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1

Analysis of large soil samples for actinides  

DOEpatents

A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

Maxwell, III; Sherrod L. (Aiken, SC)

2009-03-24

2

COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR SOIL VOC ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Data published by numerous researchers over the last decade demonstrate that there is a high degree of spatial variability in the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil at contaminated waste sites. This phenomenon is confounded by the use of a small sample aliqu...

3

Preparing Soil Samples for Volatile Organic Compound Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three equilibrium headspace and three solvent extraction methods of preparing soil samples for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were compared. Soil samples were spiked with five gasoline range aromatic compounds and four chlorinated compounds...

A. D. Hewitt

1997-01-01

4

Soil Core Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about one method used in environmental site assessments. They practice soil sampling by creating soil cores, studying soil profiles and characterizing soil profiles in borehole logs. They use their analysis to make predictions about what is going on in the soil and what it might mean to an engineer developing the area.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

5

Mercury Source Zone Identification using Soil Vapor Sampling and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Development and demonstration of reliable measurement techniqes that can detect and help quantify the nature and extent of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in the subsurface are needed to reduce certainties in the decision making process and increase the effectiveness of remedial actions. We conducted field tests at the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC) in Oak Ridge, TN, to determine if sampling and analysis of Hg(0) vapors in the shallow subsurface (<0.3 m depth) can be used to as an indicator of the location and extent of Hg(0) releases in the subsurface. We constructed a rigid PVC pushprobe assembly, which was driven into the ground. Soil gas samples were collected through a sealed inner tube of the assembly and analyzed immediately in the field with a Lumex and/or Jerome Hg(0) analyzer. Time-series sampling showed that Hg vapor concentrations were fairly stable over time suggesting that the vapor phase Hg(0) was not being depleted and that sampling results were not dependent on the soil gas purge volume. Hg(0) vapor data collected at over 200 pushprobe locations at 3 different release sites correlated well to areas of known Hg(0) contamination. Vertical profiling of Hg(0) vapor concentrations conducted at 2 locations provided information on the vertical distribution of Hg(0) contamination in the subsurface. We concluded from our studies that soil gas sampling and analysis can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively at a large scale to help identify areas contaminated with Hg(0).

Watson, David B [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL] [ORNL; Lester, Brian P [ORNL] [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL] [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL] [ORNL; Bogle, Mary Anna [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Pierce, Eric M [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

6

Soil sampling and analysis for volatile organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns over data quality have raised many questions related to sampling soils for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This paper was prepared in response to some of these questions and concerns expressed by Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) and On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs). The following questions are frequently asked:1.Is there a specific device suggested for sampling soils for VOCs?2.Are there significant losses of

T. E. Lewis; A. B. Crockett; R. L. Siegrist

1994-01-01

7

COMPARISON OF THE METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF PARTIAL SAMPLES AND OF A BULK SAMPLE AT ESTIMATING WEED SEEDBANK IN SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of soil sampling with three core samplers of a different diameter (13, 64, and 80 mm) using the method for analysis of partial samples (MAPS) or a bulk sample (MABS) on the precision of estimating the weed seedbank in soil was studied in a model experiment. The results show that to obtain sufficiently exact data characterising the

Vladimír SMUTNÝ

8

Analysis of core samples from jet grouted soil  

SciTech Connect

Superplasticized cementitious grouts were tested for constructing subsurface containment barriers using jet grouting in July, 1994. The grouts were developed in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The test site was located close to the Chemical Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Sandia was responsible for the placement contract. The jet grouted soil was exposed to the service environment for one year and core samples were extracted to evaluate selected properties. The cores were tested for strength, density, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) and cementitious content. The tests provided an opportunity to determine the performance of the grouts and grout-treated soil. Several recommendations arise from the results of the core tests. These are: (1) grout of the same mix proportions as the final grout should be used as a drilling fluid in order to preserve the original mix design and utilize the benefits of superplasticizers; (2) a high shear mixer should be used for preparation of the grout; (3) the permeability under unsaturated conditions requires consideration when subsurface barriers are used in the vadose zone; and (4) suitable methods for characterizing the permeability of barriers in-situ should be applied.

Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

1995-10-01

9

Polyethersulfone Membrane Filters for Sampling Soil Water from In Situ Soils and Intact Soil Columns for Phosphate Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous plates or cups are commonly used to collect soil solution samples in field studies or from intact soil columns. Some commonly used materials for porous plates may adsorb soil solution constituents such as phosphorus (P). An alternative to using a porous plate is to use a membrane filter with a known pore size and bubble point. The objective of

Nathan O. Nelson; Robert L. Mikkelsen

2006-01-01

10

Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve Soil Sampling and Analysis Plan  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the sampling and analysis PNNL will conduct on ALE to characterize concentrations of radionuclides present in soil and demonstrate compliance with DOE-EM approved Authorized Limits.

Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Ted M.; Dirkes, Roger L.

2004-05-06

11

Sampling error associated with collection and analysis of soil samples at TNT-contaminated sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed short-range spatial het- erogeneity of TNT concentrations in surface soils at ex- plosives-contaminated sites. Discrete and composite samples were analyzed by both on-site calorimetric techniques and standard laboratory protocols. Three lo- cations were sampled at each of three installations, and the results were used to estimate the relative contribu- tions of analytical error and sampling error. The

T. F. Jenkins; C. L. Grant; G. S. Brar; P. G. Thorne; P. W. Schumacher; T. A. Ranney

1997-01-01

12

NEW SOIL VOC SAMPLERS: EN CORE AND ACCU CORE SAMPLING\\/STORAGE DEVICES FOR VOC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core{reg_sign} sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and\\/or biodegradation. An ASTM International (ASTM) standard practice, D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr

2006-01-01

13

NEW SOIL VOC SAMPLERS: EN CORE AND ACCU CORE SAMPLING/STORAGE DEVICES FOR VOC ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core{reg_sign} sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. An ASTM International (ASTM) standard practice, D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, describes use of the En Core sampler to collect and store a soil sample of approximately 5 grams or 25 grams for volatile organic analysis and specifies sample storage in the En Core sampler at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours; -7 to -21 C for up to 14 days; or 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -7 to -21 C for up to five days. This report discusses activities performed during the past year to promote and continue acceptance of the En Core samplers based on their performance to store soil samples for VOC analysis. The En Core sampler is designed to collect soil samples for VOC analysis at the soil surface. To date, a sampling tool for collecting and storing subsurface soil samples for VOC analysis is not available. Development of a subsurface VOC sampling/storage device was initiated in 1999. This device, which is called the Accu Core{trademark} sampler, is designed so that a soil sample can be collected below the surface using a dual-tube penetrometer and transported to the laboratory for analysis in the same container. Laboratory testing of the current Accu Core design shows that the device holds low-level concentrations of VOCs in soil samples during 48-hour storage at 4 {+-} 2 C and that the device is ready for field evaluation to generate additional performance data. This report discusses a field validation exercise that was attempted in Pennsylvania in 2004 and activities being performed to plan and conduct a field validation study in 2006. A draft ASTM practice describing use of the Accu Core sampler is being prepared. An update on the status of the ASTM practice is given in this report.

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr

2006-06-01

14

Analysis of Core Soil and Water Samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak Atoll.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of exp 137 Cs, exp 90 Sr, exp 239+240 Pu and exp 241 Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry proc...

W. L. Robison V. E. Noshkin

1981-01-01

15

Laboratory and Airborne BRDF Analysis of Vegetation Leaves and Soil Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory-based Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) analysis of vegetation leaves, soil, and leaf litter samples is presented. The leaf litter and soil samples, numbered 1 and 2, were obtained from a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza: 25.0degS, 31.5degE). A third soil sample, number 3, was obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20degS, 15.93degE, alt. 1100 m). In addition, BRDF of local fresh and dry leaves from tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and acacia tree (Acacia greggii) were studied. It is shown how the BRDF depends on the incident and scatter angles, sample size (i.e. crushed versus whole leaf,) soil samples fraction size, sample status (i.e. fresh versus dry leaves), vegetation species (poplar versus acacia), and vegetation s biochemical composition. As a demonstration of the application of the results of this study, airborne BRDF measurements acquired with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the soil and leaf litter samples were obtained are compared to the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory and airborne measured BRDF is reported.

Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

2008-01-01

16

Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll  

SciTech Connect

Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island radioecology and dose assessment work.

Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.

1981-02-18

17

Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of ¹³⁷Cs, ⁹°Sr, \\/sup 239 +240\\/Pu and ²⁴¹Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island

W. L. Robison; V. E. Noshkin

1981-01-01

18

Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).  

PubMed

A method for the quantitative elemental analysis of surface soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed and applied to the analysis of bulk soil samples for discrimination between specimens. The use of a 266 nm laser for LIBS analysis is reported for the first time in forensic soil analysis. Optimization of the LIBS method is discussed, and the results compared favorably to a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method previously developed. Precision for both methods was <10% for most elements. LIBS limits of detection were <33 ppm and bias <40% for most elements. In a proof of principle study, the LIBS method successfully discriminated samples from two different sites in Dade County, FL. Analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc test and Student's t test resulted in 100% discrimination with no type I or type II errors. Principal components analysis (PCA) resulted in clear groupings of the two sites. A correct classification rate of 99.4% was obtained with linear discriminant analysis using leave-one-out validation. Similar results were obtained when the same samples were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, showing that LIBS can provide similar information to LA-ICP-MS. In a forensic sampling/spatial heterogeneity study, the variation between sites, between sub-plots, between samples and within samples was examined on three similar Dade sites. The closer the sampling locations, the closer the grouping on a PCA plot and the higher the misclassification rate. These results underscore the importance of careful sampling for geographic site characterization. PMID:21461623

Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

2011-07-01

19

Laboratory analysis of soil hydraulic properties of TA-49 soil samples. Volume I: Report summary  

SciTech Connect

The Hydrologic Testing Laboratory at Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc. (DBS&A) has completed laboratory tests on TA-49 soil samples as specified by Mr. Daniel A. James and summarized in Table 1. Tables 2 through 12 give the results of the specified analyses. Raw laboratory data and graphical plots of data (where appropriate) are contained in Appendices A through K. Appendix L lists the methods used in these analyses. A detailed description of each method is available upon request. Thermal properties were calculated using methods reviewed by Campbell and covered in more detail in Appendix K. Typically, soil thermal conductivities are determined using empirical fitting parameters (five in this case), Some assumptions are also made in the equations used to reduce the raw data. In addition to the requested thermal property measurements, calculated values are also presented as the best available internal check on data quality. For both thermal conductivities and specific heats, calculated and measured values are consistent and the functions often cross. Interestingly, measured thermal conductivities tend to be higher than calculated thermal conductivities around typically encountered in situ moisture contents ({plus_minus}5 percent). While we do not venture an explanation of the difference, sensitivity testing of any problem requiring nonisothermal modeling across this range is in order.

NONE

1995-04-01

20

Mass spectrometer-pyrolysis experiment for atmospheric and soil sample analysis on the surface of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from the Viking mission will form the foundation for future in-depth investigations of atmosphere-surface interactions on Mars. The two Viking landers carried impressive instrumentation to obtain and analyze soil samples: the sites were observed by cameras, and the collector head was located on a long boom and allowed the collection of large samples at various depths. A selection of grain sizes was possible and a distribution system supplied a number of experiments with soil material. Despite stationary vehicles, a wide sampling field was reachable. The GCMS system, responsible for atmospheric as well as surface soil analysis, worked well on both landers. Atmospheric measurements resulted in the determination of the abundance of noble gases as well as of other molecular species. Isotopic composition measurements included the important ratios of C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, and Ar-36/Ar-40. To verify these past results and to advance detailed studies of noble gas isotope ratios and minor constituents, better instrument sensitivities, higher precision, and lower background contributions are required in future Mars missions. Soil analysis during the Viking mission concentrated on organic material. Heating cycles were performed to 500 C and only water and carbon dioxide were identified. Higher pyrolysis temperatures are of primary importance to advance our understanding of the mineralogy and gas loading of surface material and atmospheric exchange.

Mauersberger, Konrad; Mahaffy, Paul; Niemann, Hasso

1992-01-01

21

Tank farms backlog soil sample and analysis results supporting a contained-in determination  

SciTech Connect

Soil waste is generated from Tank Farms and associated Tank Farms facilities operations. The soil is a mixed waste because it is an environmental media which contains tank waste, a listed mixed waste. The soil is designated with the listed waste codes (FOO1 through F005) which have been applied to all tank wastes. The scope of this report includes Tank Farms soil managed under the Backlog program. The Backlog Tank Farm soil in storage consists of drums and 5 boxes (originally 828 drums). The Backlog Waste Program dealt with 2276 containers of solid waste generated by Tank Farms operations during the time period from 1989 through early 1993. The containers were mismanaged by being left in the field for an extended period of time without being placed into permitted storage. As a corrective action for this situation, these containers were placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) pending additional characterization. The Backlog Waste Analysis Plan (BWAP) (RL 1993) was written to define how Backlog wastes would be evaluated for proper designation and storage. The BWAP was approved in August 1993 and all work required by the BWAP was completed by July 1994. This document presents results of testing performed in 1992 & 1996 that supports the attainment of a Contained-In Determination for Tank Farm Backlog soils. The analytical data contained in this report is evaluated against a prescribed decision rule. If the decision rule is satisfied then the Washington State Department of ecology (Ecology) may grant a Contained-In Determination. A Contained-In Determination for disposal to an unlined burial trench will be requested from Ecology . The decision rule and testing requirements provided by Ecology are described in the Tank Farms Backlog Soil Sample Analysis Plan (SAP) (WHC 1996).

Jackson, C.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-27

22

Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith  

DOEpatents

A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allow an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds.

Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN)

1991-01-01

23

Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith  

DOEpatents

A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allows an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds. 11 figures.

Thompson, C.V.

1991-02-05

24

MARS-IRMA: in-situ infrared microscope analysis of Martian soil and rock samples.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IRMA (the acronym stands for Infra Red Microscope Analysis) is a hyperspectral imaging spectrometer which is capable, in its present design, to achieve a spatial resolution of 38 ?m in the 0.8-5 ?m infrared spectral range. IRMA has the goal to first ever quantitatively characterize the mineralogy and the microphysical structure of the materials of the Martian soils and rocks down to the depth available to a lander sampling mechanism. The experiment has been selected by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), in the framework of the Italian participation to the NASA's Mars Surveyor Programme, to be part of the Italian Package for Scientific Experiments (IPSE). IPSE was to fly on-board the ill-fated MARS2003 MARS SAMPLE RETURN Mission, postponed during the early months of 2000 to a later date (possibly 2007). IRMA present state of development is compatible with a flight readiness in 2007. IPSE is a small laboratory devoted to the analysis of in situ collected samples of rock and soil of Martian material. Details on IPSE are given in a paper in this same journal issue. IRMA will provide detailed information on: texture, habit and microphysical properties of the grains and particulates of the Martian soil as well as the petrography of Martian rocks, with a spatial resolution of the order of the tens of micron. Mineralogical composition and relative mineral abundances of the rocks and soils, with a relative accuracy of the order of 1%. A Signal to Noise Ratio of at least 100 shall be required to achieve this goal IRMA measurements shall provide essential contributions to the understanding of outstanding scientific issues such as the history of water and other volatiles, e.g., CO 2, the role of physical and chemical weathering in the past and present day Mars and hence the assessment of the environmental conditions present on the martian surface throughout its history.

Capaccioni, F.; Bellucci, G.; Orosei, R.; Amici, S.; Bianchi, R.; Blecka, M.; Capria, M. T.; Coradini, A.; Erard, S.; Fonti, S.; Formisano, V.; Forni, O.; Mustard, J.; Piccioni, G.; Pieters, C.; Poscolieri, M.; Battistelli, E.; Romoli, A.; DiGiampietro, M.; Espinasse, S.; Magnani, M.; Pasqui, C.

2001-01-01

25

Sampling and Analysis for Lead in Water and Soil Samples on a University Campus: A Student Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a student research project that determined concentrations of lead in water drawn from selected drinking fountains and in selected soil samples on the campus of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. (18 references) (DDR)

Butala, Steven J.; Zarrabi, Kaveh

1995-01-01

26

The Importance of Sample Processing in Analysis of Asbestos Content in Rocks and Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of asbestos content in rocks and soils using Air Resources Board (ARB) Test Method 435 (M435) involves the processing of samples for subsequent analysis by polarized light microscopy (PLM). The use of different equipment and procedures by commercial laboratories to pulverize rock and soil samples could result in different particle size distributions. It has long been theorized that asbestos-containing samples can be over-pulverized to the point where the particle dimensions of the asbestos no longer meet the required 3:1 length-to-width aspect ratio or the particles become so small that they no longer can be tested for optical characteristics using PLM where maximum PLM magnification is typically 400X. Recent work has shed some light on this issue. ARB staff conducted an interlaboratory study to investigate variability in preparation and analytical procedures used by laboratories performing M435 analysis. With regard to sample processing, ARB staff found that different pulverization equipment and processing procedures produced powders that have varying particle size distributions. PLM analysis of the finest powders produced by one laboratory showed all but one of the 12 samples were non-detect or below the PLM reporting limit; in contrast to the other 36 coarser samples from the same field sample and processed by three other laboratories where 21 samples were above the reporting limit. The set of 12, exceptionally fine powder samples produced by the same laboratory was re-analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and results showed that these samples contained asbestos above the TEM reporting limit. However, the use of TEM as a stand-alone analytical procedure, usually performed at magnifications between 3,000 to 20,000X, also has its drawbacks because of the miniscule mass of sample that this method examines. The small amount of powder analyzed by TEM may not be representative of the field sample. The actual mass of the sample powder analyzed by PLM is about six orders of magnitude greater than that analyzed by TEM and, thus, more likely to be representative of the field sample. TEM results do not always match those of PLM from the same sample because TEM examines smaller fibers/particles than PLM, analyzes less subsample mass, and has results typically expressed in different units (e.g., percent by weight, visual estimate, or point count). Paired PLM and TEM analyses of field samples taken by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) illustrate this point. Processing quality control (QC) checks could be implemented to limit the number of artificial PLM non-detects. Example QC processing checks include properly calibrating processing equipment and periodic particle size analysis, such as dry sieving of the powdered samples. In addition, some government agencies use a combination of analytical techniques when analyzing for asbestos. For instance, the State of New York prescribes the use of PLM but requires TEM to verify non-detects by PLM for non-friable organically bound materials. Homogenization after sample pulverization is another appropriate processing element that should garner more attention. Homogenization equipment currently exist that, when used properly, could greatly improve the accuracy, precision, and representativeness of sample results.

Neumann, R. D.; Wright, J.

2012-12-01

27

Curiosity analyzes Martian soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Mars Curiosity rover has conducted its first analysis of Martian soil samples using multiple instruments, the agency announced at a 3 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. “These results are an unprecedented look at the chemical diversity in the area,” said NASA's Michael Meyer, program scientist for Curiosity.

Showstack, Randy; Balcerak, Ernie

2012-12-01

28

IN SITU NON-INVASIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS: SAMPLE SIZE AND GEOSTATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS.  

SciTech Connect

I discuss a new approach for quantitative carbon analysis in soil based on INS. Although this INS method is not simple, it offers critical advantages not available with other newly emerging modalities. The key advantages of the INS system include the following: (1) It is a non-destructive method, i.e., no samples of any kind are taken. A neutron generator placed above the ground irradiates the soil, stimulating carbon characteristic gamma-ray emission that is counted by a detection system also placed above the ground. (2) The INS system can undertake multielemental analysis, so expanding its usefulness. (3) It can be used either in static or scanning modes. (4) The volume sampled by the INS method is large with a large footprint; when operating in a scanning mode, the sampled volume is continuous. (5) Except for a moderate initial cost of about $100,000 for the system, no additional expenses are required for its operation over two to three years after which a NG has to be replenished with a new tube at an approximate cost of $10,000, this regardless of the number of sites analyzed. In light of these characteristics, the INS system appears invaluable for monitoring changes in the carbon content in the field. For this purpose no calibration is required; by establishing a carbon index, changes in carbon yield can be followed with time in exactly the same location, thus giving a percent change. On the other hand, with calibration, it can be used to determine the carbon stock in the ground, thus estimating the soil's carbon inventory. However, this requires revising the standard practices for deciding upon the number of sites required to attain a given confidence level, in particular for the purposes of upward scaling. Then, geostatistical considerations should be incorporated in considering properly the averaging effects of the large volumes sampled by the INS system that would require revising standard practices in the field for determining the number of spots to be sampled. It is highly desirable to assess properly the sampled volume for reporting the absolute value of the measured carbon. At the same time, increasing the number of detectors surrounding the NG can reduce error propagation. In the present work, only the volume irradiated by the neutrons was estimated. It should be pointed that the carbon yield is also affected by the neutron energy spectrum that changes with depth. Thus, all these considerations must be considered carefully when evaluating the detectors' configuration and the resulting counting efficiency. In summary, INS system is a novel approach for non-destructive carbon analysis in soil with very unique features. It should contribute in assessing soil carbon inventories and assist in understanding belowground carbon processes. The complexity of carbon distribution in soil requires a special attention when calibrating the INS system, and a consensus developed on the most favorable way to report carbon abundance. Clearly, this will affect the calibration procedures.

WIELOPOLSKI, L.

2005-04-01

29

Poly-use multi-level sampling system for soil-gas transport analysis in the vadose zone.  

PubMed

Soil-gas turnover is important in the global cycling of greenhouse gases. The analysis of soil-gas profiles provides quantitative information on below-ground turnover and fluxes. We developed a poly-use multi-level sampling system (PMLS) for soil-gas sampling, water-content and temperature measurement with high depth resolution and minimal soil disturbance. It is based on perforated access tubes (ATs) permanently installed in the soil. A multi-level sampler allows extraction of soil-gas samples from 20 locations within 1 m depth, while a capacitance probe is used to measure volumetric water contents. During idle times, the ATs are sealed and can be equipped with temperature sensors. Proof-of-concept experiments in a field lysimeter showed good agreement of soil-gas samples and water-content measurements compared with conventional techniques, while a successfully performed gas-tracer test demonstrated the feasibility of the PMLS to determine soil-gas diffusion coefficients in situ. A field application of the PMLS to quantify oxidation of atmospheric CH4 in a field lysimeter and in the forefield of a receding glacier yielded activity coefficients and soil-atmosphere fluxes well in agreement with previous studies. With numerous options for customization, the presented tool extends the methodological choices to investigate soil-gas transport in the vadose zone. PMID:23962070

Nauer, Philipp A; Chiri, Eleonora; Schroth, Martin H

2013-10-01

30

Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Evaluation of Residual Chromium Contamination in the Subsurface Soil at 100-C-7  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) provides the requirements for sample collection and laboratory analysis to evaluate the extent of hexavalent chromium contamination present in the soil below the 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1 remedial action waste site excavations.

W. S. Thompson

2007-02-15

31

ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND DUST SAMPLES FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)  

EPA Science Inventory

An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in house dust and soil. Soil and house dust samples were analyzed for PCB by both gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and ELISA methods. A correlati...

32

Sampling and analysis plan for the 105-F and 105DR Phase III below-grade structures and underlying soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan presents the rationale and strategy for radiological surveys and the sampling and analysis activities proposed in support of Phase III of the 105-F\\/105-DR Interim Safe Storage Project. The purpose of the proposed surveys and sampling and analysis activities is the characterization of the Phase III below-grade structures and underlying soils to support their verification of

Day

1999-01-01

33

Geostatistical and multivariate statistical analysis of heavily and manifoldly contaminated soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surroundings of the former Kremikovtzi steel mill near Sofia (Bulgaria) are influenced by various emissions from the factory.\\u000a In addition to steel and alloys, they produce different products based on inorganic compounds in different smelters. Soil\\u000a in this region is multiply contaminated. We collected 65 soil samples and analyzed 15 elements by different methods of atomic\\u000a spectroscopy for a

Kristin Schaefer; Jürgen W. Einax; Vasil Simeonov; Stefan Tsakovski

2010-01-01

34

EMERGING MODALITIES FOR SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS: SAMPLING STATISTICS AND ECONOMICS WORKSHOP.  

SciTech Connect

The workshop's main objectives are (1) to present the emerging modalities for analyzing carbon in soil, (2) to assess their error propagation, (3) to recommend new protocols and sampling strategies for the new instrumentation, and, (4) to compare the costs of the new methods with traditional chemical ones.

WIELOPOLSKI, L.

2006-04-01

35

STATISTICAL SAMPLING AND DATA ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Research is being conducted to develop approaches to improve soil and sediment sampling techniques, measurement design and geostatistics, and data analysis via chemometric, environmetric, and robust statistical methods. Improvements in sampling contaminated soil and other hetero...

36

Characterization and analysis of oil-contaminated soil samples from the Fort Lewis coal-liquefaction pilot plant. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to physically and chemically characterize soil samples contaminated with SRC-II liquids and to estimate the potential leachate composition resulting from the interaction of SRC-II, native soil and surface water. Physical characterization of the soil samples included analysis for pH, cation exchange capacity, and loss on ignition. Chemical characterization of the simulated rainwater leachates included analysis for total organics (TCO), carboxylic acids, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs), organic contaminants by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry and gravimetric determinations. The results of the chemical analysis of the leachates from the soil samples show that the majority of the spill components are located in the 6 to 18 foot region. Of the compounds identified, phenolic materials are the most abundant, with the remaining compounds being an order of magnitude or less in concentration. No PNAs with molecular weights over 230, PCBs, or carboxylic acids were detected. Geohydrologic studies show the spill-contaminated soil to be porous. The water table at the spill site is 32 feet below the surface. The ground water flows away from the plant and toward a nearby lake and Puget Sound. This spill is of little danger to human health, but the nearby lakes should be monitored for phenolic levels. 8 figures, 11 tables. (ATT)

Not Available

1982-04-01

37

In Situ Non-invasive Soil Carbon Analysis: Sample Size and Geostatistical Considerations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

I discuss a new approach for quantitative carbon analysis in soil based on INS. Although this INS method is not simple, it offers critical advantages not available with other newly emerging modalities. The key advantages of the INS system include the foll...

L. Wielopolsk

2005-01-01

38

Sampling Martian Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists were using the Moessbauer spectrometer on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit when something unexpected happened. The instrument's contact ring had been placed onto the ground as a reference point for placement of another instrument, the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, for analyzing the soil. After Spirit removed the Moessbauer from the target, the rover's microscopic imager revealed a gap in the imprint left behind in the soil. The gap, about a centimeter wide (less than half an inch), is visible on the left side of this mosaic of images. Scientists concluded that a small chunk of soil probably adhered to the contact ring on the front surface of the Moessbauer. Before anyone saw that soil may have adhered to the Moessbauer, that instrument was placed to analyze martian dust collected by a magnet on the rover. The team plans to take images to see if any soil is still attached to the Moessbauer. Spirit took these images on the rover's 240th martian day, or sol (Sept. 4, 2004).

2004-01-01

39

European soil sampling guidelines for soil pollution studies.  

PubMed

The soil sampling guidelines used in European countries (ESSG), as kindly provided by the national institutions which participated in the project, have been recorded, studied, evaluated and presented in this paper. The aim has been to ascertain what soil sampling guidelines exist in Europe; to detect similarities and differences (comparable results), advantages and deficiencies; to identify incompatible strategies and evaluate how methodologies might affect data quality; to investigate sources of deviations or uncertainties; to improve comparability and representativeness of soil sampling; to investigate the need for harmonised sampling guidelines; and to develop suggestions for standard operating procedures (SOP). Soil sampling guidelines throughout Europe differ as to whether they are applied by law, or used throughout the country. In some countries these are ISO/DIS related or based (ISO 10381-1, 1995; ISO 10381-2, 1995), or are produced by a scientific society or a standardisation body. As far as sampling strategy is concerned, not all sampling guidelines clearly describe the sampling scale, the specifications for contamination risk precautions, the sampling plan and protocol structure and the pre-analysis treatment of the soil samples. The purpose for sampling, in descending order of frequency, is soil pollution, soil fertilisation, general soil monitoring, background risk assessment, or else it is not specified. The majority of countries do not sample the top organic matter separately. Sampling depth is either related to the morphogenetic horizon or to ad hoc sampling depth, which is not specified in all cases. They suggest mass- and volume-related soil sampling, while the sampling pattern is not presented in all national guidelines. The criteria for area, site, unit, sub-unit, and point selection are mainly based on pedology and land use, following the history and pre-screening information or geology, or is site related. Some guidelines suggest the division of sampling units into sub-units. The sampling pattern is mainly grid sampling, grid and random sampling, or not mentioned. Sampling density inside the sampling unit either varies greatly or it is not mentioned, while the size of the sampling unit varies widely. Most guidelines require the collection of composite instead of simple samples, while some prefer sampling soil profiles. In the European SSG many technical details and steps are either not defined or vary, while in the pre-analysis treatment quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) approaches are used either both in the lab and in the field, or only in the field, or are not mentioned. The common points and the points in which harmonisation could be started or achieved are discussed. PMID:11213188

Theocharopoulos, S P; Wagner, G; Sprengart, J; Mohr, M E; Desaules, A; Muntau, H; Christou, M; Quevauviller, P

2001-01-01

40

Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology  

DOEpatents

Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

Dahlgran, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

41

Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology  

DOEpatents

Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation uses encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration. 1 fig.

Dahlgran, J.R.

1999-08-17

42

Topcial Report: New Soil VOC Samplers: En Core(Trade Name) and Accu Core(Trade Name) Sampling/Storate Devices for VOC Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of con...

J. F. Rovani J. F. Schabron S. S. Sorini

2006-01-01

43

MARS-IRMA: in-situ infrared microscope analysis of Martian soil and rock samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

IRMA (the acronym stands for InfraRed Microscope Analysis) is a hyperspectral imaging spectrometer which is capable, in its present design, to achieve a spatial resolution of 38 ?m in the 0.8–5 ?m infrared spectral range. IRMA has the goal to first ever quantitatively characterize the mineralogy and the microphysical structure of the materials of the Martian soils and rocks down

F. Capaccioni; G. Bellucci; R. Orosei; S. Amici; R. Bianchi; M. Blecka; M. T. Capria; A. Coradini; S. Erard; S. Fonti; V. Formisano; O. Forni; J. Mustard; G. Piccioni; C. Pieters; M. Poscolieri; E. Battistelli; A. Romoli; M. Digiampietro; S. Espinasse; M. Magnani; C. Pasqui

2001-01-01

44

Automated unit for soil sample preparation and processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site?specific crop management requires a significant increase in the amount of soil sample analysis. Analyzing of soil extracts is largely automated, but soil sample preparation is a less automated area. The suggested Automated Unit for Soil Sample Preparation and Processing (AUSSPP) has a flexible structure suitable for any processing of nutrient extraction for any amount of elements and will permit

Andrey Skotnikov

1998-01-01

45

Soil sample for balloon flight  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Soil sample for balloon flight Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : July 29, 1992 ... Antarctic/Mars Calibration Balloon Flight) To: Manager, Polar Aeronomy and Astrophysics Program, DPP ...

46

Heavy metal sources identification and sampling uncertainty analysis in a field-scale vegetable soil of Hangzhou, China.  

PubMed

At a field-scale (6.7ha), 100 surface soil samples were collected from a vegetable field to determine total concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni and Zn. To identify possible sources of these metals and characterize their spatial variation, classic statistic and geostatistic techniques were applied. Through correlation and geostatistical analysis, it was found that the primary inputs of Co, Mn and Ni were due to pedogenic sources, whereas the sources of Hg and Cd were mainly due to human activities. Because of their different sources, their variations followed: Hg>Cd approximately Cu>Zn approximately Co approximately Mn approximately Ni. Based on their relationships with other soil properties, co-kriging was used to minimize sampling density. Sampling numbers for Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co and Ni can be reduced from 100 to 90, 80, 70, 60, 60 and 60, respectively, without losing accuracy relative to ordinary kriging. PMID:19026475

Chen, Tao; Liu, Xingmei; Li, Xia; Zhao, Keli; Zhang, Jiabao; Xu, Jianming; Shi, Jiachun; Dahlgren, Randy A

2009-03-01

47

Soil sampling and analysis plan for the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility closure activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amendment V.13.B.b to the approved closure plan (DOE-RL 1995a) requires that a soil sampling and analysis plan be prepared and submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for review and approval. Amendment V.13.B.c requires that a diagram of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility unit (the treatment, storage, and disposal [TSD] unit) boundary that is to

Sonnichsen

1997-01-01

48

Sampling and handling of desert soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report on sampling and handling desert soils includes sections on selection, characterization, and photography of area, site, and soil, sterilization of sampling equipment and containers, and soil sample collection, transport, storage, and dispersal.

Blank, G. B.; Cameron, R. E.

1969-01-01

49

Soil sampling and analysis plan for the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility closure activities  

SciTech Connect

Amendment V.13.B.b to the approved closure plan (DOE-RL 1995a) requires that a soil sampling and analysis plan be prepared and submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for review and approval. Amendment V.13.B.c requires that a diagram of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility unit (the treatment, storage, and disposal [TSD] unit) boundary that is to be closed, including the maximum extent of operation, be prepared and submitted as part is of the soil sampling and analysis plan. This document describes the sampling and analysis that is to be performed in response to these requirements and amends the closure plan. Specifically, this document supersedes Section 6.2, lines 43--46, and Section 7.3.6 of the closure plan. Results from the analysis will be compared to cleanup levels identified in the closure plan. These cleanup levels will be established using residential exposure assumptions in accordance with the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Cleanup Regulation (Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-340) as required in Amendment V.13.B.I. Results of all sampling, including the raw analytical data, a summary of analytical results, a data validation package, and a narrative summary with conclusions will be provided to Ecology as specified in Amendment V.13.B.e. The results and process used to collect and analyze the soil samples will be certified by a licensed professional engineer. These results and a certificate of closure for the balance of the TSD unit, as outlined in Chapter 7.0 of the approved closure plan (storage shed, concrete pad, burn building, scrubber, and reaction tanks), will provide the basis for a closure determination.

Sonnichsen, J.C.

1997-05-01

50

Guide to soil sampling and analysis on the national forests of the Inland Northwest United States. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

This guide gives general information on soil collection methods, sample analysis, and data translation. Then, for soil scientists or students working in the Inland Northwest United States, we look at particulars on sampling Andisols on National Forests in Idaho, Montana, Washington, and Oregon.

Page-Dumroese, D.; Harvey, A.; Jurgensen, M.

1995-10-01

51

Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described.

Fleischhauer, H.L.

1985-10-01

52

Linking soil phosphorus to water quality in the Mask catchment of western Ireland through the analysis of moist soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater understanding of the relationship between soil test phosphorus (STP) and loss of soluble phosphorus (P) from soil to water is essential for integrated management strategies attempting to reduce diffuse P losses to aquatic systems. Although previous studies have suggested that the relationship between STP and soluble P loss is soil-type specific [e.g. Pote, D.H., Daniel, T.C., Nichols, D.J., Sharpley,

Ian Donohue; Catherine Coxon; Kenneth Irvine

2006-01-01

53

Multiresidue herbicide analysis in soil samples by means of extraction in small columns and gas chromatography with nitrogen–phosphorus and mass spectrometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid multiresidue method has been developed for the analysis of 21 nitrogen containing herbicides in soil. The compounds included widely used herbicides belonging to triazines, thiocarbamates, uracils, nitroanilines, chloroacetamides and oxadiazon, a non-classified heterocycle. The method is based in the extraction by sonication of soil samples placed in small columns using a low volume of ethyl acetate. Residues were

C Sánchez-Brunete; R. A Pérez; E Miguel; J. L Tadeo

1998-01-01

54

Actinide Recovery Method for Large Soil Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new Actinide Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides in very large soil samples. Diphonix Resin(r) is used eliminate soil matrix interferences and preconcentrate actinides after soil l...

S. L. Maxwell S. Nichols

1998-01-01

55

Gas-chromatographic analysis of Mars soil samples at Rocknest site with the SAM instrument onboard Curiosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amongst the SAM suite of instruments [1], SAM-GC (Gas Chromatograph) is devoted to identify and quantify volatiles evolved from the thermal/chemical treatment of any soil sample collected by the Curiosity rover. The first soil samples analyzed with SAM were composed of sand collected at the Rocknest site. For their analysis, these samples were submitted to a pyrolysis at temperatures reaching about 900°C. For SAM-GC and GCMS analyses, different fractions of pyrolysates were collected at different temperature in the ambient-900°C range in order to discriminate potential different volatile fractions present in the solid sample. With the aim to search for potential organic molecules outgassed from the samples, a SAM-GC analytical channel composed of thermal-desorption injector and a MXT-CLP chromatographic column was used as it was designed for the separation of a wide range of volatile organic molecules. This channel is also equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) capable to detect the most abundant species (with abundances down to approximately 10-10 mol). It is thus complementary to the mass spectrometer detection for quantification of such species as this last instrument has not a linear response in this domain of high abundance, whereas it is significantly more sensitive than the TCD. The results obtained with this instrument for the analysis of Rocknest soil first show that the performances of SAM-GC are representative of those obtained during calibrations of the instrument in laboratory, as well as they are repeatable. Hence, the instrument performs nominally, making it the first GCMS running successfully on Mars since the Viking missions. Moreover, the complementarity of GC towards MS is also shown, either by allowing the quantification of the major species detected (as water), or by providing a chromatographic signal well resolved temporally which can be used to improve the QMS signal treatment. In the frame of research of organics, the SAM-GC analyses contribute to the identification of several methyl-chlorohydrocarbons [2,3], and of HCN in the gases evolved from the solid sample [4]. These detections strongly support the presence of perchlorates in the Rocknest soil. Since perchlorates have been detected with Phoenix lander [5] and then recently with Curiosity [6,2,3], the re-interpretation of the Viking data have to be seen under a new angle [7]. The non-detection of PAHs is also interesting to notice, when it is known that micrometeorites containing PAHs still bring this organic material to the Mars surface today. This lack of detection defines an upper limit on the content of PAHs in the martian soil at the Curiosity site, but it could also be indicative of the presence of chemical mechanisms that process this type of material at the surface. References: [1] Mahaffy, P. et al. (2012) Space Sci Rev, 170, 401-478. [2] Glavin, D. et al. (2013), LPSC. [3] Eigenbrode, J. et al. (2013), LPSC. [4] Stern, J. et al. (2013), LPSC. [5] Hecht, M. H. et al. (2009), Science, 32, 64-67. [6] Sutter, B. et al., (2013) LPSC. [7] Navarro-Gonzalez, R. (2010), J. Geophys. Res. 115, E12010. Acknowledgements: SAM-GC team acknowledges support from the French Space Agency (CNES), French National Programme of Planetology (PNP), National French Council (CNRS), Pierre Simon Laplace Institute, Institut Universitaire de France (IUF) and ESEP Labex.

Cabane, Michel; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Coscia, David; Buch, Aranaud; Teinturier, Samuel; Navarro-gonzalez, Rafael; Gaboriaud, Alain; Mahaffy, Paul; MSL science Team

2013-04-01

56

MCNP ESTIMATE OF THE SAMPLED VOLUME IN A NON-DESTRUCTIVE IN SITU SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS.  

SciTech Connect

Global warming, promoted by anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emission into the atmosphere, is partially mitigated by the photosynthesis processes of the terrestrial echo systems that act as atmospheric CO{sub 2} scrubbers and sequester carbon in soil. Switching from till to no till soils management practices in agriculture further augments this process. Carbon sequestration is also advanced by putting forward a carbon ''credit'' system whereby these can be traded between CO{sub 2} producers and sequesters. Implementation of carbon ''credit'' trade will be further promulgated by recent development of a non-destructive in situ carbon monitoring system based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Volumes and depth distributions defined by the 0.1, 1.0, 10, 50, and 90 percent neutron isofluxes, from a point source located at either 5 or 30 cm above the surface, were estimated using Monte Carlo calculations.

WIELOPOLSKI, L.; DIOSZEGI, I.; MITRA, S.

2004-05-03

57

Application of a series of artificial neural networks to on-site quantitative analysis of lead into real soil samples by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial neural networks were applied to process data from on-site LIBS analysis of soil samples. A first artificial neural network allowed retrieving the relative amounts of silicate, calcareous and ores matrices into soils. As a consequence, each soil sample was correctly located inside the ternary diagram characterized by these three matrices, as verified by ICP-AES. Then a series of artificial neural networks were applied to quantify lead into soil samples. More precisely, two models were designed for classification purpose according to both the type of matrix and the range of lead concentrations. Then, three quantitative models were locally applied to three data subsets. This complete approach allowed reaching a relative error of prediction close to 20%, considered as satisfying in the case of on-site analysis.

El Haddad, J.; Bruyère, D.; Ismaël, A.; Gallou, G.; Laperche, V.; Michel, K.; Canioni, L.; Bousquet, B.

