arman K. L. McManis

1977-01-01

337

Analysis of CL-20 in environmental matrices: water and soil.  

PubMed

Analytical techniques for the detection of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo(5.5.0.05,9.03,11)dodecane (CL-20) in water and soil are developed by adapting methods traditionally used for the analysis of nitroaromatics. CL-20 (a new explosives compound) is thermally labile, exhibits high polarity, and has low solubility in water. These constraints make the use of specialized sample handling, preparation, extraction, and analysis necessary. The ability to determine the concentrations of this new explosive compound in environmental matrices is helpful in understanding the environmental fate and effects of CL-20; understanding the physical, chemical, and biological fate of CL-20; and can be used in developing remediation technologies and determining their efficiency. The toxicity and mobility of new explosives in soil and groundwater are also of interest, and analytical techniques for quantitating CL-20 and its degradation products in soil and natural waters make these investigations possible. PMID:12004939

Larson, Steven L; Felt, Deborah R; Davis, Jeffrey L; Escalon, Lynn

2002-04-01

338

Freezing skeletal muscle tissue does not affect its decomposition in soil: evidence from temporal changes in tissue mass, microbial activity and soil chemistry based on excised samples.  

PubMed

The study of decaying organisms and death assemblages is referred to as forensic taphonomy, or more simply the study of graves. This field is dominated by the fields of entomology, anthropology and archaeology. Forensic taphonomy also includes the study of the ecology and chemistry of the burial environment. Studies in forensic taphonomy often require the use of analogues for human cadavers or their component parts. These might include animal cadavers or skeletal muscle tissue. However, sufficient supplies of cadavers or analogues may require periodic freezing of test material prior to experimental inhumation in the soil. This study was carried out to ascertain the effect of freezing on skeletal muscle tissue prior to inhumation and decomposition in a soil environment under controlled laboratory conditions. Changes in soil chemistry were also measured. In order to test the impact of freezing, skeletal muscle tissue (Sus scrofa) was frozen (-20 degrees C) or refrigerated (4 degrees C). Portions of skeletal muscle tissue (approximately 1.5 g) were interred in microcosms (72 mm diameter x 120 mm height) containing sieved (2mm) soil (sand) adjusted to 50% water holding capacity. The experiment had three treatments: control with no skeletal muscle tissue, microcosms containing frozen skeletal muscle tissue and those containing refrigerated tissue. The microcosms were destructively harvested at sequential periods of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 23, 30 and 37 days after interment of skeletal muscle tissue. These harvests were replicated 6 times for each treatment. Microbial activity (carbon dioxide respiration) was monitored throughout the experiment. At harvest the skeletal muscle tissue was removed and the detritosphere soil was sampled for chemical analysis. Freezing was found to have no significant impact on decomposition or soil chemistry compared to unfrozen samples in the current study using skeletal muscle tissue. However, the interment of skeletal muscle tissue had a significant impact on the microbial activity (carbon dioxide respiration) and chemistry of the surrounding soil including: pH, electroconductivity, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate and potassium. This is the first laboratory controlled study to measure changes in inorganic chemistry in soil associated with the decomposition of skeletal muscle tissue in combination with microbial activity. PMID:19095387

Stokes, Kathryn L; Forbes, Shari L; Tibbett, Mark

2008-12-17

339

Diversity of Microorganisms Isolated from the Soil Sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing Region  

PubMed Central

Artificially cultivating Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. Furthermore, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, it is important to determine the natural habitat of its fruiting body. This study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus habitat to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates were selected for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, based on their growth characteristics and colony morphology. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the bacterial isolates were divided into two monophyletic clusters which had significant hits to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, respectively. Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were present in C. rutilus habitat. This was the first reported examination of the microbiological ecology of C. rutilus.

Wang, Peng; Liu, Yu; Yin, Yonggang; Jin, Haojie; Wang, Shouxian; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Shuang; Geng, Xiaoli

2011-01-01

340

Comparative soil sampling in the Dornach site (Switzerland) for soil three-dimensional pollution description  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen institutions from 13 European countries and Switzerland participated in a comparative test sampling at the Dornach site, near Basel in Switzerland. They received the site description and were asked to develop their own sampling plans, based on their national guidelines for a three-dimensional description of the Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd pollution, with a maximum of 15 samples. The

S. P. Theocharopoulos; G. Wagner; J. Sprengart; M.-E. Mohr; A. Desaules; H. Muntau; M. Christou; P. Quevauviller

2001-01-01

341

Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for total carbon quantification in soil samples  

SciTech Connect

The increase of greenhouse gas (i.e., CO{sub 2}) levels in the atmosphere has caused noticeable climate change. Many nations are currently looking into methods of permanent underground storage for CO{sub 2} in an attempt to mitigate this problem. The goal of this work is to develop a process for studying the total carbon content in soils before, during, and after CO{sub 2} injection to ensure that no leakage is occurring or to determine how much is leaking if it is occurring and what effect it will have on the ecosystem between the injection formation and the atmosphere. In this study, we quantitatively determine the total carbon concentration in soil using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A soil sample from Starkville, Mississippi, USA was mixed with different amounts of carbon powder, which was used as a calibration for additional carbon in soil. Test samples were prepared by adding different but known amounts of carbon powder to a soil sample and then mixing with polyvinyl alcohol binder before being pressed into pellets. LIBS spectra of the test samples were collected and analyzed to obtain optimized conditions for the measurement of total carbon in soil with LIBS. The total carbon content in the samples was also measured by a carbon analyzer, and the data (average of triplicates) were used as a reference in developing calibration curves for a modified version of the single linear regression model and the multiple linear regression model. The calibration data were then used to determine the total carbon concentration of an unknown sample. This work is intended to be used in the initial development of a miniaturized, field-portable LIBS analyzer for CO{sub 2} leak detection.

McIntyre, D.; Ayyalasomayajula, K.; Yu-Yueh, F.; Singh, J.; Jain, J.

2012-01-01

342

Application of thermal analysis techniques in soil science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal analysis techniques have long been used in the study of soils, particularly in clay mineralogy. While there exists a large volume of literature (including several books) on the theoretical underpinnings of thermal analysis and its application to the analysis of minerals, the exothermic reactions associated with the thermal oxidation of soil organic matter have received much less attention. The

Alain F. Plante; José M. Fernández; J. Leifeld

2009-01-01

343

Determination of {sup 226}Ra in soil using {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi immediately after sampling  

SciTech Connect

It has long been common practice to quantify {sup 226}Ra in soil by gamma spectroscopy using the gamma emissions of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi. This is necessary because of low gamma emission abundance of {sup 226}Ra and the difficulty of quantifying interference from {sup 235}U. Most analytical procedures using the {sup 226}Ra decay products call for sealing the sample for a period of 21-30 d to allow ingrowth, followed by gamma analysis. Recent studies indicate that the delay between sample collection and counting may not be necessary. 1 ref., 1 tab.

Van Cleef, D.J. [Analytical Technologies, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1994-09-01

344

Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory`s many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory`s boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department.

NONE

1994-12-31

345

Natural radioactivity in the soil samples in and around Kudankulam nuclear power plant site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrestrial gamma-radiation in soil and sand samples collected around Kudankulam nuclear power plant site, i.e., in Radhapuram\\u000a Taluk of Tirunelveli District has been measured using NaI(T1) gamma-ray spectrometer. In the soil samples total dose due to\\u000a three primordial radionuclides lies in the range of 13.1–168.2 nGy\\/h with a geometric mean of 137.2 nGy\\/h, which yields an\\u000a annual effective dose

G. M. Brahmanandhan; S. Selvasekarapandian; J. Malathi; D. Khanna; M. P. Rajan; A. G. Hegde

2007-01-01

346

[Real-time analysis of soil moisture, soil organic matter, and soil total nitrogen with NIR spectra].  

PubMed

The grey-brown alluvial soil in northern China was selected as research object, and the feasibility and possibility of real-time analyzing soil para-fueter with NIR spectroscopic techniques were explored. One hundred fifty samples were collected from a winter wheat farm. NIR absorbance spectra were rapidly measured under their original conditions by a Nicolet Antaris FT-NIR analyzer. Three soil parameters, namely soil moisture, SOM (soil organic matter) and TN (total nitrogen) content, were analyzed. For soil moisture content, a linear regression model was available, using 1920 nm wavelength with correlation coefficient of 0.937, so that the results obtained could be directly used to real-time evaluate soil moisture. SOM content and TN content were estimated with a muviaiple linear regression model, 1870 and 1378 nm wavelengths were selected in the SOM estimate model, and 2262 and 1888 nrameter wavelengths were selected in the TN estimate model. The results showed that soil SOM and TN contents can be evaluated by using NIR absorbance spectra of soil samples. PMID:16830746

Sun, Jian-ying; Li, Min-zan; Zheng, Li-hua; Hu, Yong-guang; Zhang, Xi-jie

2006-03-01

347

Natural radioactivity in surface soil samples from dwelling areas in Tehran city, Iran.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to determine radioactivity concentrations in surface soil samples of the city of Tehran and associated potential radiological hazards. The natural radionuclide ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) contents were determined for 50 locations throughout the geological surface formations in a representative area in the city of Tehran, Iran, using high-resolution gamma-spectrometric analysis. The range of activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil from the studied areas varies from 30.5±0.6 to 45.4±0.9, 27.3±0.5 to 57.1±1.1 and 328.0±4.6 to 768.5±13.4 Bq kg(-1) with overall mean values of 38.8±0.7, 43.4±0.8 and 555.1±8.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The mean radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index to quantify the internal exposure to radon and its daughter products, as well as the gamma activity concentration index for each sample are 143.6±4.6 Bq kg(-1), 0.39, 0.49 and 0.53, respectively. The average estimated radium equivalent is comparable with reported values for many countries in the world. Therefore, these areas may not pose radiological risks to the inhabitants due to harmful effects of the ionising radiation from the natural radioactivity in soil. The calculated average external and internal hazard indexes were found to be less than unity, as a recommended safe level. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for calculating the absorbed dose rate in the outdoor air at 1 m above the ground level. The absorbed dose rates resulting from those concentrations ranged from 48.1 to 88.7 nGy h(-1). Assuming a 20 % occupancy factor proposed by UNSCEAR, 2000, the corresponding effective dose rates in outdoor air equivalent to the population were calculated to be between 0.06 and 0.11 mSv y(-1). The measurement results and calculated values obtained from this study indicate that the dwelling areas in Tehran city, Iran, have background radioactivity levels within natural limits. PMID:24014681

Asgharizadeh, F; Ghannadi, M; Samani, A B; Meftahi, M; Shalibayk, M; Sahafipour, S A; Gooya, E S

2013-01-01

348

Long-term variations of solar corpuscular fluxes based on lunar soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of age determination of a lunar soil column, delivered by the Luna 16 mission in September 1970 from the Sea of Fertility. We elaborated and applied the soil age determination method using the kinetic parameter, the regolith accumulation rate. The age of the soil delivered by Luna 16 is about 90 Myr. The isotopic ratio of 3He/4He in the column is slightly higher than in the soil column delivered by the Luna 24 mission. The abundance of helium in the fine fraction of the soil (about 100 µm) is significantly higher and is close to the maximum abundance from the Luna 24 soil column. These differences are most likely associated with the variations of solar corpuscular fluxes. Based on the measurements of the helium isotope abundance in the samples of lunar soil columns, we have estimated the values of ancient solar fluxes of protons and helium and variations thereof in the time interval of up to 600 Myr. We demonstrate that during this epoch there were two strong bursts of the helium flux, about 80 and 470 Myr ago, respectively. The existence of the first peak was assumed earlier from the paleodendrochronological data.

