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1

REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF HETEROGENEOUS SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Standard sampling and analysis methods for hazardous substances in contaminated soils currently are available and routinely employed. Standard methods inherently assume a homogeneous soil matrix and contaminant distribution; therefore only small sample quantities typically are p...

2

Analysis of large soil samples for actinides  

DOEpatents

A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

Maxwell, III; Sherrod L. (Aiken, SC)

2009-03-24

3

COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR SOIL VOC ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Data published by numerous researchers over the last decade demonstrate that there is a high degree of spatial variability in the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil at contaminated waste sites. This phenomenon is confounded by the use of a small sample aliqu...

4

SOIL SAMPLE COLLECTION AND HANDLING FOR VOLATILE ORGANICS ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The guidance document will detail the Region I EPA New England requirements for the collection of soil samples for volatile organics analysis by SW-846, Method 5035. The guidance will describe the project planning process for the collection of soil samples for volatile organics ...

5

INNOVATIONS IN SOIL SAMPLING AND DATA ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Successful research outcomes from the VOC in soils work will provide the Agency with methods and techniques that provide the accurate VOC concentrations so that decisions related to a contaminated site can be made to optimize the protectiveness to the environment and human health...

6

Mercury Source Zone Identification using Soil Vapor Sampling and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Development and demonstration of reliable measurement techniqes that can detect and help quantify the nature and extent of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in the subsurface are needed to reduce certainties in the decision making process and increase the effectiveness of remedial actions. We conducted field tests at the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC) in Oak Ridge, TN, to determine if sampling and analysis of Hg(0) vapors in the shallow subsurface (<0.3 m depth) can be used to as an indicator of the location and extent of Hg(0) releases in the subsurface. We constructed a rigid PVC pushprobe assembly, which was driven into the ground. Soil gas samples were collected through a sealed inner tube of the assembly and analyzed immediately in the field with a Lumex and/or Jerome Hg(0) analyzer. Time-series sampling showed that Hg vapor concentrations were fairly stable over time suggesting that the vapor phase Hg(0) was not being depleted and that sampling results were not dependent on the soil gas purge volume. Hg(0) vapor data collected at over 200 pushprobe locations at 3 different release sites correlated well to areas of known Hg(0) contamination. Vertical profiling of Hg(0) vapor concentrations conducted at 2 locations provided information on the vertical distribution of Hg(0) contamination in the subsurface. We concluded from our studies that soil gas sampling and analysis can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively at a large scale to help identify areas contaminated with Hg(0).

Watson, David B [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL] [ORNL; Lester, Brian P [ORNL] [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL] [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL] [ORNL; Bogle, Mary Anna [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Pierce, Eric M [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

7

Soil Core Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about one method used in environmental site assessments. They practice soil sampling by creating soil cores, studying soil profiles and characterizing soil profiles in borehole logs. They use their analysis to make predictions about what is going on in the soil and what it might mean to an engineer developing the area.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

8

Determining Bulk Density of Different Soil Samples and Data Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity combines field exercise soil collection with lab analysis of soil bulk density. Students develop a lab procedure to measure density and analyze data using Microsoft Excel computer software.

Leslie Kreller, Warroad High School, Warroad, MN, based on an activity from the MnSTEP Summer Chemistry Institute (2007).

9

NEW SOIL VOC SAMPLERS: EN CORE AND ACCU CORE SAMPLING/STORAGE DEVICES FOR VOC ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core{reg_sign} sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. An ASTM International (ASTM) standard practice, D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, describes use of the En Core sampler to collect and store a soil sample of approximately 5 grams or 25 grams for volatile organic analysis and specifies sample storage in the En Core sampler at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours; -7 to -21 C for up to 14 days; or 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -7 to -21 C for up to five days. This report discusses activities performed during the past year to promote and continue acceptance of the En Core samplers based on their performance to store soil samples for VOC analysis. The En Core sampler is designed to collect soil samples for VOC analysis at the soil surface. To date, a sampling tool for collecting and storing subsurface soil samples for VOC analysis is not available. Development of a subsurface VOC sampling/storage device was initiated in 1999. This device, which is called the Accu Core{trademark} sampler, is designed so that a soil sample can be collected below the surface using a dual-tube penetrometer and transported to the laboratory for analysis in the same container. Laboratory testing of the current Accu Core design shows that the device holds low-level concentrations of VOCs in soil samples during 48-hour storage at 4 {+-} 2 C and that the device is ready for field evaluation to generate additional performance data. This report discusses a field validation exercise that was attempted in Pennsylvania in 2004 and activities being performed to plan and conduct a field validation study in 2006. A draft ASTM practice describing use of the Accu Core sampler is being prepared. An update on the status of the ASTM practice is given in this report.

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr

2006-06-01

10

ANALYSIS OF SULFUR IN SOIL, PLANT AND SEDIMENT MATERIALS: SAMPLE HANDLING AND USE OF AN AUTOMATED ANALYZER  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods for analyzing soil, vegetation and sediment samples for total S and handling soil samples for analysis of S constituents were examined. ECO automated total S anelyzer (SC-132) was used for the analysis of vegetation, sediments and soil samples. esults from the LECO analyz...

11

Laboratory and Airborne BRDF Analysis of Vegetation Leaves and Soil Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory-based Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) analysis of vegetation leaves, soil, and leaf litter samples is presented. The leaf litter and soil samples, numbered 1 and 2, were obtained from a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza: 25.0degS, 31.5degE). A third soil sample, number 3, was obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20degS, 15.93degE, alt. 1100 m). In addition, BRDF of local fresh and dry leaves from tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and acacia tree (Acacia greggii) were studied. It is shown how the BRDF depends on the incident and scatter angles, sample size (i.e. crushed versus whole leaf,) soil samples fraction size, sample status (i.e. fresh versus dry leaves), vegetation species (poplar versus acacia), and vegetation s biochemical composition. As a demonstration of the application of the results of this study, airborne BRDF measurements acquired with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the soil and leaf litter samples were obtained are compared to the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory and airborne measured BRDF is reported.

Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

2008-01-01

12

The use of Vacutainer tubes for collection of soil samples for helium analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of the helium concentration of soil samples collected and stored in Vacutainer-brand evacuated glass tubes show that Vacutainers are reliable containers for soil collection. Within the limits of reproducibility, helium content of soils appears to be independent of variations in soil temperature, barometric pressure, and quantity of soil moisture present in the sample.

Hinkle, Margaret E.; Kilburn, James E.

1979-01-01

13

EXTRACTION OF BERYLLIUM-10 FROM SOIL BY FUSION This method is used to separate Be from soil and sediment samples, for AMS analysis. After adding  

E-print Network

EXTRACTION OF BERYLLIUM-10 FROM SOIL BY FUSION Summary This method is used to separate Be from soil and sediment samples, for AMS analysis. After adding Be carrier, the sample is fused with KHF2. Be is extracted from the fusion cake with hot water. K is removed by precipitation, the sample is dried to expel

Stone, John

14

Analysis of technetium-99 in soil and deposition samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99 in soil and deposition samples (containing rain and dry fallout) collected in Japan were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In this study, two preliminary experiments were also performed; one was to check Tc loss in a soil sample during incineration using two different soil types, and the other was to measure the interference with the count

K. Tagami; S. Uchida

1996-01-01

15

Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith  

DOEpatents

A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allows an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds. 11 figures.

Thompson, C.V.

1991-02-05

16

Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith  

DOEpatents

A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allow an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds.

Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN)

1991-01-01

17

IN SITU NON-INVASIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS: SAMPLE SIZE AND GEOSTATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS.  

SciTech Connect

I discuss a new approach for quantitative carbon analysis in soil based on INS. Although this INS method is not simple, it offers critical advantages not available with other newly emerging modalities. The key advantages of the INS system include the following: (1) It is a non-destructive method, i.e., no samples of any kind are taken. A neutron generator placed above the ground irradiates the soil, stimulating carbon characteristic gamma-ray emission that is counted by a detection system also placed above the ground. (2) The INS system can undertake multielemental analysis, so expanding its usefulness. (3) It can be used either in static or scanning modes. (4) The volume sampled by the INS method is large with a large footprint; when operating in a scanning mode, the sampled volume is continuous. (5) Except for a moderate initial cost of about $100,000 for the system, no additional expenses are required for its operation over two to three years after which a NG has to be replenished with a new tube at an approximate cost of $10,000, this regardless of the number of sites analyzed. In light of these characteristics, the INS system appears invaluable for monitoring changes in the carbon content in the field. For this purpose no calibration is required; by establishing a carbon index, changes in carbon yield can be followed with time in exactly the same location, thus giving a percent change. On the other hand, with calibration, it can be used to determine the carbon stock in the ground, thus estimating the soil's carbon inventory. However, this requires revising the standard practices for deciding upon the number of sites required to attain a given confidence level, in particular for the purposes of upward scaling. Then, geostatistical considerations should be incorporated in considering properly the averaging effects of the large volumes sampled by the INS system that would require revising standard practices in the field for determining the number of spots to be sampled. It is highly desirable to assess properly the sampled volume for reporting the absolute value of the measured carbon. At the same time, increasing the number of detectors surrounding the NG can reduce error propagation. In the present work, only the volume irradiated by the neutrons was estimated. It should be pointed that the carbon yield is also affected by the neutron energy spectrum that changes with depth. Thus, all these considerations must be considered carefully when evaluating the detectors' configuration and the resulting counting efficiency. In summary, INS system is a novel approach for non-destructive carbon analysis in soil with very unique features. It should contribute in assessing soil carbon inventories and assist in understanding belowground carbon processes. The complexity of carbon distribution in soil requires a special attention when calibrating the INS system, and a consensus developed on the most favorable way to report carbon abundance. Clearly, this will affect the calibration procedures.

WIELOPOLSKI, L.

2005-04-01

18

Curiosity analyzes Martian soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Mars Curiosity rover has conducted its first analysis of Martian soil samples using multiple instruments, the agency announced at a 3 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. “These results are an unprecedented look at the chemical diversity in the area,” said NASA's Michael Meyer, program scientist for Curiosity.

Showstack, Randy; Balcerak, Ernie

2012-12-01

19

Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Evaluation of Residual Chromium Contamination in the Subsurface Soil at 100-C-7  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) provides the requirements for sample collection and laboratory analysis to evaluate the extent of hexavalent chromium contamination present in the soil below the 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1 remedial action waste site excavations.

W. S. Thompson

2007-02-15

20

PU and NP analysis of soil and sediment samples with ICP-MS.  

PubMed

A method to analyse Pu and Np was optimised to achieve low detection limits and high sample throughput. Soil and sediment samples were ashed and digested with a borate fusion. After dissolving the melt in nitric acid, Pu and Np were separated on a TEVA extraction chromatopraphy column. It was measured with a sector field ICP-MS. Detection limits in soils and sediments as low as 1x10(-15)g/g for Pu and Np were achieved. The method was applied to reference materials, soil profiles from Switzerland and sediment samples from the river Yenisei (RU), where radioactive nuclides have been discharged. PMID:19231225

Röllin, S; Sahli, H; Holzer, R; Astner, M; Burger, M

2009-05-01

21

ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND DUST SAMPLES FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)  

EPA Science Inventory

An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in house dust and soil. Soil and house dust samples were analyzed for PCB by both gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and ELISA methods. A correlati...

22

Static headspace analysis of volatile organic compounds in soil and vegetation samples for site characterization.  

SciTech Connect

Traditional methodologies for the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in subsurface soil are expensive, time-consuming processes that are often conducted on samples collected at random. The determination of VOCs in near-surface soils and vegetation is the foundation for a more efficient sampling strategy to characterize subsurface soil and improve understanding of environmental problems. In the absence of a standard methodology for the determination of VOCs in vegetation and in view of the high detection limits of the method for soils, we developed a methodology using headspace gas chromatography with an electron capture detector for the determination of low levels (parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion) of VOCs in soils and vegetation. The technique demonstrates good sensitivity, good recoveries of internal standards and surrogate compounds, good performance, and minimal waste. A case study involving application of this technique as a first-step vadose-zone characterization methodology is presented.

Alvarado, J. S.; Rose, C. M.; Environmental Research

2004-01-09

23

Sampling and analysis plan for Mount Plant D & D soils packages, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

There are currently 682 containers of soils in storage at Mound Plant, generated between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program sites. These areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building area. The soils from these areas are part of Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. The sealed waste packages, constructed of either wood or metal, are currently being stored in Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound facility. At a meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada on October, 26, 1990, DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE-NV) and NTS representatives requested that the Mound Plant D&D soils proposed for shipment to NTS be sampled for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) constituents. On December 14, 1990, DOE-NV also requested that additional analyses be performed on the soils from one of the soils boxes for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), particle size distribution, and free liquids. The purpose of this plan is to document the proposed sampling and analyses of the packages of D&D soils produced prior to October 31, 1990. In order to provide a thorough description of the soils excavated from the WTS and SM areas, sections 1.1 and 1.2 provide historical Information concerning the D&D soils, including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data.

NONE

1991-02-01

24

STATISTICAL SAMPLING AND DATA ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Research is being conducted to develop approaches to improve soil and sediment sampling techniques, measurement design and geostatistics, and data analysis via chemometric, environmetric, and robust statistical methods. Improvements in sampling contaminated soil and other hetero...

25

Express method of gamma-ray analysis of the soil blocks which have been sampled without a disturbance of the turf layer  

E-print Network

This paper presents method of gamma-analysis of the soil patterns sampled soon after of nuclear accident. The method does not require of sample preparation and intends for analysis of the soil samples with a non-homogeneous distribution of activity at the depth. Technique of calibration of the detector efficiency is considered, that have been used when soil blocks sampling by means of the non-disturbance method (by rings) after Chernobyl accident were measured.

E. G. Tertyshnik; S. M. Vakulovsky

2012-03-05

26

Soil sampling and 137Cs analysis of the Chernobyl fallout in Greece.  

PubMed

A total of 1242 samples of soil, collected over Greece, during the period May-November 1986, were counted and analysed for 137Cs from Chernobyl fallout. The counting was performed using a NaI detector on-line to a microcomputer, moreover, 252 of the samples were also analysed using Ge detectors, for inter-comparison and also for the assessment of other long-lived isotopes in the fallout. The results show that 137Cs fallout from Chernobyl presents a remarkable geographical variability. The evaluated ground activity due to 137Cs deposition ranges between 0.01 and 137 kBq/m2. PMID:2551859

Simopoulos, S E

1989-01-01

27

Sampling Martian Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists were using the Moessbauer spectrometer on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit when something unexpected happened. The instrument's contact ring had been placed onto the ground as a reference point for placement of another instrument, the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, for analyzing the soil. After Spirit removed the Moessbauer from the target, the rover's microscopic imager revealed a gap in the imprint left behind in the soil. The gap, about a centimeter wide (less than half an inch), is visible on the left side of this mosaic of images. Scientists concluded that a small chunk of soil probably adhered to the contact ring on the front surface of the Moessbauer. Before anyone saw that soil may have adhered to the Moessbauer, that instrument was placed to analyze martian dust collected by a magnet on the rover. The team plans to take images to see if any soil is still attached to the Moessbauer. Spirit took these images on the rover's 240th martian day, or sol (Sept. 4, 2004).

2004-01-01

28

Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology  

DOEpatents

Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation uses encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration. 1 fig.

Dahlgran, J.R.

1999-08-17

29

Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology  

SciTech Connect

Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation are described using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

Dahlgran, James R.

1997-12-01

30

Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology  

DOEpatents

Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

Dahlgran, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

31

Compost Analysis Samples provided by the Soil, Water and Forage Testing Laboratory at Texas A&M, 2003  

E-print Network

Compost Analysis Samples provided by the Soil, Water and Forage Testing Laboratory at Texas A ppm ppm % % dS/m Dairy Manure Compost 0.6171 .2680 1.4345 3.5041 .2737 .4371 319.7 249.1 33.53 173.1 30.0 16.02 9.3 1.280 Dairy Manure Compost 1.0704 .3866 2.4949 6.7455 .5472 .7320 155.6 381.5 47

Mukhtar, Saqib

32

Sampling Soil for Characterization and Site Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sampling scheme for soil characterization within the GLOBE program is uniquely different from the sampling methods of the other protocols. The strategy is based on an understanding of the 5 soil forming factors (parent material, climate, biota, topography, and time) at each study site, and how each of these interact to produce a soil profile with unique characteristics and unique input and control into the atmospheric, biological, and hydrological systems. Soil profile characteristics, as opposed to soil moisture and temperature, vegetative growth, and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions, change very slowly, depending on the parameter being measured, ranging from seasonally to many thousands of years. Thus, soil information, including profile description and lab analysis, is collected only one time for each profile at a site. These data serve two purposes: 1) to supplement existing spatial information about soil profile characteristics across the landscape at local, regional, and global scales, and 2) to provide specific information within a given area about the basic substrate to which elements within the other protocols are linked. Because of the intimate link between soil properties and these other environmental elements, the static soil properties at a given site are needed to accurately interpret and understand the continually changing dynamics of soil moisture and temperature, vegetation growth and phenology, atmospheric conditions, and chemistry and turbidity in surface waters. Both the spatial and specific soil information can be used for modeling purposes to assess and make predictions about global change.

Levine, Elissa

1999-01-01

33

The sorption of sulfamethazine on soil samples: isotherms and error analysis.  

PubMed

In this paper, batch sorption of sulfamethazine on eight soil samples (six from Croatia and two from Bosnia and Hercegovina) with different organic matter contents ranging from 1.52 to 12.8% was investigated. The effects of various parameters such as agitation time, initial concentration, and ionic strength on the sulfamethazine sorption were studied. The experimental data were analysed using a one-parameter model, Linear isotherm, and two two-parameter models, the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The goodness of fit was measured using the linear regression and the determination coefficient (R(2)) value. Also, the equilibrium data of the two-parameter models were analysed using the residual root mean square error (RMSE), the sum of squares of errors (ERRSQ), and a composite fractional error function (HYBRID). Non-linear regression has better characteristics for analysing experimental data. The obtained sorption coefficients Kd (from 0.25 to 8.10 mL/g) and the Freundlich sorption coefficients KF (from 1.16 to 7.99 (?g/g)(mL/?g)(1/n)) exhibited quite low values, which indicated that sulfamethazine is weakly adsorbed on the evaluated soils, is highly mobile, and has a great potential to penetrate and pollute the ground water. The Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was used to estimate the apparent free energy of sorption. PMID:25163651

Mutavdži? Pavlovi?, Dragana; ?urkovi?, Lidija; Blažek, Dijana; Župan, Josip

2014-11-01

34

Soil-gas sampling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for soil-gas sampling is described, comprising: (a) at least one passive vapor collector comprising an assembly which contains sorbent materials, and (b) a means for protecting, inserting and retrieving the vapor collector from in-ground locations comprising at least one liquid water penetration resistant vapor-permeable porous flexible expanded polytetrafluoroethylene containers which encloses the passive vapor collector (a).

Bailey, C.E.; Stutman, M.B.

1993-08-17

35

Analysis of soil samples for chemical warfare agents: Canadian contribution to a multinational round-robin analytical exercise. Memorandum report  

SciTech Connect

VX and two VX related compounds, diethyl methylphosphonate and bis(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl) disulfide, were confirmed at the 2 to 40 micrograms/gram level as the principal components in three of four soil samples distributed by Finland as part of a multinational round robin exercise designed to evaluate laboratory methodologies. Several other compounds related to VX, were also identified in extracts of the soil samples. Keywords: Gas chromatography, Canada, Soil samples, Diethyl methylphosphonate, Mass spectrometry, Bis(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl) disulfide, Bioassay, Defence research establishment suffield(dres), VX, Military chemical agents, International relations, Neuron, Tissue culture, Chemical agent detection.

D'Agostino, P.A.; Provost, L.R.; Sawyer, T.W.; Weiss, M.T.

1990-04-01

36

MCNP ESTIMATE OF THE SAMPLED VOLUME IN A NON-DESTRUCTIVE IN SITU SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS.  

SciTech Connect

Global warming, promoted by anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emission into the atmosphere, is partially mitigated by the photosynthesis processes of the terrestrial echo systems that act as atmospheric CO{sub 2} scrubbers and sequester carbon in soil. Switching from till to no till soils management practices in agriculture further augments this process. Carbon sequestration is also advanced by putting forward a carbon ''credit'' system whereby these can be traded between CO{sub 2} producers and sequesters. Implementation of carbon ''credit'' trade will be further promulgated by recent development of a non-destructive in situ carbon monitoring system based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Volumes and depth distributions defined by the 0.1, 1.0, 10, 50, and 90 percent neutron isofluxes, from a point source located at either 5 or 30 cm above the surface, were estimated using Monte Carlo calculations.

WIELOPOLSKI, L.; DIOSZEGI, I.; MITRA, S.

2004-05-03

37

Field Book for Describing and Sampling Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This field guide is useful for making or reading soil and site descriptions. The major sections address soil profile description, geomorphology, geology, soil taxonomy, soil map symbols, and field sampling strategies. Rock charts and timescales are provided to help with soil identification.

2008-07-02

38

Analysis of Mars analogue soil samples using solid-phase microextraction, organic solvent extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are robust and abundant molecules in extraterrestrial environments. They are found ubiquitously in the interstellar medium and have been identified in extracts of meteorites collected on Earth. PAHs are important target molecules for planetary exploration missions that investigate the organic inventory of planets, moons and small bodies. This study is part of an interdisciplinary preparation phase to search for organic molecules and life on Mars. We have investigated PAH compounds in desert soils to determine their composition, distribution and stability. Soil samples (Mars analogue soils) were collected at desert areas of Utah in the vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), in the Arequipa region in Peru and from the Jutland region of Denmark. The aim of this study was to optimize the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for fast screening and determination of PAHs in soil samples. This method minimizes sample handling and preserves the chemical integrity of the sample. Complementary liquid extraction was used to obtain information on five- and six-ring PAH compounds. The measured concentrations of PAHs are, in general, very low, ranging from 1 to 60 ng g-1. The texture of soils is mostly sandy loam with few samples being 100 % silt. Collected soils are moderately basic with pH values of 8-9 except for the Salten Skov soil, which is slightly acidic. Although the diverse and variable microbial populations of the samples at the sample sites might have affected the levels and variety of PAHs detected, SPME appears to be a rapid, viable field sampling technique with implications for use on planetary missions.

Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; Foing, B. H.; Kanik, I.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

2011-07-01

39

Estimation of uncertainty in the sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil in Brighton, UK.  

PubMed

The heterogeneity of environmental samples is increasingly recognised, yet rarely examined in organic contamination investigations. In this study soil samples from an ex-landfill site in Brighton, UK were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination by using a balanced sampling protocol. The analytical technique of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was found to be fit for purpose by the use of duplicate samples and the statistical analysis of variances, as well as of certified reference materials. The sampling uncertainty was found to significantly overweigh the analytical uncertainty, by a factor of 3 and 6 for PCBs and PAHs, respectively. The soil samples showed a general trend of PCB concentration that was under the recommended target level of 20 ng/g dry weight. It is possible that one site alongside the main road may exceed the 20 ng/g target level, after taking into consideration the overall measurement uncertainty (70.8%). The PAH contamination was more severe, with seven sites potentially exceeding the effect-range medium concentrations. The soil samples with relatively high PCB and PAH concentrations were all taken from the grass verge, which also had the highest soil organic carbon content. The measurement uncertainty which was largely due to sampling can be reduced by sampling at a high resolution spacing of 17 m, which is recommended in future field investigations of soil organic contamination. PMID:25128886

Zhou, John L; Siddiqui, Ertan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

2014-11-01

40

Homeowner Soil Sample Information Form  

E-print Network

Texas AgriLife Extension Service County Office or Soil, Water and Forage Testing Laboratory Phone: 979-845-4816 Texas AriLife Extension Service Soil, Water & Forage Testing Laboratory Room 343 Soil & Crop Sciences ? Heep Center 2474 TAMU... Texas AgriLife Extension Service County Office or Soil, Water and Forage Testing Laboratory Phone: 979-845-4816 Texas AriLife Extension Service Soil, Water & Forage Testing Laboratory Room 343 Soil & Crop Sciences ? Heep Center 2474 TAMU...

Provin, Tony

2007-04-11

41

Development of a gas chromatography compatible Sample Processing System (SPS) for the in-situ analysis of refractory organic matter in martian soil: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission a new sample preparation system (SPS) compatible with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC MS) has been developed for the in situ analysis of complex organic molecules in the Martian soil. The goal is to detect, if they exist, some of the key compounds that play an important role in life on Earth including carboxylic acids, amino acids and nucleobases. Before analysis by GC MS, all the targeted refractory compounds trapped in the soil sample must be extracted and chemically transformed (derivatization). The extraction is carried out in a two step process which requires the separation and evaporation of the extraction solvent in order to concentrate the organic compounds of interest. To improve the compatibility of the technique for spaceflight a one step procedure is performed using only a thermal processing for the extraction step. These two extraction methods are followed by a derivatization step which uses MTBSTFA (N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide). The sample preparation methods have been tested on “spiked” soil and on Atacama Desert soil coming from the aridest part of the desert located in Chile. All the targeted compounds have been detected by these two procedures, demonstrating the applicability of the technique for in-situ analysis. The one step procedure has been successfully tested on Atacama soil samples with a laboratory pilot reactor, developed for this study, within representative space operating conditions.

Buch, A.; Sternberg, R.; Szopa, C.; Freissinet, C.; Garnier, C.; Bekri, El J.; Rodier, C.; Navarro-González, R.; Raulin, F.; Cabane, M.; Stambouli, M.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.

2009-01-01

42

Validation of a New Soil VOC Sampler: Revision of ASTM Practice D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, and Development of a Subsurface Sampling/Storage Device for VOC Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core{reg_sign} sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. An American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard practice, D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, describes use of the En Core sampler to collect and store a soil sample of approximately 5 grams or 25 grams for volatile organic analysis. To support the ASTM practice, a study was performed to estimate the precision of the performance of the 5-gram and 25-gram En Core samplers to store soil samples spiked with low concentrations of VOCs. This report discusses revision of ASTM Practice D 6418 to include information on the precision of the En Core devices and to reference an ASTM research report on the precision study. This report also discusses revision of the ASTM practice to list storage at -12 {+-} 2 C for up to 14 days and at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -12 {+-} 2C for up to 5 days as acceptable conditions for samples stored in the En Core devices. Data supporting use of these storage conditions are given in an appendix to the practice and are presented in the research report referenced for the precision study. Prior to this revision, storage in the device was specified at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours. The En Core sampler is designed to collect soil samples for VOC analysis at the soil surface. To date, a sampling tool for collecting and storing subsurface soil samples for VOC analysis does not exist. Development of a subsurface VOC sampling/storage device was initiated in 1999. This device, which is called the Accu Core sampler, is designed so that a soil sample can be collected below the surface using a penetrometer and transported to the laboratory for analysis in the same container. During the past year, prototype devices have been tested for their performance in storing soil samples containing low concentrations of VOCs. The Accu Core sampler testing is also described in this report.

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani

2003-09-15

43

Soil Sampling Techniques For Alabama Grain Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characterizing the spatial variability of nutrients facilitates precision soil sampling. Questions exist regarding the best technique for directed soil sampling based on a priori knowledge of soil and crop patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate zone delineation techniques for Alabama grain fields to determine which method best minimized the soil test variability. Site one (25.8 ha) and site three (20.0 ha) were located in the Tennessee Valley region, and site two (24.2 ha) was located in the Coastal Plain region of Alabama. Tennessee Valley soils ranged from well drained Rhodic and Typic Paleudults to somewhat poorly drained Aquic Paleudults and Fluventic Dystrudepts. Coastal Plain s o i l s ranged from coarse-loamy Rhodic Kandiudults to loamy Arenic Kandiudults. Soils were sampled by grid soil sampling methods (grid sizes of 0.40 ha and 1 ha) consisting of: 1) twenty composited cores collected randomly throughout each grid (grid-cell sampling) and, 2) six composited cores collected randomly from a -3x3 m area at the center of each grid (grid-point sampling). Zones were established from 1) an Order 1 Soil Survey, 2) corn (Zea mays L.) yield maps, and 3) airborne remote sensing images. All soil properties were moderately to strongly spatially dependent as per semivariogram analyses. Differences in grid-point and grid-cell soil test values suggested grid-point sampling does not accurately represent grid values. Zones created by soil survey, yield data, and remote sensing images displayed lower coefficient of variations (8CV) for soil test values than overall field values, suggesting these techniques group soil test variability. However, few differences were observed between the three zone delineation techniques. Results suggest directed sampling using zone delineation techniques outlined in this paper would result in more efficient soil sampling for these Alabama grain fields.

Thompson, A. N.; Shaw, J. N.; Mask, P. L.; Touchton, J. T.; Rickman, D.

2003-01-01

44

Determination of chemical warfare agents in soil and material samples: Gas chromatographic analysis of phenylarsenic compounds (sternutators) (1st communication).  

PubMed

A gas Chromatographic method for the determination of phenylarsenic compounds (sternutators) and their metabolites in soil and material samples is described. The chemical warfare agents (CWA), but not their hydrolysis and oxidation products, can be detected with GC/ECD. After derivatization with thiols or dithiols, the sum of diphenylarsenic and phenylarsenic compounds can be determined with GC/ECD. The comparison of the analytical results with and without derivatization shows that the sternutators in the investigated samples are metabolized in part. PMID:19002393

Haas, R; Krippendorf, A

1997-01-01

45

Sampling Martian Soil (3-D)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

Scientists were using the Moessbauer spectrometer on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit when something unexpected happened. The instrument's contact ring had been placed onto the ground as a reference point for placement of another instrument, the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, for analyzing the soil. After Spirit removed the Moessbauer from the target, the rover's microscopic imager revealed a gap in the imprint left behind in the soil. The gap, about a centimeter wide (less than half an inch), is visible on the left side of this stereo view. Scientists concluded that a small chunk of soil probably adhered to the contact ring on the front surface of the Moessbauer. Before anyone saw that soil may have adhered to the Moessbauer, that instrument was placed to analyze martian dust collected by a magnet on the rover. The team plans to take images to see if any soil is still attached to the Moessbauer. Spirit took these images on the rover's 240th martian day, or sol (Sept. 4, 2004).

Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

2004-01-01

46

Geochemical analysis of soils and sediments, Coeur d'Alene drainage basin, Idaho: sampling, analytical methods, and results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

(Fe), manganese (Mn), arsenic (As), and cadmium (Cd). In general inter-laboratory correlations are better for samples within the compositional range of the Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Analyses by EWU are the most accurate relative to the NIST standards (mean recoveries within 1% for Pb, Fe, Mn, and As, 3% for Zn and 5% for Cd) and are the most precise (within 7% of the mean at the 95% confidence interval). USGS-EDXRF is similarly accurate for Pb and Zn. XRAL and ACZ are relatively accurate for Pb (within 5-8% of certified NIST values), but were considerably less accurate for the other 5 elements of concern (10-25% of NIST values). However, analyses of sample splits by more than one laboratory reveal that, for some elements, XRAL (Pb, Mn, Cd) and ACZ (Pb, Mn, Zn, Fe) analyses were comparable to EWU analyses of the same samples (when values are within the range of NIST SRMs). These results suggest that, for some elements, XRAL and ACZ dissolutions are more effective on the matrix of the CdA samples than on the matrix of the NIST samples (obtained from soils around Butte, Montana). Splits of CdA samples analyzed by CHEMEX were the least accurate, yielding values 10-25% less than those of EWU.

Box, Stephen E.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Ikramuddin, Mohammed; Lindsay, James

2001-01-01

47

Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: species, stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10° C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present, but typically at low levels.

Wolf, Ruth E.; Morman, Suzette A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

2011-01-01

48

Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: species stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates.  

PubMed

An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10 °C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present, but typically at low levels. PMID:21837467

Wolf, Ruth E; Morman, Suzette A; Hageman, Philip L; Hoefen, Todd M; Plumlee, Geoffrey S

2011-11-01

49

Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: Species stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10 ??C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present, but typically at low levels. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

Wolf, R.E.; Morman, S.A.; Hageman, P.L.; Hoefen, T.M.; Plumlee, G.S.

2011-01-01

50

Alternative Sample Preparation of Soils for Gamma Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Standard laboratory procedures for preparation of soil samples for analysis by gamma spectroscopy typically utilize drying and grinding. Drying of soil samples can be accomplished using an oven for 8 to 16 hours or by air for several days or weeks. Dried samples are then sieved and / or ground to facilitate homogenization. The sample preparation process for soils adds significant time for analysis by gamma spectroscopy as the actual analysis is normally on the order of 1 hour or less. An alternative approach has been developed that significantly reduces sample preparation time for soil samples and that provides comparable results to those obtained by the standard method. The alternative approach utilizes a moisture analyzer to determine the percent moisture in each individual sample, which takes 15 to 45 minutes for each sample. The actual weight of the sample is then corrected by the percent moisture in order to report the results on the equivalent dry weight. This is especially important for samples that are for decision making associated with field activities where time is of the essence. This alternative sample preparation approach provides fast and efficient sample preparation of soils for gamma spectroscopy without reducing data quality or imparting bias. (authors)

Downey, H.T. [MACTEC, Portland, ME (United States); Jung, P.; Scarborough, R. [Sevenson Environmental Services, Niagara Falls, NY (United States)

2008-07-01

51

Soils âField Characterization, Collection, and Laboratory Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Field characterization of soil profiles in coniferous and deciduous settings; sample collection of soils from different horizons; laboratory analysis of soil moisture, soil organic carbon (by loss on ignition), and grain size distribution (by sieving)

Biswas, Abir

52

Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley Floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. In addition to this SAP, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19&D2) presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation.

NONE

1995-03-01

53

SOIL SAMPLING QUALITY ASSURANCE USER'S GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The inherent inseparability of a cost-effective Soil Sampling Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) Plan from the objectives of a soil monitoring program is emphasized. Required precisions and confidence levels for the data cannot be defined until the decisions which will be ...

54

Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. It is an addendum to a previously issued document, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19&D2), which presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation. The strategy presented in the SAP is to divide the investigation into three component parts: a large-scale characterization of the floodplain; a fine-scale characterization of the floodplain beginning with a known contaminated location; and a stream sediment characterization. During the large-scale and the fine-scale characterizations, soil and biota samples (i.e., small mammals, earthworms, and vegetation) will be collected in order to characterize the nature and extent of floodplain soil contamination and the impact of this contamination on floodplain biota. The fine-scale characterization will begin with an investigation of a site corresponding to the location noted in the Remedial Investigation Work Plan (ES/ER-19&D2) as an area where uranium and PCBs are concentrated in discrete strata. During this fine-scale characterization, a 1 m deep soil profile excavation will be dug into the creek berm, and individual soil strata in the excavation will be screened for alpha radiation, PCBs, and VOCs. After the laboratory analysis results are received, biota samples will be collected in the vicinity of those locations.

NONE

1994-11-01

55

Sampling for Chemical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review, designed to make analysts aware of uncertainties introduced into analytical measurements during sampling, is organized under these headings: general considerations; theory; standards; and applications related to mineralogy, soils, sediments, metallurgy, atmosphere, water, biology, agriculture and food, medical and clinical areas, oil…

Kratochvil, Byron; And Others

1984-01-01

56

Groundwater Sampling and Soil Gas Data Analysis, Distler Brickyard Superfund Site, Hardin County, Kentucky -- June - August 2000  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of groundwater and soil gas sampling conducted at the Distler Brickyard Site, Hardin County, Kentucky, June-August, 2000. The purpose of the sampling activities was to address remaining data gaps regarding the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) for remediation of chloroethene/ane contamination. Specifically, data gaps fall into four categories: 1) effect of seasonal recharge on contaminant concentrations, 2) geochemical conditions in the Fine Grained Alluvium (FGA), 3) conditions along the flowpath between Wells GW-11 and MW-3, and 4) the extent of aerobic degradation in the Coarse Grained Alluvium (CGA). A data collection strategy composed of both groundwater sampling and passive soil vapor sampling devices (Gore-Sorbers?) was used. The Gore-Sorber? technology was used to collect data from the FGA, which because of its low hydraulic conductivity and variable saturation makes collection of groundwater samples problematic. Gore-Sorbers were deployed in 15 wells, most of them being in the FGA, and groundwater samples were collected in 17 wells, which were mostly in the CGA. Both sampling methods were utilized in a subset of wells (7) in order to determine the general comparability of results obtained from each method. Results indicate that water levels in both the FGA and CGA were higher in June-August 2000 than in October 1999, likely due to increased infiltration of precipitation through the FGA during the wetter months. Redox conditions in the FGA and downgradient CGA were iron-reducing, less reducing than in October-1999. In general, concentrations of chloroethenes/anes were higher in June-August 2000 than October 1999. Trichloroethene (TCE) was present at concentrations as high as 65 µg/L in the FGA and 19 µg/L in the CGA. This is substantially higher than the maximum concentration in October 1999 of 11 µg/L. The following conclusions were drawn from these data collection activities: 1) two potential contaminant source areas remain at the site, 2) redox conditions are less reducing than October 1999, 3) anaerobic reductive dechlorination (ARD) continues to take place in the FGA, and 4) seasonal fluctuations in recharge affect water levels, redox conditions, contaminant concentrations, and ARD reactions. Possible final remedial response actions include 1) monitored natural attenuation, 2) monitored natural attenuation with physical source removal, or 3) monitored natural attenuation with source removal via enhanced ARD. All of these remedies will require the collection of additional data in three areas: 1) the nature and extent of the GW-3/UDBW-11 source area and the flux rate and fate of contaminants from it, 2) the magnitude and timing of recharge fluctuations, and 3) the local hydraulic gradient and groundwater flow directions. Each remedy may also have specific additional data collection requirements. This document will serve as the basis for the selection of the appropriate remedy by the state and federal regulators.

Martin, Jennifer Pauline; Peterson, Lance Nutting; Taylor, C. J.

2000-11-01

57

Simple pretreatment procedure combined with gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/mass spectrometry for the analysis of dioxins in soil samples obtained after the T?hoku earthquake.  

PubMed

A simple pretreatment procedure was developed for the analysis of dioxins in soil samples using gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sample was subjected to a pressurized liquid extraction procedure, followed by separation using a pair of Sulfoxide and Ag-ION columns for cleanup. Due to the high selectivity of laser ionization, the procedure was simplified and the time required for an analysis was decreased to 3 h. The sample collected after the earthquake and tsunami contained relatively high concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs. This simple and rapid pretreatment procedure can be useful for monitoring the environment to prevent unexpected exposure of toxic dioxins for the workers who have to process more than 20 million tons of the wastes in a few years. PMID:23199015

Chang, Yu-Ching; Imasaka, Totaro

2013-01-01

58

Carbon and Sulfur Isotopic Composition of Rocknest Soil as Determined with the Sample Analysis at Mars(SAM) Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover got its first taste of solid Mars in the form of loose, unconsolidated materials (soil) acquired from an aeolian bedform designated Rocknest. Evolved gas analysis (EGA) revealed the presence of H2O as well as O-, C- and S-bearing phases in these samples. CheMin did not detect crystalline phases containing these gaseous species but did detect the presence of X-ray amorphous materials. In the absence of definitive mineralogical identification by CheMin, SAM EGA data can provide clues to the nature and/or mineralogy of volatile-bearing phases through examination of temperatures at which gases are evolved from solid samples. In addition, the isotopic composition of these gases, particularly when multiple sources contribute to a given EGA curve, may be used to identify possible formation scenarios and relationships between phases. Here we report C and S isotope ratios for CO2 and SO2 evolved from Rocknest soil samples as measured with SAM's quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS).

Franz, H. B.; McAdam, C.; Stern, J. C.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Sutter, B.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Jones, J. H.; Leshin, L. A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Niles, P. B.; Owen, T. C.; Raaen, E.; Steele, A.; Webster, C. R.

2013-01-01

59

A soil sampling intercomparison exercise for the ALMERA network.  