2014-07-01

58

Analysis of Mars Analogue Soil Samples Using Solid-Phase Microextraction, Organic Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are robust and abundant molecules in extraterrestrial environments. They are found ubiquitously in the interstellar medium and have been identified in extracts of meteorites collected on Earth. PAHs are important target molecules for planetary exploration missions that investigate the organic inventory of planets, moons and small bodies. This study is part of an interdisciplinary preparation phase to search for organic molecules and life on Mars. We have investigated PAH compounds in desert soils to determine their composition, distribution and stability. Soil samples (Mars analogue soils) were collected at desert areas of Utah in the vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), in the Arequipa region in Peru and from the Jutland region of Denmark. The aim of this study was to optimize the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for fast screening and determination of PAHs in soil samples. This method minimizes sample handling and preserves the chemical integrity of the sample. Complementary liquid extraction was used to obtain information on five- and six-ring PAH compounds. The measured concentrations of PAHs are, in general, very low, ranging from 1 to 60 ng g(sup -1). The texture of soils is mostly sandy loam with few samples being 100% silt. Collected soils are moderately basic with pH values of 8-9 except for the Salten Skov soil, which is slightly acidic. Although the diverse and variable microbial populations of the samples at the sample sites might have affected the levels and variety of PAHs detected, SPME appears to be a rapid, viable field sampling technique with implications for use on planetary missions.

Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; Foing, B. H.; Kanik, I.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

2011-01-01

59

Analysis of Mars analogue soil samples using solid-phase microextraction, organic solvent extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are robust and abundant molecules in extraterrestrial environments. They are found ubiquitously in the interstellar medium and have been identified in extracts of meteorites collected on Earth. PAHs are important target molecules for planetary exploration missions that investigate the organic inventory of planets, moons and small bodies. This study is part of an interdisciplinary preparation phase to search for organic molecules and life on Mars. We have investigated PAH compounds in desert soils to determine their composition, distribution and stability. Soil samples (Mars analogue soils) were collected at desert areas of Utah in the vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), in the Arequipa region in Peru and from the Jutland region of Denmark. The aim of this study was to optimize the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for fast screening and determination of PAHs in soil samples. This method minimizes sample handling and preserves the chemical integrity of the sample. Complementary liquid extraction was used to obtain information on five- and six-ring PAH compounds. The measured concentrations of PAHs are, in general, very low, ranging from 1 to 60 ng g-1. The texture of soils is mostly sandy loam with few samples being 100 % silt. Collected soils are moderately basic with pH values of 8-9 except for the Salten Skov soil, which is slightly acidic. Although the diverse and variable microbial populations of the samples at the sample sites might have affected the levels and variety of PAHs detected, SPME appears to be a rapid, viable field sampling technique with implications for use on planetary missions.

Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; Foing, B. H.; Kanik, I.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

2011-07-01

60

Reversed phase liquid chromatography trace analysis of pesticides in soil by on-column sample pumping large volume injection and UV detection.  

PubMed

The idea of utilization of one hydraulic line of a common commercial HPLC pump for direct on-column sample pumping injection of large sample volumes, 20 mL, was further investigated with the aim to develop multicomponent pesticides trace residues HPLC method in gram soil samples. Target pesticides group involve asulam, atrazine, 2,4-D, PCA, propazine, simazine, 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid, 2-(4-chloro-2-tolyloxy) propionic acid, chlortoluron, metoxuron, epoxiconazole. The results proved the applicability of this approach in experiments with mixtures of analytes at low ng/mL levels. Analysis of 20 mL of soil leachates and extracts of fortified soil samples containing these pesticides at the 10-50 ng/g level (in dry soil) revealed good figures of merit, also in the presence of large excess of humics. LODs achieved by detection at 220 nm evaluated from calibration runs of spiked soil extracts by Hubaux et al. method ranged from 5-12 ng per injected volume. For 20 mL large volume injection it represents 0.25-0.6 ng/mL of diluted soil extract, or 2.5-6 ng/mL of crude extract, or 6-5 ng/g dry soil. Recoveries of pesticides at concentration levels approaching half of maximum allowable concentration of pesticides in soil (100 ng/g) ranged from 85 to 98% with acceptable reproducibility, except asulam and metoxuron. PMID:19548212

Hutta, Milan; Chalányová, Mária; Halko, Radoslav; Góra, Róbert; Dokupilová, Svetlana; Rybár, Ivan

2009-06-01

61

Basaltic diversity examined through chemical analysis of mineral phases in Apollo 12 soil sample 12023,155.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use major, minor and trace element chemistry in mineral phases to compare 12 basaltic grains in the Apollo 12 soil sample 12023,155 to known basalt groups at the Apollo 12 site. Most samples are identified as Olivine, Pigeonite or Ilmenite basalt fragments, with five exceptions: sample 155_1A has distinct mineral compositions from other samples; samples 155_4A and 5A are believed to represent new additions to the Feldspathic basalt group; sample 155_7A is identified as an exotic fragment (i.e., sourced from a distal lava flow) and sample 155_11A is from a highly fractionated basaltic melt.

Alexander, L.; Snape, J. F.; Crawford, I. A.; Joy, K. H.; Downes, H.

2013-09-01

62

Microbiological Detection Systems for Molecular Analysis of Environmental Water and Soil Samples  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple detection systems are being targeted to track various species and genotypes of pathogens found in environmental samples with the overreaching goal of developing analytical separation and detection techniques for Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi, Cryptosporidium parvum,...

63

Analysis of soil samples for chemical warfare agents: Canadian contribution to a multinational round-robin analytical exercise. Memorandum report  

Microsoft Academic Search

VX and two VX related compounds, diethyl methylphosphonate and bis(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl) disulfide, were confirmed at the 2 to 40 micrograms\\/gram level as the principal components in three of four soil samples distributed by Finland as part of a multinational round robin exercise designed to evaluate laboratory methodologies. Several other compounds related to VX, were also identified in extracts of the soil

P. A. DAgostino; L. R. Provost; T. W. Sawyer; M. T. Weiss

1990-01-01

64

Characterization of Soil Samples of Enzyme Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are nine enzyme essays for distinguishing soil samples. Colorimetric methods are used to compare enzyme levels in soils from different sites. Each soil tested had its own spectrum of activity. Attention is drawn to applications of this technique in forensic science and in studies of soil fertility. (Author/AJ)

Freeland, P. W.

1977-01-01

65

PREPARATION OF SOIL SAMPLING PROTOCOLS: SAMPLING TECHNIQUES AND STRATEGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The document serves as a companion document to the Soil Sampling Quality Assurance User's Guide, Second Edition. he two documents together provide methods, techniques, and procedures for designing a variety of soil measurement programs and associated Quality Assurance Program Pla...

66

Development testing of the chemical analysis automation polychlorinated biphenyl standard analysis method during surface soils sampling at the David Witherspoon 1630 site  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) project is developing standardized, software-driven, site-deployable robotic laboratory systems with the objective of lowering the per-sample analysis cost, decreasing sample turnaround time, and minimizing human exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials associated with DOE remediation projects. The first integrated system developed by the CAA project is designed to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content in soil matrices. A demonstration and development testing of this system was conducted in conjuction with surface soil characterization activities at the David Witherspoon 1630 Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The PCB system consists of five hardware standard laboratory modules (SLMs), one software SLM, the task sequence controller (TSC), and the human-computer interface (HCI). Four of the hardware SLMs included a four-channel Soxhlet extractor, a high-volume concentrator, a column cleanup, and a gas chromatograph. These SLMs performed the sample preparation and measurement steps within the total analysis protocol. The fifth hardware module was a robot that transports samples between the SLMs and the required consumable supplies to the SLMs. The software SLM is an automated data interpretation module that receives raw data from the gas chromatograph SLM and analyzes the data to yield the analyte information. The TSC is a software system that provides the scheduling, management of system resources, and the coordination of all SLM activities. The HCI is a graphical user interface that presents the automated laboratory to the analyst in terms of the analytical procedures and methods. Human control of the automated laboratory is accomplished via the HCI. Sample information required for processing by the automated laboratory is entered through the HCI. Information related to the sample and the system status is presented to the analyst via graphical icons.

Hunt, M.A.; Klatt, L.N.; Thompson, D.H. [and others

1998-02-01

67

Soil Sampling Techniques For Alabama Grain Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characterizing the spatial variability of nutrients facilitates precision soil sampling. Questions exist regarding the best technique for directed soil sampling based on a priori knowledge of soil and crop patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate zone delineation techniques for Alabama grain fields to determine which method best minimized the soil test variability. Site one (25.8 ha) and site three (20.0 ha) were located in the Tennessee Valley region, and site two (24.2 ha) was located in the Coastal Plain region of Alabama. Tennessee Valley soils ranged from well drained Rhodic and Typic Paleudults to somewhat poorly drained Aquic Paleudults and Fluventic Dystrudepts. Coastal Plain s o i l s ranged from coarse-loamy Rhodic Kandiudults to loamy Arenic Kandiudults. Soils were sampled by grid soil sampling methods (grid sizes of 0.40 ha and 1 ha) consisting of: 1) twenty composited cores collected randomly throughout each grid (grid-cell sampling) and, 2) six composited cores collected randomly from a -3x3 m area at the center of each grid (grid-point sampling). Zones were established from 1) an Order 1 Soil Survey, 2) corn (Zea mays L.) yield maps, and 3) airborne remote sensing images. All soil properties were moderately to strongly spatially dependent as per semivariogram analyses. Differences in grid-point and grid-cell soil test values suggested grid-point sampling does not accurately represent grid values. Zones created by soil survey, yield data, and remote sensing images displayed lower coefficient of variations (8CV) for soil test values than overall field values, suggesting these techniques group soil test variability. However, few differences were observed between the three zone delineation techniques. Results suggest directed sampling using zone delineation techniques outlined in this paper would result in more efficient soil sampling for these Alabama grain fields.

Thompson, A. N.; Shaw, J. N.; Mask, P. L.; Touchton, J. T.; Rickman, D.

2003-01-01

68

Validation of a New Soil VOC Sampler: Revision of ASTM Practice D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, and Development of a Subsurface Sampling/Storage Device for VOC Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core{reg_sign} sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. An American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard practice, D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, describes use of the En Core sampler to collect and store a soil sample of approximately 5 grams or 25 grams for volatile organic analysis. To support the ASTM practice, a study was performed to estimate the precision of the performance of the 5-gram and 25-gram En Core samplers to store soil samples spiked with low concentrations of VOCs. This report discusses revision of ASTM Practice D 6418 to include information on the precision of the En Core devices and to reference an ASTM research report on the precision study. This report also discusses revision of the ASTM practice to list storage at -12 {+-} 2 C for up to 14 days and at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -12 {+-} 2C for up to 5 days as acceptable conditions for samples stored in the En Core devices. Data supporting use of these storage conditions are given in an appendix to the practice and are presented in the research report referenced for the precision study. Prior to this revision, storage in the device was specified at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours. The En Core sampler is designed to collect soil samples for VOC analysis at the soil surface. To date, a sampling tool for collecting and storing subsurface soil samples for VOC analysis does not exist. Development of a subsurface VOC sampling/storage device was initiated in 1999. This device, which is called the Accu Core sampler, is designed so that a soil sample can be collected below the surface using a penetrometer and transported to the laboratory for analysis in the same container. During the past year, prototype devices have been tested for their performance in storing soil samples containing low concentrations of VOCs. The Accu Core sampler testing is also described in this report.

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani

2003-09-15

69

European soil sampling guidelines for soil pollution studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil sampling guidelines used in European countries (ESSG), as kindly provided by the national institutions which participated in the project, have been recorded, studied, evaluated and presented in this paper. The aim has been to ascertain what soil sampling guidelines exist in Europe; to detect similarities and differences (comparable results), advantages and deficiencies; to identify incompatible strategies and evaluate

S. P Theocharopoulos; G Wagner; J Sprengart; M.-E Mohr; A Desaules; H Muntau; M Christou; P Quevauviller

2001-01-01

70

Nitrogen Probe for Soil-Moisture Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moisture determinations were made on soil cores frozen to hollow probes into which liquid nitrogen had been poured. Values compared closely with those from samples extracted by more conventional methods. In this paper a method of using liquid nitro- gen to obtain soil-moisture samples is described. It is applicable where very high moisture con- tent makes conventional techniques difficult or

D. BURKE

1959-01-01

71

Sonochemical Digestion of Soil and Sediment Samples  

SciTech Connect

This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determination of plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to determine the potential for applying ultrasonic irradiation to sample digestion. Two standard reference materials (SRMs) were used in this study: Columbia River Sediment and Rocky Flats Soil. The key experiments performed are listed below along with a summary of the results. The action of nitric acid, regardless of its concentration and liquid-to-solid ratio, did not achieve dissolution efficiency better that 20%. The major fraction of natural organic matter (NOM) remained undissolved by this treatment. Sonication did not result in improved dissolution for the SRMs tested. The action of hydrofluoric acid at concentrations of 8 M and higher achieved much more pronounced dissolution (up to 97% dissolved for the Rocky Flats soil sample and up to 78% dissolved for the Columbia River Sediment sample). Dissolution efficiency remains constant for solid-to-liquid ratios of up to 0.05 to 1 and decreases for the higher loadings of the solid phase. Sonication produced no measurable effect in improving the dissolution of the samples compared with the control digestion experiments. Combined treatment of the SRM by mixtures of HNO3 and HF showed inferior performance compared with the HF alone. An adverse effect of sonication was found for the Rocky Flats soil material, which became more noticeable at higher HF concentrations. Sonication of the Columbia River sediment samples had no positive effect in the mixed acid treatment. The results indicate that applying ultrasound in an isolated cup horn configuration does not offer any advantage over conventional ''heat and mix'' treatment for dissolution of the soil and sediment based on the SRM examined here. This conclusion, however, is based on an approach that uses gravimetric analysis to determine gross dissolution efficiency. This approach does not allow any conclusion regarding the possible advantage of sonication in selective dissolution of plutonium traces incorporated into an inorganic or organic fraction of the samples.

Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2006-10-12

72

Validation of a New Soil VOC Sampler: Performance of the En Core (Trade Name) Sampler at -7 C and -2C and Development of the ACCU Core (Trade Name) Subsurface Sampling/Storage Device for VOC Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core(reg sign) sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes l...

S. S. Sorini J. F. Schabron J. F. Rovani

2004-01-01

73

Sampling Martian Soil (3-D)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

Scientists were using the Moessbauer spectrometer on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit when something unexpected happened. The instrument's contact ring had been placed onto the ground as a reference point for placement of another instrument, the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, for analyzing the soil. After Spirit removed the Moessbauer from the target, the rover's microscopic imager revealed a gap in the imprint left behind in the soil. The gap, about a centimeter wide (less than half an inch), is visible on the left side of this stereo view. Scientists concluded that a small chunk of soil probably adhered to the contact ring on the front surface of the Moessbauer. Before anyone saw that soil may have adhered to the Moessbauer, that instrument was placed to analyze martian dust collected by a magnet on the rover. The team plans to take images to see if any soil is still attached to the Moessbauer. Spirit took these images on the rover's 240th martian day, or sol (Sept. 4, 2004).

Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

2004-01-01

74

Thermodynamic analysis of the effect of strongly swelling polymer hydrogels on the physical state of soil and sediment samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of five Russian and foreign hydrogels on the water retention curve (WRC) and the related physical parameters of soils and sediments differing in their genesis and degree of dispersion has been considered on the basis of a proprietary version of the equilibrium centrifugation method. The new version of the method with the use of a high-speed centrifuge has allowed obtaining WRC in a wide range of matric potentials from 0 to 3000 J/kg (pF = 4.5) with the experimental estimation of almost all the soil-hydrological constants. The first analysis of strongly swelling polymer hydrogels (SSPHs) on WRC and the structural curves of the pore size distribution in heavy-textured soils has been performed, and the possibility has been shown of increasing their water capacity at the swelling of SSPHs in the region near water saturation. The most efficient is the use of SSPHs in light soils, which allows their water retention to be brought to the level of native loamy sands and loams in the SSPH content range of 0.1-0.3% of the enclosing coarse material. The best characteristics were observed for the Russian hydrogel VUM developed by the Institute of Technical Chemistry of the Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and produced by the Urals Plant for Chemical Reagents.

Smagin, A. V.; Sadovnikova, N. B.; Nikolaeva, E. I.

2014-02-01

75

Soil analysis. Modern instrumental technique  

SciTech Connect

This book covers traditional methods of analysis and specialist monographs on individual instrumental techniques, which are usually not written with soil or plant analysis specifically in mind. The principles of the techniques are combined with discussions of sample preparation and matrix problems, and critical reviews of applications in soil science and related disciplines. Individual chapters are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Smith, K.A. (Edinburgh School of Agriculture (United Kingdom))

1993-01-01

76

Alternative Sample Preparation of Soils for Gamma Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Standard laboratory procedures for preparation of soil samples for analysis by gamma spectroscopy typically utilize drying and grinding. Drying of soil samples can be accomplished using an oven for 8 to 16 hours or by air for several days or weeks. Dried samples are then sieved and / or ground to facilitate homogenization. The sample preparation process for soils adds significant time for analysis by gamma spectroscopy as the actual analysis is normally on the order of 1 hour or less. An alternative approach has been developed that significantly reduces sample preparation time for soil samples and that provides comparable results to those obtained by the standard method. The alternative approach utilizes a moisture analyzer to determine the percent moisture in each individual sample, which takes 15 to 45 minutes for each sample. The actual weight of the sample is then corrected by the percent moisture in order to report the results on the equivalent dry weight. This is especially important for samples that are for decision making associated with field activities where time is of the essence. This alternative sample preparation approach provides fast and efficient sample preparation of soils for gamma spectroscopy without reducing data quality or imparting bias. (authors)

Downey, H.T. [MACTEC, Portland, ME (United States); Jung, P.; Scarborough, R. [Sevenson Environmental Services, Niagara Falls, NY (United States)

2008-07-01

77

Geomorphic Analysis of Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are taken to a former plantation along a tidal river near Charleston, SC. The students are then shown how to sample and describe soils using an push-auger sampler, similar to those used in industry. After the demonstration, the students are taken to various locations on the plantation, including upland areas, wetlands, former agricultural areas, lowlands, and tidal marshes, to sample and make field descriptions of the various soils encountered. Students describe depths to horizons, soil color using Munsell Color Charts, soil texture, and any other pertinent properties. Students then prepare a formal technical write-up on the soils, their distribution, and how their sampling results compare to published soil data for the area. Designed for a geomorphology course Uses online and/or real-time data

Doyle, Briget

78

Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: species stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates.  

PubMed

An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10 °C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present, but typically at low levels. PMID:21837467

Wolf, Ruth E; Morman, Suzette A; Hageman, Philip L; Hoefen, Todd M; Plumlee, Geoffrey S

2011-11-01

79

2-Day Investigating Soil Samples: observing and identifying soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed for a primary classroom (outdoors & indoors) investigation where students collect and investigate soil samples and describe the soils, looking for similarities and differences. Students develop a method of recording the data colleted and can present the information gathered.

80

SOIL SAMPLING QUALITY ASSURANCE USER'S GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The inherent inseparability of a cost-effective Soil Sampling Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) Plan from the objectives of a soil monitoring program is emphasized. Required precisions and confidence levels for the data cannot be defined until the decisions which will be ...

81

Geochemistry - Soils Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students conduct a geochemical analysis of a soil. Each group chooses one of the following analyses: conductivity buffer solution, conductivity, acidity, mineralogy, grain size, or loss on ignition. As this lab falls somewhere between the middle and end of the course, students are versed in various chemical methods. This lab reinforces those skills while forcing students to organize their time and be patient with each other while conducting careful lab science. The samples used for this lab were from a Bronze-Age archaeological site in Kazakhstan, but any samples could be substituted. To encourage free-thinking concerning their representations (and interpretations in the follow-up lab), as little background information as possible was given.

Fadem, Cynthia

82

SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) needs innovative methods and techniques to solve new and difficult sampling and analytical problems found at the numerous Superfund sites throughout th...

83

Simple pretreatment procedure combined with gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/mass spectrometry for the analysis of dioxins in soil samples obtained after the T?hoku earthquake.  

PubMed

A simple pretreatment procedure was developed for the analysis of dioxins in soil samples using gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sample was subjected to a pressurized liquid extraction procedure, followed by separation using a pair of Sulfoxide and Ag-ION columns for cleanup. Due to the high selectivity of laser ionization, the procedure was simplified and the time required for an analysis was decreased to 3 h. The sample collected after the earthquake and tsunami contained relatively high concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs. This simple and rapid pretreatment procedure can be useful for monitoring the environment to prevent unexpected exposure of toxic dioxins for the workers who have to process more than 20 million tons of the wastes in a few years. PMID:23199015

Chang, Yu-Ching; Imasaka, Totaro

2013-01-01

84

Groundwater Sampling and Soil Gas Data Analysis, Distler Brickyard Superfund Site, Hardin County, Kentucky -- June - August 2000  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of groundwater and soil gas sampling conducted at the Distler Brickyard Site, Hardin County, Kentucky, June-August, 2000. The purpose of the sampling activities was to address remaining data gaps regarding the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) for remediation of chloroethene/ane contamination. Specifically, data gaps fall into four categories: 1) effect of seasonal recharge on contaminant concentrations, 2) geochemical conditions in the Fine Grained Alluvium (FGA), 3) conditions along the flowpath between Wells GW-11 and MW-3, and 4) the extent of aerobic degradation in the Coarse Grained Alluvium (CGA). A data collection strategy composed of both groundwater sampling and passive soil vapor sampling devices (Gore-Sorbers?) was used. The Gore-Sorber? technology was used to collect data from the FGA, which because of its low hydraulic conductivity and variable saturation makes collection of groundwater samples problematic. Gore-Sorbers were deployed in 15 wells, most of them being in the FGA, and groundwater samples were collected in 17 wells, which were mostly in the CGA. Both sampling methods were utilized in a subset of wells (7) in order to determine the general comparability of results obtained from each method. Results indicate that water levels in both the FGA and CGA were higher in June-August 2000 than in October 1999, likely due to increased infiltration of precipitation through the FGA during the wetter months. Redox conditions in the FGA and downgradient CGA were iron-reducing, less reducing than in October-1999. In general, concentrations of chloroethenes/anes were higher in June-August 2000 than October 1999. Trichloroethene (TCE) was present at concentrations as high as 65 µg/L in the FGA and 19 µg/L in the CGA. This is substantially higher than the maximum concentration in October 1999 of 11 µg/L. The following conclusions were drawn from these data collection activities: 1) two potential contaminant source areas remain at the site, 2) redox conditions are less reducing than October 1999, 3) anaerobic reductive dechlorination (ARD) continues to take place in the FGA, and 4) seasonal fluctuations in recharge affect water levels, redox conditions, contaminant concentrations, and ARD reactions. Possible final remedial response actions include 1) monitored natural attenuation, 2) monitored natural attenuation with physical source removal, or 3) monitored natural attenuation with source removal via enhanced ARD. All of these remedies will require the collection of additional data in three areas: 1) the nature and extent of the GW-3/UDBW-11 source area and the flux rate and fate of contaminants from it, 2) the magnitude and timing of recharge fluctuations, and 3) the local hydraulic gradient and groundwater flow directions. Each remedy may also have specific additional data collection requirements. This document will serve as the basis for the selection of the appropriate remedy by the state and federal regulators.

Martin, Jennifer Pauline; Peterson, Lance Nutting; Taylor, C. J.

2000-11-01

85

Carbon and Sulfur Isotopic Composition of Rocknest Soil as Determined with the Sample Analysis at Mars(SAM) Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover got its first taste of solid Mars in the form of loose, unconsolidated materials (soil) acquired from an aeolian bedform designated Rocknest. Evolved gas analysis (EGA) revealed the presence of H2O as well as O-, C- and S-bearing phases in these samples. CheMin did not detect crystalline phases containing these gaseous species but did detect the presence of X-ray amorphous materials. In the absence of definitive mineralogical identification by CheMin, SAM EGA data can provide clues to the nature and/or mineralogy of volatile-bearing phases through examination of temperatures at which gases are evolved from solid samples. In addition, the isotopic composition of these gases, particularly when multiple sources contribute to a given EGA curve, may be used to identify possible formation scenarios and relationships between phases. Here we report C and S isotope ratios for CO2 and SO2 evolved from Rocknest soil samples as measured with SAM's quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS).

Franz, H. B.; McAdam, C.; Stern, J. C.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Sutter, B.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Jones, J. H.; Leshin, L. A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Niles, P. B.; Owen, T. C.; Raaen, E.; Steele, A.; Webster, C. R.

2013-01-01

86

Quantitative evaluation of the CEEM soil sampling intercomparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the CEEM soil project was to compare and to test the soil sampling and sample preparation guidelines used in the member states of the European Union and Switzerland for investigations of background and large-scale contamination of soils, soil monitoring and environmental risk assessments. The results of the comparative evaluation of the sampling guidelines demonstrated that, in soil

G Wagner; P Lischer; S Theocharopoulos; H Muntau; A Desaules; P. h Quevauviller

2001-01-01

87

Analysis of iron-phytosiderophore complexes in soil related samples: LC-ESI-MS/MS versus CE-MS.  

PubMed

Phytosiderophores (PS) form stable complexes with various transition metals. These ligands are exuded by the roots of graminacous plants as a mechanism for mobilizing and acquiring soil iron. To investigate iron mobilization and transport, a novel LC method in combination with ESI-MS/MS for the determination of three Fe(III)-complexes with mugineic acid (MA), 2'-epi-MA and 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) has been developed. Liquid chromatographic separation was realized using a silica-based mixed-mode reversed phase/weak-anion exchange type stationary phase and a 50 mM ammonium acetate buffer, pH 6.5. Baseline separation of the two complex diastereomers Fe(III)-MA and Fe(III)-epi-MA could be achieved. ESI-MS/MS detection allowed for simultaneous quantification of the complexes and the free ligands. Limits of detection were determined to be 0.001 and 0.05 ?M for DMA and Fe(III)-DMA, respectively. The analytical figures of merit of the novel method were evaluated and compared with a CE-ESI-MS method that we had published earlier. The LC-ESI-MS/MS method has been successfully applied to real samples derived from preliminary extraction experiments. PMID:22451067

Dell'mour, Madeleine; Schenkeveld, Walter; Oburger, Eva; Fischer, Lisa; Kraemer, Stephan; Puschenreiter, Markus; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

2012-02-01

88

Data analysis of the 1984 and 1986 soil sampling programs at Materials Disposal Area T in the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An environmental surveillance program for Materials Disposal Area T (MDA-T) at Los Alamos, New Mexico is described. The waste-use history of this disposal site is described, followed by a description of the materials and methods used to analyze data from two surface soil radionuclide sampling programs performed at this disposal site. The disposal site`s physical features are related to the spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration contours in an attempt to evaluate radionuclide migration mechanisms in and around the site. The usefulness of the data analysis efforts is evaluated and recommendations are made for future studies.

Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.

1993-09-01

89

VALIDATION OF A NEW SOIL VOC SAMPLER: PERFORMANCE OF THE EN CORE SAMPLER AT -7 C AND -21 C AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACCU CORE SUBSURFACE SAMPLING\\/STORAGE DEVICE FOR VOC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core{reg_sign} sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and\\/or biodegradation. An ASTM International (ASTM) standard practice, D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr

2004-01-01

90

Soil Samplers: New Techniques for Subsurface Sampling for Volatile Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil sampling techniques for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the soil that is being sampled. Preventing VOC loss from soil cores that are collected from the subsurface and brought to the surface for subsampling is often difficult. Subsurface bulk sample retrieval systems are designed to obtain intact cylindrical cores of

Susan Sorini; John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

2009-01-01

91

Automatic Collection of Rock and Soil Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed machine would sample rock or soil automatically. Mounted on a wheeled or tracked vehicle, machine positions drill for cut at any angle from horizontal to vertical, moves power head to drive drill into cut, and stores drilled core in a container. New concept may also be useful in terrestrial agricultural and geologic surveys.

Kyrias, G. M.

1982-01-01

92

Optimal sampling and sample preparation for NIR-based prediction of field scale soil properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The representation of local soil variability with acceptable accuracy and precision is dependent on the spatial sampling strategy and can vary with a soil property. Therefore, soil mapping can be expensive when conventional soil analyses are involved. Visible near infrared spectroscopy (vis-NIR) is considered a cost-effective method due to labour savings and relative accuracy. However, savings may be offset by the costs associated with number of samples and sample preparation. The objective of this study was to find the most optimal way to predict field scale total organic carbon (TOC) and texture. To optimize the vis-NIR calibrations the effects of sample preparation and number of samples on the predictive ability of models with regard to the spatial distribution of TOC and texture were investigated. Conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHs) method was used to select 125 sampling locations from an agricultural field in Denmark, using electromagnetic induction (EMI) and digital elevation model (DEM) data. The soil samples were scanned in three states (field moist, air dried and sieved to 2 mm) with a vis-NIR spectrophotometer (LabSpec 5100, ASD Inc., USA). The Kennard-Stone algorithm was applied to select 50 representative soil spectra for the laboratory analysis of TOC and texture. In order to investigate how to minimize the costs of reference analysis, additional smaller subsets (15, 30 and 40) of samples were selected for calibration. The performance of field calibrations using spectra of soils at the three states as well as using different numbers of calibration samples was compared. Final models were then used to predict the remaining 75 samples. Maps of predicted soil properties where generated with Empirical Bayesian Kriging. The results demonstrated that regardless the state of the scanned soil, the regression models and the final prediction maps were similar for most of the soil properties. Nevertheless, as expected, models based on spectra from field moist soils showed the lowest predictive ability with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV): 0.62%, 1.51%, 1.08%, 2.4% for TOC, clay, silt and sand respectively, resulting also in less detailed maps. The best calibration models for TOC, clay and silt were obtained from air dried soils (RMSECV: 0.43%, 1.18%, 0.99%, 2.55%, respectively). Sieving improved the results of sand calibration only (RMSECV=2.13%). Despite the positive effect of drying the soils, very little improvement was gained and on average accounted for a 19% decrease in RMSECV, with the highest decrease in RMSECV reported for TOC (30%). In general, no substantial effect of sampling intensity on the predictive ability of calibration models was found. The only significant differences were recorded for sand calibrations between models based on 50 and 15 moist soil samples and for silt between models based on 50 and 15 sieved soil samples. The results from this study show that one can produce acceptable vis-NIR predictions without the necessity of sieving or even drying the soils and using as few as 15 samples for field calibrations. Nevertheless, the selection of sample preparation and number of samples is dependent on soil properties and should be adjusted to the precision needed.

Knadel, Maria; Peng, Yi; Schelde, Kirsten; Thomsen, Anton; Deng, Fan; Humlekrog Greve, Mogens

2013-04-01

93

PARTICULATE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter provides information needed to ensure that sampling and data analysis are well done. It discusses sampling and analysis associated with mass tests using EPA Test Methods 5 and 17 and particle size distribution tests conducted with cascade impactors. All steps in the s...

94

Extraction parameters in the mutagenicity assay of soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at investigating parameters of chemical extraction associated with the detection of mutagenicity in soil samples extracts. In order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of inorganic mutagens, besides the chemical analysis of metals, the Salmonella\\/microsome assay was performed in the preincubation and microsuspension procedures, using two solvents, and using two extraction methodologies. The efficiency of two organic compound

Flavio Manoel Rodrigues da Silva Júnior; Jocelita Aparecida Vaz Rocha; Vera Maria Ferrão Vargas

2009-01-01

95

Method for Spiking Soil Samples with Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the harmful side effects on indigenous soil microorganisms of two organic solvents, acetone and dichloromethane, that are normally used for spiking of soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for experimental purposes. The solvents were applied in two contamination protocols to either the whole soil sample or 25% of the soil volume, which was subsequently mixed with 75% untreated soil.

Ulla C. Brinch; Flemming Ekelund; Carsten S. Jacobsen

2002-01-01

96

Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from soil and litter samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by soil microbes is likely to have an important influence on soil ecology and terrestrial biogeochemistry. However, soil VOC production has received relatively little attention, and we do not know how the emissions of microbially-produced VOCs vary across soil and litter types. We collected 40 root-free soil and litter samples from a

Jonathan W. Leff; Noah Fierer

2008-01-01

97

Verification of Soil Carbon Sequestration—Sample Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable and effective verification of soil carbon sequestration is required for quantification of project-based greenhouse gas mitigation. Direct soil sampling is necessary for measurements at field level. In this study, soil samples from a semiarid agroecosystem of the Sudan were statistically analyzed to evaluate if changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) over time or space were detectable or not, given

Jean-Nicolas Poussart; Jonas Ardö; Lennart Olsson

2004-01-01

98

Analysis of water and soil from the wetlands of Upper Three Runs Creek. Volume 2A, Analytical data packages September--October 1991 sampling  

SciTech Connect

Shallow water and soils along Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and associated wetlands between SRS Road F and Cato Road were sampled for nonradioactive and radioactive constituents. The sampling program is associated with risk evaluations being performed for various regulatory documents in these areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC selected fifty sampling sites bordering the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB), and the Sanitary Landfill (SL). The analytical results from this study provided information on the water and soil quality in UTRC and its associated wetlands. The analytical results from this investigation indicated that the primary constituents and radiological indicators detected in the shallow water and soils were tritium, gross alpha, radium 226, total radium and strontium 90. This investigation involved the collection of shallow water samples during the Fall of 1991 and the Spring of 1992 at fifty (50) sampling locations. Sampling was performed during these periods to incorporate high and low water table periods. Samples were collected from three sections along UTRC denoted as Phase I (MWMF), Phase II (FHSB) and Phase III (SL). One vibracored soil sample was also collected in each phase during the Fall of 1991. This document is compiled solely of experimental data obtained from the sampling procedures.

Haselow, L.A.; Rogers, V.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Riordan, C.J. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. (United States); Eidson, G.W.; Herring, M.K. [Normandeau Associates, Inc. (United States)

1992-08-01

99

Analysis of water and soil from the wetlands of Upper Three Runs Creek. Volume 2B: Analytical data packages, January--February 1992 sampling  

SciTech Connect

Shallow water and soils along Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and associated wetlands between SRS Road F and Cato Road were sampled for nonradioactive and radioactive constituents. The sampling program is associated with risk evaluations being performed for various regulatory documents in these areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC selected fifty sampling sites bordering the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB), and the Sanitary Landfill (SL). The analytical results from this study provided information on the water and soil quality in UTRC and its associated wetlands. The analytical results from this investigation indicated that the primary constituents and radiological indicators detected in the shallow water and soils were tritium, gross alpha, radium 226, total radium and strontium 90. This investigation involved the collection of shallow water samples during the Fall of 1991 and the Spring of 1992 at fifty (50) sampling locations. Sampling was performed during these periods to incorporate high and low water table periods. Samples were collected from three sections along UTRC denoted as Phase I (MWMF), Phase II (FHSB) and Phase III (SL). One vibracored soil sample was also collected in each phase during the Fall of 1991. This document is compiled of experimental data obtained from the sampling procedures.

Haselow, L.A.; Rogers, V.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Riordan, C.J. [Metcalf and Eddy (United States); Eidson, G.W.; Herring, M.K. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

1992-08-01

100

ASEPTIC SAMPLING OF UNCONSOLIDATED HEAVING SOILS IN SATURATED ZONES  

EPA Science Inventory

Collecting undisturbed subsurface soil samples in noncohesive, heaving sandy environments below the water table has been extremely difficult using conventional soil sampling equipment. everal modifications of the conventional hollow-stem auger coring procedures were adapted, whic...

101

Improved cryogenic coring device for sampling wetland soils  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the third in a series on the design and construction (Knaus 1986) and improvements (Knaus and Cahoon 1990) of a cryogenic soil-coring device (cryocorer). Freezing wetland soils in place during sampling eliminates compaction, dewatering, and loss of flocculent material at the water-sediment interface. The cryocorer is suitable for sampling soils of emergent marsh and mangrove forests as well as shallow water bottoms, although it has been used primarily for the former. A small-diameter frozen soil core minimizes disruption of the surface, can be evaluated immediately for overall quality, and can be used to measure soil profiles and subsample for further analysis. The cryocorer continues to be used in studies of wetland accretion and soil bulk density throughout the US. Concomitant with the increased use of the device, improvements in cryocorer design and application have occurred. Reported here are improvements in design that have been made since 1992 with references to wetland research in which the cryocorer has been used extensively.

Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C. [National Biological Service, Lafayette, LA (United States); Knaus, R.M. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1996-09-01

102

Comparative analysis of genetic diversity and incidence of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance among enterococcal populations from raw fruit and vegetable foods, water and soil, and clinical samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was carried out among enterococci isolated from fruits and vegetable foods, water and soil, and clinical samples. Results indicate strong differences in the numbers of enfterococcal species found in different environments as well as their abundance. While Enterococcus faecalis was clearly the predominant species in clinical samples, Enterococcus faecium predominated in vegetables, and it slightly outnumbered E.

Hikmate Abriouel; Nabil Ben Omar; Antonio Cobo Molinos; Rosario Lucas López; M Grande; Pilar Martínez-Viedma; Elena Ortega; Magdalena Martínez Cañamero; Antonio Galvez

2008-01-01

103

Analysis of triazolopyrimidine herbicides in soils using field-enhanced sample injection-coelectroosmotic capillary electrophoresis combined with solid-phase extraction.  

PubMed

In this work, a combined methodology using off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE), on-line field-enhanced sample injection (FESI) and coelectroosmotic capillary electrophoresis with UV detection (CE-UV) is developed for the trace analysis of five triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilide pesticides (i.e., flumetsulam, florasulam, cloransulam-methyl, diclosulam and metosulam). An adequate background electrolyte (BGE) was obtained for the separation of these pesticides using hexadimethrine bromide (HDB) as electroosmotic flow (EOF) modifier. This BGE consisted of 0.00042% HDB, 11 mM formic acid, 16 mM ammonium carbonate and 2.5 mM alpha-CD solution at pH 7.6. The use of this running buffer together with the FESI preconcentration method provided limits of detection (LODs) in the low microg/L range (i.e., between 13.0 and 31.5 microg/L). The optimized FESI-CE-UV method was combined with off-line SPE using C(18) cartridges and applied to the determination of the selected group of pesticides in soil samples. Recovery percentages ranged between 50 and 84% in these samples with LODs between 18 and 34 microg/kg. This work shows the great possibilities of the combined use of SPE-FESI-CE-UV to improve CE sensitivity allowing the achievement of LODs similar to other analytical techniques as GC or HPLC. PMID:16212970

Hernández-Borges, Javier; García-Montelongo, Francisco J; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

2005-12-30

104

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS PROTOCOLS  

SciTech Connect

Radiological sampling and analyses are performed to collect data for a variety of specific reasons covering a wide range of projects. These activities include: Effluent monitoring; Environmental surveillance; Emergency response; Routine ambient monitoring; Background assessments; Nuclear license termination; Remediation; Deactivation and decommissioning (D&D); and Waste management. In this chapter, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs at nuclear operating facilities and radiological sampling and analysis plans for remediation and D&D activities will be discussed.

Jannik, T; P Fledderman, P

2007-02-09

105

Sample analysis at Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next landed missions to Mars, such as the planned Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars, will require sample analysis capabilities refined well beyond what has been flown to date. A key science objective driving this requirement is the determination of the carbon inventory of Mars, and particularly the detection of organic compounds. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite consists of a group of tightly-integrated experiments that would analyze samples delivered directly from a coring drill or by a facility sample processing and delivery (SPAD) mechanism. SAM consists of an advanced GC/MS system and a laser desorption mass spectrometer (LDMS). The combined capabilities of these techniques can address Mars science objectives with much improved sensitivity, resolution, and analytical breadth over what has been previously possible in situ. The GC/MS system analyzes the bulk composition (both molecular and isotopic) of solid-phase and atmospheric samples. Solid samples are introduced with a highly flexible chemical derivatization/pyrolysis subsystem (Pyr/GC/MS) that is significantly more capable than the mass spectrometers on Viking. The LDMS analyzes local elemental and molecular composition in solid samples vaporized and ionized with a pulsed laser. We will describe how each of these capabilities has particular strengths that can achieve key measurement objectives at Mars. In addition, the close codevelopment of the GC/MS and LDMS along with a sample manipulation system enables the the sharing of resources, the correlation of results, and the utilization of certain approaches that would not be possible with separate instruments. For instance, the same samples could be analyzed with more than one technique, increasing efficiency and providing cross-checks for quantification. There is also the possibility of combining methods, such as by permitting TOF-MS analyses of evolved gas (Pyr/EI-TOF-MS) or GC/MS analyses of laser evaporated gas (LD-GC/MS).

Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Sam Team

106

The extraction of fungal DNA from multiple large soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial electric paint shaker was utilized to enable the simultaneous extraction of DNA from multiple large soil samples. A bead homogenization procedure was used to extract DNA from soil samples added to tubes. Soils infested with chlamydospores of the phytopathogenic fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans were used to evaluate the procedure. Glass beads and zirconium-oxide beads of various diameters were compared

R. D. Reeleder; B. B. Capell; L. D. Tomlinson; W. J. Hickey

2003-01-01

107

Analysis of grounding systems in soils with cylindrical soil volumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model for the analysis of grounding systems located in soils with cylindrical soil volumes is presented for the first time. Exact closed-form analytical expressions for earth potentials due to current sources in different regions of such soil structures have been obtained. More precisely, the soil models considered contain horizontal semi-cylindrical soil volumes and vertical cylindrical soil volumes. Numerical

Jinxi Ma; F. P. Dawlibi

2000-01-01

108

VALIDATION OF A NEW SOIL VOC SAMPLER: PERFORMANCE OF THE EN CORE SAMPLER AT -7 C AND -21 C AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACCU CORE SUBSURFACE SAMPLING/STORAGE DEVICE FOR VOC ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core{reg_sign} sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. An ASTM International (ASTM) standard practice, D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, describes use of the En Core sampler to collect and store a soil sample of approximately five grams or 25 grams for volatile organic analysis. Prior to the study described in this report, D 6418 specified sample storage in the En Core sampler at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours; at -12 {+-} 2 C for up to 14 days; or at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -12 {+-} 2 C for up to five days to minimize loss of volatile compounds due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. The study described in this report was conducted to evaluate the performance of the disposable En Core sampler to store low concentrations of VOCs in soil at -7 {+-} 1 C and -21 {+-} 2 C. In the study, data on the performance of the En Core sampler to store soils spiked with low-level concentrations of VOCs at 4 {+-} 2 C for 48 hours followed by storage at -7 {+-} 1 C for five days, at -7 {+-} 1 C for 14 days, at 4 {+-} 2 C for 48 hours followed by storage at -21 {+-} 2 C for five days, and at -21 {+-} 2 C for 14 days were generated. Based on these data, a new revision of D 6418 was prepared and balloted in ASTM. The new revision, which was approved on February 1, 2004, now specifies sample storage in the En Core sampler at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours; -7 to -21 C for up to 14 days; or 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -7 to -21 C for up to five days. The En Core sampler is designed to collect soil samples for VOC analysis at the soil surface. To date, a sampling tool for collecting and storing subsurface soil samples for VOC analysis does not exist. Development of a subsurface VOC sampling/storage device was initiated in 1999. This device, which is called the Accu Core sampler, is designed so that a soil sample can be collected below the surface using a dual-tube penetrometer and transported to the laboratory for analysis in the same container. During the past year, prototype devices have been tested for their performance in storing soil samples containing low concentrations of VOCs. Evaluation of the various Accu Core prototypes and the design selected for additional validation testing are described in this report.

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

2004-05-01

109

NID Copper Sample Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

2011-09-12

110

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF METALS FROM SOIL, DUST, AIR FILTER, AND SURFACE AND DERMAL SAMPLES FOR AA (GRAPHITE FURNACE OR FLAME) OR ICP-AES ANALYSIS (BCO-L-3.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe the acid digestion of soil, house dust, air filter, and surface or dermal wipe samples for analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emissions spectrometry (ICP-AES) and/or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) or fl...

111

EVALUATION OF SOIL NUTRIENT VARIABILITY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TURFGRASS SOIL TEST SAMPLING METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important factors in soil testing is selecting a good, representative soil sample. The sample must accurately reflect the nutrient status of the area being sampled. Sampling instructions usually call for separating each location being sampled into uniform areas and collecting a composite sample within each area. An important question that sometimes arises is how many subsamples

Stephen J. Donohue

2002-01-01

112

Sample Analysis At Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The next landed missions to Mars, such as the planned Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars, will require sample analysis capabilities refined well beyond what has been flown to date. A key science objective driving this requirement is the determination of the carbon inventory of Mars, and particularly the detection of organic compounds. While the gas chromatograph mass spectrometers (GCMS) on the Viking landers did not detect any indigenous organics in near surface fines, it is possible that these measurements were not representative of Mars on the whole. That is, those compounds to which the GC/MS was sensitive would likely not have survived the strong oxidative decomposition in the regolith at the landing sites in question. The near surface fines could very well contain a significant quantity of refractory compounds that would not have been volatilized in the sample ovens on Viking. It is also possible that volatile organics exist on Mars in sedimentary, subsurface, or polar niches.

Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cabane, M.; Atreya, S. K.; Coll, P.; Cornish, T. J.; Harpold, D. N.; Israel, G.; Niemann, H. B.; Owen, T.

2003-01-01

113

Sample Analysis at Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The next landed missions to Mars, such as the planned Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars, will require sample analysis capabilities refined well beyond what has been flown to date. A key science objective driving this requirement is the determination of the carbon inventory of Mars, and particularly the detection of organic compounds. While the gas chromatograph mass spectrometers (GC/MS) on the Viking landers did not detect any indigenous organics in near surface fines, it is possible that these measurements were not representative of Mars on the whole. That is, those compounds to which the GC/MS was sensitive would likely not have survived the strong oxidative decomposition in the regolith at the landing sites in question. The near surface fines could very well contain a significant quantity of refractory compounds that would not have been volatilized in the sample ovens on Viking. It is also possible that volatile organics exist on Mars in sedimentary, subsurface, or polar niches.

Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cabane, M.; Atreya, S. K.; Coll, P.; Cornish, T. J.; Harpold, D. N.; Israel, G.; Niemann, H. B.; Owen, T.

2003-01-01

114

Multivariate Analysis of Laboratory Spectra for the Assessment of Soil Development and Soil Degradation in the Southern Apennines (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to high resolution laboratory reflectance spectra of soil samples reflecting the range of soil development levels in a test site in the southern Apennines (Fortore beneventano) in Italy. Principal component analysis was used to identify the dominant characteristics of soil spectra and cluster analysis to group samples into homogeneous classes. The analysis was applied stepwise

Antonio P Leone; Stefan Sommer

2000-01-01

115

Soil separator and sampler and method of sampling  

DOEpatents

A soil sampler includes a fluidized bed for receiving a soil sample. The fluidized bed may be in communication with a vacuum for drawing air through the fluidized bed and suspending particulate matter of the soil sample in the air. In a method of sampling, the air may be drawn across a filter, separating the particulate matter. Optionally, a baffle or a cyclone may be included within the fluidized bed for disentrainment, or dedusting, so only the finest particulate matter, including asbestos, will be trapped on the filter. The filter may be removable, and may be tested to determine the content of asbestos and other hazardous particulate matter in the soil sample.

O'Brien, Barry H. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Ritter, Paul D. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2010-02-16

116

Study on a pattern classification method of soil quality based on simplified learning sample dataset  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on the massive soil information in current soil quality grade evaluation, this paper constructed an intelligent classification approach of soil quality grade depending on classical sampling techniques and disordered multiclassification Logistic regression model. As a case study to determine the learning sample capacity under certain confidence level and estimation accuracy, and use c-means algorithm to automatically extract the simplified learning sample dataset from the cultivated soil quality grade evaluation database for the study area, Long chuan county in Guangdong province, a disordered Logistic classifier model was then built and the calculation analysis steps of soil quality grade intelligent classification were given. The result indicated that the soil quality grade can be effectively learned and predicted by the extracted simplified dataset through this method, which changed the traditional method for soil quality grade evaluation. ?? 2011 IEEE.

Zhang, J.; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Tian, Y.

2011-01-01

117

Crop residues and soil testing results of samples collected by using different soil samplers on no-tillage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the prominent features of no-till system is the accumulation of crop residues left on the soil surface. Although the technical recommendation for sampling soil for testing purpose states that the crop residues should be removed from the soil surface, it is not feasible when sampling the soil with a geo-referenced hydraulic soil- coring probe. The soil samples may

Pedro Alexandre Varella Escosteguy; Daniel Henkin; Márcio Henkes Caldeira; Jair Pimentel; Adriana Pezarico Arns

2005-01-01

118

Animation of TEGA Sample Delivery and Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

This animation shows NASA's Phoenix Lander's Robotic Arm scoop delivering a sample to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and how samples are analyzed within the instrument.

TEGA has eight tiny ovens for measuring constituents in the atmosphere and in the soil, including possible organic constituents and the melting point of ice.

The scoop drops soil onto a fine mesh screen between TEGA's open doors. Some soil passes through the screen, which vibrates, into the throat of a funnel, where a spinning device called the 'whirligig' aids delivery into one half of a tiny oven. The soil sample is represented here by the white chip. The filled oven half then rotates and mates with the other oven half, closing the complete oven so sample heating can begin. The purple coil in this animation is the spring that moves the oven halves together.

Heating occurs at successively higher temperatures over several days. The energy required to heat the sample is measured to discover its thermal properties. Gases driven off during sample heating pass through tubing to the mass spectrometer for analysis.

Note that the exterior doors above the screen never close after sample delivery.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

119

TEGA Sample Delivery and Analysis (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

This animation shows NASA's Phoenix Lander's Robotic Arm scoop delivering a sample to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and how samples are analyzed within the instrument.

TEGA has eight tiny ovens for measuring constituents in the atmosphere and in the soil, including possible organic constituents and the melting point of ice.

The scoop drops soil onto a fine mesh screen between TEGA's open doors. Some soil passes through the screen, which vibrates, into the throat of a funnel, where a spinning device called the 'whirligig' aids delivery into one half of a tiny oven. The soil sample is represented here by the white chip. The filled oven half then rotates and mates with the other oven half, closing the complete oven so sample heating can begin. The purple coil in this animation is the spring that moves the oven halves together.

Heating occurs at successively higher temperatures over several days. The energy required to heat the sample is measured to discover its thermal properties. Gases driven off during sample heating pass through tubing to the mass spectrometer for analysis.

Note that the exterior doors above the screen never close after sample delivery.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

120

I. A soil sampler suitable for sampling pastureland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A manually operated 10 cm diameter soil sampler, capable of sampling a wide range of pastureland soils, has been developed for population studies of Costelytra zealandica (White). The number of samples taken per 8-h man-day depends on plot size, soil type, and moisture, and varies between 195 ± 11.29 and 274 ± 16.30. The design of the sampler permits the

W. M. Kain; J. Young

1975-01-01

121

Soil sampling and drilling near Fairbanks, Alaska. Equipment and procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils explorations were conducted by core-drilling methods and by drive-sampling methods in thawed and frozen silty soils. Temperatures ranged from 28$ to 31.5$F in the permafrost and from 20$ to 27$F in the active layer. The cyclone churn drill, equipped with a field-fabricated 3-in. diam. pipe sampler, is an effective means for drive sampling in frozen silt soils to a

R. M. Davis; F. F. Kitz

1967-01-01

122

Measurements of natural radionuclides in soil samples from Upper Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of natural radioactivity measured for the soil of Qena using gamma-ray spectrometry at ZSR, Hanover University, Germany. Soil samples of radioactive concentrations of 238U-series (234Th, 214Pb, and 214Bi), 232Th-series (228Ac, 212Pb, and 208T1) and 40K were analyzed. Three objectives were set: (1) activity levels by surface soil sampling at 0?30 cm depth, (2) dose rates

Shaban Ramadan Mohamed HARB; Khaled SALAHEL DIN; Abd Elbaset ABBADY; Mohamed Abd Elleh ALI; Rolf MICHEL

2008-01-01

123

Lunar sample analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface composition of lunar fines, the solar wind sputtering process, and the profile of reduced Fe in lunar samples are reported. Atomic absorption studies of trace metal, especially lead, distribution in lunar fines samples are described.

Housley, R. M.

1977-01-01

124

Lunar sample analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of the lunar regolith under solar wind and micrometeorite bombardment is discussed as well as the size distribution of ultrafine iron in lunar soil. The most important characteristics of complex graphite, sulfide, arsenide, palladium, and platinum mineralization in a pegmatoid pyroxenite of the Stillwater Complex in Montana are examined. Oblique reflected light micrographs and backscattered electron SEM images of the graphite associations are included.

Housley, R. M.

1983-01-01

125

A computer program integrating a multichannel analyzer with gamma analysis for the estimation of sup 226 Ra concentration in soil samples  

SciTech Connect

A new hardware/software system has been implemented using the existing three-regions-of-interest method for determining the concentration of {sup 226}Ra in soil samples for the Pollutant Assessment Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Consisting of a personal computer containing a multichannel analyzer, the system utilizes a new program combining the multichannel analyzer with a program analyzing gamma-radiation spectra for {sup 226}Ra concentrations. This program uses a menu interface to minimize and simplify the tasks of system operation.

Wilson, J. E.

1992-08-01

126

A computer program integrating a multichannel analyzer with gamma analysis for the estimation of {sup 226} Ra concentration in soil samples  

SciTech Connect

A new hardware/software system has been implemented using the existing three-regions-of-interest method for determining the concentration of {sup 226}Ra in soil samples for the Pollutant Assessment Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Consisting of a personal computer containing a multichannel analyzer, the system utilizes a new program combining the multichannel analyzer with a program analyzing gamma-radiation spectra for {sup 226}Ra concentrations. This program uses a menu interface to minimize and simplify the tasks of system operation.

Wilson, J. E.

1992-08-01

127

Characterization of Apollo Bulk Soil Samples Under Simulated Lunar Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2012, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. To best understand the effects of the near surface-environment of the Moon, a consortium of four institutions with the capabilities of characterizing lunar samples was created. The goal of the Thermal Infrared Emission Studies of Lunar Surface Compositions Consortium (TIRES-LSCC) is to characterize Apollo bulk soil samples with a range of compositions and maturities in simulated lunar conditions to provide better context for the spectral effects due to varying compositions and soil maturity as well as for the interpretation of data obtained by the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer and future lunar and airless body thermal emission spectrometers. An initial set of thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the bulk lunar soil samples will be made in three of the laboratories included in the TIRES-LSCC: the Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) in RELAB at Brown University, the Simulated Lunar Environment chamber in the Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF) at the University of Oxford, and the Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). While the design and workings of each chamber are slightly different, the chambers are functionally similar. In each chamber, we simulate the lunar environment by: (1) pumping the chambers to vacuum pressures (<10-3 mbar), which is sufficient to simulate lunar heat transport processes within the sample, (2) cooling the chambers with liquid nitrogen to simulate the cold space environment that the Moon radiates into, and (3) heating the samples from below, above, or both to set-up thermal gradients similar to those experienced in the upper hundreds of microns at the lunar surface. Each laboratory and chamber has its own strengths and collaborating amongst multiple laboratories will provide us the unique opportunity to do a rigorous characterization of the lunar samples as well as cross-laboratory calibrations. Laboratory measurements of bulk lunar soil samples are compared with Diviner data to understand: (1) how to accurately simulate conditions of the near-surface environment of the Moon in the lab and (2) the difference between returned samples and undisturbed lunar soils in their native setting. Both are integral for constraining thermally derived compositions and properties of the lunar surface from current (Diviner) and future TIR datasets.

Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

2013-12-01

128

Sample size in factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the factor analysis literature, much attention has be;;n given to the issue of sample size. It is widely understood that the use of larger samples in applica- tions of factor analysis tends to provide results such that sample factor loadings are more precise estimates of population loadings and are also more stable, or les s variable, across repeated sampling.

Robert C. MacCallum; Keith F. Widaman; Shaobo Zhang; Sehee Hong

1999-01-01

129

Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

2014-01-01

130

Sampling and Substrate Application Methods for Pesticide Mineralization Experiments in Undisturbed Soil Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different strategies for pesticide mineralization experiments have been proposed in the literature. The structural state of the soil as well as the method for applying pesticide to the soil can be anticipated to affect the mineralization of the pesticide. Also the soil water content during mineralization is important for the degradation of pesticide. The present study focused on different sampling

Inge S. Fomsgaard; Gitte Felding; Per Schjønning

1998-01-01

131

Sampling for Biofuel Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project reviews methods for sampling biofuels, i.e. wood chips, chrushed wood wastes, sod peat and milled peat. A Swedish standard for sampling will later be worked out from this material. It was found that the fuel can be very inhomogeneous - variat...

J. A. Persson

1984-01-01

132

Effect of sample disturbance on soil water repellency determination in sandy soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective irrigation of managed lands suffering from soil water repellency can benefit from understanding the spatial distribution of repellency in the surface soil layer at actual field conditions. We examined whether the common procedure of mixing and homogenizing samples from the soil surface layer gives representative values of field repellency. Water drop penetration time (WDPT) measurements were made for more

E. R. Graber; O. Ben-Arie; R. Wallach

2006-01-01

133

Properties of soil organic matter and aqueous extracts of actually water repellent and wettable soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of water repellent spots can inhibit a homogeneous wetting progress in soil. Although the wettability is an important factor for sorption and transport processes, the knowledge about the reasons for water repellent behavior and its effects on other soil properties is still insufficient. In this study, water repellent and wettable soil samples from two urban locations were compared.

Julia Hurraß; Gabriele E. Schaumann

2006-01-01

134

Impact of Soil Water Content and Core Sampler Diameter at Sampling for Dry Soil Fragment?Size Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil conditions at sampling and the dimensions of the sample are critical factors when soil aggregation is indirectly characterized by determining the distribution of soil fragments. Our objective was to determine the effects of gravimetric soil water content and core sampler diameter (16, 54, and 84 mm) at sampling on the dry?fragment?size distribution of two soils (Typic Paleudalf and Typic Hapludalf)

John H. Grove; Ed Perfect

2008-01-01

135

Poly-Use Multi-Level Sampling Rod to Measure Soil-Gas Exchange in Glacier Forefield Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forefields of receding glaciers provide unique opportunities to investigate initial microbial processes in the vadose zone and their role in soil formation. Various studies revealed a surprising diversity of microbes and of their strategies to cope with the extreme conditions in this C- and N-limited environment. In the forefield of receding glaciers as well as in developed soils microorganisms are the driving force for the exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere. However, in young and developing soils, little is known about soil-gas exchange and the activities of the involved microorganisms. Knowledge of soil-gas composition and gas diffusion at various depths in a soil profile allows for the precise calculation of gas fluxes among different depths within the vadose zone and at the soil-atmosphere boundary. The acquisition of undisturbed soil-gas samples at a high depth-resolution is difficult, and the estimation of soil-gas diffusion coefficients requires knowledge of volumetric water content at the exact location of gas sampling. By using conventional techniques, e.g. the burial of permanent probes, these tasks are virtually impossible to accomplish in a remote glacier forefield dominated by rocks and boulders. We developed a novel poly-use multi-level sampling rod (PULSAR) primarily consisting of two devices: a newly-designed multi-level sampler (MLS) for soil-gas sampling, and a commercially available profile probe (PR2) for non-invasive multi-level water content measurements. These devices fit into the same access tubes (ATs) of 1.1m length, which need to be pre-installed into the soil with the help of a steel rod. We modified the ATs to feature eight 1mm diameter holes each at 20 sampling depths in intervals of 5cm. Our MLS can be inserted into the ATs and allows for the selective extraction of soil-gas from each sampling depth. The interspaces between the sampling depths are sealed by inflatable rubber membranes for the time of sampling. Once soil-gas has been extracted, soil water content can be measured with the PR2 probe at each sampled depth. After gas concentration analysis, knowledge of water content and soil-gas composition at 20 different depths allows for the quantification of depth-resolved soil-gas fluxes and calculation of microbial production and degradation rates in situ with minimal disturbance. The PULSAR concept was applied to investigate greenhouse gas fluxes in the forefields of two receding glaciers on calcareous and siliceous bedrock in the Swiss Alps. We installed a total of 33 ATs distributed among three soil-age groups of approx. 10, 40 and 70 years. Soil-gas sampling and water content measurements were performed twice during the snow-free season. In between sampling, the ATs were sealed with inflatable rubber tubes featuring iButton® temperature loggers. The resulting data will provide valuable insights into the development of gas exchange of these young soils, while illustrating the feasibility of the PULSAR in soils with high skeleton contents.

Nauer, P. A.; Schroth, M. H.; Zeyer, J. A.

2012-12-01

136

PBDEs in environmental samples: sampling and analysis.  

PubMed

The paper reviews the subject literature concerning analytical procedures routinely sed for monitoring polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in environmental samples. It describes and summarizes subsequent stages of analytical procedure including sample collection and preparation, extraction, clean-up and final determination. Different approaches with their advantages and limitations are presented. Special attention is drawn to the newly developed, promising extraction techniques, especially: liquid-liquid-microextraction (LLME) with its modifications, cloud point extraction (CPE) and hollow fiber microextraction. The review compares available detection techniques taking into account their usefulness for determining different PBDEs in complex matrix as well as discussing possible limitations that may occur during the analysis. The quality assurance and quality control aspect of analytical procedure is described. Finally special attention is paid to the determination of highly brominated PBDE compounds (e.g. BDE209), which requires implementation of different analytical approach. PMID:22483870

Król, Sylwia; Zabiega?a, Bo?ena; Namie?nik, Jacek

2012-05-15

137

Improving soil protein extraction for metaproteome analysis and glomalin-related soil protein detection.  

PubMed

Soil contains low amounts of protein but high amounts of interfering substances. Current extraction methods for soil protein cannot produce high-quality samples suitable for proteomic analysis. To resolve the problem, we devised a sequential extraction method, through sequentially extracting soil in citrate and SDS buffers, followed by phenol extraction. The method allows for obtaining applicable 1-D and 2-D protein profiles with various agricultural soils and detecting glomalin-related soil protein. The method may be a valuable tool for soil proteomics. PMID:19743425

Chen, Shaoning; Rillig, Matthias C; Wang, Wei

2009-11-01

138

Soil Sampling and Drilling Near Fairbanks, Alaska. Equipment and Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soils explorations were conducted by core drilling methods and by drive sampling methods in thawed and frozen silty soils. Temperatures ranged from 28 to 31.5 F in the permafrost and from 20 to 27 F in the active layer. The cyclone churn drill, equipped w...

R. M. Davis F. F. Kitze

1967-01-01

139

Arsenic speciation in environmental samples of contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled method of high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine arsenic compounds, such as arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine and arsenocholine in soils. The technique was successfully applied to analyse environmental samples from an arsenic-contaminated soil; arsenate was found to be the major component. Due to microbial activity, transformation from

Richard Pongratz

1998-01-01

140

Germanium-76 Sample Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, and the first one gram sample was...

M. Engelhard R. T. Kouzes Z. Zhu

2011-01-01

141

Determination of the rodenticides warfarin, diphenadione and chlorophacinone in soil samples by HPLC-DAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A HPLC-DAD method is described for the analysis of the rodenticides warfarin, diphenadione and chlorophacinone, together with the phenylurea herbicides isoproturon and diuron, in soil samples. The HPLC parameters have been optimised to provide baseline separation with symmetrical peakshapes in short analysis times. The sample preparation consists of Soxhlet extraction followed by SPE clean-up on cyanopropyl silica.

A. Medvedovici; F. David; P. Sandra

1997-01-01

142

Mutagenic characterization of soil and water samples from a superfund site  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the utility of short-term microbial bioassays to assess the mutagenic hazard of an uncontrolled hazardous waste site, and to compare the results from chemical and biological analysis of split soil and water samples. The results from chemical analysis indicated that the greatest concentration of contaminants was present in samples from an oil-stained area, and

K. C. Donnelly; K. W. Brown; D. G. DiGuillio

1988-01-01

143

Comparative analysis of genetic diversity and incidence of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance among enterococcal populations from raw fruit and vegetable foods, water and soil, and clinical samples.  

PubMed

A comparative study was carried out among enterococci isolated from fruits and vegetable foods, water and soil, and clinical samples. Results indicate strong differences in the numbers of enterococcal species found in different environments as well as their abundance. While Enterococcus faecalis was clearly the predominant species in clinical samples, Enterococcus faecium predominated in vegetables, and it slightly outnumbered E. faecalis in water samples. Other species (Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus) were found more frequently in vegetables, water, and specially in soil. Isolates from vegetable foods showed a lower incidence of antibiotic resistance compared to clinical isolates for most antimicrobials tested, especially erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gentamicin and streptomycin for E. faecalis, and quinupristin/dalfopristin, ampicillin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, rifampicin, choramphenicol, gentamicin and nitrofurantoin for E. faecium. E. faecium isolates from vegetable foods and water showed an average lower number of antibiotic resistance traits (2.95 and 3.09 traits for vegetable and water isolates, respectively) compared to clinical samples (7.5 traits). Multi-resistant strains were also frequent among clinical E. faecalis isolates (5.46 traits on average). None of E. faecalis or E. faecium isolates from vegetable foods, water and soil showed beta-haemolytic activity, while 25.64% of clinical E. faecalis did. A 51.28% of E. faecalis clinical isolates tested positive for the cylA, cylB, cylM set of genes, while some or all of these genes were missing in the rest of isolates. In clinical E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, the genetic determinants for the enterococcal surface protein gene (esp), the collagen adhesin gene (ace) and the sex pheromone gene ccf (as well as cob in E. faecalis) showed a clearly higher incidence compared to isolates from other sources. E. faecalis isolates from vegetable foods and water had much lower average numbers of virulence genetic determinants per strain (4.23 and 4.0, respectively) compared to clinical isolates (8.71). Similarly, among E. faecium the lowest average number of traits per strain occurred in vegetable food isolates (1.72) followed by water (3.9) and clinical isolates (4.73). Length heterogeneity (LH)-PCR typing with espF-aceF-ccfF and espF-ccfF primers revealed genomic groups that clearly differentiated clinical isolates from those of vegetable foods, water and soil (except for two clinical isolates). The large differences found in the incidence of antibiotic resistance and virulence factors and in the genetic fingerprints determined by LH-PCR suggest a clear separation of hospital-adapted populations of enterococci from those found in open environments. PMID:18180067

Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Molinos, Antonio Cobo; López, Rosario Lucas; Grande, Maria José; Martínez-Viedma, Pilar; Ortega, Elena; Cañamero, Magdalena Martínez; Galvez, Antonio

2008-03-31

144

Measurements of Plutonium and Americium in Soil Samples from Project 57 using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS)  

SciTech Connect

As part of the preliminary site characterization conducted for Project 57, soils samples were collected for separation into several size-fractions using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS). Soil samples were collected specifically for separation by the SSPSS at three general locations in the deposited Project 57 plume, the projected radioactivity of which ranged from 100 to 600 pCi/g. The primary purpose in focusing on samples with this level of activity is that it would represent anticipated residual soil contamination levels at the site after corrective actions are completed. Consequently, the results of the SSPSS analysis can contribute to dose calculation and corrective action-level determinations for future land-use scenarios at the site.

John L. Bowen; Rowena Gonzalez; David S. Shafer

2001-05-01

145

A comparison of sampling techniques for VOCs in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples (5 g) of an organic soil spiked with a standard volatile organic compound mixture were collected by two methods. One group of samples was weighed upon transfer with a spatula into vials, an aqueous sodium bisulfate solution and a magnetic stirring bar were added and the vial was immediately capped. The other group of samples was obtained with a

Margaret W Couch; Charles J Schmidt; Scott C Wasdo

2000-01-01

146

Determination of Available Nitrate, Phosphate and Sulfate in Soil Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of soil samples was done to determine the concentration of the available phosphate, nitrate and sulfate. Samples were collected from different places at different depths. Before estimation of the anions, the samples were air- dried and sieved mechanically through a sieve with a 2 mm mesh. Sulfate and nitrate were extracted in water with ratio of (1:1), while

Samira A. Ben Mussa; Hawaa S. Elferjani; Faiza A. Haroun; Fatma F. Abdelnabi

147

Preliminary examination of lunar samples. [characteristics of rocks, soils, and subsurface samples returned by Apollo 17 flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the lunar samples returned by Apollo 17 was conducted to determine the petrographic characteristics. A table listing all the rocks returned by Apollo 17 by sample number, weight, and rock type is presented. Photographs of lunar samples are included to show the variety of rocks returned. Lunar soils were collected to aid in characterizing the four major photogeologic units determined by preflight studies. Tables are developed to show grain size and grain type for the lunar soils. Radiographs of the drive tubes are interpreted to show the formations existing at various depths below the lunar surface.

1973-01-01

148

Landscape scale soil pollen analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whatever the potential of soil pollen analysis, the medium has not been exploited to the same extent as conventional approaches involving lake and peat deposits. Problems endemic to soil pollen studies may, however, be preventing the realisation of investigations which might otherwise be carried out, especially those at the landscape scale. Spatially-based pilot studies focusing upon sub-peat podsols in Sussex (England) and Jura (Scotland) provide encouragement for the use of soil pollen analyses in broader scale inquiries of settlement and the wider landscape. A newly-instigated application of the approach is introduced for part of Shetland (Scotland).

Whittington, Graeme; Edwards, Kevin J.

1999-10-01

149

In situ analysis of Mars soil sample with the sam gcms instrumentation onboard Curiosity : interpretation and comparison of measurements done at Rocknest and Yelloknife bay sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterisation of the chemical and mineralogical composition of regolith samples collected with the Curiosity rover is a primary objective of the SAM experiment. These data should provide essential clues on the past habitability of Gale crater. Amongst the SAM suite of instruments [1], SAM-GC (Gas Chromatograph) is devoted to identify and quantify volatiles evolved from the thermal (heating up to about 900°C)/chemical (derivatization procedure) treatment of any soil sample collected by the Curiosity rover. With the aim to search for potential organic molecules outgassed from the samples, a SAM-GC analytical channel composed of thermal-desorption injector and a MXT-CLP chromatographic column was chosen to achieve all the measurements done up today, as it was designed for the separation of a wide range of volatile organic molecules. Three solid samples have been analyzed with GCMS, one sand sample collected at the Rocknest site, and two rock samples (John Klein and Cumberland respectively) collected at the Yellowknife Bay site using the Curiosity driller. All the measurements were successful and they produced complex chromatograms with both detectors used for SAM GC, i.e. a thermal conductivity detector and the SAM quandrupole mass spectrometer. Their interpretation already revealed the presence of an oxychlorine phase present in the sample which is at the origin of chlorohydrocarbons clearly identified [2] but this represents only a fraction of the GCMS signal recorded [3,4]. This work presents a systematic comparison of the GCMS measurements done for the different samples collected, supported by reference data obtained in laboratory with different spare models of the gas chromatograph, with the aim to bring new elements of interpretation of the SAM measurements. References: [1] Mahaffy, P. et al. (2012) Space Sci Rev, 170, 401-478. [2] Glavin, D. et al. (2013), JGR. [3] Leshin L. et al. (2013), Science, [4] Ming D. et al. (2013), Science, 32, 64-67. Acknowledgements: SAM-GC team acknowledges support from the French Space Agency (CNES), French National Programme of Planetology (PNP), National French Council (CNRS), Pierre Simon Laplace Institute, Institut Universitaire de France (IUF) and ESEP Labex.

Szopa, Cyril; Coll, Patrice; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Buch, Arnaud; Francois, Pascaline; Millan, Maeva; Teinturier, Sammy; Navarro-Gonzales, Rafael; Glavin, Daniel; Freissinet, Caro; Steele, Andrew; Eigenbrode, Jen; Mahaffy, Paul

2014-05-01

150

Determining the relative importance of soil sample locations to predict risk of child lead exposure.  

PubMed

Soil lead in urban neighborhoods is a known predictor of child blood lead levels. In this paper, we address the question where one ought to concentrate soil sample collection efforts to efficiently predict children at-risk for soil Pb exposure. Two extensive data sets are combined, including 5467 surface soil samples collected from 286 census tracts, and geo-referenced blood Pb data for 55,551 children in metropolitan New Orleans, USA. Random intercept least squares, random intercept logistic, and quantile regression results indicate that soils collected within 1m adjacent to residential streets most reliably predict child blood Pb outcomes in child blood Pb levels. Regression decomposition results show that residential street soils account for 39.7% of between-neighborhood explained variation, followed by busy street soils (21.97%), open space soils (20.25%), and home foundation soils (18.71%). Just as the age of housing stock is used as a statistical shortcut for child risk of exposure to lead-based paint, our results indicate that one can shortcut the characterization of child risk of exposure to neighborhood soil Pb by concentrating sampling efforts within 1m and adjacent to residential and busy streets, while significantly reducing the total costs of collection and analysis. This efficiency gain can help advance proactive upstream, preventive methods of environmental Pb discovery. PMID:23973618

Zahran, Sammy; Mielke, Howard W; McElmurry, Shawn P; Filippelli, Gabriel M; Laidlaw, Mark A S; Taylor, Mark P

2013-10-01

151

Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples  

PubMed Central

The mass attenuation coefficients (?s) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137Cs and 60Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2? × 2? NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained ?s values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics.

Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve

2013-01-01

152

Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples.  

PubMed

The mass attenuation coefficients (?s) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with (137)Cs and (60)Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2? × 2? NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of (137)Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained ?s values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. PMID:23179375

Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve

2013-05-01

153

Limitations and recommendations for successful DNA extraction from forensic soil samples: a review.  

PubMed

Soil is commonly used in forensic casework to provide discriminatory power to link a suspect to a crime scene. Standard analyses examine the intrinsic properties of soils, including mineralogy, geophysics, texture and colour; however, soils can also support a vast amount of organisms, which can be examined using DNA fingerprinting techniques. Many previous genetic analyses have relied on patterns of fragment length variation produced by amplification of unidentified taxa in the soil extract. In contrast, the development of advanced DNA sequencing technologies now provides the ability to generate a detailed picture of soil microbial communities and the taxa present, allowing for improved discrimination between samples. However, DNA must be efficiently extracted from the complex soil matrix to achieve accurate and reproducible DNA sequencing results, and extraction efficacy is highly dependent on the soil type and method used. As a result, a consideration of soil properties is important when estimating the likelihood of successful DNA extraction. This would include a basic understanding of soil components, their interactions with DNA molecules and the factors that affect such interactions. This review highlights some important considerations required prior to DNA extraction and discusses the use of common chemical reagents in soil DNA extraction protocols to achieve maximum efficacy. Together, the information presented here is designed to facilitate informed decisions about the most appropriate sampling and extraction methodology, relevant both to the soil type and the details of a specific forensic case, to ensure sufficient DNA yield and enable successful analysis. PMID:24796953

Young, Jennifer M; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

2014-05-01

154

A model for estimating the value of sampling programs and the optimal number of samples for contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is presented for estimating the value of information of sampling programs for contaminated soil. The purpose is to\\u000a calculate the optimal number of samples when the objective is to estimate the mean concentration. A Bayesian risk–cost–benefit\\u000a decision analysis framework is applied and the approach is design-based. The model explicitly includes sample uncertainty\\u000a at a complexity level that can

Pär-Erik Back

2007-01-01

155

EN CORE® Sampler Performance: Storing Soil for VOC Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The En Core® sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and\\/or biodegradation. Use of this device is described in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Practice D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis.

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani

2002-01-01

156

Rapid method for determination of plutonium, americium and curium in large soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There\\u000a is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed\\u000a and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in large soil samples (100–200 g)\\u000a with high chemical recoveries

S. L. Maxwell

2008-01-01

157

Trace elements of soil samples from mining area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The affect of mining activity on the environment has been long of public concern. The present paper deals with the elemental analysis of soil samples from a mine and the area around it, located in E 48°59' and N 34°11' in Hamadan province of Iran. Elemental analysis was done using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Spectra analysis and quantification was done using GUPIX software. Besides the major elements Si, P, K, Ca, Mn and Fe the other elements, namely Cl, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Pb were also present. Arsenic could be detected in some samples only. The presence of Ba and Ce needs more investigations by other techniques due to overlap of the L X-rays of these elements with the K X-rays of the major elements Mn and Fe, etc. Many elements V, Cr, As and Pb are known to be toxic and needs further understanding and proper handling in the mining process.

Oswal, Mumtaz; Bedi, Harneet; Hajivaliei, M.; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, K. P.

2010-06-01

158

Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area  

SciTech Connect

This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP.

Stanisich, S.N.

1994-12-01

159

Soils as Samples for the Split Hopkinson Bar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soils frequently exhibit one or more of the following characteristics which complicate analysis of data from split Hopkinson bar tests or make test setup and execution difficult: low wave speed, high attenuation of acoustic energy, or insignificant struct...

E. S. Gaffney J. A. Brown C. W. Felice

1985-01-01

160

Analysis of soil and water for TATB content  

SciTech Connect

A reverse-phase liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the analysis of TATB in soil samples. The soil samples were extracted with dimethylformamide (DMF). The extract was analyzed to determine the TATB content in the soil. The detection limit using this procedure was 2 parts/million (ppm) for TATB in the soil. An organic free sample of water was saturated with TATB. The water was filtered through a 0.2-{mu} filter, then injected into both a reverse-phase and normal-phase liquid chromatograph system. No peaks were detected. Therefore, the solubility of TATB in water is less than the detection limits of the chromatograph methods.

Schaffer, C.L.

1992-11-01

161

PREPARATION OF SOIL SAMPLING PROTOCOL: TECHNIQUES AND STRATEGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report sets out a system for developing soil sampling protocols that can be used to meet the needs of the environmental scientist working under a number of situations. The body of the report discusses the factors that influence the selection of a particular sampling design a...

162

Technical change to the work plan for the remedial investigation of the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi: Sampling and analysis plan background soil and groundwater study  

SciTech Connect

The Salmon Site, formerly known as the Tatum Dome Test Site, is located in south-central Mississippi, southwest of the city of Hattiesburg, in Lamar County. Between 1964 and 1970, two nuclear and two non-nuclear gas explosions were conducted deep underground in the Tatum Salt Dome beneath the site. The tests were performed as part of the former US Atomic Energy Commission`s Vela Uniform Program which was conducted to improve the United States` capability to detect underground nuclear explosions. This document details technical changes to the existing work plan for the remedial investigation of the Salmon Site. A previously conducted Remedial Investigation for the Salmon Site involved the preparation of ecological and human health risk assessments. These risk assessments, which are incorporated into the Remedial Investigation Report, identified several constituents of potential concern (COPC) that could potentially have a negative impact on ecological and human health. These COPC are the primary risk drivers for the Salmon Site; they include arsenic and naturally occurring, gamma-emitting radionuclides. If it can be demonstrated that similar concentrations of these COPCs occur naturally in surrounding areas, they can be removed from consideration in the risk assessments. The purpose of this sampling effort is to collect enough data to prove that the COPCs are naturally occurring and are not a result of the explosives testing activities conducted at the site. This will be accomplished by collecting enough soil samples to have a statistically valid population that can be used to produce defensible comparisons that prove the concentrations identified on site are the same as the background concentrations in surrounding areas.

NONE

1998-04-01

163

Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

1992-11-01

164

Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

1992-11-01

165

Quantitative passive soil vapor sampling for VOCs--part 1: theory.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds are the primary chemicals of concern at many contaminated sites and soil vapor sampling and analysis is a valuable tool for assessing the nature and extent of contamination. Soil gas samples are typically collected by applying vacuum to a probe in order to collect a whole-gas sample, or by drawing gas through a tube filled with an adsorbent (active sampling). There are challenges associated with flow and vacuum levels in low permeability materials, and leak prevention and detection during active sample collection can be cumbersome. Passive sampling has been available as an alternative to conventional gas sample collection for decades, but quantitative relationships between the mass of chemicals sorbed, the soil vapor concentrations, and the sampling time have not been established. This paper presents transient and steady-state mathematical models of radial vapor diffusion to a drilled hole and considerations for passive sampler sensitivity and practical sampling durations. The results indicate that uptake rates in the range of 0.1 to 1 mL min(-1) will minimize the starvation effect for most soil moisture conditions and provide adequate sensitivity for human health risk assessment with a practical sampling duration. This new knowledge provides a basis for improved passive soil vapour sampler design. PMID:24469235

McAlary, Todd; Wang, Xiaomin; Unger, Andre; Groenevelt, Hester; Górecki, Tadeusz

2014-03-01

166

Soil nutrient variability and soil sampling in the everglades agricultural area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of soil nutrients and sampling was investigated in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA), on a Lauderhill muck (euic, hyperthennic Lithic Medisaprist), Pahokee muck (euic, hyperthennic Lithic medisaprist), Okeelanta muck (euic, hyperthennic Terric Medisaprist), and Torry muck (euic, hyperthennic Typic Medisaprist). Soils in adjacent fields at the same location under either sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), sweetcorn (Zea mays L.), or

O. A. Diaz; D. L. Anderson; E. A. Hanlon

1992-01-01

167

Spectral soil analysis and inference systems: A powerful combination for solving the soil data crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is attracting much interest in the soil science community because it has a number of advantages over conventional methods of soil analyses. The techniques are more rapid, timely, cheaper and hence more efficient at obtaining the data when a large number of samples and analysis are required. Moreover, a single spectrum may be used to assess

Alex B. McBratney; Budiman Minasny; Raphael Viscarra Rossel

2006-01-01

168

GEOSTATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PALMERTON SOIL SURVEY DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes statistical and geostatistical analyses of data from a soil sampling survey. Soil sampling was performed, in October and November 1985, to obtain information on the level, extent, and spatial structure of metal pollution of the soil in and around the Palmerton...