Anufriev, G. S.

2013-07-01

349

Guidance for characterizing explosives contaminated soils: Sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods  

SciTech Connect

A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling due to the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult due to the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of samples, and extracting larger samples. On-site analytical methods are essential to more economical and improved characterization. On-site methods might suffer in terms of precision and accuracy, but this is more than offset by the increased number of samples that can be run. While verification using a standard analytical procedure should be part of any quality assurance program, reducing the number of samples analyzed by the more expensive methods can result in significantly reduced costs. Often 70 to 90% of the soil samples analyzed during an explosives site investigation do not contain detectable levels of contamination. Two basic types of on-site analytical methods are in wide use for explosives in soil, calorimetric and immunoassay. Calorimetric methods generally detect broad classes of compounds such as nitroaromatics or nitramines, while immunoassay methods are more compound specific. Since TNT or RDX is usually present in explosive-contaminated soils, the use of procedures designed to detect only these or similar compounds can be very effective.

Crockett, A.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Craig, H.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Portland, OR (United States). Oregon Operations Office; Jenkins, T.F. [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States); Sisk, W.E. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD (United States)

1996-09-01

350

Rapid Test Methods for the Field Screening of Heavy Metals in Soil Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, rapid test methods for field screening of soil for Cu, Ni, and Pb content are presented. They are based\\u000a on commercially obtainable Microquant tests (Merck, Germany), which are originally developed for water analysis. The same\\u000a type of color reaction was also used for the determination of heavy metals in soil extracts: Reagents to form colored metal

Marija Jozic; Thomas Peer; Hans Malissa

2009-01-01

351

Measurements of natural radionuclides in some soil samples from Amasya (Turkey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil on the earth's crust is a source of continuously exposure to human beings. The amount of radioactivity in soil depends upon the type of soil and its uses. Amasya is located on the inside of the Department of the Central Black Sea. Amasya is situated between 34° 57' 06'' - 36° 31' 53'' east longitudes and 41° 04' 54'' - 40° 16' 16'' north latitudes. In this study, the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides (40K, 226Ra, 232Th) was measured in some soil samples collected in Amasya region using gamma spectrometer system which contains NaI(Tl) and 16k Multichannel analyser at the Süleyman Demirel University-Gamma Spectroscopy Lab in Isparta (Turkey).

Mavi, Betül; Akkurt, ?skender; Öner, F.; Güno?lu, Kadir

2012-09-01

352

Determination of Natural Beryllium (Be) in Soil and Swipe Samples Utilizing Yttrium/Beryllium Ratio  

SciTech Connect

1. Objective: A method to determine whether beryllium (Be) components in surface swipe samples are from a natural source is needed. 2. Methods: Soil samples and surface swipes from area facilities were analyzed for marker elements to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be). To be useful, the natural marker element must be present at reasonably consistent levels across the site, must correlate with the Be concentration, and not have the potential to be present from non-natural sources. 3. Results: The research on marker elements used to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be) concentrations demonstrates a clear correlation between Be and yttrium (Y) in natural soils on the Nevada National Security Site. The Y/Be ratio is proposed as a method to characterize the source of Be in soil and surface swipe samples and to aid in recommendations for follow up actions. Swipe samples are analyzed using an ICP/MS method and compared with results from soil samples. Natural soil constituent levels and the Y/Be Ratio range is determined for the occupied and historical facilities and surrounding areas. Y/Be ratios within the statistical range established indicate the Be is from a natural source. Y/Be ratios lower than this range indicate the presence of another Be source, and may then be correlated to alloy, ceramic, or other operational sources by the ratios of copper, nickel, cobalt, uranium, and/or niobium. Example case studies of evaluations of buildings with historical operational beryllium usage, current ongoing technical processes, and heavy equipment used in large building demolitions are included demonstrating the value of the ratio approach. 4. Conclusions: This differentiation is valuable as there is no known correlation between natural beryllium in soil and beryllium disease.

None

2010-09-30

353

Impacts of heterogeneous organic matter on phenanthrene sorption: different soil and sediment samples.  

PubMed

Organic petrography has been proposed as a tool for characterizing the heterogeneous organic matter present in soil and sediment samples. A new simplified method is proposed as a quantitative means of interpreting observed sorption behavior for phenanthrene and different soils and sediments based on their organic petrographical characterization. This method is tested under singe solute conditions and at phenanthrene concentration of 1 microg/L. Since the opaque organic matter fraction dominates the sorption process, we propose that by quantifying this fraction one can interpret organic content normalized sorption distribution coefficient (Koc) values for a sample. While this method was developed and tested for various samples within the same aquifer, in the current study the method is validated for soil and sediment samples from different sites that cover a wide range of organic matter origin, age, and organic content. All 10 soil and sediment samples studied had log Koc values for the opaque particles between 5.6 and 6.8. This range of Koc values illustrates the heterogeneity of opaque particles between sites and geological formations and thus the need to characterize the opaque fraction of materials on a site-by-site basis. PMID:11770772

Karapanagioti, H K; Childs, J; Sabatini, D A

2001-12-01

354

Nonclinical dose formulation analysis method validation and sample analysis.  

PubMed

Nonclinical dose formulation analysis methods are used to confirm test article concentration and homogeneity in formulations and determine formulation stability in support of regulated nonclinical studies. There is currently no regulatory guidance for nonclinical dose formulation analysis method validation or sample analysis. Regulatory guidance for the validation of analytical procedures has been developed for drug product/formulation testing; however, verification of the formulation concentrations falls under the framework of GLP regulations (not GMP). The only current related regulatory guidance is the bioanalytical guidance for method validation. The fundamental parameters for bioanalysis and formulation analysis validations that overlap include: recovery, accuracy, precision, specificity, selectivity, carryover, sensitivity, and stability. Divergence in bioanalytical and drug product validations typically center around the acceptance criteria used. As the dose formulation samples are not true "unknowns", the concept of quality control samples that cover the entire range of the standard curve serving as the indication for the confidence in the data generated from the "unknown" study samples may not always be necessary. Also, the standard bioanalytical acceptance criteria may not be directly applicable, especially when the determined concentration does not match the target concentration. This paper attempts to reconcile the different practices being performed in the community and to provide recommendations of best practices and proposed acceptance criteria for nonclinical dose formulation method validation and sample analysis. PMID:20711763

Whitmire, Monica Lee; Bryan, Peter; Henry, Teresa R; Holbrook, John; Lehmann, Paul; Mollitor, Thomas; Ohorodnik, Susan; Reed, David; Wietgrefe, Holly D

2010-08-14

355

Tank 241AP102 Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This tank sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the head space of tank 241-AP-102. Sampling will be performed in accordance with ''Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis'' (Air DQO) (Mulkey 1999). The sample results will

2001-01-01

356

Sedimentation Time Measurements of Soil Particles by Light Scattering and Determination of Chromium, Lead, and Iron in Soil Samples via ICP  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study of soil samples, using light scattering and Inductively Coupled Plasma spectrometry (ICP) to determine colloid sedimentation rates and the quantity of chromium, lead, and iron in the sample is described. It shows the physical and chemical behavior of solid components in soil, and how such pollutant binding colloid surfaces directly…

Todebush, Patricia Metthe; Geiger, Franz M.

2005-01-01

357

Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus. 8 figs.

Rossabi, J.; May, C.P.; Pemberton, B.E.; Shinn, J.; Sprague, K.

1999-03-30

358

Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus.

Rossabi, Joseph (105 Michael Ct., Aiken, SC 29801); May, Christopher P. (5002 Hesperus Dr., Columbia, MD 21044); Pemberton, Bradley E. (131 Glencarin Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Shinn, Jim (Box 65, RFD. #1, South Royalton, VT 05068); Sprague, Keith (Box 234 Rte. 14, Brookfield, VT 05036)

1999-01-01

359

Simple and accessible analytical methods for the determination of mercury in soil and coal samples.  

PubMed

Simple and accessible analytical methods compared to conventional methods such as US EPA Method 7471B and ASTM-D6414 for the determination of mercury (Hg) in soil and coal samples are proposed. The new methods are consisted of fewer steps without the Hg oxidizing step consequently eliminating a step necessary to reduce excess oxidant. In the proposed methods, a Hg extraction is an inexpensive and accessible step utilizing a disposable test tube and a heating block instead of an expensive autoclave vessel and a specially-designed microwave. Also, a common laboratory vacuum filtration was used for the extracts instead of centrifugation. As for the optimal conditions, first, best acids for extracting Hg from soil and coal samples was investigated using certified reference materials (CRMs). Among common laboratory acids (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, and aqua regia), aqua regia was most effective for the soil CRM whereas HNO3 was for the coal CRM. Next, the optimal heating temperature and time for Hg extraction were evaluated. The most effective Hg extraction was obtained at 120°C for 30min for soil CRM and at 70°C for 90min for coal CRM. Further tests using selected CRMs showed that all the measured values were within the allowable certification range. Finally, actual soil and coal samples were analyzed using the new methods and the US EPA Method 7473. The relative standard deviation values of 1.71-6.55% for soil and 0.97-12.11% for coal samples were obtained proving that the proposed methods were not only simple and accessible but also accurate. PMID:23683353

Park, Chul Hee; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Lauren Jong-Eun; Lee, Tai Gyu

2013-05-16

360

Tank 241-AP-102 Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This tank sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the head space of tank 241-AP-102. Sampling will be perf...

A. M. Templeton

2001-01-01

361

Tank 241-BY-106 rotary core sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples and one rotary mode core sample from tank 241-BY-106.

Bell, K.E.