PubMed

Soil sampling and analysis for radionuclides after an accidental or routine release is a key factor for the dose calculation to members of the public, and for the establishment of possible countermeasures. The IAEA organized for selected laboratories of the ALMERA (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) network a Soil Sampling Intercomparison Exercise (IAEA/SIE/01) with the objective of comparing soil sampling procedures used by different laboratories. The ALMERA network is a world-wide network of analytical laboratories located in IAEA member states capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. Ten ALMERA laboratories were selected to participate in the sampling exercise. The soil sampling intercomparison exercise took place in November 2005 in an agricultural area qualified as a "reference site", aimed at assessing the uncertainties associated with soil sampling in agricultural, semi-natural, urban and contaminated environments and suitable for performing sampling intercomparison. In this paper, the laboratories sampling performance were evaluated. PMID:19713017

Belli, Maria; de Zorzi, Paolo; Sansone, Umberto; Shakhashiro, Abduhlghani; Gondin da Fonseca, Adelaide; Trinkl, Alexander; Benesch, Thomas

2009-11-01

60

Non-destructive Analysis of Oil-Contaminated Soil Core Samples by X-ray Computed Tomography and Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry: a Case Study.  

PubMed

Non-destructive measurements of contaminated soil core samples are desirable prior to destructive measurements because they allow obtaining gross information from the core samples without touching harmful chemical species. Medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) and time-domain low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry were applied to non-destructive measurements of sandy soil core samples from a real site contaminated with heavy oil. The medical CT visualized the spatial distribution of the bulk density averaged over the voxel of 0.31?×?0.31?×?2 mm(3). The obtained CT images clearly showed an increase in the bulk density with increasing depth. Coupled analysis with in situ time-domain reflectometry logging suggests that this increase is derived from an increase in the water volume fraction of soils with depth (i.e., unsaturated to saturated transition). This was confirmed by supplementary analysis using high-resolution micro-focus X-ray CT at a resolution of ?10 ?m, which directly imaged the increase in pore water with depth. NMR transverse relaxation waveforms of protons were acquired non-destructively at 2.7 MHz by the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence. The nature of viscous petroleum molecules having short transverse relaxation times (T2) compared to water molecules enabled us to distinguish the water-saturated portion from the oil-contaminated portion in the core sample using an M(0)-T2 plot, where M(0) is the initial amplitude of the CPMG signal. The present study demonstrates that non-destructive core measurements by medical X-ray CT and low-field NMR provide information on the groundwater saturation level and oil-contaminated intervals, which is useful for constructing an adequate plan for subsequent destructive laboratory measurements of cores. PMID:21258437

Nakashima, Yoshito; Mitsuhata, Yuji; Nishiwaki, Junko; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Utsuzawa, Shin; Jinguuji, Motoharu

2011-01-01

61

Data analysis of the 1984 and 1986 soil sampling programs at Materials Disposal Area T in the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An environmental surveillance program for Materials Disposal Area T (MDA-T) at Los Alamos, New Mexico is described. The waste-use history of this disposal site is described, followed by a description of the materials and methods used to analyze data from two surface soil radionuclide sampling programs performed at this disposal site. The disposal site`s physical features are related to the spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration contours in an attempt to evaluate radionuclide migration mechanisms in and around the site. The usefulness of the data analysis efforts is evaluated and recommendations are made for future studies.

Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.

1993-09-01

62

PARTICULATE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter provides information needed to ensure that sampling and data analysis are well done. It discusses sampling and analysis associated with mass tests using EPA Test Methods 5 and 17 and particle size distribution tests conducted with cascade impactors. All steps in the s...

63

Cyclic strength of stratified soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a laboratory testing program on the influence of stratification on cyclic strength of soil samples. Reference undrained cyclic triaxial tests were conducted on fine Ottawa sand samples and a much finer silica silt sample. Both samples were prepared by pluviation under water. Undrained cyclic triaxial tests conducted on stratified sand-silt samples revealed that layering induced a much lower cyclic resistance than that developed in either of the materials. Differential pore pressure generation in each soil unit suggest that water migration occurred from the sand layer to the silt layer and caused this strength reduction. The experimental data have significant implication for field conditions, especially for submarine slopes.

Konrad, J.-M.; Dubeau, S.

2003-04-01

64

Radiochemical procedures for analysis of Pu, Am, Cs and Sr in water, soil, sediments and biota samples  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Radioactivity Analysis Laboratory (ERAL) was established as an analytical facility. The primary function of ERAL is to provide fast and accurate radiological data of environmental samples. Over the years, many radiochemical procedures have been developed by the staffs of ERAL. As result, we have found that our procedures exist in many different formats and in many different notebooks, documents and files. Therefore, in order to provide for more complete and orderly documentation of the radiochemical procedures that are being used by ERAL, we have decided to standardize the format and compile them into a series of reports. This first report covers procedures we have developed and are using for the radiochemical analysis of Pu, Am, Cs, and Sr in various matrices. Additional analytical procedures and/or revisions for other elements will be reported as they become available through continuation of these compilation efforts.

Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Noshkin, V.E.

1994-02-01

65

Automatic Collection of Rock and Soil Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed machine would sample rock or soil automatically. Mounted on a wheeled or tracked vehicle, machine positions drill for cut at any angle from horizontal to vertical, moves power head to drive drill into cut, and stores drilled core in a container. New concept may also be useful in terrestrial agricultural and geologic surveys.

Kyrias, G. M.

1982-01-01

66

Optimizing Soil Moisture Sampling Locations for Validation Networks for SMAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite (SMAP) is scheduled for launch on Oct 2014. Global efforts are underway for establishment of soil moisture monitoring networks for both the pre- and post-launch validation and calibration of the SMAP products. In 2012 the SMAP Validation Experiment, SMAPVEX12, took place near Carman Manitoba, Canada where nearly 60 fields were sampled continuously over a 6 week period for soil moisture and several other parameters simultaneous to remotely sensed images of the sampling region. The locations of these sampling sites were mainly selected on the basis of accessibility, soil texture, and vegetation cover. Although these criteria are necessary to consider during sampling site selection, they do not guarantee optimal site placement to provide the most efficient representation of the studied area. In this analysis a method for optimization of sampling locations is presented which combines the state-of-art multi-objective optimization engine (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, NSGA-II), with the kriging interpolation technique to minimize the number of sampling sites while simultaneously minimizing the differences between the soil moisture map resulted from the kriging interpolation and soil moisture map from radar imaging. The algorithm is implemented in Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools, which is a multi-platform open-source GIS. The optimization framework is subject to the following three constraints:. A) sampling sites should be accessible to the crew on the ground, B) the number of sites located in a specific soil texture should be greater than or equal to a minimum value, and finally C) the number of sampling sites with a specific vegetation cover should be greater than or equal to a minimum constraint. The first constraint is implemented into the proposed model to keep the practicality of the approach. The second and third constraints are considered to guarantee that the collected samples from each soil texture categories or vegetation cover types are statistically meaningful. The proposed model is applied to the radar images from the Passive Active L-band System (PALS) collected during (SMAPVEX12). SMAPVEX12 lasted for 47 days, during which soil moisture varied significantly. The proposed model was applied to all of the collected images (17 images) during this time span. Optimized sampling site characteristics will be analyzed with surface characteristics and the trade off between the number of samples and estimated sampling error examined.

Roshani, E.; Berg, A. A.; Lindsay, J.

2013-12-01

67

forEnvironmentalManagementofMilitaryLands Guide to Sampling Soil  

E-print Network

off-road when soils are excessively wet. Soil compaction is most often characterized by changesforEnvironmentalManagementofMilitaryLands Guide to Sampling Soil Compaction Using Hand-Held Soil Fort Collins, CO 80523-1490 January 2004 #12;#12;1 Guide to Sampling Soil Compaction Using Hand

68

Tree Fertilization Soil Analysis  

E-print Network

Tree Fertilization #12;Soil Analysis vs. Foliar Analysis #12;Macronutrients N P K Mg S Ca N/ "DBH Timing ­ water availability -- spring and fall #12;Application Techniques Surface broadcast ·Least time ·Simple equipment ·Water thoroughly ·Grass is competition #12;#12;#12;Drill Hole Method

69

General Sample Taking Information Specific directions for collecting soil samples are given on the individual Soil Test Information Forms.  

E-print Network

. · The form and check should NOT be put directly in the bag with wet soil. · There is no need to stapleGeneral Sample Taking Information Specific directions for collecting soil samples are given on the individual Soil Test Information Forms. In general samples should be collected as follows: · The soil sample

New Hampshire, University of

70

Sample Analysis at Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced techniques to carry out Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) and reveal the nature of present or ancient biotic or prebiotic processes are described. The focus is the search for the location and nature of organic molecules and their chemical context in rock, ice, and atmospheric samples.

W. B. Brinckerhoff; P. R. Mahaffy; M. Cabane; S. K. Atreya; P. Coll; T. J. Cornish; D. N. Harpold; G. Israel; H. B. Niemann; T. Owen; F. Raulin

2003-01-01

71

The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization  

SciTech Connect

Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences accounted for almost 87% of the cost difference. The sum of these differences could result in a $34 per acre cost difference for the fertilization. Because of these differences, better analysis or better sampling methods may need to be done, or more samples collected, to ensure that the soil measurements are truly representative of the field’s spatial variability.

R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

2004-07-01

72

Use of passive sampling devices to determine soil contaminant concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The effective remediation of contaminated sites requires accurate identification of chemical distributions. A rapid sampling method using passive sampling devices (PSDs) can provide a thorough site assessment. We have been pursuing their application in terrestrial systems and have found that they increase the ease and speed of analysis, decrease solvent usage and overall cost, and minimize the transport of contaminated soils. Time and cost savings allow a higher sampling frequency than is generally the case using traditional methods. PSDs have been used in the field in soils of varying physical properties and have been successful in estimating soil concentrations ranging from 1 {mu}g/kg (parts per billion) to greater than 200 mg/kg (parts per million). They were also helpful in identifying hot spots within the sites. Passive sampling devices show extreme promise as an analytical tool to rapidly characterize contaminant distributions in soil. There are substantial time and cost savings in laboratory personnel and supplies. By selectively excluding common interferences that require sample cleanup, PSDs can be retrieved from the field and processed rapidly (one technician can process approximately 90 PSDs in an 8-h work day). The results of our studies indicate that PSDs can be used to accurately estimate soil contaminant concentrations and provide lower detection limits. Further, time and cost savings will allow a more thorough and detailed characterization of contaminant distributions. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Johnson, K.A. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Hooper, M.J. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); Weisskopf, C.P. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-12-31

73

GICHD mine dog testing project : soil sample results #5.  

SciTech Connect

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fifth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in June 2003.

Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

2004-01-01

74

GICHD mine dog testing project - soil sample results #4.  

SciTech Connect

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fourth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in April 2003 and Sarajevo, Bosnia collected in May 2003.

Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Wood, Tyson B.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

2003-08-01

75

GICHD Mine Dog Testing Project - Soil Sample Results No.3  

SciTech Connect

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the third batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in October 2002.

PHELAN, JAMES M.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; ARCHULETA, LUISA M.

2003-03-01

76

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS PROTOCOLS  

SciTech Connect

Radiological sampling and analyses are performed to collect data for a variety of specific reasons covering a wide range of projects. These activities include: Effluent monitoring; Environmental surveillance; Emergency response; Routine ambient monitoring; Background assessments; Nuclear license termination; Remediation; Deactivation and decommissioning (D&D); and Waste management. In this chapter, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs at nuclear operating facilities and radiological sampling and analysis plans for remediation and D&D activities will be discussed.

Jannik, T; P Fledderman, P

2007-02-09

77

Soils as samples for the split Hopkinson bar  

SciTech Connect

Soils frequently exhibit one or more of the following characteristics which complicadte analysis of data from split Hopkinson bar tests or make test setup and execution difficult: low wave speed, high attenuation of acoustic energy, or insignificant structural strength. Low wave speed invalidates the assumption that the sample is deformed uniformly by the load at early times; but, use of a Lagrangian wave propagation analysis permits derivation of useful information from the standard suite of data. Use of gauges within the sample would facilitate this technique. High attenuation requires thin samples, which restricts the strain paths which can be achieved. The weakness of noncohesive soils presents difficulties in preparation, handling and control of boundary conditions. One simple solution is to support the sample in a rigid sleeve; this results in a uniaxial strain experiment so that the results are directly comparable to shock wave data. 10 references, 7 figures.

Gaffney, E.S.; Brown, J.A.; Felice, C.W.

1985-01-01

78

Analysis of water and soil from the wetlands of Upper Three Runs Creek. Volume 2B: Analytical data packages, January--February 1992 sampling  

SciTech Connect

Shallow water and soils along Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and associated wetlands between SRS Road F and Cato Road were sampled for nonradioactive and radioactive constituents. The sampling program is associated with risk evaluations being performed for various regulatory documents in these areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC selected fifty sampling sites bordering the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB), and the Sanitary Landfill (SL). The analytical results from this study provided information on the water and soil quality in UTRC and its associated wetlands. The analytical results from this investigation indicated that the primary constituents and radiological indicators detected in the shallow water and soils were tritium, gross alpha, radium 226, total radium and strontium 90. This investigation involved the collection of shallow water samples during the Fall of 1991 and the Spring of 1992 at fifty (50) sampling locations. Sampling was performed during these periods to incorporate high and low water table periods. Samples were collected from three sections along UTRC denoted as Phase I (MWMF), Phase II (FHSB) and Phase III (SL). One vibracored soil sample was also collected in each phase during the Fall of 1991. This document is compiled of experimental data obtained from the sampling procedures.

Haselow, L.A.; Rogers, V.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Riordan, C.J. [Metcalf and Eddy (United States); Eidson, G.W.; Herring, M.K. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

1992-08-01

79

NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, AND PAH ANALYSIS (F05)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to outline the necessary steps for sampling soil from the yard, the food garden, and the foundation of the respondent's home. Composite samples were sent to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to be sieved and divided. One fraction was analyzed for me...

80

Nutrient Management Module No. 1 Soil Sampling and  

E-print Network

and/or soil amendments to optimize economic return. The objectives of this module are to: 1) describe samples that are representative of the field to be fertilized. If soil is submitted from only a fewNutrient Management Module No. 1 Soil Sampling and Laboratory Selection by Clain Jones, Soil

Lawrence, Rick L.

81

Analytical results, database management and quality assurance for analysis of soil and groundwater samples collected by cone penetrometer from the F and H Area seepage basins  

SciTech Connect

The Quantification of Soil Source Terms and Determination of the Geochemistry Controlling Distribution Coefficients (K{sub d} values) of Contaminants at the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB) study was designed to generate site-specific contaminant transport factors for contaminated groundwater downgradient of the Basins. The experimental approach employed in this study was to collect soil and its associated porewater from contaminated areas downgradient of the FHSB. Samples were collected over a wide range of geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, conductivity, and contaminant concentration) and were used to describe the partitioning of contaminants between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at the site. The partitioning behavior may be used to develop site-specific transport factors. This report summarizes the analytical procedures and results for both soil and porewater samples collected as part of this study and the database management of these data.

Boltz, D.R.; Johnson, W.H.; Serkiz, S.M.

1994-10-01

82

Specification for soil multisensor and soil sampling cone penetrometer probes  

SciTech Connect

Specification requirements for engineering, fabrication, and performance of cone penetrometer (CP) soil multisensor and sampling probes (CP-probes) which are required to support contract procurement for services are presented. The specification provides a documented technical basis of quality assurance that is required to use the probes in an operating Hanford tank farm. The documentation cited in this specification will be incorporated into an operational fielding plan that will address all activities associated with the use of the CP-probes. The probes discussed in this specification support the Hanford Tanks Initiative AX-104 Tank Plume Characterization Sub-task. The probes will be used to interrogate soils and vadose zone surrounding tank AX-104.

Iwatate, D.F.

1997-05-02

83

ASEPTIC SAMPLING OF UNCONSOLIDATED HEAVING SOILS IN SATURATED ZONES  

EPA Science Inventory

Collecting undisturbed subsurface soil samples in noncohesive, heaving sandy environments below the water table has been extremely difficult using conventional soil sampling equipment. everal modifications of the conventional hollow-stem auger coring procedures were adapted, whic...

84

Germanium-76 Sample Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, and the first one gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on April 24, 2011. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility, a DOE user facility at PNNL, was used to make the required isotopic and chemical purity measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The results of this first analysis are reported here.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua

2011-04-01

85

Management Zone Soil Sampling on the Texas High Plains  

E-print Network

by global positioning systems (GPS) is readily available, but there is a need for economical soil sampling procedures to implement this technology. Researchers typically collect soil samples using a half-acre to 2 using variable-rate fertilizer application technology. However, grid soil sampling using half-acre to 2

Mukhtar, Saqib

86

NID Copper Sample Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

2011-09-12

87

NID Copper Sample Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

2011-02-01

88

Geographic sampling of urban soils for contaminant mapping: how many samples and from where.  

PubMed

Properly sampling soils and mapping soil contamination in urban environments requires that impacts of spatial autocorrelation be taken into account. As spatial autocorrelation increases in an urban landscape, the amount of duplicate information contained in georeferenced data also increases, whether an entire population or some type of random sample drawn from that population is being analyzed, resulting in conventional power and sample size calculation formulae yielding incorrect sample size numbers vis-à-vis model-based inference. Griffith (in Annals, Association of American Geographers, 95, 740-760, 2005) exploits spatial statistical model specifications to formulate equations for estimating the necessary sample size needed to obtain some predetermined level of precision for an analysis of georeferenced data when implementing a tessellation stratified random sampling design, labeling this approach model-informed, since a model of latent spatial autocorrelation is required. This paper addresses issues of efficiency associated with these model-based results. It summarizes findings from a data collection exercise (soil samples collected from across Syracuse, NY), as well as from a set of resampling and from a set of simulation experiments following experimental design principles spelled out by Overton and Stehman (in Communications in Statistics: Theory and Methods, 22, 2641-2660). Guidelines are suggested concerning appropriate sample size (i.e., how many) and sampling network (i.e., where). PMID:18566894

Griffith, Daniel A

2008-12-01

89

Why is Soil SampleWhy is Soil Sample Depth ImportantDepth Important  

E-print Network

¾ depth of tillage No-till 6-7 in. 0-2 in. sample for pH in long-term no-till Influence of soil moisture fertilizer placement study. Started in 1997. Chisel, strip-till, no-till Continuous corn, corn/soybean w Sampling Comparisons Lancaster tillage x fertilizer placement study. No-till for 10+ years, 2 chisel, 1

Balser, Teri C.

90

VALIDATION OF A NEW SOIL VOC SAMPLER: PERFORMANCE OF THE EN CORE SAMPLER AT -7 C AND -21 C AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACCU CORE SUBSURFACE SAMPLING/STORAGE DEVICE FOR VOC ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core{reg_sign} sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. An ASTM International (ASTM) standard practice, D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, describes use of the En Core sampler to collect and store a soil sample of approximately five grams or 25 grams for volatile organic analysis. Prior to the study described in this report, D 6418 specified sample storage in the En Core sampler at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours; at -12 {+-} 2 C for up to 14 days; or at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -12 {+-} 2 C for up to five days to minimize loss of volatile compounds due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. The study described in this report was conducted to evaluate the performance of the disposable En Core sampler to store low concentrations of VOCs in soil at -7 {+-} 1 C and -21 {+-} 2 C. In the study, data on the performance of the En Core sampler to store soils spiked with low-level concentrations of VOCs at 4 {+-} 2 C for 48 hours followed by storage at -7 {+-} 1 C for five days, at -7 {+-} 1 C for 14 days, at 4 {+-} 2 C for 48 hours followed by storage at -21 {+-} 2 C for five days, and at -21 {+-} 2 C for 14 days were generated. Based on these data, a new revision of D 6418 was prepared and balloted in ASTM. The new revision, which was approved on February 1, 2004, now specifies sample storage in the En Core sampler at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours; -7 to -21 C for up to 14 days; or 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -7 to -21 C for up to five days. The En Core sampler is designed to collect soil samples for VOC analysis at the soil surface. To date, a sampling tool for collecting and storing subsurface soil samples for VOC analysis does not exist. Development of a subsurface VOC sampling/storage device was initiated in 1999. This device, which is called the Accu Core sampler, is designed so that a soil sample can be collected below the surface using a dual-tube penetrometer and transported to the laboratory for analysis in the same container. During the past year, prototype devices have been tested for their performance in storing soil samples containing low concentrations of VOCs. Evaluation of the various Accu Core prototypes and the design selected for additional validation testing are described in this report.

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

2004-05-01

91

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF SOIL AND HOUSE DUST SAMPLES FOR GC/MS ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDE AND PAH (BCO-L-28.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe procedures for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retrieval durin...

92

Testing Your Soil: How to Collect and Send Samples  

E-print Network

Soil tests can be used to estimate the kinds and amounts of soil nutrients available to plants and as aids in determining fertilizer needs. This publication covers the three-step procedure for obtaining sample bags and instructions, collecting...

Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

2002-06-26

93

Sampling Irrigated Soils for Salinity Appraisal.  

E-print Network

-called "poor growth area" does not have much credibility. The reason for the large variability within a soil type may be related in part to the local difference in soil permeability which affects the leaching fraction. A small difference in leaching...-called "poor growth area" does not have much credibility. The reason for the large variability within a soil type may be related in part to the local difference in soil permeability which affects the leaching fraction. A small difference in leaching...

Miyamoto, S.

1988-01-01

94

Selective trace analysis of sulfonylurea herbicides in water and soil samples based on solid-phase extraction using a molecularly imprinted polymer.  

PubMed

A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized using the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl (MSM) as a template, 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid as a functional monomer, divinylbenzene as a cross-linker, and dichloromethane as a porogen. This polymer was used as a solid-phase extraction material for the quantitative enrichment of five sulfonylureas (nicosulfuron, thifensulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, sulfometuron-methyl, and chlorsulfuron) in natural water and soil samples and off-line coupled to a reversed-phase HPLC/diode array detection (HPLC/DAD). Washing solvent was optimized in terms of kind and volume for removing the matrix constituents nonspecifically adsorbed on the MIP. It has been shown that the nonspecific binding ability of the sulfonylureas to the polymer largely increased along with increasing the concentration of Ca2+ ions in the water sample, whereas complexation of divalent ions with EDTA eliminated this interference completely. The stability of MIP was tested by consecutive percolation of water sample, and it was shown that the performance of the MIP did not vary even after 200 enrichment and desorption cycles. Recoveries of the five sulfonylureas extracted from 1 L of tap water and surface water samples such as river water and rainwater at a 50 ng/L spike level were not lower than 96%. The recoveries of sulfonylureas extracted from 10-g soil sample at the 50 microg/kg level were in the range of 71-139%. Depending on the particular compound, the limit of detection varied from 2 to 14 ng/L in water and from 5 to 12 microg/kg in soil samples. The MIP was also compared with a commercially available C-18 column and an immunoaffinity support with encapsulated polyclonal anti-MSM antibodies in sol-gel glass. PMID:12521169

Zhu, Qing-Zhi; Degelmann, Petra; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

2002-12-15

95

TEGA Sample Delivery and Analysis (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

This animation shows NASA's Phoenix Lander's Robotic Arm scoop delivering a sample to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and how samples are analyzed within the instrument.

TEGA has eight tiny ovens for measuring constituents in the atmosphere and in the soil, including possible organic constituents and the melting point of ice.

The scoop drops soil onto a fine mesh screen between TEGA's open doors. Some soil passes through the screen, which vibrates, into the throat of a funnel, where a spinning device called the 'whirligig' aids delivery into one half of a tiny oven. The soil sample is represented here by the white chip. The filled oven half then rotates and mates with the other oven half, closing the complete oven so sample heating can begin. The purple coil in this animation is the spring that moves the oven halves together.

Heating occurs at successively higher temperatures over several days. The energy required to heat the sample is measured to discover its thermal properties. Gases driven off during sample heating pass through tubing to the mass spectrometer for analysis.

Note that the exterior doors above the screen never close after sample delivery.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

96

Animation of TEGA Sample Delivery and Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

This animation shows NASA's Phoenix Lander's Robotic Arm scoop delivering a sample to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and how samples are analyzed within the instrument.

TEGA has eight tiny ovens for measuring constituents in the atmosphere and in the soil, including possible organic constituents and the melting point of ice.

The scoop drops soil onto a fine mesh screen between TEGA's open doors. Some soil passes through the screen, which vibrates, into the throat of a funnel, where a spinning device called the 'whirligig' aids delivery into one half of a tiny oven. The soil sample is represented here by the white chip. The filled oven half then rotates and mates with the other oven half, closing the complete oven so sample heating can begin. The purple coil in this animation is the spring that moves the oven halves together.

Heating occurs at successively higher temperatures over several days. The energy required to heat the sample is measured to discover its thermal properties. Gases driven off during sample heating pass through tubing to the mass spectrometer for analysis.

Note that the exterior doors above the screen never close after sample delivery.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

97

Lunar sample analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of the lunar regolith under solar wind and micrometeorite bombardment is discussed as well as the size distribution of ultrafine iron in lunar soil. The most important characteristics of complex graphite, sulfide, arsenide, palladium, and platinum mineralization in a pegmatoid pyroxenite of the Stillwater Complex in Montana are examined. Oblique reflected light micrographs and backscattered electron SEM images of the graphite associations are included.

Housley, R. M.

1983-01-01

98

Sample size in factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the factor analysis literature, much attention has be;;n given to the issue of sample size. It is widely understood that the use of larger samples in applica- tions of factor analysis tends to provide results such that sample factor loadings are more precise estimates of population loadings and are also more stable, or les s variable, across repeated sampling.

Robert C. MacCallum; Keith F. Widaman; Shaobo Zhang; Sehee Hong

1999-01-01

99

Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

2014-01-01

100

Comparison of soil solution sampling techniques to assess metal fluxes from contaminated soil to groundwater.  

PubMed

The unsaturated zone plays a major role in elemental fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. A representative chemical analysis of soil pore water is required for the interpretation of soil chemical phenomena and particularly to assess Trace Elements (TEs) mobility. This requires an optimal sampling system to avoid modification of the extracted soil water chemistry and allow for an accurate estimation of solute fluxes. In this paper, the chemical composition of soil solutions sampled by Rhizon® samplers connected to a standard syringe was compared to two other types of suction probes (Rhizon®?+?vacuum tube and Rhizon®?+?diverted flow system). We investigated the effects of different vacuum application procedures on concentrations of spiked elements (Cr, As, Zn) mixed as powder into the first 20 cm of 100-cm columns and non-spiked elements (Ca, Na, Mg) concentrations in two types of columns (SiO2 sand and a mixture of kaolinite?+?SiO2 sand substrates). Rhizon® was installed at different depths. The metals concentrations showed that (i) in sand, peak concentrations cannot be correctly sampled, thus the flux cannot be estimated, and the errors can easily reach a factor 2; (ii) in sand?+?clay columns, peak concentrations were larger, indicating that they could be sampled but, due to sorption on clay, it was not possible to compare fluxes at different depths. The different samplers tested were not able to reflect the elemental flux to groundwater and, although the Rhizon®?+?syringe device was more accurate, the best solution remains to be the use of a lysimeter, whose bottom is kept continuously at a suction close to the one existing in the soil. PMID:25277861

Coutelot, F; Sappin-Didier, V; Keller, C; Atteia, O

2014-12-01

101

Microwave sample preparation for analysis of metals in environmental samples  

SciTech Connect

The unique nature of microwave energy enhances heating efficiency and improves acid digestion sample preparation. Faster sample preparation and improved precision of the analysis occur. These results will be illustrated in this presentation using various standard reference materials and environmentally important samples. The analytical microwave system used offers accurate temperature and pressure feedback control through the use of a hand-held controller or PC-based control. Digestions are performed in patented, user-friendly microwave vessels. USEPA Method 3015, {open_quotes}Microwave-Assisted Acid Digestion of Aqueous Samples and Extracts,{close_quotes} is properly performed when the sample is heated to 170{degrees}C within 10 minutes, and maintained for an additional 10 minutes. USEPA Method 3051, {open_quotes}Microwave-Assisted Acid Digestion of Sediments, Sludges, Soils, and Oils,{close_quotes} is properly performed when the sample is heated to 175{degrees}C within 5.5 minutes, and maintained at 175{degrees}C for an additional 4.5 minutes. After the timesaving microwave digestion period, the samples were analyzed for metals by ICP-AES. Excellent accuracy and precision were obtained, in addition to 90% time reduction when using microwave sample preparation.

Collins, L.W. [OI Analytical, College Staion, TX (United States)

1996-10-01

102

Characterization of Apollo Bulk Soil Samples Under Simulated Lunar Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2012, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. To best understand the effects of the near surface-environment of the Moon, a consortium of four institutions with the capabilities of characterizing lunar samples was created. The goal of the Thermal Infrared Emission Studies of Lunar Surface Compositions Consortium (TIRES-LSCC) is to characterize Apollo bulk soil samples with a range of compositions and maturities in simulated lunar conditions to provide better context for the spectral effects due to varying compositions and soil maturity as well as for the interpretation of data obtained by the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer and future lunar and airless body thermal emission spectrometers. An initial set of thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the bulk lunar soil samples will be made in three of the laboratories included in the TIRES-LSCC: the Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) in RELAB at Brown University, the Simulated Lunar Environment chamber in the Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF) at the University of Oxford, and the Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). While the design and workings of each chamber are slightly different, the chambers are functionally similar. In each chamber, we simulate the lunar environment by: (1) pumping the chambers to vacuum pressures (<10-3 mbar), which is sufficient to simulate lunar heat transport processes within the sample, (2) cooling the chambers with liquid nitrogen to simulate the cold space environment that the Moon radiates into, and (3) heating the samples from below, above, or both to set-up thermal gradients similar to those experienced in the upper hundreds of microns at the lunar surface. Each laboratory and chamber has its own strengths and collaborating amongst multiple laboratories will provide us the unique opportunity to do a rigorous characterization of the lunar samples as well as cross-laboratory calibrations. Laboratory measurements of bulk lunar soil samples are compared with Diviner data to understand: (1) how to accurately simulate conditions of the near-surface environment of the Moon in the lab and (2) the difference between returned samples and undisturbed lunar soils in their native setting. Both are integral for constraining thermally derived compositions and properties of the lunar surface from current (Diviner) and future TIR datasets.

Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

2013-12-01

103

Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

2014-01-01

104

Advanced multivariate analysis to assess remediation of hydrocarbons in soils.  

PubMed

Accurate monitoring of degradation levels in soils is essential in order to understand and achieve complete degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. We aimed to develop the use of multivariate methods for the monitoring of biodegradation of diesel in soils and to determine if diesel contaminated soils could be remediated to a chemical composition similar to that of an uncontaminated soil. An incubation experiment was set up with three contrasting soil types. Each soil was exposed to diesel at varying stages of degradation and then analysed for key hydrocarbons throughout 161 days of incubation. Hydrocarbon distributions were analysed by Principal Coordinate Analysis and similar samples grouped by cluster analysis. Variation and differences between samples were determined using permutational multivariate analysis of variance. It was found that all soils followed trajectories approaching the chemical composition of the unpolluted soil. Some contaminated soils were no longer significantly different to that of uncontaminated soil after 161 days of incubation. The use of cluster analysis allows the assignment of a percentage chemical similarity of a diesel contaminated soil to an uncontaminated soil sample. This will aid in the monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminated sites and the establishment of potential endpoints for successful remediation. PMID:25028320

Lin, Deborah S; Taylor, Peter; Tibbett, Mark

2014-10-01

105

EFFICIENCY OF SOIL CORE AND SOIL-PORE WATER SAMPLING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory column and field lysimeter study were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of soil core and soil-pore water samples to detect the migration of the organic components of land treated wastes through soil. In the laboratory, column leaching studies were performed by pac...

106

Soil macrofaunal biodiversity in Amazonian pastures: Matching sampling with patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil biodiversity varies through space as influenced by habitat features and land-use history. The performance of any sampling strategy highly depends on its relevance with regards to this pattern. We surveyed the soil macrofaunal species richness in the pastures of the Benfica Field Station (Eastern Amazonia, State of Pará, Brazil) and described its variability in 4 independent replicate plots. We

Jean-Pierre Rossi; Jérôme Mathieu; Miguel Cooper; Michel Grimaldi

2006-01-01

107

Comparative evaluation of European methods for sampling and sample preparation of soils — the Portuguese contribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this work was to prepare a Portuguese sampling strategy, according to the existing Portuguese recommendations, for the soil sampling exercise at Dornach in the framework of the CEEM soil project of the SMT Programme of the EU. Within this project, the results obtained from the Dornach study were compared with the results obtained by other European

Ana Fernando; J. P. Almeida Fernandes; J. F. Santos Oliveira

2001-01-01

108

Mutagenic characterization of soil and water samples from a superfund site  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the utility of short-term microbial bioassays to assess the mutagenic hazard of an uncontrolled hazardous waste site, and to compare the results from chemical and biological analysis of split soil and water samples. The results from chemical analysis indicated that the greatest concentration of contaminants was present in samples from an oil-stained area, and

K. C. Donnelly; K. W. Brown; D. G. DiGuillio

1988-01-01

109

Preliminary examination of lunar samples. [characteristics of rocks, soils, and subsurface samples returned by Apollo 17 flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the lunar samples returned by Apollo 17 was conducted to determine the petrographic characteristics. A table listing all the rocks returned by Apollo 17 by sample number, weight, and rock type is presented. Photographs of lunar samples are included to show the variety of rocks returned. Lunar soils were collected to aid in characterizing the four major photogeologic units determined by preflight studies. Tables are developed to show grain size and grain type for the lunar soils. Radiographs of the drive tubes are interpreted to show the formations existing at various depths below the lunar surface.

1973-01-01

110

The Bidirectional Reflectance of Apollo 11 Soil Sample 10084  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the bidirectional reflectance of Apollo 11 soil sample 10084 using the Bloomsburg University Goniometer (BUG) and fit the measured reflectances using Hapke’s photometric model that includes the effects of large-scale roughness.

Foote, E. J.; Paige, D. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Grundy, W. M.; Shepard, M. T.

2009-03-01

111

Lead sorption onto thermally treated soil samples from Irbid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open burning of waste at dumpsites sites may alter many physical and chemical properties of underlining soil layers including\\u000a its ability to retard the migration of potential contaminants, such as lead, through the vadose zone. In this study, lead\\u000a sorption onto soil samples from Irbid that were subjected to high temperatures has been investigated. These samples were collected\\u000a from ground

Wa’il Y. Abu-El-Sha’r; Assal E. Haddad

2007-01-01

112

Zinc sorption by iron oxides and soil samples  

E-print Network

ZINC SORPTION BY IRON OMIDES AND SOIL SAMPLES A Thesis MARKKU JUHANI YLI-HALLA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University in a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTEF. OR SCIENCE May 1989 Majo...'r Subject: Soil Science ZINC SORPTION BY IRON OXIDES AND SOIL SAMPLES A Thesis by MARKKU JUHANI YLI-HALLA Approved as to style and content by: Richard H. Loeppert (Chair of Committee) A. Clearfield (Membe ) Joe B. Dixon (Member) E. C. A. Runge...

Yli-Halla, Markku Juhani

2012-06-07

113

Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples  

PubMed Central

The mass attenuation coefficients (?s) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137Cs and 60Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2? × 2? NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained ?s values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. PMID:23179375

Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve

2013-01-01

114

Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Borehole Sampling at 118-B-1 Burial Ground  

SciTech Connect

The Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) Field Remediation Project has removed all of the disposed materials and contaminated soil from the 118-B-1 Burial Ground with the exception of tritium-contaminated soil that is believed to extend from the bottom of the present excavation to groundwater and is believed to contribute to tritium contamination observed at down-gradient monitoring Well 199-B8-6. This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) provides the requirements for sample collection and laboratory analysis for characterization of the vertical distribution of tritium contamination in the vadose zone soil below the 118-B-1 Burial Ground remedial action excavation.

W. S. Thompson

2007-04-02

115

A laboratory method to determine the hydraulic conductivity of mountain forest soils using undisturbed soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of infiltration properties of soils under laboratory conditions necessitates the collection of soil samples in a way that maintains their natural physical properties. Mountain forest soils, containing rock fragments, root systems and a significant amount of organic matter, make it extremely difficult to test their hydraulic conductivity using both laboratory and field methods. A widely used technique of sampling by driving a cylinder into the ground in this type of soils causes damage to their structure resulting from the displacement of root systems and rock fragments as well as reduction of soil porosity. Thus, subsequent results contain an error that is difficult to estimate. The aim of the present research was: (1) to develop a laboratory method for testing the hydraulic conductivity of mountain forest soils, and in particular a method of collection of undisturbed soil samples, (2) to determine the influence of the applied method of collecting samples on the thickening of their peripheral layer and on elimination of increased infiltration at the boundary between the soil medium and the cylinder, (3) to determine the extent of the impact of the irregular shape of a sample on its hydraulic conductivity and (4) to develop an empirical method for determining the actual values of hydraulic conductivity, taking into account the error associated with the flow of water through samples with different shapes. The method of soil sampling consists in gradual formation of a cylindrical soil monolith and filling the free space between the monolith and the tri-cylindrical container with low-pressure assembly foam. This method ensures preservation of the natural physical properties of the examined samples and elimination of errors during the measurement of the hydraulic conductivity, caused by increased infiltration at the boundary between the soil medium and the cylinder. It was shown that the mean error of hydraulic conductivity determination, related to the irregular shape of samples, amounts to 11.57%. The error may be eliminated by the application of conversion coefficients.

Ilek, Anna; Kucza, Jaros?aw

2014-11-01

116

Limitations and recommendations for successful DNA extraction from forensic soil samples: a review.  

PubMed

Soil is commonly used in forensic casework to provide discriminatory power to link a suspect to a crime scene. Standard analyses examine the intrinsic properties of soils, including mineralogy, geophysics, texture and colour; however, soils can also support a vast amount of organisms, which can be examined using DNA fingerprinting techniques. Many previous genetic analyses have relied on patterns of fragment length variation produced by amplification of unidentified taxa in the soil extract. In contrast, the development of advanced DNA sequencing technologies now provides the ability to generate a detailed picture of soil microbial communities and the taxa present, allowing for improved discrimination between samples. However, DNA must be efficiently extracted from the complex soil matrix to achieve accurate and reproducible DNA sequencing results, and extraction efficacy is highly dependent on the soil type and method used. As a result, a consideration of soil properties is important when estimating the likelihood of successful DNA extraction. This would include a basic understanding of soil components, their interactions with DNA molecules and the factors that affect such interactions. This review highlights some important considerations required prior to DNA extraction and discusses the use of common chemical reagents in soil DNA extraction protocols to achieve maximum efficacy. Together, the information presented here is designed to facilitate informed decisions about the most appropriate sampling and extraction methodology, relevant both to the soil type and the details of a specific forensic case, to ensure sufficient DNA yield and enable successful analysis. PMID:24796953

Young, Jennifer M; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

2014-05-01

117

Improving the Way You Soil Sample Soil sampling is generally not practiced often enough by Texas producers, and the usual  

E-print Network

is a pressing environmental concern in Texas and nationwide. Finally, global positioning system (GPS for this technology are needed. What we have learned Depth to soil sampling is the first concern. Historically

Mukhtar, Saqib

118

Trace elements of soil samples from mining area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The affect of mining activity on the environment has been long of public concern. The present paper deals with the elemental analysis of soil samples from a mine and the area around it, located in E 48°59' and N 34°11' in Hamadan province of Iran. Elemental analysis was done using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Spectra analysis and quantification was done using GUPIX software. Besides the major elements Si, P, K, Ca, Mn and Fe the other elements, namely Cl, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Pb were also present. Arsenic could be detected in some samples only. The presence of Ba and Ce needs more investigations by other techniques due to overlap of the L X-rays of these elements with the K X-rays of the major elements Mn and Fe, etc. Many elements V, Cr, As and Pb are known to be toxic and needs further understanding and proper handling in the mining process.

Oswal, Mumtaz; Bedi, Harneet; Hajivaliei, M.; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, K. P.

2010-06-01

119

Factor Analysis of Multicomponent Samples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an experiment in which factor analysis is used to identify and quantify the components of mixtures containing up to four species. Discussed are the theory, procedures, and sample results for this activity. (CW)

Harvey, David T.; Bowman, Amy

1990-01-01

120

Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area  

SciTech Connect

This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP.

Stanisich, S.N.