169

Ultrasonic dispersion of soils for routine particle size analysis: Recommended procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic techniques were found to be more effective than standard mechanical techniques to disperse soils for routine particle size analysis (i.e., using a dispersing agent and mechanical mixing). Soil samples were tested using an ultrasonic homogenizer at various power outputs. The samples varied widely in texture and mineralogy, and included sands, silts, clays, volcanic soils, and soils high in organic

P. R. Heller; R. F. Hayden; G. W. Gee

1984-01-01

170

Sampling and analysis of rain  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on the chemical analysis of acid rain as given at a conference on the sampling of atmospheric precipitations. Topics considered at the conference included the measurement of pH and acidity, quality control of rainwater analysis, the analysis of rain by ion chromatography, atmospheric sulfur analysis using rateometric colorimetry, precipitation chemistry measurements, and the updating process in precipitation quality networks.

Campbell, S.A.

1983-01-01

171

Cryofacial Analysis of Permafrost Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic structure of soils, specifically the patterns formed by ice inclusions and massive ice in permafrost, depends on the genesis of soils and the way they are transformed into a perennially frozen state. Katasonov (1963) recognized that the analysis of relationship between the patterns of cryogenic structure and the processes of permafrost formation (he termed 'cryofacial analysis') is a powerful tool for understanding of genesis of permafrost in relation to different sediment types. He applied cryofacial analysis to Late Pleistocene syngenetic permafrost (yedoma) and to permafrost formed during freezing of thaw bulbs under drained lakes in the continuous permafrost zone. Our long-term studies of cryogenic structure in Alaska and Russia found that cryofacial analysis can be applied to all types of permafrost soil. We described the evolution of cryogenic structure associated with alluvial chronosequences on arctic floodplains in Russia and Alaska and found the differing cryofacies are highly related to patterns of ecosystem development. Cryogenic structure of glacial-lacustrine deposits in several parts of Alaska is similar to cryogenic structure of these deposits in differing permafrost areas in Russia. Cryofacial analysis is extremely useful in recognition of later modifications of permafrost when compared soils are identical in composition. For example, we differentiated original syngenetic permafrost from permafrost modified by thermokarst and thermal erosion in the CRREL permafrost tunnel at Fox, Alaska on the basis of differences in cryogenic structure. We identified unique cryogenic structures associated with the transient zone of the upper permafrost and with the formation of thermokarst-cave ice. Cryofacial analysis showed that parts of permafrost which were previously thawed after fire can be easily distinguished from parts unaffected by thawing. Cryofacial analysis helped in recognizing areas in central and northern Alaska unaffected by the last glaciation. Finally, the study of basal ice under contemporary glaciers makes possible detection of buried glacial ice along the margins of the Arctic Ocean.

Shur, Y.; Kanevskiy, M.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Fortier, D.

2008-12-01

172

Rapid Determination Of Radiostrontium In Large Soil Samples  

SciTech Connect

A new method for the determination of radiostrontium in large soil samples has been developed at the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of strontium in large soil samples for the measurement of strontium isotopes by gas flow proportional counting. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD) or Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. The method employs a novel pre-concentration step that utilizes an iron hydroxide precipitation (enhanced with calcium phosphate) followed by a final calcium fluoride precipitation to remove silicates and other matrix components. The pre-concentration steps, in combination with a rapid Sr Resin separation using vacuum box technology, allow very large soil samples to be analyzed for {sup 89,90}Sr using gas flow proportional counting with a lower method detection limit. The calcium fluoride precipitation eliminates column flow problems typically associated with large amounts of silicates in large soil samples.

Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Shaw, Patrick J.

2012-05-24

173

RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY SOIL SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for samples up to 2 grams in emergency response situations. The actinides in soil method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha sources are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency soil samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinides in soil results were reported within 4-5 hours with excellent quality.

Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

2009-11-09

174

Sampling and Analysis Plan for White Oak Creek Watershed Remedial Investigation supplemental sampling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Sampling and Analysis (SAP) presents the project requirements for proposed soil sampling to support the White Oak Creek Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. During the Data Quality Objectives process for the proj...

1996-01-01

175

Data summary report for Area D soil-gas sampling and analysis, McClellan Air Force base. Volume 2. Data. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A Close Support Laboratory for the analysis of landfill gas samples by EPA Method TO 14 using full scan GC/MS was established at the McClellan Air Force Base for use by CH2M Hill. The laboratory was designed to analyze approximately 180 landfill samples collected over a one month period. The samples were collected in 800 m1 SUMMA canisters provided by the Oregon Graduate Institute (OGI). Section 1 describes the quality assurance program and the analytical methods for the CSL laboratory, and Section 2 contains all of the analytical report sheets by day analyzed. The Laboratory used a HP 5809 GC with a HP 5971 MSD leased for the project from US Analytical Instruments. The GC/MS system was connected to the HP Vectra MS/DOS Chemstation, and the reports were generated by the computer and automatically printed in the form of Excell Spreadsheets. The daily QA/QC reports were generated on a second IBC Compatible computer using LOTUS 123 software.

Not Available

1992-01-14

176

DIRECT/DELAYED RESPONSE PROJECT: FIELD OPERATIONS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE REPORT FOR SOIL SAMPLING AND PREPARATION IN THE SOUTHERN BLUE RIDGE PROVINCE OF THE UNITED STATES. VOLUME 1. SAMPLING  

EPA Science Inventory

The Direct/Delayed Response Project Soil Survey includes the mapping, characterization, sampling, preparation, and analysis of soils in order to assess watershed response to acidic deposition within various regions of the United States. Soil samples collected by sampling crews in...

177

Mid-Level Soil Sample for Oven Number Seven  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil from a sample called Burning Coals was delivered through the doors of cell number seven (left) of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 20, 2008, during the 85th Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed.

This image from Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera shows some of the soil on the screen beneath the doors. One of the cell's two doors is fully open, the other partially open.

This soil sample comes from an intermediate depth between the ground surface and the hard, underground icy layer at the Phoenix site.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

178

SOIL SAMPLING QUALITY ASSURANCE USER'S GUIDE--SECOND EDITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Use of the first edition of the "Soil Sampling Quality Assurance User's Guide" as a text in a series of seminars conducted at various U.S. EPA Regional Offices elicited many constructive comments for improvements from seminar attendees. Many of these suggested improvements have b...

179

Noninvasive investigation of fluid dynamics on undisturbed soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR relaxometry measurement techniques were used to study the process of infiltration in two undisturbed soil samples of coarse sandy loam and loamy sand taken into the plexiglas cylinders (dia. 6.0 cm × h. 12 cm). For coarse sandy loam sample the repeated ponded infiltration (RPI) experiment was carried out, the first infiltration was conducted into a relatively dry sample and the repeated infiltration into the gravitationally drained sample. The RPI method for this sample was performed in order to assess the changes in entrapped air distribution and its impact on steady state flow rates. A single infiltration run was carried out for loamy sand. An automatic setup continuously monitoring fluxes and pressure head in one tensiometer was constructed for these experiments. The main stages of each experiment run - wetting, steady state flow, drainaige - were monitored by multi-echo multi-slice (MEMS) MR sequence. Multiple vertical slices at a spatial resolution of 0.53×2×5 mm covered the whole soil core to obtain 3D image. During steady state flow, axial slices at spatial resolution of 1×1×5 mm of T1 maps were acquired. Later the nickel nitrate pulse was injected with the aim to visualise the solute breakthrough. Effluent from the sample was collected into a fraction collector and breakthrough curve of the nitrate was developed. Soil samples were scanned with computed tomography (CT) at a spatial resolution of 0.2×0.2×0.6 mm. The CT images were obtained before and after magnetic resonance investigation. The novelty of this approach is the 3D monitoring of infiltration process in natural soil samples. It reveals its potential to study the complex flow dynamics. The research has been supported by GA?R 103/08/1552 and SP/2E7/229/07.

Jelinkova, Vladimira; Snehota, Michal; Pohlmeier, Andreas; van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Cislerova, Milena

2010-05-01

180

Pragmatic soil survey design using flexible Latin hypercube sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review and give a practical example of Latin hypercube sampling in soil science using an approach we call flexible Latin hypercube sampling. Recent studies of soil properties in large and remote regions have highlighted problems with the conventional Latin hypercube sampling approach. It is often impractical to travel far from tracks and roads to collect samples, and survey planning should recognise this fact. Another problem is how to handle target sites that, for whatever reason, are impractical to sample - should one just move on to the next target or choose something in the locality that is accessible? Working within a Latin hypercube that spans the covariate space, selecting an alternative site is hard to do optimally. We propose flexible Latin hypercube sampling as a means of avoiding these problems. Flexible Latin hypercube sampling involves simulated annealing for optimally selecting accessible sites from a region. The sampling protocol also produces an ordered list of alternative sites close to the primary target site, should the primary target site prove inaccessible. We highlight the use of this design through a broad-scale sampling exercise in the Burdekin catchment of north Queensland, Australia. We highlight the robustness of our design through a simulation study where up to 50% of target sites may be inaccessible.

Clifford, David; Payne, James E.; Pringle, M. J.; Searle, Ross; Butler, Nathan

2014-06-01

181

Sample pre-treatment and the determination of some chemical properties of acid sulfate soil materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a systematic analysis of the effect of common acid sulfate soil (ASS) sample pre-treatments (namely freezing, oven drying, and grinding) on chromium-reducible sulfur (SCR) and water-soluble sulfate determinations. The results show that oven drying and hand grinding of the samples prior to analysis resulted in a decrease in SCR (i.e. up to 20% compared to those of

Crystal A. Maher; Leigh A. Sullivan; Nicholas J. Ward

2004-01-01

182

Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas.

Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabiola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, Andre L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantao, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

2014-01-01

183

Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas. PMID:24706600

Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabíola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

2014-06-01

184

Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Total Carbon Analysis of Hawaiian Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate assessment of total carbon (Ct) content is important for fertility and nutrient management of soils, as well as for carbon sequestration studies. The non-destructive analysis of soils by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a potential supplement or alternative to the traditional time-consuming and costly combustion method of Ct analysis, especially in spatial or temporal studies where sample numbers are large. We investigate the use of the visible to near-infrared (VNIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of soils coupled with chemometric analysis to determine their Ct content. Our specific focus is on Hawaiian soils of agricultural importance. Though this technique has been introduced to the soil community, it has yet to be fully tested and used in practical applications for all soil types, and this is especially true for Hawaii. In short, DRS characterizes and differentiates materials based on the variation of the light reflected by a material at certain wavelengths. This spectrum is dependent on the material’s composition, structure, and physical state. Multivariate chemometric analysis unravels the information in a set of spectra that can help predict a property such as Ct. This study benefits from the remarkably diverse soils of Hawaii. Our sample set includes 216 soil samples from 145 pedons from the main Hawaiian Islands archived at the National Soil Survey Center in Lincoln, NE, along with more than 50 newly-collected samples from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui. In total, over 90 series from 10 of the 12 soil orders are represented. The Ct values of these samples range from < 1% - 55%. We anticipate that the diverse nature of our sample set will ensure a model with applicability to a wide variety of soils, both in Hawaii and globally. We have measured the VNIR and MIR spectra of these samples and obtained their Ct values by dry combustion. Our initial analyses are conducted using only samples obtained from the Lincoln archive. In this preliminary case, we use Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression with cross validation to develop a prediction model for soils of unknown carbon content given only their spectral signature. We find R2 values of greater than 0.93 for the MIR spectra and 0.87 for the VNIR spectra, indicating a strong ability to correlate a soil’s spectrum with its Ct content. We build on these encouraging results by continuing chemometric analyses using the full data set, different data subsets, separate model calibration and validation groups, combined VNIR and MIR spectra, and exploring different data pretreatment options and variations to the PLS parameters.

McDowell, M. L.; Bruland, G. L.; Deenik, J. L.; Grunwald, S.; Uchida, R.

2010-12-01

185

DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected VOC soil gas concentrations during ASVE. Five (5) SVE wells that were located closest to the air injection wells were used as monitoring points during the air sparging tests. The air sparging tests lasted 48 hours. Soil gas sample results indicate that sparging did not affect VOC concentrations in four of the five sparging wells, while results from one test did show an increase in soil gas concentrations.

Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

2012-09-20

186

Mapping Soil Salinity with ECa-Directed Soil Sampling: History, Protocols, Guidelines, Applications, and Future Research Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil salinity is a spatially complex and dynamic property of soil that influences crop yields when the threshold salinity level is exceeded. Mapping soil salinity is necessary for soil classification, reclamation, crop selection, and site-specific irrigation management of salt-affected soils in the arid and semi-arid agricultural regions of the world. Because of its spatial and temporal heterogeneity soil salinity is difficult to map and monitor at field scales. There are various methods for characterizing soil salinity variability, but none of these approaches has been as extensively investigated and is as reliable and cost effective as apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) directed soil sampling. Geospatial measurements of ECa are well-suited for characterizing soil salinity spatial distribution because they are reliable, quick, and easy to take with GPS-based mobilized ECa measurement equipment. However, ECa is influenced by a variety of soil properties, which makes the measurement of soil salinity at field scale problematic. It is the goal of this presentation to provide an overview of the field-scale characterization of soil salinity distribution using ECa-directed soil sampling. A historical perspective, protocols and guidelines, strengths and limitations, applications, and future trends are presented for characterizing spatial and temporal variation in soil salinity using ECa-directed soil sampling. Land resource managers, farmers, extension specialists, soil classification specialists, and Natural Resource Conservation Service field staff are the beneficiaries of field-scale maps of soil salinity.

Corwin, Dennis

2014-05-01

187

Phase chemistry of Apollo 14 soil sample 14259  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical, X-ray-diffraction and electron-microprobe techniques were used to investigate 0.26 gm of Apollo 14 soil sample 14259. Major element microprobe analyses were made of 470 mineral grains and 388 glass grains. The mineral abundances in the soil are 45% plagioclase, 41% pyroxene, 7% olivine, 3% oxides, 2% K-feldspar; 1% nickel-iron, and less than 1% troilite. The glasses have a wide range of compositions but preferred values are evident and are interpreted as representative of rock types contributing to the soil at the Fra Mauro site. Eleven per cent of the glasses have compositions like those of mare basalts or mare soils and are believed to be mare-derived. Eighty-six per cent of the glasses are equivalent in composition to basalts that have higher Al, and lower Ca/Al and Fe/Mg ratios than mare basalts. The most abundant compositional type is named Fra Mauro basaltic glass and is subdivided into three related types. The other major glass type in the soil corresponds in composition to anorthositic gabbro.

Aitken, F. K.; Anderson, D. H.; Bass, M. N.; Brown, R. W.; Butler, P., Jr.; Heiken, G.; Jakes, P.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Takeda, H.

1974-01-01

188

Effect of sterilization on the scientific value of a returned Mars soil sample  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been proposed that a soil sample from Mars be sterilized prior to return to earth for analysis in order to prevent contamination of earth by hazardous microbial species potentially present in the sample. This paper summarizes experiments on the effect of various methods of sterilization of terrestrial soils on their biological and organic constituents. Sterilization by dry heat caused significant decreases in amino acid content, increases in amino acid racemization, and obliteration of cellular structure. Co-60 irradiation had little effect on amino acid racemization and morphology, and Co-60 irradiation combined with dry heat resulted in retention of some enzymatic activity. Treatment with chemical fixative preserved cellular structure

Devincenzi, D. L.

1977-01-01

189

A geostatistical method for soil salinity sample site spacing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calibrated Four-Electrode Probe (FEP) was used for inexpensive and indirect determinations of salinity-sensor Electrical Conductivity (EC) in a plot at Cauto Valley, Cuba. Two transects were made in the North–South (N–S) and East–West (E–W) directions. Laboratory measurements of soil EC were also made from samples taken on a 50-m spaced square grid. A linear semivariogram was obtained for the

Angel Utset; Maria Elena Ruiz; Julian Herrera; Daniel Ponce de Leon

1998-01-01

190

Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of estimated soil hydraulic parameters for simulating soil water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis has been carried out for the scalar parameters (soil hydraulic parameters (SHPs)), which govern the simulation of soil water content in the unsaturated soil zone. The study involves field experiments, which were conducted in real field conditions for wheat crop in Roorkee, India under irrigated conditions. Soil samples were taken for the soil profile of 60 cm depth at an interval of 15 cm in the experimental field to determine soil water retention curves (SWRCs). These experimentally determined SWRCs were used to estimate the SHPs by least square optimization under constrained conditions. Sensitivity of the SHPs estimated by various pedotransfer functions (PTFs), that relate various easily measurable soil properties like soil texture, bulk density and organic carbon content, is compared with lab derived parameters to simulate respective soil water retention curves. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using the monte carlo simulations and the one factor at a time approach. The different sets of SHPs, along with experimentally determined saturated permeability, are then used as input parameters in physically based, root water uptake model to ascertain the uncertainties in simulating soil water content. The generalised likelihood uncertainty estimation procedure (GLUE) was subsequently used to estimate the uncertainty bounds (UB) on the model predictions. It was found that the experimentally obtained SHPs were able to simulate the soil water contents with efficiencies of 70-80% at all the depths for the three irrigation treatments. The SHPs obtained from the PTFs, performed with varying uncertainties in simulating the soil water contents. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, Uncertainty estimation, Pedotransfer functions, Soil hydraulic parameters, Hydrological modelling

Gupta, Manika; Garg, Naveen Kumar; Srivastava, Prashant K.

2014-05-01

191

Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM) were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25%) soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100%) were positive by the molecular tool. Conclusion This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR

2011-01-01

192

340 representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

Halgren; Westinghouse Hanford

1996-01-01

193

340 Representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

Olander; Westinghouse Hanford

1996-01-01

194

Application of the SmartSampling Methodology to the Evaluation of Contaminated Landscape Soils at Brookhaven National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Portions of the SmartSampling(trademark) analysis methodology have been applied to the evaluation of radioactive contaminated landscape soils at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Specifically, the spatial, volumetric distribution of cesium-137 ((sup 137)Cs)...

C. A. Rautman

2000-01-01

195

A quantitative method to detect explosives and selected semivolatiles in soil samples by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a novel Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method that can be used to rapidly screen soil samples from potentially hazardous waste sites. Samples are heated in a thermal desorption unit and the resultant vapors are collected and analyzed in a long-path gas cell mounted in a FTIR. Laboratory analysis of a soil sample by FTIR takes approximately 10 minutes. This method has been developed to identify and quantify microgram concentrations of explosives in soil samples and is directly applicable to the detection of selected volatile organics, semivolatile organics, and pesticides.

Clapper-Gowdy, M.; Dermirgian, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Robitaille, G. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-06-01

196

Microscope Image of a Martian Soil Surface Sample  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the closest view of the material underneath NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This sample was taken from the top centimeter of the Martian soil, and this image from the lander's Optical Microscope demonstrates its overall composition.

The soil is mostly composed of fine orange particles, and also contains larger grains, about a tenth of a millimeter in diameter, and of various colors. The soil is sticky, keeping together as a slab of material on the supporting substrate even though the substrate is tilted to the vertical.

The fine orange grains are at or below the resolution of the Optical Microscope. Mixed into the soil is a small amount&mdashabout 0.5 percent&mdashof white grains, possibly of a salt. The larger grains range from black to almost transparent in appearance. At the bottom of the image, the shadows of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) beams are visible. This image is 1 millimeter x 2 millimeters.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

197

a Digital Image Method for Analysis of Soil Pores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of porosity and pore size distribution provide important data on the physical properties of soils. This paper presents a digital image method for the analysis of soil pores. In the analysis of soil thin sections, the image threshold separating pore space from the surrounding solid, as well as the capillary pore size threshold separating air pores and capillary pores, was obtained by analysis of the thin sections of calibration samples where values of total porosity and capillary porosity were pre-determined by traditional soil physics methods (IM). The total porosity and capillary porosity, as well as percentages of pores of a particular size, of all samples of similar soil type can then be determined by these image thresholds in thin section image analysis. The maximum capillary pore size in soils can also be determined. Because the thresholds for the total porosity and capillary porosity are determined based on physical soil characteristics in this method, the error associated with existing methods (caused by subjective threshold estimates) was overcome. Small variations in results proved that this method has good accuracy and is acceptable. Any personal computer and flatbed scanner, along with any commercial remote sensing software (ENVI, PCI, ERDAS, etc.) and Geographic Information System software (ArcGIS, ArcView, SuperMap, etc.) are sufficient to complete the method. In addition, the method can also be used for analysis of pore shapes and arrangements.

Jiang, Shufang; Kang, Yaohu; Sun, Zeqiang

198

Interlaboratory evaluation of the ISO standard 11063 “Soil quality — Method to directly extract DNA from soil samples”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracting DNA directly from micro-organisms living in soil is a crucial step for the molecular analysis of soil microbial communities. However, the use of a plethora of different soil DNA extraction protocols, each with its own bias, makes accurate data comparison difficult. To overcome this problem, a method for soil DNA extraction was proposed to the International Organization for Standardization

I. Petric; L. Philippot; C. Abbate; A. Bispo; T. Chesnot; S. Hallin; K. Laval; T. Lebeau; P. Lemanceau; C. Leyval; K. Lindström; P. Pandard; E. Romero; A. Sarr; M. Schloter; P. Simonet; K. Smalla; B.-M. Wilke; F. Martin-Laurent

2011-01-01

199

Ion Mobility Spectroscopy as a means of detecting explosives in soil samples  

SciTech Connect

For a variety of reasons, including its ease of use and high sensitivity, an increased interest has been shown in the use of Ion Mobility Spectroscopy (IMS) for the qualitative analysis of explosives. We have developed techniques that allows IMS to be used for quantitative analysis as well, and have applied this capability to screening soil and water samples for the presence of explosives. The system utilizes the binding energy of the explosive molecules to the soil to produce a unique desorption profile. Combining this desorption profile with the ion mobility allows accurate, unambiguous differentiation of the explosive species and eliminates potential interferences. We have found it necessary to closely control the IMS temperatures, the desorption temperature, and, most importantly, the ion chemistry occurring in the IN4S source. We have designed and built a thermal desorption/IMS system that provides reproducible desorption and analysis of the analyte. We will demonstrate the importance of controlling the ion chemistry, and describe the construction and operation of the desorption system. Potential interferences, detection limits, selectivity, and reproducibility of the system will be described. We have utilized this system for the analysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,3-dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 3,4-dinitrotoluene (collectively referred to as DNT), ethyleneglycoldinitrate (EGDN), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and nitroglycerine (NG) in both water and soil samples. In this paper, we will restrict our discussion to the analysis of TNT and RDX in soils. Those interested in the analysis of other explosives in soil, or the analysis of water samples, should contact the authors.

Rodacy, P.; Leslie, P.

1992-12-31

200

Nondestructive neutron activation analysis of some soil clays of Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen clay samples separated from calcareous, lacustrine, Nile alluvium and desert alluvium soils of Egypt were analyzed by pure instrumental neutron activation analysis. Elemental composition was determined by high resolution gamma-spectrometry on samples irradiated with reactor neutrons using the monostrandard technique. This was carried out in the nuclear research center of Karlsruhe, West Germany. As many as 17 trace elements,

R. Zaghloul; S. El-Demerdashe; M. A. Abdel-Salam; E. A. Bakhoum

1987-01-01

201

Sampling design optimization for multivariate soil mapping, case study from Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct observations of the soil are important for two main reasons in Digital Soil Mapping (DSM). First, they are used to characterize the relationship between the soil property of interest and the auxiliary information. Second, they are used to improve the predictions based on the auxiliary information. Hence there is a strong necessity to elaborate a well-established soil sampling strategy based on geostatistical tools, prior knowledge and available resources before the samples are actually collected from the area of interest. Fieldwork and laboratory analyses are the most expensive and labor-intensive part of DSM, meanwhile the collected samples and the measured data have a remarkable influence on the spatial predictions and their uncertainty. Numerous sampling strategy optimization techniques developed in the past decades. One of these optimization techniques is Spatial Simulated Annealing (SSA) that has been frequently used in soil surveys to minimize the average universal kriging variance. The benefit of the technique is, that the surveyor can optimize the sampling design for fixed number of observations taking auxiliary information, previously collected samples and inaccessible areas into account. The requirements are the known form of the regression model and the spatial structure of the residuals of the model. Another restriction is, that the technique is able to optimize the sampling design for just one target soil variable. However, in practice a soil survey usually aims to describe the spatial distribution of not just one but several pedological variables. In the recent paper we present a procedure developed in R-code to simultaneously optimize the sampling design by SSA for two soil variables using spatially averaged universal kriging variance as optimization criterion. Soil Organic Matter (SOM) content and rooting depth were chosen for this purpose. The methodology is illustrated with a legacy data set from a study area in Central Hungary. Legacy soil data were collected in the end of the 1980s in the framework of the National Land Evaluation Programme. The auxiliary data were derived from the digital elevation model and from the land-use-map of the study area. Soil data were used to characterize the relationship among the soil variables and the auxiliary information and model the spatial structures of the residuals of the regression models. The known form of the regression models and semivariogram models were used through SSA to optimize a completely new sampling design for 120 soil observations. The optimization process was done twice. First separately for SOM content and rooting depth and second for both soil variables simultaneously based on the combined form of regression models and spatial structures of the residuals. The optimized sampling designs were compared and evaluated by various statistical, geostatistical and spatial statistical (point pattern analysis) tools to examine how they depend on the regression models and semivariogram models and how they cover the geographical and feature space. In the near future, we want to extend the methodology for more than two pedological variables. Acknowledgement: Our work has been supported by the Hungarian National Scientific Research Foundation (OTKA, Grant No. K105167).

Szatmári, Gábor; Pásztor, László; Barta, Károly

2014-05-01

202

GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1: ASSESSING SOIL SPLITTING PROTOCOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Five soil sample splitting methods (riffle splitting, paper cone riffle splitting, fractional shoveling, coning and quartering, and grab sampling) were evaluated with synthetic samples to verify Pierre Gy sampling theory expectations. Individually prepared samples consisting of l...

203

An Integrative Hierarchical Stepwise Sampling Strategy For Spatial Sampling And Its Application In Digital Soil Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sampling design plays an important role in spatial modeling. Existing methods often require large amount of samples to achieve desired mapping accuracy but imply considerable cost. When there are not enough resources for collecting a large set of samples at once, stepwise sampling approach is often the only option for collecting the needed large sample set, especially in the case of field surveying over large areas. This paper proposes an integrative hierarchical stepwise sampling strategy which makes the samples collected at different stages an integrative one. The strategy is based on samples' representativeness of the geographic feature at different scales. The basic idea is to sample at locations that are representative of large-scale spatial patterns first and then add samples that represent more local patterns in a stepwise fashion. Based on the relationships between geographic feature and its environmental covariates, the proposed sampling method approximates a hierarchy of spatial variations of the geographic feature under concern by delineating natural aggregates (clusters) of its relevant environmental covariates at different scales. The natural occurrence of such aggregates is modeled using a fuzzy c-means clustering method. We iterate through different numbers of clusters from only a few to many more to be able to reveal clusters at different spatial scales. At a particular iteration, locations that bear high similarity to the cluster prototypes are identified. If a location is consistently identified at multiple iterations it is then considered to be more representative of the general or large-scale spatial patterns. Locations that are identified less during the iterations are representative of local patterns. The integrative stepwise sampling design then gives higher sampling priority to the locations that are more representative of the large scale patterns than local ones. We applied this sampling design in a digital soil mapping case study. Different representative samples were obtained and used for soil inference. We started with samples that are the most representative of the large scale patterns and then gradually include the samples representative of local patterns. Field evaluation indicated that the additions of more samples with lower representativeness lead to improvements of accuracy with a decreasing marginal gain. When cost-effectiveness is considered, the representative grade could provide essential information on the number and order of samples to be sampled for an effective sampling design.

Yang, L.; Zhu, A.; Qi, F.; Qin, C.; Li, B.; Pei, T.

2011-12-01

204

The distribution of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil profile samples from the Hanford Site and environs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a routine part of the environmental monitoring program, samples of surface soil (upper 2.5 cm) are collected annually from the Hanford Site and environs. The samples are analyzed for a number of radionuclides, including the fission products Sr-90 and Cs-137, which could come from Site operations or worldwide fallout. The main purpose of annual sampling and analysis is to

1988-01-01

205

Metaproteomic analysis of ratoon sugarcane rhizospheric soil  

PubMed Central

Background The current study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of yield decline in ratoon sugarcane using soil metaproteomics combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP) analysis. Results The available stalk number, stalk diameter, single stalk weight and theoretical yield of ratoon cane (RS) were found to be significantly lower than those of plant cane (NS). The activities of several carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus processing enzymes, including invertase, peroxidase, urease and phosphomonoesterase were found to be significantly lower in RS soil than in NS soil. BIOLOG analysis indicated a significant decline in average well-color development (AWCD), Shannon’s diversity and evenness indices in RS soil as compared to NS soil. To profile the rhizospheric metaproteome, 109 soil protein spots with high resolution and repeatability were successfully identified. These proteins were found to be involved in carbohydrate/energy, amino acid, protein, nucleotide, auxin and secondary metabolisms, membrane transport, signal transduction and resistance, etc. Comparative metaproteomics analysis revealed that 38 proteins were differentially expressed in the RS soil as compared to the control soil or NS soil. Among these, most of the plant proteins related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and stress response were up-regulated in RS soil. Furthermore, several microbial proteins related to membrane transport and signal transduction were up-regulated in RS soil. These proteins were speculated to function in root colonization by microbes. Conclusions Our experiments revealed that sugarcane ratooning practice induced significant changes in the soil enzyme activities, the catabolic diversity of microbial community, and the expression level of soil proteins. They influenced the biochemical processes in the rhizosphere ecosystem and mediated the interactions between plants and soil microbes.

2013-01-01

206

Effect of drying conditions during sample pre-treatment on the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils.  

PubMed

In the context of the entire analytical process, pre-treatment of soil samples is often inadequately considered although the reliability of the results is definitely compromised if the sample is not properly prepared. In this paper, the effect of drying conditions in soil sample pre-treatment on the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied. A systematic approach has been adopted by varying soil type, drying temperatures and solvent polarity to highlight the effect on the analyte recovery; the relationship between PAH molecular structure and their evaporation process from soils is discussed. Experimental data demonstrate that, concerning temperature-assisted drying procedures, PAHs are divided in two distinct groups: PAHs lighter than pyrene, which are seriously affected by drying temperature; and heavier PAHs that can be considered as non-volatile compounds. For studies involving the analysis of lighter PAHs in environmental samples, working on as-received samples is necessary. PMID:22878605

Narizzano, Riccardo; Risso, Fulvia; Magherini, Alfredo; Magi, Emanuele; Giampieri, Michele; Devia, Carla; Venturelli, Gloria; Carlini, Eugenio

2013-01-01

207

Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated water and soil samples by immunological and chromatographic methods  

SciTech Connect

An immunoassay was developed that can be used for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water, landfill leachate, and soil. As test format an indirect competitive microtiter plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was applied. While groundwater samples from a former manufactured gas plant site could be analyzed directly, soil and landfill leachate had to be extracted and required at least a 100-fold dilution prior to immunochemical measurement. PAHs could be recovered from fortified reference soils as well as aged field samples with high yield using 1-h ultrasonication with acetonitrile. Extraction efficiency was comparable to Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonication with tetrahydrogurane. Recovery was lower with agitation but would still be acceptable for use in an on-site field test to provide rapid, semiquantitative, and reliable test results for making environmental decisions such as identifying hot spots, site mapping, monitoring of remediation processes, and selecting site samples for laboratory analysis. Classification of ELISA data showed that it was possible to estimate the PAH contamination in soils with about 5% false positive and 5% false negative results that may have arisen from heterogeneity of samples, cross-reactivity of compounds with a similar structure, humic acids, or unknown interferences.

Knopp, D.; Seifert, M.; Vaeaenaenen, V.; Niessner, R.

2000-05-15

208

Comparative study on production, purification of penicillin by Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from soil and citrus samples  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore various unexplored locations where Penicillium spp. would be available and study the production of penicillin from the isolated Penicillium spp. in different media with altered carbohydrate source. Methods The collected soil samples were screened for the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum (P. chrysogenum) by soil dilution plate. The isolated Penicillium species were further grown in different production media with changes in the carbohydrate source. The extracted penicillin from various isolates was analyzed by HPLC for the efficacy of the product. Further the products were screened with various bacterial species including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). And the work was extended to find the possible action on MRSA, along with characterization using other pathogens. Results From the various soil and citrus samples used for analysis, only the soil sample from Government General Hospital of Bangalore, India, and Sanjay Gandhi Hospital, Bangalore, India, showed some potential growth of the desired fungi P. chrysogenum. Different production media showed varied range of growth of Penicillium. Optimum production of penicillin was obtained in maltose which proved maximum zone of inhibition during assay. Characterization of penicillin on pathogens, like wild Escherichia coli strain, Klebsiella spp., and MRSA, gave quite interesting results such as no activity on the later strain as it is resistant. HPLC data provided the analytical and confirmation details of the penicillin produced. Accordingly, the penicillin produced from the soil sample of Government General Hospital had the high milli absorbance unit of 441.5 mAu compared with that of the penicillin produced from Sanjay Gandhi Hospital sample, 85.52 mAu. Therefore, there was a considerable change in quantity of the penicillin produced from both the samples. Conclusions The Penicillium spp. could be possibly rich in hospital contaminants and its environments. This research focuses on various unexplored sources of medical ailments, and also shows that the growth of penicillin is high in maltose rich media that could possibly enhance the growth.

Dayalan, S Anto Jeya; Darwin, Pramod; Prakash, S

2011-01-01

209

Assessment of the Water-Extractable Genotoxic Potential of Soil Samples from Contaminated Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening method for the evaluation of the water-extractable genotoxic potential of soil is proposed. Due to the low sensitivity of genotoxicity test systems, PAD-1 resin was used as solid phase to concentrate less hydrophilic compounds from aqueous soil extracts. Concentrated and nonconcentrated aqueous soil extracts from 19 soil samples were evaluated using three genotoxicity assays: the umu test according

Heike Ehrlichmann; Wolfgang Dott; Adolf Eisentraeger

2000-01-01

210

Collecting cometary soil samples? Development of the ROSETTA sample acquisition system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the reference scenario of the ROSETTA CNRS mission, the Sample Acquisition System is mounted on the Comet Lander. Its tasks are to acquire three kinds of cometary samples and to transfer them to the Earth Return Capsule. Operations are to be performed in vacuum and microgravity, on a probably rough and dusty surface, in a largely unknown material, at temperatures in the order of 100 K. The concept and operation of the Sample Acquisition System are presented. The design of the prototype corer and surface sampling tool, and of the equipment for testing them at cryogenic temperatures in ambient conditions and in vacuum in various materials representing cometary soil, are described. Results of recent preliminary tests performed in low temperature thermal vacuum in a cometary analog ice-dust mixture are provided.

Coste, P. A.; Fenzi, M.; Eiden, Michael

1993-01-01

211

Kriging analysis of soil properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Soil as a landscape body contains wide ranges of physical, chemical, morphological, and mineralogical properties, both laterally\\u000a and vertically. Soils with similar properties and environments are expected to behave similarly. A statement on land use potential\\u000a will depend in part on the precision and accuracy of the statements that can be made about the soils. This information

Gilbert C. Sigua; Wayne H. Hudnall

2008-01-01

212

Sampling and analysis plan for the preoperational environmental survey of the spent nuclear fuel project facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document represents the sampling analysis plan for conducting environmental sampling of soil, vegetation, litter, cryptogams, and small mammals at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities in support of the preoperational environmental survey.

R. M. Mitchell

1999-01-01

213

A model for estimating the value of sampling programs and the optimal number of samples for contaminated soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is presented for estimating the value of information of sampling programs for contaminated soil. The purpose is to calculate the optimal number of samples when the objective is to estimate the mean concentration. A Bayesian risk-cost-benefit decision analysis framework is applied and the approach is design-based. The model explicitly includes sample uncertainty at a complexity level that can be applied to practical contaminated land problems with limited amount of data. Prior information about the contamination level is modelled by probability density functions. The value of information is expressed in monetary terms. The most cost-effective sampling program is the one with the highest expected net value. The model was applied to a contaminated scrap yard in Göteborg, Sweden, contaminated by metals. The optimal number of samples was determined to be in the range of 16-18 for a remediation unit of 100 m2. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the perspective of the decision-maker is important, and that the cost of failure and the future land use are the most important factors to consider. The model can also be applied for other sampling problems, for example, sampling and testing of wastes to meet landfill waste acceptance procedures.

Back, Pär-Erik

2007-04-01

214

Sample Drying Effects on Lead Bioaccessibility in Reduced Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk-assessment tests of contaminated wetland soils often use ex- perimental protocols that artificially oxidize the soils. Oxidation may impact bioavailability of contaminants from the soils, creating erro- neous results and leading to improper management and remediation. The goal of this study was to determine if oxygenation of reduced sediments and soils influences Pb bioaccessibility measurements. The study site is located

Olha Furman; Daniel G. Strawn; Steve McGeehan

2007-01-01

215

Metallic phases in the Luna 24 soil samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The metal and sulfide phases in the Luna 24 soil samples were studied with the optical microscope and the electron microprobe. The compositions of the metal particles fall into three groups based on their Ni and Co contents: (1) Samples of meteoritic composition which have undergone metamorphism on the lunar surface. (2) Samples of submeteoritic, low Ni and low Co contents, including most of the metal particles observed. These particles are contained in glass and agglutinate particles and were probably formed by the mixing of meteoritic metal with lunar metal produced by the reduction of silicates during shock-impact. (3) Samples of high-CO content probably formed by mixing of meteoritic material with high-Co metal from the mare basalt or by fractional crystallization from a metal silicate melt. The sulfide minerals were also studied. These are almost pure FeS, and crystallized from a late stage liquid in the mare basalt. Three high-Ni sulfides were also found in the glass phase of agglutinates.

Friel, J. J.; Goldstein, J. I.

1977-01-01

216

Small-Scale DNA Sample Preparation Method for Field PCR Detection of Microbial Cells and Spores in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient, nonselective methods to obtain DNA from the environment are needed for rapid and thorough analysis of introduced microorganisms in environmental samples and for analysis of microbial community diversity in soil. A small-scale procedure to rapidly extract and purify DNA from soils was developed for in-the-field use. Amounts of DNA released from bacterial vegetative cells, bacterial endospores, and fungal conidia

CHERYL R. KUSKE; KAYSIE L. BANTON; DANTE L. ADORADA; PETER C. STARK; KAREN K. HILL; PAUL J. JACKSON

1998-01-01

217

Identification of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Soil by Reverse Sample Genome Probing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria with limited genomic cross-hybridization were isolated from soil contaminated with C51, a mixture of hydrocarbons, and identified by partial 16S rRNA sequencing. Filters containing denatured genomic DNAs were used in a reverse sample genome probe (RSGP) procedure for analysis of the effect of an easily degradable compound (toluene) and a highly recalcitrant compound (dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)) on community compo- sition.

YIN SHEN; LESTER G. STEHMEIER; GERRIT VOORDOUW

1998-01-01

218

EVALUATING COKRIGING FOR IMPROVING SOIL NUTRIENT SAMPLING EFFICIENCY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variability of soil texture and soil nitrate-N, P, and K was studied in two center-pivot irrigated fields (89 ha total). Two soil texture components (clay and silt) were found to be correlated with soil nitrate-N, P, and K, and were used as auxiliary variables in the cokriging procedure to estimate soil nitrate-N, P, and K at unsampled locations.

S. Han; S. M. Schneider; R. G. Evans

219

U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF METALS FROM SOIL, DUST, AIR FILTER, AND SURFACE AND DERMAL WIPE SAMPLES FOR AA (GRAPHITE FURNACE OR FLAME) OR ICP-AES ANALYSIS (BCO-L-3.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe the acid digestion of soil, house dust, air filter, and surface or dermal wipe samples for analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emissions spectrometry (ICP-AES) and/or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) or fl...