1995-10-27

362

Tank 241BY106 rotary core sampling and analysis plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples and one rotary mode core sample from tank 241-BY-106.

Bell

1995-01-01

363

Tentative method for the determination of uranium isotopes in soil and air samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analytical procedure described in this document is a tentative method for the determination of uranium isotopes in soil and air samples. It is being collaboratively tested according to an interagency agreement. Data from the collaborative test will be examined and information on the precision and accuracy of the method will be obtained.

V. R. Casella; C. T. Bishop; A. A. Glosby; C. A. Phillips

1977-01-01

364

DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF CHLOROPHENOXY ACID HERBICIDES FROM SOIL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Extraction of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides from soil samples with supercritical carbon dioxide as extractant and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and methyl iodide as derivatization agents was investigated. The extraction was carried out at 400 atm and 80 C for 15 min static, follow...

365

Soil Sampling Program at Solid Waste Management Unit No. 3, Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a soil sampling program at Solid Waste Management Unit No. 3 (SWMU No. 3) at Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico (FTB), are presented. In 1977, approximately 1 ton (1 truckload) of various pesticides reportedly were buried at SWMU No. 3. The precise loc...

J. L. Llopis

1993-01-01

366

Batch?Determined Elements Release from Wood Ash Mixed with an Acidic Forest Soil Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serial batch leaching experiment was carried out to evaluate the release of elements from wood ash mixed with a strongly acidic forest soil sample. Wood ash application resulted in increased leachate pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and electrical conductivity (EC). Increasing application of wood ash increased cumulative release of inorganic carbon (IC), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3), sulfate (SO4), potassium

J. C. Voundi Nkana; G. W. Brümmer

2006-01-01

367

Toxicity Testing of Soil Samples from J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soil samples from the toxic burning pits, an area adjacent to the toxic burning pits, white phosphorus pits, and riot control pits were tested for their toxicity to lettuce and earthworms as part of an ecological risk assessment of J-Field. Standardized s...

C. T. Phillips R. T. Checkal

1995-01-01

368

Water extraction times for plant and soil materials used in stable isotope analysis.  

PubMed

Stable isotopic analysis of water for many ecological applications commonly requires extractions of water from dozens to hundreds of plant and soil samples. With recent advances in mass spectrometry, water extraction, rather than the isotopic analysis itself, is the bottleneck in sample processing. Using cryogenic vacuum distillation, we have created extraction timing curves to determine how much time (T(min)) is required to extract an unfractionated water sample. Our results indicated that T(min) values are 60 to 75 min for stems, 40 min for clay soils, 30 min for sandy soils and 20 to 30 min for leaves. While the extraction times reported here may allow for some reductions relative to times reported in the literature, the extraction process will continue to be a rate-limiting step in plant water analyses. Ultimately, technological advances eliminating the need for extraction are required to greatly increase throughput rates in water isotope analysis for ecological research. PMID:16555369

West, Adam G; Patrickson, Shela J; Ehleringer, James R

2006-01-01

369

High priority tank sampling and analysis report  

SciTech Connect

In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) transmitted Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) to the US Department of Energy (DOE). Recommendation 93-5 noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In May 1996, the DOE issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan revision presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan`s objectives. The approach concentrated on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks, which, if sampled and analyzed, were expected to provide information to answer questions regarding safety and disposal issues. The High Priority tank list was originally developed in Section 9.0 of the Tank Waste Characterization Basis (Brown et al. 1995) by integrating the needs of the various safety and disposal programs. The High Priority tank list represents a set of tanks that were expected to provide the highest information return for characterization resources expended. The High Priority tanks were selected for near-term core sampling and were not expected to be the only tanks that would provide meaningful information. Sampling and analysis of non-High Priority tanks also could be used to provide scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and measure safety related phenomenological characteristics of the waste. When the sampling and analysis results of the High Priority and other tanks were reviewed, it was expected that a series of questions should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. The first nine questions related to safety issues and the last three questions related to planning for the disposal process (retrieval, treatment, and immobilization). The 12 questions are listed.

Brown, T.M.

1998-03-05

370

Four storms with sub-events: sampling and analysis.  

PubMed

Analysis of ion concentration of samples taken sequentially during a storm event is important in order to reveal the relation between the atmospheric conditions and ion concentrations in each sub-event. This study presents the interrelationship among the chemical composition parameters and atmospheric variables for four storm events that were sampled in Istanbul during a) January 21-23, 2004 b) November 9-11, 2003 c) February 12-13, 2004 and d) October 27-28, 2003. These events lasted 53.3, 47.9, 27.5 and 13.2 h and the number of collected samples for each event was 22, 14, 7 and 4, in order. Generally values of pH and concentrations of ions in the first sub-events for all four cases were found higher than those of the other sub-event samples taken in sequence owing to the strong initial washout of the atmosphere by raindrops. Precipitation events a and c include rain and snow together where precipitation started as rain and continued as snow after 16th and 3rd sub-events. Higher concentration of ions in the snow in comparison with that of rain sub-events samples can be explained by more efficient below cloud scavenging of atmospheric constituents, especially aerosol particles, by snowflakes. In general, all of the ions sampled in the sub-events for four storms have variability similar to each other, with high correlation coefficient among themselves. Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-) were found to be the dominant ions in average overall sub-events. Calculated NSS concentration values of ions indicated that the main source of SO(4)(2-) was industrial and domestic emissions, most of the Ca(2+) and K(+) came from soil, nearly half of the Mg(2+) and all of the Cl(-) originated from sea. PMID:18255147

Akkoyunlu, Bülent O; Tayanç, Mete

2008-02-05

371

Determination of 137Cs in Soil Samples by Low-Level Compton Suppression Gamma-Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used Compton suppression gamma ray counting to effectively measure 137Cs in undisturbed environmental samples weighing only one hundred grams of material. Our results have shown that Compton suppression is ideal in determining low levels (1–3 Bq\\/kg) of 137Cs in soil samples, while the Compton advantage is negligible for higher concentrations. Quality assurance and quality control experiments show that

F. Y. Iskander; S. Landsberger; S. D. Warren

2000-01-01

372

Killing and preserving nematodes in soil samples with chemicals and microwave energy.  

PubMed

Three basic procedures for treating nematode-bearing soil samples for international shipment or from areas under quarantine were tested for their killing effect and recovery of nematodes by sugar flotation for diagnostic and advisory purposes. These were: fumigation with methyl bromide followed by storage at -15 C; microwave treatment (2450 MHz, 630 w, 2-5 min) followed by addition of FAA + picric acid or 5% Formalin; and adding chemical preservatives (FAA + picric acid, 5% Formalin, NAN, and 2-phenoxyethanol) directly to the soil. Larvae of Heterodera glycines in eggs within cysts were stimulated to hatch by 2-rain exposure to microwaves, and an exposure of 5 rain was required to kill them. Soil type and moisture significantly affected microwave effectiveness. Direct saturation of soil samples with preservative chemical solutions (FAA + picric acid or 5% Formalin) was most effective, and often increased the number of nematodes recovered. The high concentration (2%) of NaN a required for soil sterilization is too hazardous for routine work. NaN, therefore, is not recommended for this purpose. PMID:19319249

Barker, K R; Gooding, G V; Elder, A S; Eplee, R E

1972-04-01

373

Killing and Preserving Nematodes in Soil Samples with Chemicals and Microwave Energy  

PubMed Central

Three basic procedures for treating nematode-bearing soil samples for international shipment or from areas under quarantine were tested for their killing effect and recovery of nematodes by sugar flotation for diagnostic and advisory purposes. These were: fumigation with methyl bromide followed by storage at -15 C; microwave treatment (2450 MHz, 630 w, 2-5 min) followed by addition of FAA + picric acid or 5% Formalin; and adding chemical preservatives (FAA + picric acid, 5% Formalin, NAN?, and 2-phenoxyethanol) directly to the soil. Larvae of Heterodera glycines in eggs within cysts were stimulated to hatch by 2-rain exposure to microwaves, and an exposure of 5 rain was required to kill them. Soil type and moisture significantly affected microwave effectiveness. Direct saturation of soil samples with preservative chemical solutions (FAA + picric acid or 5% Formalin) was most effective, and often increased the number of nematodes recovered. The high concentration (2%) of NaN? a required for soil sterilization is too hazardous for routine work. NaN?, therefore, is not recommended for this purpose.

Barker, K. R.; Gooding, G. V.; Elder, A. S.; Eplee, R. E.

1972-01-01

374

Fungistatic intensity of agricultural soil against fungal agents and phylogenetic analysis on the actinobacteria involved.  

PubMed

A total of 287 agricultural soil samples collected from 26 provinces or autonomous regions of China were tested on their ability to suppress the conidial germination of nine biocontrol fungal agents. These soil samples showed great differences in the degree to inhibit the germination of conidia (22.8% < mean inhibition rate < 97.5%), but all exhibited fungistatic activities above the moderate levels (mean inhibition rate > 50%) to most of tested fungi. Ten soil samples that have stronger fungistatic intensity (germination inhibition rate > 68.3%) to the target fungi, Trichoderma viride and Paecilomyces lilacinus, were selected to evaluate their soil actinobacteria involved fungistasis in soil. Of the 1,000 isolates from those soil samples, 345 actinobacteria exhibited fungistatic activity to conidial germination of T. viride and P. lilacinus with germination inhibition rates higher than 10%. Sequences encoding 16S rRNA gene of the 345 actinobacteria were analyzed by ARDRA and resulted 44 different ARDRA types. Fifty-six isolates, at least one from each unique ARDRA type, were selected for 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results indicated that the actinobacteria involved in the soil fungistasis had close phylogenetic relationship with the members of Sterptomycetaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Micrococcaceae, and Nocardiacea. PMID:21161228

Fang, Li Zhi; Kun, Xu Chuan; Song, Zou Chang; Qin, Xi Jia; Qiu, He Yue; Qun, Duan Chang; He, Mo Ming

2010-12-15

375

Detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in Complex Soil and Air Samples Using Next-Generation Sequencing.  