1994-12-01

121

Technical change to the work plan for the remedial investigation of the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi: Sampling and analysis plan background soil and groundwater study  

SciTech Connect

The Salmon Site, formerly known as the Tatum Dome Test Site, is located in south-central Mississippi, southwest of the city of Hattiesburg, in Lamar County. Between 1964 and 1970, two nuclear and two non-nuclear gas explosions were conducted deep underground in the Tatum Salt Dome beneath the site. The tests were performed as part of the former US Atomic Energy Commission`s Vela Uniform Program which was conducted to improve the United States` capability to detect underground nuclear explosions. This document details technical changes to the existing work plan for the remedial investigation of the Salmon Site. A previously conducted Remedial Investigation for the Salmon Site involved the preparation of ecological and human health risk assessments. These risk assessments, which are incorporated into the Remedial Investigation Report, identified several constituents of potential concern (COPC) that could potentially have a negative impact on ecological and human health. These COPC are the primary risk drivers for the Salmon Site; they include arsenic and naturally occurring, gamma-emitting radionuclides. If it can be demonstrated that similar concentrations of these COPCs occur naturally in surrounding areas, they can be removed from consideration in the risk assessments. The purpose of this sampling effort is to collect enough data to prove that the COPCs are naturally occurring and are not a result of the explosives testing activities conducted at the site. This will be accomplished by collecting enough soil samples to have a statistically valid population that can be used to produce defensible comparisons that prove the concentrations identified on site are the same as the background concentrations in surrounding areas.

NONE

1998-04-01

122

Analysis of soil and water for TATB content  

SciTech Connect

A reverse-phase liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the analysis of TATB in soil samples. The soil samples were extracted with dimethylformamide (DMF). The extract was analyzed to determine the TATB content in the soil. The detection limit using this procedure was 2 parts/million (ppm) for TATB in the soil. An organic free sample of water was saturated with TATB. The water was filtered through a 0.2-{mu} filter, then injected into both a reverse-phase and normal-phase liquid chromatograph system. No peaks were detected. Therefore, the solubility of TATB in water is less than the detection limits of the chromatograph methods.

Schaffer, C.L.

1992-11-01

123

In situ analysis of the martian soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars is presently the most likely planet on which there is a possibility of finding extinct and/or extant life. The next exploratory missions to Mars will focus on key organic molecules such as carboxylic and amino acids. In the frame of the Sample Analysis on Mars (SAM) GC/MS-based experiment aiming at performing in situ chemical analysis of the Martian soil, an automated extraction process coupled to chemical derivatization is under development. The extraction efficiency of various organic solvents has been tested (and compared to that of water), first on standard soil samples and then, on Martian soil analogues such as the Akatama desert (Chili) soil. It was shown that propanol is the best solvent, allowing high extraction yields for both amino and carboxylic acids with space compatible extraction time (15 to 30 min) when the extraction procedure is assisted by sonication. A highly sensititive and quantitative single-step derivatization reaction using as N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacétanamide (MTBSTFA) as silylation agent was then used, prior to GC/MS analysis. The extraction and the derivatization process will take place in an automated miniaturized reactor, which is currently under investigation.

Buch, A.; Sternberg, R.; Meunier, D.; Marchetti, C.; Raulin, F.

2003-04-01

124

LABORATORY-BASED BRDF OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR REMOTE SENSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

o E, alt. 1100 m) is presented. It is shown how the BRDF depends on the measurement geometry - incident and scatter angles and on the sample particle sizes. As a demonstration of the application of the results of this study, airborne BRDF measurements acquired with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the soil samples

Georgi T. Georgieva; Charles K. Gatebe; James J. Butler; Michael D. King

125

Autoclaving Soil Samples Affects Algal-Available Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

biological assays with algae. The USEPA guidelineforal- gal bioassays (Miller et al., 1978) has provided the basis Unwanted microbial interference in samples used for biological for the experimental methodology of batch culture al- assays of P availability has routinely been eliminated by autoclaving samples before inoculation with algae. Twenty-three soils were se- gal bioassays. These procedures, which include an auto-

Brandon H. Anderson; Frederick R. Magdoff

2005-01-01

126

A concise method for mine soils analysis  

SciTech Connect

A large number of abandoned hard rock mines exist in Colorado and other mountain west states, many on public property. Public pressure and resulting policy changes have become a driving force in the reclamation of these sites. Two of the key reclamation issues for these sites in the occurrence of acid forming materials (AFMs) in mine soils, and acid mine drainage (AMD) issuing from mine audits. An AMD treatment system design project for the Forest Queen mine in Colorado's San Juan mountains raised the need for a simple, useable method for analysis of mine land soils, both for suitability as a construction material, and to determine the AFM content and potential for acid release. The authors have developed a simple, stepwise, go - no go test for the analysis of mine soils. Samples were collected from a variety of sites in the Silverton, CO area, and subjected to three tiers of tests including: paste pH, Eh, and 10% HCl fizz test; then total digestion in HNO{sub 3}/HCl, neutralization potential, exposure to meteoric water, and toxicity content leaching procedure (TCLP). All elemental analyses were performed with an inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometer. Elimination of samples via the first two testing tiers left two remaining samples, which were subsequently subjected to column and sequential batch tests, with further elemental analysis by ICP. Based on these tests, one sample was chosen for suitability as a constructing material for the Forest Queen treatment system basins. Further simplification, and testing on two pairs of independent soil samples, has resulted in a final analytical method suitable for general use.

Winkler, S.; Wildeman, T.; Robinson, R.; Herron, J.

1999-07-01

127

Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

1992-11-01

128

Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

1992-11-01

129

Sample preparation and characterization for a study of environmentally acceptable endpoints for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

In the past, the interdisciplinary research effort required to investigate the acceptable cleanup endpoints for hydrocarbon-impacted soils has been limited by the lack of standardized soils for testing. To support the efforts of the various researchers participating in the EAE research initiative, soil samples were collected from ten sites representing hydrocarbon-impacted soils typical of exploration/production, refinery, and bulk storage terminal operations. The hydrocarbons in the standard soils include crude oil, mixed refinery products, diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Physical characterization included analysis of soil texture, water retention, particle density, nanoporosity, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, buffer capacity, organic carbon, sodium adsorption ratio, and clay mineralogy. Chemical characterization included analysis of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons, total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and metals, and TCLP for metals and organics. An analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions was performed on each soil to support the use of various models for assessing soil toxicity. Screening-level toxicity tests were conducted using Microtox{trademark}, plant seed germination and growth, and earthworm mortality and growth. Biodegradability screening tests were performed in slurry shake flasks to estimate the availability of hydrocarbon fractions to soil microorganisms.

Kreitinger, J.P.; Finn, J.T. [Remediation Technologies, Inc., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

130

Use of mass spectrometry coupled with a solids insertion probe to prescreen soil samples for environmental samples  

SciTech Connect

The contamination of air, water, and soils by a myriad of sources generates a large sample Currently, sample volume for hazardous constituent analyses is approximately half a million samples per year. The total analytical costs associated with this are astronomical. The analysis of these samples is vital in terms of assessing the types of contamination present and to what degree a site has been contaminated. The results of these analyses are very important for making an informed, knowledgeable decision as to the need for remediation and what type of remediation processes should be initiated based on site suitability vs non-action for the various sample sites. With an ever growing environmental consciousness in today`s society, the assessment and subsequent remediation of a site needs to be accomplished promptly despite the time constraints traditional methods place on such actions. In order to facilitate a rapid assessment, it is desirable to utilize instrumentation and equipment which afford the most information about a site allowing for optimization in environmental assessment while maintaining a realistic time schedule for the resulting remediation process. Because there are various types of environmental samples that can be taken at a site, different combinations of instrumentation and methods are required for assessing the level and type of contamination present whether it is in air, water, or soils. This study is limited to analyzing soil-like media that would normally fall under EPA Method 8270 which is used to analyze solid waste matrices, soils, and groundwater for semi-volatile organic compounds.

Check, C.E.; Bach, S.B.H. [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

131

Rapid Determination Of Radiostrontium In Large Soil Samples  

SciTech Connect

A new method for the determination of radiostrontium in large soil samples has been developed at the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of strontium in large soil samples for the measurement of strontium isotopes by gas flow proportional counting. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD) or Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. The method employs a novel pre-concentration step that utilizes an iron hydroxide precipitation (enhanced with calcium phosphate) followed by a final calcium fluoride precipitation to remove silicates and other matrix components. The pre-concentration steps, in combination with a rapid Sr Resin separation using vacuum box technology, allow very large soil samples to be analyzed for {sup 89,90}Sr using gas flow proportional counting with a lower method detection limit. The calcium fluoride precipitation eliminates column flow problems typically associated with large amounts of silicates in large soil samples.

Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Shaw, Patrick J.

2012-05-24

132

Spatial and temporal influences on bacterial profiling of forensic soil samples.  

PubMed

Bacterial content may be helpful in differentiating forensic soil samples; however, the effectiveness of bacterial profiling depends on several factors, including uniqueness among different habitat types, the level of heterogeneity within a habitat, and changes in bacterial communities over time. To examine these, soils from five diverse habitats were tested over a 1 year period using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis. Soil samples were collected at central locations monthly, and 10 feet in cardinal directions quarterly. Similarity indices were found to be least related among habitats, while the greatest bacterial similarities existed among collection locations within a habitat. Temporally, however, bacterial content varied considerably, and there was substantial overlap in similarity indices among habitats during different parts of the year. Taken together, the results indicate that while bacterial DNA profiling may be useful for forensic soil analysis, certain variables, particularly time, must be considered. PMID:18471210

Meyers, Melissa S; Foran, David R

2008-05-01

133

Mid-Level Soil Sample for Oven Number Seven  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil from a sample called Burning Coals was delivered through the doors of cell number seven (left) of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 20, 2008, during the 85th Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed.

This image from Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera shows some of the soil on the screen beneath the doors. One of the cell's two doors is fully open, the other partially open.

This soil sample comes from an intermediate depth between the ground surface and the hard, underground icy layer at the Phoenix site.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

134

SOIL BUI1( DENSITY SAMPLING FOR NEUTRON GAUGE CALIBRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ASCE Task Committee on Neutron Gauge Calibration met in Logan, Utah in July 1992 to investigate the various methods of soil sampling, installation of access tubes, effect of various parameters on gauge readings, methods of developing field calibration curves and comparison of neutron gauge characteristics. Details of the overall objectives of the study are covered by Stone (1993, this

G. L. Dickey; R. G. Allen; J. L. Wright; N. R. Murray; J. F. Stone; D. J. Hunsaker

135

FIELD SAMPLING OF RESIDUAL AVIATION GASOLINE IN SANDY SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Two complimentary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured filed extrusion of core barrels into pint size Mason jars, while ...

136

SOIL SAMPLING QUALITY ASSURANCE USER'S GUIDE--SECOND EDITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Use of the first edition of the "Soil Sampling Quality Assurance User's Guide" as a text in a series of seminars conducted at various U.S. EPA Regional Offices elicited many constructive comments for improvements from seminar attendees. Many of these suggested improvements have b...

137

A CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF LEAKAGE DURING SOIL-GAS SAMPLING  

EPA Science Inventory

A heuristic model is developed to develop a conceptual understanding of leakage during soil-gas sampling. Leakage is shown to be simply a function of the permeability contrast between the formation and borehole and geometric factors. As the ratio of formation to borehole permea...

138

Sample pre-treatment and the determination of some chemical properties of acid sulfate soil materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a systematic analysis of the effect of common acid sulfate soil (ASS) sample pre-treatments (namely freezing, oven drying, and grinding) on chromium-reducible sulfur (SCR) and water-soluble sulfate determinations. The results show that oven drying and hand grinding of the samples prior to analysis resulted in a decrease in SCR (i.e. up to 20% compared to those of

Crystal A. Maher; Leigh A. Sullivan; Nicholas J. Ward

2004-01-01

139

Statistical sample size for construction of soil liners  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for selecting the number of samples (i.e., the sample size) to be collected and tested during construction quality control of compacted soil liners. The sample size is selected to ensure that enough data are collected so the probability of excessive equivalent hydraulic conductivity (i.e., overall hydraulic conductivity) is greater than or equal to a predefined maximum value is below a specified value. The method requires computations that can be performed using a spreadsheet program. Charts are provided to select the sample size based on these computations. The sample size depends on the properties of the soil, their spatial variability, and the number of lifts in the liner. Regression models are used to relate spatial variability of construction-quality-control measurements (such as compaction data, Atterberg limits, and particle-size measurements) to variations in hydraulic conductivity at point scale. A three-dimensional stochastic model is then used to estimate the equivalent hydraulic conductivity of the soil liner for statistical parameters describing spatial variability of point-scale hydraulic conductivity. An asymptotic method is used to determine the precision of the estimate of equivalent hydraulic conductivity and the probability of excessive equivalent hydraulic conductivity.

Benson, C.H.; Zhai, H.; Rashad, S.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

1994-10-01

140

Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas. PMID:24706600

Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabiola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, Andre L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantao, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

2014-01-01

141

Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas. PMID:24706600

Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabíola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

2014-06-01

142

DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected VOC soil gas concentrations during ASVE. Five (5) SVE wells that were located closest to the air injection wells were used as monitoring points during the air sparging tests. The air sparging tests lasted 48 hours. Soil gas sample results indicate that sparging did not affect VOC concentrations in four of the five sparging wells, while results from one test did show an increase in soil gas concentrations.

Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

2012-09-20

143

Experimental analysis of municipal solid waste samples  

E-print Network

scale devices were tested: the standard device used for consolidation in soils and a large-scale device constructed for the present investigation. A municipal solid waste sample was obtained from a pit dug in the College Station, Texas landfill...

Mendoza Sanchez, Itza

2012-06-07

144

Sample handling strategies for accurate lead-in-soil measurements in the field and laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The inhomogenous lead-in-soil matrix can present serious obstacles to accurate sample collection and handling. In typical lead-in-soil measurement, particle size related errors in sampling and sample handling often exceed all other sources of error. The magnitude of error can vary widely depending on the particulate nature of the lead contaminant and the effectiveness of control measures. Large particle contaminants, such as lead bearing paint chips, pose a much greater challenge to accurate sample handling than do small particle contaminants, such as air dispersed industrial emissions. A sample handling protocol demonstrated to give reliable, valid data in small particle situations may prove entirely inadequate for large particle cases. This paper focuses on the importance of fundamental error, a statistical consequence of particulate sampling. We discuss in quantitative terms the significance of fundamental error on the measurement of paint chip contaminated soils near a 400 ppm action level. On the basis of error estimates, we recommend that sample handling protocols control particle related errors by ensuring adequate sample size and sample definition, and by accomplishing sufficient particle size reduction and homogenization y before subsampling. We discuss particle related errors and their effect on laboratory, field, and in-situ analytical methods. We recommend that quality assurance protocols aim to determine the overall measurement quality by evaluating error at all stages from sampling and sample handling through analysis.

Shefsky, S. [NITON Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1997-12-31

145

Natural radioactivity measurements in soil samples from Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radium, thorium and potassium analysis have been made in soil samples collected from some villages of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India using gamma ray spectrometry. The work has been undertaken keeping in view the health hazard effects of these radioelements in the environment. The results for radium activity are also compared using track etch technique employing radon alpha method developed

Surinder Singh; Baldev Singh; Ajay Kumar

2003-01-01

146

Determination of 129 I in large soil samples after alkaline wet disintegration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large soil samples (up to 500 g) can conveniently be disintegrated by hydrogen peroxide in an utility tank under alkaline conditions to determine subsequently 129I by neutron activation analysis. Interfering elements such as Br are removed already before neutron irradiation to reduce the radiation exposure of the personnel. The precision of the method is 129I also by the combustion method.

K. Bunzl; W. Kracke

1992-01-01

147

Effect of sterilization on the scientific value of a returned Mars soil sample  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been proposed that a soil sample from Mars be sterilized prior to return to earth for analysis in order to prevent contamination of earth by hazardous microbial species potentially present in the sample. This paper summarizes experiments on the effect of various methods of sterilization of terrestrial soils on their biological and organic constituents. Sterilization by dry heat caused significant decreases in amino acid content, increases in amino acid racemization, and obliteration of cellular structure. Co-60 irradiation had little effect on amino acid racemization and morphology, and Co-60 irradiation combined with dry heat resulted in retention of some enzymatic activity. Treatment with chemical fixative preserved cellular structure

Devincenzi, D. L.

1977-01-01

148

Determination of chemical warfare agents in soil and material samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas Chromatographic method for the determination of phenylarsenic compounds (sternutators) and their metabolites in soil\\u000a and material samples is described. The chemical warfare agents (CWA), but not their hydrolysis and oxidation products, can\\u000a be detected with GC\\/ECD. After derivatization with thiols or dithiols, the sum of diphenylarsenic and phenylarsenic compounds\\u000a can be determined with GC\\/ECD.\\u000a \\u000a The comparison of the

Rainer Haas; Alfred Krippendorf

1997-01-01

149

A quantitative method to detect explosives and selected semivolatiles in soil samples by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a novel Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method that can be used to rapidly screen soil samples from potentially hazardous waste sites. Samples are heated in a thermal desorption unit and the resultant vapors are collected and analyzed in a long-path gas cell mounted in a FTIR. Laboratory analysis of a soil sample by FTIR takes approximately 10 minutes. This method has been developed to identify and quantify microgram concentrations of explosives in soil samples and is directly applicable to the detection of selected volatile organics, semivolatile organics, and pesticides.

Clapper-Gowdy, M.; Dermirgian, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Robitaille, G. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-06-01

150

Effect of different water content, sample number, and soil type on determination of soil water using a home microwave oven  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil water content values determined on three soil types at three water contents using a home-type microwave oven were within 1% of the values obtained using a conventional electric oven to dry samples. Four 50–60 g soil samples of different type and different water content were fully dried in 20 min in the microwave oven, but 45 min was needed

Chin S. Tan

1992-01-01

151

Assessment of the Amino Sugar-Nitrogen Test on Iowa Soils: I. Evaluation of Soil Sampling and Corn Management Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soil N test capable of measuring the soil organic N fraction that contributes to plant available N would be useful to corn (Zea mays L.) producers as they make N fertilizer rate decisions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of soil sampling time, sampling depth, long-term crop rotation, and long-term N fertilizer application on the

D. W. Barker; J. E. Sawyer; M. M. Al-Kaisi

152

Soil development and sampling strategies for the returned Martian surface samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sampling of the Martian surface materials should be based on the experience gained from the study of soils and rocks collected in cold, dry environments, i.e., dry valleys of Antarctica. Previous studies have suggested that some of our best terrestrial analogs of the Martian soils are represented by those found in the polar deserts of Antarctica. Special sampling considerations must be taken into account when obtaining these samples because they represent at least five distinct types of materials. Weathering of planetary regolith materials occurs from both chemical and physical interactions of the planet's surface materials with the atmosphere and, if present, the hydrosphere and biosphere along with extraplanetary objects which may produce the original surface materials and produce secondary materials that are product of equilibrium between the atmosphere and study weathering processes and regolith development occurring on Martian-like surfaces, simulation studies must be carried out in materials in the field.

Gibson, Everett K.

1988-01-01

153

Factor analysis and direct optimization of the amounts and properties of volcanic soil constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of fourteen soil chemical and physical properties of twenty soil samples from Andosols was decomposed into the contributions of seven soil constituents or end-members. The samples were from the slopes of the andesitic Turrialba volcano in Costa Rica. Factor analysis of the data explained 98% of the variance by six (orthogonal) factors. We replaced the factors by seven

Edward L. Meijer; Peter Buurman

1997-01-01

154

A developed DNA extraction method for different soil samples.  

PubMed

Four DNA extraction methods namely SDS-hyperhaline method (I), modified SDS-hyperhaline method (II), indirect method (III), alkaline lysis method (IV) were evaluated by comparing DNA yield, spectrophotometric quality, genomic integrity and PCR suitability in this paper. The results showed that high DNA yields were obtained by method I, II and IV. However, higher quality of DNA was gained by method III and IV. Based on the results of the Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), the completeness of DNA extracted by method IV was the best. About 6.0 microg DNA can be recovered from 1.0 g soil by method IV which involved to lysis cell by SDS and to precipitate impurities by adding potassium acetate and magnesium chloride Therefore, it is confirmed that method IV is a novel, reliable and versatile method for large-scale DNA extraction involving less purification steps for various soil samples. PMID:20586066

Hu, Yingchang; Liu, Zhiheng; Yan, Jianfang; Qi, Xiaohui; Li, Jing; Zhong, Shiqi; Yu, Jicheng; Liu, Qiu

2010-08-01

155

Sampling design optimization for multivariate soil mapping, case study from Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct observations of the soil are important for two main reasons in Digital Soil Mapping (DSM). First, they are used to characterize the relationship between the soil property of interest and the auxiliary information. Second, they are used to improve the predictions based on the auxiliary information. Hence there is a strong necessity to elaborate a well-established soil sampling strategy based on geostatistical tools, prior knowledge and available resources before the samples are actually collected from the area of interest. Fieldwork and laboratory analyses are the most expensive and labor-intensive part of DSM, meanwhile the collected samples and the measured data have a remarkable influence on the spatial predictions and their uncertainty. Numerous sampling strategy optimization techniques developed in the past decades. One of these optimization techniques is Spatial Simulated Annealing (SSA) that has been frequently used in soil surveys to minimize the average universal kriging variance. The benefit of the technique is, that the surveyor can optimize the sampling design for fixed number of observations taking auxiliary information, previously collected samples and inaccessible areas into account. The requirements are the known form of the regression model and the spatial structure of the residuals of the model. Another restriction is, that the technique is able to optimize the sampling design for just one target soil variable. However, in practice a soil survey usually aims to describe the spatial distribution of not just one but several pedological variables. In the recent paper we present a procedure developed in R-code to simultaneously optimize the sampling design by SSA for two soil variables using spatially averaged universal kriging variance as optimization criterion. Soil Organic Matter (SOM) content and rooting depth were chosen for this purpose. The methodology is illustrated with a legacy data set from a study area in Central Hungary. Legacy soil data were collected in the end of the 1980s in the framework of the National Land Evaluation Programme. The auxiliary data were derived from the digital elevation model and from the land-use-map of the study area. Soil data were used to characterize the relationship among the soil variables and the auxiliary information and model the spatial structures of the residuals of the regression models. The known form of the regression models and semivariogram models were used through SSA to optimize a completely new sampling design for 120 soil observations. The optimization process was done twice. First separately for SOM content and rooting depth and second for both soil variables simultaneously based on the combined form of regression models and spatial structures of the residuals. The optimized sampling designs were compared and evaluated by various statistical, geostatistical and spatial statistical (point pattern analysis) tools to examine how they depend on the regression models and semivariogram models and how they cover the geographical and feature space. In the near future, we want to extend the methodology for more than two pedological variables. Acknowledgement: Our work has been supported by the Hungarian National Scientific Research Foundation (OTKA, Grant No. K105167).

Szatmári, Gábor; Pásztor, László; Barta, Károly

2014-05-01

156

GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1: ASSESSING SOIL SPLITTING PROTOCOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Five soil sample splitting methods (riffle splitting, paper cone riffle splitting, fractional shoveling, coning and quartering, and grab sampling) were evaluated with synthetic samples to verify Pierre Gy sampling theory expectations. Individually prepared samples consisting of l...

157

Soil organic carbon covariance with soil water content; a geostatistical analysis in cropland fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil texture has traditionally represented the rate of soil water drainage influencing soil water content (WC) in the soil characteristic curves, hydrological models and remote sensing field studies. Although soil organic carbon (OC) has been shown to significantly increase the water holding capacity of soil in individual field studies, evidence is required to consider soil OC as a significant factor in soil WC variability at the scale of a remote sensing footprint (25 km2). The relationship of soil OC to soil WC was evaluated over 50 fields during the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil WC field sampling campaign over southern Manitoba, Canada. On each field, soil WC was measured at 16 sample points, at 100 m spacing to 5 cm depth with Stevens hydra probe sensors on 16 sampling dates from June 7 to July 19, 2012. Soil cores were also taken at sampling sites on each field, each sampling day, to determine gravimetric moisture, bulk density and particle size distribution. On 4 of the sampling dates, soil OC was also determined by loss on ignition on the dried soil samples from all fields. Semivariograms were created from the field mean soil OC and field mean surface soil WC sampled at midrow, over all cropland fields and averaged over all sampling dates. The semivariogram models explained a distinct relationship of both soil OC and WC within the soil over a range of 5 km with a Gaussian curve. The variance in soil that soil OC and WC have in common was a similar Gaussian curve in the cross variogram. Following spatial interpolation with Kriging, the spatial maps of soil OC and WC were also very similar with high covariance over the majority of the sampling area. The close correlation between soil OC and WC suggests they are structurally related in the soil. Soil carbon could thus assist in improving downscaling methods for remotely sensed soil WC and act as a surrogate for interpolation of soil WC.

Manns, H. R.; Berg, A. A.; von Bertoldi, P.

2013-12-01

158

Soil sampling and isolation of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae).  

PubMed

Entomopathogenic nematodes (a.k.a. EPN) represent a group of soil-inhabiting nematodes that parasitize a wide range of insects. These nematodes belong to two families: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae. Until now, more than 70 species have been described in the Steinernematidae and there are about 20 species in the Heterorhabditidae. The nematodes have a mutualistic partnership with Enterobacteriaceae bacteria and together they act as a potent insecticidal complex that kills a wide range of insect species. Herein, we focus on the most common techniques considered for collecting EPN from soil. The second part of this presentation focuses on the insect-baiting technique, a widely used approach for the isolation of EPN from soil samples, and the modified White trap technique which is used for the recovery of these nematodes from infected insects. These methods and techniques are key steps for the successful establishment of EPN cultures in the laboratory and also form the basis for other bioassays that consider these nematodes as model organisms for research in other biological disciplines. The techniques shown in this presentation correspond to those performed and/or designed by members of S. P. Stock laboratory as well as those described by various authors. PMID:25046023

Orozco, Rousel A; Lee, Ming-Min; Stock, S Patricia

2014-01-01

159

Kriging analysis of soil properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Soil as a landscape body contains wide ranges of physical, chemical, morphological, and mineralogical properties, both laterally\\u000a and vertically. Soils with similar properties and environments are expected to behave similarly. A statement on land use potential\\u000a will depend in part on the precision and accuracy of the statements that can be made about the soils. This information

Gilbert C. Sigua; Wayne H. Hudnall

2008-01-01

160

Collecting cometary soil samples? Development of the ROSETTA sample acquisition system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the reference scenario of the ROSETTA CNRS mission, the Sample Acquisition System is mounted on the Comet Lander. Its tasks are to acquire three kinds of cometary samples and to transfer them to the Earth Return Capsule. Operations are to be performed in vacuum and microgravity, on a probably rough and dusty surface, in a largely unknown material, at temperatures in the order of 100 K. The concept and operation of the Sample Acquisition System are presented. The design of the prototype corer and surface sampling tool, and of the equipment for testing them at cryogenic temperatures in ambient conditions and in vacuum in various materials representing cometary soil, are described. Results of recent preliminary tests performed in low temperature thermal vacuum in a cometary analog ice-dust mixture are provided.

Coste, P. A.; Fenzi, M.; Eiden, Michael

1993-01-01

161

IWTU Process Sample Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

CH2M-WG Idaho (CWI) requested that Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) analyze various samples collected during June – August 2012 at the Integrated Waste Treatment Facility (IWTU). Samples of IWTU process materials were collected from various locations in the process. None of these samples were radioactive. These samples were collected and analyzed to provide more understanding of the compositions of various materials in the process during the time of the process shutdown that occurred on June 16, 2012, while the IWTU was in the process of nonradioactive startup.

Nick Soelberg

2013-04-01

162

Rapid methods for classification and quantitative assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons pollution in soil samples using reflectance spectroscopy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) are one of the most significant environmental polluter (for both soil and water) mainly due to its mass production and use (13.26 million cubic meters of crude oil per day). The commonly used method for PHC determination in soil samples is by PHC extraction from the soil sample using 1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113) and afterwards determining the total PHC (TPH) by FTIR. This method is expensive and time consuming; in addition the use of Freon 113 was recently prohibited by the EPA. Therefore, there is a great need for alternative methods which are environmental friendly and can rapidly detect low concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon in soils. The adoption of this approach to evaluate PHC contamination in soils is obvious and a few works have partially demonstrated this application. This study focused on using defused spectral analysis across the VNIR-SWIR region (400-2500 nm) to directly determine PHC in soil samples especially at low concentrations. We used artificially contaminated soil samples (diesel and fuel) that were analyzed by both the common method (extraction with Freon 113) and spectrally. Several statistical models were tested for predicting TPH in soils for a large concentration range (100 - 10000 ppm). More than one hundred field contaminated soil samples have been collected and analyzed in the same manner. Preliminary combined generic models are being tested, for in situ use for quantifying TPH in soils at high precisions levels, as well as identifying fuel type in the soil medium with great success. Our results show that PHC contamination in soils can be evaluated generically in situ, rapidly, accurately, and cost effectively.

Schwartz, G.; Eshel, G.; Ben-Haim, M.; Ben-Dor, E.

2009-04-01

163

FIELD SAMPLING PROTOCOLS AND ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

I have been asked to speak again to the environmental science class regarding actual research scenarios related to my work at Kerr Lab. I plan to discuss sampling protocols along with various field analyses performed during sampling activities. Many of the students have never see...

164

Development of a method for determination of radon emanation from small soil samples  

E-print Network

size, and moisture content of the soil. Barometric pressure and snow cover also may affect the radon diffusion rate from soiL The distance radon atoms travel through soil is dependent on the previously mentioned soil and atmospheric conditions... of the released free radon activity per unit mass of soiL The diffusion length of radon in soil is the average distance an atom will migrate before decay. A soil gas sample taken below this distance should yield an equilibrium Rn-222 soil gas concentration...

Madonia, Michael Vincent

2012-06-07

165

Sample Drying Effects on Lead Bioaccessibility in Reduced Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk-assessment tests of contaminated wetland soils often use ex- perimental protocols that artificially oxidize the soils. Oxidation may impact bioavailability of contaminants from the soils, creating erro- neous results and leading to improper management and remediation. The goal of this study was to determine if oxygenation of reduced sediments and soils influences Pb bioaccessibility measurements. The study site is located

Olha Furman; Daniel G. Strawn; Steve McGeehan

2007-01-01

166

Small-Scale DNA Sample Preparation Method for Field PCR Detection of Microbial Cells and Spores in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient, nonselective methods to obtain DNA from the environment are needed for rapid and thorough analysis of introduced microorganisms in environmental samples and for analysis of microbial community diversity in soil. A small-scale procedure to rapidly extract and purify DNA from soils was developed for in-the-field use. Amounts of DNA released from bacterial vegetative cells, bacterial endospores, and fungal conidia

CHERYL R. KUSKE; KAYSIE L. BANTON; DANTE L. ADORADA; PETER C. STARK; KAREN K. HILL; PAUL J. JACKSON

1998-01-01

167

DETERMINATION OF NITROAROMATIC COMPOUNDS IN SOIL SAMPLES BY HPLC, USING ON-LINE PRECONCENTRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to develop a simple HPLC method for trace analysis of 17 nitroaromatic compounds (nitrophenols, nitroanilines, nitrotoluenes, and others) in soil samples. To improve the limit of determination, on-line preconcentration of water extracts has been used. The separation was achieved by using the column packed with 10 µm LiChrosorb RP-18 and mixture methanol–water as mobile phase.

Katarína Hrobonová; Miroslav Lacuška; Karol Balog; Jozef Lehotay

2002-01-01

168

Vegetation-soil spectral mixture analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the measurement and analysis of laboratory reflectance of green leaf and soil mixtures. Various combinations of leaf area index and percent cover were generated by stacking leaf discs over a dry soil background. Reflectance spectra (400-2500 nm) of these miniature pixels were measured with a spectroradiometer (Fieldspec FR) under laboratory conditions. The measured spectra were then compared

Bisun Datt; Michelle Paterson

2000-01-01

169

Sampling Issues in Bibliometric Analysis  

E-print Network

Bibliometricians face several issues when drawing and analyzing samples of citation records for their research. Drawing samples that are too small may make it difficult or impossible for studies to achieve their goals, while drawing samples that are too large may drain resources that could be better used for other purposes. This paper considers three common situations and offers advice for dealing with each. First, an entire population of records is available for an institution. We argue that, even though all records have been collected, the use of inferential statistics and significance testing is both common and desirable. Second, because of limited resources or other factors, a sample of records needs to be drawn. We demonstrate how power analyses can be used to determine in advance how large the sample needs to be to achieve the study's goals. Third, the sample size may already be determined, either because the data have already been collected or because resources are limited. We show how power analyses c...

Williams, Richard

2014-01-01

170

Purposive Sampling for Digital Soil Mapping for Areas with Limited Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital soil mapping requires two basic pieces of information: spatial in- formation on the environmental conditions which co-vary with the soil conditions and the information on relationship between the set of environment covariates and soil conditions. The former falls into the category of GIS\\/remote sensing analy- sis. The latter is often obtained through extensive field sampling. Extensive field sampling is

A. Xing Zhu; Lin Yang; Baolin Li; Chengzhi Qin; Edward English; James E. Burt; Chenghu Zhou

171

New approach to measure soil particulate organic matter in intact samples using X-ray computed micro-tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate soil organic matter (POM) is biologically and chemically active fraction of soil organic matter. It is a source of many agricultural and ecological benefits, among which are POM's contribution to C sequestration. Most of conventional research methods for studying organic matter dynamics involve measurements conducted on pre-processed i.e., ground and sieved soil samples. Unfortunately, grinding and sieving completely destroys soil structure, the component crucial for soil functioning and C protection. Importance of a better understanding of the role of soil structure and of the physical protection that it provides to soil C cannot be overstated; and analysis of quantities, characteristics, and decomposition rates of POM in soil samples with intact structure is among the key elements of gaining such understanding. However, a marked difficulty hindering the progress in such analyses is a lack of tools for identification and quantitative analysis of POM in intact soil samples. Recent advancement in applications of X-ray computed micro-tomography (?-CT) to soil science has given an opportunity to conduct such analyses. The objective of the current study is to develop a procedure for identification and quantitative characterization of POM within intact soil samples using X-ray ?-CT images and to test performance of the proposed procedure on a set of multiple intact soil macro-aggregates. We used 16 4-6 mm soil aggregates collected at 0-15 cm depth from a Typic Hapludalf soil at multiple field sites with diverse agricultural management history. The aggregates have been scanned at SIMBIOS Centre, Dundee, Scotland at 10 micron resolution. POM was determined from the aggregate images using the developed procedure. The procedure was based on combining image pre-processing steps with discriminant analysis classification. The first component of the procedure consisted of image pre-processing steps based on the range of gray values (GV) along with shape and size of POM pieces. That was followed by discriminant analysis conducted using statistical and geostatistical characteristics of POM pieces. POM identified in the intact individual soil aggregates using the proposed procedure was in good agreement with POM measured in the studied aggregates using conventional lab method (R2=0.75). Of particular importance for accurate identification of POM in the images was the information on spatial characteristics of POM's GVs. Since this is the first attempt of POM determination, future work will be needed to explore how the proposed procedure performs under a variety of potentially influential factors, such as POM's origin and decomposition stage, X-ray scanning settings, image filtering and segmentation methods.

Kravchenko, Alexandra; Negassa, Wakene; Guber, Andrey; Schmidt, Sonja

2014-05-01

172

Metatranscriptomic Analysis of Arctic Peat Soil Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in meta-omics and particularly metatranscriptomic approaches have enabled detailed studies of the structure and function of microbial communities in many ecosystems. Molecular analyses of peat soils, ecosystems important to the global carbon balance, are still challenging due to the presence of coextracted substances that inhibit enzymes used in downstream applications. We sampled layers at different depths from two high-Arctic peat soils in Svalbard for metatranscriptome preparation. Here we show that enzyme inhibition in the preparation of metatranscriptomic libraries can be circumvented by linear amplification of diluted template RNA. A comparative analysis of mRNA-enriched and nonenriched metatranscriptomes showed that mRNA enrichment resulted in a 2-fold increase in the relative abundance of mRNA but biased the relative distribution of mRNA. The relative abundance of transcripts for cellulose degradation decreased with depth, while the transcripts for hemicellulose debranching increased, indicating that the polysaccharide composition of the peat was different in the deeper and older layers. Taxonomic annotation revealed that Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominating polysaccharide decomposers. The relative abundances of 16S rRNA and mRNA transcripts of methanogenic Archaea increased substantially with depth. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was the dominating pathway, followed by methanogenesis from formate. The relative abundances of 16S rRNA and mRNA assigned to the methanotrophic Methylococcaceae, primarily Methylobacter, increased with depth. In conclusion, linear amplification of total RNA and deep sequencing constituted the preferred method for metatranscriptomic preparation to enable high-resolution functional and taxonomic analyses of the active microbiota in Arctic peat soil. PMID:25015892

Tveit, Alexander T.

2014-01-01

173

An investigation of arsenic contamination in Peninsular Malaysia based on Centella asiatica and soil samples.  

PubMed

The first objective of this study was to provide data of arsenic (As) levels in Peninsular Malaysia based on soil samples and accumulation of As in Centella asiatica collected from 12 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia. The second objective was to assess the accumulation of As in transplanted C. asiatica between control and semi-polluted or polluted sites. Four sites were selected which were UPM (clean site), Balakong (semi-polluted site), Seri Kembangan (semi-polluted site) and Juru (polluted site). The As concentrations of plant and soil samples were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The As levels ranged from 9.38 to 57.05 ?g/g dw in soils, 0.21 to 4.33 ?g/g dw in leaves, 0.18 to 1.83 ?g/g dw in stems and 1.32-20.76 ?g/g dw in roots. All sampling sites had As levels exceeding the CCME guideline (12 ?g/g dw) except for Kelantan, P. Pauh, and Senawang with P. Klang having the highest As in soil (57.05 ?g/g dw). In C. asiatica, As accumulation was highest in roots followed by leaves and stems. When the As level in soils were higher, the uptake of As in plants would also be increased. After the transplantation of plants to semi-polluted and polluted sites for 3 weeks, all concentration factors were greater than 50 % of the initial As level. The elimination factor was around 39 % when the plants were transplanted back to the clean sites for 3 weeks. The findings of the present study indicated that the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica are ideal biomonitors of As contamination. The present data results the most comprehensive data obtained on As levels in Malaysia. PMID:22821327

Ong, G H; Yap, C K; Maziah, M; Suhaimi, H; Tan, S G

2013-04-01

174

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling and analysis requirements for the characterization of ambient particles are reviewed. The choice of sampling equipment and characterization procedures for ambient particles are often dictated by the objectives of the experiment. The paper describes the procedures and the...

175

Microscopic Investigation of Martian Soil Samples at the Phoenix Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used the optical and atomic force microscopes (OM and AFM) of the MECA microscopy station on Phoenix (M. Hecht et al., Microscopy Capabilities of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer , JGR accepted for publication) to image samples within reach of the robot arm and delivered to sets of substrates mounted in a sample wheel. For loading the sample, the wheel was pushed out of the MECA enclosure, exposing only one set of substrates: strong and weak magnets, micro-buckets, silicone and silicon featuring grids of micromachined small holes and posts to capture particles. A thickness of up to 200 micrometers of material can be brought into the microscopy station under a leveling blade before the samples are rotated into the field of view of the microscopes as the substrates are tilted from horizontal to vertical. This tilt can cause the loss of a portion of the material depending on the relative strength of the adhesion forces compared to Martian gravity. The time constraints of sample delivery have so far ensured that any ice would have sublimed prior to delivery. From OM images of fully loaded substrates the particles found so far can be very coarsely grouped into three different categories: 1. subrounded strongly magnetic grains, of both a rough and glassy appearance with different shades of yellow, red, brown and black color in a size range of 50 to 100 micrometers, comprising about 10% of the sample volume; 2. small white flecks of a few micrometers in size, about 0.5% of the sample volume; 3. a majority component of a fine, uniformly coloured orange-reddish dust forming agglomerations from a few tens of microns in diameter to below the resolution of the OM with less magnetic attraction than the larger grains. Using populations on more sparsely populated substrates a size distribution could be estimated. The particle size distribution increases with decreasing size until cut off by the 4-micrometer resolution limit of the OM. The AFM confirmed the presence of these smaller particles, down to the submicrometer scale. These often appeared flat and angular. It is hypothesized that the soil observed so far consists of magnetic minerals at various stages of degradation, with the most degraded including a proportion of flattened micrometer-sized clay particles, together with a distinct but small proportion of pale mineral or salt grains.

Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Hecht, M. H.; Marshall, J.; Team, M. M.