220

Yield-Based Management Zones and Grid Sampling Strategies: Describing Soil Test and Nutrient Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

tial variability of soil fertility parameters. The grid cell method represents an area in which multiple cores are Alternatives such as yield-based management zones may solve collected and thoroughly mixed together to form a com- problems associated with grid soil sampling while effectively describ- ing soil test and nutrient variability. The main objective was to delin- posite sample. The grid

Michael Flowers; Randall Weisz; Jeffrey G. White

221

Analysis of TNT and related compounds in vapor and solid phase in different types of soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosives contain small amounts of dinitrotoluene (DNT). DNT exhibit a higher vapor pressure than TNT which indicates higher concentration of DNT than of TNT in the vapor phase of the explosive. Analysis of soil samples reveal extended information compared to air samples and thereby increases the probability for chemical detection. Detected substances in soil samples are TNT and

Ann H. Kjellstrom; Lena M. Sarholm

2000-01-01

222

New approach to measure soil particulate organic matter in intact samples using X-ray computed micro-tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate soil organic matter (POM) is biologically and chemically active fraction of soil organic matter. It is a source of many agricultural and ecological benefits, among which are POM's contribution to C sequestration. Most of conventional research methods for studying organic matter dynamics involve measurements conducted on pre-processed i.e., ground and sieved soil samples. Unfortunately, grinding and sieving completely destroys soil structure, the component crucial for soil functioning and C protection. Importance of a better understanding of the role of soil structure and of the physical protection that it provides to soil C cannot be overstated; and analysis of quantities, characteristics, and decomposition rates of POM in soil samples with intact structure is among the key elements of gaining such understanding. However, a marked difficulty hindering the progress in such analyses is a lack of tools for identification and quantitative analysis of POM in intact soil samples. Recent advancement in applications of X-ray computed micro-tomography (?-CT) to soil science has given an opportunity to conduct such analyses. The objective of the current study is to develop a procedure for identification and quantitative characterization of POM within intact soil samples using X-ray ?-CT images and to test performance of the proposed procedure on a set of multiple intact soil macro-aggregates. We used 16 4-6 mm soil aggregates collected at 0-15 cm depth from a Typic Hapludalf soil at multiple field sites with diverse agricultural management history. The aggregates have been scanned at SIMBIOS Centre, Dundee, Scotland at 10 micron resolution. POM was determined from the aggregate images using the developed procedure. The procedure was based on combining image pre-processing steps with discriminant analysis classification. The first component of the procedure consisted of image pre-processing steps based on the range of gray values (GV) along with shape and size of POM pieces. That was followed by discriminant analysis conducted using statistical and geostatistical characteristics of POM pieces. POM identified in the intact individual soil aggregates using the proposed procedure was in good agreement with POM measured in the studied aggregates using conventional lab method (R2=0.75). Of particular importance for accurate identification of POM in the images was the information on spatial characteristics of POM's GVs. Since this is the first attempt of POM determination, future work will be needed to explore how the proposed procedure performs under a variety of potentially influential factors, such as POM's origin and decomposition stage, X-ray scanning settings, image filtering and segmentation methods.

Kravchenko, Alexandra; Negassa, Wakene; Guber, Andrey; Schmidt, Sonja

2014-05-01

223

Vapor sampling and analysis plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and anal...

C. S. Homi

1995-01-01

224

Speciation analysis of orthophosphate and myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in soil- and plant-related samples by high-performance ion chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel method based on high-performance ion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry employing strong anion exchange chromatography with HNO3 gradient elution for simultaneous analysis of orthophosphate and myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6 ) in soil solution and plant extracts is presented. As inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of phosphorus at m/z 31 is hampered by N-based interferences, (31) P was measured as (31) P(16) O(+) at m/z 47 employing dynamic reaction cell technique with O2 as reaction gas. Orthophosphate and IP6 were separated within a total chromatographic run-time of 12 min revealing a limit of detection of 0.3 ?mol/L. The coefficients of determination obtained in a working range of 1-100 and 1-30 ?mol/L were 0.9991 for orthophosphate and 0.9968 for IP6 , respectively. The method was successfully applied to extracts from three different soils as well as root and shoot extracts of Brassica napus L. The precision of three independently prepared soil extracts was in the range of 4-10% relative standard deviation for PO4 (3-) and 3-8% relative standard deviation for IP6 . Soil adsorption/desorption kinetics for IP6 /orthophosphate were performed for investigating the sorption behavior of the two P species in the experimental soils. PMID:24788687

Rugova, Ariana; Puschenreiter, Markus; Santner, Jakob; Fischer, Lisa; Neubauer, Stefan; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

2014-07-01

225

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and air: statistical analysis and classification by the SIMCA method  

SciTech Connect

Soil samples from 12 locations in Norway have been analyzed for 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The same unsubstituted PAH have been determined in air samples collected near an aluminum reduction plant. Analysis by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the selected ion mode showed concentrations in soil ranging from less than 1 ppb (detection limit) to 993 ppb for individual unsubstituted PAH. The highest concentrations are found close to aluminum plants. Correlation analysis and SIMCA pattern recognition show that the patterns of unsubstituted PAH in soils samples collected close to aluminum plants are different from those in soil samples collected from other areas. Soil samples from a bog environment show a somewhat different pattern of PAH than other soil samples. 43 references, 6 figures, 5 tables.

Vogt, N.B.; Brakstad, F.; Thrane, K.; Nordenson, S.; Krane, J.; Aamot, E.; Kolset, K.; Esbensen, K.; Steinnes, E.

1987-01-01

226

Apparatus and Method for Obtaining Undisturbed Soil Core Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to an apparatus and a method for obtaining undisturbed soil cores. Soil cores with undisturbed structure are desirable to measure physical and chemical properties, particularly water content and nutrient movement. Portions o...

L. N. Mielke

1974-01-01

227

A comparison of rock and soil samples for geochemical mapping of two porphyry-metal systems in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paired rock and soil samples were collected at widely spaced locations in large segments of the porphyry-metal systems of the Montezuma district in central Colorado and of a northwestward extension of the Summitville district into Crater Creek in southern Colorado. The paired samples do not covary closely enough for one sample medium to proxy for the other. However, the areal distributions of elements in both rocks and soils in these two districts conform to alteration zoning as defined by mineralogy. Differing geochemical patterns of rocks and soils reflect species-dependent responses to weathering. Soils appear to be statistically enriched in ore elements and depleted in rock elements as compared to the matching rocks. These differences are largely artificial s owing to different methods of sample preparation and chemical analysis for rocks and for soils. The distributions of metals in soils delineate the occurrence of ore-metal minerals mostly from vein deposits whereas the distributions of metals in rocks conform to zones of pervasive hydrothermal alteration and to the distribution of varied mineral deposits among these zones. Rock and soil samples are equally useful s of comparable map resolution and complement one another as a basis for geochemically mapping these porphyry-metal systems.

Neuerburg, George J.; Barton, H. N.; Watterson, J. R.; Welsch, E. P.

1978-01-01

228

Analysis Inside the Box -- Studying Rock and Soil in Biological Quarantine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-destructive, non-contact analysis of rock and soil samples, using X-ray tomography and Raman spectroscopy, can yield geologically useful information. Such techniques may be required for preliminary characterization of samples returned from Mars.

Allen, C. C.; Tsapin, A. I.; Kuebler, K.; Haskin, L.; Wang, A.

2002-03-01

229

Microscopic Investigation of Martian Soil Samples at the Phoenix Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used the optical and atomic force microscopes (OM and AFM) of the MECA microscopy station on Phoenix (M. Hecht et al., Microscopy Capabilities of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer , JGR accepted for publication) to image samples within reach of the robot arm and delivered to sets of substrates mounted in a sample wheel. For loading the sample, the wheel was pushed out of the MECA enclosure, exposing only one set of substrates: strong and weak magnets, micro-buckets, silicone and silicon featuring grids of micromachined small holes and posts to capture particles. A thickness of up to 200 micrometers of material can be brought into the microscopy station under a leveling blade before the samples are rotated into the field of view of the microscopes as the substrates are tilted from horizontal to vertical. This tilt can cause the loss of a portion of the material depending on the relative strength of the adhesion forces compared to Martian gravity. The time constraints of sample delivery have so far ensured that any ice would have sublimed prior to delivery. From OM images of fully loaded substrates the particles found so far can be very coarsely grouped into three different categories: 1. subrounded strongly magnetic grains, of both a rough and glassy appearance with different shades of yellow, red, brown and black color in a size range of 50 to 100 micrometers, comprising about 10% of the sample volume; 2. small white flecks of a few micrometers in size, about 0.5% of the sample volume; 3. a majority component of a fine, uniformly coloured orange-reddish dust forming agglomerations from a few tens of microns in diameter to below the resolution of the OM with less magnetic attraction than the larger grains. Using populations on more sparsely populated substrates a size distribution could be estimated. The particle size distribution increases with decreasing size until cut off by the 4-micrometer resolution limit of the OM. The AFM confirmed the presence of these smaller particles, down to the submicrometer scale. These often appeared flat and angular. It is hypothesized that the soil observed so far consists of magnetic minerals at various stages of degradation, with the most degraded including a proportion of flattened micrometer-sized clay particles, together with a distinct but small proportion of pale mineral or salt grains.

Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Hecht, M. H.; Marshall, J.; Team, M. M.

2008-12-01

230

QA/QC requirements for physical properties sampling and analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of an assessment of the available information concerning US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements and guidance applicable to sampling, handling, and analyzing physical parameter samples at Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation sites. Geotechnical testing laboratories measure the following physical properties of soil and sediment samples collected during CERCLA remedial investigations (RI) at the Hanford Site: moisture content, grain size by sieve, grain size by hydrometer, specific gravity, bulk density/porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and permeability of rocks by flowing air. Geotechnical testing laboratories also measure the following chemical parameters of soil and sediment samples collected during Hanford Site CERCLA RI: calcium carbonate and saturated column leach testing. Physical parameter data are used for (1) characterization of vadose and saturated zone geology and hydrogeology, (2) selection of monitoring well screen sizes, (3) to support modeling and analysis of the vadose and saturated zones, and (4) for engineering design. The objectives of this report are to determine the QA/QC levels accepted in the EPA Region 10 for the sampling, handling, and analysis of soil samples for physical parameters during CERCLA RI.

Innis, B.E.

1993-07-21

231

Electrical properties of lunar soil sample 15301,38  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical property measurements have been made on an Apollo 15 lunar soil sample in ultrahigh vacuum from room temperature to 827 C for the frequency spectrum from 100 Hz through 1 MHz. The dielectric constant, the total ac loss tangent, and the dc conductivity were measured. The dc conductivity showed no thermal hysteresis, but an irreversible (in vacuum) thermal effect was found in the dielectric loss tangent on heating above 700 C and during the subsequent cooling. This appears to be related to several effects associated with lunar glass above 700 C. The sample also showed characteristic low-frequency dispersion in the dielectric constant with increasing temperature, presumably due to Maxwell-Wagner intergranular effects. The dielectric properties may be fitted to a model involving a Cole-Cole frequency distribution that is relatively temperature-independent below 200 C and follows a Boltzmann temperature distribution with an activation energy of 2.5 eV above 200 C. The dc conductivity is fitted by an exponential temperature distribution and becomes the dominant loss above 700 C.

Olhoeft, G. R.; Frisillo, A. L.; Strangway, D. W.

1974-01-01

232

Radionuclide Activities in Contaminated Soils: Effects of Sampling Bias on Remediation of Coarse-Grained Soils in Hanford Formation  

SciTech Connect

Only a limited set of particle size-contaminant concentration data is available for soils from the Hanford Site. These data are based on bench-scale tests on single soil samples from one waste site each in operable units 100-BC-1, 100-DR-1, and 100-FR-1, and three samples from the North Pond 300-FF-1 operable unit. The objective of this study was to 1) examine available particle size-contaminant of concern activity and concentration data for 100 and 300 Area soils, 2) assess the effects of sampling bias, 3) suggest sampling protocols, and 4) formulate a method to determine the contaminant of concern activities and concentrations of the whole soil based on the measurements conducted on a finer size fraction of the whole soil.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Martin, Wayne J.

2001-08-28

233

Probing dissolved organic matter in the critical zone: a comparison between in situ sampling and aqueous soil extracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyzing dissolved organic matter (DOM) of soil solution constitutes an integral activity in critical zone science as important insights to nutrient and carbon cycling and mineral weathering processes can be gained. Soil solution can be obtained by a variety of approaches such as by in situ zero-tension and tension samplers or by performing soil extracts in the lab. It is generally preferred to obtain soil solution in situ with the least amount of disturbance. However, in water limited environments, such as in southwestern US, in situ sampling is only possible during few hydrologic events and soil extracts are often employed. In order to evaluate the performance of different sampling approaches for OM analysis, results from aqueous soil extracts were compared with in situ samples obtained from suction cups and passive capillary wick samplers (PCAP's). Soil from an OA-horizon of mixed conifer forest Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory (JRB-CZO) in NM was sampled twice and in situ samples from co-located suction cups and PCAPs were collected 7 times during the 2011 snowmelt period. Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations (DOC and DN) as well as OM quality (FTIR, fluorescence spectroscopy and PARAFAC) were analyzed. The aqueous soil extracts (solid:solution = 1:5 mass basis) showed highest DOC and lowest DN concentrations whereas samples collected in-situ had lower DOC and higher DN concentrations. PARAFAC analysis using a four component model showed a dominance of fluorescence in region I and II (protein-like fluorescence) for samples collected in situ indicating the presence of more bio-molecules (proteins). In contrast, the dominant PARAFAC component of the soil extract was found in region 3 (fulvic acid-like fluorescence). FTIR analysis showed high intensity band at 1600 cm-1 in the case of the aqueous soil extract that correspond to asymmetric stretching of carboxyl groups. These preliminary results indicate that aqueous soil extracts likely lead to the underestimation of the amount of biomolecules and the overestimation of fulvic acid contents of soil solutions.

Perdrial, J. N.; Perdrial, N.; Harpold, A. A.; Peterson, A. M.; Vasquez, A.; Chorover, J.

2011-12-01

234

Characterization of soil organic matter composition in of top and sub soil samples from colluvial and eroded sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During erosion, soil particles (i.e., clay sized particles) can be transported along hillslopes from hilltop to foot slope forming the colluvic soil at topographic depressions. The objective was to compare soil organic matter (SOM) content and composition and SOM fractions from eroded with those of soils from colluvic and unaffected sites. Soil samples were from different relief positions along a hillslope including Haplic Regosol (HR), Colluvic Regolsol (CR), Haplic Luvisol (HL), and eroded Luvisol (eL). Also the run-off fractions from two erosion experiments were analyzed. A sequential extraction procedure was adapted to separate particles (POM) from water (OM(W)) and pyrophosphate soluble organic matter (OM(PY)) fractions. Soil samples and fractions were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The content of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the colluvic soil (CR) was 2-times higher as in the eroded soil (HR). The OM(W) fraction represented about 5 % of SOC while OM(PY) was up to 80% except for the HR samples. The FTIR spectra of all soil samples were very similar except for HR, where the absorption band at 1450cm-1 due indicated the presence of carbonate. Despite the similarity, the FTIR spectra indicated differences in the content of carboxyl (C=O) and alkyl (CH) groups: highest intensities of C=O absorption band was in the spectra from HR samples for water and pyrophosphate soluble OM fractions. This higher C=O group content suggested a potentially higher cation exchange capacity of the SOM. However, the FTIR spectra indicated a lower wettability for the HR soil. For the runoff samples, the SOM composition changed with rainfall duration. The results suggest that erosion changes not only the content but also the composition of SOM.

Ellerbrock, Ruth; Gerke, Horst

2013-04-01

235

[Influence of interpolation method and sampling number on spatial prediction accuracy of soil Olsen-P].  

PubMed

Different from the large scale farm management in Europe and America, the scattered farmland management in China made the spatial variability of soil nutrients at county scale in this country more challenging. Taking soil Olsen-P in Wuhu County as an example, the influence of interpolation method and sampling number on the spatial prediction accuracy of soil nutrients was evaluated systematically. The results showed that local polynomial method, ordinary kriging, simple kriging, and disjunctive kriging had higher spatial prediction accuracy than the other interpolation methods. Considering of its simplicity, ordinary kriging was recommended to evaluate the spatial variability of soil Olsen-P within a county. The spatial prediction accuracy would increase with increasing soil sampling number. Taking the spatial prediction accuracy and soil sampling cost into consideration, the optimal sampling number should be from 500 to 1000 to evaluate the spatial variability of soil Olsen-P at county scale. PMID:19637609

Sun, Yi-xiang; Wu, Chuan-zhou; Zhu, Ke-bao; Cui, Zhen-ling; Chen, Xin-ping; Zhang, Fu-suo

2009-03-01

236

DIRECT/DELAYED RESPONSE PROJECT: FIELD OPERATIONS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE REPORT FOR SOIL SAMPLING AND PREPARATION IN THE SOUTHERN BLUE RIDGE PROVINCE OF THE UNITED STATES. VOLUME 2. PREPARATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Direct/Delayed Response Project Soil Survey includes the mapping, characterization, sampling, preparation, and analysis of soils in order to assess watershed response to acidic deposition within various regions of the United States. Soil samples collected by sampling crews in...

237

Soil Heterogeneity Effects on Solute Breakthrough Sampled with Suction Cups: Numerical Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous cups are widely used to extract soil solution for monitoring solute transport; however, it is not always clear how soil heterogeneity influences solute breakthrough sampled by suction cups. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of soil heterogeneity on the breakthrough of solute extracted by suction cups. We conducted nu- merical simulations using the HYDRUS-2D code.

Lutz Weihermuller; Roy Kasteel; Harry Vereecken

2006-01-01

238

A Simple Centrifugation Method for obtaining Small Samples of Soil Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the course of some investigations of seasonal variations in the available cation content of soils in Denbighshire (North Wales), samples of the soil solution were needed. The soils are classed as loams and silty loams, and moisture contents ranged from 30 to 47 per cent.

Brian E. Davies; R. I. Davies

1963-01-01

239

RAPID METHOD FOR PLUTONIUM, AMERICIUM AND CURIUM IN VERY LARGE SOIL SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in very large soil samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multistage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines an acid leach step and innovative matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. This method is unique in that it provides high tracer recoveries and effective removal of interferences with small extraction chromatography columns instead of large ion exchange resin columns that generate large amounts of acid waste. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

Maxwell, S

2007-01-08

240

Surface soil sampling plan for the 200-UP-2 operable unit  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Description of Work (DOW) is to provide detailed guidance for implementation of the field activities outlined in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit Work Plan. This work plan provides the basis for conducting a limited field investigation (LFI) in the unit, with the DOW outlining the protocols and procedures to be utilized in performing the surface soil sampling. As outlined in the Work Plan, the data to be collected in the LFI will be utilized to determine the need for, and possible selection of, an Interim Remedial Measure (IRM). In order to do that, detailed information on the current nature and extent of contamination in surface soils at selected management units is required for assessment in conjunction with the existing areas of highest concentration for each unit. Field screening efforts using surface radiation surveys will allow for surface soil samples to be collected from those points that represent the highest contaminant concentrations. Analysis of these samples will provide data on the types and concentrations of the contaminants of concern.

Mitchell, R.M.

1994-05-01

241

Sample processor for chemical analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is provided which can process numerous samples that must be chemically analyzed by the application of fluids such as liquid reagents, solvents and purge gases, as well as the application of dumps for receiving the applied fluid after they pass across the sample, in a manner that permits numerous samples to be processed in a relatively short time and with minimal manpower. The processor includes a rotor which can hold numerous cartridges containing inert or adsorbent material for holding samples, and a pair of stators on opposite sides of the rotor. The stators form stations spaced along the path of the cartridges which lie in the rotor, and each station can include an aperture in one stator through which a fluid can be applied to a cartridge resting at that station, and an aperture in the other stator which can receive the fluid which has passed through the cartridge. The stators are sealed to the ends of the cartridges lying on the rotor, to thereby isolate the stations from one another.

Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor)

1980-01-01

242

Inter-laboratory evaluation of the ISO standard 11063 "Soil quality - Method to directly extract DNA from soil samples".  

PubMed

Extracting DNA directly from micro-organisms living in soil is a crucial step for the molecular analysis of soil microbial communities. However, the use of a plethora of different soil DNA extraction protocols, each with its own bias, makes accurate data comparison difficult. To overcome this problem, a method for soil DNA extraction was proposed to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 2006. This method was evaluated by 13 independent European laboratories actively participating in national and international ring tests. The reproducibility of the standardized method for molecular analyses was evaluated by comparing the amount of DNA extracted, as well as the abundance and genetic structure of the total bacterial community in the DNA extracted from 12 different soils by the 13 laboratories. High quality DNA was successfully extracted from all 12 soils, despite different physical and chemical characteristics and a range of origins from arable soils, through forests to industrial sites. Quantification of the 16S rRNA gene abundances by real time PCR and analysis of the total bacterial community structure by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (A-RISA) showed acceptable to good levels of reproducibility. Based on the results of both ring-tests, the method was unanimously approved by the ISO as an international standard method and the normative protocol will now be disseminated within the scientific community. Standardization of a soil DNA extraction method will improve data comparison, facilitating our understanding of soil microbial diversity and soil quality monitoring. PMID:21256879

Petric, I; Philippot, L; Abbate, C; Bispo, A; Chesnot, T; Hallin, S; Laval, K; Lebeau, T; Lemanceau, P; Leyval, C; Lindström, K; Pandard, P; Romero, E; Sarr, A; Schloter, M; Simonet, P; Smalla, K; Wilke, B-M; Martin-Laurent, F

2011-03-01

243

Use of X-ray diffraction technique and chemometrics to aid soil sampling strategies in traceability studies.  

PubMed

Aim of this work is to assess the potentialities of the X-ray powder diffraction technique as fingerprinting technique, i.e. as a preliminary tool to assess soil samples variability, in terms of geochemical features, in the context of food geographical traceability. A correct approach to sampling procedure is always a critical issue in scientific investigation. In particular, in food geographical traceability studies, where the cause-effect relations between the soil of origin and the final foodstuff is sought, a representative sampling of the territory under investigation is certainly an imperative. This research concerns a pilot study to investigate the field homogeneity with respect to both field extension and sampling depth, taking also into account the seasonal variability. Four Lambrusco production sites of the Modena district were considered. The X-Ray diffraction spectra, collected on the powder of each soil sample, were treated as fingerprint profiles to be deciphered by multivariate and multi-way data analysis, namely PCA and PARAFAC. The differentiation pattern observed in soil samples, as obtained by this fast and non-destructive analytical approach, well matches with the results obtained by characterization with other costly analytical techniques, such as ICP/MS, GFAAS, FAAS, etc. Thus, the proposed approach furnishes a rational basis to reduce the number of soil samples to be collected for further analytical characterization, i.e. metals content, isotopic ratio of radiogenic element, etc., while maintaining an exhaustive description of the investigated production areas. PMID:22939145

Bertacchini, Lucia; Durante, Caterina; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona; Silvestri, Michele; Cocchi, Marina

2012-08-30

244

Rapid separation method for 237Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples.  

PubMed

A new rapid method for the determination of (237)Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. PMID:21459009

Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Noyes, Gary W

2011-07-01

245

Evaluation of sampling techniques to characterize topographically-dependent variability for soil moisture downscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Downscaling methods have been proposed to estimate catchment-scale soil moisture patterns from coarser resolution patterns. These methods usually infer the fine-scale variability in soil moisture using variations in ancillary variables like topographic attributes that have relationships to soil moisture. Previously, such relationships have been observed in catchments using soil moisture observations taken on uniform grids at hundreds of locations on multiple dates, but collecting data in this manner limits the applicability of this approach. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of two strategic sampling techniques for characterizing the relationships between topographic attributes and soil moisture for the purpose of constraining downscaling methods. The strategic sampling methods are conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS) and stratified random sampling (SRS). Each sampling method is used to select a limited number of locations or dates for soil moisture monitoring at three catchments with detailed soil moisture datasets. These samples are then used to calibrate two available downscaling methods, and the effectiveness of the sampling methods is evaluated by the ability of the downscaling methods to reproduce the known soil moisture patterns. cLHS outperforms random sampling in almost every case considered. SRS usually performs better than cLHS when very few locations are sampled, but it can perform worse than random sampling for intermediate and large numbers of locations.

Werbylo, Kevin L.; Niemann, Jeffrey D.

2014-08-01

246

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and air: statistical analysis and classification by the SIMCA method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples from 12 locations in Norway have been analyzed for 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The same unsubstituted PAH have been determined in air samples collected near an aluminum reduction plant. Analysis by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the selected ion mode showed concentrations in soil ranging from less than 1 ppb (detection limit) to 993 ppb for individual

Nils B. Vogt; Frode Brakstad; Karin Thrane; Svein Nordenson; Jostein Krane; Eli Aamot; Knut Kolset; Kim Esbensen; Eiliv Steinnes

1987-01-01

247

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling and analysis requirements for the characterization of ambient particles are reviewed. The choice of sampling equipment and characterization procedures for ambient particles are often dictated by the objectives of the experiment. The paper describes the procedures and the...

248

Spatial Analysis of Archaeal Community Structure in Grassland Soil  

PubMed Central

The complex structure of soil and the heterogeneity of resources available to microorganisms have implications for sampling regimens when the structure and diversity of microbial communities are analyzed. To assess the heterogeneity in community structure, archaeal communities, which typically contain sequences belonging to the nonthermophilic Crenarchaeota, were examined at two contrasting spatial scales by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis followed by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis of 16S rRNA- and ribosomal DNA-derived profiles. A macroscale analysis was carried out with soil cores taken at 2-m intervals along triplicate 8-m transects from both managed (improved) and natural (unimproved) grassland rhizosphere soils. A microscale analysis was carried out with a single soil core by assessing the effects of both sample size (10, 1, and 0.1 g) and distance between samples. The much reduced complexity of archaeal profiles compared to the complexity typical of the bacterial community facilitated visual comparison of profiles based on band presence and revealed different levels of heterogeneity between sets of samples. At the macroscale level, heterogeneity over the transect could not be related to grassland type. Substantial heterogeneity was observed across both improved and unimproved transects, except for one improved transect that exhibited substantial homogeneity, so that profiles for a single core were largely representative of the entire transect. At the smaller scale, the heterogeneity of the archaeal community structure varied with sample size within a single 8- by 8-cm core. The archaeal DGGE profiles for replicate 10-g soil samples were similar, while those for 1-g samples and 0.1-g samples showed greater heterogeneity. In addition, there was no relationship between the archaeal profiles and the distance between 1- or 0.1-g samples, although relationships between community structure and distance of separation may occur at a smaller scale. Our findings demonstrate the care required when workers attempt to obtain a representative picture of microbial community structure in the soil environment.

Nicol, Graeme W.; Glover, L. Anne; Prosser, James I.

2003-01-01

249

Small-Scale DNA Sample Preparation Method for Field PCR Detection of Microbial Cells and Spores in Soil.  

PubMed

Efficient, nonselective methods to obtain DNA from the environment are needed for rapid and thorough analysis of introduced microorganisms in environmental samples and for analysis of microbial community diversity in soil. A small-scale procedure to rapidly extract and purify DNA from soils was developed for in-the-field use. Amounts of DNA released from bacterial vegetative cells, bacterial endospores, and fungal conidia were compared by using hot-detergent treatment, freeze-thaw cycles, and bead mill homogenization. Combining a hot-detergent treatment with bead mill homogenization gave the highest DNA yields from all three microbial cell types and provided DNA from the broadest range of microbial groups in a natural soil community. Only the bead mill homogenization step was effective for DNA extraction from Bacillus globigii (B. subtilis subsp. niger) endospores or Fusarium moniliforme conidia. The hot-detergent-bead mill procedure was simplified and miniaturized. By using this procedure and small-scale, field-adapted purification and quantification procedures, DNA was prepared from four different soils seeded with Pseudomonas putida cells or B. globigii spores. In a New Mexico soil, seeded bacterial targets were detected with the same sensitivity as when assaying pure bacterial DNA (2 to 20 target gene copies in a PCR mixture). The detection limit of P. putida cells and B. globigii spores in different soils was affected by the amount of background DNA in the soil samples, the physical condition of the DNA, and the amount of DNA template used in the PCR. PMID:9647816

Kuske; Banton; Adorada; Stark; Hill; Jackson

1998-07-01

250

Season and soil management affect soil microbial communities estimated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis in a continuous cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of soil management on seasonal changes in soil microbial communities were examined in a continuously cropped field of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Soil samples from each plot treated with cattle manure compost (CMC), grass compost (GRC) and chemical fertilizers (CHF) were taken at monthly intervals from April 2003 to March 2004.

Hiroyasu Tabuchi; Kotaro Kato; Ichio Nioh

2008-01-01

251

How much will afforestation of former cropland influence soil C stocks? A synthesis of paired sampling, chronosequence sampling and repeated sampling studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for documentation of land-use change effects on soil C is high on the agenda in most signatory countries to the Kyoto Protocol. Large land areas in Europe have experienced land-use change from cropland to forest since 1990 by direct afforestation as well as abandonment and regrowth of marginally productive cropland. Soil C dynamics following land-use change remain highly uncertain due to a limited number of available studies and due to influence of interacting factors such as land use history, soil type, and climate. Common approaches for estimation of potential soil C changes following land-use change are i) paired sampling of plots with a long legacy of different land uses, ii) chronosequence studies of land-use change, and lastly iii) repeated sampling of plots subject to changed land use. This paper will synthesize the quantitative effects of cropland afforestation on soil C sequestration based on all three approaches and will report on related work within Cost 639. Paired plots of forest and cropland were used to study the general differences between soil C stocks in the two land uses. At 27 sites in Denmark distributed among different regions and soil types forest floor and mineral soil were sampled in and around soil pits. Soil C stocks were higher in forest than cropland (mean difference 22 Mg C ha-1 to 1 m depth). This difference was caused solely by the presence of a forest floor in forests; mineral soil C stocks were similar (108 vs. 109 Mg C ha-1) in the two land uses regardless of soil type and the soil layers considered. The chronosequence approach was employed in the AFFOREST project for evaluation of C sequestration in biomass and soils following afforestation of cropland. Two oak (Quercus robur) and four Norway spruce (Picea abies) afforestation chronosequences (age range 1 to 90 years) were studied in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands. Forest floor and mineral soil (0-25 cm) C contents were as a minimum unchanged and in most cases there was net C sequestration (range 0-1.3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The allocation of sequestered soil C was quite different among chronosequences; forest floors consistently sequestered C (0.1-0.7 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) but there was no general pattern in mineral soil C sequestration. While the paired sampling and the chronosequence approaches both may be confounded by site factors other than the land use, repeated sampling of plots best addresses the pure land-use change effect. Repeated sampling after 18 years was done in a systematic 7x7 km grid to address soil C changes in 15 cropland plots that were converted to forest (7-22 years since afforestation). Consistent with the other two approaches, detectable soil C changes were confined to the forest floor component; forest floor C sequestration rates were 0.24 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 while no changes were detected for mineral soils. The three approaches to estimation of soil C sequestration indeed point to a common conclusion: The potential for soil C sequestration is mainly confined to the forest floor whereas notable C sequestration is less likely to occur in the mineral soil. However, more generalizable knowledge is badly needed for reporting of land-use change effects on mineral soil C pools. WG II of Cost 639 and the FP7 project GHG Europe is currently establishing a database of LUC studies. This database will be used to establish so-called Carbon Response Functions (CRF), i.e. simple models predicting the annual rate of change in soil C pools. These CRFs may serve as tools for syntheses of land-use change effects for Europe as well as for improved reporting of soil C dynamics following land-use change.

Vesterdal, Lars; Hansen, K.; Stupak, I.; Don, Axel; Poeplau, C.; Leifeld, Jens; van Wesemael, Bas

2010-05-01

252

An Efficient Sampling Technique for Observing Topographically-Dependent Spatial Variability in Catchment-Scale Soil Moisture Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catchment-scale variability in soil moisture plays an important role in many hydrologic applications. The magnitude of spatial variability in soil moisture patterns affects the catchment-scale evapotranspiration rate, while the spatial structure of soil moisture patterns affects runoff production. In many cases, spatial variations in soil moisture are associated with variations in topographic attributes such as drainage area, slope, and curvature. In the past, large soil moisture datasets have been collected on uniform grids at experimental catchments to characterize the spatial and temporal variability, but this approach is very time-consuming and expensive with most grids containing hundreds of locations monitored over several dates. Although many studies have focused on efficient strategies to observe the catchment-average soil moisture, few have advanced improved strategies to characterize the spatial variability. In this study, we propose a new stratified sampling technique that aims to reduce the number of observations that are required to observe the main variations in soil moisture. The method is applied to soil moisture patterns with topographically-induced variability, but it can be generalized to consider patterns with other sources of variation. In the method, topographic attributes that potentially introduce variability are preselected, and the observed range of values for each attribute is divided into sub-ranges or stratifications. Because multiple topographic attributes are considered, any given location in the catchment will fall into a joint stratification that corresponds to a particular combination of individual stratifications. The sampling locations are then randomly selected from the locations in each joint stratification. The method thus assures that all combinations of low and high terrain attribute values that exist in the catchment are represented in the dataset. The number of sampling locations can be controlled by changing the number of stratifications for each variable or the number of locations sampled in each joint stratification. The locations selected from the stratified sampling method can also be supplemented with random locations. The method is applied to three different catchments: Tarrawarra, Satellite Station, and Cache la Poudre. The observations are used to calibrate a conceptual model known as the Equilibrium Moisture from Topography (EMT) model and an empirical model based on empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The efficiency of the sampling method is evaluated by the models' ability to reproduce the soil moisture values at unobserved locations. The stratified method is also compared to a random sampling method. The results show that both the random and stratified sampling methods can characterize the soil moisture variation with many fewer locations than have been collected previously. In addition, the stratified sampling method exhibits much better performance than random sampling when relatively few observations are collected.

Werbylo, K. L.; Niemann, J. D.

2012-12-01

253

Geochemical soil sampling for deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thousands of solution-collapse breccia pipes crop out in the canyons and on the plateaus of northwestern Arizona; some host high-grade uranium deposits. The mineralized pipes are enriched in Ag, As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn. These breccia pipes formed as sedimentary strata collapsed into solution caverns within the underlying Mississippian Redwall Limestone. A typical pipe is approximately 100 m (300 ft) in diameter and extends upward from the Redwall Limestone as much as 1000 m (3000 ft). Unmineralized gypsum and limestone collapses rooted in the Lower Permian Kaibab Limestone or Toroweap Formation also occur throughout this area. Hence, development of geochemical tools that can distinguish these unmineralized collapse structures, as well as unmineralized breccia pipes, from mineralized breccia pipes could significantly reduce drilling costs for these orebodies commonly buried 300-360 m (1000-1200 ft) below the plateau surface. Design and interpretation of soil sampling surveys over breccia pipes are plagued with several complications. (1) The plateau-capping Kaibab Limestone and Moenkopi Formation are made up of diverse lithologies. Thus, because different breccia pipes are capped by different lithologies, each pipe needs to be treated as a separate geochemical survey with its own background samples. (2) Ascertaining true background is difficult because of uncertainties in locations of poorly-exposed collapse cones and ring fracture zones that surround the pipes. Soil geochemical surveys were completed on 50 collapse structures, three of which are known mineralized breccia pipes. Each collapse structure was treated as an independent geochemical survey. Geochemical data from each collapse feature were plotted on single-element geochemical maps and processed by multivariate factor analysis. To contrast the results between geochemical surveys (collapse structures), a means of quantifying the anomalousness of elements at each site was developed. This degree of anomalousness, named the "correlation value", was used to rank collapse features by their potential to overlie a deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipe. Soil geochemical results from the three mineralized breccia pipes (the only three of the 50 that had previously been drilled) show that: (1) Soils above the SBF pipe contain significant enrichment of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ga, K, La, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Sc, Th, U and Zn, and depletion in Ca, Mg and Sr, in contrast to soils outside the topographic and structural rim; (2) Soils over the inner treeless zone of the Canyon pipe show Mo and Pb enrichment anf As and Ga depletion, in contrast to soils from the surrounding forest; and (3) The soil survey of the Mohawk Canyon pipe was a failure because of the rocky terrane and lack of a B soil horizon, or because the pipe plunges. At least 11 of the 47 other collapse structures studied contain anomalous soil enrichments similar to the SBF uranium ore-bearing pipe, and thus have good potential as exploration targets for uranium. One of these 11, #1102, does contain surface mineralized rock. These surveys suggest that soil geochemical sampling is a useful tool for the recognition of many collapse structures with underlying ore-bearing breccia pipes. ?? 1994.

Wenrich, K. J.; Aumente-Modreski, R. M.

1994-01-01

254

Massilia namucuonensis sp. nov., isolated from a soil sample.  

PubMed

A Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped and non-spore-forming bacterium, designated strain 333-1-0411(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Namucuo, Tibet Autonomous Region, China and characterized in a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. The major fatty acid components of strain 333-1-0411(T) were summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)?7c and/or C(16 : 1)?6c) and C(16 : 0); its major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. Q-8 was the dominant ubiquinone, and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.7 mol%. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 333-1-0411(T) fell within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Massilia. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain 333-1-0411(T) and recognized species of the genus Massilia ranged from 95.4 % to 97.2 %, and the most closely related strains were Massilia flava Y9(T) (97.2 %) and Massilia albidiflava 45(T) (97.0 %). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain 333-1-0411(T) and M. flava Y9(T) and M. albidiflava 45(T) were 20.2 % and 27.2 %, respectively. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain 333-1-0411(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Massilia, for which the name Massilia namucuonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 333-1-0411(T) (= CGMCC 1.11014(T) = DSM 25159(T)). PMID:22447703

Kong, Bi He; Li, Yan Hong; Liu, Min; Liu, Yang; Li, Chun Li; Liu, Lei; Yang, Zhi Wei; Yu, Rong

2013-01-01

255

Multivariate analysis of soil heavy metal pollution and landscape pattern in Changhua county in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied factor analysis and landscape indices of 55 sampling sites in Changhua county in Taiwan to characterize the factor patterns of eight soil heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) and the interrelation patterns of these soil heavy metals, landscape and human activities. The landscape analysis results indicated that landscape indices can elucidate spatial

Yu-Pin Lin; Tung-Po Teng; Tsun-Kuo Chang

2002-01-01

256

Multi-element analysis of biopsy samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace element analysis of biopsy samples represents a difficult analytical problem because of: a) the small amount of material available for analysis and b) the lack of adequate reference materials for microanalytical investigations. In this report we have evaluated the capabilities of X-ray fluorescence in both standard and total reflection geometry, proton-induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis for multi-elemental analysis of biopsy samples.

Valkovic, V.; Bernasconi, G.; Haselberger, N.; Makarewicz, M.; Ogris, R.; Moschini, G.; Bogdanovic, I.; Jaksic, M.; Valkovic, O.

1993-04-01

257

Spatial variability of soil sampling for salinity studies in Southwest Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the technology for soil sampling of large agricultural fields which are inherently variable in both space and time. Three several hundred ha fields in southwest Iran initially sampled on an arbitrarily selected grid of 80 m to ascertain soil salinity levels were analyzed using both geostatistical and classical statistical methods. The results from two fields showed that

S. Hajrasuliha; N. Baniabbassi; J. Metthey; D. R. Nielsen

1980-01-01

258

FRESHWATER ASSAY USING SOIL ELUATES AS SAMPLE MATERIAL (SINGLE LABORATORY EVALUATION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Chlorophyta assay, which uses soil as sample material, has been a useful bioassessment technique for screening hazardous waste site problems. n eluate is prepared from a 125-gram soil sample and then diluted into three separate concentrations prior to being tested using Selen...

259

Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for the purpose o...

R. D. Schreiber

1995-01-01

260

Riverland ERA cleanup sampling and analysis plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the Riverland Expedited Response Action taking place at the Hanford Reservation. Characterization of potential waste sites within the Riverland ERA boundaries was conducted in October and November 1992. This sampling and analysis plan contains two parts: The field sampling plan (Part 1) and the quality assurance project plan (Part 2). The field sampling plan describes the activities

Heiden

1993-01-01

261

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter is a relatively brief overview and guide to the very complicated endeavor of sampling and analysis of hazardous waste and related products. Stack sampling and analysis of waste combustion products is emphasized partly due to the authors' backgrounds and partly due to ...

262

Erosion Modeling in Central China - Soil Data Acquisition by Conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling and Incorporation of Legacy Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Three Gorges Dam at the Yangtze River in Central China outlines a prominent example of human-induced environmental impacts. Throughout one year the water table at the main river fluctuates about 30m due to impoundment and drainage activities. The dynamic water table implicates a range of georisks such as soil erosion, mass movements, sediment transport and diffuse matter inputs into the reservoir. Within the framework of the joint Sino-German project YANGTZE GEO, the subproject "Soil Erosion" deals with soil erosion risks and sediment transport pathways into the reservoir. The study site is a small catchment (4.8 km²) in Badong, approximately 100 km upstream the dam. It is characterized by scattered plots of agricultural landuse and resettlements in a largely wooded, steep sloping and mountainous area. Our research is focused on data acquisition and processing to develop a process-oriented erosion model. Hereby, area-covering knowledge of specific soil properties in the catchment is an intrinsic input parameter. This will be acquired by means of digital soil mapping (DSM). Thereby, soil properties are estimated by covariates. The functions are calibrated by soil property samples. The DSM approach is based on an appropriate sample design, which reflects the heterogeneity of the catchment, regarding the covariates with influence on the relevant soil properties. In this approach the covariates, processed by a digital terrain analysis, are outlined by the slope, altitude, profile curvature, plane curvature, and the aspect. For the development of the sample design, we chose the Conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) procedure (Minasny and McBratney, 2006). It provides an efficient method of sampling variables from their multivariate distribution. Thereby, a sample size n from multiple variables is drawn such that for each variable the sample is marginally maximally stratified. The method ensures the maximal stratification by two features: First, number of strata equals the sample size n and secondly, the probability of falling in each of the strata is n-¹ (McKay et al., 1979). We extended the classical cLHS with extremes (Schmidt et al., 2012) approach by incorporating legacy data of previous field campaigns. Instead of identifying precise sample locations by CLHS, we demarcate the multivariate attribute space of the samples based on the histogram borders of each stratum. This widens the spatial scope of the actual CLHS sample locations and allows the incorporation of legacy data lying within that scope. Furthermore, this approach provides an extended potential regarding the accessibility of sample sites in the field.