PubMed

Bacillus anthracis is the potentially lethal etiologic agent of anthrax disease, and is a significant concern in the realm of biodefense. One of the cornerstones of an effective biodefense strategy is the ability to detect infectious agents with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in the context of a complex sample background. The nature of the B. anthracis genome, however, renders specific detection difficult, due to close homology with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We therefore elected to determine the efficacy of next-generation sequencing analysis and microarrays for detection of B. anthracis in an environmental background. We applied next-generation sequencing to titrated genome copy numbers of B. anthracis in the presence of background nucleic acid extracted from aerosol and soil samples. We found next-generation sequencing to be capable of detecting as few as 10 genomic equivalents of B. anthracis DNA per nanogram of background nucleic acid. Detection was accomplished by mapping reads to either a defined subset of reference genomes or to the full GenBank database. Moreover, sequence data obtained from B. anthracis could be reliably distinguished from sequence data mapping to either B. cereus or B. thuringiensis. We also demonstrated the efficacy of a microbial census microarray in detecting B. anthracis in the same samples, representing a cost-effective and high-throughput approach, complementary to next-generation sequencing. Our results, in combination with the capacity of sequencing for providing insights into the genomic characteristics of complex and novel organisms, suggest that these platforms should be considered important components of a biosurveillance strategy. PMID:24039948

Be, Nicholas A; Thissen, James B; Gardner, Shea N; McLoughlin, Kevin S; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y; Koshinsky, Heather; Ellingson, Sally R; Brettin, Thomas S; Jackson, Paul J; Jaing, Crystal J

2013-09-09

376

Application of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Analysis for Determination of Monensin in Environmental Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Th ere is growing concern that antibiotic use in livestock production is contributing to contamination of soil and aquatic environments. Monensin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic, accounts for approximately 13% of total subtherapeutic livestock antibiotic usage in the USA and has been widely detected in aquatic environments. Due to insuffi cient ultraviolet absorbance, liquid chromatography analysis of monensin in environmental samples

Holly Dolliver; Kuldip Kumar; Satish Gupta; Ashok Singh

2008-01-01

377

Data analysis for steam generator tubing samples  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Improved Eddy-Current ISI for Steam Generators program is to upgrade and validate eddy-current inspections, including probes, instrumentation, and data processing techniques for inservice inspection of new, used, and repaired steam generator tubes; to improve defect detection, classification and characterization as affected by diameter and thickness variations, denting, probe wobble, tube sheet, tube supports, copper and sludge deposits, even when defect types and other variables occur in combination; to transfer this advanced technology to NRC`s mobile NDE laboratory and staff. This report provides a description of the application of advanced eddy-current neural network analysis methods for the detection and evaluation of common steam generator tubing flaws including axial and circumferential outer-diameter stress-corrosion cracking and intergranular attack. The report describes the training of the neural networks on tubing samples with known defects and the subsequent evaluation results for unknown samples. Evaluations were done in the presence of artifacts. Computer programs are given in the appendix.

Dodd, C.V.

1996-07-01

378

A meta-analysis of the publicly available bacterial and archaeal sequence diversity in saline soils.  

PubMed

An integrated view of bacterial and archaeal diversity in saline soil habitats is essential for understanding the biological and ecological processes and exploiting potential of microbial resources from such environments. This study examined the collective bacterial and archaeal diversity in saline soils using a meta-analysis approach. All available 16S rDNA sequences recovered from saline soils were retrieved from publicly available databases and subjected to phylogenetic and statistical analyses. A total of 9,043 bacterial and 1,039 archaeal sequences, each longer than 250 bp, were examined. The bacterial sequences were assigned into 5,784 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, based on ?97 % sequence identity), representing 24 known bacterial phyla, with Proteobacteria (44.9 %), Actinobacteria (12.3 %), Firmicutes (10.4 %), Acidobacteria (9.0 %), Bacteroidetes (6.8 %), and Chloroflexi (5.9 %) being predominant. Lysobacter (12.8 %) was the dominant bacterial genus in saline soils, followed by Sphingomonas (4.5 %), Halomonas (2.5 %), and Gemmatimonas (2.5 %). Archaeal sequences were assigned to 602 OTUs, primarily from the phyla Euryarchaeota (88.7 %) and Crenarchaeota (11.3 %). Halorubrum and Thermofilum were the dominant archaeal genera in saline soils. Rarefaction analysis indicated that less than 25 % of bacterial diversity, and approximately 50 % of archaeal diversity, in saline soil habitats has been sampled. This analysis of the global bacterial and archaeal diversity in saline soil habitats can guide future studies to further examine the microbial diversity of saline soils. PMID:23756871

Ma, Bin; Gong, Jun

2013-06-12

379

DWPF GC FILTER ASSEMBLY SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

On March 18, 2009 a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) GC Line Filter Assembly was received at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This filter assembly was removed from operation following the completion of Sludge Batch 4 processing in the DWPF. Work on this sample was requested in a Technical Assistance Request. This document reports the pictures, observations, samples collected, and analytical results for the assembly. The assembly arrived at SRNL separated into its three component filters: high efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-1, HEPA-2, and a high efficiency mist evaporator (HEME). Each stage of the assembly's media was sampled and examined visually and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solids built up in the filter housing following the first stage HEME, were dissolved in dilute nitric acid and analyzed by ICP-AES and the undissolved white solids were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The vast majority of the material in each of the three stages of the DWPF GC Line Filter Assembly appears to be contaminated with a Hg compound that is {approx}59 wt% Hg on a total solids basis. The Hg species was identified by XRD analysis to contain a mixture of Hg{sub 4}(OH)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Hg{sub 10}(OH){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}. Only in the core sample of the second stage HEPA, did this material appear to be completely covering portions of the filter media, possibly explaining the pressure drops observed by DWPF. The fact that the material migrates through the HEME filter and both HEPA filters, and that it was seen collecting on the outlet side of the HEME filter, would seem to indicate that these filters are not efficient at removing this material. Further SRAT off-gas system modeling should help determine the extent of Hg breakthrough past the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT). The SRAT off-gas system has not been modeled since startup of the facility. Improvements to the efficiency of Hg stripping prior to the ammonia scrubber would seem to be the only way to prevent/mitigate the formation of the compounds found in the GC Line Filter Assembly filters and therefore prevent pluggage of this filter assembly.

Bannochie, C.; Imrich, K.

2009-11-11

380

DenNit – Experimental analysis and modelling of soil N 2 O efflux in response on changes of soil water content, soil temperature, soil pH, nutrient availability and the time after rain event  

Microsoft Academic Search

To quantify the effects of soil temperature (Tsoil), and relative soil water content (RSWC) on soil N2O emission we measured N2O soil efflux with a closed dynamic chamber in situ in the field and from soil cores in a controlled climate chamber experiment. Additionally we analysed the effect of soil acidity, ammonium, and nitrate concentration in the field. The analysis

Sascha Reth; Kerstin Hentschel; Matthias Drösler; Eva Falge

2005-01-01

381

Continuum soil modeling in the static analysis of buried structures  

SciTech Connect

Soil loading traditionally has been modeled as a hydrostatic pressure, a practice acceptable for many design applications. In the analyses of buried structure with predictive goals, soil compliance and load redistribution in the presence of soil plasticity are important factors to consider in determining the appropriate response of the structure. In the analysis of existing buried waste-storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, three soil-tank interaction modeling considerations are addressed. First, the soil interacts with the tank as the tank expands and contracts during thermal cycles associated with changes in the heat generated by the waste material as a result of additions and subtractions of the waste. Second, the soil transfers loads from the surface to the tank and provides support by resisting radial displacement of the tank haunch. Third, conventional finite-element mesh development causes artificial stress concentrations in the soil associated with differential settlement.

Julyk, L.J.; Marlow, R.S.; Moore, C.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Day, J.P.; Dyrness, A.D. [Advent Engineering Services, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)

1993-10-01

382

The use of grain size distribution analysis of sediments and soils in forensic enquiry.  

PubMed

The use of grain size distribution analysis in forensic enquiry was investigated with reference to four forensic case studies which contained the type of sample restraints and limitations often encountered in criminal case work. The problems of the comparison of trace and bulk samples are outlined and the need for multiple sample analysis is highlighted. It was found that the problems of soil analysis, particularly when the soil was recovered from anthropogenic sources, focused on the lack of identification of pre-, syn- and post-forensic event mixing of materials, thus obscuring the recognition of false-negative or false-positive exclusions between samples. It was found that grain size distribution analysis was a useful descriptive tool but it was concluded that if it were to be used in any other manner the derived results should be treated with great caution. The statistical analyses of these data did not improve the quality of the interpretation of the results. PMID:18051034

Morgan, R M; Bull, P A

2007-11-01

383

Lysobacter thermophilus sp. nov., isolated from a geothermal soil sample in Tengchong, south-west China.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative and aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 77875(T), was isolated from a geothermal soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, south-west China. Bacterial growth occurred from 37 to 65 °C (optimum 50 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and 0-1 % NaCl (w/v). Cells were rod-shaped and colonies were convex, circular, smooth, yellow and non-transparent. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain YIM 77875(T) belongs to the genus Lysobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain YIM 77875(T) and other species of the genus Lysobacter were all below 94.7 %. The polar lipids of strain YIM 77875(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and five unknown phospholipids. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-8 and the G+C content was 68.8 mol%. Major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(11:0). On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, as well as genotypic data, strain YIM 77875(T) represents a novel species, Lysobacter thermophilus sp. nov., in the genus Lysobacter. The type strain is YIM 77875(T) (CCTCC AB 2012064(T) = KCTC 32020(T)). PMID:22706524

Wei, Da-Qiao; Yu, Tian-Tian; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Zhou, En-Min; Song, Zhao-Qi; Yin, Yi-Rui; Ming, Hong; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

2012-06-16

384

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the real-time analysis of mixed waste samples containing Sr  

SciTech Connect

In this report, the use of Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze mixed waste samples containing Sr is discussed. The mixed waste samples investigated include vitrified waste glass and contaminated soil. Compared to traditional analysis techniques, the laser-based method is fast (i.e., analysis times on the order of minutes) and essentially waste free since little or no sample preparation is required. Detection limits on the order of pmm Sr were determined. Detection limits obtained using a fiber optic cable to deliver laser pulses to soil samples containing Cr, Zr, Pb, Be, Cu, and Ni will also be discussed.

Barefield, J.E. II; Koskelo, A.C.; Multari, R.A.; Cremers, D.A.; Gamble, T.K.; Han, C.Y.

1995-05-01

385

Radon exhalation from Libyan soil samples measured with the SSNTD technique.  