2008-12-01

176

A comparison of rock and soil samples for geochemical mapping of two porphyry-metal systems in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paired rock and soil samples were collected at widely spaced locations in large segments of the porphyry-metal systems of the Montezuma district in central Colorado and of a northwestward extension of the Summitville district into Crater Creek in southern Colorado. The paired samples do not covary closely enough for one sample medium to proxy for the other. However, the areal distributions of elements in both rocks and soils in these two districts conform to alteration zoning as defined by mineralogy. Differing geochemical patterns of rocks and soils reflect species-dependent responses to weathering. Soils appear to be statistically enriched in ore elements and depleted in rock elements as compared to the matching rocks. These differences are largely artificial s owing to different methods of sample preparation and chemical analysis for rocks and for soils. The distributions of metals in soils delineate the occurrence of ore-metal minerals mostly from vein deposits whereas the distributions of metals in rocks conform to zones of pervasive hydrothermal alteration and to the distribution of varied mineral deposits among these zones. Rock and soil samples are equally useful s of comparable map resolution and complement one another as a basis for geochemically mapping these porphyry-metal systems.

Neuerburg, George J.; Barton, H.N.; Watterson, J.R.; Welsch, E.P.

1978-01-01

177

76 FR 11334 - Safety Zone; Soil Sampling; Chicago River, Chicago, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Michigan, has determined that the sampling effort does pose significant risks...design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management...T09-0086 Safety Zone; Soil Sampling, North Branch of the...

2011-03-02

178

Pyrosequencing of environmental soil samples reveals biodiversity of the Phytophthora resident community in chestnut forests.  

PubMed

Pyrosequencing analysis was performed on soils from Italian chestnut groves to evaluate the diversity of the resident Phytophthora community. Sequences analysed with a custom database discriminated 15 pathogenic Phytophthoras including species common to chestnut soils, while a total of nine species were detected with baiting. The two sites studied differed in Phytophthora diversity and the presence of specific taxa responded to specific ecological traits of the sites. Furthermore, some species not previously recorded were represented by a discrete number of reads; among these species, Phytophthora ramorum was detected at both sites. Pyrosequencing was demonstrated to be a very sensitive technique to describe the Phytophthora community in soil and was able to detect species not easy to be isolated from soil with standard baiting techniques. In particular, pyrosequencing is an highly efficient tool for investigating the colonization of new environments by alien species, and for ecological and adaptive studies coupled with biological detection methods. This study represents the first application of pyrosequencing for describing Phytophthoras in environmental soil samples. PMID:23560715

Vannini, Andrea; Bruni, Natalia; Tomassini, Alessia; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria

2013-09-01

179

Environmental study of two significant solid samples: gravitation dust sediment and soil.  

PubMed

In this work are presented results of the complex study of two significant solid environmental samples: gravitation dust sediments (industrial pollutants, potential source of risk elements input to soils) and soils (component of the environment, potential source of risk elements input to food web). The first phase of this study was focused on the study of the significant chemical properties (phase composition, content of organic and inorganic carbon) of the dust and soil samples. In the second phase, the fractionation analysis was used on the evaluation of the mobility of chosen risk elements (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) in the studied samples. The single-step extractions were applied in the order of the isolation of the element forms (fractions), with different mobilities during defined ecological conditions by utilization of the following reagents: 1 mol dm(-3) NH(4)NO(3) for isolation of the "mobile" fraction, 0.05 mol dm(-3) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 0.43 mol dm(-3) CH(3)COOH for isolation of the "mobilizable" fraction, and 2 mol dm(-3) HNO(3) for isolation of all releasable forms. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, it is possible to state that different origins and positions of solid environmental samples in the environment reflect in different chemical properties of their matrix. The different properties of the sample matrix result in different mobilities of risk elements in these kinds of samples. The fractionation analysis with single-step extraction for isolation element fractions is the method most suitable for easy checking of environmental pollution and for evaluation of risk elements cycle in the environment. PMID:21625924

Remeteiová, Dagmar; Rusnák, Radoslav; Kucanová, Eva; Fióová, Beáta; Ruži?ková, Silvia; Fekete, Ilona; Horváth, Márk; Dirner, Vojtech

2012-01-01

180

Performance evaluation soil samples for volatile organic compounds utilizing solvent encapsulation technology  

SciTech Connect

A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was encapsulated and mixed with a soil to produce a product suitable for use as a double blind source of VOCs in a soil performance evaluation sample. Two independent laboratories analyzed the standard encapsulated VOC/soil mixture for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene by using US EPA SW-846 Method 5035 in conjunction with SW-846 Method 8020. One laboratory received the sample as a single blind standard, while the other laboratory received the sample as a double blind standard. The percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) for triplicate analyses ranged from 2 to 13%. The lowest %RSD was for m/p-xylene (2%) from the sample analyzed as a double blind sample. Analytical results from these pilot studies indicate that it is possible to prepare standard soil samples contaminated with known amounts of VOCs which will enable soil samples to be submitted to environmental analytical laboratories as a truly blind sample.

Dahlgran, J. [Dept. of Energy, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.] [Dept. of Energy, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Thies, C. [Thies Technology, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Thies Technology, St. Louis, MO (United States)

1999-05-01

181

Spatial analysis reveals differences in soil microbial community interactions between adjacent coniferous forest and clearcut ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of how forest management influences soil microbial community interactions is necessary for complete understanding of forest ecology. In this study, soil microbial communities, vegetation characteristics and soil physical and chemical properties were examined across a rectangular 4.57 × 36.58 m sample grid spanning adjacent coniferous forest and clearcut areas. Based on analysis of soil extracted phospholipid fatty acids, total microbial biomass, fungi

Daniel L. Mummey; Jeffrey T. Clarke; Callie A. Cole; Benjamin G. O’Connor; James E. Gannon; Phillip W. Ramsey

2010-01-01

182

Development of the Analysis Method for the Radioactivity Concentration Estimation of Soils for a Regulatory Clearance  

SciTech Connect

In this study, for the analysis of a radioactivity concentration of soil, a sampling and an analyzing method were developed. To create homogeneity of the contents for each drum, big particles such as pebbles, rocks and scraps of concrete were removed after pouring the soil into a tray. And then the soil in the tray was mixed thoroughly. A 10 X 10 grid was used to partition the soil into 100 sections. 2 liter of soil was sampled out of 30 randomly pre-selected sections. Only 1 liter of the soil out of 2 liters was used for the spectrometry analysis. The remaining 1 liter of soil was stored for a validation purpose. For a verification of the sampling process, 3 samples were taken from each drum and analyzed. 5 drums were used for the verification. And the results show that this sampling method has about a 9% sampling error. Also, the analysis results of the 865 drums of soil showed that the major nuclides in the soils were Co-60 and Cs-137 while a small amount of Mn-54, Fe-59, I-131, Cs-134 and Eu-152 were detected as {gamma}-emitters. About 73% of the soils had a total radioactivity concentration below 0.1 Bq/g, while the soils with more than 0.4 Bq/g of a radioactivity concentration were only 3%. Based on the guide for the regulatory clearance criteria recommended by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), about 73% of the soils can be regulatory cleared without any treatment. Also, the remaining soils can be regulatory cleared after a further storage. Only 3% of the soils are considered to be necessary for a decontamination treatment. The results of this study can be applied to the treatment of radioactive soils generated in a large amount during the decommissioning of a nuclear facility. (authors)

Dae-Seok Hong; Jong-Sik Shon; Tae-Kuk Kim [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, P.O.Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, Korea, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Han-Seok Cho [Chungnam National University, 220, Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, 305-764 Daejeon-city (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

183

Determining soil quality indicators by factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil quality indicators (SQIs) can be used to evaluate sustainability of land use and soil management practices in agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to identify appropriate SQI from factor analysis (FA) of five treatments: no-till corn (Zee mays) without manure (NT), no-till corn with manure (NTM), no-till corn–soybean (Glycine max) rotation (NTR), conventional tillage corn (CT), and meadow

M. K. Shukla; R. Lal; M. Ebinger

2006-01-01

184

Spatial Analysis of Archaeal Community Structure in Grassland Soil  

PubMed Central

The complex structure of soil and the heterogeneity of resources available to microorganisms have implications for sampling regimens when the structure and diversity of microbial communities are analyzed. To assess the heterogeneity in community structure, archaeal communities, which typically contain sequences belonging to the nonthermophilic Crenarchaeota, were examined at two contrasting spatial scales by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis followed by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis of 16S rRNA- and ribosomal DNA-derived profiles. A macroscale analysis was carried out with soil cores taken at 2-m intervals along triplicate 8-m transects from both managed (improved) and natural (unimproved) grassland rhizosphere soils. A microscale analysis was carried out with a single soil core by assessing the effects of both sample size (10, 1, and 0.1 g) and distance between samples. The much reduced complexity of archaeal profiles compared to the complexity typical of the bacterial community facilitated visual comparison of profiles based on band presence and revealed different levels of heterogeneity between sets of samples. At the macroscale level, heterogeneity over the transect could not be related to grassland type. Substantial heterogeneity was observed across both improved and unimproved transects, except for one improved transect that exhibited substantial homogeneity, so that profiles for a single core were largely representative of the entire transect. At the smaller scale, the heterogeneity of the archaeal community structure varied with sample size within a single 8- by 8-cm core. The archaeal DGGE profiles for replicate 10-g soil samples were similar, while those for 1-g samples and 0.1-g samples showed greater heterogeneity. In addition, there was no relationship between the archaeal profiles and the distance between 1- or 0.1-g samples, although relationships between community structure and distance of separation may occur at a smaller scale. Our findings demonstrate the care required when workers attempt to obtain a representative picture of microbial community structure in the soil environment. PMID:14660394

Nicol, Graeme W.; Glover, L. Anne; Prosser, James I.

2003-01-01

185

Determination and analysis of distribution coefficients of 137Cs in soils from Biscay (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution coefficient of 137Cs has been determined in 58 soils from 12 sampling points from Biscay by treating 10 g with 25 ml of an aqueous solution with an activity of 1765 Bq in the radionuclide, by shaking during 64 h and measuring the residual activity with a suitable detector. Soils were characterised by sampling depth, particle size analysis

C. Elejalde; M. Herranz; F. Legarda; F. Romero

2000-01-01

186

Determination of 15 isomers of chlorobenzoic acid in soil samples using accelerated sample extraction followed by liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to elaborate a fast, simple and efficient method for determination of 15 isomers chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs) in soil using HPLC-UV. Artificially contaminated soil samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with 1% acetic acid in a mixture of hexane and acetone (1:1, V/V) under a pressure of 10.34 MPa and temperature of 150°C. The recovery of the ASE method was above 82%. The extracts were concentrated; dimethyl sulfoxide was used to prevent CBA volatilization and the final analysis was performed with a C18 XBridge HPLC column employing a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% trifluoracetic acid in water. A HPLC procedure with gradient elution and UV detection was developed and validated. The method exhibited a linear range for 2-CBA; 2,6-CBA; 3-CBA; 4-CBA; 2,3-CBA; 2,3,6-CBA; 2,5-CBA; and 2,4-CBA from 5 to 120 ?g/mL with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 5 ?g/mL, RSD from 2.42 to 9.42% and accuracy from 82 ± 2 to 103 ± 3%. The linear range of determination of 2,4,6-CBA, 3,4-CBA, 2,3,5,6-CBA, 3,5-CBA, 2,3,5-CBA, 2,3,4,5,6-CBA and 2,3,4,5-CBA was 10-120 ?g/mL with LOQ 10 ?g/mL, RSD from 0.74 to 5.84% and accuracy from 94 ± 1 to 114 ± 1%. The optimized analytical procedure was finally applied on two historically PCB contaminated soils and 9 CBAs were quantified in the samples. PMID:21530790

K?esinová, Zdena; Muziká?, Milan; Olšovská, Jana; Cajthaml, Tomáš

2011-05-30

187

Analysis of hexazinone in soil by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay  

SciTech Connect

A tube enzyme immunoassay (ELA) procedure was developed for the determination of the triazine herbicide hexazinone in soil. The antibody was polyclonal and was prepared by employing metabolite A (3-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-6-dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione of hexazinone conjugated to bovine serum albumin as the immunogen. Hexazinone was extracted from soil by shaking with methanol-water 80/20 for 10 min and allowed to set overnight before reshaking for 5 min. Aliquots for EIA analysis were diluted in such a way as to always contain 8% methanol. Reproducibility results for both standards and samples were good. A correlation coefficient of 0.9562 was obtained for 76 soil samples run by EIA vs. HPLC. Of the eight known metabolites of hexazinone, 7 were tested for cross-reactivity and 5 were shown to be cross-reactive.

Bushway, R.J.; Perkins, L.B.; Reed, A.W. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

188

Evaluation of sampling techniques to characterize topographically-dependent variability for soil moisture downscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Downscaling methods have been proposed to estimate catchment-scale soil moisture patterns from coarser resolution patterns. These methods usually infer the fine-scale variability in soil moisture using variations in ancillary variables like topographic attributes that have relationships to soil moisture. Previously, such relationships have been observed in catchments using soil moisture observations taken on uniform grids at hundreds of locations on multiple dates, but collecting data in this manner limits the applicability of this approach. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of two strategic sampling techniques for characterizing the relationships between topographic attributes and soil moisture for the purpose of constraining downscaling methods. The strategic sampling methods are conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS) and stratified random sampling (SRS). Each sampling method is used to select a limited number of locations or dates for soil moisture monitoring at three catchments with detailed soil moisture datasets. These samples are then used to calibrate two available downscaling methods, and the effectiveness of the sampling methods is evaluated by the ability of the downscaling methods to reproduce the known soil moisture patterns. cLHS outperforms random sampling in almost every case considered. SRS usually performs better than cLHS when very few locations are sampled, but it can perform worse than random sampling for intermediate and large numbers of locations.

Werbylo, Kevin L.; Niemann, Jeffrey D.

2014-08-01

189

Changes in the enzymatic activity of soil samples upon their storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the duration and conditions of storage of soil samples on the activity of soil enzymes (catalase, ?-fructofuranosidase, and dehydrogenase) was studied for the main soils of southern Russia (different subtypes of chernozems, chestnut soils, brown forest soils, gray forest soils, solonetzes, and solonchaks). The following soil storage conditions were tested: (1) the air-dry state at room temperature, (2) the airdry state at a low positive (in a refrigerator, +4°C) temperature, (3) naturally moist samples at a low positive temperature, and (4) naturally moist samples at a negative (in a freezer, -5°C) temperature. It was found that the sample storing caused significant changes in the enzymatic activities, which depended on the soil type, the land use, the type of enzyme, and the duration and conditions of the sample storage. In the course of the storage, the changes in the enzymatic activity had a nonlinear character. The maximum changes were observed in the initial period (up to 12 weeks). Then, a very gradual decrease in the activity of the studied enzymes was observed. Upon the long-term (>12 weeks) storage under the different conditions, the difference in the activities of the soil enzymes became less pronounced. The storage of soil samples in the air-dried state at room temperature can be recommended for mass investigations.

Dadenko, E. V.; Kazeev, K. Sh.; Kolesnikov, S. I.; Val'Kov, V. F.

2009-12-01

190

STATISTICAL SAMPLING APPROACH FOR CLOSING A SOIL VENTING SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA allowed the Performing Parties (PPs) to perform a soil vapor extraction process to a site contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOC), contingent upon the process reducing the VOC concentrations in the soil by 75% within one year. An innovative injection-extraction...

191

Phosphatase activity in Antarctica soil samples as a biosignature of extant life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial activities have been detected in such extreme terrestrial environments as deep lithosphere, a submarine hydrothermal systems, stratosphere, and Antarctica. Microorganisms have adapted to such harsh environments by evolving their biomolecules. Some of these biomolecules such as enzymes might have different characteristics from those of organisms in ordinary environments. Many biosignatures (or biomarkers) have been proposed to detect microbial activities in such extreme environments. A number of techniques are proposed to evaluate biological activities in extreme environments including cultivation methods, assay of metabolism, and analysis of bioorganic compounds like amino acids and DNA. Enzyme activities are useful signature of extant life in extreme environments. Among many enzymes, phosphatase could be a good indicator of biological activities, since phosphate esters are essential for all the living terrestrial organisms. In addition, alkaline phosphatase is known as a typical zinc-containing metalloenzyme and quite stable in environments. We analyzed phosphatase activities in Antarctica soil samples to see whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. In addition, we characterized phosphatases extracted from the Antarctica soil samples, and compared with those obtained from other types of environments. Antarctica surface environments are quite severe environments for life since it is extremely cold and dry and exposed to strong UV and cosmic rays. We tried to evaluate biological activities in Antarctica by measuring phosphatase activities. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are measured spectrophotometrically after mixing the powdered sample and p-nitrophenyl phosphate solution (pH 6.5 for ACP, pH 8.0 for ALP). ALP was characterized after extraction from soils with Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0), where the activity was measured fluorometrically with 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (pH 8.0) as a substance. The soil of Site 8 (near a penguin rookery) showed almost the same level of ACP and ALP activities as usual surface soil sampled in YNU campus, while the soil of Sites 1-7 showed much less activities. ALP in the extract from the soil of Site 8 was characterized. It showed the maximal at 338 K, while ALP from the campus soil showed the maximal at 358 K. Gel filtration chromatography showed that the ALP activity was found only in the fraction whose molecular weights were over 60000. The ALP activity was diminished with EDTA and was recovered with addition of zinc ion. The present results showed that zinc-containing metalloenzymes, which had lower optimum temperature than those in usual environments, are present in Antarctica soil. It was suggested that phosphatases are good bio-signatures for extant life in extreme environments.

Sato, Shuji; Itoh, Yuki; Takano, Yoshinori; Fukui, Manabu; Kaneko, Takeo; Kobayashi, Kensei

192

Nutrient Management for Texas High Plains Cotton Soil Sampling and Testing  

E-print Network

sampling schedule Soil test Irrigated Dryland Nitrate-nitrogen (0-24 inches) Every year Every 2-3 years-0-0 into the soil. �Nitrate (NO3 - ), a negatively charged "anion," is the main nitrogen form in soils inches for nitrate-nitrogen and multiply results in ppm by 8 to convert to lb N/ac, 3) subtract soil test

Mukhtar, Saqib

193

Selecting Locations for Medium Intensity Sampling of Soil Organic Carbon in Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A warming climate may lead to the release of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane from Arctic soils, resulting in a positive feedback. Quantifying soil carbon stocks is necessary for calibrating models of carbon flux. The total stocks of soil carbon in high latitudes are poorly quantified because there are few soil samples. As a guide to additional sampling, such as the new 3rd Tier Medium-Intensity Sampling planned in the North American Carbon Program, we have investigated methods of using existing soil databases to map the intensities and calculate the total quantities of soil carbon in Alaska. We have related the laboratory data on soil physical and chemical properties for specific locations (the pedon data) to the soil components of the digital maps in the State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) database. Both data sources are from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service. We evaluated 523 pedons for Alaska, selected those for which soil organic carbon could be calculated, and investigated several methods of matching them to the digital soil maps. The soil taxonomic classification (usually at the suborder, great group, or subgroup level), slope, and location were used in multiple combinations for linking the detailed profile descriptions to the general soil maps. We illustrate the uncertainty of estimations of carbon stocks by using alternative methods of performing the data selection and matching. Each matching method allows a many-to-many relation between the pedon point observations and the components of the soil maps. Once extrapolated to the map, a large measure of carbon stock attributed to a given sample point indicates an area in which additional sampling would efficiently reduce the uncertainty of the soil organic carbon estimates.

Bliss, N. B.; Maursetter, J.

2004-12-01

194

How much will afforestation of former cropland influence soil C stocks? A synthesis of paired sampling, chronosequence sampling and repeated sampling studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for documentation of land-use change effects on soil C is high on the agenda in most signatory countries to the Kyoto Protocol. Large land areas in Europe have experienced land-use change from cropland to forest since 1990 by direct afforestation as well as abandonment and regrowth of marginally productive cropland. Soil C dynamics following land-use change remain highly uncertain due to a limited number of available studies and due to influence of interacting factors such as land use history, soil type, and climate. Common approaches for estimation of potential soil C changes following land-use change are i) paired sampling of plots with a long legacy of different land uses, ii) chronosequence studies of land-use change, and lastly iii) repeated sampling of plots subject to changed land use. This paper will synthesize the quantitative effects of cropland afforestation on soil C sequestration based on all three approaches and will report on related work within Cost 639. Paired plots of forest and cropland were used to study the general differences between soil C stocks in the two land uses. At 27 sites in Denmark distributed among different regions and soil types forest floor and mineral soil were sampled in and around soil pits. Soil C stocks were higher in forest than cropland (mean difference 22 Mg C ha-1 to 1 m depth). This difference was caused solely by the presence of a forest floor in forests; mineral soil C stocks were similar (108 vs. 109 Mg C ha-1) in the two land uses regardless of soil type and the soil layers considered. The chronosequence approach was employed in the AFFOREST project for evaluation of C sequestration in biomass and soils following afforestation of cropland. Two oak (Quercus robur) and four Norway spruce (Picea abies) afforestation chronosequences (age range 1 to 90 years) were studied in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands. Forest floor and mineral soil (0-25 cm) C contents were as a minimum unchanged and in most cases there was net C sequestration (range 0-1.3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The allocation of sequestered soil C was quite different among chronosequences; forest floors consistently sequestered C (0.1-0.7 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) but there was no general pattern in mineral soil C sequestration. While the paired sampling and the chronosequence approaches both may be confounded by site factors other than the land use, repeated sampling of plots best addresses the pure land-use change effect. Repeated sampling after 18 years was done in a systematic 7x7 km grid to address soil C changes in 15 cropland plots that were converted to forest (7-22 years since afforestation). Consistent with the other two approaches, detectable soil C changes were confined to the forest floor component; forest floor C sequestration rates were 0.24 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 while no changes were detected for mineral soils. The three approaches to estimation of soil C sequestration indeed point to a common conclusion: The potential for soil C sequestration is mainly confined to the forest floor whereas notable C sequestration is less likely to occur in the mineral soil. However, more generalizable knowledge is badly needed for reporting of land-use change effects on mineral soil C pools. WG II of Cost 639 and the FP7 project GHG Europe is currently establishing a database of LUC studies. This database will be used to establish so-called Carbon Response Functions (CRF), i.e. simple models predicting the annual rate of change in soil C pools. These CRFs may serve as tools for syntheses of land-use change effects for Europe as well as for improved reporting of soil C dynamics following land-use change.

Vesterdal, Lars; Hansen, K.; Stupak, I.; Don, Axel; Poeplau, C.; Leifeld, Jens; van Wesemael, Bas

2010-05-01

195

Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological and pedological samples. Further investigation of epithermal neutron activation analysis using monostandard method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study is presented on neutron activation analysis of rock and soil samples using whole reactor neutron spectrum\\u000a and epithermal neutrons with both relative and monostandard procedures. The latter procedure used with epithermal neutron\\u000a activation analysis of soil samples necessitated the use of the “effective resonance integrals” which were determined experimentally.\\u000a The incorporation of the ? factor, representing deviation

A. Alian; B. Sansoni

1980-01-01

196

Short-term temperature impacts on soil CO2 fluxes: An incubation experiment with agricultural soil samples.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature is often considered as the main driver of soil heterotrophic respiration. However, its impacts differ according to the timescale. Long term field experiments tend to show that soil CO2 fluxes return to pre-warming values within several months to years. In the short term, soil respiration increases with temperature. In this study, an incubation experiment was set up to investigate short term temperature impacts on soil heterotrophic respiration in a crop soil. In June 2009, some samples were taken from the bare soil surface (0-25cm) in the agricultural site of Lonzée (Belgium). They were homogenized and their soil moisture content was kept constant. Three samples (100g of fresh soil) were placed into each of three different incubators whose pre-incubation temperatures were set at 5, 15 and 25°C respectively. After a 5-day pre-incubation period, the incubator temperatures were modified by 10°C-steps between 5 and 35°C, starting from each incubator pre-incubation temperature. Every temperature step, CO2 fluxes were measured with a dynamic closed chamber system. Such a temperature cycle lasted about 22h and it was repeated two days after the first one was over. In August 2009, the same protocol was carried out, except that the samples were divided into two different soil moisture treatments. During the temperature cycles, we observed a very highly significant increase of the soil CO2 fluxes with temperature in all incubators. The pre-incubation temperature also played an important role. It impacted the CO2 fluxes differently at short and longer terms. Indeed, in the short term, the fluxes were the highest in the incubator set at the lowest temperature. In a longer term (several days), the fluxes were seen to converge towards a same value, whatever the incubator temperature or the soil moisture content. We suggest that labile soil carbon depletion might explain these observations. Furthermore, important hysteresis effects appeared, higher fluxes being always observed during warming phases. In addition to this, negative fluxes (CO2 absorption into the samples) were measured at 15 and 5°C during cooling phases. They were of the same order of magnitude as the positive fluxes and more important in the moistest samples. We hypothesize that in this case, the hysteresis effect and the negative fluxes might be linked to each other. The most probable explanation is that physico-chemical processes related to pH and temperature-mediated CO2 dissolution changes took place in the samples. Keywords: Incubation experiment, Agricultural soil, Soil CO2 flux, Temperature, Short-term, Pre-incubation, Physico-chemical processes.

Buysse, Pauline; Goffin, Stéphanie; Carnol, Monique; Malchair, Sandrine; Debacq, Alain; Aubinet, Marc

2010-05-01

197

Identifying sampling locations for field-scale soil moisture estimation using K-means clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

and understanding the impact of field-scale soil moisture patterns is currently limited by the time and resources required to do sufficient monitoring. This study uses K-means clustering to find critical sampling points to estimate field-scale near-surface soil moisture. Points within the field are clustered based upon topographic and soils data and the points representing the center of those clusters are identified as the critical sampling points. Soil moisture observations at 42 sites across the growing seasons of 4 years were collected several times per week. Using soil moisture observations at the critical sampling points and the number of points within each cluster, a weighted average is found and used as the estimated mean field-scale soil moisture. Field-scale soil moisture estimations from this method are compared to the rank stability approach (RSA) to find optimal sampling locations based upon temporal soil moisture data. The clustering approach on soil and topography data resulted in field-scale average moisture estimates that were as good or better than RSA, but without the need for exhaustive presampling of soil moisture. Using an electromagnetic inductance map as a proxy for soils data significantly improved the estimates over those obtained based on topography alone.

Van Arkel, Zach; Kaleita, Amy L.

2014-08-01

198

Particulate sampling and analysis. Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

The chapter provides information needed to ensure that sampling and data analysis are well done. It discusses sampling and analysis associated with mass tests using EPA Test Methods 5 and 17 and particle-size distribution tests conducted with cascade impactors. All steps in the sampling and data analysis process are covered. Considerably more space is given to cascade impactors than to EPA Test Method 5, mainly because cascade impactors are more difficult to use and data reduction is difficult. Computer programs for reducing mass train and cascade impactor data are presented, along with quality-control recommendations.

Sparks, L.E.

1984-01-01

199

Statistical Analysis Techniques for Small Sample Sizes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The small sample sizes problem which is encountered when dealing with analysis of space-flight data is examined. Because of such a amount of data available, careful analyses are essential to extract the maximum amount of information with acceptable accuracy. Statistical analysis of small samples is described. The background material necessary for understanding statistical hypothesis testing is outlined and the various tests which can be done on small samples are explained. Emphasis is on the underlying assumptions of each test and on considerations needed to choose the most appropriate test for a given type of analysis.

Navard, S. E.

1984-01-01

200

Drainage water sampling in a wet, dual-pore soil system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted on an undisturbed Hublersburg silt loam (Typic Hapludult) soil to evaluate two different soil solution sampling techniques. The two techniques were employed simultaneously to sample the leachate at depths of 38 to 120 cm when water was added at the soil surface with known concentrations of NOâ-N (0 to 579 ppM) and Cd\\/sup 2 +\\/ (0.0001

K. A. Shaffer; D. D. Fritton; D. E. Baker

1979-01-01

201

Spatial variability of soil sampling for salinity studies in Southwest Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the technology for soil sampling of large agricultural fields which are inherently variable in both space and time. Three several hundred ha fields in southwest Iran initially sampled on an arbitrarily selected grid of 80 m to ascertain soil salinity levels were analyzed using both geostatistical and classical statistical methods. The results from two fields showed that

S. Hajrasuliha; N. Baniabbassi; J. Metthey; D. R. Nielsen

1980-01-01

202

FRESHWATER ASSAY USING SOIL ELUATES AS SAMPLE MATERIAL (SINGLE LABORATORY EVALUATION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Chlorophyta assay, which uses soil as sample material, has been a useful bioassessment technique for screening hazardous waste site problems. n eluate is prepared from a 125-gram soil sample and then diluted into three separate concentrations prior to being tested using Selen...

203

Effective soil moisture sampling depth of L-band radiometry: A case study M.J. Escorihuela a,  

E-print Network

Effective soil moisture sampling depth of L-band radiometry: A case study M.J. Escorihuela a, , A Keywords: Soil moisture Passive microwave SMOS Roughness Sampling depth The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of the soil moisture sampling depth in the parameterization of soil emission in microwave

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis: Sample analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure conditions in atomic oxygen (ESCA) was performed on an SSL-100/206 Small Spot Spectrometer. All data were taken with the use of a low voltage electron flood gun and a charge neutralization screen to minimize charging effects on the data. The X-ray spot size and electron flood gun voltage used are recorded on the individual spectra as are the instrumental resolutions. Two types of spectra were obtained for each specimen: (1) general surveys, and (2) high resolution spectra. The two types of data reduction performed are: (1) semiquantitative compositional analysis, and (2) peak fitting. The materials analyzed are: (1) kapton 4, 5, and 6, (2) HDPE 19, 20, and 21, and (3) PVDF 4, 5, and 6.

Carter, W. B.

1989-01-01

205

Differential thermal analysis of lunar soil simulant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential thermal analysis of a lunar soil simulant, 'Minnesota Lunar Simulant-1' (MLS-1) was performed. The MLS-1 was tested in as-received form (in glass form) and with another silica. The silica addition was seen to depress nucleation events which lead to a better glass former.

Tucker, D.; Setzer, A.

1991-01-01

206

Situ soil sampling probe system with heated transfer line  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed both to an improved in situ penetrometer probe and to a heated, flexible transfer line. The line and probe may be implemented together in a penetrometer system in which the transfer line is used to connect the probe to a collector/analyzer at the surface. The probe comprises a heater that controls a temperature of a geologic medium surrounding the probe. At least one carrier gas port and vapor collection port are located on an external side wall of the probe. The carrier gas port provides a carrier gas into the geologic medium, and the collection port captures vapors from the geologic medium for analysis. In the transfer line, a flexible collection line that conveys a collected fluid, i.e., vapor, sample to a collector/analyzer. A flexible carrier gas line conveys a carrier gas to facilitate the collection of the sample. A system heating the collection line is also provided. Preferably the collection line is electrically conductive so that an electrical power source can generate a current through it so that the internal resistance generates heat.

Robbat, Jr., Albert (Andover, MA)

2002-01-01

207

Characterization of mineral phases of agricultural soil samples of Colombian coffee using Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectrometry (MS) of 57Fe were used to characterize mineral phases of samples taken from the productive layer (horizon A) of agricultural coffee soil from Tolima (Colombia). Chemical analysis shows the chemical and textural parameters of samples from two different regions of Tolima, i.e., Ibagué and Santa Isabel. By XRD phases like illite (I), andesine (A) and quartz (Q) in both samples were identified. The quantity of these phases is different for the two samples. The MS spectra taken at room temperature were adjusted by using five doublets, three of them associated to Fe + 3 type sites and the other two to Fe + 2 type sites. According to their isomer shift and quadrupole splitting the presence of phases like illite (detected by DRX), nontronite and biotite (not detected by XRD) can be postulated.

Rodríguez, Humberto Bustos; Lozano, Dagoberto Oyola; Martínez, Yebrayl Antonio Rojas; Pinilla, Marlene Rivera; Alcázar, German Antonio Pérez

2012-03-01

208

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Soil Particle Analysis Procedure  

E-print Network

the soil holds the wastewater long enough for microbes to remove contaminants. Aerobic microbes need air to survive. The amount of air in soil depends on the size of soil particles. Soil particle analysis determines the size of soil particles and can... microbes. Inorganic materials Most soils in Texas are dominated by inorganic or mineral materials such as clays, sands and silts. Silicon, oxygen and aluminum are the main elements in the ?aluminosilicate? minerals that make up most of the inorganic...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2005-08-18

209

Quantitative Field Testing Heterodera glycines from Metagenomic DNA Samples Isolated Directly from Soil under Agronomic Production  

PubMed Central

A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the Heterodera glycines ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated-78 gene was developed. The procedure estimated the quantity of H. glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from field soil under agronomic production. The estimation of H. glycines quantity was determined in soil samples having other soil dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including Hoplolaimus, predatory nematodes including Mononchus, free-living nematodes and biomass. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from field soil. PMID:24587100

Li, Yan; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

2014-01-01

210

Parameter Sensitivity in LSMs: An Analysis Using Stochastic Soil Moisture Models and ELDAS Soil Parameters  

E-print Network

Parameter Sensitivity in LSMs: An Analysis Using Stochastic Soil Moisture Models and ELDAS Soil as well as model evaluation requires a realistic representation of soil moisture in land surface models (LSMs). However, soil moisture in LSMs is sensitive to a range of uncertain input parameters

Haak, Hein

211

Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary  

SciTech Connect

A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

1981-07-23

212

Environmental Immunoassays: Alternative Techniques for Soil and Water Analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of soil and water samples for environmental studies and compliance testing can be formidable, time consuming, and costly. As a consequence, immunochemical techniques have become popular for environmental analysis because they are reliable, rapid, and cost effective. During the past 5 years, the use of immunoassays for environmental monitoring has increased substantially, and their use as an integral analytical tool in many environmental laboratories is now commonplace. This chapter will present the basic concept of immunoassays, recent advances in the development of immunochemical methods, and examples of successful applications of immunoassays in environmental analysis.

Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.

1996-01-01

213

Detection and quantification of aromatic contaminants in water and soil samples by means of laser desorption laser mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The combination of laser desorption of untreated soil samples and subsequent selective laser ionization followed by time-of-flight mass analysis results in an ultrafast technique for the quantitative detection of aromatic contaminants in soil samples. The method allows for high sample throughput, because the complete measurement is finished within about 1 min. Although the different types of soil investigated (sand, humus, clay) showed differences in the desorption efficiency, none of them produced mass spectrometric interferences when an ionization laser wavelength of 266 nm was used. Quantification was carried out by relative measurement with respect to an internal standard and gave satisfactory results over 4 orders of magnitude of analyte concentration. Although the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could successfully be carried out using nanosecond laser pulses, the quality of the mass spectra obtained for labile substances, for example, nitrotoluenes, could be greatly improved by the use of ultrashort pulses in the subpicosecond range. With the preliminary setup, detection limits in the low micrograms-per-gram range were achieved. The identical setup can be used for the analysis of liquids, in particular, water, when the soil sample is replaced by a solid, porous adsorber medium onto which the sample is applied. Activated carbon proved to be a useful adsorber for IR laser desorption, whereas for the UV, granular clay or lime/sand mixtures are preferable. PMID:12380805

Weickhardt, Christian; Tönnies, Karen; Globig, Daniel

2002-10-01

214

SAMPLE HANDLING STRATEGIES FOR ACCURATE LEAD-IN-SOIL MEASUREMENTS IN THE FIELD AND LABORATORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhomogenous lead-in-soil matrix can present serious obstacles to accurate sample collection and handling. In typical lead-in-soil measurement, particle size related errors in sampling and sample handling often exceed all other sources of error. The magnitude of error can vary widely depending on the particulate nature of the lead contaminant and the effectiveness of control measures. Large particle contaminants, such

Stephen Shefsky

215

Soil Organic Matter Effects on Phosphorus Sorption: a Path Analysis  

SciTech Connect

While P sorption in mineral soils has been extensively studied, P sorption behavior in organic-rich soils is less known. This study was conducted to determine the relationships between Langmuir P sorption maxima (S{sub max}) and selected physicochemical properties of soils, with particular emphasis on organic matter (OM) content. The S{sub max} values were determined for 72 soil samples from the North Carolina Coastal Plain, along with pH, clay and OM contents, oxalate-extractable P (P{sub ox}), Al (Al{sub ox}), and Fe (Fe{sub ox}), and Mehlich 3 extractable P (P{sub M3}), Al (Al{sub M3}), and Fe (Fe{sub M3}). Path analysis was used to examine direct and indirect effects of soil properties on S{sub max}. In the oxalate path analysis, the direct effects of clay, Al{sub ox}, and Fe{sub ox} on S{sub max} were significant in the order Al{sub ox} > clay > Fe{sub ox} (P < 0.05). The S{sub max} was highly influenced by the indirect effect of Al{sub ox} and Fe{sub ox} through OM content. A two-piece segmented linear relationship existed between S{sub max} and OM and the regression slope in soils with OM {le} 49 g kg{sup -1} was 10-fold greater than that for soils with OM > 49 g kg{sup -1}. This finding suggested that noncrystalline or organically bound Al and Fe in the soils with OM > 49 g kg{sup -1} is less effective for P sorption than in the soils with lower OM content. In the Mehlich 3 path analysis, the direct effects of clay, OM, and Al{sub M3} on S{sub max} were significant in the order Al{sub M3} > OM > clay (P < 0.05) while the direct effect of Fe{sub M3} on S{sub max} was not significant. Oxalate may be better suited than Mehlich 3 as an extractant for predicting P sorption capacity in the Coastal Plain soils.

Kang, J.; Hesterberg, D; Osmond, D

2009-01-01

216

Demonstration of Incremental Sampling Methodology for Soil Containing Metallic Residues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives of this project were to demonstrate improved data quality for metal constituents in surface soils on military training ranges and to develop a methodology that would result in the same or lower cost. The demonstration was conducted at two inact...

A. Bednar, A. Bray, J. L. Clausen, N. Perron, T. Georgian

2013-01-01

217

Assessment of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in soil samples near an electric capacitor manufacturing industry in Morelos, Mexico.  

PubMed

In Mexico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were principally used as heat transfer chemicals in electric transformers and capacitors as well as hydraulic fluids and lubricants in heavy electrical equipment since the early 1940s. However, although PCBs have been banned in Mexico, their past and present improper disposal has resulted in environmental contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the PCBs levels in soil samples in the immediate area of an electric capacitor manufacturing industry, which was established several years ago in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. To confirm the presence of PCBs, surface soil samples (1-5 cm in depth) were collected from the vicinity of the industry. We determined the concentrations of 40 PCB congeners in soil samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total PCBs levels in the soil samples ranged from 6.2 to 108460.6 ?g kg(-1). Moreover, when we analyzed the results of the congeners (non-dioxin-like PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs), the levels of non-dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 5.7 to 103469 ?g kg(-1) and the levels of dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 0.5 to 4992 ?g kg(-1). Considering that soil is an important pathway of exposure in humans, analysis of PCBs levels in blood (as a biomarker of exposure) is necessary in individuals living in Alpuyeca, Morelos. PMID:24967557

Perez-Maldonado, Ivan N; Salazar, Rogelio Costilla; Ilizaliturri-Hernandez, Cesar A; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco J; Fernandez-Macias, Juan C

2014-09-19

218

Shrinkage anisotropy characteristics from soil structure and initial sample/layer size  

E-print Network

The objective of this work is a physical prediction of such soil shrinkage anisotropy characteristics as variation with drying of (i) different sample/layer sizes and (ii) the shrinkage geometry factor. With that, a new presentation of the shrinkage anisotropy concept is suggested through the sample/layer size ratios. The work objective is reached in two steps. First, the relations are derived between the indicated soil shrinkage anisotropy characteristics and three different shrinkage curves of a soil relating to: small samples (without cracking at shrinkage), sufficiently large samples (with internal cracking), and layers of similar thickness. Then, the results of a recent work with respect to the physical prediction of the three shrinkage curves are used. These results connect the shrinkage curves with the initial sample size/layer thickness as well as characteristics of soil texture and structure (both inter- and intra-aggregate) as physical parameters. The parameters determining the reference shrinkage c...