Stumpf, Felix; Schönbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

2013-04-01

263

Differential thermal analysis of lunar soil simulant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential thermal analysis of a lunar soil simulant, 'Minnesota Lunar Simulant-1' (MLS-1) was performed. The MLS-1 was tested in as-received form (in glass form) and with another silica. The silica addition was seen to depress nucleation events which lead to a better glass former.

Tucker, D.; Setzer, A.

1991-01-01

264

Soil Property Mapping Over Large Areas Using Sparse Ad-hoc Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on spatial variation of soil properties over large areas is a critical input for environmental modeling at the regional to continental scales. Yet, quality information on soil spatial variation over large areas is rather difficult to obtain due to the large number of field samples needed and the required global representation on field samples by existing mapping techniques. Due to the constraints of field conditions and project budget and the complexity of spatial variation of soil properties the collected samples are often sparse and ad-hoc (poor global representation) in nature. As a result field sampling can rarely meet these requirements (both the number of samples and the sound global representation). The soil property maps derived based on these samples using existing mapping techniques are not only at low quality but also lack the information on the uncertainty introduced by samples’ poor global representation. The lack of uncertainty information in the derived soil property maps also prevents proper uncertainty assessment of model outputs when the derived soil information is used as the input to environmental models. This paper presents a new approach to map soil properties and quantify uncertainty in the derived soil property maps over large areas using sparse and ad-hoc samples. The underlying assumption of this new approach is the soil-landscape concept which stipulates that the more similar the environment conditions between two locations the more similar the soil property values are between the two sites. Under this assumption each sample can be considered as a representative over areas of similar environmental conditions. The level of representation by an individual sample to an unsampled location can be approximated by the similarity between their respective environmental conditions. Based on this “individual representation” concept and with a Case-based Reasoning (CBR) approach soil property values at unsampled locations can be predicted based on their environmental similarity to individual samples. Furthermore, the uncertainty associated with each prediction is related to the similarity and can thus be quantified. A case study over the Illy Region, a 50,000 km2 area in Xinjiang, Northwest China, has demonstrated that the predicted spatial variation of soil organic matter of top layer is of good quality and the quantified uncertainty is positively correlated with prediction residuals. This suggests that the approach can be an effective alternative for mapping soil property and quantifying uncertainty over large areas with sparse and ad-hoc samples.

Zhu, A.; Liu, J.; Qin, C.; Zhang, S.; Chen, Y.; Ma, X.; Solim Group

2010-12-01

265

Oxidation of atmospheric methane in soil: Measurements in the field, in soil cores and in soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane fluxes and vertical profiles of CH4 mixing ratios were measured in different German soils both in situ and in soil cores. Atmospheric CH4 was oxidized in the soil by microorganisms resulting in an average CH4 flux of -1.39+\\/-1.5 mumol-CH4 m-2 h-1. Methane deposition showed only a weak positive correlation (r2=0.38) with soil temperature but a relatively strong negative correlation

Matthias Koschorreck; Ralf Conrad

1993-01-01

266

Assessment of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in soil samples near an electric capacitor manufacturing industry in Morelos, Mexico.  

PubMed

In Mexico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were principally used as heat transfer chemicals in electric transformers and capacitors as well as hydraulic fluids and lubricants in heavy electrical equipment since the early 1940s. However, although PCBs have been banned in Mexico, their past and present improper disposal has resulted in environmental contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the PCBs levels in soil samples in the immediate area of an electric capacitor manufacturing industry, which was established several years ago in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. To confirm the presence of PCBs, surface soil samples (1-5 cm in depth) were collected from the vicinity of the industry. We determined the concentrations of 40 PCB congeners in soil samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total PCBs levels in the soil samples ranged from 6.2 to 108460.6 ?g kg(-1). Moreover, when we analyzed the results of the congeners (non-dioxin-like PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs), the levels of non-dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 5.7 to 103469 ?g kg(-1) and the levels of dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 0.5 to 4992 ?g kg(-1). Considering that soil is an important pathway of exposure in humans, analysis of PCBs levels in blood (as a biomarker of exposure) is necessary in individuals living in Alpuyeca, Morelos. PMID:24967557

Perez-Maldonado, Ivan N; Salazar, Rogelio Costilla; Ilizaliturri-Hernandez, Cesar A; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco J; Fernandez-Macias, Juan C

2014-09-19

267

Environmental Immunoassays: Alternative Techniques for Soil and Water Analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of soil and water samples for environmental studies and compliance testing can be formidable, time consuming, and costly. As a consequence, immunochemical techniques have become popular for environmental analysis because they are reliable, rapid, and cost effective. During the past 5 years, the use of immunoassays for environmental monitoring has increased substantially, and their use as an integral analytical tool in many environmental laboratories is now commonplace. This chapter will present the basic concept of immunoassays, recent advances in the development of immunochemical methods, and examples of successful applications of immunoassays in environmental analysis.

Aga, D. S.; Thurman, E. M.

1996-01-01

268

The Austrian soil sampling procedure tested in a field study (CEEM-project).  

PubMed

The Austrian soil sampling procedure requires sampling from representative, uniform areas. For chemical analyses a composite sampling procedure is proposed in which 15-25 single samples should be distributed evenly over the area. Sampling depth for top soils varies between 5 and 30 cm depending on land use. In a field experiment, the suitability and reliability of this sampling method for the determination of trace elements in soil was tested. A high degree of accordance with the results of the extensive and systematic CEEM-Reference Sampling Method was found; therefore the Austrian sampling procedure is recognized as a simple but valid method which can be also proposed as a basis for corresponding ISO- or CEN-Standards. PMID:11213181

Aichberger, K; Bäck, J

2001-01-01

269

Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples, held in Milpitas, California, January 16-18, 1989. Conveners are Sherwood Chang (NASA Ames Rese...

S. Chang

1997-01-01

270

Accumulated Waste Sampling and Analysis Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Accumulated Waste Sampling and Analysis Management Plan (AWSAMP) has been prepared in response to the AWP and the Accumulated Waste Characterization Work Plan (SAIC 1992). The scope of the AWSAMP includes: A review and compilation of existing waste c...

1992-01-01

271

A Sensor for the Measurement of the Moisture of Undisturbed Soil Samples  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a very accurate sensor for the measurement of the moisture of undisturbed soil samples. The sensor relies on accurate estimation of the permittivity which is performed independently of the soil type, and a subsequent calibration. The sensor is designed as an upgrade of the conventional soil sampling equipment used in agriculture—the Kopecky cylinder. The detailed description of the device is given, and the method for determining soil moisture is explained in detail. Soil moisture of unknown test samples was measured with an absolute error below 0.0057 g/g, which is only 2.24% of the full scale output, illustrating the high accuracy of the sensor.

Kitic, Goran; Crnojevic-Bengin, Vesna

2013-01-01

272

Soil Property Mapping Over Large Areas Using Sparse Ad-hoc Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on spatial variation of soil properties over large areas is a critical input for environmental modeling at large scales. Yet, quality information on soil spatial variation over large areas is difficult to obtain due to the large number of field samples required. Existing samples are often sparse and ad-hoc. The soil property maps created from these samples using existing techniques are not only at low quality but also lack the uncertainty information. This paper presents a new approach to map soil properties and quantify uncertainty in the derived soil property maps over large areas using sparse and ad-hoc samples. The underlying assumption of this new approach is the soil-landscape concept which stipulates that the more similar the environment conditions between two locations the more similar the soil property values are between the two sites. Under this assumption each sample can be considered as a representative over areas of similar environmental conditions. The level of representation of an individual sample for an unsampled location can be approximated by the similarity between their respective environment conditions. Based on this "individual representation" concept and with a Case-based Reasoning (CBR) approach soil property values at unsampled locations can be predicted and the uncertainty associated with each prediction can also be quantified based on their environmental similarity to individual samples. A case study over the Illy Region, a 50,000 km2 area in Xinjiang, Northwest China, has demonstrated that the approach can be an effective alternative for mapping soil property and quantifying uncertainty over large areas with sparse and ad-hoc samples.

Zhu, A.; Liu, J.

2011-12-01

273

Spectrum properties analysis of different soil moisture content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil moisture content is one of the most important factors in soil business. The basic of detecting soil moisture content using remote sensing technology is to analyze the relationship between soil moisture content and emissivity. In this paper, based on the analysis of spectrum collection and processing by a portable spectrometer, a set of measure schemes were first established which

Shenghui Fang; Bo Hu; Fan Lin

2009-01-01

274

N Basin task: Sampling and analysis plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this plan is to define the strategy and the methods that will be used to sample and analyze the radioactive residual materials in the 105N Basin Areas shown in Figure 1 and in the 107N Baisn Recirculation Facility locations shown in Figure 2. This plan includes: the objective and goals of this sampling and analysis activity; the

Lamm

1990-01-01

275

Letter Report for Analytical Results for Two Soil Samples Associated with the Westinghouse Hematite Decommisioning Project in Hematite Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, received two soil samples on September 26, 2013 from the Westinghouse Hetnatite Decomminsioning project in Hematite, Missouri. The samples were analyzed for thorium-232, radium-226, uranium-235, and uranium-238 by gamma spectrometry and technetium-99 by liquid scintillation analysis. The samples were received in good condition. The sample collection data and identification numbers are tabulated. Also presented are the gamma spectrometry and technetium-99 data, respectively. The pertinent procedure references are included with the data tables.

Ivey, Wade

2013-10-30

276

Sampling Device to Extract Intact Cores in Saturated Organic Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

cap was used to seal the top of the sampler. A 1.3-cm-diam. galvanized The objective of this study was to develop a sampler pipe was inserted next to the sampler to add water to the bottom of that could be used in saturated organic soils to collect the core, relieving the suction created as the core was pulled from the

P. V. Caldwell; A. A. Adams; C. P. Niewoehner; M. J. Vepraskas; J. D. Gregory

2005-01-01

277

EPA COMPARES THREE SOIL-GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS FOR VAPOR INTRUSION INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This newsletter article summarizes the finding of "U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Comparison of Geoprobe PRT, AMS GVP Soil-Gas Sampling Systems with Dedicated Vapor Probes in Sandy Soils at the Raymark Superfund Site, EPA/600/R-06/11, November 2006. " ...

278

Decision support tool for soil sampling of heterogeneous pesticide (chlordecone) pollution.  

PubMed

When field pollution is heterogeneous due to localized pesticide application, as is the case of chlordecone (CLD), the mean level of pollution is difficult to assess. Our objective was to design a decision support tool to optimize soil sampling. We analyzed the CLD heterogeneity of soil content at 0-30- and 30-60-cm depth. This was done within and between nine plots (0.4 to 1.8 ha) on andosol and ferralsol. We determined that 20 pooled subsamples per plot were a satisfactory compromise with respect to both cost and accuracy. Globally, CLD content was greater for andosols and the upper soil horizon (0-30 cm). Soil organic carbon cannot account for CLD intra-field variability. Cropping systems and tillage practices influence the CLD content and distribution; that is CLD pollution was higher under intensive banana cropping systems and, while upper soil horizon was more polluted than the lower one with shallow tillage (<40 cm), deeper tillage led to a homogenization and a dilution of the pollution in the soil profile. The decision tool we proposed compiles and organizes these results to better assess CLD soil pollution in terms of sampling depth, distance, and unit at field scale. It accounts for sampling objectives, farming practices (cropping system, tillage), type of soil, and topographical characteristics (slope) to design a relevant sampling plan. This decision support tool is also adaptable to other types of heterogeneous agricultural pollution at field level. PMID:24014224

Clostre, Florence; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Achard, Raphaël; Letourmy, Philippe; Cabidoche, Yves-Marie; Cattan, Philippe

2014-02-01

279

Studying soil properties using visible and near infrared spectral analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is carried out inside the DIGISOIL Project, whose purposes are the integration and improvement of in situ and proximal measurement technologies, for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going form the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in digital soil mapping. The study area is located in the Virginio river basin, about 30 km south of Firenze, in the Chianti area, where soils with agricultural suitability have a high economic value connected to the production of internationally famous wines and olive oils. The most common soil threats, such as erosion and landslide, may determine huge economic losses, which must be considered in farming management practices. This basin has a length of about 23 km for a basin area of around 60,3 Km2. Geological formations outcropping in the area are Pliocene to Pleistocene marine and lacustrine sediments in beds with almost horizontal bedding. Vineyards, olive groves and annual crops are the main types of land use. A typical Mediterranean climate prevails with a dry summer followed by intense and sometimes prolonged rainfall in autumn, decreasing in winter. In this study, three types of VNIR and SWIR techniques, operating at different scales and in different environments (laboratory spectroscopy, portable field spectroscopy) are integrated to rapidly quantify various soil characteristics, in order to acquire data for assessing the risk of occurrence for typically agricultural practice-related soil threats (swelling, compaction, erosion, landslides, organic matter decline, ect.) and to collect ground data in order to build up a spectral library to be used in image analysis from air-borne and satellite sensors. Difficulties encountered in imaging spectroscopy, such as influence of measurements conditions, atmospheric attenuation, scene dependency and sampling representation are investigated and mathematical pre-treatments, using proper algorithms, are applied and tested. Data on detection limits of ground-based, airborne and satellite sensors are also provided. The problem of the influence of soil moisture and soil roughness on reflectance is also examined. Spectral indexes, derived from absorption features, are related to laboratory results on clay minerals, carbonate and iron content, soil moisture and organic matter amount, in order to investigate the potential of hyperspectral sensors to estimate soil properties, using empirical prediction models.

Moretti, S.; Garfagnoli, F.; Innocenti, L.; Chiarantini, L.

2009-04-01

280

Groundwater head sampling based on stochastic analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of determining a uniform sampling time interval for monitoring serially correlated groundwater heads is the main subject discussed here. The problem is approached by stochastic time series analysis and modeling. An autoregressive integrated moving average model is assumed to fit the underlying series. Given that groundwater head data can be sampled at different time intervals and that the same stochastic model must represent the time series regardless of the sampling timescale, the parameters of the underlying model for the series sampled at a given arbitrary time interval h are obtained as a function of h and as a function of the model parameters for the series sampled at a unit time interval. This is accomplished by linking the derived variances and autocovariances at the two sampling scales. The derived equations and the sampling design procedure are tested and illustrated using the groundwater head data of Collier County, Florida.

Ahn, Hosung; Salas, Jose D.

1997-12-01

281

Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This database was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical data from central Colorado in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessment, and medical geology. The Microsoft Access database serves as a geochemical data warehouse in support of the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 70 analytical laboratory and field methods for 47,478 rock, sediment, soil, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of the USGS or by contract with commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects. In addition, geochemical data from 7,470 sediment and soil samples collected and analyzed under the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (henceforth called NURE) have been included in this database. In addition to data from 2,377 samples collected and analyzed under CCAP, this dataset includes archived geochemical data originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database (used by the USGS from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s) and the in-house PLUTO database (used by the USGS from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s). All of these data are maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB and from the NURE database were used to generate most of this dataset. In addition, USGS data that have been excluded previously from the NGDB because the data predate earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons, have been included in the CCAP Geochemical Database and are planned to be added to the NGDB.

Granitto, Matthew; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

2010-01-01

282

Temporal changes of soil physic-chemical properties at different soil depths during larch afforestation by multivariate analysis of covariance  

PubMed Central

Soil physic-chemical properties differ at different depths; however, differences in afforestation-induced temporal changes at different soil depths are seldom reported. By examining 19 parameters, the temporal changes and their interactions with soil depth in a large chronosequence dataset (159 plots; 636 profiles; 2544 samples) of larch plantations were checked by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). No linear temporal changes were found in 9 parameters (N, K, N:P, available forms of N, P, K and ratios of N: available N, P: available P and K: available K), while marked linear changes were found in the rest 10 parameters. Four of them showed divergent temporal changes between surface and deep soils. At surface soils, changing rates were 262.1 g·kg?1·year?1 for SOM, 438.9 mg·g?1·year?1 for C:P, 5.3 mg·g?1·year?1 for C:K, and ?3.23 mg·cm?3·year?1 for bulk density, while contrary tendencies were found in deeper soils. These divergences resulted in much moderated or no changes in the overall 80-cm soil profile. The other six parameters showed significant temporal changes for overall 0–80-cm soil profile (P: ?4.10 mg·kg?1·year?1; pH: ?0.0061 unit·year?1; C:N: 167.1 mg·g?1·year?1; K:P: 371.5 mg·g?1 year?1; N:K: ?0.242 mg·g?1·year?1; EC: 0.169 ?S·cm?1·year?1), but without significant differences at different soil depths (P > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of deep soils in studying physic-chemical changes of soil properties, and the temporal changes occurred in both surface and deep soils should be fully considered for forest management and soil nutrient balance.

Wang, Hui-Mei; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Zijun; Zu, Yuan-Gang

2014-01-01

283

Alternative soil particle-size analysis by gamma-ray attenuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992 a new method of soil particle-size analysis was introduced, which coupled sedimentation to gamma-ray attenuation. The theoretical possibility of an alternative for this method is here presented, which includes the necessity of sieving soil samples, but simplifies the gamma-ray measurements. Advantages and disadvantages of this alternative are discussed.

E. A. Elias; O. O. S. Bacchi; K. Reichardt

1999-01-01

284

Determination of some trace elements in food and soil samples by atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitation with holmium hydroxide.  

PubMed

The determination of trace elements in food and soil samples by atomic absorption spectrometry was investigated. A coprecipitation procedure with holmium hydroxide was used for separation-preconcentration of trace elements. Trace amounts of copper(II), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(ll), chromium(lll), iron(Ill), cadmium(ll), and lead(ll) ions were coprecipitated with holmium hydroxide in 2.0 M NaOH medium. The optimum conditions for the coprecipitation process were investigated for several commonly tested experimental parameters, such as amount of coprecipitant, effect of standing time, centrifugation rate and time, and sample volume. The precision, based on replicate analysis, was lower than 10% for the analytes. In order to verify the accuracy of the method, the certified reference materials BCR 141 R calcareous loam soil and CRM 025-050 soil were analyzed. The procedure was successfully applied for separation and preconcentration of the investigated ions in various food and soil samples. An amount of the solid samples was decomposed with 15 mL concentrated hydrochloric acid-concentrated nitric acid (3 + 1). The preconcentration procedure was then applied to the final solutions. The concentration of trace elements in samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. PMID:22816279

Saracoglu, Sibel; Soylak, Mustafa; Cabuk, Dilek; Topalak, Zeynep; Karagozlu, Yasemin

2012-01-01

285

Selenium speciation in acidic environmental samples: application to acid rain-soil interaction at Mount Etna volcano.  

PubMed

Speciation plays a crucial role in elemental mobility. However, trace level selenium (Se) speciation analyses in aqueous samples from acidic environments are hampered due to adsorption of the analytes (i.e. selenate, selenite) on precipitates. Such solid phases can form during pH adaptation up till now necessary for chromatographic separation. Thermodynamic calculations in this study predicted that a pH<4 is needed to prevent precipitation of Al and Fe phases. Therefore, a speciation method with a low pH eluent that matches the natural sample pH of acid rain-soil interaction samples from Etna volcano was developed. With a mobile phase containing 20mM ammonium citrate at pH 3, selenate and selenite could be separated in different acidic media (spiked water, rain, soil leachates) in <10 min with a LOQ of 0.2 ?g L(-1) using (78)Se for detection. Applying this speciation analysis to study acid rain-soil interaction using synthetic rain based on H(2)SO(4) and soil samples collected at the flanks of Etna volcano demonstrated the dominance of selenate over selenite in leachates from samples collected close to the volcanic craters. This suggests that competitive behavior with sulfate present in acid rain might be a key factor in Se mobilization. The developed speciation method can significantly contribute to understand Se cycling in acidic, Al/Fe rich environments. PMID:21621241

Floor, Geerke H; Iglesías, Mònica; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Corvini, Philippe F X; Lenz, Markus

2011-09-01

286

Analysis procedure for americium in environmental samples  

SciTech Connect

Several methods for the analysis of /sup 241/Am in environmental samples were evaluated and a preferred method was selected. This method was modified and used to determine the /sup 241/Am content in sediments, biota, and water. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The method is also suitable for /sup 244/Cm analysis.

Holloway, R.W.; Hayes, D.W.

1982-01-01

287

MICROBIOLOGICAL FIELD SAMPLING AND INSTRUMENTATION IN THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AND GROUND-WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter emphasizes the importance of microbiological sampling of soil and ground water with respect to human heath risks, laws and regulations dealing with safe drinking water, and more prevalent subsurface monitoring activities associated with chlorinated organic compounds,...

288

High priority tank sampling and analysis report  

SciTech Connect

In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Board issued Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) which noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In response, the US Department of Energy, in May 1996, issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan`s objectives, concentrating on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks for near term core sampling and analysis, which along with sampling and analysis of other non-High Priority tanks, could provide the scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and.measure safety related phenomenology of the waste. When the analysis results of the High Priority and other-tank sampling were reviewed, it was expected that a series of 12 questions, 9 related to safety issues and 3 related to planning for the disposal process, should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. This report discusses the execution of the Implementation Plan and the results achieved in addressing the questions. Through sampling and analysis, all nine safety related questions have been answered and extensive data for the three disposal planning related questions have been collected, allowing for key decision making. Many more tanks than the original 28 High Priority tanks identified in the Implementation Plan were sampled and analyzed. Twenty-one High Priority tanks and 85 other tanks were core sampled and used to address the questions. Thirty-eight additional tanks were auger or grab sampled and used. A total of condensed phase samples from 144 tanks were used. Vapor samples for 82 of the tanks were used to address questions needing vapor analysis results. Additional High Priority and other tanks used to address specific questions provided comparable information to that expected from the original plan. Simultaneously, a robust systems integrated approach for establishing near term sampling requirements has been established as part of the Tank Waste Remediation System`s culture. No further sampling and analysis will be conducted for the sole purpose of addressing the 12 questions in the Implementation Plan. Characterization sampling and analysis will continue in support of other requirements and decision making as identified through application of the systems integrated approach.

Brown, T.M.

1998-03-24

289

MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

290

APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE FOR SAMPLING SOIL PROFILES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A conventional soil-solution sampler was modified to prevent loss of volatiles, which tend to escape from the liquid sample during sample collection. The sampler is connected to a purging chamber, which is in turn connected to a trap packed with Tenax resin. The sample is collect...

291

EVALUATION OF VAPOR EQUILIBRATION AND IMPACT OF PURGE VOLUME ON SOIL-GAS SAMPLING RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sequential sampling was utilized at the Raymark Superfund site to evaluate attainment of vapor equilibration and the impact of purge volume on soil-gas sample results. A simple mass-balance equation indicates that removal of three to five internal volumes of a sample system shou...

292

A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils is described. Samples can be obtained within a stratigraphic interval of 2-3 cm, to a depth of 60-80 cm, and with little or no contamination of the samples by sediment or air. ?? 1974.

Nowlan, G. A.; Carollo, C.

1974-01-01

293

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and plant samples from the vicinity of an oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples, and samples of leaves of Plantago major (great plantain) and grass (mixed species) were collected from the vicinity of an oil refinery in Zelzate, Belgium, and analysed for seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The samples from the site adjacent to the refinery (site 1) contained very high total PAH-concentrations: namely 300, 8 and 2 ?g\\/g dry wt. for

Martine I. Bakker; Berta Casado; Judith W. Koerselman; Johannes Tolls; Chris Kollöffel

2000-01-01

294

Ultrasonic dispersion of soils for routine particle size analysis: recommended procedures  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic techniques were found to be more effective than standard mechanical techniques to disperse soils for routine particle-size analysis (i.e., using a dispersing agent and mechanical mixing). Soil samples were tested using an ultrasonic homogenizer at various power outputs. The samples varied widely in texture and mineralogy, and included sands, silts, clays, volcanic soils, and soils high in organic matter. A combination of chemical and ultrasonic dispersion techniques were used in all tests. Hydrometer techniques were used for particle-size analysis. For most materials tested, clay percentage values indicated that ultrasonic dispersion was more complete than mechanical dispersion. Soils high in volcanic ash or iron oxides showed 10 to 20 wt % more clay when using ultrasonic mixing rather than mechanical mixing. The recommended procedure requires ultrasonic dispersion of a 20- to 40-g sample for 15 min at 300 W with a 1.9-cm-diameter ultrasonic homogenizer. 12 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Heller, P.R.; Hayden, R.E.; Gee, G.W.

1984-11-01

295

Comparison of soil solution chemistry sampled by centrifugation, two types of suction lysimeters and zero-tension lysimeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of sampling method for soil solution is of great importance. In this paper soil solution chemistry sampled by centrifugation, two types of suction lysimeters and zero-tension lysimeters have been studied with the purpose of investigating systematic differences between them. The samples were taken at 4 depths from an acidified forest soil as well as from adjacent lime and

Christine E. Geibe; Rolf Danielsson; Patrick A. W. van Hees; Ulla S. Lundström

2006-01-01

296

76 FR 11334 - Safety Zone; Soil Sampling; Chicago River, Chicago, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the North Branch of the Chicago River near Chicago, Illinois. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the North Branch of the Chicago River due to soil sampling in this area. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the soil sampling...

2011-03-02

297

Residues of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in soil and water samples from Delhi and adjoining areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-five soil samples of surface (0-15 cm) and sub- surface (15-30 cm) soils from agricultural sites of Delhi, Haryana, Haridwar, Uttar Pradesh (UP) and around the hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) manufacturing plant of IPL (Indian Pesticide Limited) and nine samples of different commercial brands of drinking water from markets in Delhi were analysed for the presence of residues of HCH isomers. Thirty-nine

Om Prakash; Mrutyunjay Suar; Vishakha Raina; Charu Dogra; Rinku Pal; Rup Lal

298

Determination of thorium and uranium contents in soil samples using SSNTD’s passive method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thorium-to-uranium ratios have been determined in different soil samples using CR-39 and LR-115-II solid-state nuclear track\\u000a detectors (SSNTDs). A calibration method based on determination of SSNTD registration sensitivity ratio for ?-particles of\\u000a thorium and uranium series has been developed. Thorium and uranium contents of the standard soil samples have been determined\\u000a and compared with its known values. There is a

T A Salama; U. Seddik; T M Dsoky; A. Ahmed Morsy; R. El-Asser

2006-01-01

299

Rate distortion performance analysis of nested sampling and coprime sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, rate distortion performance of nested sampling and coprime sampling is studied. It is shown that with the increasing of distortion, the data rate decreases. With these two sparse sampling algorithms, the data rate is proved to be much less than that without sparse sampling. With the increasing of sampling spacings, the data rate decreases at certain distortion, which is because with more sparse sampling, less number of bits is required to represent the information. We also prove that with the same sampling pairs, the rate of nested sampling is less than that of coprime sampling at the same distortion. The reason is that nested sampling collects a little less number of samples than coprime sampling with the same length of data, which is a little sparser than coprime sampling.

Chen, Junjie; Liang, Qilian

2014-12-01

300

Compendium of ERT soil-sampling and surface geophysics procedures. Directive  

SciTech Connect

The compendium of soil sampling and surface geophysics procedures describes methods used for preventing or reducing cross-contamination, and provides general guidelines for sampling equipment decontamination procedures at hazardous waste site. Preventing or minimizing cross-contamination in sampled media and in samples is important for preventing the introduction of error into sampling results and for protecting the health and safety of site personnel.

Not Available

1991-01-01

301

MULTISENSOR ISFET SYSTEM FOR SOIL ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs) and flow injection analysis (FIA) was investigated for use as a system for real-time soil nitrate sensing. Conventional ion- selective electrodes were used to evaluate 8 different membranes (ligand\\/plasticizer combinations) with respect to their sensitivity to nitrate, lower detection limits, and selectivity against interferences from other ions. A complete ISFET\\/FIA system was designed

S. J. BIRRELL; J. W. HUMMEL

302

Effects of Soil Sample Grinding Intensity on Carbon Determination by High?Temperature Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, many studies related to carbon (C) sequestration by soils have been reported. However, little information has been reported related to the need for and effects of grinding soils on C analysis by high?temperature combustion. We studied the effects of grinding five glacially derived soils of varying textural composition and organic matter content to 2?mm, 1?mm, 0.5?mm, 0.25?mm, and 0.15?mm

L. J. Cihacek; K. A. Jacobson

2007-01-01

303

Integrating legacy soil information in a Digital Soil Mapping approach based on a modified conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One crucial component of a Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) framework is outlined by geo-referenced soil observations. Nevertheless, highly informative legacy soil information, acquired by traditional soil surveys, is often neglected due to lacking accordance with specific statistical DSM designs. The focus of this study is to integrate legacy data into a state-of-the-art DSM approach, based on a modified conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) design and Random Forest. Furthermore, by means of the cLHS modification the scope of actually unique cLHS sampling locations is widened in order to compensate limited accessability in the field. As well, the maximally stratified cLHS design is not diluted by the modification. Exemplarily the target variables of the modelling are represented by sand and clay fractions. The study site is a small mountainous hydrological catchment of 4.2 km² in the reservoir of the Three Gorges Dam in Central China. The modification is accomplished by demarcating the histogram borders of each cLHS stratum, which are based on the multivariate cLHS feature space. Thereby, all potential sample locations per stratum are identified. This provides a possibility to integrate legacy data samples that match one of the newly created sample locations, and flexibility with respect to field accessibility. Consequently, six legacy data samples, taken from a total sample size of n = 30 were integrated into the sampling design and for all strata several potential sample locations are identified. The comparability of the modified and standard cLHS data sets is approved by (i) identifying their feature space coverage with respect to the cLHS stratifying variables, and (ii) by assessing the Random Forest accuracy estimates.

Stumpf, Felix; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Schoenbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Scholten, Thomas

2014-05-01

304

ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS - GETTING IT RIGHT  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State was established in the 1940s as part of the Manhattan Project. Hanford's role was to produce weapons-grade nuclear material for defense, and by 1989, when the Site's mission changed from operations to cleanup, Hanford had produced more than 60 percent of the nation's plutonium. The legacy of Hanford's production years is enormous in terms of nuclear and hazardous waste, especially the 270 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater and the 5 million cubic yards of contaminated soil. Managing the contaminated soil and groundwater are particularly important because the Columbia River, the lifeblood of the northwest and the nation's eighth largest river, bounds the Site. Fluor Hanford's Soil & Groundwater Remediation Project (S&GRP) integrates all of the activities that deal with remediating and monitoring the groundwater across the Site. The S&GRP uses a detailed series of steps to record, track, and verify information. The Sample and Data Management (SDM) Process consists of 10 integrated steps that start with the data quality objectives process that establishes the mechanism for collecting the right information with the right people. The process ends with data quality assessment, which is used to ensure that all quantitative data (e.g., field screening, fixed laboratory) are the right type, and of adequate quality to support the decision-making process. Steps 3 through 10 of the process are production steps and are integrated electronically. The detailed plans, procedures, and systems used day-to-day by the SDM process require a high degree of accuracy and reliability. Tools must be incorporated into the processes that minimize errors. This paper discusses all of the elements of the SDM process in detail.

CONNELL CW

2008-01-22

305

Sampling hazelnuts for aflatoxin: uncertainty associated with sampling, sample preparation, and analysis.  

PubMed

The variability associated with the aflatoxin test procedure used to estimate aflatoxin levels in bulk shipments of hazelnuts was investigated. Sixteen 10 kg samples of shelled hazelnuts were taken from each of 20 lots that were suspected of aflatoxin contamination. The total variance associated with testing shelled hazelnuts was estimated and partitioned into sampling, sample preparation, and analytical variance components. Each variance component increased as aflatoxin concentration (either B1 or total) increased. With the use of regression analysis, mathematical expressions were developed to model the relationship between aflatoxin concentration and the total, sampling, sample preparation, and analytical variances. The expressions for these relationships were used to estimate the variance for any sample size, subsample size, and number of analyses for a specific aflatoxin concentration. The sampling, sample preparation, and analytical variances associated with estimating aflatoxin in a hazelnut lot at a total aflatoxin level of 10 ng/g and using a 10 kg sample, a 50 g subsample, dry comminution with a Robot Coupe mill, and a high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical method are 174.40, 0.74, and 0.27, respectively. The sampling, sample preparation, and analytical steps of the aflatoxin test procedure accounted for 99.4, 0.4, and 0.2% of the total variability, respectively. PMID:16915837

Ozay, Guner; Seyhan, Ferda; Yilmaz, Aysun; Whitaker, Thomas B; Slate, Andrew B; Giesbrecht, Francis

2006-01-01

306

Migration of explosives in soil: analysis of rdx, tnt, and tetryl from a 14c lysimeter study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the chemical analysis results of 121 water and 24 soil samples from a C lysimeter study of TNT, RDX, and tetryl performed at Battelle Columbus Laboratories. Lysimeters were constructed at Battelle by pressing steel pipes into various soils. The lysimeters were withdrawn to preserve the soil columns intact. C ring-labeled munition compounds were than mixed into the

E. G. Kayser; N. E. Burlinson

1988-01-01

307

Organic vs. Conventional Grassland Management: Do 15N and 13C Isotopic Signatures of Hay and Soil Samples Differ?  

PubMed Central

Distinguishing organic and conventional products is a major issue of food security and authenticity. Previous studies successfully used stable isotopes to separate organic and conventional products, but up to now, this approach was not tested for organic grassland hay and soil. Moreover, isotopic abundances could be a powerful tool to elucidate differences in ecosystem functioning and driving mechanisms of element cycling in organic and conventional management systems. Here, we studied the ?15N and ?13C isotopic composition of soil and hay samples of 21 organic and 34 conventional grasslands in two German regions. We also used ??15N (?15N plant - ?15N soil) to characterize nitrogen dynamics. In order to detect temporal trends, isotopic abundances in organic grasslands were related to the time since certification. Furthermore, discriminant analysis was used to test whether the respective management type can be deduced from observed isotopic abundances. Isotopic analyses revealed no significant differences in ?13C in hay and ?15N in both soil and hay between management types, but showed that ?13C abundances were significantly lower in soil of organic compared to conventional grasslands. ??15N values implied that management types did not substantially differ in nitrogen cycling. Only ?13C in soil and hay showed significant negative relationships with the time since certification. Thus, our result suggest that organic grasslands suffered less from drought stress compared to conventional grasslands most likely due to a benefit of higher plant species richness, as previously shown by manipulative biodiversity experiments. Finally, it was possible to correctly classify about two third of the samples according to their management using isotopic abundances in soil and hay. However, as more than half of the organic samples were incorrectly classified, we infer that more research is needed to improve this approach before it can be efficiently used in practice.

Klaus, Valentin H.; Holzel, Norbert; Prati, Daniel; Schmitt, Barbara; Schoning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Fischer, Markus; Kleinebecker, Till

2013-01-01

308

Joint analysis of multiple metagenomic samples.  

PubMed

The availability of metagenomic sequencing data, generated by sequencing DNA pooled from multiple microbes living jointly, has increased sharply in the last few years with developments in sequencing technology. Characterizing the contents of metagenomic samples is a challenging task, which has been extensively attempted by both supervised and unsupervised techniques, each with its own limitations. Common to practically all the methods is the processing of single samples only; when multiple samples are sequenced, each is analyzed separately and the results are combined. In this paper we propose to perform a combined analysis of a set of samples in order to obtain a better characterization of each of the samples, and provide two applications of this principle. First, we use an unsupervised probabilistic mixture model to infer hidden components shared across metagenomic samples. We incorporate the model in a novel framework for studying association of microbial sequence elements with phenotypes, analogous to the genome-wide association studies performed on human genomes: We demonstrate that stratification may result in false discoveries of such associations, and that the components inferred by the model can be used to correct for this stratification. Second, we propose a novel read clustering (also termed "binning") algorithm which operates on multiple samples simultaneously, leveraging on the assumption that the different samples contain the same microbial species, possibly in different proportions. We show that integrating information across multiple samples yields more precise binning on each of the samples. Moreover, for both applications we demonstrate that given a fixed depth of coverage, the average per-sample performance generally increases with the number of sequenced samples as long as the per-sample coverage is high enough. PMID:22359490

Baran, Yael; Halperin, Eran

2012-01-01

309

LRO Diviner Soil Composition Measurements - Lunar Sample Ground Truth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1,2] includes three thermal infrared channels spanning the wavelength ranges 7.55-8.05 microns 8.10-8.40 microns, and 8.38-8.68 microns. These "8 micron" bands were specifically selected to measure the "Christiansen feature". The wavelength location of this feature, referred to herein as CF, is particularly sensitive to silicate minerals including plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine the major crystalline components of lunar rocks and soil. The general trend is that lower CF values are correlated with higher silica content and higher CF values are correlated with lower silica content. In a companion abstract, Greenhagen et al. [3] discuss the details of lunar mineral identification using Diviner data.

Allen, Carlton C.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.

2010-01-01

310

Detection of isoprothiolane in food, soil, and water samples by immunosorbent assay using avian antibodies.  

PubMed

A simple competitive immunoassay was developed for the measurement of isoprothiolane in rice, soil, and water samples. It employed the avian antibodies (IgY) that recognized isoprothiolane as a capture reagent and isoprothiolane-alkaline phosphatase conjugate as an enzyme label. The assay depended on the competitive binding between the anti-isoprothiolane antibody and isoprothiolane derived from rice, soil, and water samples for binding sites with immobilized isoprothiolane-ovalbumin (OVA) conjugate. The concentration of isoprothiolane in the rice, soil, and water samples was quantified by the ability of the pesticide present in the samples to inhibit the binding of the enzyme conjugate to the antibody and subsequently the color formation in the assay. The assay was specific to isoprothiolane with a limit of detection of 2 ng/mL. Mean analytical recovery of isoprothiolane in different rice matrices was 87.20%-98.02%, for soil samples recovery was 74.24%-111.20%, and water samples recovery was 35.2%-95.73%. The precision of the assay was satisfactory. The assay compared favorably with gas chromatography (GC) in its ability to accurately measure isoprothiolane in the different rice, soil, and water samples. PMID:23537300

Selvi, A Arul; Manonmani, H K

2013-01-01

311

Radioactivity Levels and Gamma-Ray Dose Rate in Soil Samples from Kohistan (Pakistan) Using Gamma-Ray Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and an anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs is carried out in some soil samples collected from Kohistan district of N.W.F.P. (Pakistan), using gamma-ray spectrometry. The gamma spectrometry is operated using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector coupled with a computer based high resolution multi channel analyzer. The specific activity in soil ranges from 24.72 to 78.48Bq·kg-1 for 226Ra, 21.73 to 75.28Bq·kg-1 for 232Th, 7.06 to 14.9Bq·kg-1 for 137Cs and 298.46 to 570.77Bq·kg-1 for 40K with the mean values of 42.11, 43.27, 9.5 and 418.27Bq·kg-1, respectively. The radium equivalent activity in all the soil samples is lower than the safe limit set in the OECD report (370Bq·kg-1). Man-made radionuclide 137Cs is also present in detectable amount in all soil samples. Presence of 137Cs indicates that the samples in this remote area also receive some fallout from nuclear accident in Chernobyl power plant in 1986. The internal and external hazard indices have the mean values of 0.48 and 0.37 respectively. Absorbed dose rates and effective dose equivalents are also determined for the samples. The concentration of radionuclides found in the soil samples during the present study is nominal and does not pose any potential health hazard to the general public.

Hasan, M. Khan; Ismail, M.; K., Khan; Akhter, P.

2011-01-01

312

SoilEngineering: A Microsoft Excel ® spreadsheet © program for geotechnical and geophysical analysis of soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SoilEngineering is a user-friendly, interactive Microsoft Excel ® spreadsheet program for the geotechnical and geophysical analysis of soils. The influence of soil behavior on earthquake characteristics and/or structural design is one of the major elements in investigating earthquake forces, and thus the structural response with static and dynamic loads. With its interactive nature, the program provides the user with an opportunity to undertake soil static and dynamic load analysis. The program is formed by three main options: (1) Data Preparation, (2) Derived Parameters and (3) Analysis of Soil Problems (with Static and Dynamic Loads). The Data Preparation option is divided into four modules: Seismic Refraction Data, Geoelectrical Data, Borehole and SPT ( N) Data and Laboratory Data. The Derived Parameters option is divided into two modules: Geotechnical Parameters Derived from Geophysical Data and Relationships between Vs and SPT ( N) Values. The Analysis of Soil Problems (with Static and Dynamic Loads) option is divided into nine modules: Bearing Capacity for Shallow and Deep Foundations, Settlement Analysis (Static and Dynamic Loads), Estimation of Subgrade Reaction Coefficient, Slope Stability Analysis, Seismic Hazard Analysis, Strong Motion Attenuation Relationships, Acceleration/Velocity/Displacement Spectra, Soil Amplification Analysis and Soil Liquefaction Analysis. Soil engineering also permits plotting geophysical and geotechnical data with analysis.