PubMed

Radon concentrations in soil samples collected from the cities of Benghazi and Al-Marj, located in northeastern Libya, were measured using the sealed-can technique based on the CR-39 SSNTDs. Mass and areal radon exhalation rates, radium content and radon concentration contribute to indoor radon, and annual effective doses were determined. The results indicate mostly normal rates, but there were some higher levels of radon concentration and emanation in samples collected from Al-Marj and one sample from Benghazi. PMID:23220028

Saad, A F; Abdallah, R M; Hussein, N A

2012-11-17

386

High productivity analysis of 15 N and 13 C in soil\\/plant research  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line sample preparation and analysis enables faster testing of hypotheses in biological research, particularly in field experiments where many samples must be processed to integrate spatial variability. Soil scientists were first to recognise the need for a fast, easy-to-use15N analyser to replace the isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) and Kjeldahl-Rittenberg sample preparation. Development has since led to a variety of

A. Barrie; S. T. Brookes; S. J. Prosser; S. Debney

1995-01-01

387

Sampling and analysis plan for Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), Wayne, New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

This field sampling plan describes the methodology to perform an independent radiological verification survey and chemical characterization of a remediated area of the subpile at the Wayne Interim Storage Site, Wayne, New Jersey.Data obtained from collection and analysis of systematic and biased soil samples will be used to assess the status of remediation at the site and verify the final radiological status. The objective of this plan is to describe the methods for obtaining sufficient and valid measurements and analytical data to supplement and verify a radiological profile already established by the Project Remediation Management Contractor (PMC). The plan describes the procedure for obtaining sufficient and valid analytical data on soil samples following remediation of the first layer of the subpile. Samples will be taken from an area of the subpile measuring approximately 30 m by 80 m from which soil has been excavated to a depth of approximately 20 feet to confirm that the soil beneath the excavated area does not exceed radiological guidelines established for the site or chemical regulatory limits for inorganic metals. After the WISS has been fully remediated, the Department of Energy will release it for industrial/commercial land use in accordance with the Record of Decision. This plan provides supplemental instructions to guidelines and procedures established for sampling and analysis activities. Procedures will be referenced throughout this plan as applicable, and are available for review if necessary.

Brown, K.S.; Murray, M.E.; Rodriguez, R.E.

1998-10-01

388

Field sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods for explosives in soil  

SciTech Connect

A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling because of the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult because of the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of the samples, and extracting larger samples. This publication is intended to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods for detecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils, and is not intended to include discussions of the safety issues associated with sites contaminated with explosive residues.

Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

1996-12-01

389

An analysis of soil respiration across northern hemisphere temperate ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over two-thirds of terrestrial carbon is stored belowground and a significant amount of atmospheric CO2 is respired by roots and microbes in soils. For this analysis, soil respiration (Rs) data were assembled from 31 AmeriFlux and CarboEurope sites representing deciduous broadleaf, evergreen needleleaf, grasslands, mixed deciduous\\/evergreen and woodland\\/savanna ecosystem types. Lowest to highest rates of soil respiration averaged over the

K. A. Hibbard; B. E. Law; M. Reichstein; J. Sulzman

2005-01-01

390

The effect of interstitial gaseous pressure on the thermal conductivity of a simulated Apollo 12 lunar soil sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal conductivity of a simulated Apollo 12 soil sample is measured as a function of interstitial gas density, and implications for the thermal properties of lunar and Martian regolith are discussed. Measurements were performed for samples consisting of a mixture of Knippa and Berkely basalt powders with a grain size distribution identical to that of Apollo 12 lunar soil

K.-I. Horai

1981-01-01

391

Tank 241AP104 Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AP-104. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AP-104 required to provide sample material to the Waste Treatment Contractor. Grab samples will be obtained from riser

2000-01-01

392

Impact of Plant Functional Group, Plant Species, and Sampling Time on the Composition of nirK-Type Denitrifier Communities in Soil? †  

PubMed Central

We studied the influence of eight nonleguminous grassland plant species belonging to two functional groups (grasses and forbs) on the composition of soil denitrifier communities in experimental microcosms over two consecutive years. Denitrifier community composition was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of PCR-amplified nirK gene fragments coding for the copper-containing nitrite reductase. The impact of experimental factors (plant functional group, plant species, sampling time, and interactions between them) on the structure of soil denitrifier communities (i.e., T-RFLP patterns) was analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis. While the functional group of a plant did not affect nirK-type denitrifier communities, plant species identity did influence their composition. This effect changed with sampling time, indicating community changes due to seasonal conditions and a development of the plants in the microcosms. Differences in total soil nitrogen and carbon, soil pH, and root biomass were observed at the end of the experiment. However, statistical analysis revealed that the plants affected the nirK-type denitrifier community composition directly, e.g., through root exudates. Assignment of abundant T-RFs to cloned nirK sequences from the soil and subsequent phylogenetic analysis indicated a dominance of yet-unknown nirK genotypes and of genes related to nirK from denitrifiers of the order Rhizobiales. In conclusion, individual species of nonleguminous plants directly influenced the composition of denitrifier communities in soil, but environmental conditions had additional significant effects.

Bremer, Christina; Braker, Gesche; Matthies, Diethart; Reuter, Andreas; Engels, Christof; Conrad, Ralf

2007-01-01

393

Extensive Diversity of Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacteria Recovered from Sonoran Desert Soil and Description of Nine New Species of the Genus Deinococcus Obtained from a Single Soil Sample†  

PubMed Central

The ionizing-radiation-resistant fractions of two soil bacterial communities were investigated by exposing an arid soil from the Sonoran Desert and a nonarid soil from a Louisiana forest to various doses of ionizing radiation using a 60Co source. The numbers of surviving bacteria decreased as the dose of gamma radiation to which the soils were exposed increased. Bacterial isolates surviving doses of 30 kGy were recovered from the Sonoran Desert soil, while no isolates were recovered from the nonarid forest soil after exposure to doses greater than 13 kGy. The phylogenetic diversities of the surviving culturable bacteria were compared for the two soils using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In addition to a bacterial population that was more resistant to higher doses of ionizing radiation, the diversity of the isolates was greater in the arid soil. The taxonomic diversity of the isolates recovered was found to decrease as the level of ionizing-radiation exposure increased. Bacterial isolates of the genera Deinococcus, Geodermatophilus, and Hymenobacter were still recovered from the arid soil after exposure to doses of 17 to 30 kGy. The recovery of large numbers of extremely ionizing-radiation-resistant bacteria from an arid soil and not from a nonarid soil provides further ecological support for the hypothesis that the ionizing-radiation resistance phenotype is a consequence of the evolution of other DNA repair systems that protect cells against commonly encountered environmental stressors, such as desiccation. The diverse group of bacterial strains isolated from the arid soil sample included 60 Deinococcus strains, the characterization of which revealed nine novel species of this genus.

Rainey, Fred A.; Ray, Keren; Ferreira, Margarida; Gatz, Bridget Z.; Nobre, M. Fernanda; Bagaley, Danielle; Rash, Brian A.; Park, Mie-Jung; Earl, Ashlee M.; Shank, Nicole C.; Small, Alanna M.; Henk, Margaret C.; Battista, John R.; Kampfer, Peter; da Costa, Milton S.

2005-01-01

394

HIGHLY SENSITIVE DIOXIN IMMUNOASSAY AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO SOIL AND BIOTA SAMPLES. (R825433)  

EPA Science Inventory

Tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD) is a well-known highly toxic compound that is present in nearly all components of the global ecosystem, including air, soil, sediment, fish and humans. Dioxin analysis is equipment intensive and expensive requiring low ppt or even ppq ...

395

Negative effects of sample pooling on PCR-based estimates of soil microbial richness and community structure.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the effect of various pooling strategies on the characterization of soil microbial community composition and phylotype richness estimates. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) profiles were determined from soil samples that were (i) unpooled (extracted and amplified individually), (ii) pooled prior to PCR amplification, or (iii) pooled prior to DNA extraction. Regression analyses suggest that the less even the soil microbial community (i.e., low Shannon equitability, E(H)), the greater was the impact of either pooling strategy on microbial detection (R(2) = 0.766). For example, at a tropical rainforest site, which had the most uneven fungal (E(H) of 0.597) and bacterial communities (E(H) of 0.822), the unpooled procedure detected an additional 67 fungal and 115 bacterial phylotypes relative to either of the pooled procedures. Phylotype rarity, resulting in missed detection upon pooling, differed between the fungal and bacterial communities. Fungi were typified by locally abundant but spatially rare phylotypes, and the bacteria were typified by locally rare but spatially ubiquitous phylotypes. As a result, pooling differentially influenced plot comparisons, leading to an increase in similarity for the bacterial community and a decrease in the fungal community. In conclusion, although pooling reduces sample numbers and variability, it could mask a significant portion of the detectable microbial community, particularly for fungi due to their higher spatial heterogeneity. PMID:20139317

Manter, Daniel K; Weir, Tiffany L; Vivanco, Jorge M

2010-02-05

396

Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.  

PubMed

Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3? × 3?] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated. PMID:23509393

Issa, Shams A M

2013-03-17

397

Carbon accumulation by biological soil crusts in relation to relief and sampling depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In arid and semiarid ecosystems the soil surface is covered by biological soil crusts (BSC). These BSC are microbial communities of cyanobacteria, lichens and mosses. Due to the photosynthetic activity of these microorganisms, BSC are main carbon contributors to arid ecosystems. The cover is related to ecosystem functions like surface stabilization, water redistribution and nutrient fixation. These functions rely on the microbial community composition of the BSC. Cyanobacteria and cyanolichens excrete exopolysaccharides, which build microaggregates with soil particles. This stabilizes and seals the soil surface. Therefore cyanobacteria and cyanolichen dominated crusts introduce runoff, which affects the distribution of carbon. The total amount of soil organic carbon was determined in relation to the relief position and BSC thickness showing a strong correlation between relief, sampling depth and carbon amounts. At the Arid Ecosystem Research Center (AERC) station of the Nizzana sand dunes (NW Negev, Israel) the dunes and the interdune corridor are covered by BSC up to 80% of the total area. The BSC are composed of a thin topcrust section and a mineral subcrust section. The overall thickness changes in relation to the relief position. Along a dune transect topcrust and subcrust samples were taken and analyzed on their C_org, C_carb, and C_total concentration. The total amount of carbon (g m^-2) was calculated from the carbon concentrations, the BSC bulk density and the sampling depth. Comparing the topcrust and subcrust values of the sampling points the topcrust sections showed 3-4 times higher concentrations of organic carbon than the subcrust sections. The light intensity decreases with soil depth, resulting in a higher biological activity and carbon fixation in the topcrust sections. The subcrust showed relative higher amounts of C_carb contributing to the soil surface stability. Depending on the relief position the total amount of accumulated carbon was 4 times higher at the interdune positions than at the top slope. The data shows a high dependence of total carbon storage by BSC on the relief position and the high importance of the separate crust sections for the accumulation of C_org and C_carb.

Jetter, Stefan; Drahorad, Sylvie; Felix-Henningsen, Peter

2010-05-01

398

Method for the analysis of oxygen isotopic composition of soil phosphate fractions.  