Chertkov, V Y

2014-01-01

219

Quantitative Field Testing Rotylenchulus reniformis DNA from Metagenomic Samples Isolated Directly from Soil  

PubMed Central

A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the ?-tubulin gene determined the number of Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira 1940 in metagenomic DNA samples isolated from soil. Of note, this outcome was in the presence of other soil-dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including its sister genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from soil. PMID:22194958

Showmaker, Kurt; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

2011-01-01

220

Soil Test Phosphorus Stratification Survey Sampling Protocol, Spring 2008  

E-print Network

to valid conclusions. If no-till or strip till is used in your area, include at least one sample of one, eroded) with four from chisel-plowed systems and two from no-till systems. Sampling: Sample as early

Balser, Teri C.

221

Studying soil properties using visible and near infrared spectral analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is carried out inside the DIGISOIL Project, whose purposes are the integration and improvement of in situ and proximal measurement technologies, for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going form the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in digital soil mapping. The study area is located in the Virginio river basin, about 30 km south of Firenze, in the Chianti area, where soils with agricultural suitability have a high economic value connected to the production of internationally famous wines and olive oils. The most common soil threats, such as erosion and landslide, may determine huge economic losses, which must be considered in farming management practices. This basin has a length of about 23 km for a basin area of around 60,3 Km2. Geological formations outcropping in the area are Pliocene to Pleistocene marine and lacustrine sediments in beds with almost horizontal bedding. Vineyards, olive groves and annual crops are the main types of land use. A typical Mediterranean climate prevails with a dry summer followed by intense and sometimes prolonged rainfall in autumn, decreasing in winter. In this study, three types of VNIR and SWIR techniques, operating at different scales and in different environments (laboratory spectroscopy, portable field spectroscopy) are integrated to rapidly quantify various soil characteristics, in order to acquire data for assessing the risk of occurrence for typically agricultural practice-related soil threats (swelling, compaction, erosion, landslides, organic matter decline, ect.) and to collect ground data in order to build up a spectral library to be used in image analysis from air-borne and satellite sensors. Difficulties encountered in imaging spectroscopy, such as influence of measurements conditions, atmospheric attenuation, scene dependency and sampling representation are investigated and mathematical pre-treatments, using proper algorithms, are applied and tested. Data on detection limits of ground-based, airborne and satellite sensors are also provided. The problem of the influence of soil moisture and soil roughness on reflectance is also examined. Spectral indexes, derived from absorption features, are related to laboratory results on clay minerals, carbonate and iron content, soil moisture and organic matter amount, in order to investigate the potential of hyperspectral sensors to estimate soil properties, using empirical prediction models.

Moretti, S.; Garfagnoli, F.; Innocenti, L.; Chiarantini, L.

2009-04-01

222

Correlations between soil parameters and radionuclide contents in samples from Biscay (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of gamma emitting radioactive constituents in Biscay soils have been measured in 15 cm cores, at three depth levels, in fourteen sampling positions. Analyses were performed in Marinelli beakers with a gamma multichannel analyser provided with a Ge-HP detector. Additionally, each soil was characterized by a number of parameters (position, bulk density, pH, size distribution, total contents of

C. Elejalde; M. Herranz; F. Romero; F. Legarda

1996-01-01

223

Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

G. L. Schwendiman

2006-07-27

224

Spectrogoniometry and modeling of martian and lunar analog samples and Apollo soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new visible/near-infrared multispectral reflectance measurements of seven lunar soil simulants, two Apollo soils, and eight martian analog samples as functions of illumination and emission angles using the Bloomsburg University Goniometer. By modeling these data with Hapke theory, we provide constraints on photometric parameters (single scattering albedo, phase function parameters, macroscopic roughness, and opposition effect parameters) to provide additional “ground truth” photometric properties to assist analyses of spacecraft data. A wide range of modeled photometric properties were variably related to albedo, color, grain size, and surface texture. Finer-grained samples here have high single-scattering albedo values compared to their coarser-grained counterparts, as well as lower macroscopic roughness values. The Mars analog samples and Apollo soils exhibit slightly lower opposition effect width parameter values than the lunar analogs, whereas the opposition effect magnitude is not well constrained by the models. The Mars analog soils are typically relatively backscattering and consistent with fairly rough particles with a moderate density of internal scatterers, similar to the in situ observations of some soils by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit. Some lunar analog soil models result in moderately-forward scattering behaviors, as do the two Apollo soils. Other fine-grained and/or glass-rich lunar analog samples populate a narrowly forward-scattering regime similar to model results from observations of some rover tracks observed by the MER Opportunity rover and some dust-poor “gray” rocks by the Spirit rover. An experiment to mimic the spherule-rich soils observed by Opportunity demonstrated a large decrease in single-scattering albedo compared to spherule-free soil surfaces, as well as increased surface roughness, narrow opposition effects, and a significant increase in backscattering, similar to some of the Opportunity soils. Phase reddening effects are documented in many soils as an increase in near-infrared/visible ratios with phase angle. Some samples exhibit falloffs in these ratio phase curves at phase angles beyond 50-80° that are likely related to an increased importance of surface scattering at high phase angles. None of the lunar analog soils perfectly match the modeled photometric parameters of the two Apollo soils. The phase reddening nature of the mare soil included an upturn in ratio values at phase angles <10° that was not observed for the highland sample. It remains to be verified whether this is a consistent observation between mare and highland samples.

Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Shepard, Michael K.; Grundy, William M.; Paige, David A.; Foote, Emily J.

2013-03-01

225

Temporal changes of soil physic-chemical properties at different soil depths during larch afforestation by multivariate analysis of covariance  

PubMed Central

Soil physic-chemical properties differ at different depths; however, differences in afforestation-induced temporal changes at different soil depths are seldom reported. By examining 19 parameters, the temporal changes and their interactions with soil depth in a large chronosequence dataset (159 plots; 636 profiles; 2544 samples) of larch plantations were checked by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). No linear temporal changes were found in 9 parameters (N, K, N:P, available forms of N, P, K and ratios of N: available N, P: available P and K: available K), while marked linear changes were found in the rest 10 parameters. Four of them showed divergent temporal changes between surface and deep soils. At surface soils, changing rates were 262.1 g·kg?1·year?1 for SOM, 438.9 mg·g?1·year?1 for C:P, 5.3 mg·g?1·year?1 for C:K, and ?3.23 mg·cm?3·year?1 for bulk density, while contrary tendencies were found in deeper soils. These divergences resulted in much moderated or no changes in the overall 80-cm soil profile. The other six parameters showed significant temporal changes for overall 0–80-cm soil profile (P: ?4.10 mg·kg?1·year?1; pH: ?0.0061 unit·year?1; C:N: 167.1 mg·g?1·year?1; K:P: 371.5 mg·g?1 year?1; N:K: ?0.242 mg·g?1·year?1; EC: 0.169 ?S·cm?1·year?1), but without significant differences at different soil depths (P > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of deep soils in studying physic-chemical changes of soil properties, and the temporal changes occurred in both surface and deep soils should be fully considered for forest management and soil nutrient balance. PMID:24772281

Wang, Hui-Mei; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Zijun; Zu, Yuan-Gang

2014-01-01

226

Temporal changes of soil physic-chemical properties at different soil depths during larch afforestation by multivariate analysis of covariance.  

PubMed

Soil physic-chemical properties differ at different depths; however, differences in afforestation-induced temporal changes at different soil depths are seldom reported. By examining 19 parameters, the temporal changes and their interactions with soil depth in a large chronosequence dataset (159 plots; 636 profiles; 2544 samples) of larch plantations were checked by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). No linear temporal changes were found in 9 parameters (N, K, N:P, available forms of N, P, K and ratios of N: available N, P: available P and K: available K), while marked linear changes were found in the rest 10 parameters. Four of them showed divergent temporal changes between surface and deep soils. At surface soils, changing rates were 262.1 g·kg(-1)·year(-1) for SOM, 438.9 mg·g(-1)·year(-1) for C:P, 5.3 mg·g(-1)·year(-1) for C:K, and -3.23 mg·cm(-3)·year(-1) for bulk density, while contrary tendencies were found in deeper soils. These divergences resulted in much moderated or no changes in the overall 80-cm soil profile. The other six parameters showed significant temporal changes for overall 0-80-cm soil profile (P: -4.10 mg·kg(-1)·year(-1); pH: -0.0061 unit·year(-1); C:N: 167.1 mg·g(-1)·year(-1); K:P: 371.5 mg·g(-1) year(-1); N:K: -0.242 mg·g(-1)·year(-1); EC: 0.169 ?S·cm(-1)·year(-1)), but without significant differences at different soil depths (P > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of deep soils in studying physic-chemical changes of soil properties, and the temporal changes occurred in both surface and deep soils should be fully considered for forest management and soil nutrient balance. PMID:24772281

Wang, Hui-Mei; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Zijun; Zu, Yuan-Gang

2014-04-01

227

Selenium speciation in acidic environmental samples: application to acid rain-soil interaction at Mount Etna volcano.  

PubMed

Speciation plays a crucial role in elemental mobility. However, trace level selenium (Se) speciation analyses in aqueous samples from acidic environments are hampered due to adsorption of the analytes (i.e. selenate, selenite) on precipitates. Such solid phases can form during pH adaptation up till now necessary for chromatographic separation. Thermodynamic calculations in this study predicted that a pH<4 is needed to prevent precipitation of Al and Fe phases. Therefore, a speciation method with a low pH eluent that matches the natural sample pH of acid rain-soil interaction samples from Etna volcano was developed. With a mobile phase containing 20mM ammonium citrate at pH 3, selenate and selenite could be separated in different acidic media (spiked water, rain, soil leachates) in <10 min with a LOQ of 0.2 ?g L(-1) using (78)Se for detection. Applying this speciation analysis to study acid rain-soil interaction using synthetic rain based on H(2)SO(4) and soil samples collected at the flanks of Etna volcano demonstrated the dominance of selenate over selenite in leachates from samples collected close to the volcanic craters. This suggests that competitive behavior with sulfate present in acid rain might be a key factor in Se mobilization. The developed speciation method can significantly contribute to understand Se cycling in acidic, Al/Fe rich environments. PMID:21621241

Floor, Geerke H; Iglesías, Mònica; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Corvini, Philippe F X; Lenz, Markus

2011-09-01

228

Determination of some trace elements in food and soil samples by atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitation with holmium hydroxide.  

PubMed

The determination of trace elements in food and soil samples by atomic absorption spectrometry was investigated. A coprecipitation procedure with holmium hydroxide was used for separation-preconcentration of trace elements. Trace amounts of copper(II), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(ll), chromium(lll), iron(Ill), cadmium(ll), and lead(ll) ions were coprecipitated with holmium hydroxide in 2.0 M NaOH medium. The optimum conditions for the coprecipitation process were investigated for several commonly tested experimental parameters, such as amount of coprecipitant, effect of standing time, centrifugation rate and time, and sample volume. The precision, based on replicate analysis, was lower than 10% for the analytes. In order to verify the accuracy of the method, the certified reference materials BCR 141 R calcareous loam soil and CRM 025-050 soil were analyzed. The procedure was successfully applied for separation and preconcentration of the investigated ions in various food and soil samples. An amount of the solid samples was decomposed with 15 mL concentrated hydrochloric acid-concentrated nitric acid (3 + 1). The preconcentration procedure was then applied to the final solutions. The concentration of trace elements in samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. PMID:22816279

Saracoglu, Sibel; Soylak, Mustafa; Cabuk, Dilek; Topalak, Zeynep; Karagozlu, Yasemin

2012-01-01

229

Analysis of Picattiny Sample for Trace Explosives  

SciTech Connect

The sample received from Picatinny Arsenal was analyzed for trace amounts of high explosives (HE). A complete wash of the surface was performed, concentrated, and analyzed using two sensitive analysis techniques that are capable of detecting numerous types of explosives. No explosives were detected with either test.

Klunder, G; Whipple, R; Carman, L; Spackman, P E; Reynolds, J; Alcaraz, A

2008-05-23

230

Exploratory Factor Analysis with Small Sample Sizes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes ("N"), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for "N" below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required "N" for different…

de Winter, J. C. F.; Dodou, D.; Wieringa, P. A.

2009-01-01

231

COAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS: METHODS AND MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides information on coal sampling and analysis (CSD) techniques and procedures and presents a statistical model for estimating SO2 emissions. (New Source Performance Standards for large coal-fired boilers and certain State Implementation Plans require operators to ...

232

TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR INORGANIC SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual presents the state-of-the-art of inorganic sampling and analysis (ISA) procedures in a standardized format that makes the methodology readily available to professionals in the field. Because of the breadth of ISA, a system was developed to avoid burying specific method...

233

Ultrasonic dispersion of soils for routine particle size analysis: recommended procedures  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic techniques were found to be more effective than standard mechanical techniques to disperse soils for routine particle-size analysis (i.e., using a dispersing agent and mechanical mixing). Soil samples were tested using an ultrasonic homogenizer at various power outputs. The samples varied widely in texture and mineralogy, and included sands, silts, clays, volcanic soils, and soils high in organic matter. A combination of chemical and ultrasonic dispersion techniques were used in all tests. Hydrometer techniques were used for particle-size analysis. For most materials tested, clay percentage values indicated that ultrasonic dispersion was more complete than mechanical dispersion. Soils high in volcanic ash or iron oxides showed 10 to 20 wt % more clay when using ultrasonic mixing rather than mechanical mixing. The recommended procedure requires ultrasonic dispersion of a 20- to 40-g sample for 15 min at 300 W with a 1.9-cm-diameter ultrasonic homogenizer. 12 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Heller, P.R.; Hayden, R.E.; Gee, G.W.

1984-11-01

234

Distribution of Uranium, Plutonium, and Am-241 in Soil Samples from Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The uranium isotopic composition of the soils from the Idaho National Laboratory at two sample sites and depths is compared to previously measured total concentrations of 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 241Am.

Choiniere, Andrea D.; Payne, Rosara F.; Knaack, Charles M.; Smith, Steven C.; Clark, Sue B.

2009-12-01

235

MICROBIOLOGICAL FIELD SAMPLING AND INSTRUMENTATION IN THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AND GROUND-WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter emphasizes the importance of microbiological sampling of soil and ground water with respect to human heath risks, laws and regulations dealing with safe drinking water, and more prevalent subsurface monitoring activities associated with chlorinated organic compounds,...

236

The Benefits of Sample Return: Connecting Apollo Soils and Diviner Lunar Radiometer Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a comprehensive study to reproduce an accurate simulated lunar environment, evaluate the most appropriate sample and measurement conditions, collect thermal infrared spectra of Apollo soils, and correlate them with Diviner observations.

Greenhagen, B. T.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Pieters, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

2014-10-01

237

Sample Collection of Ash and Burned Soils from the October 2007 Southern California Wildfires  

E-print Network

Sample Collection of Ash and Burned Soils from the October 2007 Southern California Wildfires Wildfires: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009­1038, 64 p. Any use of trade, product, or firm names

238

DEVELOPMENT IN THE SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF CHLOROPHENOXY ACID HERBICIDES FROM SOIL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Extraction of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides from soil samples with supercritical carbon dioxide as extractand and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and methyl iodide as derivatization agents was investigated by the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. he extraction was carri...

239

APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE FOR SAMPLING SOIL PROFILES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A conventional soil-solution sampler was modified to prevent loss of volatiles, which tend to escape from the liquid sample during sample collection. The sampler is connected to a purging chamber, which is in turn connected to a trap packed with Tenax resin. The sample is collect...

240

MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

241

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and plant samples from the vicinity of an oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples, and samples of leaves of Plantago major (great plantain) and grass (mixed species) were collected from the vicinity of an oil refinery in Zelzate, Belgium, and analysed for seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The samples from the site adjacent to the refinery (site 1) contained very high total PAH-concentrations: namely 300, 8 and 2 ?g\\/g dry wt. for

Martine I. Bakker; Berta Casado; Judith W. Koerselman; Johannes Tolls; Chris Kollöffel

2000-01-01

242

EVALUATION OF VAPOR EQUILIBRATION AND IMPACT OF PURGE VOLUME ON SOIL-GAS SAMPLING RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sequential sampling was utilized at the Raymark Superfund site to evaluate attainment of vapor equilibration and the impact of purge volume on soil-gas sample results. A simple mass-balance equation indicates that removal of three to five internal volumes of a sample system shou...

243

A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils is described. Samples can be obtained within a stratigraphic interval of 2-3 cm, to a depth of 60-80 cm, and with little or no contamination of the samples by sediment or air. ?? 1974.

Nowlan, G.A.; Carollo, C.

1974-01-01

244

Determination of thorium and uranium contents in soil samples using SSNTD’s passive method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thorium-to-uranium ratios have been determined in different soil samples using CR-39 and LR-115-II solid-state nuclear track\\u000a detectors (SSNTDs). A calibration method based on determination of SSNTD registration sensitivity ratio for ?-particles of\\u000a thorium and uranium series has been developed. Thorium and uranium contents of the standard soil samples have been determined\\u000a and compared with its known values. There is a

T A Salama; U. Seddik; T M Dsoky; A. Ahmed Morsy; R. El-Asser

2006-01-01

245

Geochemistry of Soil Samples from 50 Solution-Collapse Features on the Coconino Plateau, Northern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil sampling surveys were conducted during 1984-1986 across 50 solution-collapse features exposed on the Coconino Plateau of northern Arizona in order to determine whether soil geochemistry can be used to distinguish mineralized breccia pipes from unmineralized collapse features. The 50 sampled features represent the variety of collapse features that crop out on plateau surfaces in northwestern Arizonaoodeeplyorooted solution-collapse breccia pipes, near-surface gypsum collapses, and sinkholes. Of the 50 features that were sampled in this study, 3 are confirmed breccia pipes that contain significant uranium and base-metal minerals, I is believed to be a sinkhole with no economic potential, and 4 are stratabound copper deposits whose possible relationship to breccia pipes is yet to be determined. The remaining collapse features are suspected to overlie breccia pipes, although some of these may represent near surface gypsum collapse features. However, no exploratory drilling results or breccia exposures exist to indicate their underlying structure. The low cost and ease of soil sampling suggested that this technique be evaluated for breccia pipe exploration. This report provides the locations and geochemical results for the soil sampling surveys and brief descriptions of the 50 collapse features. The analytical results of almost 2,000 soil samples are provided in tabular hardcopy and dBase III Plus diskcopy format. The analytical data is provided in digital format to allow the reader to choose their own methods for evaluating the effectiveness of soil sampling over known and suspected breccia pipes. A pilot survey conducted over 17 collapse features in 1984 suggested that soil sampling might be useful in distinguishing mineralized breccia pipes from other circular features. Followup detailed surveys in 1985 and 1986 used a radial sampling pattern at each of 50 sites; at least one third of the samples were collected from areas outside of the collapse feature to provide background data. Samples were consistently collected from 3-4 inches depth after the pilot survey showed that metal concentrations were similar in samples from 3-4 inches and 7-8 inches depth. The geochemical analyses of the <80 mesh fractions of the soil samples were performed by the U.S. Geological Survey Analytical Laboratories and Geochemical Services, Inc. The analytical methods applied to these samples by the U.S. Geological Survey laboratories included inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, neutron activation, atomic absorption, delayed neutron activation, and classical wet chemistry for carbon, fluorine, and sulfur. Geochemical Services, Inc. analyzed the soil samples by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy.

Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Wenrich, Karen J.

1991-01-01

246

Spatial Variation in Soil Properties among North American Ecosystems and Guidelines for Sampling Designs  

PubMed Central

Soils are highly variable at many spatial scales, which makes designing studies to accurately estimate the mean value of soil properties across space challenging. The spatial correlation structure is critical to develop robust sampling strategies (e.g., sample size and sample spacing). Current guidelines for designing studies recommend conducting preliminary investigation(s) to characterize this structure, but are rarely followed and sampling designs are often defined by logistics rather than quantitative considerations. The spatial variability of soils was assessed across ?1 ha at 60 sites. Sites were chosen to represent key US ecosystems as part of a scaling strategy deployed by the National Ecological Observatory Network. We measured soil temperature (Ts) and water content (SWC) because these properties mediate biological/biogeochemical processes below- and above-ground, and quantified spatial variability using semivariograms to estimate spatial correlation. We developed quantitative guidelines to inform sample size and sample spacing for future soil studies, e.g., 20 samples were sufficient to measure Ts to within 10% of the mean with 90% confidence at every temperate and sub-tropical site during the growing season, whereas an order of magnitude more samples were needed to meet this accuracy at some high-latitude sites. SWC was significantly more variable than Ts at most sites, resulting in at least 10× more SWC samples needed to meet the same accuracy requirement. Previous studies investigated the relationship between the mean and variability (i.e., sill) of SWC across space at individual sites across time and have often (but not always) observed the variance or standard deviation peaking at intermediate values of SWC and decreasing at low and high SWC. Finally, we quantified how far apart samples must be spaced to be statistically independent. Semivariance structures from 10 of the 12-dominant soil orders across the US were estimated, advancing our continental-scale understanding of soil behavior. PMID:24465377

Loescher, Henry; Ayres, Edward; Duffy, Paul; Luo, Hongyan; Brunke, Max

2014-01-01

247

Somatic mutation frequencies in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia grown in soil samples from the Bikini Island.  

PubMed

Somatic pink mutation frequencies in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia BNL 02 clone grown for 76 days in two soil samples taken from the Bikini Island (where a hydrogen bomb explosion test had been conducted in 1954) were investigated. A significantly high mutation frequency (2.58 +/- 0.17 pink mutant events per 10(3) hairs or 1.34 +/- 0.09 pink mutant events per 10(4) hair-cell divisions) was observed for the plant grown in one of the two Bikini soil samples, as compared to the control plants (1.70 +/- 0.14 or 0.88 +/- 0.07, respectively) grown in the field soil of Saitama University. The soil sample which caused the significant increase in mutation frequency contained 6,880 +/- 330 mBq/g 137Cs, 62.5 +/- 4.4 mBq/g 60Co, and some other nuclides; a 150 microR/hr exposure rate being measured on the surface of the soil sample. The effective cumulative external exposures measured for the inflorescences of the plant grown in this soil sample averaged at most 60.8 mR, being too small to explain the significant elevation in mutation frequency observed. On the other hand, internal exposure due to uptake of radioactive nuclides was estimated to be 125 mrad (1.25 mGy) as an accumulated effective dose, mainly based on a gamma-spectrometrical analysis. However, it seemed highly likely that this value of internal exposure was a considerable underestimate, and the internal exposure was considered to be more significant than the external exposure. PMID:2064800

Ichikawa, S; Ishii, C

1991-02-01

248

Naturally occurring radionuclides and rare earth elements in weathered Japanese soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ac in weathered Japanese soils from two selected prefectures have been measured using a ?-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The uranium, thorium, and rare earth elements (REEs) concentrations were determined from the same soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For example, granitic rocks contain higher amounts of U, Th, and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils since soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water, and gases. In this paper, we will discuss about distribution pattern of 238U and 232Th along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite) collected from two prefectures of Japan: Hiroshima and Miyagi.

Sahoo, Sarata K.; Hosoda, Masahiro; Prasad, Ganesh; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

2013-08-01

249

LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF SOILS AND SPOILS BPG NOTE 2  

E-print Network

, long-term tree stability, effective rooting depth and nutrient holding capacity. In short, soil be restored to a green end use. Therefore chemical analysis of the soil from these sites is essential beforeLABORATORY ANALYSIS OF SOILS AND SPOILS BPG NOTE 2 Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration

250

OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

Brisson, M

2009-04-01

251

Urine sample preparation for proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

Sample preparation for both environmental and more importantly biological matrices is a bottleneck of all kinds of analytical processes. In the case of proteomic analysis this element is even more important due to the amount of cross-reactions that should be taken into consideration. The incorporation of new post-translational modifications, protein hydrolysis, or even its degradation is possible as side effects of proteins sample processing. If protocols are evaluated appropriately, then identification of such proteins does not bring difficulties. However, if structural changes are provided without sufficient attention then protein sequence coverage will be reduced or even identification of such proteins could be impossible. This review summarizes obstacles and achievements in protein sample preparation of urine for proteome analysis using different tools for mass spectrometry analysis. The main aim is to present comprehensively the idea of urine application as a valuable matrix. This article is dedicated to sample preparation and application of urine mainly in novel cancer biomarkers discovery. PMID:25132110

Olszowy, Pawel; Buszewski, Boguslaw

2014-10-01

252

Integrating legacy soil information in a Digital Soil Mapping approach based on a modified conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One crucial component of a Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) framework is outlined by geo-referenced soil observations. Nevertheless, highly informative legacy soil information, acquired by traditional soil surveys, is often neglected due to lacking accordance with specific statistical DSM designs. The focus of this study is to integrate legacy data into a state-of-the-art DSM approach, based on a modified conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) design and Random Forest. Furthermore, by means of the cLHS modification the scope of actually unique cLHS sampling locations is widened in order to compensate limited accessability in the field. As well, the maximally stratified cLHS design is not diluted by the modification. Exemplarily the target variables of the modelling are represented by sand and clay fractions. The study site is a small mountainous hydrological catchment of 4.2 km² in the reservoir of the Three Gorges Dam in Central China. The modification is accomplished by demarcating the histogram borders of each cLHS stratum, which are based on the multivariate cLHS feature space. Thereby, all potential sample locations per stratum are identified. This provides a possibility to integrate legacy data samples that match one of the newly created sample locations, and flexibility with respect to field accessibility. Consequently, six legacy data samples, taken from a total sample size of n = 30 were integrated into the sampling design and for all strata several potential sample locations are identified. The comparability of the modified and standard cLHS data sets is approved by (i) identifying their feature space coverage with respect to the cLHS stratifying variables, and (ii) by assessing the Random Forest accuracy estimates.

Stumpf, Felix; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Schoenbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Scholten, Thomas

2014-05-01

253

Germanium-76 Sample Analysis: Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia. The first one-gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on April 24, 2011. The second one-gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on July 12, 2011. The third sample, which came from the first large shipment of germanium from the vendor, was received from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on September 13, 2011. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility, a DOE user facility at PNNL, was used to make the required isotopic and chemical purity measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The results of these analyses are reported here. The isotopic composition of a sample of natural germanium was also measured twice. Differences in the result between these two measurements led to a re-measurement of the second 76Ge sample.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua; Engelhard, Mark H.

2011-09-19

254

Sampling and Data Analysis for Environmental Microbiology  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of the literature indicates the importance of statistical analysis in applied and environmental microbiology. Sampling designs are particularly important for successful studies, and it is highly recommended that researchers review their sampling design before heading to the laboratory or the field. Most statisticians have numerous stories of scientists who approached them after their study was complete only to have to tell them that the data they gathered could not be used to test the hypothesis they wanted to address. Once the data are gathered, a large and complex body of statistical techniques are available for analysis of the data. Those methods include both numerical and graphical techniques for exploratory characterization of the data. Hypothesis testing and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are techniques that can be used to compare the mean and variance of two or more groups of samples. Regression can be used to examine the relationships between sets of variables and is often used to examine the dependence of microbiological populations on microbiological parameters. Multivariate statistics provides several methods that can be used for interpretation of datasets with a large number of variables and to partition samples into similar groups, a task that is very common in taxonomy, but also has applications in other fields of microbiology. Geostatistics and other techniques have been used to examine the spatial distribution of microorganisms. The objectives of this chapter are to provide a brief survey of some of the statistical techniques that can be used for sample design and data analysis of microbiological data in environmental studies, and to provide some examples of their use from the literature.

Murray, Christopher J.

2001-06-01

255

Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis--part III: sampling plans and sample preparations.  

PubMed

The findings in this paper are based on the results of our drug homogeneity studies and particle size investigations. Using that information, a general sampling plan (depicted in the form of a flow-chart) was devised that could be applied to the quantitative instrumental analysis of the most common illicit drugs: namely heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, cannabis resin, MDMA tablets and herbal cannabis in 'bud' form (type I). Other more heterogeneous forms of cannabis (type II) were found to require alternative, more traditional sampling methods. A table was constructed which shows the sampling uncertainty expected when a particular number of random increments are taken and combined to form a single primary sample. It also includes a recommended increment size; which is 1 g for powdered drugs and cannabis resin, 1 tablet for MDMA and 1 bud for herbal cannabis in bud form (type I). By referring to that table, individual laboratories can ensure that the sampling uncertainty for a particular drug seizure can be minimised, such that it lies in the same region as their analytical uncertainty for that drug. The table shows that assuming a laboratory wishes to quantitatively analyse a seizure of powdered drug or cannabis resin with a 'typical' heterogeneity, a primary sample of 15×1 g increments is generally appropriate. The appropriate primary sample for MDMA tablets is 20 tablets, while for herbal cannabis (in bud form) 50 buds were found to be appropriate. Our study also showed that, for a suitably homogenised primary sample of the most common powdered drugs, an analytical sample size of between 20 and 35 mg was appropriate and for herbal cannabis the appropriate amount was 200 mg. The need to ensure that the results from duplicate or multiple incremental sampling were compared, to demonstrate whether or not a particular seized material has a 'typical' heterogeneity and that the sampling procedure applied has resulted in a 'correct sample', was highlighted and the setting up of suitable control charts (R or S charts), for quality control purposes, was strongly recommended and examples given. Furthermore, although this particular study relates to the sampling of illicit drugs, it should be remembered that it is based on general sampling theory and therefore the same approach could be applied to other disciplines where 'correct sampling' of powders and solids is important. PMID:24815616

Csesztregi, T; Bovens, M; Dujourdy, L; Franc, A; Nagy, J

2014-08-01

256

Analytical Results for Agricultural Soils Samples from a Monitoring Program Near Deer Trail, Colorado (USA)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District, MWRD), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado, USA. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream bed sediment. Soils for this study were defined as the plow zone of the dry land agricultural fields - the top twelve inches of the soil column. This report presents analytical results for the soil samples collected at the Metro District farm land near Deer Trail, Colorado, during three separate sampling events during 1999, 2000, and 2002. Soil samples taken in 1999 were to be a representation of the original baseline of the agricultural soils prior to any biosolids application. The soil samples taken in 2000 represent the soils after one application of biosolids to the middle field at each site and those taken in 2002 represent the soils after two applications. There have been no biosolids applied to any of the four control fields. The next soil sampling is scheduled for the spring of 2010. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity (Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Division, 1997; Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment,1998; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1993). Since these were the identified priority parameters for the biosolids, the soils have the same set of priority parameters. Although the composite soils' priority analytes have been reported earlier to Metro District, the remaining elemental datasets for both the composite soils samples and selected fields' individual subsamples' data are presented here for the first time. More information about the other monitoring components is presented elsewhere in the literature (http://co.water.usgs.gov/projects/CO406/CO406.html). In general, the objective of each component of the study was to determine whether concentrations of priority parameters (1) were higher than regulatory limits, (2) were increasing with time, and(or) (3) were significantly higher in biosolids-applied areas than in a similar farmed area where biosolids were not applied. The method chosen for sampling the soils proved to be an efficient and reliable representation of the average composition of each field. This was shown by analyzing individual subsamples, averaging the resulting values, and then comparing the values to the composited samples' values. The soil chemistry shows distinct differences between the two sites, most likely due to the different underlying parent material. Biosolids data were used to compile an inorganic-chemical biosolids signature that can be contrasted with the geochemical signature of the agricultural soils for this site. The biosolids signature and an understanding of the geology and hydrology of the site can be used to separate biosolids effects from natural geochemical effects. Elements of particular interest for a biosolids signature after application in the soils include bismuth, copper, silver, mercury, and phosphorus. This signat

Crock, J. G.; Smith, D. B.; Yager, T. J. B.

2009-01-01

257

LRO Diviner Soil Composition Measurements - Lunar Sample Ground Truth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1,2] includes three thermal infrared channels spanning the wavelength ranges 7.55-8.05 microns 8.10-8.40 microns, and 8.38-8.68 microns. These "8 micron" bands were specifically selected to measure the "Christiansen feature". The wavelength location of this feature, referred to herein as CF, is particularly sensitive to silicate minerals including plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine the major crystalline components of lunar rocks and soil. The general trend is that lower CF values are correlated with higher silica content and higher CF values are correlated with lower silica content. In a companion abstract, Greenhagen et al. [3] discuss the details of lunar mineral identification using Diviner data.

Allen, Carlton C.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.

2010-01-01

258

Bacterial diversity of autotrophic enriched cultures from remote, glacial Antarctic, Alpine and Andean aerosol, snow and soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four different communities and one culture of autotrophic microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area) and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia), from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville) and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas), in a minimal mineral (oligotrophic) media. Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. Phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed sequences belonging to Proteobacteria Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria), Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla to be identified. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified) and the marine Antarctic soil the poorest (only one). Snow samples from Col du Midi (Alps) and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones). These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteriaclone). The only microorganism identified in the Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp.) was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. Most of the identified microorganisms had been detected previously in cold environments, marine sediments soils and rocks. Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those identified in this work, in environments very distant and very different from each other.

González-Toril, E.; Amils, R.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Komárek, J.; Elster, J.

2009-01-01

259

Results of analyses of fur samples from the San Joaquin Kit Fox and associated soil and water samples from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Tupman, California  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of the elemental content of fur from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and of water and soil from kit fox habitats could be used to make inferences concerning the cause of an observed decline in the kit fox population on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Fur samples that had been collected previously from NPR-1, another oil field (NPR-2), and two sites with no oil development were subjected to neutron activation analysis. In addition, soil samples were collected from the home ranges of individual foxes from undisturbed portions of major soil types on NPR-1 and from wastewater samples were collected from tanks and sumps and subjected to neutron activation analysis. Most elemental concentrations in fur were highest at Camp Roberts and lowest on the undeveloped portions of NPR-I. Fur concentrations were intermediate on the developed oil fields but were correlated with percent disturbance and with number of wells on NPR-1 and NPR-2. The fact that most elements covaried across the range of sites suggests that some pervasive source such as soil was responsible. However, fur concentrations were not correlated with soft concentrations. The kit foxes on the developed portion of NPR-1 did not have concentrations of elements in fur relative to other sites that would account for the population decline in the early 1980s. The oil-related elements As, Ba, and V were elevated in fox fur from oil fields, but only As was sufficiently elevated to suggest a risk of toxicity in individual foxes. However, arsenic concentrations suggestive of sublethal toxicity were found in only 0.56% of foxes from developed oil fields, too few to account for a population decline.

Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Kato, T.T. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States))

1992-12-01

260

Radioactivity Levels and Gamma-Ray Dose Rate in Soil Samples from Kohistan (Pakistan) Using Gamma-Ray Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and an anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs is carried out in some soil samples collected from Kohistan district of N.W.F.P. (Pakistan), using gamma-ray spectrometry. The gamma spectrometry is operated using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector coupled with a computer based high resolution multi channel analyzer. The specific activity in soil ranges from 24.72 to 78.48Bq·kg-1 for 226Ra, 21.73 to 75.28Bq·kg-1 for 232Th, 7.06 to 14.9Bq·kg-1 for 137Cs and 298.46 to 570.77Bq·kg-1 for 40K with the mean values of 42.11, 43.27, 9.5 and 418.27Bq·kg-1, respectively. The radium equivalent activity in all the soil samples is lower than the safe limit set in the OECD report (370Bq·kg-1). Man-made radionuclide 137Cs is also present in detectable amount in all soil samples. Presence of 137Cs indicates that the samples in this remote area also receive some fallout from nuclear accident in Chernobyl power plant in 1986. The internal and external hazard indices have the mean values of 0.48 and 0.37 respectively. Absorbed dose rates and effective dose equivalents are also determined for the samples. The concentration of radionuclides found in the soil samples during the present study is nominal and does not pose any potential health hazard to the general public.

Hasan, M. Khan; Ismail, M.; K., Khan; Akhter, P.

2011-01-01

261

Astrobiology Sample Analysis as a Design Driver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This effort supports the Astrobiology Objective 8 the Search for LIFE ON MARS PAST AND PRESENT -(Astrobiology Program Office, 1998, p.7). The essential trade analysis is between returning very small samples to the Earth while protecting them versus in situ analysis on Mars. Developing these explicit parameters encompasses design, instrumentation, system integration, human factors and surface operations for both alternatives. This allocation of capability approach incorporates a "humans and machines in the loop" model that recognizes that every exploration system involves both humans and automated systems. The question is where in the loop they occur whether on Earth, in the Mars Base, in the rover or creeping over the Mars surface.

Cohen, Marc M.

2001-01-01

262

Soil Sample Questionnaire --Field Crops Sample No. Field Identification Field Size acres  

E-print Network

of irrigation season: days 12. Water sources: well reservoir creek or river canal project Name of creek, river laboratory address: Soil Testing Laboratory Renewable Resources Department University of Wyoming Dept. 3354, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071. Persons seeking admission, employment, or access to programs

Norton, Jay B.

263

Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

2014-09-01

264

Vegetation and soil sampling for detection of enrichment facilities  

SciTech Connect

The concept of being able to detect clandestine nuclear operations rests on the fact that they invariably lose material characteristic of the process to the environment. This material can be collected and characterized using highly sensitive analytical techniques. The extent to which these signatures penetrate the environment depends on the type of process and the care taken at the facility to control losses. An enrichment facility that uses UF{sub 6}, a gas, will tend to lose more than a reactor because gases are harder to contain then solids. Any nuclear facility, like industrial processes everywhere, loses some characteristic material to the environment. The issues involved in acquiring environmental samples from around nuclear facilities are discussed, with the primary application being safeguards. Sampling plans, sample acquisition, analytical techniques, and data interpretation are described.

Smith, D.H.

1994-06-01

265

Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A. F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

266

SoilEngineering: A Microsoft Excel ® spreadsheet © program for geotechnical and geophysical analysis of soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SoilEngineering is a user-friendly, interactive Microsoft Excel ® spreadsheet program for the geotechnical and geophysical analysis of soils. The influence of soil behavior on earthquake characteristics and/or structural design is one of the major elements in investigating earthquake forces, and thus the structural response with static and dynamic loads. With its interactive nature, the program provides the user with an opportunity to undertake soil static and dynamic load analysis. The program is formed by three main options: (1) Data Preparation, (2) Derived Parameters and (3) Analysis of Soil Problems (with Static and Dynamic Loads). The Data Preparation option is divided into four modules: Seismic Refraction Data, Geoelectrical Data, Borehole and SPT ( N) Data and Laboratory Data. The Derived Parameters option is divided into two modules: Geotechnical Parameters Derived from Geophysical Data and Relationships between Vs and SPT ( N) Values. The Analysis of Soil Problems (with Static and Dynamic Loads) option is divided into nine modules: Bearing Capacity for Shallow and Deep Foundations, Settlement Analysis (Static and Dynamic Loads), Estimation of Subgrade Reaction Coefficient, Slope Stability Analysis, Seismic Hazard Analysis, Strong Motion Attenuation Relationships, Acceleration/Velocity/Displacement Spectra, Soil Amplification Analysis and Soil Liquefaction Analysis. Soil engineering also permits plotting geophysical and geotechnical data with analysis.

Ozcep, Ferhat

2010-10-01

267

BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS WITH SAMPLING AND SAMPLE PRESERVATION SPECIFICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Current federal regulations (40CFR 503) specify that under certain conditions treated municipal biosolids must be analyzed for fecal coliform or salmonellae. The regulations state that representative samples of biosolids must be collected and analyzed using standard methods. Th...