Ozcep, Ferhat

2010-10-01

313

Vegetation and soil sampling for detection of enrichment facilities  

SciTech Connect

The concept of being able to detect clandestine nuclear operations rests on the fact that they invariably lose material characteristic of the process to the environment. This material can be collected and characterized using highly sensitive analytical techniques. The extent to which these signatures penetrate the environment depends on the type of process and the care taken at the facility to control losses. An enrichment facility that uses UF{sub 6}, a gas, will tend to lose more than a reactor because gases are harder to contain then solids. Any nuclear facility, like industrial processes everywhere, loses some characteristic material to the environment. The issues involved in acquiring environmental samples from around nuclear facilities are discussed, with the primary application being safeguards. Sampling plans, sample acquisition, analytical techniques, and data interpretation are described.

Smith, D.H.

1994-06-01

314

Sampling and Analysis Plan for White Oak Creek Watershed Remedial Investigation supplemental sampling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis (SAP) presents the project requirements for proposed soil sampling to support the White Oak Creek Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. During the Data Quality Objectives process for the project, it was determined that limited surface soils sampling is need to supplement the historical environmental characterization database. The primary driver for the additional sampling is the need to identify potential human health and ecological risks at various sites that have not yet proceeded through a remedial investigation. These sites include Waste Area Grouping (WAG)3, WAG 4, WAG 7, and WAG 9. WAG 4 efforts are limited to nonradiological characterization since recent seep characterization activities at the WAG have defined the radiological problem there.

NONE

1996-05-01

315

Soil pore-gas sampling by photoacoustic radiometry  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations of volatile organics in a soil pore-gas plume were measured using a commercially available multigas monitor. The monitor is a photoacoustic radiometer (PAR) controlled by an on-board, programmable microprocessor. The measurements determine the extent and location of the vapor plume in the subsurface. At least twelve wells surrounding the sources are measured quarterly. The sources are located in former liquid chemical waste disposal pits and shafts at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The primary constituents of the plume are 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA), trichloroethene (TCE), and tetrachloroethene or perchloroethene or perchloroethene (PCE). Four quarters of data are presented for TCA. All were used primarily as solvents and degreasers. Previously the composition of the vapor plume was determined by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer GCMS methods. Photoacoustic radiometry and gas chromatography are discussed giving the advantages and disadvantages of each method, although in this program they are basically complementary. Gas chromatography is a more qualitative method to determine which analytes are present and the approximate concentration. Photoacoustic radiometry, to function well, requires foreknowledge of constituents and serves best to determine how much is present. Measurements are quicker and more direct with photoacoustic methods. Once the constituents to be measured are known, the cost to monitor is much less using photoacoustics, and the results are available more quickly.

Sollid, J.E.

1994-11-01

316

Ion beam analysis of radioactive samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear microprobe facility of the Pierre Süe Laboratory is fitted with two microbeam lines. One is dedicated to non-active samples. The other one, located in a controlled shielded area, offers the unique feature of being devoted to radioactive samples. Operational since 1998, it is strongly linked to nuclear research programs and has been dimensioned to accept radioactive but non-contaminant radioactive samples, including small quantities of UOX or MOX irradiated fuel. The samples, transported in a shipping cask, are unloaded and handled in hot cells with slaved arms. The analysis chamber, situated in a concrete cell, is equipped with charged particle detectors and a Si(Li) X-ray detector, shielded in order to reduce the radioactive noise produced by the sample, allowing ERDA, RBS, NRA and PIXE. After a description of the facility, including the sample handling in the hot cells and the analysis chamber, we will give an overview of the various experimental programs which have been performed, with an emphasis on the determination of the hydrogen distribution and local content in nuclear fuel cladding tubes.

Raepsaet, C.; Khodja, H.; Bossis, P.; Pipon, Y.; Roudil, D.

2009-06-01

317

Exploratory Factor Analysis with Small Sample Sizes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes ("N"), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for "N" below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required "N" for different…

de Winter, J. C. F.; Dodou, D.; Wieringa, P. A.

2009-01-01

318

Analysis of Picattiny Sample for Trace Explosives  

SciTech Connect

The sample received from Picatinny Arsenal was analyzed for trace amounts of high explosives (HE). A complete wash of the surface was performed, concentrated, and analyzed using two sensitive analysis techniques that are capable of detecting numerous types of explosives. No explosives were detected with either test.

Klunder, G; Whipple, R; Carman, L; Spackman, P E; Reynolds, J; Alcaraz, A

2008-05-23

319

Exploratory Factor Analysis With Small Sample Sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes (N), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for N below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required N for different levels of loadings

J. C. F. de Winter; D. Dodou; P. A. Wieringa

2009-01-01

320

Samples Undergo Liquid Chromatograph Column Analysis  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing the largest oil spill yet recorded. Samples from the oil spill were collected by Louisiana USGS scientists Greg Swayze and Charlie Demas and sent for analysis in Menlo Park, CA. Following the dissolution of the sam...

2010-05-25

321

SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION USING ROC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new method of sample size determination (SSD) based on performance evalu- ation of systems under study. The method builds upon previous work on Bayesian approach to nonparametric receiver operatingcharacteristics(ROC) analysis with es- timation of probability density functions and confidence intervals for parameters of ROC curve. Technical details of the method together with an illustration of its

Viktoriya Stalbovskaya; Brahim Hamadicharef; Emmanuel Ifeachor

322

Statistical Analysis Techniques for Small Sample Sizes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The small sample sizes problem which is encountered when dealing with analysis of space-flight data is examined. Because of such an amount of data available, careful analyses are essential to extract the maximum amount of information with acceptable accur...

S. E. Navard

1984-01-01

323

EXTENDED X-RAY EMISSION FINE STRUCTURE (EXEFS) AND X-RAY ABSORPTION NEAR EDGE STRUCTURE (XANES) OF SOIL SAMPLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon K X-ray fluorescence spectra of soil samples in a volcano island are measured using a commercially available wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for elemental analysis. EXEFS (extended X-ray emission fine structure) are found at the low energy side of the K X-ray fluorescence diagram lines. Synchrotron radiation XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) spectra are measured for the same

Jun Kawai; Susumu Tohno

2001-01-01

324

Sampling and analysis plan for Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), Wayne, New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This field sampling plan describes the methodology to perform an independent radiological verification survey and chemical characterization of a remediated area of the subpile at the Wayne Interim Storage Site, Wayne, New Jersey.Data obtained from collection and analysis of systematic and biased soil samples will be used to assess the status of remediation at the site and verify the final

K. S. Brown; M. E. Murray; R. E. Rodriguez

1998-01-01

325

A quarantine protocol for analysis of returned extraterrestrial samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quarantine protocol is presented for analysis of samples of extraterrestrial material that might be returned from space to an Earth-orbiting quarantine facility. The protocol is designed to detect biologically active agents in extraterrestrial soil. Its goal is either to certify the sample safe to return to a terrestrial containment facility where extensive biological, chemical, geological and physical investigations can be conducted, or to detect ``biological effects'' thus dictating second order testing. The protocol requires 46 grams of a one kilogram returned sample plus 54 grams to be reserved for second order testing should that become necessary. The protocol operates at two levels. First, it seeks to detect the presence of any replicating organisms or toxic substances using chemical analyses, microscopy, metabolic tests, and microbiological culturing techniques. The second level involves hazard evaluation by adding any agents found at the first level (or the extraterrestrial soil) to challenge cultures of terrestrial species. The specific types of experiments and the means of executing them were chosen by participants in an American Society for Engineering Education Summer Systems Design Group to provide maximum life detection sensitivity, yet are compatible with a small crew operating behind biological barriers in a condition of weightlessness.

Bagby, J. R.; Sweet, H. C.; Devincenzi, D. L.

326

A quarantine protocol for analysis of returned extraterrestrial samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A protocol is presented for the analysis at an earth-orbiting quarantine facility of return samples of extraterrestrial material that might contain (nonterrestrial) life forms. The protocol consists of a series of tests designed to determine whether the sample, conceptualized as a 1-kg sample of Martian soil, is free from nonterrestrial biologically active agents and so may safely be sent to a terrestrial containment facility, or it exhibits biological activity requiring further (second-order) testing outside the biosphere. The first-order testing procedure seeks to detect the presence of any replicating organisms or toxic substances through a series of experiments including gas sampling, analysis of radioactivity, stereomicroscopic inspection, chemical analysis, microscopic examination, the search for metabolic products under growth conditions, microbiologicl assays, and the challenge of cultured cells with any agents found or with the extraterrestrial material as is. Detailed plans for the second-order testing would be developed in response to the actual data received from primary testing.

Bagby, J. R.; Sweet, H. C.; Devincenzi, D. L.

1983-01-01

327

Fast low-pressure microwave assisted extraction and gas chromatographic determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil samples.  

PubMed

A new technology equipment for low-pressure microwave assisted extraction (usually employed for organic chemistry reactions), recently launched in the market, is used for the first time in environmental analysis for the extraction of commercial technical Aroclor mixtures from soil. Certified reference materials of Aroclor 1260, Aroclor 1254 and Aroclor 1242 in transformer oils were used to contaminate the soil samples and to optimize the extraction method as well as the subsequent gas chromatographic electron capture detection (GC-ECD) analytical method. The study was performed optimizing the extraction, the purification and the gas chromatographic separation conditions to enhance the resolution of difficult pairs of congeners (C28/31 and C141/179). After optimization, the recovery yields were included within the range 79-84%. The detection limits, evaluated for two different commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures (Aroclor 1260 and Aroclor 1242) were 0.056 ± 0.001 mg/kg and 0.290 ± 0.006 mg/kg, respectively. The method, validated with certified soil samples, was used to analyze a soil sample after an event of failure of a pole-mounted transformer which caused the dumping of PCB contaminated oil in soil. Moreover, the method provides simple sample handling, fast extraction with reduced amount of sample and solvents than usually required, and simple purification step involving the use of solvent (cyclohexane) volumes as low as 5 mL. Reliability and reproducibility of extraction conditions are ensured by direct and continuous monitoring of temperature and pressure conditions. PMID:23084486

Bruzzoniti, M C; Maina, R; Tumiatti, V; Sarzanini, C; Rivoira, L; De Carlo, R M

2012-11-23

328

Balloon and core sampling for determining bulk density of alluvial desert soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples were collected from major strata in the upper 5 m of an alluvial soil profile in the Amargosa Desert of southern Nevada to compare rubber-balloon and drive-core bulk-density measurement methods. Outside the range of fine-soil texture, where soil consistency was either very loose or very hard, the core method appeared to sample inaccurately, resulting in bulk-density values less than those determined by the balloon method. Under the severe sampling conditions encountered, large decreases in the relative accuracy of the core method were not directly related to rock-fragment content, but were related to extremes in the cohesiveness of the strata sampled. -from Author

Andraski, B. J.

1991-01-01

329

Lunar surface: identification of the dark mantling material in the Apollo 17 soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence indicates that Apollo 17 sample 74001, a soil consisting of ; very dark spheres, is composed almost entirely of the dark mantling material that ; covers a large region of the southeastern boundary of Mare Serenitatis. Other ; Apollo 17 samples contain only a component of this material. The underlying ; basalt in the Taurus- Littrow valley appears to

C. Pieters; T. B. McCord; M. P. Charette; J. B. Adams

1974-01-01

330

Application of a Permethrin Immunosorbent Assay Method to Residential Soil and Dust Samples  

EPA Science Inventory

A low-cost, high throughput bioanalytical screening method was developed for monitoring cis/trans-permethrin in dust and soil samples. The method consisted of a simple sample preparation procedure [sonication with dichloromethane followed by a solvent exchange into methanol:wate...

331

Soil sampling strategies for spatial prediction by correlation with auxiliary maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper evaluates spreading of observations in feature and geographical spaces as a key to sampling optimisation for spatial prediction by correlation with auxiliary maps. Although auxiliary data are commonly used for mapping soil variables, problems associated with the design of sampling strategies are rarely examined. When generalised least-squares estimation is used, the overall prediction error depends upon spreading of

Tomislav Hengl; David G. Rossiter; Alfred Stein

2003-01-01

332

Fidelity Analysis of Sampled Imaging Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many modeling, simulation and performance analysis studies of sampled imaging systems are inherently incomplete because they are conditioned on a discrete-input, discrete-output model that only accounts for blurring during image acquisition and additive noise. For those sampled imaging systems where the effects of digital image acquisition, digital filtering and reconstruction are significant, the modeling, simulation and performance analysis should be based on a more comprehensive continuous-input, discrete-processing, continuous-output end-to-end model. This more comprehensive model should properly account for the low-pass filtering effects of image acquisition prior to sampling, the potentially important noiselike effects of the aliasing caused by sampling, additive noise due to device electronics and quantization, the generally high-boost filtering effects of digital processing, and the low-pass filtering effects of image reconstruction. This model should not, however, be so complex as to preclude significant mathematical analysis, particularly the mean-square (fidelity) type of analysis so common in linear system theory. We demonstrate that, although the mathematics of such a model is more complex, the increase in complexity is not so great as to prevent a complete fidelity-metric analysis at both the component level and at the end-to-end system level: that is, computable mean-square-based fidelity metrics are developed by which both component-level and system-level performance can be quantified. In addition, we demonstrate that system performance can be assessed qualitatively by visualizing the output image as the sum of three component images, each of which relates to a corresponding fidelity metric. The cascaded, or filtered, component accounts for the end-to-end system filtering of image acquisition, digital processing, and image reconstruction; the random noise component accounts for additive random noise, modulated by digital processing and image reconstruction filtering; and the aliased noise component accounts for the frequency folding effect of sampling, modulated by digital processing and image reconstruction filtering.

Park, Stephen K.; Rahman, Zia-ur

1999-01-01

333

Single particle analysis of suspended soil dust from Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single particle analysis of soil dust has been performed using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The presence of crustal elements is observed in the mass spectra of individual particles. Aluminum and iron constitute the two most commonly detected cations. Other common cations observed in the mass spectra of soil particles include sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, titanium, and barium, and also lithium and lanthanide oxides which are not detectable by conventional techniques such as X-ray fluorescence. Silicates make up the bulk of detected anions, although the presence of phosphate is also observed. Characteristic peaks in both the positive and negative ion mass spectra enable us to identify individual dust particles in atmospheric samples and track chemically distinct dust particles in the atmosphere with a temporal resolution of 15 min using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

Silva, Philip J.; Carlin, Richard A.; Prather, Kimberly A.

334

RESULTS FROM EPA FUNDED RESEARCH PROGRAMS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF PURGE VOLUME, SAMPLE VOLUME, SAMPLE FLOW RATE AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS ON SOIL GAS CONCENTRATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two research studies funded and overseen by EPA have been conducted since October 2006 on soil gas sampling methods and variations in shallow soil gas concentrations with the purpose of improving our understanding of soil gas methods and data for vapor intrusion applications. Al...

335

Representing major soil variability at regional scale by constrained Latin Hypercube Sampling of remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a sparse, remote sensing-based sampling approach making use of conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) to assess variability in soil properties at regional scale. The method optimizes the sampling scheme for a defined spatial population based on selected covariates, which are assumed to represent the variability of the target variables. The optimization also accounts for specific constraints and costs expressing the field sampling effort. The approach is demonstrated using a case study in Morocco, where a small but representative sample record had to be collected over a 15,000 km2 area within 2 weeks. The covariate space of the Latin Hypercube consisted of the first three principal components of ASTER imagery as well as elevation. Comparison of soil properties taken from the topsoil with the existing soil map, a geological map and lithological data showed that the sampling approach was successful in representing major soil variability. The cLHS sample failed to express spatial correlation; constraining the LHS by a distance criterion favoured large spatial variability within a short distances resulting in an overestimation of the variograms nugget and short distance variability. However, the exhaustive covariate data appeared to be spatially correlated which supports our premise that once the relation between spatially explicit remote sensing data and soil properties has been modelled, the latter can be spatially predicted based on the densely sampled remotely sensed data. Therefore, the LHS approach is considered as time and cost efficient for regional scale surveys that rely on remote sensing-based prediction of soil properties.

Mulder, V. L.; de Bruin, S.; Schaepman, M. E.

2013-04-01

336

Silicate melt inclusions and glasses in lunar soil fragments from the Luna 16 core sample  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 2000 fragments were studied microscopically, and electron microprobe analyses were made of 39 selected areas, from a few square mm of polished surface, through 75- to 425-??m fragments of lunar soil from two samples of the Luna 16 core. The silicate melt inclusions and glasses differ in important details from those observed earlier in the Apollo samples. Melt inclusions in olivine contain epitaxially oriented daughter crystals, but also show a similar epitaxy around the outside of the crystals not observed in previous lunar samples. Melt inclusions in ilmenite suggest trapping at successive stages in a differentiation sequence. There is abundant evidence for late-stage silicate liquid immiscibility, with melt compositions similar but not identical to those from Apollo 11 and 12. A comparison of the alkali ratio of any given bulk rock analysis with that of its late-stage, high-silica melt shows gross differences for different rocks. This is pertinent to understanding late-stage differentiation processes. Glass fragments and spherules exhibit a wide range of crystallization textures, reflecting their wide range of compositions and cooling histories. No significant differences were found between the two portions of core examined (Zones A and D). ?? 1972.

Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P. W.

1972-01-01

337

Integrated field lysimetry and porewater sampling for evaluation of chemical mobility in soils and established vegetation.  

PubMed

Potentially toxic chemicals are routinely applied to land to meet growing demands on waste management and food production, but the fate of these chemicals is often not well understood. Here we demonstrate an integrated field lysimetry and porewater sampling method for evaluating the mobility of chemicals applied to soils and established vegetation. Lysimeters, open columns made of metal or plastic, are driven into bareground or vegetated soils. Porewater samplers, which are commercially available and use vacuum to collect percolating soil water, are installed at predetermined depths within the lysimeters. At prearranged times following chemical application to experimental plots, porewater is collected, and lysimeters, containing soil and vegetation, are exhumed. By analyzing chemical concentrations in the lysimeter soil, vegetation, and porewater, downward leaching rates, soil retention capacities, and plant uptake for the chemical of interest may be quantified. Because field lysimetry and porewater sampling are conducted under natural environmental conditions and with minimal soil disturbance, derived results project real-case scenarios and provide valuable information for chemical management. As chemicals are increasingly applied to land worldwide, the described techniques may be utilized to determine whether applied chemicals pose adverse effects to human health or the environment. PMID:25045915

Matteson, Audrey R; Mahoney, Denis J; Gannon, Travis W; Polizzotto, Matthew L

2014-01-01

338

In situ sampling of small volumes of soil solution using modified micro-suction cups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two modified designs of micro-pore-water samplers were tested for their capacity to collect unbiased soil solution samples\\u000a containing zinc and citrate. The samplers had either ceramic or polyethersulfone (PES) suction cups. Laboratory tests of the\\u000a micro-samplers were conducted using (a) standard solutions with zinc and citrate concentrations that can be found in the rhizosphere\\u000a and (b) two soils with contrasting

Jianbo Shen; Ellis Hoffland

2007-01-01

339

Variable selection in classification of environmental soil samples for partial least square and neural network models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two variable selection methods were evaluated by comparing their predictions with respect to differentiating among environmental soil samples. The focus of this work is to determine which input variables are most relevant for prediction of soil sources using discriminant partial least square (D-PLS) and back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) models. The methods investigated were stepwise variable selection method and genetic

Ziad Ramadan; Xin-Hua Song; Philip K Hopke; Mara J Johnson; Kate M Scow

2001-01-01

340

Changes in water?soluble Mn due to soil sample preparation and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sample preparation and storage on levels of water?soluble Mn in 5 Mississippi soils were determined. Steam sterilization has the most pronounced effect followed by methyl bromide and various degrees of air?drying. In general, storage of soils in the moist or frozen condition will result in minimum changes in water?soluble Mn. However, expected changes are not predictable and

Lyle E. Nelson

1977-01-01

341

Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis - Part III: Sampling plans and sample preparations.  

PubMed

The findings in this paper are based on the results of our drug homogeneity studies [1] and particle size investigations [2]. Using that information, a general sampling plan (depicted in the form of a flow-chart) was devised that could be applied to the quantitative instrumental analysis of the most common illicit drugs: namely heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, cannabis resin, MDMA tablets and herbal cannabis in 'bud' form (type I). Other more heterogeneous forms of cannabis (type II) were found to require alternative, more traditional sampling methods. A table was constructed which shows the sampling uncertainty expected when a particular number of random increments are taken and combined to form a single primary sample. It also includes a recommended increment size; which is 1g for powdered drugs and cannabis resin, 1 tablet for MDMA and 1 bud for herbal cannabis in bud form (type I). By referring to that table, individual laboratories can ensure that the sampling uncertainty for a particular drug seizure can be minimised, such that it lies in the same region as their analytical uncertainty for that drug. The table shows that assuming a laboratory wishes to quantitatively analyse a seizure of powdered drug or cannabis resin with a 'typical' heterogeneity, a primary sample of 15×1g increments is generally appropriate. The appropriate primary sample for MDMA tablets is 20 tablets, while for herbal cannabis (in bud form) 50 buds were found to be appropriate. Our study also showed that, for a suitably homogenised primary sample of the most common powdered drugs, an analytical sample size of between 20 and 35mg was appropriate and for herbal cannabis the appropriate amount was 200mg. The need to ensure that the results from duplicate or multiple incremental sampling were compared, to demonstrate whether or not a particular seized material has a 'typical' heterogeneity and that the sampling procedure applied has resulted in a 'correct sample', was highlighted and the setting up of suitable control charts (R or S charts), for quality control purposes, was strongly recommended and examples given. Furthermore, although this particular study relates to the sampling of illicit drugs, it should be remembered that it is based on general sampling theory and therefore the same approach could be applied to other disciplines where 'correct sampling' of powders and solids is important. PMID:24815616

Csesztregi, T; Bovens, M; Dujourdy, L; Franc, A; Nagy, J

2014-08-01

342

Germanium-76 Sample Analysis: Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia. The first one-gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on April 24, 2011. The second one-gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on July 12, 2011. The third sample, which came from the first large shipment of germanium from the vendor, was received from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on September 13, 2011. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility, a DOE user facility at PNNL, was used to make the required isotopic and chemical purity measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The results of these analyses are reported here. The isotopic composition of a sample of natural germanium was also measured twice. Differences in the result between these two measurements led to a re-measurement of the second 76Ge sample.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua; Engelhard, Mark H.

2011-09-19

343

Sampling and Data Analysis for Environmental Microbiology  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of the literature indicates the importance of statistical analysis in applied and environmental microbiology. Sampling designs are particularly important for successful studies, and it is highly recommended that researchers review their sampling design before heading to the laboratory or the field. Most statisticians have numerous stories of scientists who approached them after their study was complete only to have to tell them that the data they gathered could not be used to test the hypothesis they wanted to address. Once the data are gathered, a large and complex body of statistical techniques are available for analysis of the data. Those methods include both numerical and graphical techniques for exploratory characterization of the data. Hypothesis testing and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are techniques that can be used to compare the mean and variance of two or more groups of samples. Regression can be used to examine the relationships between sets of variables and is often used to examine the dependence of microbiological populations on microbiological parameters. Multivariate statistics provides several methods that can be used for interpretation of datasets with a large number of variables and to partition samples into similar groups, a task that is very common in taxonomy, but also has applications in other fields of microbiology. Geostatistics and other techniques have been used to examine the spatial distribution of microorganisms. The objectives of this chapter are to provide a brief survey of some of the statistical techniques that can be used for sample design and data analysis of microbiological data in environmental studies, and to provide some examples of their use from the literature.

Murray, Christopher J.

2001-06-01

344

ANALYSIS OF SOIL SUCTION CHANGES IN EXPANSIVE REGINA CLAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of seasonal soil suction changes is critical to the analysis of volume change in unsaturated, expansive soils. A one-dimensional moisture flow model was developed to study the boundary flux and suction conditions in a soil profile at a test site in Regina, Saskatchewan. The test site was part of an extensive study related to ground movements and associated

Hung Q. Vu; Yafei Hu; Delwyn G. Fredlund

345

Analysis of grounding systems in soils with hemispherical layering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model for the analysis of grounding systems located inside or near hemispherical soil heterogeneities is presented for the first time. Exact closed-form analytical expressions for the earth potential calculations due to current sources in different regions of this soil structure have been obtained. Numerical results are presented for different grounding systems and for different types of hemispherical soil

J. Ma; F. P. Dawalibi; W. K. Daily

1993-01-01

346

Basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site: Inferences from petrologic examinations of the soil sample 12003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed petrologic survey has been made of 17 basaltic chips (sized between 1 and 10 mm) from the 12003 soil sample as part of an ongoing study of basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site. An attempt has been made to classify these samples according to the well-established grouping of olivine, pigeonite, ilmenite, and feldspathic basalts. Particular attention has been paid to variations in major, minor, and trace element mineral chemistry (determined by electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation ICP-MS), which may be indicative of particular basaltic suites and less susceptible to sampling bias than bulk sample characteristics. Examples of all three main (olivine, pigeonite, and ilmenite) basaltic suites have been identified within the 12003 soil. One sample is identified as a possible new addition to the feldspathic suite, which currently consists of only one other confirmed sample. Identification of additional feldspathic basalts strengthens the argument that they represent a poorly sampled basaltic flow local to the Apollo 12 site, rather than exotic material introduced to the site by impact mixing processes. Three samples are identified as representing members of one or two previously unrecognized basaltic suites.

Snape, Joshua F.; Joy, Katherine H.; Crawford, Ian A.; Alexander, Louise

2014-03-01

347

Basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site: Inferences from petrologic examinations of the soil sample 12003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed petrologic survey has been made of 17 basaltic chips (sized between 1 and 10 mm) from the 12003 soil sample as part of an ongoing study of basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site. An attempt has been made to classify these samples according to the well-established grouping of olivine, pigeonite, ilmenite, and feldspathic basalts. Particular attention has been paid to variations in major, minor, and trace element mineral chemistry (determined by electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation ICP-MS), which may be indicative of particular basaltic suites and less susceptible to sampling bias than bulk sample characteristics. Examples of all three main (olivine, pigeonite, and ilmenite) basaltic suites have been identified within the 12003 soil. One sample is identified as a possible new addition to the feldspathic suite, which currently consists of only one other confirmed sample. Identification of additional feldspathic basalts strengthens the argument that they represent a poorly sampled basaltic flow local to the Apollo 12 site, rather than exotic material introduced to the site by impact mixing processes. Three samples are identified as representing members of one or two previously unrecognized basaltic suites.

Snape, Joshua F.; Joy, Katherine H.; Crawford, Ian A.; Alexander, Louise

2014-05-01

348

Sensitive and rapid quantitative detection of anthrax spores isolated from soil samples by real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Quantitative analysis of anthrax spores from environmental samples is essential for accurate detection and risk assessment since Bacillus anthracis spores have been shown to be one of the most effective biological weapons. Using TaqMan real-time PCR, specific primers and probes were designed for the identification of pathogenic B. anthracis strains from pag gene and cap gene on two plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, as well as a sap gene encoded on the S-layer. To select the appropriate lysis method of anthrax spore from environmental samples, several heat treatments and germination methods were evaluated with multiplex-PCR. Among them, heat treatment of samples suspended with sucrose plus non-ionic detergent was considered an effective spore disruption method because it detected up to 10(5) spores/g soil by multiplex-PCR. Serial dilutions of B. anthracis DNA and spore were detected up to a level of 0.1 ng/ microliters and 10 spores/ml, respectively, at the correlation coefficient of 0.99 by real-time PCR. Quantitative analysis of anthrax spore could be obtained from the comparison between C(T) value and serial dilutions of soil sample at the correlation coefficient of 0.99. Additionally, spores added to soil samples were detected up to 10(4) spores/g soil within 3 hr by real-time PCR. As a consequence, we established a rapid and accurate detection system for environmental anthrax spores using real-time PCR, avoiding time and labor-consuming preparation steps such as enrichment culturing and DNA preparation. PMID:14605435

Ryu, Chunsun; Lee, Kyunghee; Yoo, Cheonkwon; Seong, Won Keun; Oh, Hee-Bok

2003-01-01

349

Ecological classification of Nigerian mangroves using soil nutrient gradient analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct gradient analysis was used to relate the structure of mangrove communities to soil nutrient gradients. The predominant cations in the alluvial soils were magnesium and calcium, the values ranging from 8.6±0.9 to 24.6±2.0?me per 100?g. Organic carbon was high in the soils, ranging from 3.5% to 10.4%. All soil nutrients varied seasonally, in response to wet and dry periods

Imoh E. Ukpong

2000-01-01

350

A quest for porphyrins in lunar soil - Samples from Apollo 11, 12 and 14.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses for porphyrins in the lunar samples were carried out by extracting the lunar soils as received by organic solvents followed by analytical demetallation using methanesulfonic acid after which free-base porphyrins, if present, were recovered and demonstrably recomplexed with divalent cations. Samples from Apollo 11 showed the presence of fluorescent substances attributed to exhaust from the descent engine. One sample from Apollo 12 showed pigments resembling porphyrins. The Apollo 14 results were negative.

Hodgson, G. W.; Kvenvolden, K.; Peterson, E.; Ponnamperuma , C.

1972-01-01

351

Astrobiology Sample Analysis as a Design Driver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This effort supports the Astrobiology Objective 8 the Search for LIFE ON MARS PAST AND PRESENT -(Astrobiology Program Office, 1998, p.7). The essential trade analysis is between returning very small samples to the Earth while protecting them versus in situ analysis on Mars. Developing these explicit parameters encompasses design, instrumentation, system integration, human factors and surface operations for both alternatives. This allocation of capability approach incorporates a "humans and machines in the loop" model that recognizes that every exploration system involves both humans and automated systems. The question is where in the loop they occur whether on Earth, in the Mars Base, in the rover or creeping over the Mars surface.

Cohen, Marc M.

2001-01-01

352

Unexpectedly High Bacterial Diversity in Arctic Tundra Relative to Boreal Forest Soils, Revealed by Serial Analysis of Ribosomal Sequence Tags  

PubMed Central

Arctic tundra and boreal forest soils have globally relevant functions that affect atmospheric chemistry and climate, yet the bacterial composition and diversity of these soils have received little study. Serial analysis of ribosomal sequence tags (SARST) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to compare composite soil samples taken from boreal and arctic biomes. This study comprises an extensive comparison of geographically distant soil bacterial communities, involving the analysis of 12,850 ribosomal sequence tags from six composite soil samples. Bacterial diversity estimates were greater for undisturbed arctic tundra soil samples than for boreal forest soil samples, with the highest diversity associated with a sample from an extreme northern location (82oN). The lowest diversity estimate was obtained from an arctic soil sample that was disturbed by compaction and sampled from a greater depth. Since samples from the two biomes did not form distinct clusters on the basis of SARST data and DGGE fingerprints, factors other than latitude likely influenced the phylogenetic compositions of these communities. The high number of ribosomal sequences analyzed enabled the identification of possible cosmopolitan and endemic bacterial distributions in particular soils.

Neufeld, Josh D.; Mohn, William W.

2005-01-01

353

Hayabusa Recovery, Curation and Preliminary Sample Analysis: Lessons Learned from Recent Sample Return Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I describe lessons learned from my participation on the Hayabusa Mission, which returned regolith grains from asteroid Itokawa in 2010 [1], comparing this with the recently returned Stardust Spacecraft, which sampled the Jupiter Family comet Wild 2. Spacecraft Recovery Operations: The mission Science and Curation teams must actively participate in planning, testing and implementing spacecraft recovery operations. The crash of the Genesis spacecraft underscored the importance of thinking through multiple contingency scenarios and practicing field recovery for these potential circumstances. Having the contingency supplies on-hand was critical, and at least one full year of planning for Stardust and Hayabusa recovery operations was necessary. Care must be taken to coordinate recovery operations with local organizations and inform relevant government bodies well in advance. Recovery plans for both Stardust and Hayabusa had to be adjusted for unexpectedly wet landing site conditions. Documentation of every step of spacecraft recovery and deintegration was necessary, and collection and analysis of launch and landing site soils was critical. We found the operation of the Woomera Text Range (South Australia) to be excellent in the case of Hayabusa, and in many respects this site is superior to the Utah Test and Training Range (used for Stardust) in the USA. Recovery operations for all recovered spacecraft suffered from the lack of a hermetic seal for the samples. Mission engineers should be pushed to provide hermetic seals for returned samples. Sample Curation Issues: More than two full years were required to prepare curation facilities for Stardust and Hayabusa. Despite this seemingly adequate lead time, major changes to curation procedures were required once the actual state of the returned samples became apparent. Sample databases must be fully implemented before sample return for Stardust we did not adequately think through all of the possible sub sampling and analytical activities before settling on a database design - Hayabusa has done a better job of this. Also, analysis teams must not be permitted to devise their own sample naming schemes. The sample handling and storage facilities for Hayabusa are the finest that exist, and we are now modifying Stardust curation to take advantage of the Hayabusa facilities. Remote storage of a sample subset is desirable. Preliminary Examination (PE) of Samples: There must be some determination of the state and quantity of the returned samples, to provide a necessary guide to persons requesting samples and oversight committees tasked with sample curation oversight. Hayabusa s sample PE, which is called HASPET, was designed so that late additions to the analysis protocols were possible, as new analytical techniques became available. A small but representative number of recovered grains are being subjected to in-depth characterization. The bulk of the recovered samples are being left untouched, to limit contamination. The HASPET plan takes maximum advantage of the unique strengths of sample return missions

Zolensky, Michael E.

2011-01-01

354

BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS WITH SAMPLING AND SAMPLE PRESERVATION SPECIFICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Current federal regulations (40CFR 503) specify that under certain conditions treated municipal biosolids must be analyzed for fecal coliform or salmonellae. The regulations state that representative samples of biosolids must be collected and analyzed using standard methods. Th...

355

A health-based approach for sampling shallow soils at hazardous waste sites using the AALsoil contact criterion.  

PubMed Central

Strategies for sampling shallow soils at hazardous waste sites are employed primarily to evaluate levels and distributions of contamination. The ensuing analyses of potential public health impacts are therefore dependent on the sampling design rather than having the sampling design based on the data needs for evaluating potential public health impacts of shallow soil contamination. We define a specific objective that guides the sampling of shallow soils. The sampling results can thereby be directly employed to evaluate potential public health impacts from direct contact exposures to shallow soil contamination.

Hadley, P W; Sedman, R M

1990-01-01

356

Guidelines for soil-structure interaction analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report presents engineering application guidelines for conducting seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analyses of nuclear power plant structures. These guidelines are largely based on the results obtained and lessons learned from the Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST) program involving {1/4} and 1/12 scaled containment models in Lotung, Taiwan. The development of these guidelines has taken into consideration the guidelines recommended in the ASCE Standard 4--86, Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures'', and the new revision (Revision 2) of the NRC Standard Review Plan (SRP), Section 3.7.2, Seismic System Analysis.'' The guidelines presented in this report follow an approach which reckons every necessary step for characterizing and providing an adequate solution to the total SSI problem which is broken down into a series of five SSI subproblems, namely, site response problem, foundation scattering problem, structural modelling problem, foundation impedance problem, and interaction response solution problem. The four analysis methods evaluated are the lumped-parameter (soil-spring) method, the continuum-halfspace substructing (CLASSI) method, the discretized-halfspace substructing (SASSI) method, and the finite element direct (FLUSH and ALUSH) method. The approach used herein was found to be very effective for evaluating the validities of the various SSI analysis results and findings of the LSST program. The guidelines presented herein place emphasis on the general requirements, procedures, and criteria for conducting SSI analyses in an industry environment by those involved in the seismic design or performance evaluation of nuclear power plant structures and equipment. 53 refs., 17 figs.

Tseng, W.S. (International Civil Engineering Consultants, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Hadjian, A.H. (Bechtel Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1991-10-01

357

Applications and mechanisms of laser ablation for elemental analysis of nuclear wastes and contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survey methods for compositional analysis of nuclear wastes and contaminated soils are under development to support characterization prior to treatment and continued monitoring during remediation. Laser ablation in conjunction with optical spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy are attractive because of the safety and convenience of minimal sample handling and very small sampling volume. However, the signal intensities in analytic applications depend

Steven C. Langford; Tom Dickinson

1996-01-01

358

Particle size analysis of soils under simulated scene of crime conditions: the interest of multivariate analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two simulated scenes of crime have been studied. Soil traces adhering to boots, sport shoes and tissues have been compared with control samples using particle size analysis. Comparisons of percentage of particles per class interval and multivariate analyses were used to determine how the size distribution of each suspect sample varied compared to the original distribution. A loss of coarse

Véronique Chazottes; Christian Brocard; Benoit Peyrot

2004-01-01

359

Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for FY 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility.

2000-01-01

360

Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The <2-mm fraction of each sample was analyzed for Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural pathogens. Collection, preservation and analysis of samples for both organic compounds and microbial characterization add a great degree of complication to the sampling and preservation protocols and a significant increase to the cost for a continental-scale survey. Both these issues must be considered carefully prior to adopting these parameters as part of the soil geochemical survey of North America.

Smith, D. B.; Woodruff, L. G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W. F.; Garrett, R. G.; Kilburn, J. E.; Goldhaber, M. B.

2009-01-01

361

Optimization of sampling for the determination of mean radium-226 concentration in surface soil.  

PubMed

There are thousands of properties in the United States on which the soil has been contaminated to some degree with uranium mill tailings. An effort is now underway by the United States Department of Energy to identify sites contaminated with tailings and to perform remedial action when (226)Ra levels exceed current guidelines. Because of the large number of sites involved, it is imperative that sample collection be performed in a cost-effective manner. In this paper we describe the results of a study in which we compared the efficiencies of different methods of sample collection in order to determine an optimal method for estimating the mean (226)Ra concentration in soil. The study involved a field experiment in which extensive sampling was performed on sites known to be contaminated with uranium tailings. The experiment was designed to identify the advantages and limitations of composite sampling, the relative merits of random and uniformly spaced sample collection, the use of field gamma measurements for supplementing and reducing soil sample collection, and practical levels of accuracy and precision that can be obtained. Conclusions regarding gamma measurements are unique to (226)Ra contamination. On the other hand, conclusions concerning composite sampling and random versus uniformly spaced sampling may depend primarily on the way the contamination was spread by man and hence may not be unique to (226)Ra. PMID:24249068

Williams, L R; Leggett, R W; Espegren, M L; Little, C A

1989-04-01

362

Bromate analysis in groundwater and wastewater samples.  