PubMed

The isotopic signature of oxygen in phosphate (?(18)O(P)) of various soil fractions may shed light on P transformations, including phosphorus (P) recycling by soil microorganisms, uptake by plants and P adsorption, precipitation and release by oxides and minerals, thus increasing our understanding on P cycling and lability in soils. We developed and tested a protocol to extract and purify inorganic phosphate (Pi) from different soil fractions distinguished by binding strength and precipitate it as silver phosphate (Ag(3)PO(4)) for ?(18)O(P) analysis. Soil P is extracted sequentially using water, NaHCO(3), NaOH and HCl and Pi in each solution is purified and precipitated as Ag(3)PO(4). The unique characteristics and possible interferences of the soil solution extracts are addressed. Two agricultural soil samples receiving reclaimed wastewater or fresh water were analyzed, and results indicate that all soil fractions analyzed have been impacted to some degree by biologically enzyme mediated cycling of P in the soil. PMID:20831152

Zohar, Iris; Shaviv, Avi; Klass, Tatania; Roberts, Kathryn; Paytan, Adina

2010-10-01

399

Influence of soil type and extraction conditions on perchlorate analysis by ion chromatography.  

PubMed

Perchlorate is a stable anion that has been introduced into the environment through activities related to its production and use as a solid rocket propellant. Perchlorate is thought to transport through soils without being adsorbed; thus, for determination of perchlorate in soil, samples are typically extracted with water prior to analysis. The completeness of extraction depends on perchlorate existing as a free ion within the soil matrix. In this study, perchlorate extraction efficiency was evaluated with five soil types under two different oxygen states. For each soil, 30% (w/w) slurries were prepared and equilibrated under either oxic or anoxic conditions prior to spiking with a stock solution of sodium perchlorate, and the slurries were then maintained for 1-week or 1-month. At the end of the exposure, slurries were centrifuged and separated into aqueous and soil phases. After phase separation, the soil was washed first with deionized water and then with 50mM NaOH, producing second and third aqueous phases, respectively. Perchlorate concentrations in the three aqueous phases were determined using ion chromatography. The results obtained from this study suggest that matrix interference and signal suppression due to high conductivity have greater effects upon observed perchlorate concentrations by ion chromatography than does perchlorate interaction with soil. Thus, a single water extraction is sufficient for quantitative determination of perchlorate in soil. PMID:17092539

MacMillan, Denise K; Dalton, Shana R; Bednar, Anthony J; Waisner, Scott A; Arora, Prem N

2006-11-07

400

Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the ALE Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Reach National Monument consists of several units, one of which is the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) Unit. This unit is approximately 311 km2 of shrub-steppe habitat located to the south and west of Highway 240. To fulfill internal U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Historical soil monitoring conducted on ALE indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the Authorized Limits. However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the ALE Unit were below the Authorized Limits. This report contains the results of 50 additional soil samples. The 50 soil samples collected from the ALE Unit all had concentrations of radionuclides far below the Authorized Limits. The average concentrations for all detectable radionuclides were less than the estimated Hanford Site background. Furthermore, the maximum observed soil concentrations for the radionuclides included in the Authorized Limits would result in a potential annual dose of 0.14 mrem assuming the most probable use scenario, a recreational visitor. This potential dose is well below the DOE 100-mrem per year dose limit for a member of the public. Spatial analysis of the results indicated no observable statistically significant differences between radionuclide concentrations across the ALE Unit. Furthermore, the results of the biota dose assessment screen, which used the ResRad Biota code, indicated that the concentrations of radionuclides in ALE Unit soil pose no significant health risk to biota.

Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

2007-04-01

401

Sequential extraction analysis of lead in Michigan roadside soils: Mobilization in the vadose zone by deicing salts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequential extraction analysis was used to characterize the geochemical partitioning of Pb in roadside soils of the Detroit, MI area. Four soil profiles (10, 30, 60, and 100 m from road) were sampled at 15?cm intervals to a depth of 75 cm at each of five locations along an urban?rural transect. The observed concentrations increase with increasing traffic volume and

Jeffrey L. Howard; James E. Sova

1993-01-01

402

NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--ANALYSIS OF SOIL FOR ARSENIC (RTI/ACS-AP-209-123)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this protocol is to provide guidelines for the analysis of soil samples for arsenic. This method involves the extraction of the analyte from soil samples using a 50% ultra-pure nitric acid, and subsequent analysis by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrome...

403

[Application of wavelet packet analysis in estimating soil parameters based on NIR spectra].  

PubMed

Using the method of wavelet analysis, the NIR spectra of soil samples were decomposed and reconstructed, and higher precision PLS models were established to estimate soil parameter (TN, SOM). One hundred fifty soil samples were collected from a winter wheat field and the NIR spectra of all samples were measured. Firstly, experiment statistic features were analyzed aiming at all soil samples, and the system clustering was carried out for TN and SOM respectively. Then 50 new TN samples and their corresponding spectra, and 50 new SOM samples and their corresponding spectra were obtained. Secondly, the PLS models were established with these new samples based on their corresponding spectra. The models showed a certain amount of accuracy, but it was still not practical. Therefore, wavelet analysis of NIR spectra was tried. The wavelet packet decomposing by eight-level biorthogonal algorithm was carried out, and 256 nodes were gotten. The lowest approximation signal is corresponding to soil moisture and soil texture spectrum trend. The maximal detail signal is corresponding to the high-frequency turbulence caused by the soil particle size, precision of spectrometer, and other uncertainties. After reconstructing these two nodes and then removed from the original spectra, the characteristic spectra corresponding to each soil parameter were acquired. Finally, the PLS models were established for TN and SOM content respectively: for TN content, the calibration coefficient of the PLS model is 0.960, the validation coefficient is 0.920; and for SOM content, the calibration coefficient of the PLS model is 0.922, and the validation coefficient is 0.883. It was showed that the accuracy of each model was highly improved and the models were able to meet the needs of actual production. The research results conclude that wavelet analysis can eliminate or substantially reduce the factors outside the parameters. It can also remove the obstacles in establishing linear models of soil parameters, and it is feasible and potential method for the real-time estimation of soil parameters. PMID:19810528

Zheng, Li-Hua; Li, Min-Zan; Pan, Luan; Sun, Jian-Ying; Tang, Ning

2009-06-01

404

Gene expression analysis reveals a gene set discriminatory to different metals in soil.  

PubMed

Environmental pollution is a worldwide problem, and metals are the largest group of contaminants in soil. Microarray toxicogenomic studies with ecologically relevant organisms, such as springtails, supplement traditional ecotoxicological research but are presently rather descriptive. Classifier analysis, a more analytical application of the microarray technique, is able to predict biological classes of unknown samples. We used the uncorrelated shrunken centroid method to classify gene expression profiles of the springtail Folsomia candida exposed to soil spiked with six different metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, lead, and zinc). We identified a gene set (classifier) of 188 genes that can discriminate between six different metals present in soil, which allowed us to predict the correct classes for samples of an independent test set with an accuracy of 83% (error rate = 0.17). This study shows further that in order to apply classifier analysis to actual contaminated field soil samples, more insight and information is needed on the transcriptional responses of soil organisms to different soil types (properties) and mixtures of contaminants. PMID:20133373

Nota, Benjamin; Verweij, Rudo A; Molenaar, Douwe; Ylstra, Bauke; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick

2010-02-04

405

Tank 241-TY-103 rotary core sampling and analysis  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two rotary-mode core samples from tank 241-TY-103

Jo, J.

1995-10-30

406

Tank 241-BY-105 rotary core sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two rotary-mode core samples from tank 241-BY-105 (BY-105).

Sasaki, L.M.

1995-10-26

407

Tank 241BY105 rotary core sampling and analysis plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two rotary-mode core samples from tank 241-BY-105 (BY-105).

1995-01-01

408

RISK ANALYSIS OF TCDD CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper provides a methodology for estimating the human exposure and cancer risk associated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD contaminated soil. Five exposure pathways are addressed: dust inhalation, fish ingestion, dermal absorption, soil ingestion, and beef/dairy products ingestion. For eac...

409

Single particle analysis of suspended soil dust from Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single particle analysis of soil dust has been performed using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The presence of crustal elements is observed in the mass spectra of individual particles. Aluminum and iron constitute the two most commonly detected cations. Other common cations observed in the mass spectra of soil particles include sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, titanium, and barium, and also lithium

Philip J Silva; Richard A Carlin; Kimberly A Prather

2000-01-01

410

Temporal moments analysis of preferential solute transport in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal moments analysis of solute breakthrough curves is used to investigate the preferential leaching of chloride, nitrate and phosphate through an Australian soil. Recent studies have shown that current models and methods do not adequately describe the leaching of nutrients through soil, often underestimating the risk of groundwater contamination by surface-applied chemicals, and overestimating the concentration of resident solutes. This

F. Stagnitti; G. Allinson; M. Morita; M. Nishikawa; H. Il; T. Hirata

2000-01-01

411

Improved Soil Model for One-Dimensional Pile Driving Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The soil model used for wave equation analysis of pile driving has undergone little development since it was introduced by E.A.L. Smith over 25 years ago. Research efforts have concentrated on improving estimates of the required soil parameters, the limit...

M. F. Randolph H. A. Simons

1985-01-01

412

Integrated Tool for System Analysis of Sample Return Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The next important step in space exploration is the return of sample materials from extraterrestrial locations to Earth for analysis. Most mission concepts that return sample material to Earth share one common element: an Earth entry vehicle. The analysis...

J. A. Samareh R. G. Winski R. W. Maddock

2012-01-01

413

Natural and artificial radionuclide measurements and radioactivity assessment of soil samples in eastern Sichuan province (China).  

PubMed

The activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were measured in the eastern region of Sichuan province (China). One hundred and ninety-three soil samples from this region were collected and analysed by high-purity germanium gamma spectrometry. The measured results show that the average radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the soil samples are 26, 49, 440 and 6 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The calculated average radium equivalent activity is 130 Bq kg(-1), which is less than the recommended limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). The absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose are 60 nGy h(-1) and 74 µSv, respectively. This is the first time the absorbed dose rate in the east region of Sichuan has been mapped. Overall, the environmental radiation background is greater in the southern part of the area studied than in the northern. PMID:22128351

Wang, Zhonghai; He, Jun; Du, Yu; He, Yang; Li, Zhiqian; Chen, Zhihua; Yang, Chaowen

2011-11-28

414

Detection of VX contamination in soil through solid-phase microextraction sampling and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the VX degradation product bis(diisopropylaminoethyl)disulfide.  