268

Hayabusa Recovery, Curation and Preliminary Sample Analysis: Lessons Learned from Recent Sample Return Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I describe lessons learned from my participation on the Hayabusa Mission, which returned regolith grains from asteroid Itokawa in 2010 [1], comparing this with the recently returned Stardust Spacecraft, which sampled the Jupiter Family comet Wild 2. Spacecraft Recovery Operations: The mission Science and Curation teams must actively participate in planning, testing and implementing spacecraft recovery operations. The crash of the Genesis spacecraft underscored the importance of thinking through multiple contingency scenarios and practicing field recovery for these potential circumstances. Having the contingency supplies on-hand was critical, and at least one full year of planning for Stardust and Hayabusa recovery operations was necessary. Care must be taken to coordinate recovery operations with local organizations and inform relevant government bodies well in advance. Recovery plans for both Stardust and Hayabusa had to be adjusted for unexpectedly wet landing site conditions. Documentation of every step of spacecraft recovery and deintegration was necessary, and collection and analysis of launch and landing site soils was critical. We found the operation of the Woomera Text Range (South Australia) to be excellent in the case of Hayabusa, and in many respects this site is superior to the Utah Test and Training Range (used for Stardust) in the USA. Recovery operations for all recovered spacecraft suffered from the lack of a hermetic seal for the samples. Mission engineers should be pushed to provide hermetic seals for returned samples. Sample Curation Issues: More than two full years were required to prepare curation facilities for Stardust and Hayabusa. Despite this seemingly adequate lead time, major changes to curation procedures were required once the actual state of the returned samples became apparent. Sample databases must be fully implemented before sample return for Stardust we did not adequately think through all of the possible sub sampling and analytical activities before settling on a database design - Hayabusa has done a better job of this. Also, analysis teams must not be permitted to devise their own sample naming schemes. The sample handling and storage facilities for Hayabusa are the finest that exist, and we are now modifying Stardust curation to take advantage of the Hayabusa facilities. Remote storage of a sample subset is desirable. Preliminary Examination (PE) of Samples: There must be some determination of the state and quantity of the returned samples, to provide a necessary guide to persons requesting samples and oversight committees tasked with sample curation oversight. Hayabusa s sample PE, which is called HASPET, was designed so that late additions to the analysis protocols were possible, as new analytical techniques became available. A small but representative number of recovered grains are being subjected to in-depth characterization. The bulk of the recovered samples are being left untouched, to limit contamination. The HASPET plan takes maximum advantage of the unique strengths of sample return missions

Zolensky, Michael E.

2011-01-01

269

Distribution of radionuclides in soil samples in and around Dhaka City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of the natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series and of 40K and a fission product 137Cs have been determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in soil samples collected from Dhaka city and its neighbouring environs. Values of the radionuclides present in the samples were greatly influenced by the geomorphological conditions in the area. The results have been compared

F. K. Miah; S. Roy; M. Touchiduzzaman; B. Alam

1998-01-01

270

Lunar surface: identification of the dark mantling material in the Apollo 17 soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence indicates that Apollo 17 sample 74001, a soil consisting of ; very dark spheres, is composed almost entirely of the dark mantling material that ; covers a large region of the southeastern boundary of Mare Serenitatis. Other ; Apollo 17 samples contain only a component of this material. The underlying ; basalt in the Taurus- Littrow valley appears to

C. Pieters; T. B. McCord; M. P. Charette; J. B. Adams

1974-01-01

271

Fast low-pressure microwave assisted extraction and gas chromatographic determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil samples.  

PubMed

A new technology equipment for low-pressure microwave assisted extraction (usually employed for organic chemistry reactions), recently launched in the market, is used for the first time in environmental analysis for the extraction of commercial technical Aroclor mixtures from soil. Certified reference materials of Aroclor 1260, Aroclor 1254 and Aroclor 1242 in transformer oils were used to contaminate the soil samples and to optimize the extraction method as well as the subsequent gas chromatographic electron capture detection (GC-ECD) analytical method. The study was performed optimizing the extraction, the purification and the gas chromatographic separation conditions to enhance the resolution of difficult pairs of congeners (C28/31 and C141/179). After optimization, the recovery yields were included within the range 79-84%. The detection limits, evaluated for two different commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures (Aroclor 1260 and Aroclor 1242) were 0.056 ± 0.001 mg/kg and 0.290 ± 0.006 mg/kg, respectively. The method, validated with certified soil samples, was used to analyze a soil sample after an event of failure of a pole-mounted transformer which caused the dumping of PCB contaminated oil in soil. Moreover, the method provides simple sample handling, fast extraction with reduced amount of sample and solvents than usually required, and simple purification step involving the use of solvent (cyclohexane) volumes as low as 5 mL. Reliability and reproducibility of extraction conditions are ensured by direct and continuous monitoring of temperature and pressure conditions. PMID:23084486

Bruzzoniti, M C; Maina, R; Tumiatti, V; Sarzanini, C; Rivoira, L; De Carlo, R M

2012-11-23

272

Balloon and core sampling for determining bulk density of alluvial desert soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples were collected from major strata in the upper 5 m of an alluvial soil profile in the Amargosa Desert of southern Nevada to compare rubber-balloon and drive-core bulk-density measurement methods. Outside the range of fine-soil texture, where soil consistency was either very loose or very hard, the core method appeared to sample inaccurately, resulting in bulk-density values less than those determined by the balloon method. Under the severe sampling conditions encountered, large decreases in the relative accuracy of the core method were not directly related to rock-fragment content, but were related to extremes in the cohesiveness of the strata sampled. -from Author

Andraski, B. J.

1991-01-01

273

Emerging techniques for soil analysis via mid-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmittance and diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) spectroscopy in the mid-IR range are well-established methods for soil analysis. Over the last five years, additional mid-IR techniques have been investigated, and in particular: 1. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Attenuated total reflectance is commonly used for analysis of liquids and powders for which simple transmittance measurements are not possible. The method relies on a crystal with a high refractive index, which is in contact with the sample and serves as a waveguide for the IR radiation. The radiation beam is directed in such a way that it hits the crystal/sample interface several times, each time penetrating a few microns into the sample. Since the penetration depth is limited to a few microns, very good contact between the sample and the crystal must be ensured, which can be achieved by working with samples close to water saturation. However, the strong absorbance of water in the mid-infrared range as well as the absorbance of some soil constituents (e.g., calcium carbonate) interfere with some of the absorbance bands of interest. This has led to the development of several post-processing methods for analysis of the spectra. The FTIR-ATR technique has been successfully applied to soil classification as well as to determination of nitrate concentration [1, 6-8, 10]. Furthermore, Shaviv et al. [12] demonstrated the possibility of using fiber optics as an ATR devise for direct determination of nitrate concentration in soil extracts. Recently, Du et al. [5] showed that it is possible to differentiate between 14N and 15N in such spectra, which opens very promising opportunities for developing FTIR-ATR based methods for investigating nitrogen transformation in soils by tracing changes in N-isotopic species. 2. Photo-acoustic spectroscopy Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is based on absorption-induced heating of the sample, which produces pressure fluctuations in a surrounding gas. These fluctuations are recorded by a microphone and constitute the PAS signal. The major advantage of this method is that it is suitable for highly absorbing solid samples such as soils without any special pretreatment. This method has been applied successfully to soil classification and to quantitative determination of soil properties such as available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, organic matter or calcium carbonate content [2-4]. 3. FTIR-based determination of ion concentration using ion-exchange membranes In addition to the previous direct methods, mid-infrared spectroscopy can also be used to estimate nutrient availability or ion availability indirectly by combining FTIR with ion-exchange membranes. Such membranes are commonly used in studies dealing with nutrient availability, in which standard chemical methods are used to determine the amount of nutrients sorbed onto the membranes. Chemical analysis can be replaced by mid-IR spectroscopy of the loaded membrane, using either the transmittance or photo-acoustic technique depending on the type of membrane [9, 11]. The present work reviews these techniques and the chemometrics tools required for accurate interpretation of the spectra and discusses the potentials and limitations of each method. References 1. Borenstein A., R. Linker, I. Shmulevich and A. Shaviv (2006). Determination of soil nitrate and water content using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 60: 1267-1272. 2. Du, C., R. Linker and A. Shaviv (2007). Characterization of soils using photoacoustic mid-infrared spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 61: 1063-1067. 3. Du, C., R. Linker and A. Shaviv (2008). Identification of agricultural Mediterranean soils using mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Geoderma, 143: 85-90. 4. Du, C., J. Zhou, H. Wang, X. Chen, A. Zhu and J. Zhang (2008). Determiantion of soil properties using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Vibrational Spectroscopy (In press). 5. Du, C., R. Linker, A. Shaviv and Z. Jianmin. In situ evaluation of net nitrification rate in Terra rossa soil using FTIR-ATR

Linker, R.; Shaviv, A.

2009-04-01

274

Microextraction sample preparation techniques in biomedical analysis.  

PubMed

Biologically active compounds are found in biological samples at relatively low concentration levels. The sample preparation of target compounds from biological, pharmaceutical, environmental, and food matrices is one of the most time-consuming steps in the analytical procedure. The microextraction techniques are dominant. Metabolomic studies also require application of proper analytical technique for the determination of endogenic metabolites present in biological matrix on trace concentration levels. Due to the reproducibility of data, precision, relatively low cost of the appropriate analysis, simplicity of the determination, and the possibility of direct combination of those techniques with other methods (combination types on-line and off-line), they have become the most widespread in routine determinations. Additionally, sample pretreatment procedures have to be more selective, cheap, quick, and environmentally friendly. This review summarizes the current achievements and applications of microextraction techniques. The main aim is to deal with the utilization of different types of sorbents for microextraction and emphasize the use of new synthesized sorbents as well as to bring together studies concerning the systematic approach to method development. This review is dedicated to the description of microextraction techniques and their application in biomedical analysis. PMID:25132413

Szultka, Malgorzata; Pomastowski, Pawel; Railean-Plugaru, Viorica; Buszewski, Boguslaw

2014-11-01

275

Accurately measuring volume of soil samples using low cost Kinect 3D scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3D scanner of the Kinect game controller can be used to increase the accuracy and efficiency of determining in situ soil moisture content. Soil moisture is one of the principal hydrological variables in both the water and energy interactions between soil and atmosphere. Current in situ measurements of soil moisture either rely on indirect measurements (of electromagnetic constants or heat capacity) or on physically taking a sample and weighing it in a lab. The bottleneck in accurately retrieving soil moisture using samples is the determining of the volume of the sample. Currently this is mostly done by the very time consuming "sand cone method" in which the volume were the sample used to sit is filled with sand. We show that 3D scanner that is part of the $150 game controller extension "Kinect" can be used to make 3D scans before and after taking the sample. The accuracy of this method is tested by scanning forms of known volume. This method is less time consuming and less error-prone than using a sand cone.

van der Sterre, B.; Hut, R.; Van De Giesen, N.

2012-12-01

276

Accurately measuring volume of soil samples using low cost Kinect 3D scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3D scanner of the Kinect game controller can be used to increase the accuracy and efficiency of determining in situ soil moisture content. Soil moisture is one of the principal hydrological variables in both the water and energy interactions between soil and atmosphere. Current in situ measurements of soil moisture either rely on indirect measurements (of electromagnetic constants or heat capacity) or on physically taking a sample and weighing it in a lab. The bottleneck in accurately retrieving soil moisture using samples is the determining of the volume of the sample. Currently this is mostly done by the very time consuming "sand cone method" in which the volume were the sample used to sit is filled with sand. We show that 3D scanner that is part of the 150 game controller extension "Kinect" can be used to make 3D scans before and after taking the sample. The accuracy of this method is tested by scanning forms of known volume. This method is less time consuming and less error-prone than using a sand cone.

van der Sterre, Boy-Santhos; Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick

2013-04-01

277

High-level parasitic contamination of soil sampled in Ibadan metropolis.  

PubMed

Soil transmitted helminthes infections are common chronic human infections worldwide, this has been recognized as an important health problem, particularly in developing countries. The study was conducted within Ibadan metropolis in Oyo State, south western Nigeria between September 2008 and March 2009 to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite in soil samples within the city. A total of 102 soil samples were collected from different sources from five local government areas ranging from refuse dumps, vegetable farms, school play grounds, abattoir, hospital, vicinity of house, gutter and road side. Two different methods of concentrating ova/cysts of parasites were used to analyze the samples--the zinc sulphate floatation technique and concentrated glucose solution method. Fifty-seven (55.9%) soil samples were positive for one or more parasites. These included; hookworm (37.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (20%), Entamoeba histolytica (18.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (17.3%), Trichuris trichiura (6.7%) respectively. The total number of parasites recovered was 75 (73.5%) and 74 (98.7) of these were recovered by the zinc sulphate floatation technique while only 44% was recovered by the concentrated normal saline-glucose solution technique. This study thus established the high prevalence rate of intestinal parasites in the soil sampled in Ibadan city and this obviously is one major means by which residents are at risk of parasitic diseases and also one of the means of vegetable contamination. PMID:22783681

Ogbolu, D O; Alli, O A Terry; Amoo, A O J; Olaosun, I I; Ilozavbie, G W; Olusoga-Ogbolu, F F

2011-12-01

278

Stability Analysis and Stability Chart for Unsaturated Residual Soil Slope  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tropical residual soils most hill slope failures are caused by rainfall. It is therefore important to consider dynamic hydrological conditions when attempting to analyze the stability of residual soil slopes. This paper describes a coupled hydrology\\/stability model that has been developed to overcome the limitations of the standard method of analysis used to investigate stability of tropical soil slopes.

Bujang B. K. Huat; Faisal Hj; R. S. K. Rajoo

2006-01-01

279

Integrated field lysimetry and porewater sampling for evaluation of chemical mobility in soils and established vegetation.  

PubMed

Potentially toxic chemicals are routinely applied to land to meet growing demands on waste management and food production, but the fate of these chemicals is often not well understood. Here we demonstrate an integrated field lysimetry and porewater sampling method for evaluating the mobility of chemicals applied to soils and established vegetation. Lysimeters, open columns made of metal or plastic, are driven into bareground or vegetated soils. Porewater samplers, which are commercially available and use vacuum to collect percolating soil water, are installed at predetermined depths within the lysimeters. At prearranged times following chemical application to experimental plots, porewater is collected, and lysimeters, containing soil and vegetation, are exhumed. By analyzing chemical concentrations in the lysimeter soil, vegetation, and porewater, downward leaching rates, soil retention capacities, and plant uptake for the chemical of interest may be quantified. Because field lysimetry and porewater sampling are conducted under natural environmental conditions and with minimal soil disturbance, derived results project real-case scenarios and provide valuable information for chemical management. As chemicals are increasingly applied to land worldwide, the described techniques may be utilized to determine whether applied chemicals pose adverse effects to human health or the environment. PMID:25045915

Matteson, Audrey R; Mahoney, Denis J; Gannon, Travis W; Polizzotto, Matthew L

2014-01-01

280

BEAST: Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site presents a free downloadable program for "testing evolutionary hypotheses without conditioning on a single tree topology." Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees, or BEAST, was created by Alexei Drummond and Andrew Rambaut of the Evolutionary Biology Group at the University of Oxford. The latest version (v1.0.2) is bug-free and ready for download. The Web site includes detailed information on what BEAST can do, and what researchers can expect to find in future versions of the program.

281

Optimal spatial sampling techniques for ground truth data in microwave remote sensing of soil moisture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper examines optimal sampling techniques for obtaining accurate spatial averages of soil moisture, at various depths and for cell sizes in the range 2.5-40 acres, with a minimum number of samples. Both simple random sampling and stratified sampling procedures are used to reach a set of recommended sample sizes for each depth and for each cell size. Major conclusions from statistical sampling test results are that (1) the number of samples required decreases with increasing depth; (2) when the total number of samples cannot be prespecified or the moisture in only one single layer is of interest, then a simple random sample procedure should be used which is based on the observed mean and SD for data from a single field; (3) when the total number of samples can be prespecified and the objective is to measure the soil moisture profile with depth, then stratified random sampling based on optimal allocation should be used; and (4) decreasing the sensor resolution cell size leads to fairly large decreases in samples sizes with stratified sampling procedures, whereas only a moderate decrease is obtained in simple random sampling procedures.

Rao, R. G. S.; Ulaby, F. T.

1977-01-01

282

Elemental Analysis of Soils by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical and elemental composition of soil is very complex as it contains many constituents like minerals, organic matters, living organisms, fossils, air and water. Considering the diversity of soil contents, quality and usability, a systematic scientific study on the elemental and chemical composition of soil is very important. In order to study the chemical composition of soil, Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied recently. The important features of LIBS system and its applications for the measurement of nutrients in green house soil, on-line monitoring of remediation process of chromium polluted soil, determination of trace elements in volcanic erupted soil samples collected from ancient cenozoic lava eruption sites and detection of toxic metals in Gulf war oil spill contaminated soil using LIBS are described in this chapter.

Gondal, Mohammed Ashraf; Dastageer, Mohamed A.

283

Diversity of Microorganisms Isolated from the Soil Sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing Region  

PubMed Central

Artificially cultivating Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. Furthermore, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, it is important to determine the natural habitat of its fruiting body. This study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus habitat to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates were selected for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, based on their growth characteristics and colony morphology. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the bacterial isolates were divided into two monophyletic clusters which had significant hits to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, respectively. Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were present in C. rutilus habitat. This was the first reported examination of the microbiological ecology of C. rutilus. PMID:21448282

Wang, Peng; Liu, Yu; Yin, Yonggang; Jin, Haojie; Wang, Shouxian; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Shuang; Geng, Xiaoli

2011-01-01

284

An integrated approach to soil structure, shrinkage, and cracking in samples and layers  

E-print Network

A recent model showed how a clay shrinkage curve is step-by-step transformed into the shrinkage curve of an aggregated soil at any clay content if it is measured on samples so small that cracks do not occur at shrinkage. Such a shrinkage curve was called a reference curve. The present work generalizes this model to any soil sample size or layer thickness, i.e., to any crack contribution to the shrinkage curve. The approach is based on: (i) recently suggested features of an intra-aggregate structure; (ii) detailed accounting for the contributions to the soil volume and water content during shrinkage; and (iii) new concepts of lacunar factor, crack factor, and critical sample size. The following input parameters are needed for the prediction: (i) all parameters determining the basic dependence of the reference shrinkage curve; (ii) parameters determining the critical sample size (structural porosity and minimum and maximum aggregate size at maximum swelling); and (iii) initial sample size or layer thickness. A primary experimental validation of the new model concepts is conducted using the relevant available data on the shrinkage curves of four soils with different texture and structure that were obtained utilizing the samples of two essentially different sizes. The results show evidence in favor of the model.

V. Y. Chertkov

2014-04-07

285

Contamination of apple orchard soils and fruit trees with copper-based fungicides: sampling aspects.  

PubMed

Accumulations of copper in orchard soils and fruit trees due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have become research hotspots. However, information about the sampling strategies, which can affect the accuracy of the following research results, is lacking. This study aimed to determine some sampling considerations when Cu accumulations in the soils and fruit trees of apple orchards are studied. The study was conducted in three apple orchards from different sites. Each orchard included two different histories of Cu-based fungicides usage, varying from 3 to 28 years. Soil samples were collected from different locations varying with the distances from tree trunk to the canopy drip line. Fruits and leaves from the middle heights of tree canopy at two locations (outer canopy and inner canopy) were collected. The variation in total soil Cu concentrations between orchards was much greater than the variation within orchards. Total soil Cu concentrations had a tendency to increase with the increasing history of Cu-based fungicides usage. Moreover, total soil Cu concentrations had the lowest values at the canopy drip line, while the highest values were found at the half distances between the trunk and the canopy drip line. Additionally, Cu concentrations of leaves and fruits from the outer parts of the canopy were significantly higher than from the inner parts. Depending on the findings of this study, not only the between-orchard variation but also the within-orchard variation should be taken into consideration when conducting future soil and tree samplings in apple orchards. PMID:25407992

Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Liu, Qiang

2015-01-01

286

Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The <2-mm fraction of each sample was analyzed for Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural pathogens. Collection, preservation and analysis of samples for both organic compounds and microbial characterization add a great degree of complication to the sampling and preservation protocols and a significant increase to the cost for a continental-scale survey. Both these issues must be considered carefully prior to adopting these parameters as part of the soil geochemical survey of North America.

Smith, D. B.; Woodruff, L. G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W. F.; Garrett, R. G.; Kilburn, J. E.; Goldhaber, M. B.

2009-01-01

287

Optimization of sampling for the determination of mean radium-226 concentration in surface soil.  

PubMed

There are thousands of properties in the United States on which the soil has been contaminated to some degree with uranium mill tailings. An effort is now underway by the United States Department of Energy to identify sites contaminated with tailings and to perform remedial action when (226)Ra levels exceed current guidelines. Because of the large number of sites involved, it is imperative that sample collection be performed in a cost-effective manner. In this paper we describe the results of a study in which we compared the efficiencies of different methods of sample collection in order to determine an optimal method for estimating the mean (226)Ra concentration in soil. The study involved a field experiment in which extensive sampling was performed on sites known to be contaminated with uranium tailings. The experiment was designed to identify the advantages and limitations of composite sampling, the relative merits of random and uniformly spaced sample collection, the use of field gamma measurements for supplementing and reducing soil sample collection, and practical levels of accuracy and precision that can be obtained. Conclusions regarding gamma measurements are unique to (226)Ra contamination. On the other hand, conclusions concerning composite sampling and random versus uniformly spaced sampling may depend primarily on the way the contamination was spread by man and hence may not be unique to (226)Ra. PMID:24249068

Williams, L R; Leggett, R W; Espegren, M L; Little, C A

1989-04-01

288

Sampling and analysis of phloem sap.  

PubMed

The transport tubes of the phloem are essential for higher plants. They not only provide the route for the distribution of assimilates produced during photosynthesis from source to sink organs but also (re-) distribute mineral nutrients. Additionally, the phloem is essential for sending information between distant plant organs and steering developmental and defense processes. For example, flowering and tuberization time are controlled by phloem-mobile signals and important defense reactions on the whole plant level, like systemic acquired resistance or systemic gene silencing, are spread through the phloem. In addition, recent results demonstrate that also the allocation of mineral nutrients is coordinated by phloem mobile signaling molecules. However, in many studies the important analysis of phloem sap is neglected, probably because the content of sieve tubes is not easy to access. This chapter will describe the current methods for sampling and analysis of phloem sap in order to encourage researchers to include the analysis of this crucial compartment in their relevant studies. PMID:23073884

Dinant, Sylvie; Kehr, Julia

2013-01-01

289

Long-term variations of solar corpuscular fluxes based on lunar soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of age determination of a lunar soil column, delivered by the Luna 16 mission in September 1970 from the Sea of Fertility. We elaborated and applied the soil age determination method using the kinetic parameter, the regolith accumulation rate. The age of the soil delivered by Luna 16 is about 90 Myr. The isotopic ratio of 3He/4He in the column is slightly higher than in the soil column delivered by the Luna 24 mission. The abundance of helium in the fine fraction of the soil (about 100 µm) is significantly higher and is close to the maximum abundance from the Luna 24 soil column. These differences are most likely associated with the variations of solar corpuscular fluxes. Based on the measurements of the helium isotope abundance in the samples of lunar soil columns, we have estimated the values of ancient solar fluxes of protons and helium and variations thereof in the time interval of up to 600 Myr. We demonstrate that during this epoch there were two strong bursts of the helium flux, about 80 and 470 Myr ago, respectively. The existence of the first peak was assumed earlier from the paleodendrochronological data.

Anufriev, G. S.

2013-07-01

290

Understanding Graph Sampling Algorithms for Social Network Analysis  

E-print Network

Understanding Graph Sampling Algorithms for Social Network Analysis Tianyi Wang1, Yang Chen2 graph, graph sampling provides an efficient, yet inexpensive solution for social network analysis for social network analysis including user behavior measurements [11], social interaction characterization [4

Zhou, Yuanyuan

291

Uranium content and dose assessment for phosphate fertiliser and soil samples: comparison of uranium concentration between virgin soil and fertilised soil.  

PubMed

Specific activity of (235)U and (238)U in soil and fertiliser samples from Guellal region in Setif (Algeria) was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. The selected phosphate fertilisers samples were collected from two types of fertilisers NPK (N, nitrogen; P, phosphorus; K, potassium) and NPKs (sulphate-based NPK). These last ones are used to fertilise the studied area as well as a radioactivity comparison between the soils before and after fertilisation. NPK and NPKs fertilisers have presented higher concentrations of the radionuclide (238)U, up to 1125 and 1545 Bq kg(-1), respectively. For soils before and after fertilisation, the concentrations of (238)U were, respectively, 252.8 and 316.2 Bq kg(-1). The average value and range of measured concentration of (235)U for soils before fertilisation was 12.16 ± 1.4 Bq kg(-1) and for the fertilised soils was 15.16 ± 1.8 Bq kg(-1), whereas the corresponding values for NPK and NPKs fertilisers were, respectively, 49.38 ± 5.7 and 50.61 ± 5.2 Bq kg(-1). PMID:21398318

Boukhenfouf, Wassila; Boucenna, Ahmed

2012-01-01

292

Soil moisture optimal sampling strategy for Sentinel 1 validation super-sites in Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture (SM) exhibits a high temporal and spatial variability that is dependent not only on the rainfall distribution, but also on the topography of the area, physical properties of soil and vegetation characteristics. Large variability does not allow on certain estimation of SM in the surface layer based on ground point measurements, especially in large spatial scales. Remote sensing measurements allow estimating the spatial distribution of SM in the surface layer on the Earth, better than point measurements, however they require validation. This study attempts to characterize the SM distribution by determining its spatial variability in relation to the number and location of ground point measurements. The strategy takes into account the gravimetric and TDR measurements with different sampling steps, abundance and distribution of measuring points on scales of arable field, wetland and commune (areas: 0.01, 1 and 140 km2 respectively), taking into account the different status of SM. Mean values of SM were lowly sensitive on changes in the number and arrangement of sampling, however parameters describing the dispersion responded in a more significant manner. Spatial analysis showed autocorrelations of the SM, which lengths depended on the number and the distribution of points within the adopted grids. Directional analysis revealed a differentiated anisotropy of SM for different grids and numbers of measuring points. It can therefore be concluded that both the number of samples, as well as their layout on the experimental area, were reflected in the parameters characterizing the SM distribution. This suggests the need of using at least two variants of sampling, differing in the number and positioning of the measurement points, wherein the number of them must be at least 20. This is due to the value of the standard error and range of spatial variability, which show little change with the increase in the number of samples above this figure. Gravimetric method gives a more varied distribution of SM than those derived from TDR measurements. It should be noted that reducing the number of samples in the measuring grid leads to flattening the distribution of SM from both methods and increasing the estimation error at the same time. Grid of sensors for permanent measurement points should include points that have similar distributions of SM in the vicinity. Results of the analysis including number, the maximum correlation ranges and the acceptable estimation error should be taken into account when choosing of the measurement points. Adoption or possible adjustment of the distribution of the measurement points should be verified by performing additional measuring campaigns during the dry and wet periods. Presented approach seems to be appropriate for creation of regional-scale test (super) sites, to validate products of satellites equipped with SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), operating in C-band, with spatial resolution suited to single field scale, as for example: ERS-1, ERS-2, Radarsat and Sentinel-1, which is going to be launched in next few months. The work was partially funded by the Government of Poland through an ESA Contract under the PECS ELBARA_PD project No. 4000107897/13/NL/KML.

Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lukowski, Mateusz; Marczewski, Wojciech; Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Jerzy; Rojek, Edyta; Slominska, Ewa; Slominski, Jan

2014-05-01

293

Analysis and modeling of soil moisture in Jiangsu, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are large uncertainties in the observation of soil moisture. This study compares the two observation datasets of soil moisture data, including automatic and manual measurements, in Jiangsu Province, China from 2010 to 2012. More than 30 automatic monitoring instruments of soil moisture have been installed in Jiangsu since 2010. However, the automatic stations show various uncertainties, including improper site selection, such as shallow soil depth on rocks, underground river, and artificial soil. Compared to the manual observations, the values of automatic observations usually are lower, except for over saturation condition. With increasing soil depths, soil moisture of automatic observation becomes more stable with less variance and shows larger discrepancies with manual observations. Automatic measurements have greater advantage in temporal and spatial coverage, and indicate better relationship with observed precipitation patterns. At eight depths from 10 cm to 100 cm, manual soil moisture observations largely fluctuate than automatic ones, especially under relatively dry conditions. In general, observation errors in automatic measurements need careful analysis, and automatic measurements with quality control are more accurate in representing real soil moisture, and are less influenced by precipitation conditions. Also, the observed soil moisture data is used to evaluate the simulated soil moisture using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the global forecast system (GFS) model in July, 2012. Both models select the Noah land surface model and produce soil moisture for four layers. Several extremely dry periods are also investigated to predict potential drought using soil moisture.

Yuan, H.; Sun, R.; Fei, Q.

2013-12-01

294

Dielectrophoretic sample preparation for environmental monitoring of microorganisms: Soil particle removal.  

PubMed

Detection of pathogens from environmental samples is often hampered by sensors interacting with environmental particles such as soot, pollen, or environmental dust such as soil or clay. These particles may be of similar size to the target bacterium, preventing removal by filtration, but may non-specifically bind to sensor surfaces, fouling them and causing artefactual results. In this paper, we report the selective manipulation of soil particles using an AC electrokinetic microfluidic system. Four heterogeneous soil samples (smectic clay, kaolinitic clay, peaty loam, and sandy loam) were characterised using dielectrophoresis to identify the electrical difference to a target organism. A flow-cell device was then constructed to evaluate dielectrophoretic separation of bacteria and clay in a continous flow through mode. The average separation efficiency of the system across all soil types was found to be 68.7% with a maximal separation efficiency for kaolinitic clay at 87.6%. This represents the first attempt to separate soil particles from bacteria using dielectrophoresis and indicate that the technique shows significant promise; with appropriate system optimisation, we believe that this preliminary study represents an opportunity to develop a simple yet highly effective sample processing system. PMID:25379100

Fatoyinbo, Henry O; McDonnell, Martin C; Hughes, Michael P

2014-07-01

295

Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples, held in Milpitas, California, January 16-18, 1989. Conveners are Sherwood Chang (NASA Ames Research Center) and Larry Nyquist (NASA Johnson Space Center). Program Committee members are Thomas Ahrens (ex-officio; California Institute of Technology), Lou Allamandola (NASA Ames Research Center), David Blake (NASA Ames Research Center), Donald Brownlee (University of Washington, Seattle), Theodore E. Bunch (NASA Ames Research Center), Humberto Campins (Planetary Science Institute), Jeff Cuzzi (NASA Ames Research Center), Eberhard Griin (Max-Plank-Institut fiir Kemphysik), Martha Hanner (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Alan Harris (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), John Kerrid-e (University of Califomia, Los Angeles), Yves Langevin (University of Paris), Gerhard Schwehm (ESTEC), and Paul Weissman (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Logistics and administrative support for the workshop were provided by the Lunar and Planetary Institute Projects Office.

Chang, Sherwood (Compiler)

1997-01-01

296

Quantitative analysis of radiocaesium retention in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fallout of radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident has renewed interest in its environmental behaviour. How it behaves in soils and sediments is important, for example, for the modelling of radiocaesium transport and retention in soils, and transfer from soil to plants and hence into the food chain. The traditional approach is highly empirical and is based on the measurement

A. Cremers; A. Elsen; P. De Preter; A. Maes

1988-01-01

297

40 CFR 761.292 - Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples...Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With... § 761.292 Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples...this part, for chemical extraction of...

2010-07-01

298

Water extraction times for plant and soil materials used in stable isotope analysis.  

PubMed

Stable isotopic analysis of water for many ecological applications commonly requires extractions of water from dozens to hundreds of plant and soil samples. With recent advances in mass spectrometry, water extraction, rather than the isotopic analysis itself, is the bottleneck in sample processing. Using cryogenic vacuum distillation, we have created extraction timing curves to determine how much time (T(min)) is required to extract an unfractionated water sample. Our results indicated that T(min) values are 60 to 75 min for stems, 40 min for clay soils, 30 min for sandy soils and 20 to 30 min for leaves. While the extraction times reported here may allow for some reductions relative to times reported in the literature, the extraction process will continue to be a rate-limiting step in plant water analyses. Ultimately, technological advances eliminating the need for extraction are required to greatly increase throughput rates in water isotope analysis for ecological research. PMID:16555369

West, Adam G; Patrickson, Shela J; Ehleringer, James R

2006-01-01

299

Sedimentation Time Measurements of Soil Particles by Light Scattering and Determination of Chromium, Lead, and Iron in Soil Samples via ICP  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of soil samples, using light scattering and Inductively Coupled Plasma spectrometry (ICP) to determine colloid sedimentation rates and the quantity of chromium, lead, and iron in the sample is described. It shows the physical and chemical behavior of solid components in soil, and how such pollutant binding colloid surfaces directly…

Todebush, Patricia Metthe; Geiger, Franz M.

2005-01-01

300

Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus. 8 figs.

Rossabi, J.; May, C.P.; Pemberton, B.E.; Shinn, J.; Sprague, K.

1999-03-30

301

Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus.

Rossabi, Joseph (105 Michael Ct., Aiken, SC 29801); May, Christopher P. (5002 Hesperus Dr., Columbia, MD 21044); Pemberton, Bradley E. (131 Glencarin Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Shinn, Jim (Box 65, RFD. #1, South Royalton, VT 05068); Sprague, Keith (Box 234 Rte. 14, Brookfield, VT 05036)

1999-01-01

302

Automated System for Collecting Multiple, Sequential Samples from Soil Water Percolation Samplers under Continuous Vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manually collecting a series of sequential, discrete water samples from soil water percolation samplers, or similar devices that withdraw water from unsaturated porous media under continuous vacuum, is a logistical challenge, though the resulting collection can provide valuable information on the dynamics present in both laboratory and field studies. This article describes a sequential tension autosampler (STAS) that executes such

Rodrick D. Lentz

2006-01-01

303

RATIONALE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF ERRORS IN THE SAMPLING OF SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

The sampling of soils in RCRA and Superfund monitoring programs requires associated quality assurance programs. ne objective of any quality assurance program is to assess and document the quality of the study data to ensure that it satisfies the needs of the users. he purpose of ...

304

Soil and Water ? What is Detectable through Microbiological Sample Preparation Techniques  

EPA Science Inventory

The concerns of a potential terrorist?s use of biological agents in soil and ground water are articulated by comparisons to major illnesses in this Country involving contaminated drinking water sources. Objectives are focused on the importance of sample preparation in the rapid, ...

305

DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF CHLOROPHENOXY ACID HERBICIDES FROM SOIL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Extraction of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides from soil samples with supercritical carbon dioxide as extractant and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and methyl iodide as derivatization agents was investigated. The extraction was carried out at 400 atm and 80 C for 15 min static, follow...

306

Speciation studies of tetraalkylleads and inorganic Pb in polluted roadside vegetation and soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gas chromatography?atomic absorption spectrophotometric method has been used for the determination of tetraalkylleads in polluted roadside vegetation and soil samples. The method, which required very little sample preparation, gave precisions of 8.3% (TML) and 22% (TEL), which are adjudged acceptable. The detection limits (16.3–43.6 pg, Pb) for the alkylleads are sufficiently low for pollution monitoring applications.Results are presented for

O. S. Fatoki; S. J. Hill

1994-01-01

307

Europlanet Research Infrastructure: Planetary Sample Analysis Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EuroPlanet The Europlanet Research Infrastructure consortium funded under FP7 aims to provide the EU Planetary Science community greater access for to research infrastructure. A series of networking and outreach initiatives will be complimented by joint research activities and the formation of three Trans National Access distributed service laboratories (TNA's) to provide a unique and comprehensive set of analogue field sites, laboratory simulation facilities, and extraterrestrial sample analysis tools. Here we report on the infrastructure that comprises the third TNA: Planetary Sample Analysis Facilities. The modular infrastructure represents a major commitment of analytical instrumentation by three institutes and together forms a state-of-the-art analytical facility of unprecedented breadth. These centres perform research in the fields of geochemistry and cosmochemistry, studying fluids and rocks in order to better understand the keys cof the universe. Europlanet Research Infrastructure Facilities: Ion Probe facilities at CRPG and OU The Cameca 1270 Ion microprobe is a CNRS-INSU national facility. About a third of the useful analytical time of the ion probe (about 3 months each year) is allocated to the national community. French scientists have to submit their projects to a national committee for selection. The selected projects are allocated time in the following 6 months twice a year. About 15 to 20 projects are run each year. There are only two such instruments in Europe, with cosmochemistry only performed at CRPG. Different analyses can be performed on a routine basis, such as U-Pb dating on Zircon, Monazite or Pechblende, Li, B, C, O, Si isotopic ratios determination on different matrix, 26Al, 60Fe extinct radioactivity ages, light and trace elements contents . The NanoSIMS 50L - producing element or isotope maps with a spatial resolution down to ?50nm. This is one of the cornerstone facilities of UKCAN, with 75% of available instrument time funded and committed to UK cosmochemical activity - but the remainder is free for other applications and users. The UK activity is managed by the UKCAN management committee and vetted through a local working group. Management of the remaining 25% of other activity will be organised through the local working group. This is the newest, and most advanced of three instruments of this type in Europe which routinely address cosmochemical analyses. The instrument is capable of providing high spatial resolution (down to 50nm) elemental and isotope distribution maps for a wide range of elements from across the periodic table. It is also capable of high precision (per mil) isotopic spot measurements with a spatial resolution of a few microns for a range of elements including C, N, O, S, Si, Mg, etc. Noble Gases facilities at CRPG and OU Ar/Ar Nu Instruments Noblesse is coupled with an ultra-low volume extraction line and with a choice of 213 nm UV laser or 1090 nm IR lasers, providing a wide range of analytical capability in Ar/Ar dating of lunar and meteorite samples. This instrument is unique with a mass resolution of 3000, and with the UV laser it has the capability to measure Ar isotope variation on a ca. 30 -micron resolution enabling detailed mapping of age and apparent age variation within minerals. The 1090 nm laser provides the capability to step-heat small samples. The laboratory is fully supported by sample preparation facilities and technical expertise in lunar and meteorite Ar/Ar analysis. Helium isotope facility. Analysis of the isotopes of helium in rocks and minerals. Determining the origin of gases in meteorites and ET return samples, dating surface exposure with cosmogenic 3He using the latest He isotope mass spectrometer, the GV Helix SFT, the first instrument installed in Europe. CRPG is an European leader in this domain. Non-Traditional stable Isotopes and radiogenic isotopes at VUA and CRPG The specific facility proposed for the TNA is the geochemistry labs used for the study of long (e.g. Rb- Sr, Sm-Nd…) and short-lived radioisotope (e.g. Mg- Al, Hf-W..), inc

Cloquet, C.; Mason, N. J.; Davies, G. R.; Marty, B.

2008-09-01

308

[Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil around Haining electroplating industrial park].  

PubMed

The pollution status and potential ecological risks of heavy metal in soils around Haining electroplating industrial park were studied. Hakanson index approach was used to assess the ecological hazards of heavy metals in soils. Results showed that average concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) in the soils were lower than the secondary criteria of environmental quality standard for soils, indicating limited harmful effects on the plants and the environment in general. Though the average soil concentrations were low, heavy metal concentrations in six sampling points located at the side of road still exceeded the criteria, with excessive rate of 13%. Statistic analysis showed that concentrations of Cu and Cd in roadside soils were significantly higher than those in non-roadside soils, indicating that the excessive heavy metal accumulations in the soil closely related with traffic transport. The average potential ecological hazard index of soils around Haining electroplating industrial park was 46.6, suggesting a slightly ecological harm. However, the potential ecological hazard index of soils with excessive heavy metals was 220-278, suggesting the medium ecological hazards. Cd was the most seriously ecological hazard factor. PMID:24946611

Li, Jiong-Hui; Weng, Shan; Fang, Jing; Huang, Jia-Lei; Lu, Fang-Hua; Lu, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Ming

2014-04-01

309

Detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in complex soil and air samples using next-generation sequencing.  