PubMed

Bromate (BrO(3)(-)) is a disinfection by-product formed during ozonation of potable water supplies containing bromide (Br(-)). Bromate has been classed by the World Health Organisation as a 'possible human carcinogen', leading to implementation of 10-25 microg L(-1)(as BrO(3)(-)) drinking water limits in legislative areas including the United States and European Union. Techniques have been developed for bromate analysis at and below regulatory limits, with Ion Chromatography (IC) coupled with conductivity detection (IC-CD), post-column reaction and ultra-violet (UV) detection (IC-PCR), or inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry detection (IC-ICPMS) in widespread use. The recent discovery of bromate groundwater contamination in a UK aquifer has led to a requirement for analysis of bromate in a groundwater matrix, for environmental monitoring and development of remediation strategies. The possibility of bromate-contaminated water discharge into sewage treatment processes, whether accidental or as a pump-and-treat strategy, also required bromate analysis of wastewater sources. This paper summarises techniques currently available for trace bromate analysis in potable water systems and details studies to identify a methodology for routine analysis of groundwater and wastewater samples. Strategies compared were high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with direct UV or PCR/UV detection, IC-CD, IC-PCR, and a simple spectrophotometric technique. IC-CD was the most cost-effective solution for simultaneous analysis of bromate and bromide within groundwater samples, having a 5 microg L(-1) detection limit of both anions with limited interference from closely-eluting species. Wastewater samples were successfully analysed for bromate only using HPLC with PCR/UV detection, with detection limits below 20 microg L(-1)(as BrO(3)(-)) and low interference. HPLC with direct UV detection was unsuitable for bromate analysis within the concentration range 50-5000 microg L(-1) which was required for this project, but column choice was shown to be a major factor in determining limits of detection. Spectrophotometry could not reproducibly determine bromate concentration, although the technique showed promise as a quick field method for high-level groundwater bromate analysis. PMID:16193172

Butler, Ray; Lytton, Lucy; Godley, Andrew R; Tothill, Ibtisam E; Cartmell, Elise

2005-10-01

363

COMPLEXITY OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER: AMS 14C ANALYSIS OF SOIL LIPID FRACTIONS AND INDIVIDUAL COMPOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiocarbon measurements of different lipid fractions and individual compounds, isolated from soil samples collected on 2 different agricultural long-term study sites, located in the rural area of Rotthalmünster (Germany) and in the city of Halle\\/Saale (Germany), were analyzed to obtain information about sources and the stability of soil organic matter (SOM). Different lipid compound classes were isolated by automated solvent

Janet Rethemeyer; Christiane Kramer; Gerd Gleixner; Guido L B Wiesenberg; Lorenz Schwark; Nils Andersen; Marie-J Nadeau; Pieter M Grootes

364

Rapid Test Methods for the Field Screening of Heavy Metals in Soil Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, rapid test methods for field screening of soil for Cu, Ni, and Pb content are presented. They are based\\u000a on commercially obtainable Microquant tests (Merck, Germany), which are originally developed for water analysis. The same\\u000a type of color reaction was also used for the determination of heavy metals in soil extracts: Reagents to form colored metal

Marija Jozic; Thomas Peer; Hans Malissa

2009-01-01

365

A soil water distillation technique using He-purging for stable isotope analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of soil water extraction for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis has been developed; this method uses a helium flow system as an alternative to the conventional vacuum extraction method. The method significantly increases the efficiency of sample preparation and simplifies the extraction. During the water distillation, a helium carrier gas transfers water vaporized at 95 °C from the soil sample to a cold trap at liquid nitrogen temperature. An extraction time of 180 min is used to distill the water from the fine-grained soil completely. The proposed He-purging distillation technique makes it possible to distill approximately a dozen samples simultaneously. The method was tested using liquid water samples and clayey soil samples hydrated with water of known isotopic composition. The standard deviations for these tests were 0.08‰ for ?18O and 0.7‰ for ?D. An intercomparison test was conducted for the helium and vacuum extraction methods using natural soil samples. The correlation coefficients between the methods were 0.9926 and 0.9939 for ?D and ?18O, respectively. The proposed He-purging distillation method can achieve high precision for clayey soil samples with low water content and has the potential to provide adequate isotopic data in hydrological and ecological studies. The method is relatively fast, efficient, and inexpensive. We also recommend using the method to distill salt solutions (sea water, mineralized water) before determining the ?D and ?18O values using a chromium or carbon reduction method to avoid "salt effects".

Ignatev, A.; Velivetckaia, T.; Sugimoto, A.; Ueta, A.

2013-08-01

366

Measurements of natural radionuclides in some soil samples from Amasya (Turkey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil on the earth's crust is a source of continuously exposure to human beings. The amount of radioactivity in soil depends upon the type of soil and its uses. Amasya is located on the inside of the Department of the Central Black Sea. Amasya is situated between 34° 57' 06'' - 36° 31' 53'' east longitudes and 41° 04' 54'' - 40° 16' 16'' north latitudes. In this study, the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides (40K, 226Ra, 232Th) was measured in some soil samples collected in Amasya region using gamma spectrometer system which contains NaI(Tl) and 16k Multichannel analyser at the Süleyman Demirel University-Gamma Spectroscopy Lab in Isparta (Turkey).

Mavi, Betül; Akkurt, ?skender; Öner, F.; Güno?lu, Kadir

2012-09-01

367

Determination of Natural Beryllium (Be) in Soil and Swipe Samples Utilizing Yttrium/Beryllium Ratio  

SciTech Connect

1. Objective: A method to determine whether beryllium (Be) components in surface swipe samples are from a natural source is needed. 2. Methods: Soil samples and surface swipes from area facilities were analyzed for marker elements to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be). To be useful, the natural marker element must be present at reasonably consistent levels across the site, must correlate with the Be concentration, and not have the potential to be present from non-natural sources. 3. Results: The research on marker elements used to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be) concentrations demonstrates a clear correlation between Be and yttrium (Y) in natural soils on the Nevada National Security Site. The Y/Be ratio is proposed as a method to characterize the source of Be in soil and surface swipe samples and to aid in recommendations for follow up actions. Swipe samples are analyzed using an ICP/MS method and compared with results from soil samples. Natural soil constituent levels and the Y/Be Ratio range is determined for the occupied and historical facilities and surrounding areas. Y/Be ratios within the statistical range established indicate the Be is from a natural source. Y/Be ratios lower than this range indicate the presence of another Be source, and may then be correlated to alloy, ceramic, or other operational sources by the ratios of copper, nickel, cobalt, uranium, and/or niobium. Example case studies of evaluations of buildings with historical operational beryllium usage, current ongoing technical processes, and heavy equipment used in large building demolitions are included demonstrating the value of the ratio approach. 4. Conclusions: This differentiation is valuable as there is no known correlation between natural beryllium in soil and beryllium disease.

None

2010-09-30

368

Impacts of heterogeneous organic matter on phenanthrene sorption: different soil and sediment samples.  

PubMed

Organic petrography has been proposed as a tool for characterizing the heterogeneous organic matter present in soil and sediment samples. A new simplified method is proposed as a quantitative means of interpreting observed sorption behavior for phenanthrene and different soils and sediments based on their organic petrographical characterization. This method is tested under singe solute conditions and at phenanthrene concentration of 1 microg/L. Since the opaque organic matter fraction dominates the sorption process, we propose that by quantifying this fraction one can interpret organic content normalized sorption distribution coefficient (Koc) values for a sample. While this method was developed and tested for various samples within the same aquifer, in the current study the method is validated for soil and sediment samples from different sites that cover a wide range of organic matter origin, age, and organic content. All 10 soil and sediment samples studied had log Koc values for the opaque particles between 5.6 and 6.8. This range of Koc values illustrates the heterogeneity of opaque particles between sites and geological formations and thus the need to characterize the opaque fraction of materials on a site-by-site basis. PMID:11770772

Karapanagioti, H K; Childs, J; Sabatini, D A

2001-12-01

369

SALI chemical analysis of provided samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SRI has completed the chemical analysis of all the samples supplied by NASA. The final batch of four samples consisted of: one inch diameter MgF2 mirror, control 1200-ID-FL3; one inch diameter neat resin, PMR-15, AO171-IV-55, half exposed and half unexposed; one inch diameter chromic acid anodized, EOIM-3 120-47 aluminum disc; and AO-exposed and unexposed samples of fullerene extract material in powdered form, pressed into In foil for analysis. Chemical analyses of the surfaces were performed by the surface analysis by laser ionization (SALI) method. The analyses emphasize surface contamination or general organic composition. SALI uses nonselective photoionization of sputtered or desorbed atoms and molecules above but close (approximately one mm) to the surface, followed by time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. In these studies, we used laser-induced desorption by 5-ns pulse-width 355-nm light (10-100 mJ/sq cm) and single-photon ionization (SPI) by coherent 118-nm radiation (at approximately 5 x 10(exp 5) W/sq cm). SPI was chosen primarily for its ability to obtain molecular information, whereas multiphoton ionization (not used in the present studies) is intended primarily for elemental and small molecule information. In addition to these four samples, the Au mirror (EOIM-3 200-11, sample four) was depth profiled again. Argon ion sputtering was used together with photoionization with intense 355-nm radiation (35-ps pulsewidths). Depth profiles are similar to those reported earlier, showing reproducibility. No chromium was found in the sample above noise level; its presence could at most be at the trace level. Somewhat more Ni appears to be present in the Au layer in the unexposed side, indicating thermal diffusion without chemical enhancement. The result of the presence of oxygen is apparently to tie-up/draw out the Ni as an oxide at the surface. The exposed region has a brownish tint appearance to the naked eye.

Becker, Christopher H.

1993-01-01

370

Analysis and modeling of soil moisture in Jiangsu, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are large uncertainties in the observation of soil moisture. This study compares the two observation datasets of soil moisture data, including automatic and manual measurements, in Jiangsu Province, China from 2010 to 2012. More than 30 automatic monitoring instruments of soil moisture have been installed in Jiangsu since 2010. However, the automatic stations show various uncertainties, including improper site selection, such as shallow soil depth on rocks, underground river, and artificial soil. Compared to the manual observations, the values of automatic observations usually are lower, except for over saturation condition. With increasing soil depths, soil moisture of automatic observation becomes more stable with less variance and shows larger discrepancies with manual observations. Automatic measurements have greater advantage in temporal and spatial coverage, and indicate better relationship with observed precipitation patterns. At eight depths from 10 cm to 100 cm, manual soil moisture observations largely fluctuate than automatic ones, especially under relatively dry conditions. In general, observation errors in automatic measurements need careful analysis, and automatic measurements with quality control are more accurate in representing real soil moisture, and are less influenced by precipitation conditions. Also, the observed soil moisture data is used to evaluate the simulated soil moisture using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the global forecast system (GFS) model in July, 2012. Both models select the Noah land surface model and produce soil moisture for four layers. Several extremely dry periods are also investigated to predict potential drought using soil moisture.

Yuan, H.; Sun, R.; Fei, Q.

2013-12-01

371

Sedimentation Time Measurements of Soil Particles by Light Scattering and Determination of Chromium, Lead, and Iron in Soil Samples via ICP  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of soil samples, using light scattering and Inductively Coupled Plasma spectrometry (ICP) to determine colloid sedimentation rates and the quantity of chromium, lead, and iron in the sample is described. It shows the physical and chemical behavior of solid components in soil, and how such pollutant binding colloid surfaces directly…

Todebush, Patricia Metthe; Geiger, Franz M.

2005-01-01

372

Soil moisture optimal sampling strategy for Sentinel 1 validation super-sites in Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture (SM) exhibits a high temporal and spatial variability that is dependent not only on the rainfall distribution, but also on the topography of the area, physical properties of soil and vegetation characteristics. Large variability does not allow on certain estimation of SM in the surface layer based on ground point measurements, especially in large spatial scales. Remote sensing measurements allow estimating the spatial distribution of SM in the surface layer on the Earth, better than point measurements, however they require validation. This study attempts to characterize the SM distribution by determining its spatial variability in relation to the number and location of ground point measurements. The strategy takes into account the gravimetric and TDR measurements with different sampling steps, abundance and distribution of measuring points on scales of arable field, wetland and commune (areas: 0.01, 1 and 140 km2 respectively), taking into account the different status of SM. Mean values of SM were lowly sensitive on changes in the number and arrangement of sampling, however parameters describing the dispersion responded in a more significant manner. Spatial analysis showed autocorrelations of the SM, which lengths depended on the number and the distribution of points within the adopted grids. Directional analysis revealed a differentiated anisotropy of SM for different grids and numbers of measuring points. It can therefore be concluded that both the number of samples, as well as their layout on the experimental area, were reflected in the parameters characterizing the SM distribution. This suggests the need of using at least two variants of sampling, differing in the number and positioning of the measurement points, wherein the number of them must be at least 20. This is due to the value of the standard error and range of spatial variability, which show little change with the increase in the number of samples above this figure. Gravimetric method gives a more varied distribution of SM than those derived from TDR measurements. It should be noted that reducing the number of samples in the measuring grid leads to flattening the distribution of SM from both methods and increasing the estimation error at the same time. Grid of sensors for permanent measurement points should include points that have similar distributions of SM in the vicinity. Results of the analysis including number, the maximum correlation ranges and the acceptable estimation error should be taken into account when choosing of the measurement points. Adoption or possible adjustment of the distribution of the measurement points should be verified by performing additional measuring campaigns during the dry and wet periods. Presented approach seems to be appropriate for creation of regional-scale test (super) sites, to validate products of satellites equipped with SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), operating in C-band, with spatial resolution suited to single field scale, as for example: ERS-1, ERS-2, Radarsat and Sentinel-1, which is going to be launched in next few months. The work was partially funded by the Government of Poland through an ESA Contract under the PECS ELBARA_PD project No. 4000107897/13/NL/KML.

Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lukowski, Mateusz; Marczewski, Wojciech; Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Jerzy; Rojek, Edyta; Slominska, Ewa; Slominski, Jan

2014-05-01

373

Automatic analysis of immunocytochemically stained tissue samples.  

PubMed

An automatic colour image segmentation and cell counting software system has been developed for immunocytochemical analysis of stained tissue samples. The system was designed to count the total number of positive and negative cells in tissue samples treated with cytokine DNA probes from pigs naturally parasitised with Taenia solium metacestodes, using in situ hybridisation. A reaction index was calculated as the ratio of the number of cells with a positive reaction to the total number of cells (positives plus negatives) for each of five different probes. The objectives of automatic counting were to improve the reproducibility of the analysis and reduce the processing time of large image batches. A fast KNN classifier was used for colour segmentation. Watershed segmentation combined with edge detection was used to isolate individual cells that were then automatically labelled, using the results of the corresponding colour segmented image. Validation was performed on 122 non-training digital images with a total of 1069 positive cells and 1459 negative cells, with the following results: a mean true positive rate of 90.2% for positive cells and a mean true positive rate of 85.4% for negative cells. The corresponding mean false positive rates were 9.6% and 6.6%. The mean reaction index error of the automatic analysis was 5.35%. The processing of each digital image took 10 s on a Pentium IV PC. PMID:16411641

Arámbula Cosío, F; Márquez Flores, J A; Padilla Castañeda, M A; Solano, S; Tato, P

2005-09-01

374

Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory`s many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory`s boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department.

NONE

1994-12-31

375

Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus.

Rossabi, Joseph (105 Michael Ct., Aiken, SC 29801); May, Christopher P. (5002 Hesperus Dr., Columbia, MD 21044); Pemberton, Bradley E. (131 Glencarin Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Shinn, Jim (Box 65, RFD. #1, South Royalton, VT 05068); Sprague, Keith (Box 234 Rte. 14, Brookfield, VT 05036)

1999-01-01

376

The influence of humidity on the electromagnetic wave propagation parameters in natural cohesive soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples from cohesive soil horizons, with different physical properties were extracted from boreholes made across the Timis Plain, West Romania region, with the aim of determining their electromagnetic properties. The frequency (?) and volumetric water content (?) dependencies of the complex dielectric permittivity, ?r(?) = ?'(?)-j?''eff(?) and complex magnetic permeability, ?r(?) = ?'(?)-j?''(?) of the soil samples, over the frequency range of 10kHz to 2MHz, have been investigated. Using the complex dielectric and magnetic measurements for various volumetric water content values, the frequency (?) dependence of the attenuation parameter, ?, the phase constant, ?, the propagation constant, ?, and the reflection coefficient, R, was determined. The results are correlated with the dielectric relaxation and electric conductivity absorption processes over the investigated frequency range. The data obtained is very important for different applications of nondestructive testing on soils, and in evaluating the data obtained from ground-penetrating radar (GPR) investigations.

Totoreanu, R.; Malaescu, I.

2012-08-01

377

Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus. 8 figs.

Rossabi, J.; May, C.P.; Pemberton, B.E.; Shinn, J.; Sprague, K.

1999-03-30

378

Analysis of grounding systems in soils with hemispherical layering  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical model for the analysis of grounding systems located inside or near hemispherical soil heterogeneities is presented for the first time. Exact closed-form analytical expressions for the earth potential calculations due to current sources in different regions of this soil structure have been obtained. Numerical results are presented for different grounding systems and for different types of hemispherical soil volumes. The results clearly show that these finite hemispherical soil heterogeneities have a significant influence on the performance of grounding systems. The results obtained are in agreement with well known simple case results and converge asymptotically to the uniform soil case.

Ma, J.; Dawalibi, F.P. (Safe Engineering Services and Technologies Ltd., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Daily, W.K. (Florida Power Light, Juno Beach, FL (United States))

1993-10-01

379

Observations from TEM Analysis of Swift Creek Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) from suspended sediments in Swift Creek have unique characteristics compared to other naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) sites across the country. Our first introduction to the uniqueness of the Swift Creek site came about when we analyzed soil sediments by polarized light microscopy (PLM) and found relatively low or nonexistent levels of chrysotile asbestos. Upon submission of these samples for TEM analysis, we found that the samples were literally filled with small chrysotile fibers and bundles. We also notice a high number of dark, rounded particles which were not asbestiform. Out of curiosity, we viewed the surface features of one of these particles using scanning electron microscopy to find compacted chrysotile fibers bundled inside these particles. These particles contained the vast majority of chrysotile in the sample. This finding began our approach to provide more advanced TEM/SEM methods for identifying and characterizing complex arrangements of asbestos from NOA sites. We will present some of our experiences and methods for characterizing these types of particles common to NOA sites.

Harris, J. R.

2012-12-01

380

Optimal spatial stratification in design-based sampling using digital soil maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design-based method for sampling is most appropriate for estimating the total or average concentration in an area. The efficiency of a sampling scheme, in terms of precision and cost, is mostly governed by the distribution of the sampling units in the space-time universe. It is known that optimal stratification and allocation of sample sizes will lead to higher accuracy and lower cost of estimation. There are various stratification strategies that have been proposed: equal area, and stratification by ancillary variables, and stratification based on digital soil maps. Equal-area stratification works best if no information on an area is available. However in most situations ancillary variables will be available for the area. Here we can recognise the readily (and cheaply) available information: digital elevation models and aerial photography or satellite imagery or land use information. In addition, soil property map (of the target variable) along with its uncertainty generated from digital mapping approaches can be used. Here we propose an optimum method for stratification based on map of the target variable (soil pH) which takes into account geographical coordinates, model predictions and its uncertainty. An application of the technique for estimating the mean soil pH in a farm in New South Wales will be illustrated.

de Gruijter, Jaap; McBratney, Alex; Minasny, Budiman

2014-05-01

381

RATIONALE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF ERRORS IN THE SAMPLING OF SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

The sampling of soils in RCRA and Superfund monitoring programs requires associated quality assurance programs. ne objective of any quality assurance program is to assess and document the quality of the study data to ensure that it satisfies the needs of the users. he purpose of ...

382

Tissue sample collection for proteomics analysis.  

PubMed

Successful collection of tissue samples for molecular analysis requires critical considerations. We describe here our procedure for tissue specimen collection for proteomic purposes with emphasis on the most important steps, including timing issues and the procedures for immediate freezing, storage, and microdissection of the cells of interest or "tissue targets" and the lysates for protein isolation for SELDI, MALDI, and 2DGE applications. The pathologist is at the cornerstone of this process and is an invaluable collaborator. In most institutions, pathologists are responsible for "tissue custody," and they closely supervise the tissue bank. In addition, they are optimally trained in histopathology in order to they assist investigators to correlate tissue morphology with molecular findings. In recent years, the advent of the laser capture microscope, a tool ideally designed for pathologists, has tremendously facilitated the efficiency of collecting tissue targets for molecular analysis. PMID:18287767

Diaz, Jose I; Cazares, Lisa H; Semmes, O John

2008-01-01

383

Conceptual designs for in situ analysis of Mars soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A goal of this research is to develop conceptual designs for instrumentation to perform in situ measurements of the Martian soil in order to determine the existence and nature of any reactive chemicals. Our approach involves assessment and critical review of the Viking biology results which indicated the presence of a soil oxidant, an investigation of the possible application of standard soil science techniques to the analysis of Martian soil, and a preliminary consideration of non-standard methods that may be necessary for use in the highly oxidizing Martian soil. Based on our preliminary analysis, we have developed strawman concepts for standard soil analysis on Mars, including pH, suitable for use on a Mars rover mission. In addition, we have devised a method for the determination of the possible strong oxidants on Mars.

Mckay, C. P.; Zent, A. P.; Hartman, H.

1991-01-01

384

[Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil around Haining electroplating industrial park].  

PubMed

The pollution status and potential ecological risks of heavy metal in soils around Haining electroplating industrial park were studied. Hakanson index approach was used to assess the ecological hazards of heavy metals in soils. Results showed that average concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) in the soils were lower than the secondary criteria of environmental quality standard for soils, indicating limited harmful effects on the plants and the environment in general. Though the average soil concentrations were low, heavy metal concentrations in six sampling points located at the side of road still exceeded the criteria, with excessive rate of 13%. Statistic analysis showed that concentrations of Cu and Cd in roadside soils were significantly higher than those in non-roadside soils, indicating that the excessive heavy metal accumulations in the soil closely related with traffic transport. The average potential ecological hazard index of soils around Haining electroplating industrial park was 46.6, suggesting a slightly ecological harm. However, the potential ecological hazard index of soils with excessive heavy metals was 220-278, suggesting the medium ecological hazards. Cd was the most seriously ecological hazard factor. PMID:24946611

Li, Jiong-Hui; Weng, Shan; Fang, Jing; Huang, Jia-Lei; Lu, Fang-Hua; Lu, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Ming

2014-04-01

385

Measurement of radon potential from soil using a special method of sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil radon gas and/or its exhalation rate are used as indicators for some applications, such as uranium exploration, indoor radon concentration, seismic activity, location of subsurface faults, etc., and also in the studies where the main interest is the field verification of radon transport models. This work proposes a versatile method for the soil radon sampling using a special manner of pumping. The soil gas is passed through a column of charcoal by using passive pumping. A plastic bottle filled with water is coupled to an activated charcoal column and the flow of water through an adjustable hole made at the bottom of bottle assures a controlled gas flow from the soil. The results obtained for the activity of activated charcoal are in the range of 20-40 kBq/m3, for a depth of approximately 0.8 m. The results obtained by this method were confirmed by simultaneous measurements using LUK 3C device for soil radon measurements. Possible applications for the estimation of radon soil potential are discussed.

Cosma, Constantin; Papp, Botond; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Victor; Cindea, Ciprian; Suciu, Liviu; Apostu, Adelina

2010-10-01

386

Tank 241AP102 Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This tank sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the head space of tank 241-AP-102. Sampling will be performed in accordance with ''Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis'' (Air DQO) (Mulkey 1999). The sample results will

2001-01-01

387

Detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in Complex Soil and Air Samples Using Next-Generation Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Bacillus anthracis is the potentially lethal etiologic agent of anthrax disease, and is a significant concern in the realm of biodefense. One of the cornerstones of an effective biodefense strategy is the ability to detect infectious agents with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in the context of a complex sample background. The nature of the B. anthracis genome, however, renders specific detection difficult, due to close homology with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We therefore elected to determine the efficacy of next-generation sequencing analysis and microarrays for detection of B. anthracis in an environmental background. We applied next-generation sequencing to titrated genome copy numbers of B. anthracis in the presence of background nucleic acid extracted from aerosol and soil samples. We found next-generation sequencing to be capable of detecting as few as 10 genomic equivalents of B. anthracis DNA per nanogram of background nucleic acid. Detection was accomplished by mapping reads to either a defined subset of reference genomes or to the full GenBank database. Moreover, sequence data obtained from B. anthracis could be reliably distinguished from sequence data mapping to either B. cereus or B. thuringiensis. We also demonstrated the efficacy of a microbial census microarray in detecting B. anthracis in the same samples, representing a cost-effective and high-throughput approach, complementary to next-generation sequencing. Our results, in combination with the capacity of sequencing for providing insights into the genomic characteristics of complex and novel organisms, suggest that these platforms should be considered important components of a biosurveillance strategy.

Be, Nicholas A.; Thissen, James B.; Gardner, Shea N.; McLoughlin, Kevin S.; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y.; Koshinsky, Heather; Ellingson, Sally R.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Jackson, Paul J.; Jaing, Crystal J.

2013-01-01

388

Rapid method for recovery of strongylid third stage larvae of parasitic nematodes from small soil samples.  

PubMed

Livestock with access to pasture is generally exposed to infections with parasitic nematode species by uptake of infective third stage larvae (L3) with the grass. L3 can survive on pasture and particularly also in the soil up to several months and sometimes even longer, depending on temperature and humidity. As indicators for health and productivity of grazing animals it is important to determine the intensity and species spectrum of parasitic nematode larvae by analysing grass as well as soil samples. A rapid method for the recovery of L3 using a centrifugal-flotation technique from soil samples of 50-500g was developed. The method takes advantage of the low specific weight of larvae to separate them from equal sized soil and debris particles by centrifuging them in a saturated sugar solution. A stack of differently sized sieves is used to achieve elimination of larger particles, dust and sugar from the sample to enable easy counting of larvae. Independent of the number of larvae used for inoculation of the samples a mean recovery of 75.3% was obtained. The recovery rates obtained ranged between 60.8% and 88.0% which demonstrates a considerably lower variability compared to earlier approaches and therefore a more precise estimation of the actual numbers of parasite larvae in soil is achieved. Further advantages over already developed methods are the use of easy, affordable and eco-friendly materials, the simplicity of the procedure and a faster processing time with the possibility to examine up to 20 samples per day. PMID:24768626

Knapp-Lawitzke, Friederike; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina

2014-07-01

389

Analysis of Soil Chemical Properties of Sand-Based Turfgrass Rootzone Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DRIFT) in near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) regions in conjunction with partial least square regression analysis for sand-based turfgrass soils, soil samples were collected from greens 6 to 9-yr-old, composed of two rootzone mixtures and two establishment fertilization regimes, and different depths (surface to 7.6 cm in 12 layers). Mid-infrared and NIR spectroscopy

Lei Han; Deying Li; Wenjuan Fang; Yichun Wang; Roch Gaussoin

2012-01-01

390

Regional-Scale Analysis of Soil Microbial Biomass and Soil Basal CO2Respiration in Northeastern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional-scale surveys of soil microbiological, physical and chemical properties related to soil quality indication were performed across the northeastern German lowland. It was hypothesized, soil microbiological properties would follow spatial patterns and trends of soil physical and chemical properties across the region, being detectable via a regional transect sampling strategy. At each of 89 cereal crop cultivation sites along a

Stephan J. Wirth

391

Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessments, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessments, and studies in medical geology. This Microsoft Access database serves as a data archive in support of present and future Alaskan geologic and geochemical projects, and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses. The analytical results were determined by 85 laboratory and field analytical methods on 264,095 rock, sediment, soil, mineral and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed in USGS laboratories or, under contracts, in commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects from 1962 to 2009. In addition, mineralogical data from 18,138 nonmagnetic heavy mineral concentrate samples are included in this database. The AGDB includes historical geochemical data originally archived in the USGS Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database, used from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s and the USGS PLUTO database used from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. All of these data are currently maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB were used to generate most of the AGDB data set. These data were checked for accuracy regarding sample location, sample media type, and analytical methods used. This arduous process of reviewing, verifying and, where necessary, editing all USGS geochemical data resulted in a significantly improved Alaska geochemical dataset. USGS data that were not previously in the NGDB because the data predate the earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons, are included here in the AGDB and will be added to the NGDB. The AGDB data provided here are the most accurate and complete to date, and should be useful for a wide variety of geochemical studies. The AGDB data provided in the linked database may be updated or changed periodically. The data on the DVD and in the data downloads provided with this report are current as of date of publication.

Granitto, Matthew; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Labay, Keith A.

2011-01-01

392

DenNit – Experimental analysis and modelling of soil N 2 O efflux in response on changes of soil water content, soil temperature, soil pH, nutrient availability and the time after rain event  

Microsoft Academic Search

To quantify the effects of soil temperature (Tsoil), and relative soil water content (RSWC) on soil N2O emission we measured N2O soil efflux with a closed dynamic chamber in situ in the field and from soil cores in a controlled climate chamber experiment. Additionally we analysed the effect of soil acidity, ammonium, and nitrate concentration in the field. The analysis

Sascha Reth; Kerstin Hentschel; Matthias Drösler; Eva Falge

2005-01-01

393

A meta-analysis of the publicly available bacterial and archaeal sequence diversity in saline soils.  

PubMed

An integrated view of bacterial and archaeal diversity in saline soil habitats is essential for understanding the biological and ecological processes and exploiting potential of microbial resources from such environments. This study examined the collective bacterial and archaeal diversity in saline soils using a meta-analysis approach. All available 16S rDNA sequences recovered from saline soils were retrieved from publicly available databases and subjected to phylogenetic and statistical analyses. A total of 9,043 bacterial and 1,039 archaeal sequences, each longer than 250 bp, were examined. The bacterial sequences were assigned into 5,784 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, based on ?97 % sequence identity), representing 24 known bacterial phyla, with Proteobacteria (44.9 %), Actinobacteria (12.3 %), Firmicutes (10.4 %), Acidobacteria (9.0 %), Bacteroidetes (6.8 %), and Chloroflexi (5.9 %) being predominant. Lysobacter (12.8 %) was the dominant bacterial genus in saline soils, followed by Sphingomonas (4.5 %), Halomonas (2.5 %), and Gemmatimonas (2.5 %). Archaeal sequences were assigned to 602 OTUs, primarily from the phyla Euryarchaeota (88.7 %) and Crenarchaeota (11.3 %). Halorubrum and Thermofilum were the dominant archaeal genera in saline soils. Rarefaction analysis indicated that less than 25 % of bacterial diversity, and approximately 50 % of archaeal diversity, in saline soil habitats has been sampled. This analysis of the global bacterial and archaeal diversity in saline soil habitats can guide future studies to further examine the microbial diversity of saline soils. PMID:23756871

Ma, Bin; Gong, Jun

2013-12-01

394

Continuum soil modeling in the static analysis of buried structures  

SciTech Connect

Soil loading traditionally has been modeled as a hydrostatic pressure, a practice acceptable for many design applications. In the analyses of buried structure with predictive goals, soil compliance and load redistribution in the presence of soil plasticity are important factors to consider in determining the appropriate response of the structure. In the analysis of existing buried waste-storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, three soil-tank interaction modeling considerations are addressed. First, the soil interacts with the tank as the tank expands and contracts during thermal cycles associated with changes in the heat generated by the waste material as a result of additions and subtractions of the waste. Second, the soil transfers loads from the surface to the tank and provides support by resisting radial displacement of the tank haunch. Third, conventional finite-element mesh development causes artificial stress concentrations in the soil associated with differential settlement.

Julyk, L.J.; Marlow, R.S.; Moore, C.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Day, J.P.; Dyrness, A.D. [Advent Engineering Services, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)

1993-10-01

395

Tank 241BY106 rotary core sampling and analysis plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples and one rotary mode core sample from tank 241-BY-106.

Bell

1995-01-01

396

Investigating the Impact of Storage Conditions on Microbial Community Composition in Soil Samples  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have allowed scientists to probe increasingly complex biological systems, including the diversity of bacteria in the environment. However, despite a multitude of recent studies incorporating these methods, many questions regarding how environmental samples should be collected and stored still persist. Here, we assess the impact of different soil storage conditions on microbial community composition using Illumina-based 16S rRNA V4 amplicon sequencing. Both storage time and temperature affected bacterial community composition and structure. Frozen samples maintained the highest alpha diversity and differed least in beta diversity, suggesting the utility of cold storage for maintaining consistent communities. Samples stored for intermediate times (three and seven days) had both the highest alpha diversity and the largest differences in overall beta diversity, showing the degree of community change after sample collection. These divergences notwithstanding, differences in neither storage time nor storage temperature substantially altered overall communities relative to more than 500 previously examined soil samples. These results systematically support previous studies and stress the importance of methodological consistency for accurate characterization and comparison of soil microbiological assemblages.

Rubin, Benjamin E. R.; Gibbons, Sean M.; Kennedy, Suzanne; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Owens, Sarah; Gilbert, Jack A.

2013-01-01

397

Subcritical water extractor for Mars analog soil analysis.  

PubMed

Abstract Technologies that enable rapid and efficient extraction of biomarker compounds from various solid matrices are a critical requirement for the successful implementation of in situ chemical analysis of the martian regolith. Here, we describe a portable subcritical water extractor that mimics multiple organic solvent polarities by tuning the dielectric constant of liquid water through adjustment of temperature and pressure. Soil samples, collected from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert (martian regolith analogue) in the summer of 2005, were used to test the instrument's performance. The total organic carbon was extracted from the samples at concentrations of 0.2-55.4 parts per million. The extraction data were compared to the total organic carbon content in the bulk soil, which was determined via a standard analytical procedure. The instrument's performance was examined over the temperature range of 25-250 degrees C at a fixed pressure of 20.7 MPa. Under these conditions, water remains in a subcritical fluid state with a dielectric constant varying between approximately 80 (at 25 degrees C) and approximately 30 (at 250 degrees C). PMID:18680410

Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank J; Patrick, Steven B; Yung, Pun To

2008-06-01

398

Meiothermus terrae sp. nov., isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated strain YIM 77755(T), was isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Cells of the strain were rod-shaped and colonies were yellow and circular. Growth occurred in 0-1?% (w/v) NaCl, at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and at 35-55 °C (optimum, 50 °C). The predominant menaquinone was MK-8 and the DNA G+C content was 68.9 mol%. Major fatty acids (>10?%) were anteiso-C15?:?0 and iso-C15?:?0. The polar lipids consisted of an uncharacterized phospholipid and four glycolipids. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM 77755(T) formed a cluster with Meiothermus chliarophilus ALT-8(T) and showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to M. chliarophilus ALT-8(T) (98.23?%). DNA-DNA relatedness between YIM 77755(T) and M. chliarophilus DSM 9957(T) was 54.9±4.1?%. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as genotypic data, it is proposed that strain YIM 77755(T) represents a novel species of the genus Meiothermus, named Meiothermus terrae sp. nov. The type strain is YIM 77755(T) (?=?DSM 26712(T)?=?CCTCC AB 2012942(T)). PMID:24215822

Yu, Tian-Tian; Yin, Yi-Rui; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Wang, Hong-Fei; Ming, Hong; Zhou, En-Min; Li, Wen-Jun

2014-03-01

399

Insights into bacterial cellulose biosynthesis by functional metagenomics on Antarctic soil samples.  

PubMed

In this study, the mining of an Antarctic soil sample by functional metagenomics allowed the isolation of a cold-adapted protein (RBcel1) that hydrolyzes only carboxymethyl cellulose. The new enzyme is related to family 5 of the glycosyl hydrolase (GH5) protein from Pseudomonas stutzeri (Pst_2494) and does not possess a carbohydrate-binding domain. The protein was produced and purified to homogeneity. RBcel1 displayed an endoglucanase activity, producing cellobiose and cellotriose, using carboxymethyl cellulose as a substrate. Moreover, the study of pH and the thermal dependence of the hydrolytic activity shows that RBcel1 was active from pH 6 to pH 9 and remained significantly active when temperature decreased (18% of activity at 10 degrees C). It is interesting that RBcel1 was able to synthetize non-reticulated cellulose using cellobiose as a substrate. Moreover, by a combination of bioinformatics and enzyme analysis, the physiological relevance of the RBcel1 protein and its mesophilic homologous Pst_2494 protein from P. stutzeri, A1501, was established as the key enzymes involved in the production of cellulose by bacteria. In addition, RBcel1 and Pst_2494 are the two primary enzymes belonging to the GH5 family involved in this process. PMID:19458657

Berlemont, Renaud; Delsaute, Maud; Pipers, Delphine; D'Amico, Salvino; Feller, Georges; Galleni, Moreno; Power, Pablo

2009-09-01

400

Radiation hazard indices of soil and water samples in Northern Malaysian Peninsula.  

PubMed

The radioactivity quantity and quality were determined in soil and water samples in Northern Malaysian Peninsula (NMP) using HPGe spectroscopy and GR-135 spectrometer. The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K concentrations in soil samples are 57±2, 68±4 and 427±17 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas in water samples were found to be 2.86±0.79, 3.78±1.73 and 152±12 Bq l(-1), respectively. These concentrations are within those reported from literature in other countries in the world. The radiological hazard indices of the samples were also calculated. The mean values obtained from soil samples are 186 Bq kg(-1), 88 nGy h(-1), 108 ?Sv y(-1), 0.50 and 0.65 for Radium Equivalent Activity (Ra(eq)), Absorbed Dose Rates (D(R)), Annual Effective Dose Rates (ED), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively, whereas, for water samples were found to be 20, 10, 13, 0.05 and 0.06, respectively. All the health hazard indices are well below their recommended limits, except in two soil sampling sites which were found to be (*)025 (1.1 H(ex)) and (*)026 (1.1 H(ex), 1.6 H(in)). The calculated and the measured gamma dose rates had a good correlation coefficient, R=0.88. Moreover, the average value radon is 20 (in the range of 7-64) Bq m(-3), a positive correlation (R=0.81) was observed between the (222)Rn and (226)Ra concentrations in samples measured by the SNC continuous radon monitor (model 1029, Sun Nuclear Corporation) and HPGe detector, respectively. Some soils in this study with H(in) and H(ex)<1 are suitable for use in agriculture and as building materials. Also, in this study H(in) and H(ex)<1 for water samples, therefore, water after processing and filtration is safe and suitable for use in household and industrial purposes. PMID:22982603

Almayahi, B A; Tajuddin, A A; Jaafar, M S

2012-11-01

401

Stochastic analysis of soil water regime in a watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hopmans, J.W. and Stricker, J.N.M., 1989. Stochastic analysis of soil water regime in a watershed. J. Hydrol., 105: 57-84. A stochastic-deterministic one-dimensional model is proposed that simulates soil water flow for variable soil hydraulic properties and variable lower boundary conditions. These variations were determined by a normalization procedure which yields a scaled mean or reference curve and a set of

J. W. HOPMANS; J. N. M. STRICKER

1989-01-01

402

Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples, held in Milpitas, California, January 16-18, 1989. Conveners are Sherwood Chang (NASA Ames Research Center) and Larry Nyquist (NASA Johnson Space Center). Program Committee members are Thomas Ahrens (ex-officio; California Institute of Technology), Lou Allamandola (NASA Ames Research Center), David Blake (NASA Ames Research Center), Donald Brownlee (University of Washington, Seattle), Theodore E. Bunch (NASA Ames Research Center), Humberto Campins (Planetary Science Institute), Jeff Cuzzi (NASA Ames Research Center), Eberhard Griin (Max-Plank-Institut fiir Kemphysik), Martha Hanner (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Alan Harris (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), John Kerrid-e (University of Califomia, Los Angeles), Yves Langevin (University of Paris), Gerhard Schwehm (ESTEC), and Paul Weissman (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Logistics and administrative support for the workshop were provided by the Lunar and Planetary Institute Projects Office.

Chang, Sherwood (Compiler)

1997-01-01

403

Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples, held in Milpitas, California, January 16-18, 1989. Conveners are Sherwood Chang (NASA Ames Research Center) and Larry Nyquist (NASA Johnson Space Center). Program Committee members are Thomas Ahrens (ex-officio; California Institute of Technology), Lou Allamandola (NASA Ames Research Center), David Blake (NASA Ames Research Center), Donald Brownlee (University of Washington, Seattle), Theodore E. Bunch (NASA Ames Research Center), Humberto Campins (Planetary Science Institute), Jeff Cuzzi (NASA Ames Research Center), Eberhard Griin (Max-Plank-Institut fiir Kemphysik), Martha Hanner (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Alan Harris (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), John Kerrid-e (University of Califomia, Los Angeles), Yves Langevin (University of Paris), Gerhard Schwehm (ESTEC), and Paul Weissman (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Logistics and administrative support for the workshop were provided by the Lunar and Planetary Institute Projects Office.

Chang, Sherwood

1997-12-01

404

Hydro-chemo-mechanical processes in soil samples: monitoring through electrical resistivity tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical conductivity of a soil can be related to the electrical conductivity of its solid and fluid constituents by means of theoretical and empirical relationships, taking into account the effect of porosity, saturation degree, fabric and clay content. Hence monitoring the evolution of the electrical conductivity inside a soil sample can provide useful information concerning the progress of hydro-chemomechanical processes and the subsequent effects on both soil skeleton and pore water. With this aim a laboratory apparatus for 3D electrical resistivity tomography has been recently developed. Some applications of this apparatus to the monitoring of different geotechnical processes in which the knowledge of the water content and of ionic concentration is particularly relevant are presented.

Comina, C.; Cosentini, R.; Della Vecchia, G.; Foti, S.; Musso, G.

2010-06-01

405

Response surface methodology for the microwave-assisted extraction of insecticides from soil samples.  

PubMed

The extraction of two pyrethroid insecticides (deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin) together with three organophosphorus insecticides (dimethoate, diazinon and malathion) from soil samples was carried out with microwave-assisted technology. Experimental designs showed that extraction temperature, addition of water to the extractant and solvent/soil ratio were the variables that affected the recoveries of the pesticide the most. Response surface methodology was applied to find the optimum values of the variables involved in the extractions of the analytes. In addition, in order to achieve near-optimal extraction conditions, a desirability function was used to optimize the five pesticides simultaneously. The optimized conditions were applied to different types of soils. PMID:17628792

Hernández-Soriano, M Carmen; Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, M Dolores

2007-09-01

406

Accounting for 222Rn loss during oven drying for the immediate laboratory gamma-ray spectroscopy of collected soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drying soil samples in an oven to remove water alters the 222Rn emanation rate. Measurements of the oven drying 222Rn emanation rate from soil were made with a continuous radon monitor and the degree of 222Rn disequilibrium was quantified by laboratory gamma-ray spectroscopy. This paper presents a disequilibrium correction where the 226Ra activity in oven-dried soil samples is inferred from

R. R