PubMed

A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) sampling and analysis method was developed for bis(diisopropylaminoethyl)disulfide (a degradation product of the nerve agent VX) in soil. A 30-min sampling time with a polydimethylsiloxane-coated fiber and high temperature alkaline hydrolysis allowed detection with 1.0 microg of VX spiked per g of agricultural soil. The method was successfully used in the field with portable GC-MS instrumentation. This method is relatively rapid (less than 1 h), avoids the use of complex preparation steps, and enhances analyst safety through limited use of solvents and decontamination of the soil before sampling. PMID:12735457

Hook, Gary L; Kimm, Gregory; Koch, David; Savage, Paul B; Ding, Bangwei; Smith, Philip A

2003-04-11

415

Speciation of mobile arsenic in soil samples as a function of pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (as As2O5)-contaminated soil samples collected from wood-preservative plants were extracted at pH 1–13 and analyzed by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The extraction conditions were chosen to simulate the pH changes occurring in the environmental waters or pH changes due to acidic or basic accidental leaks, in order to provide information about the mobile arsenic species in the

Mari Pantsar-Kallio; Pentti K. G. Manninen

1997-01-01

416

Insights into bacterial cellulose biosynthesis by functional metagenomics on Antarctic soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the mining of an Antarctic soil sample by functional metagenomics allowed the isolation of a cold-adapted protein (RBcel1) that hydrolyzes only carboxymethyl cellulose. The new enzyme is related to family 5 of the glycosyl hydrolase (GH5) protein from Pseudomonas stutzeri (Pst_2494) and does not possess a carbohydrate-binding domain. The protein was produced and purified to homogeneity. RBcel1

Renaud Berlemont; Maud Delsaute; Delphine Pipers; Salvino D'Amico; Georges Feller; Moreno Galleni; Pablo Power

2009-01-01

417

Psychrometric measurement of soil water potential: Stability of calibration and test of pressure-plate samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercially available thermocouple psychrometer sample changer (Decagon SC-10A) was used to measure the water potential of field soils ranging in texture from sand to silty clay loam over a range of -0.5 to -20.0 MPa. The standard error of prediction based on regression statistics was generally between 0.04 and 0.14 MPa at -5 MPa. Replacing the measuring junction of

T. L. Jones; G. W. Gee; P. R. Heller

1990-01-01

418

Residues of 1-naphthol in soil and water samples in and around Bhopal, India  

SciTech Connect

Carbaryl, a methyl carbamate insecticide, is known for its wide application and low mammalian toxicity. The use of carbaryl in tropical agriculture is of recent origin and the degradation pattern of carbaryl in tropical environment is, thus very scantly. The present report therefore deals with the residues of 1-naphthol present in soil and water samples collected in and around Bhopal, India where carbaryl was commercially produced on large scale for more than a decade.

Dikshith, T.S.S.; Kumar, S.N.; Raizada, R.B.; Srivastava, M.K.; Ray, P.K. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1990-01-01

419

Geoestatistical analysis of soil properties in the South of Alicante: soil salinity.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern coast of Alicante province (southeast of Spain) was largely occupied by a large lagoon until the eighteenth century when drainage infrastructures were built to turn much of the wetlands into irrigated farmlands. This area has a semiarid Mediterranean climate and the shortage of sufficient quality water for irrigation is a serious problem for agriculture and wetland maintenance. This study analyzes the spatial distribution of soil properties and their relationship with land-covers by the use of geostatistics and geographical information systems (GIS) as a tool for land-reclamation and management. A field campaign was conducted and 98 soil samples were collected and spatially referenced with a GPS. Soils of the study area are Calcic Fluvisols according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB, 2006). Soil samples were air dried at room temperature and sieve at 2mm (soil fraction to be analysed). Four soil properties were analysed: 1) electrical conductivity (EC) (1:5 w/v water extraction), 2) pH, 3) equivalent carbonates (Porta et al., 1986), and 4) soil organic matter (SOM) by wet chemical oxidation (Walkley and Black, 1934) with potassium dichromate oxidation (Nelson and Sommers, 1982). Geostatistics was used to model the spatial distribution of soil properties. The convex hull of soil samples was used to delimit the area to map. Semivariograms were applied to study the spatial pattern of the four soil properties and ordinary Kriging was used to predict their spatial distribution. Descriptive statistics (mean ± standard deviation) showed that in general terms the soils studied was moderately saline (2.44 ± 0.32 dS×m-1), with a basic pH (8.22 ± 0.32), low soil organic matter content (1.41 ± 0.37 %) and abundant equivalent carbonates (46.1 ± 4.3 %). Electrical conductivity, pH and SOM properties were significantly correlated according with the Pearson bivariate correlation test (with P4 dS×m-1) or non-saline (EC

Melendez-Pastor, I.; Ayguadé, H.; Lag, A.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Gomez, I.

2010-05-01

420

Screening of pesticide residues in soil and water samples from agricultural settings  

PubMed Central

Background The role of agricultural practices in the selection of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors has so far been hypothesized without clear evidence. Many mosquito species, Anopheles gambiae in particular, lay their eggs in breeding sites located around agricultural settings. There is a probability that, as a result of farming activities, insecticide residues may be found in soil and water, where they exercise a selection pressure on the larval stage of various populations of mosquitoes. To confirm this hypothesis, a study was conducted in the Republic of Benin to assess the environmental hazards which can be generated from massive use of pesticides in agricultural settings. Methods Lacking an HPLC machine for direct quantification of insecticide residues in samples, this investigation was performed using indirect bioassays focussed on the study of factors inhibiting the normal growth of mosquito larvae in breeding sites. The speed of development was monitored as well as the yield of rearing An. gambiae larvae in breeding sites reconstituted with water and soil samples collected in agricultural areas known to be under pesticide pressure. Two strains of An. gambiae were used in this indirect bioassay: the pyrethroid-susceptible Kisumu strain and the resistant Ladji strain. The key approach in this methodology is based on comparison of the growth of larvae in test and in control breeding sites, the test samples having been collected from two vegetable farms. Results Results obtained clearly show the presence of inhibiting factors on test samples. A normal growth of larvae was observed in control samples. In breeding sites simulated by using a few grams of soil samples from the two vegetable farms under constant insecticide treatments (test samples), a poor hatching rate of Anopheles eggs coupled with a retarded growth of larvae and a low yield of adult mosquitoes from hatched eggs, was noticed. Conclusion Toxic factors inhibiting the hatching of anopheles eggs and the growth of larvae are probably pesticide residues from agricultural practices. Samples used during this indirect assay have been stored in the laboratory and will be analysed with HPLC techniques to confirm hypothesis of this study and to identify the various end products found in soil and water samples from agricultural settings under pesticide pressure.

Akogbeto, Martin C; Djouaka, Rousseau F; Kinde-Gazard, Dorothee A

2006-01-01

421

Sampling and analysis plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105 KW fuel storage basin  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan describes the equipment,procedures and techniques for obtaining gas and liquid samples from sealed K West fuel canisters. The analytical procedures and quality assurance requirements for the subsequent laboratory analysis of the samples are also discussed.

Trimble, D.J.

1996-08-09

422

Sampling and analysis plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105 KW fuel storage basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Sampling and Analysis Plan describes the equipment,procedures and techniques for obtaining gas and liquid samples from sealed K West fuel canisters. The analytical procedures and quality assurance requirements for the subsequent laboratory analysis of the samples are also discussed.

Trimble

1996-01-01

423

Soil Hydraulic Parameter Estimation and Analysis of Flow Paths under Evaporation in undisturbed Soil Columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, spatial heterogeneity has an important impact on the local and effective soil hydraulic properties. Hence, one of the objectives of this study was to determine the effective soil hydraulic parameters of a highly heterogeneous, undisturbed soil sample using the evaporation method in combination with inverse modeling. Therefore, pressure heads, water contents, and the weight loss of an undisturbed soil column in course of an evaporation experiment were measured. The inverse estimation of the soil hydraulic parameters was performed using the HYDRUS-1D software package in combination with a global optimization algorithm SCE-UA. Most reported studies for soil hydraulic parameter estimation in soil column experiments used either pressure heads or water contents in the inverse routine. In this study, three scenarios were performed. Initially, only the pressure heads were used in the objective function, in the second scenario only the water content measurements were used to constrain the optimization, and in the third scenario both information from water content and pressure head readings were considered. As result three different soil hydraulic parameter sets were obtained which show strong differences. Including only pressure head or water content data would yield in serious misinterpretation of the effective soil hydraulic parameters of the soil monolith. The second objective of this study was to mark the flow paths of a Brilliant Blue solution in a heterogeneous soil monolith under evaporation conditions. As a result the Brilliant Blue solution preferentially flowed upwards close to the column wall. According to the fact that tracer experiments under evaporation conditions were rarely performed, this study shows that border effects have to be considered in further research.

Bartsch, S.; Bechtold, M.; Weihermüller, L.; Vereecken, H.

2009-04-01

424

Techniques for geothermal liquid sampling and analysis  

SciTech Connect

A methodology has been developed that is particularly suited to liquid-dominated resources and adaptable to a variety of situations. It is intended to be a base methodology upon which variations can be made to meet specific needs or situations. The approach consists of recording flow conditions at the time of sampling, a specific insertable probe sampling system, a sample stabilization procedure, commercially available laboratory instruments, and data quality check procedures.

Kindle, C.H.; Woodruff, E.M.

1981-07-01

425

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of dioxins in contaminated sediment and soil samples  

PubMed Central

A 96-microwell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was evaluated to determine PCDDs/PCDFs in sediment and soil samples from an EPA Superfund site. Samples were prepared and analyzed by both the ELISA and a gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) method. Comparable method precision, accuracy, and detection level (8 ng kg?1) were achieved by the ELISA method with respect to GC/HRMS. However, the extraction and cleanup method developed for the ELISA requires refinement for the soil type that yielded a waxy residue after sample processing. Four types of statistical analyses (Pearson correlation coefficient, paired t-test, nonparametric tests, and McNemar’s test of association) were performed to determine whether the two methods produced statistically different results. The log-transformed ELISA-derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin values and logtransformed GC/HRMS-derived TEQ values were significantly correlated (r = 0.79) at the 0.05 level. The median difference in values between ELISA and GC/HRMS was not significant at the 0.05 level. Low false negative and false positive rates (<10%) were observed for the ELISA when compared to the GC/HRMS at 1000 ng TEQ kg?1. The findings suggest that immunochemical technology could be a complementary monitoring tool for determining concentrations at the 1000 ng TEQ kg?1 action level for contaminated sediment and soil. The ELISA could also be used in an analytical triage approach to screen and rank samples prior to instrumental analysis.