PubMed

Bacillus anthracis is the potentially lethal etiologic agent of anthrax disease, and is a significant concern in the realm of biodefense. One of the cornerstones of an effective biodefense strategy is the ability to detect infectious agents with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in the context of a complex sample background. The nature of the B. anthracis genome, however, renders specific detection difficult, due to close homology with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We therefore elected to determine the efficacy of next-generation sequencing analysis and microarrays for detection of B. anthracis in an environmental background. We applied next-generation sequencing to titrated genome copy numbers of B. anthracis in the presence of background nucleic acid extracted from aerosol and soil samples. We found next-generation sequencing to be capable of detecting as few as 10 genomic equivalents of B. anthracis DNA per nanogram of background nucleic acid. Detection was accomplished by mapping reads to either a defined subset of reference genomes or to the full GenBank database. Moreover, sequence data obtained from B. anthracis could be reliably distinguished from sequence data mapping to either B. cereus or B. thuringiensis. We also demonstrated the efficacy of a microbial census microarray in detecting B. anthracis in the same samples, representing a cost-effective and high-throughput approach, complementary to next-generation sequencing. Our results, in combination with the capacity of sequencing for providing insights into the genomic characteristics of complex and novel organisms, suggest that these platforms should be considered important components of a biosurveillance strategy. PMID:24039948

Be, Nicholas A; Thissen, James B; Gardner, Shea N; McLoughlin, Kevin S; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y; Koshinsky, Heather; Ellingson, Sally R; Brettin, Thomas S; Jackson, Paul J; Jaing, Crystal J

2013-01-01

310

Detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in Complex Soil and Air Samples Using Next-Generation Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Bacillus anthracis is the potentially lethal etiologic agent of anthrax disease, and is a significant concern in the realm of biodefense. One of the cornerstones of an effective biodefense strategy is the ability to detect infectious agents with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in the context of a complex sample background. The nature of the B. anthracis genome, however, renders specific detection difficult, due to close homology with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We therefore elected to determine the efficacy of next-generation sequencing analysis and microarrays for detection of B. anthracis in an environmental background. We applied next-generation sequencing to titrated genome copy numbers of B. anthracis in the presence of background nucleic acid extracted from aerosol and soil samples. We found next-generation sequencing to be capable of detecting as few as 10 genomic equivalents of B. anthracis DNA per nanogram of background nucleic acid. Detection was accomplished by mapping reads to either a defined subset of reference genomes or to the full GenBank database. Moreover, sequence data obtained from B. anthracis could be reliably distinguished from sequence data mapping to either B. cereus or B. thuringiensis. We also demonstrated the efficacy of a microbial census microarray in detecting B. anthracis in the same samples, representing a cost-effective and high-throughput approach, complementary to next-generation sequencing. Our results, in combination with the capacity of sequencing for providing insights into the genomic characteristics of complex and novel organisms, suggest that these platforms should be considered important components of a biosurveillance strategy. PMID:24039948

Be, Nicholas A.; Thissen, James B.; Gardner, Shea N.; McLoughlin, Kevin S.; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y.; Koshinsky, Heather; Ellingson, Sally R.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Jackson, Paul J.; Jaing, Crystal J.

2013-01-01

311

Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessments, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessments, and studies in medical geology. This Microsoft Access database serves as a data archive in support of present and future Alaskan geologic and geochemical projects, and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses. The analytical results were determined by 85 laboratory and field analytical methods on 264,095 rock, sediment, soil, mineral and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed in USGS laboratories or, under contracts, in commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects from 1962 to 2009. In addition, mineralogical data from 18,138 nonmagnetic heavy mineral concentrate samples are included in this database. The AGDB includes historical geochemical data originally archived in the USGS Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database, used from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s and the USGS PLUTO database used from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. All of these data are currently maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB were used to generate most of the AGDB data set. These data were checked for accuracy regarding sample location, sample media type, and analytical methods used. This arduous process of reviewing, verifying and, where necessary, editing all USGS geochemical data resulted in a significantly improved Alaska geochemical dataset. USGS data that were not previously in the NGDB because the data predate the earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons, are included here in the AGDB and will be added to the NGDB. The AGDB data provided here are the most accurate and complete to date, and should be useful for a wide variety of geochemical studies. The AGDB data provided in the linked database may be updated or changed periodically. The data on the DVD and in the data downloads provided with this report are current as of date of publication.

Granitto, Matthew; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Labay, Keith A.

2011-01-01

312

Measurement of radon potential from soil using a special method of sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil radon gas and/or its exhalation rate are used as indicators for some applications, such as uranium exploration, indoor radon concentration, seismic activity, location of subsurface faults, etc., and also in the studies where the main interest is the field verification of radon transport models. This work proposes a versatile method for the soil radon sampling using a special manner of pumping. The soil gas is passed through a column of charcoal by using passive pumping. A plastic bottle filled with water is coupled to an activated charcoal column and the flow of water through an adjustable hole made at the bottom of bottle assures a controlled gas flow from the soil. The results obtained for the activity of activated charcoal are in the range of 20-40 kBq/m3, for a depth of approximately 0.8 m. The results obtained by this method were confirmed by simultaneous measurements using LUK 3C device for soil radon measurements. Possible applications for the estimation of radon soil potential are discussed.

Cosma, Constantin; Papp, Botond; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Victor; Cindea, Ciprian; Suciu, Liviu; Apostu, Adelina

2010-10-01

313

Statistical uncertainty analysis of radon transport in nonisothermal, unsaturated soils  

SciTech Connect

To accurately predict radon fluxes soils to the atmosphere, we must know more than the radium content of the soil. Radon flux from soil is affected not only by soil properties, but also by meteorological factors such as air pressure and temperature changes at the soil surface, as well as the infiltration of rainwater. Natural variations in meteorological factors and soil properties contribute to uncertainty in subsurface model predictions of radon flux, which, when coupled with a building transport model, will also add uncertainty to predictions of radon concentrations in homes. A statistical uncertainty analysis using our Rn3D finite-element numerical model was conducted to assess the relative importance of these meteorological factors and the soil properties affecting radon transport. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Holford, D.J.; Owczarski, P.C.; Gee, G.W.; Freeman, H.D.

1990-10-01

314

Subcritical water extractor for Mars analog soil analysis.  

PubMed

Abstract Technologies that enable rapid and efficient extraction of biomarker compounds from various solid matrices are a critical requirement for the successful implementation of in situ chemical analysis of the martian regolith. Here, we describe a portable subcritical water extractor that mimics multiple organic solvent polarities by tuning the dielectric constant of liquid water through adjustment of temperature and pressure. Soil samples, collected from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert (martian regolith analogue) in the summer of 2005, were used to test the instrument's performance. The total organic carbon was extracted from the samples at concentrations of 0.2-55.4 parts per million. The extraction data were compared to the total organic carbon content in the bulk soil, which was determined via a standard analytical procedure. The instrument's performance was examined over the temperature range of 25-250 degrees C at a fixed pressure of 20.7 MPa. Under these conditions, water remains in a subcritical fluid state with a dielectric constant varying between approximately 80 (at 25 degrees C) and approximately 30 (at 250 degrees C). PMID:18680410

Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank J; Patrick, Steven B; Yung, Pun To

2008-06-01

315

DIVISION S-8--NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT & SOIL & PLANT ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

pairwise comparison t-tests. Results indicated that spatial interpo- based on a minimum sample size and Srivastava, 1989). The of twelve soil properties we investigated exhibited characteristics other sample size kriging and inverse-distance sample size or the number of possible pairwise compari- weighting were

Clarke, Keith

316

Diversity of the particulate methane monooxygenase gene in methanotrophic samples from different rice field soils in China and the Philippines.  

PubMed

Methanotrophic bacteria play a crucial role in regulating the emission of CH4 from rice fields into the atmosphere. We investigated the CH4 oxidation activity together with the diversity of methanotrophic bacteria in ten rice field soils from different geographic locations. Upon incubation of aerated soil slurries under 7% CH4, rates of CH4 oxidation increased after a lag phase of 1-4 days and reached values of 3-10 micromol d(-1) g-dw(-1) soil. The methanotrophic community was assayed by retrieval of the pmoA gene which encodes the a subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase. After extraction of DNA from actively CH4-oxidizing soil samples and PCR-amplification of the pmoA, the community was analyzed by Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). DGGE bands were excised, the pmoA re-amplified, sequenced and the encoded amino acid sequence comparatively analyzed by phylogenetic treeing. The analyses allowed the detection of pmoA sequences related to the following methanotrophic genera: the type-I methanotrophs Methylobacter, Methylomicrobium, Methylococcus and Methylocaldum, and the type-II methanotrophs Methylocystis and Methylosinus. T-RFLP analysis detected a similar diversity, but type-II pmoA more frequently than DGGE. All soils but one contained type-II in addition to type-I methanotrophs. Type-I Methylomonas was not detected at all. Different combinations of methanotrophic genera were detected in the different soils. However, there was no obvious geographic pattern of the distribution of methanotrophs. PMID:12353882

Hoffmann, Tanja; Horz, Hans-Peter; Kemnitz, Dana; Conrad, Ralf

2002-08-01

317

Detection of Organophosphorous Pesticides in Soil Samples with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Coating SPME Fiber.  

PubMed

A headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique using stainless steel fiber coated with 20 ?m multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gas chromatography with thermionic specific detector (GC-TSD) was developed to determine organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) in soil. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as extraction time and temperature, ionic strength, the volume of water added to the soil, sample solution volume to headspace volume ratio, desorption time, and desorption temperature were investigated and optimized. Compared to commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 7 ?m) fiber, the PDMS fiber was better to be corrected as phorate, whereas the MWCNTs fiber gave slightly better results for methyl parathion, chlorpyrifos and parathion. The optimized SPME method was applied to analyze OPPs in spiked soil samples. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) for the four pesticides were <0.216 ng g(-1), and their calibration curves were all linear (r (2)  ? 0.9908) in the range from 1 to 200 ng g(-1). The precision (RSD, n = 6) for peak areas was 6.5 %-8.8 %. The recovery of the OPPs spiked real soil samples at 50 and 150 ng g(-1) ranged from 89.7 % to 102.9 % and 94.3 % to 118.1 %, respectively. PMID:25227428

Feng, Xilan; Li, Ying; Jing, Ruijun; Jiang, Xiaoying; Tian, Mengkui

2014-12-01

318

Rapid procedures for preparing soil and KCL extracts for N analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for grinding plant and soil samples to <250um for N analysis is described. This inexpensive and easily constructed roller grinder uses bottles for grinding individual samples, thus eliminating the potential for cross contamination. The unit running over?night is capable of grinding 70 samples. In addition a method is described for diffusing NH4 and NO3 onto filter paper for

J. L. Smith; Myung Ho Um

1990-01-01

319

An integrated approach to soil structure, shrinkage, and cracking in samples and layers  

E-print Network

A recent model showed how a clay shrinkage curve is step-by-step transformed into the shrinkage curve of an aggregated soil at any clay content if it is measured on samples so small that cracks do not occur at shrinkage. Such a shrinkage curve was called a reference curve. The present work generalizes this model to any soil sample size or layer thickness, i.e., to any crack contribution to the shrinkage curve. The approach is based on: (i) recently suggested features of an intra-aggregate structure; (ii) detailed accounting for the contributions to the soil volume and water content during shrinkage; and (iii) new concepts of lacunar factor, crack factor, and critical sample size. The following input parameters are needed for the prediction: (i) all parameters determining the basic dependence of the reference shrinkage curve; (ii) parameters determining the critical sample size (structural porosity and minimum and maximum aggregate size at maximum swelling); and (iii) initial sample size or layer thickness. A ...

Chertkov, V Y

2014-01-01

320

Sampling and analysis plan for Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), Wayne, New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

This field sampling plan describes the methodology to perform an independent radiological verification survey and chemical characterization of a remediated area of the subpile at the Wayne Interim Storage Site, Wayne, New Jersey.Data obtained from collection and analysis of systematic and biased soil samples will be used to assess the status of remediation at the site and verify the final radiological status. The objective of this plan is to describe the methods for obtaining sufficient and valid measurements and analytical data to supplement and verify a radiological profile already established by the Project Remediation Management Contractor (PMC). The plan describes the procedure for obtaining sufficient and valid analytical data on soil samples following remediation of the first layer of the subpile. Samples will be taken from an area of the subpile measuring approximately 30 m by 80 m from which soil has been excavated to a depth of approximately 20 feet to confirm that the soil beneath the excavated area does not exceed radiological guidelines established for the site or chemical regulatory limits for inorganic metals. After the WISS has been fully remediated, the Department of Energy will release it for industrial/commercial land use in accordance with the Record of Decision. This plan provides supplemental instructions to guidelines and procedures established for sampling and analysis activities. Procedures will be referenced throughout this plan as applicable, and are available for review if necessary.

Brown, K.S.; Murray, M.E.; Rodriguez, R.E.

1998-10-01

321

Microbial colonisation in diverse surface soil types in Surtsey and diversity analysis of its subsurface microbiota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colonisation of life on Surtsey has been observed systematically since the formation of the island 50 years ago. Although the first colonisers were prokaryotes, such as bacteria and blue-green algae, most studies have been focusing on settlement of plants and animals but less on microbial succession. To explore microbial colonization in diverse soils and the influence of associate vegetation and birds on numbers of environmental bacteria, we collected 45 samples from different soils types on the surface of the island. Total viable bacterial counts were performed with plate count at 22, 30 and 37 °C for all soils samples and the amount of organic matter and nitrogen (N) was measured. Selected samples were also tested for coliforms, faecal coliforms aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The deep subsurface biosphere was investigated by collecting liquid subsurface samples from a 182 m borehole with a special sampler. Diversity analysis of uncultivated biota in samples was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis and cultivation. Correlation was observed between N deficits and the number of microorganisms in surface soils samples. The lowest number of bacteria (1 × 104-1 × 105 g-1) was detected in almost pure pumice but the count was significant higher (1 × 106-1 × 109 g-1) in vegetated soil or pumice with bird droppings. The number of faecal bacteria correlated also to the total number of bacteria and type of soil. Bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae were only detected in vegetated and samples containing bird droppings. The human pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria were not in any sample. Both thermophilic bacteria and archaea 16S rDNA sequences were found in the subsurface samples collected at 145 m and 172 m depth at 80 °C and 54 °C, respectively, but no growth was observed in enrichments. The microbiota sequences generally showed low affiliation to any known 16S rRNA gene sequences.

Marteinsson, V.; Klonowski, A.; Reynisson, E.; Vannier, P.; Sigurdsson, B. D.; Ólafsson, M.

2014-09-01

322

Availability of soil organic phosphorus and fertilizer phosphorus applied to coastal bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon l.) on Houston black clay  

E-print Network

. Greenhouse Study . Soil Chemical and Physical Characteristics Plant Samples. Soil Samples . Field Study. Soil Chemical and Physical Characteristics Plant Samples. Soil Samples . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Greenhouse Study . Soil Chemical and Physical... Characteristics . Plant Yield and Analysis Efficiency of Phosphorus Utilization . Soil Analysis. The Distribution of IP and 32P in the Soil and Plant. Soil Labile P. Field Study. Soil Chemical and Physical Characteristics Plant Yield and Analysis...

Krautmann, Jolly Yang

2012-06-07

323

Sample size in factor analysis: The role of model error  

E-print Network

This article examines effects of sample size and other design features on correspondence between factors obtained from analysis of sample data and those present in the population from which the samples were drawn. We extend earlier work...

MacCallum, R. C.; Widaman, K. F.; Preacher, K. J.; Hong, Sehee

2001-01-01

324

Meiothermus terrae sp. nov., isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated strain YIM 77755(T), was isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Cells of the strain were rod-shaped and colonies were yellow and circular. Growth occurred in 0-1?% (w/v) NaCl, at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and at 35-55 °C (optimum, 50 °C). The predominant menaquinone was MK-8 and the DNA G+C content was 68.9 mol%. Major fatty acids (>10?%) were anteiso-C15?:?0 and iso-C15?:?0. The polar lipids consisted of an uncharacterized phospholipid and four glycolipids. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM 77755(T) formed a cluster with Meiothermus chliarophilus ALT-8(T) and showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to M. chliarophilus ALT-8(T) (98.23?%). DNA-DNA relatedness between YIM 77755(T) and M. chliarophilus DSM 9957(T) was 54.9±4.1?%. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as genotypic data, it is proposed that strain YIM 77755(T) represents a novel species of the genus Meiothermus, named Meiothermus terrae sp. nov. The type strain is YIM 77755(T) (?=?DSM 26712(T)?=?CCTCC AB 2012942(T)). PMID:24215822

Yu, Tian-Tian; Yin, Yi-Rui; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Wang, Hong-Fei; Ming, Hong; Zhou, En-Min; Li, Wen-Jun

2014-03-01

325

[Analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in soil and sediment].  

PubMed

This review presents methods for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), called dioxins, in soil and sediment. These compounds are produced as by-products of different combustion processes, and because of their persistency and toxicity they present a threat for animal and human health. Due to their high organic matter content, soil and sediment can accumulate dioxins and have become important secondary emission sources. Determining dioxins in these samples is complex because dioxins are present in trace levels and have to be separated from interferences whereas other classes of organic contaminants are present in higher concentrations. After sampling, follows extraction of compounds with a suitable solvent, extract clean-up from unwanted compounds, and qualitative and quantitative analysis. At the end of this review, we gave levels of PCDD/PCDFs found in soil and sediment samples. PMID:19581217

Kozul, Darija; Romani?, Snjezana Herceg

2009-06-01

326

The JPL Center for Analysis of Returned Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JPL Center for Analysis of Returned Samples aims to develop the techniques, approaches and interpretive context required for the successful handling and analysis of samples returned from the surface of extraterrestrial bodies including Mars.

Williford, K. H.; Allwood, A. C.; Liu, Y.; Beaty, D.; Beegle, L.; Bhartia, R.; Chen, Y.; Flannery, D.; Hoffmann, A.; Lopes, R.; Mora, M. F.; Peters, G.; Tuite, M.; Willis, P.

2014-07-01

327

Determination of soil parameters for wave equation analysis  

E-print Network

cases differed fram the value calculated by the computer program. D ic Forces and Static Loads. - Previous investigations 17 concerning soil parameters dealt primarily with a computer oriented analysis. This was essentially the correct method... using force-time data along with the established soil quake values. All reasonable combina- tions of soil damping values were used as input to the computer program and. the calculated pile stresses and blow counts were cor- related with the measured...

Berger, William John

2012-06-07

328

Hyperspectral Analysis of Soil Nitrogen, Carbon, Carbonate, and Organic Matter Using Regression Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of soil attributes using hyperspectral sensors has revealed patterns in soil spectra that are known to respond to mineral composition, organic matter, soil moisture and particle size distribution. Soil samples from different soil horizons of replicated soil series from sites located within Washington and Oregon were analyzed with the FieldSpec Spectroradiometer to measure their spectral signatures across the

Stephan Gmur; Daniel Vogt; Darlene Zabowski; L. Monika Moskal

2012-01-01

329

Field sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods for explosives in soil  

SciTech Connect

A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling because of the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult because of the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of the samples, and extracting larger samples. This publication is intended to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods for detecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils, and is not intended to include discussions of the safety issues associated with sites contaminated with explosive residues.

Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

1996-12-01

330

SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION USING ROC ANALYSIS Viktoriya Stalbovskaya1  

E-print Network

SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION USING ROC ANALYSIS Viktoriya Stalbovskaya1 , Brahim Hamadicharef2.ifeachor@plymouth.ac.uk Abstract: The paper presents a new method of sample size determination (SSD) based on performance evalu: sample size determination, ROC analysis, decision support systems INTRODUCTION Determination of sample

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

331

Testing of Icy-Soil Sample Delivery in Simulated Martian Conditions (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

This movie clip shows testing under simulated Mars conditions on Earth in preparation for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander using its robotic arm for delivering a sample to the doors of a laboratory oven.

The icy soil used in the testing flowed easily from the scoop during all tests at Martian temperatures. On Mars, icy soil has stuck to the scoop, a surprise that may be related to composition of the soil at the landing site.

This testing was done at Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corp., New York, which supplied the Phoenix scoop.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

332

[Analysis of XRD spectral characteristics of soil clay mineral in two typical cultivated soils].  

PubMed

The present paper took black soil and chernozem, the typical cultivated soil in major grain producing area of Northeast, as the study object, and determinated the soil particle composition characteristics of two cultivated soils under the same climate and location. Then XRD was used to study the composition and difference of clay mineral in two kinds of soil and the evolutionary mechanism was explored. The results showed that the two kinds of soil particles were composed mainly of the sand, followed by clay and silt. When the particle accumulation rate reached 50%, the central particle size was in the 15-130 microm interval. Except for black soil profile of Shengli Xiang, the content of clay showed converse sequence to the central particle in two soils. Clay accumulated under upper layer (18.82%) in black soil profile while under caliche layer (17.41%) in chernozem profile. Clay content was the least in parent material horizon except in black profile of Quanyanling. Analysis of clay XRD atlas showed that the difference lied in not only the strength of diffraction peak, but also in the mineral composition. The main contents of black soil and chernozem were both 2 : 1 clay, the composition of black soil was smectite/illite mixed layer-illite-vermiculite and that of chernozem was S/I mixture-illite-montmorillonite, and both of them contained little kaolinite, chlorite, quartz and other primary mineral. This paper used XRD to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two kinds of typical cultivated soil comparatively, and it was a new perspective of soil minerals study. PMID:25269317

Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Luo, Xiang-Li; Jiang, Hai-Chao; Li, Qiao; Shen, Cong-Ying; Liu, Hang; Zhou, Ya-Juan; Zhao, Lan-Po; Wang, Ji-Hong

2014-07-01

333

Measurement of radionuclides and absorbed dose rates in soil samples of Peshawar, Pakistan, using gamma ray spectrometry.  

PubMed

The analysis of gamma-emitting radionuclides in nature, i.e. (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs, has been carried out in soil samples collected from Peshawar University Campus and surrounding areas using a high purity germanium detector coupled with a computer-based high-resolution multichannel analyser. The activity concentrations in soil ranged from 30.20±0.65 to 61.90±0.95, 50.10±0.54 to 102.80±1.04, 373.60±4.56 to 1082±11.38 and 9.50±0.11 to 46.60±0.42 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs, with a mean value of 45±7.70, 67±12.50, 878±180 and 19±9.20 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity, internal and external hazard indices have mean values of 203.40±29.40 Bq kg(-1), 0.56 and 0.68, respectively. The mean values of outdoor and indoor absorbed dose rates in air and the annual effective dose equivalents were found to be 106.50 and 128 nGy h(-1) and 0.19 and 0.54 mSv y(-1), respectively. In the present study, (40)K was the major radionuclide present in soil samples. The presence of (137)Cs indicates that this area also received some fallout from the nuclear accident of the Chernobyl power plant in 1986. The activity concentrations of radionuclides found in soil samples during the current investigation were nominal. Therefore, they are not associated with any potential source of health hazard to the public. PMID:22397699

Khan, Hasan M; Ismail, Muhammad; Zia, Muhammad Abid; Khan, Khalid

2012-06-01

334

An Optimal Soil Moisture Sampling Scheme for Scaling and Remote Sensing Validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying soil moisture is of fundamental importance to weather and precipitation forecasting, irrigation scheduling, and many other agronomic applications. Although remote sensing instruments that take soil moisture measurements over large areas are cost and time efficient, the accuracy and validity of these measurements are relatively unknown. Furthermore, the task of validating these large area measurements, via point measurements, is problematic for researchers in terms of efficiency and procedure. For example, the world’s first soil moisture satellite mission, SMOS, will launch in November 2009 and NASA’s SMAP will launch in 2014, both with measurement resolution on the order of 40 km. Thus, validating these measurements with point measurements, with a resolution on a centimeter scale, becomes a relevant and challenging task. Our overall objective is to address the issue of using point measurements to characterize the average soil moisture conditions, of a typical microwave radiometer footprint, for validation purposes. This work addresses the first step in validation of ground-based remote sensing measurements. This approach assumes the hypothesis that once a validation procedure for ground-based (higher spatial resolution) remote sensing technologies is developed, a similar validation procedure for satellite (lower spatial resolution) can be found using spatial scaling techniques. We took extensive point measurements, over several days, in a Central Iowa field. Our results indicate that much variability in soil moisture is present within a relatively small area. When characterizing the mean soil moisture of the area of interest, much is gained by taking spatial dependence into account via the use of geospatial statistical models. We will present spatial statistics used to model the soil moisture process. We will show that traditional point measurement sampling strategies for ground-based remote sensing validation are inadequate as well as inefficient. For example, sampling 10 points on the perimeter of a 3 m by 4 m plot could result in a prediction error of as much as 17% from the true mean soil moisture. Further, we have developed a sampling scheme that can be used to determine the number of measurements necessary to maintain an acceptable error rate (over various moisture conditions), while keeping the number of locations as small as possible.

Bramer, L. M.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Caragea, P.

2009-12-01

335

40 CFR 92.129 - Exhaust sample analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 92.129 Section 92...92.129 Exhaust sample analysis. (a) The analyzer...mathematical correction is then applied to the analyzer's response...next mode. (d) For sample analysis perform the following...

2011-07-01

336

40 CFR 92.129 - Exhaust sample analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 92.129 Section 92...92.129 Exhaust sample analysis. (a) The analyzer...mathematical correction is then applied to the analyzer's response...next mode. (d) For sample analysis perform the following...

2013-07-01

337

40 CFR 92.129 - Exhaust sample analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 92.129 Section 92...92.129 Exhaust sample analysis. (a) The analyzer...mathematical correction is then applied to the analyzer's response...next mode. (d) For sample analysis perform the following...

2012-07-01

338

RISK ANALYSIS OF TCDD CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper provides a methodology for estimating the human exposure and cancer risk associated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD contaminated soil. Five exposure pathways are addressed: dust inhalation, fish ingestion, dermal absorption, soil ingestion, and beef/dairy products ingestion. For eac...

339

Probabilistic Analysis of the Compressibility of Soils  

E-print Network

soil classification .............................. 19 2.5.1. Application to TTS ............................................................... 19 2.5.2. Application to NGES... ..................................... 15 2.5. Results of soil classification estimated by Bayesian method with exact measurements (a) MLE (b) posterior estimate with COV=0.1 (c) posterior estimate with COV=0.6. (TTS...

Jung, Byoung C.

2010-07-14

340

LEAK AND GAS PERMEABILITY TESTING DURING SOIL-GAS SAMPLING AT HAL'S CHEVRON LUST SITE IN GREEN RIVER, UTAH  

EPA Science Inventory

The results of gas permeability and leak testing during active soil-gas sampling at Hal?s Chevron LUST Site in Green River, Utah are presented. This study was conducted to support development of a passive soil-gas sampling method. Gas mixtures containing helium and methane were...

341

Drive tube 60009 - A chemical study of magnetic separates of size fractions from five strata. [lunar soil analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each bulk soil and both the magnetic and nonmagnetic components of the 90-150 micron and below 20 micron fractions of five soils from drive tube 60009 were analyzed. Samples were analyzed for FeO, Na2O, Sc, Cr, Co, Ni, Hf, Ta, Th, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Lu by neutron activation analysis. Several samples were fused and analyzed for major elements by electron microprobe analysis. Compositional variations are not systematically related to depth. The compositions of the five soils studied are well explained by a two-component mixing model whose end members are a submature Apollo 16-type soil and an extremely immature anorthositic material similar to 60025. There is evidence that the anorthositic component had received a small amount of exposure before these soils were mixed. After mixing, the soils received little exposure suggesting mixing and deposition on a rapid time scale.

Blanchard, D. P.; Jacobs, J. W.; Brannon, J. C.; Brown, R. W.

1976-01-01

342

Four reference soil and rock samples for measuring element availability in the Western Energy Regions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Attaining acceptable precision in extractable element determinations is more difficult than in total element determinations. In total element determinations, dissolution of the sample is qualitatively checked by the clarity of the solution and the absence of residues. These criteria cannot be used for extracts. Possibilities for error are introduced in virtually every step in soil extractions. Therefore, the use of reference materials whose homogeneity and element content are reasonably well known is essential for determination of extractable elements. In this report, estimates of homogeneity and element content are presented for four reference samples. Bulk samples of about 100 kilograms of each sample were ground to pass an 80-mesh sieve. The samples were homogenized and split using a Jones-type splitter. Fourteen splits of each reference sample were analyzed for total content of Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn; DTPA-extractable Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn; exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and Na; cation exchange capacity water-saturation-extractable Ca, Mg, K, Na, C1, and SO4; soil pH; and hot-water-extractable boron. Error measured between splits was small, indicating that the samples were homogenized adequately and that the laboratory procedure provided reproducible results.

Crock, J. G.; Severson, R. C.

1980-01-01

343

Colling Wipe Samples for VX Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides uniform procedures for the collection of wipe samples of VX residues from surfaces. Personnel may use this procedure to collect and handle wipe samples in the field. Various surfaces, including building materials (wood, metal, tile, vinyl, etc.) and equipment, may be sampled based on this procedure. The purpose of such sampling is to determine whether or not the relevant surfaces are contaminated, to determine the extent of their contamination, to evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination procedures, and to determine the amount of contaminant that might present as a contact hazard.

Koester, C; Hoppes, W G

2010-02-11

344

Carbon accumulation by biological soil crusts in relation to relief and sampling depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In arid and semiarid ecosystems the soil surface is covered by biological soil crusts (BSC). These BSC are microbial communities of cyanobacteria, lichens and mosses. Due to the photosynthetic activity of these microorganisms, BSC are main carbon contributors to arid ecosystems. The cover is related to ecosystem functions like surface stabilization, water redistribution and nutrient fixation. These functions rely on the microbial community composition of the BSC. Cyanobacteria and cyanolichens excrete exopolysaccharides, which build microaggregates with soil particles. This stabilizes and seals the soil surface. Therefore cyanobacteria and cyanolichen dominated crusts introduce runoff, which affects the distribution of carbon. The total amount of soil organic carbon was determined in relation to the relief position and BSC thickness showing a strong correlation between relief, sampling depth and carbon amounts. At the Arid Ecosystem Research Center (AERC) station of the Nizzana sand dunes (NW Negev, Israel) the dunes and the interdune corridor are covered by BSC up to 80% of the total area. The BSC are composed of a thin topcrust section and a mineral subcrust section. The overall thickness changes in relation to the relief position. Along a dune transect topcrust and subcrust samples were taken and analyzed on their C_org, C_carb, and C_total concentration. The total amount of carbon (g m^-2) was calculated from the carbon concentrations, the BSC bulk density and the sampling depth. Comparing the topcrust and subcrust values of the sampling points the topcrust sections showed 3-4 times higher concentrations of organic carbon than the subcrust sections. The light intensity decreases with soil depth, resulting in a higher biological activity and carbon fixation in the topcrust sections. The subcrust showed relative higher amounts of C_carb contributing to the soil surface stability. Depending on the relief position the total amount of accumulated carbon was 4 times higher at the interdune positions than at the top slope. The data shows a high dependence of total carbon storage by BSC on the relief position and the high importance of the separate crust sections for the accumulation of C_org and C_carb.

Jetter, Stefan; Drahorad, Sylvie; Felix-Henningsen, Peter

2010-05-01

345

NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--ANALYSIS OF SOIL FOR ARSENIC (RTI/ACS-AP-209-123)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this protocol is to provide guidelines for the analysis of soil samples for arsenic. This method involves the extraction of the analyte from soil samples using a 50% ultra-pure nitric acid, and subsequent analysis by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrome...

346

Soil regionalisation by means of terrain analysis and process parameterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific computational procedures have been developed for the regionalisation of soil properties and related data as support system for soil mapping at different scales. The methodological framework integrates digital terrain analysis, climatic, hydrological and process-oriented modelling and geo-statistical approaches as well as pedological rules and transfer functions. The main task focuses on the development of advanced applications in automated terrain

CONRAD O

347

Developments in Sampling and Analysis Instrumentation for Stationary Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instrumentation for the measurement of pollutant emissions is considered including sample-site selection, sample transport, sample treatment, sample analysis, and data reduction, display, and interpretation. Measurement approaches discussed involve sample extraction from within the stack and electro-optical methods. (BL)

Nader, John S.

1973-01-01

348

Solving mercury (Hg) speciation in soil samples by synchrotron X-ray microspectroscopic techniques.  

PubMed

Direct mercury (Hg) speciation was assessed for soil samples with a Hg concentration ranging from 7 up to 240 mg kg(-1). Hg chemical forms were identified and quantified by sequential extractions and bulk- and micro-analytical techniques exploiting synchrotron generated X-rays. In particular, microspectroscopic techniques such as mu-XRF, mu-XRD and mu-XANES were necessary to solve bulk Hg speciation, in both soil fractions <2 mm and <2 microm. The main Hg-species found in the soil samples were metacinnabar (beta-HgS), cinnabar (alpha-HgS), corderoite (Hg(3)S(2)Cl(2)), and an amorphous phase containing Hg bound to chlorine and sulfur. The amount of metacinnabar and amorphous phases increased in the fraction <2 microm. No interaction among Hg-species and soil components was observed. All the observed Hg-species originated from the slow weathering of an inert Hg-containing waste material (K106, U.S. EPA) dumped in the area several years ago, which is changing into a relatively more dangerous source of pollution. PMID:20605298

Terzano, Roberto; Santoro, Anna; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Vekemans, Bart; Medici, Luca; Janssens, Koen; Göttlicher, Jörg; Denecke, Melissa A; Mangold, Stefan; Ruggiero, Pacifico

2010-08-01

349

Comparison of USEPA digestion methods to heavy metals in soil samples.  

PubMed

The use of appropriate analytical methods is of paramount importance for risk assessment and monitoring of potentially toxic metals in soils. In this sense, the objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two sample digestion methods, recommended by the Brazilian legislation for the management of contaminated areas (CONAMA 2009), aiming at the determination of environmentally available metal concentrations (USEPA 3050B, USEPA 3051A), as well as a total digestion method (USEPA 3052). Samples from 10 classes of soils were analyzed for Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Hg. The results showed that the USEPA method 3051A is more efficient than the USEPA method 3050B in the extraction of levels considered environmentally available of Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni. Besides providing a higher recovery of these elements, the method requires shorter digestion time, lower consumption of acids, and reduced risk of contamination. The USEPA method 3051A showed greater efficiency in Hg extraction in soils with higher clay content. Therefore, it is suitable for situations where a wide range of soils with different mineralogical characteristics are analyzed or in order to decrease the losses due to volatilization of the element in open systems. PMID:23887889

da Silva, Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Biondi, Caroline Miranda

2014-01-01

350

ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SAMPLES FOR METALS UPTAKE  

EPA Science Inventory

Grass samples were collected from the Contrary Creek/D. Boyd Smith reclamation project of the Virginia Water Quality Control Board and the Anvil Points mine treatment experimental facility. Fish samples were collected from the EPA's mine water treatment experimental facility's sl...

351

Analysis of Data from Complex Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oversampling and cluster sampling must be addressed when analyzing complex sample data. This study: (a) compares parameter estimates when applying weights versus not applying weights; (b) examines subset selection issues; (c) compares results when using standard statistical software (SPSS) versus specialized software (AM); and (d) offers…

Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.

2006-01-01

352

Quantitative microbeam analysis of biological samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to accurately determine the elemental concentration maps of thin biological samples, simultaneous PIXE and STIM measurement were performed on our microbeam experimental station. The results of the STIM were used to take into account the local mass density of the samples which can change dramatically within a distances of few microns. New software was developed to evaluate the

P. Pelicon; M. Budnar; T. Mrak

353

Space X First Entry Sample Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The toxicological assessment of one sample collected on May 26, 2012 and returned to earth on May 31, 2012 was analyzed for pollutants that had offgassed into the Dragon capsule by the time of first entry operations performed by the ISS crew. The components identified in the first-entry sample and their contributions to the total T-value are shown.

James, John T.

2012-01-01

354

The impact of sampling techniques on soil pore water carbon measurements of an Icelandic Histic Andosol.  

PubMed

The carbon in soil pore water from a Histic Andosol from Western Iceland was studied at three different scales; in the field, in undisturbed outdoor mesocosms and in laboratory repacked microcosms. Pore water was extracted using suction cup lysimeters and hollow-fibre tube sampler devices (Rhizon samplers). There were significant differences in all measured variables, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH values between the scales of the experiment. Gaseous constituents of soil solution and pH were more susceptible to changes in scale and the type of sampling devices used. Dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations did not differ significantly between field and mesocosm solutions but where up to 14 times lower in microcosms compared to mesocosms solutions. Rhizon samplers yielded solutions with up to 4.7 times higher DIC concentrations than porous cup lysimeters. Mesocosm surface horizon DOC concentrations were 20 and 2 times higher than in field and microcosms respectively. There was difference in DOC concentration between sampling methods (up to 8 times higher in suction cups than rhizon samplers) above 50 cm depth. Soil solution pH values did not differ between field and mesocosms and mesocosms and microcosms respectively down to 80 cm depth. Direct comparison between field and microcosms was not possible due to the nature of sampling devices. Soil solutions sampled with Rhizon samplers yielded lower pH values (up to 1.3 pH units) than those sampled with suction cups. Twenty percent of annually bound organic carbon at the soils surface under field conditions was lost by leaching of DOC and through decomposition to DIC in disturbed non-vegetated microcosms. This percentage increased to 38% in undisturbed vegetated mesocosms highlighting the importance of surface vegetation in importing carbon to soils. Increased influx of nutrients will increase growth and photosynthesis but decrease carbon sequestration in near surface horizons. Although field studies considering long-term anthropogenic changes in pedogenesis require considerable experimental duration, more rapid experiments can be conducted with confidence in micro- and mesocosms as in this research. PMID:16678886

Sigfusson, Bergur; Paton, Graeme I; Gislason, Sigurdur R

2006-10-01

355

Radionuclide contaminated soil: Laboratory study and economic analysis of soil washing. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work discussed in this report is to determine if soil washing is a feasible method to remediate contaminated soils from the Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The contaminants are predominantly Cs-137 and Sr-90. The authors have assumed that the target activity for Cs-137 is 50 pCi/g and that remediation is required for soils having greater activities. Cs-137 is the limiting contaminant because it is present in much greater quantities than Sr-90. This work was done in three parts, in which they: estimated the volume of contaminated soil as a function of Cs-137 content, determined if simple removal of the fine grained fraction of the soil (the material that is less than 0.063 mm) would effectively reduce the activity of the remaining soil to levels below the 50 pCi/g target, assessed the effectiveness of chemical and mechanical (as well as combinations of the two) methods of soil decontamination. From this analysis the authors were then able to develop a cost estimate for soil washing and for a baseline against which soil washing was compared.

Fuhrmann, M.; Zhou, H.; Patel, B.; Bowerman, B.; Brower, J.

1996-05-20

356

Investigating the Origin of Chlorohydrocarbons Detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument at Rocknest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for organic compounds on Mars, including molecules of either abiotic or biological origin is one of the key goals of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Previously the Viking and Phoenix Lander missions searched for organic compounds, but did not find any definitive evidence of martian organic material in the soils. The Viking pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) instruments did not detect any organic compounds of martian or exogenous origin above a level of a few parts-per-billion (ppb) in the near surface regolith at either landing site [1]. Viking did detect chloromethane and dichloromethane at pmol levels (up to 40 ppb) after heating the soil samples up to 500 C (Table 1), although it was originally argued that the chlorohydrocarbons were derived from cleaning solvents used on the instrument hardware, and not from the soil samples themselves [1]. More recently, it was suggested that the chlorohydrocarbons detected by Viking may have been formed by oxidation of indigenous organic matter during pyrolysis of the soil in the presence of perchlorates [2]. Although it is unknown if the Viking soils contained perchlorates, Phoenix did reveal relatively high concentrations (0.6 wt%) of perchlorate salt in the icy regolith [3], therefore, it is possible that the chlorohydrocarbons detected by Viking were produced, at least partially, during the experiments [2,4]. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on MSL analyzed the organic composition of the soil at Rocknest in Gale Crater using a combination of pyrolysis evolved gas analysis (EGA) and GCMS. One empty cup procedural blank followed by multiple EGA-GCMS analyses of the Rocknest soil were carried out. Here we will discuss the results from these SAM measurements at Rocknest and the steps taken to determine the source of the chlorohydrocarbons.

Glavin, D.; Archer, D.; Brunner, A.; Buch, A.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Conrad, P.; Coscia, D.; Dworkin J.; Eigenbrode, J.; Freissinet, C.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, M.; McKay, C.; Miller, K.; Ming, D.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Steele, A.; Summons, R. E.; Sutter, B.; Szopa, C.; Teinturier, S.

2013-01-01

357

Tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer demonstration sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) is the primary document describing field and laboratory activities and requirements for the tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer (CP) demonstration. It is written in accordance with Hanford Tank Initiative Tank 241-AX-104 Upper Vadose Zone Demonstration Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999). This technology demonstration, to be conducted at tank 241-AX-104, is being performed by the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) Project as a part of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval Program (EM-30) and the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) Tanks Focus Area. Sample results obtained as part of this demonstration will provide additional information for subsequent revisions to the Retrieval Performance Evaluation (RPE) report (Jacobs 1998). The RPE Report is the result of an evaluation of a single tank farm (AX Tank Farm) used as the basis for demonstrating a methodology for developing the data and analyses necessary to support making tank waste retrieval decisions within the context of tank farm closure requirements. The RPE includes a study of vadose zone contaminant transport mechanisms, including analysis of projected tank leak characteristics, hydrogeologic characteristics of tank farm soils, and the observed distribution of contaminants in the vadose zone in the tank farms. With limited characterization information available, large uncertainties exist as to the nature and extent of contaminants that may exist in the upper vadose zone in the AX Tank Farm. Traditionally, data has been collected from soils in the vadose zone through the installation of boreholes and wells. Soil samples are collected as the bore hole is advanced and samples are screened on site and/or sent to a laboratory for analysis. Some in-situ geophysical methods of contaminant analysis can be used to evaluate radionuclide levels in the soils adjacent to an existing borehole. However, geophysical methods require compensation for well casing interference and soil moisture content and may not be successful in some conditions. In some cases the level of interference must be estimated due to uncertainties regarding the materials used in well construction and soil conditions, Well casing deployment used for many in-situ geophysical methods is relatively expensive and geophysical methods do not generally provide real time values for contaminants. In addition, some of these methods are not practical within the boundaries of the tank farm due to physical constraints, such as underground piping and other hardware. The CP technologies could facilitate future characterization of vadose zone soils by providing vadose zone data in near real-time, reducing the number of soil samples and boreholes required, and reducing characterization costs.

FIELD, J.G.

1999-02-02

358

Analysis of Soil Moisture Changes in Europe during a Single Growing Season in a New ECMWF Soil Moisture Assimilation System  

E-print Network

Analysis of Soil Moisture Changes in Europe during a Single Growing Season in a New ECMWF Soil This study aims at stimulating the development of soil moisture data assimilation systems in a direction concerning the systematic nature of soil moisture data assimilation experiments over Europe during

Haak, Hein

359

Effect of temporal sampling and timing for soil moisture measurements at field scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating soil moisture at field scale is valuable for various applications such as irrigation scheduling in cultivated watersheds, flood and drought prediction, waterborne disease spread assessment, or even determination of mobility with lightweight vehicles. Synthetic aperture radar on satellites in low Earth orbit can provide fine resolution images with a repeat time of a few days. For an Earth observing satellite, the choice of the orbit is driven in particular by the frequency of measurements required to meet a certain accuracy in retrieving the parameters of interest. For a given target, having only one image every week may not enable to capture the full dynamic range of soil moisture - soil moisture can change significantly within a day when rainfall occurs. Hence this study focuses on the effect of temporal sampling and timing of measurements in terms of error on the retrieved signal. All the analyses are based on in situ measurements of soil moisture (acquired every 30 min) from the OzNet Hydrological Monitoring Network in Australia for different fields over several years. The first study concerns sampling frequency. Measurements at different frequencies were simulated by sub-sampling the original data. Linear interpolation was used to estimate the missing intermediate values, and then this time series was compared to the original. The difference between these two signals is computed for different levels of sub-sampling. Results show that the error increases linearly when the interval is less than 1 day. For intervals longer than a day, a sinusoidal component appears on top of the linear growth due to the diurnal variation of surface soil moisture. Thus, for example, the error with measurements every 4.5 days can be slightly less than the error with measurements every 2 days. Next, for a given sampling interval, this study evaluated the effect of the time during the day at which measurements are made. Of course when measurements are very frequent the time of acquisition does not matter, but when few measurements are available (sampling interval > 1 day), the time of acquisition can be important. It is shown that with daily measurements the error can double depending on the time of acquisition. This result is very sensitive to the phase of the sinusoidal variation of soil moisture. For example, in autumn for a given field with soil moisture ranging from 7.08% to 11.44% (mean and standard deviation being respectively 8.68% and 0.74%), daily measurements at 2 pm lead to a mean error of 0.47% v/v, while daily measurements at 9 am/pm produce a mean error of 0.24% v/v. The minimum of the sinusoid occurs every afternoon around 2 pm, after interpolation, measurements acquired at this time underestimate soil moisture, whereas measurements around 9 am/pm correspond to nodes of the sinusoid, hence they represent the average soil moisture. These results concerning the frequency and the timing of measurements can potentially drive the schedule of satellite image acquisition over some fields.

Snapir, B.; Hobbs, S.

2012-04-01

360

Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide in Air and Nitrite in Water And Soil Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrogen dioxide in air and nitrite in water and soil samples is described. Nitrogen dioxide in air is fixed as nitrite ion in alkaline sodium arsenite or in triethanolamine absorber solutions. The method is based on the diazo coupling reaction between p-nitro aniline and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. The azo dye formed under aqueous

M. Pandurangappa; N. Balasubramanian

1995-01-01

361

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus fengqiuensis FJAT-14578, Isolated from a Soil Sample in China.  

PubMed

Here, we report the first high-quality draft genome sequence of Bacillus fengqiuensis FJAT-14578, isolated from a soil sample collected from China. The genome size was 5,569,389 bp, with a 40.93 mol% G+C content. The number of tRNAs was 69 and of rRNAs was 10 (5S, 16S, and 23S). PMID:25377706

Liu, Guo-Hong; Liu, Bo; Tang, Jian-Yang; Che, Jian-Mei; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Su, Ming-Xing; Wang, Jie-Ping; Chen, Qian-Qian

2014-01-01

362

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus fengqiuensis FJAT-14578, Isolated from a Soil Sample in China  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the first high-quality draft genome sequence of Bacillus fengqiuensis FJAT-14578, isolated from a soil sample collected from China. The genome size was 5,569,389 bp, with a 40.93 mol% G+C content. The number of tRNAs was 69 and of rRNAs was 10 (5S, 16S, and 23S). PMID:25377706

Liu, Guo-Hong; Tang, Jian-Yang; Che, Jian-Mei; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Su, Ming-Xing; Wang, Jie-Ping; Chen, Qian-Qian

2014-01-01

363

Residues of 1-naphthol in soil and water samples in and around Bhopal, India  

SciTech Connect

Carbaryl, a methyl carbamate insecticide, is known for its wide application and low mammalian toxicity. The use of carbaryl in tropical agriculture is of recent origin and the degradation pattern of carbaryl in tropical environment is, thus very scantly. The present report therefore deals with the residues of 1-naphthol present in soil and water samples collected in and around Bhopal, India where carbaryl was commercially produced on large scale for more than a decade.

Dikshith, T.S.S.; Kumar, S.N.; Raizada, R.B.; Srivastava, M.K.; Ray, P.K. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1990-01-01

364

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF SEMIVOLATILE AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Denuder based samplers can effectively separate semivolatile gases from particles and 'freeze' the partitioning in time. Conversely, samples collected on filters partition mass according to the conditions of the influent airstream, which may change over time. As a result thes...

365

The Benefits of Sample Return: Connecting Apollo Soils and Diviner Lunar Radiometer Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Diviner Lunar Radiometer, onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, has produced the first global, high resolution, thermal infrared observations of an airless body. The Moon, which is the most accessible member of this most abundant class of solar system objects, is also the only body for which we have extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study to reproduce an accurate simulated lunar environment, evaluate the most appropriate sample and measurement conditions, collect thermal infrared spectra of a representative suite of Apollo soils, and correlate them with Diviner observations of the lunar surface. We find that analyses of Diviner observations of individual sampling stations and SLE measurements of returned Apollo soils show good agreement, while comparisons to thermal infrared reflectance under terrestrial conditions do not agree well, which underscores the need for SLE measurements and validates the Diviner compositional dataset. Future work includes measurement of additional soils in SLE and cross comparisons with measurements in JPL Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL).

Greenhagen, B. T.; Donaldson-Hanna, K. L.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Pieters, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

2014-01-01

366

Real-time immuno-PCR assay for detecting PCBs in soil samples.  

PubMed

A fast and robust assay, based on immuno-polymerase chain reaction (IPCR) techniques, was developed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil samples. Real-time IPCR (rt-IPCR) is a powerful technique that combines enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the specificity and sensitivity of PCR. In our assay, indirect ELISAs based on immobilization of PCB37 hapten-ovalbumin conjugates was used for evaluation of the immune response. The effect of optimal reagent concentrations to reduce background fluorescence was also investigated. Using the optimized assay, the linear sensitivity range of the assay covered more than six orders of magnitude, and the minimum detection limits reached 5 fg ml(-1) antigen. Rt-IPCR was tested for its cross-reactivity profiles using four selected congeners and four Aroclor products. The assays were highly specific for congeners but less specific for Aroclor1242. We took four soil samples to validate the method, and the results were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The rt-IPCR results for soil samples correlated well with the concentrations of PCBs obtained by GC/MS (r = 0.99, n = 6). These data indicate that this highly specific, sensitive, and robust assay can be modified for detecting PCB compounds in the environment. PMID:19412616

Chen, Han-Yu; Zhuang, Hui-Sheng

2009-06-01

367

Optimization of matrix solid-phase dispersion conditions for organic fungicides determination in soil samples.  

PubMed

A simplified sample preparation method, based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion technique, is proposed for the sensitive determination of 15 organic fungicides in vineyard soils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Under final working conditions, sieved samples (0.5 g) were blended and dispersed with 2 g of C18 and transferred to a polypropylene syringe containing 1 g of diatomaceous earth. Analytes were recovered using 10 mL of ethyl acetate, this extract was concentrated to 1 mL and fungicides determined by GC-MS, without additional cleanup. The method provided recoveries in the range from 74 to 122% for soils with total carbon contents up to 5.5% and it allowed the use of external standard as quantification technique. Inter-day precision, given as relative standard deviations, stayed between 3 and 13%, and the limits of quantification were comprised between 0.6 and 15 ng g(-1). Several fungicides were found in the top layer of vineyard soils with the highest detection frequency and maximum concentration corresponding to iprovalicarb. Some real samples were also submitted to pressurized liquid extraction. Measured concentrations were in excellent agreement with those obtained by matrix solid-phase dispersion, which reinforces the accuracy of the latter methodology. PMID:22532354

Carpinteiro, Inmaculada; Casado, Jorge; Rodríguez, Isaac; Ramil, María; Cela, Rafael

2012-04-01

368

Stochastic analysis of soil-structure interaction  

E-print Network

This study investigates the effect of soil structure interaction on the response of a building subjected to an earthquake motion. Spectra consisting of the auto and cross spectral densities of three components of free-field earthquake motion at all...

Chan, Charles Cheuk Lap

2012-06-07

369

LABORATORY METHODS FOR SOIL AN FOLIAR ANALYSIS IN LONG-TERM ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The principal objective of this methods manual is to present methods for the analysis of soil and plant tissue samples taken as part of a long-term environmental study to evaluate the effects of acid rain on terrestrial systems. hrough the use of these standardized methods, it is...

370

Isotopic analysis of dissolved organic nitrogen in soils.  

PubMed

Determination of the isotopic signature of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is important to assess its dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Analysis of (15)N-DON, however, has been hindered by the lack of simple, reliable, and established methods. We evaluate three off-line techniques for measuring the (15)N signature of DON in the presence of inorganic N using a persulfate digestion followed by microdiffusion. The (15)N-DON signature is calculated from the difference between total dissolved (15)N ((15)N-TDN) and inorganic (15)N. We quantified the (15)N recovery and signature of DON, NH(4)(+), and NO(3)(-) in a series of inorganic N/DON mixtures (with a TDN concentration of 10 mg N L(-1)) for three lab protocols. Phenylalanine was used as a model compound for DON. The best lab protocol determined the concentration of inorganic N and TDN prior to diffusion using improved spectrophotometric techniques. An accuracy of 88% for (15)N-DON should be routinely possible; coefficient of variation was <2.9%. Hence, reliable (15)N-DON values are obtained over an DON concentration range of 2.3-10 mg L(-1). High levels of DON could influence the accuracy of (15)N-NO(3)(-) mainly at DON:NO(3)(-) ratios above 0.4. Evaluation of alternative NO(3)(-) measurements is still necessary. Our method is applicable for soil solution samples and soil extracts and has no risk of cross-contamination. Potential applications are large, in particular for (15)N tracer studies, and will increase our insight in DON behavior in soils. PMID:20795692

Ros, Gerard H; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

2010-09-15

371

As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb pressurized liquid extraction with acetic acid from marine sediment and soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid leaching procedures by Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) have been developed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb leaching from environmental matrices (marine sediment and soil samples). The Pressurized Liquid Extraction is completed after 16 min. The released elements by acetic acid Pressurized Liquid Extraction have been evaluated by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The optimum multi-element leaching conditions when using 5.0 ml stainless steel extraction cells, were: acetic acid concentration 8.0 M, extraction temperature 100 °C, pressure 1500 psi, static time 5 min, flush solvent 60%, two extraction steps and 0.50 g of diatomaceous earth as dispersing agent (diatomaceous earth mass/sample mass ratio of 2). Results have showed that high acetic acid concentrations and high extraction temperatures increase the metal leaching efficiency. Limits of detection (between 0.12 and 0.5 ?g g - 1 ) and repeatability of the over-all procedure (around 6.0%) were assessed. Finally, accuracy was studied by analyzing PACS-2 (marine sediment), GBW-07409 (soil), IRANT-12-1-07 (cambisol soil) and IRANT-12-1-08 (luvisol soil) certified reference materials (CRMs). These certified reference materials offer certified concentrations ranges between 2.9 and 26.2 ?g g - 1 for As, from 0.068 to 2.85 ?g g - 1 for Cd, between 26.4 and 90.7 ?g g - 1 for Cr, from 9.3 to 40.0 ?g g - 1 for Ni and between 16.3 and 183.0 ?g g - 1 for Pb. Recoveries after analysis were between 95.7 and 105.1% for As, 96.2% for Cd, 95.2 and 100.6% for Cr, 95.7 and 103% for Ni and 94.2 and 105.5% for Pb.

Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Adela; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

2006-12-01

372

Effect of the water temperature and soil moisture on the erodibility of chernozem samples: A model experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The close almost functional relationship of the erosion rate and, hence, the erodibility of model soil samples with the temperature of the water used in the experiments has been shown. This suggests that the rupture of bonds between the particles of eroded soil samples is due to the electrostatic forces appearing between the monomolecular water layers around the adjacent soil aggregates similarly oriented with respect to the soil solid phase rather than to the hydraulic forces. The erosion parameters of the samples also strongly depend on the soil moisture. The lowest erosion rate of the heavy loamy chernozem samples is observed at an initial water content of 22-24%. The erosion rate increases and the variability of the results is reduced with both decreasing and increasing the initial water content.

Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Dobrovol'skaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.

2014-07-01

373

Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 95. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during FY 95 to characterize possible radionuclide movement out of Area G through surface water and entrained sediment runoff. Soil samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. The single-stage water samples were analyzed for tritium and plutonium isotopes. All radiochemical data was compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and 94 and reported in LA-12986 and LA-13165-PR. Six surface soils were also submitted for metal analyses. These data were included with similar data generated for soil samples collected during FY 94 and compared with metals in background samples collected at the Area G expansion area.

Childs, M.; Conrad, R.

1997-09-01

374

BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The evolutionary analysis of molecular sequence variation is a statistical enterprise. This is reflected in the increased use of probabilistic models for phylogenetic inference, multiple sequence alignment, and molecular population genetics. Here we present BEAST: a fast, flexible software architecture for Bayesian analysis of molecular sequences related by an evolutionary tree. A large number of popular stochastic models of

Alexei J Drummond; Andrew Rambaut

2007-01-01

375

Tank 241-Z-361 vapor sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

Tank 241-Z-361 is identified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement), Appendix C, (Ecology et al. 1994) as a unit to be remediated under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). As such, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will serve as the lead regulatory agency for remediation of this tank under the CERCLA process. At the time this unit was identified as a CERCLA site under the Tri-Party Agreement, it was placed within the 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit. In 1997, The Tri-parties redefined 200 Area Operable Units into waste groupings (Waste Site Grouping for 200 Areas Soils Investigations [DOE-RL 1992 and 1997]). A waste group contains waste sites that share similarities in geological conditions, function, and types of waste received. Tank 241-Z-361 is identified within the CERCLA Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group (DOE-RL 1992). The Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group has been prioritized for remediation beginning in the year 2004. Results of Tank 216-Z-361 sampling and analysis described in this Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) and in the SAP for sludge sampling (to be developed) will determine whether expedited response actions are required before 2004 because of the hazards associated with tank contents. Should data conclude that remediation of this tank should occur earlier than is planned for the other sites in the waste group, it is likely that removal alternatives will be analyzed in a separate Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA). Removal actions would proceed after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) signs an Action Memorandum describing the selected removal alternative for Tank 216-Z-361. If the data conclude that there is no immediate threat to human health and the environment from this tank, remedial actions for the tank will be defined in a feasibility study for the entire waste group.

BANNING, D.L.

1999-02-23

376

Analysis of Arsenical Metabolites in Biological Samples  

PubMed Central

Quantitation of iAs and its methylated metabolites in biological samples provides dosimetric information needed to understand dose-response relations. Here, methods are described for separation of inorganic and mono-, di-, and trimethylated arsenicals by thin layer chromatography. This method has been extensively used to track the metabolism of the radionuclide [73As] in a variety of in vitro assay systems. In addition, a hydride generation-cryotrapping-gas chromatography-atomic absorption spectrometric method is described for the quantitation of arsenicals in biological samples. This method uses pH-selective hydride generation to differentiate among arsenicals containing trivalent or pentavalent arsenic. PMID:20396652

Hernandez-Zavala, Araceli; Drobna, Zuzana; Styblo, Miroslav; Thomas, David J.

2009-01-01

377

Sampling and Analysis Plan for PUREX canyon vessel flushing  

SciTech Connect

A sampling and analysis plan is necessary to provide direction for the sampling and analytical activities determined by the data quality objectives. This document defines the sampling and analysis necessary to support the deactivation of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility vessels that are regulated pursuant to Washington Administrative Code 173-303.

Villalobos, C.N.

1995-03-01

378

UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona. Draft  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide background, guidance, and justification for fiscal year (FY) 1994 water sampling activities for the uranium mil tailings site at Tuba City, Arizona. This sampling and analysis plan will form the basis for groundwater sampling and analysis work orders to be implemented in FY94.

Not Available

1993-09-01

379

LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

After the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2002, and the subsequent deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department o...

380

AEROSOL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS, PHOENIX, ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

An atmospheric sampling program was carried out in the greater Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area in November, 1975. Objectives of the study were to measure aerosol mass flux through Phoenix and to characterize the aerosol according to particle type and size. The ultimate goal of...

381

Trace Element Analysis of Biological Samples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews background of atomic absorption spectrometry techniques. Discusses problems encountered and precautions to be taken in determining trace elements in the parts-per-billion concentration range and below. Concentrates on determining chromium in biological samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption. Considers other elements, matrices, and…

Veillon, Claude

1986-01-01

382

Use of a field portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzer to determine the concentration of lead and other metals in soil samples.  

PubMed

Field portable methods are often needed in risk characterization, assessment and management to rapidly determine metal concentrations in environmental samples. Examples are for determining: "hot spots" of soil contamination, whether dust wipe lead levels meet housing occupancy standards, and worker respiratory protection levels. For over 30 years portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzers have been available for the in situ, non-destructive, measurement of lead in paint. Recent advances made possible their use for analysis of airborne dust filter samples, soil, and dust wipes. Research at the University of Cincinnati with the NITON 700 Series XRF instrument (40 millicurie Cadmium 109 source, L X-Rays) demonstrated its proficiency on air sample filters (NIOSH Method No. 7702, "Lead by Field Portable XRF; limit of detection 6 microg per sample; working range 17-1,500 microg/m3 air). Research with lead dust wipe samples from housing has also shown promising results. This XRF instrument was used in 1997 in Poland on copper smelter area soil samples with the cooperation of the Wroclaw Medical Academy and the Foundation for the Children from the Copper Basin (Legnica). Geometric mean soil lead concentrations were 200 ppm with the portable XRF, 201 ppm with laboratory-based XRF (Kevex) and 190 ppm using atomic absorption (AA). Correlations of field portable XRF and AA results were excellent for samples sieved to less than 125 micrometers with R-squared values of 0.997, 0.957, and 0.976 for lead, copper and zinc respectively. Similarly, correlations were excellent for soil sieved to less than 250 micrometers, where R-squared values were 0. 924, 0.973, and 0.937 for lead, copper and zinc, respectively. The field portable XRF instrument appears to be useful for the determination of soil pollution by these metals in industrial regions. PMID:10384212

Clark, S; Menrath, W; Chen, M; Roda, S; Succop, P

1999-01-01

383

Determination and analysis of distribution coefficients of 137Cs in soils from Biscay (Spain).  

PubMed

The distribution coefficient of (137)Cs has been determined in 58 soils from 12 sampling points from Biscay by treating 10 g with 25 ml of an aqueous solution with an activity of 1765 Bq in the radionuclide, by shaking during 64 h and measuring the residual activity with a suitable detector. Soils were characterised by sampling depth, particle size analysis and the usual chemical parameters. Soils were thereafter treated to fix the chemical forms of (137)Cs speciation by successive extractions in order to determine fractions due to exchangeable, associated with carbonates, iron oxide and organic matter fractions, obtaining by difference the amount taken by the rest of the soil constituents. For this research, 16 soils from four points were selected from the previous samples. The greatest mean percentages of (137)Cs sorption were with the rest (69.93), exchangeable (13.17) and organic matter (12.54%) fractions. This paper includes also the calculation of partial distribution coefficients for chemical species as well as relations of distribution coefficients both among them and with soil parameters. PMID:15092865

Elejalde, C; Herranz, M; Legarda, F; Romero, F

2000-10-01

384

Roseivivax roseus sp. nov., an alphaproteobacterium isolated from a solar saltern soil sample.  

PubMed

A pink, Gram-stain-negative, motile, halotolerant bacterium with subpolar flagellum, designated strain BH87090T, was isolated from a saline soil sample collected from the south-west coastal area of South Korea (125° 58' 58.08? E 34° 45' 37.32? N). The isolate formed opaque pink to red colonies on marine agar plates at 30 °C. The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and one unidentified phospholipid. The sole respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). The major cellular fatty acids were C18:1?7c, C19:0 cyclo ?8c, C16:0 and 11-methyl C18:1?7c. The genomic DNA G+C content was 61.8 mol%. These chemotaxonomic characteristics were all consistent with specific properties of the genus Roseivivax. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate affiliated to the cluster with members of the genus Roseivivax in the Roseobacter clade, which suggested that the strain belonged to the genus Roseivivax. However, the low 16S rRNA gene similarities (93.5-95.3%) of strain BH87090T with all the members of the genus Roseivivax indicated that it represented a novel species of the genus Roseivivax. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain BH87090T should be classified as a novel species of the genus Roseivivax. The name Roseivivax roseus sp. nov. is proposed, with strain BH87090T (=DSM 23042T=KCTC 22650T) as the type strain. PMID:24554641

Zhang, Yu-Qin; Lee, Jae-Chan; Park, Dong-Jin; Lu, Xin-Xin; Mou, Xiao-Zhen; Kim, Chang-Jin

2014-05-01

385

UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations.

Papusch, R.

1993-12-01

386

Tracer analysis of methanogenesis in salt marsh soils.  

PubMed

Differences in paths of carbon flow have been found in soils of the tall (TS) and short (SS) Spartina alterniflora marshes of Sapelo Island, Ga. Gaseous end products of [U-C]glucose metabolism were CO(2) and CH(4) in the SS region and primarily CO(2) in the TS region. Sulfate concentration did not demonstrably affect glucose catabolism or the distribution of end products in either zone. [U-C]acetate was converted to CO(2) and CH(4) in the SS soils and almost exclusively to CO(2) in the TS soils. Sulfate concentration did not affect acetate metabolism in the SS soils; however, a noticeable effect of sulfate dilution was seen in TS soils. Sulfate dilution in TS samples resulted in increased methane formation. Total glucose and acetate metabolism were similar in TS and SS soils despite differences in end products. A microbial community characterized by fermentative/sulfate-reducing processes has developed in TS soils as opposed to the fermentative/methanogenic/sulfate-reducing community found in SS soils. PMID:16345551

King, G M; Wiebe, W J

1980-04-01

387

Biogenic nitric oxide emission of mountain soils sampled from different vertical landscape zones in the Changbai Mountains, northeastern China.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important component in nitrogen biogeochemical cycling produced through biological processes of nitrification and denitrification in soils, but the production and the consumption processes of NO in temperate mountain soil are less understood. Through laboratory experiments focusing on NO biogenic emissions from six kinds of mountain soils sampled from different vertical landscape zones, that is, coniferous and broadleaf mixed forest (CBF), fir forest (FF), spruce forest (SF), Erman's birch forest (EBF), alpine tundra (AT), and volcanic ash (VA), in the Changbai Mountains, northeastern China, we found that the optimum water-filled pore space (WFPS) for NO production varies between 22.5% and 35% for a range of mountain soils. The optimum soil moisture for the maximum NO emission for a certain soil type, however, was constant and independent of soil temperature. The NO emission potential for forest soils was about 7-50-fold higher than tundra soil and volcanic ash, indicating that it is strongly influenced by nutrient contents in soils. On the basis of laboratory results and field monitoring data, the average NO fluxes from these mountain soils were estimated to be 0.14-29.56 ng N m(-2) s(-1) for an entire plant growth period. NO emissions mainly occur in wet season for CBF and FF, but in dry season for other soil types. PMID:20450189

Yu, Junbao; Meixner, Franz X; Sun, Weidong; Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Xia, Chuanhai; Xie, Wenjun

2010-06-01

388

Extraction of Plutonium From Spiked INEEL Soil Samples Using the Ligand-Assisted Supercritical Fluid Extraction (LA-SFE) Technique  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the effectiveness of ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction for the removal of transuranic contaminations from soils an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) silty-clay soil sample was obtained from near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area and subjected to three different chemical preparations before being spiked with plutonium. The spiked INEEL soil samples were subjected to a sequential aqueous extraction procedure to determine radionuclide portioning in each sample. Results from those extractions demonstrate that plutonium consistently partitioned into the residual fraction across all three INEEL soil preparations whereas americium partitioned 73% into the iron/manganese fraction for soil preparation A, with the balance partitioning into the residual fraction. Plutonium and americium were extracted from the INEEL soil samples using a ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction efficiencies ranging from 14% to 19%. After a second round wherein the initial extraction parameters were changed, the plutonium extraction efficiencies increased to 60% and as high as 80% with the americium level in the post-extracted soil samples dropping near to the detection limits. The third round of experiments are currently underway. These results demonstrate that the ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique can effectively extract plutonium from the spiked INEEL soil preparations.

Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J. (INEEL); Holmes, R.G.G. (British Nuclear Fuels, Inc.)

1999-08-01

389

DISSOLVED ORGANIC NITROGEN IN AGRICULTURAL SOILS: EFFECTS OF SAMPLE PREPARATION ON MEASURED VALUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing interest in the soil's dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) fraction. However, soil analytical procedures have to be such that the result is a true representation of the DON levels in the soil. Three separate studies investigated the effects of soil and extract preparation on measured soil mineral N (Nmin) and DON concentrations in agricultural soils, ranging in texture

Mark Shepherd; Anne Bhogal; Geoff Barrett; Chris Dyer

2001-01-01

390

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS INFORMATION AIDS FOR STATIONARY SOURCE PERSONNEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency, in developing and evaluating sampling and analysis methodology for stationary sources, has collected information on availability and applicability of sampling and analytical methods. ll of this information is compiled in three reference docume...

391

Heterogeneity of soil properties along a profile as reflected in multifractal analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils have been defined as natural bodies that have length, breadth and depth. Each soil type occupies a portion of the landscape. Soil properties are the result of soil forming factors and processes that operate at different spatial scales. Therefore, there is a need to take into account spatial scales and the processes operating at those scales for a sound characterization of the spatial variability of soil properties. The capability of multifractal analysis to efficiently describe and summarize patterns of soil spatial variability has been demonstrated in the last years. The objectives of this work were (a) to characterize the spatial variability and scaling of soil properties along a transect using multifractal techniques and (b) to relate the pattern of spatial variability with soil forming factors and processes. The research site was located at the experimental centre of the Agronomic Institute of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The topography of the site is gently undulating. The climate is humid subtropical (Cwa according to Köppen). A transect of 2370 m was established and a 30 m sampling interval was marked along it, giving 79 sampling points. This profile included different soil types and soil uses. The most frequent soil type was Oxisol according to the Soil Survey Staff equivalent to a Latossolo in the Brazilian classification system. Soil was sampled at the 0-20 cm depth and the following properties were determined: texture fractions, pH both in H2O and KCl, organic carbon content (OC), exchangeable bases (S), exchangeable aluminium and hydrogen, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and percent base saturation (V). The texture along the studied transect ranged from clay to sandy-clay. Soil pH (H2O) ranged from strongly acid (4.50) to neutral (7.00) with a mean value of 5.21. Accordingly percent base saturation varied between 4.0 % and 91.7 % and on average it was 38.2 %. Mean organic carbon content was 1.66% and the extreme values were 0.80 % and 2.60%. The statistical variability of the studied soil properties ranked as follows: V > silt > clay > S > OC content > sand > pH. The experimental data were converted into distributions of mass along a geometric support, i.e. mass content per segment of 30 m size, to perform multifractal analysis. Next, a probability distribution was obtained by dividing the values of the measure in a given segment by the sum of the measure in the whole transect. The spatial pattern of the studied soil properties showed multifractal scaling. Multifractal behaviour was well characterized and expressed through the next functions: singularity spectra, f(?), moment scaling exponent, ?(q), and generalized dimension, D(q). There were, however, differences in the degree of power law scaling between the studied soil properties. Our study showed that the multifractal parameters derived from f-?, ?-q and D-q relationships clearly summarized the spatial pattern of variability of the studied soil properties. The observed scale-dependent relationships demonstrate the usefulness of the multifractal techniques to analyze the effect of soil forming factors and processes on the patterns of soil spatial variability. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by Spanish Ministry of Education (Project PHB2009-0094-PC) and CAPES from Brazil.

Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Vieira, Sidney R.; Miranda, José G. V.; Camargo, Otavio A.; Menk, João. R. F.; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

2010-05-01

392

Sampling and analysis of biological aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extreme particle size range and enormous heterogeneity of airborne biological particles make sampling a significant challenge. Three major sampler types available include gravity devices, impactors and suction samplers. Gravity methods, while most commonly used, are neither qualitatively or quantitatively accurate and of very limited use. Impaction samplers (rotating, centrifugal) accelerate air by rotating the collecting surface or with a fan. Particles are collected from measured volumes of air but these devices preferentially sample particles larger than 10 ?m. Suction samplers, which efficiently collect particles of a wide size range from measured volumes of air, include slit samplers, cascade impactors, filtration devices and liquid impingers. Suction samplers can retrieve viable particles by direct impaction on culture media, or by subsequent culture of impinger fluid or filter eluates. Nonviable particles can often be identified by microscopic examination of slides, filters or filtrates of impinger fluids. Immunoassays and biochemical assays can be used with impinger fluid and filter eluates to assess antigen and toxin levels in measured air samples.

Burge, Harriet A.; Solomon, William R.

393

A review of historical data on the radionuclide content of soil samples collected from the Hanford Site and vicinity  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of radioactive materials in soil samples collected from the environs of the Hanford Site has been a routine part of environmental monitoring since 1971. Soil samples have also been collected and analyzed for special-purpose studies. The main objective of this report is to review and summarize the historical record of soil sampling results related to environmental monitoring from the late 1950s through 1987. Other objectives are to publish previously unpublished data and to consolidate results from routine environmental monitoring and special studies into a single document. 51 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs.

Price, K.R.

1988-11-01

394

Analysis of a Suspected Drug Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This general chemistry laboratory uses differences in solubility to separate a mixture of caffeine and aspirin while introducing the instrumental analysis methods of GCMS and FTIR. The drug mixture is separated by partitioning aspirin and caffeine between dichloromethane and aqueous base. TLC and reference standards are used to identify aspirin…

Schurter, Eric J.; Zook-Gerdau, Lois Anne; Szalay, Paul

2011-01-01

395

Novel Sample-handling Approach for XRD Analysis with Minimal Sample Preparation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sample preparation and sample handling are among the most critical operations associated with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These operations require attention in a laboratory environment, but they become a major constraint in the deployment of XRD instruments for robotic planetary exploration. We are developing a novel sample handling system that dramatically relaxes the constraints on sample preparation by allowing characterization of coarse-grained material that would normally be impossible to analyze with conventional powder-XRD techniques.

Sarrazin, P.; Chipera, S.; Bish, D.; Blake, D.; Feldman, S.; Vaniman, D.; Bryson, C.

2004-01-01

396

Modified electrokinetic sample injection method in chromatography and electrophoresis analysis  

DOEpatents

A sample injection method for horizontal configured multiple chromatography or electrophoresis units, each containing a number of separation/analysis channels, that enables efficient introduction of analyte samples. This method for loading when taken in conjunction with horizontal microchannels allows much reduced sample volumes and a means of sample stacking to greatly reduce the concentration of the sample. This reduction in the amount of sample can lead to great cost savings in sample preparation, particularly in massively parallel applications such as DNA sequencing. The essence of this method is in preparation of the input of the separation channel, the physical sample introduction, and subsequent removal of excess material. By this method, sample volumes of 100 nanoliter to 2 microliters have been used successfully, compared to the typical 5 microliters of sample required by the prior separation/analysis method.

Davidson, J. Courtney (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01

397

Transfer factors to Whitetail deer: comparison of stomach-content, plant-sample and soil-sample concentrations as the denominator.  

PubMed

A recent study measured transfer factors for 49 elements in hunter-killed Whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), using concentrations in the stomach content as the substrate/denominator to compute muscle/vegetation concentration ratios (CR(m-stomach)) and daily fractional transfer factors (Ff). Using the stomach content ensured an accurate representation of what the deer ate, except that it was limited in time to the vegetation selected by the animal just before it was killed. Here, two alternatives are considered, one where the feed is represented by samples of 21 different vegetation types that deer may have eaten in the area (CR(m-plant)), and the other is using soil concentration in the region as the denominator (CR(m-soil)). The latter is the formulation used in the ERICA tool, and other sources, for risk assessment to non-human biota. Across elements, (log) concentrations in all the media were highly correlated. The stomach contents had consistently higher ash and rare earth element concentrations than the sampled (and washed) vegetation and this was attributed to soil or dust ingestion. This lends credence to the use of soil-based CRm-soil values, despite (or more accurately because of) the inclusive yet gross simplicity of the approach. However, it was clear that variation of CR(m-soil) values was larger than for CR(m-stomach) or CR(m-plant), even if soil load on vegetation was included in the latter values. It was also noted that the variation in CR(m-soil) computed from the product of CR(m-plant) and CR(plant-soil) (where CR(plant-soil) is the plant/soil concentration ratio) was somewhat larger than the variation inherent in CR(m-soil) data. Thus it is reasonable to estimate CR(m-soil) from CR(m-plant) and CR(plant-soil) if observed CR(m-soil) values are not available, but this introduces further uncertainty. PMID:23287432

Sheppard, S C

2013-12-01

398

Microwave soil moisture measurements and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An effort to develop a model that simulates the distribution of water content and of temperature in bare soil is documented. The field experimental set up designed to acquire the data to test this model is described. The microwave signature acquisition system (MSAS) field measurements acquired in Colby, Kansas during the summer of 1978 are pesented.

Newton, R. W.; Howell, T. A.; Nieber, J. L.; Vanbavel, C. H. M. (principal investigators)

1980-01-01

399

Plant and soil analysis: An Australian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cropping, horticultural industries, and pastoral enterprises based on improved pastures occupy only a small percentage of Australia's land mass. The major part of Australian agriculture is confined to limited zones, usually within 500 km of the coast, due to rainfall and limited irrigation potential. This is in stark contrast to the United States with its productive mid?west agricultural belt.Soil testing

Lindsay C. Campbell

1994-01-01

400

Area G Perimeter Surface-Soil Sampling Environmental Surveillance for Fiscal Year 1998 Hazardous and Solid Waste Group (ESH-19)  

SciTech Connect

Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is at Technical Area 54 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Area G has been the principal facility for the disposal of low-level, solid-mixed, and transuranic waste since 1957. It is currently LANL's primary facility for radioactive solid waste burial and storage. As part of the annual environmental surveillance effort at Area G, surface soil samples are collected around the facility's perimeter to characterize possible radionuclide movement off the site through surface water runoff During 1998, 39 soil samples were collected and analyzed for percent moisture, tritium, plutonium-238 and 239, cesium-137 and americium-241. To assess radionuclide concentrations, the results from these samples are compared with baseline or background soil samples collected in an undisturbed area west of the active portion Area G. The 1998 results are also compared to the results from analogous samples collected during 1996 and 1997 to assess changes over this time in radionuclide activity concentrations in surface soils around the perimeter of Area G. The results indicate elevated levels of all the radionuclides assessed (except cesium-137) exist in Area G perimeter surface soils vs the baseline soils. The comparison of 1998 soil data to previous years (1996 and 1997) indicates no significant increase or decrease in radionuclide concentrations; an upward or downward trend in concentrations is not detectable at this time. These results are consistent with data comparisons done in previous years. Continued annual soil sampling will be necessary to realize a trend if one exists. The radionuclide levels found in the perimeter surface soils are above background but still considered relatively low. This perimeter surface soil data will be used for planning purposes at Area G, techniques to prevent sediment tm.nsport off-site are implemented in the areas where the highest radionuclide concentrations are indicated.

Marquis Childs

1999-09-01

401

[Near infrared spectral analysis and measuring system for primary nutrient of soil].  

PubMed

Soil is the foundation of agricultural production. Rapid analysis of soil nutrients, using near infrared spectral analysis technology, can guide process of agricultural production. Developing near-infrared measuring system with discrete wavelength will change the extensive operation situation of agricultural production. First, the spectra of 85 black soil samples of northeast China, collected by FOSS XDS near-infrared spectrometer were analyzed using the correlation spectra and successive projection algorithm. Then, the characteristic wavelengths of total nitrogen and organic matter were obtained. After that the authors collected the spectra of soil samples using the measuring system with high signal to noise ratio (SNR) that the authors developed. The calibration models for total nitrogen and organic matter were established. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of total nitrogen and organic matter is 0.019% and 0.36% respectively, and the correlation coefficient of prediction (R(P)) is 0.851 and 0.923, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the characteristic wavelengths for total nitrogen and organic matter can be obtained through the near infrared spectra analyses. The measuring system can be used for soil nutrient analysis and lays the foundation for the industrial applications. PMID:21800574

Gao, Hong-zhi; Lu, Qi-peng

2011-05-01

402

In situ silicone tube microextraction: a new method for undisturbed sampling of root-exuded thiophenes from marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) in soil.  

PubMed

The difficulties of monitoring allelochemical concentrations in soil and their dynamics over time have been a major barrier to testing hypotheses of allelopathic effects. Here, we evaluate three diffusive sampling strategies that employ polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sorbents to map the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of root-exuded thiophenes from the African marigold, Tagetes erecta. Solid phase root zone extraction (SPRE) probes constructed by inserting stainless steel wire into PDMS tubing were used to monitor thiophene concentrations at various depths beneath marigolds growing in PVC pipes. PDMS sheets were used to map the distribution of thiophenes beneath marigolds grown in thin glass boxes. Concentrations of the two major marigold thiophenes measured by these two methods were extremely variable in both space and time. Dissection and analysis of roots indicated that distribution of thiophenes in marigold roots also was quite variable. A third approach used 1 m lengths of PDMS microtubing placed in marigold soil for repeated sampling of soil without disturbance of the roots. The two ends of the tubing remained out of the soil so that solvent could be washed through the tubing to collect samples for HPLC analysis. Unlike the other two methods, initial experiments with this approach show more uniformity of response, and suggest that soil concentrations of marigold thiophenes are affected greatly even by minimal disturbance of the soil. Silicone tube microextraction gave a linear response for alpha-terthienyl when maintained in soils spiked with 0-10 ppm of this thiophene. This method, which is experimentally simple and uses inexpensive materials, should be broadly applicable to the measurement of non-polar root exudates, and thus provides a means to test hypotheses about the role of root exudates in plant-plant and other interactions. PMID:19902302

Mohney, Brian K; Matz, Tricia; Lamoreaux, Jessica; Wilcox, David S; Gimsing, Anne Louise; Mayer, Philipp; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D

2009-11-01

403

Spectral analysis of irregularly-sampled data: Paralleling the regularly-sampled data approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectral analysis of regularly-sampled (RS) data is a well-established topic, and many useful methods are available for performing it under different sets of conditions. The same cannot be said about the spectral analysis of irregularly-sampled (IS) data: despite a plethora of published works on this topic, the choice of a spectral analysis method for IS data is essentially limited,