Van Emon, Jeanette M.; Chuang, Jane C.; Lordo, Robert A.; Schrock, Mary E.; Nichkova, Mikaela; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

2010-01-01

426

SAMPLE PREPARATION FOR TRACE ANALYSIS BY CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of trace analytes in complex natural matrices often requires extensive sample extraction and preparation prior to chromatographic analysis. Correct sample preparation can reduce analysis time, sources of error, enhance sensitivity, and enable unequivocal identification, confirmation, and quantification. This overview considers general aspects on sample preparation techniques for trace analysis in various matrices. The discussed extraction\\/enrichment techniques cover classical

Romeo-Iulian Olariu; Davide Vione; Nelu Grinberg; Cecilia Arsene

2010-01-01

427

40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-08 Section 600.112-08...Procedures § 600.112-08 Exhaust sample analysis. The exhaust sample analysis must be performed according to § 86.140,...

2011-07-01

428

40 CFR 600.112-78 - Exhaust sample analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-78 Section 600.112-78...Procedures § 600.112-78 Exhaust sample analysis. The exhaust sample analysis must be performed according to § 86.140...

2011-07-01

429

Colling Wipe Samples for VX Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides uniform procedures for the collection of wipe samples of VX residues from surfaces. Personnel may use this procedure to collect and handle wipe samples in the field. Various surfaces, including building materials (wood, metal, tile, vinyl, etc.) and equipment, may be sampled based on this procedure. The purpose of such sampling is to determine whether or not the relevant surfaces are contaminated, to determine the extent of their contamination, to evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination procedures, and to determine the amount of contaminant that might present as a contact hazard.

Koester, C; Hoppes, W G

2010-02-11

430

Optimization of matrix solid-phase dispersion conditions for organic fungicides determination in soil samples.  

PubMed

A simplified sample preparation method, based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion technique, is proposed for the sensitive determination of 15 organic fungicides in vineyard soils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Under final working conditions, sieved samples (0.5 g) were blended and dispersed with 2 g of C18 and transferred to a polypropylene syringe containing 1 g of diatomaceous earth. Analytes were recovered using 10 mL of ethyl acetate, this extract was concentrated to 1 mL and fungicides determined by GC-MS, without additional cleanup. The method provided recoveries in the range from 74 to 122% for soils with total carbon contents up to 5.5% and it allowed the use of external standard as quantification technique. Inter-day precision, given as relative standard deviations, stayed between 3 and 13%, and the limits of quantification were comprised between 0.6 and 15 ng g(-1). Several fungicides were found in the top layer of vineyard soils with the highest detection frequency and maximum concentration corresponding to iprovalicarb. Some real samples were also submitted to pressurized liquid extraction. Measured concentrations were in excellent agreement with those obtained by matrix solid-phase dispersion, which reinforces the accuracy of the latter methodology. PMID:22532354

Carpinteiro, Inmaculada; Casado, Jorge; Rodríguez, Isaac; Ramil, María; Cela, Rafael

2012-04-01

431

Tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer demonstration sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) is the primary document describing field and laboratory activities and requirements for the tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer (CP) demonstration. It is written in accordance with Hanford Tank Initiative Tank 241-AX-104 Upper Vadose Zone Demonstration Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999). This technology demonstration, to be conducted at tank 241-AX-104, is being performed by the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) Project as a part of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval Program (EM-30) and the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) Tanks Focus Area. Sample results obtained as part of this demonstration will provide additional information for subsequent revisions to the Retrieval Performance Evaluation (RPE) report (Jacobs 1998). The RPE Report is the result of an evaluation of a single tank farm (AX Tank Farm) used as the basis for demonstrating a methodology for developing the data and analyses necessary to support making tank waste retrieval decisions within the context of tank farm closure requirements. The RPE includes a study of vadose zone contaminant transport mechanisms, including analysis of projected tank leak characteristics, hydrogeologic characteristics of tank farm soils, and the observed distribution of contaminants in the vadose zone in the tank farms. With limited characterization information available, large uncertainties exist as to the nature and extent of contaminants that may exist in the upper vadose zone in the AX Tank Farm. Traditionally, data has been collected from soils in the vadose zone through the installation of boreholes and wells. Soil samples are collected as the bore hole is advanced and samples are screened on site and/or sent to a laboratory for analysis. Some in-situ geophysical methods of contaminant analysis can be used to evaluate radionuclide levels in the soils adjacent to an existing borehole. However, geophysical methods require compensation for well casing interference and soil moisture content and may not be successful in some conditions. In some cases the level of interference must be estimated due to uncertainties regarding the materials used in well construction and soil conditions, Well casing deployment used for many in-situ geophysical methods is relatively expensive and geophysical methods do not generally provide real time values for contaminants. In addition, some of these methods are not practical within the boundaries of the tank farm due to physical constraints, such as underground piping and other hardware. The CP technologies could facilitate future characterization of vadose zone soils by providing vadose zone data in near real-time, reducing the number of soil samples and boreholes required, and reducing characterization costs.

FIELD, J.G.

1999-02-02

432

Extrapolating regional soil landscapes from an existing soil map: Sampling intensity, validation procedures, and integration of spatial context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to investigate the potential of using soil-landscape pattern extracted from a soil map to predict soil distribution at unvisited location. Recent machine learning advances used in previous studies showed that the knowledge embedded within soil units delineated by experts can be retrieved and explicitly formulated from environmental data layers However, the extent to which the models can

Clovis Grinand; Dominique Arrouays; Bertrand Laroche; Manuel Pascal Martin

2008-01-01

433

Relationship between Hydrological Parameters and Induced Polarization Spectra of Soil Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems concerning groundwater renewal, surface runoff, and agricultural questions are examples where soil hydraulic properties are relevant. Soil hydraulic properties describe the relationships between the state properties water content, capillary pressure, and hydraulic conductivity in partially water saturated soils. To obtain these properties for an area by soil hydrologic measurement techniques is time-consuming. Furthermore, the information gained is valid only for the vicinity of the investigated location. Geophysical methods offer a relatively quick way to get areal information. Geoelectrical measurements are most suitable for this purpose due to the correlation between electrical resistivity and properties like pore fluid conductivity and water saturation. Measuring complex resistivity instead of direct current resistivity yields the additional information of the quadrature component of resistivity, which is expected to correlate with properties of the interface between the pore fluid and the solid matrix. The spectral induced polarization (SIP) is a common geoelectrical method to investigate complex resistivity for a defined frequency range. The amplitude of the complex resistivity and the phase angle between real and imaginary part of resistivity are recorded for frequencies from 0.01 Hz to 100 Hz. The understanding of the correlation between complex electrical and hydraulic properties is essential for a successful application of the SIP method to hydrological problems. Therefore, laboratory SIP measurements and hydrologic Multi-Step-Outflow (MSO) experiments were performed on different soil samples. The investigated material include sand with a narrow grain size distribution as well as real soil samples from different locations in the vicinity of Braunschweig. The SIP measurements were performed at first on samples fully saturated with a sodium-chloride solution. The fluid conductivity is approximately 20 mS/m. Later, additional SIP spectra were recorded at different desaturation states. From the measured SIP spectra the mean relaxation time and the total chargeability were derived by application of the Deybe decomposition approach. After finishing all SIP measurements, the samples were re-saturated completely to perform the MSO experiments to obtain the retention curves and hydraulic conductivity functions. The parameters of the functions were then compared with the mean relaxation time and the total chargeability, respectively, to find correlations between the electrical and hydrological properties.

Nordsiek, S.; Durner, W.; Hoerdt, A.; Diamantopoulos, E.

2011-12-01

434

Aplicacion de la espectrometria de alta resolucion de rayos x precedida por la activacion neutronica al analisis elemental de suelos. (Application of high resolution x-ray spectrometry preceded by neutron activation for elemental analysis of soil samples).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Utilization of High Resolution X-Ray Spectrometry preceded by activation of the samples by irradiation with neutron fluxes (NAA(sub R)X) is a relatively modern trend in application of nuclear techniques. This method may complement advantageously the usual...

A. Hernandez Rivero G. Capote Rodriguez E. Herrera Peraza

1996-01-01

435

Analysis of volatile-phase transport in soils using natural radon gas as a tracer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a field study of soil gas transport processes using radon gas as a naturally occurring tracer. The experiment monitored soil gas radon activity, soil moisture, and soil temperature at depth; barometric pressure, rainfall, and wind speed were monitored at the soil surface. Linear and multiple regression analysis under natural environmental conditions are influenced by soil moisture content,

C. Chen; D. M. Thomas

1994-01-01

436

Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 95. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during FY 95 to characterize possible radionuclide movement out of Area G through surface water and entrained sediment runoff. Soil samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. The single-stage water samples were analyzed for tritium and plutonium isotopes. All radiochemical data was compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and 94 and reported in LA-12986 and LA-13165-PR. Six surface soils were also submitted for metal analyses. These data were included with similar data generated for soil samples collected during FY 94 and compared with metals in background samples collected at the Area G expansion area.

Childs, M.; Conrad, R.

1997-09-01

437

Analysis of Data from Complex Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Oversampling and cluster sampling must be addressed when analyzing complex sample data. This study: (a) compares parameter estimates when applying weights versus not applying weights; (b) examines subset selection issues; (c) compares results when using standard statistical software (SPSS) versus specialized software (AM); and (d) offers…

Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.

2006-01-01

438

Rapid sampling of metals for chemical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic blanking (a shearing technique) has been applied to the sampling of irradiated Zr-2.5% Nb reactor tubes for hydrogen determination. The tube walls were typically 5 mm thick. Values for determination of hydrogen sampled by this technique and by the conventional techniques of slow-speed diamond impregnated cutoff wheel and hacksaw agreed very well.

J. H. van der Kuur; D. R. Weisenberg

1983-01-01

439

Problems in sample treatment in trace analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important parts of any analytical procedure is the initial decomposition of the sample. Not only must the sample matrix be dissolved but the element sought must be converted reliably to the proper ionic form before chemical reactions characteristic of that element can be obtained. Fusion with molten potassium fluoride is one of the simplest and most

Sill

1976-01-01

440

Organic geochemical screening analysis of outcrop samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present report lists results of Rock-Eval/TOC screening pyrolysis of a number of outcrop samples collected at various sites in Poland. The analyses were carried out following the guidelines. A total of 57 samples were analysed. Total Organic Carbon Co...

J. A. Bojesen-Koefoed

1996-01-01

441

ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SAMPLES FOR METALS UPTAKE  

EPA Science Inventory

Grass samples were collected from the Contrary Creek/D. Boyd Smith reclamation project of the Virginia Water Quality Control Board and the Anvil Points mine treatment experimental facility. Fish samples were collected from the EPA's mine water treatment experimental facility's sl...

442