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Sample records for soil treatment session

  1. Informal Discussions in Substance Abuse Treatment Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Steve; Ball, Samuel A.; Nich, Charla; Frankforter, Tami L.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which counselors initiated informal discussions (i.e., general discussions and self-disclosures about matters unrelated to treatment) with their clients during treatment sessions within two National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trial Network protocols involving adaptations of motivational interviewing (MI). Sixty counselors across the two protocols had 736 sessions independently rated for counselor treatment fidelity and the occurrence of informal discussions. The results showed that 88% of the counselors initiated informal discussions in their sessions and that the majority of these discussions involved counselors sharing personal information or experiences they had in common with their clients. The major finding was that counselor training in MI was associated with significantly less informal discussion across sessions. A higher frequency of informal discussion was related to less counselor MI proficiency and less in-session change in client motivation, though unrelated to client program retention and substance use outcomes. The findings suggest that while some informal discussion may help build an alliance between counselors and clients, too much of it may hinder counselors' proficient implementation of MI treatment strategies and the clients' motivational enhancement process. PMID:18835679

  2. Assessing treatment integrity in cognitive-behavioral therapy: comparing session segments with entire sessions.

    PubMed

    Weck, Florian; Grikscheit, Florian; Höfling, Volkmar; Stangier, Ulrich

    2014-07-01

    The evaluation of treatment integrity (therapist adherence and competence) is a necessary condition to ensure the internal and external validity of psychotherapy research. However, the evaluation process is associated with high costs, because therapy sessions must be rated by experienced clinicians. It is debatable whether rating session segments is an adequate alternative to rating entire sessions. Four judges evaluated treatment integrity (i.e., therapist adherence and competence) in 84 randomly selected videotapes of cognitive-behavioral therapy for major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and hypochondriasis (from three different treatment outcome studies). In each case, two judges provided ratings based on entire therapy sessions and two on session segments only (i.e., the middle third of the entire sessions). Interrater reliability of adherence and competence evaluations proved satisfactory for ratings based on segments and the level of reliability did not differ from ratings based on entire sessions. Ratings of treatment integrity that were based on entire sessions and session segments were strongly correlated (r=.62 for adherence and r=.73 for competence). The relationship between treatment integrity and outcome was comparable for ratings based on session segments and those based on entire sessions. However, significant relationships between therapist competence and therapy outcome were only found in the treatment of social anxiety disorder. Ratings based on segments proved to be adequate for the evaluation of treatment integrity. The findings demonstrate that session segments are an adequate and cost-effective alternative to entire sessions for the evaluation of therapist adherence and competence. PMID:24912466

  3. Assessing Client Progress Session by Session in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder: The Social Anxiety Session Change Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Sarah A.; Miller, Nathan A.; Hope, Debra A.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Juster, Harlan R.

    2008-01-01

    Frequent assessment during therapy can improve treatments and provide accountability. However, clinicians often do not monitor progress because of the time it takes to administer and score assessments. In response, the Social Anxiety Session Change Index (SASCI) was developed. The SASCI is a short, easily administered rating of subjective…

  4. Soil Classification and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This instructional unit was designed to enable students, primarily at the secondary level, to (1) classify soils according to current capability classifications of the Soil Conservation Service, (2) select treatments needed for a given soil class according to current recommendations provided by the Soil Conservation Service, and (3) interpret a…

  5. Clients' Expected Number of Counseling Sessions, Treatment Effectiveness, and Termination Status: Using Empirical Evidence to Inform Session Limit Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Smith, Amanda; Rodolfa, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Many counseling centers have session limits to accommodate the increasing number of clients who seek treatment. The current study explored clients' expectations for the number of sessions over the course of one year at a large university counseling center. In contrast to previous research that has suggested clients want ten or fewer sessions, our…

  6. One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias: A Detailed Description and Review of Treatment Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlomke, Kimberly; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2008-01-01

    One-Session Treatment (OST) is a form of massed exposure therapy for the treatment of specific phobias. OST combines exposure, participant modeling, cognitive challenges, and reinforcement in a single session, maximized to three hours. Clients are gradually exposed to steps of their fear hierarchy using therapist-directed behavioral experiments.…

  7. SOIL WASHING TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil washing is a water-based process for mechanically scrubbing soils ex-situ to remove undesirable contaminants. he process removes contaminants from soils in one of two ways: by dissolving or suspending them in the wash solution (which is later treated by conventional wastewat...

  8. A Comparative Evaluation of Minimal Therapist Contact and 15-Session Treatment for Female Orgasmic Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morokoff, Patricia J.; LoPiccolo, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Compared a four-session minimal therapist contact (MTC) program for treatment of lifelong global orgasmic dysfunction in women to a 15-session full therapist contact (FTC) program. Both programs were effective in producing female orgasm and in improving satisfaction with the sexual relationship and, for women in MTC treatment, happiness in…

  9. Anger and Violence Prevention: Enhancing Treatment Effects through Booster Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Alysha; McWhirter, Paula T.; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of booster sessions on the maintenance of intervention gains following an anger management prevention program: "Student Created Aggression Replacement Education Program" ("SCARE"). Participants who had completed the "SCARE" program a year earlier were randomly assigned into either a booster…

  10. Thermal treatment of polluted soil

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, H.; Wells, S.K.

    1995-02-01

    Thermal treatment for the remediation soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons is described. It is recommended tat a thorough analysis be performed of the situation including well monitoring and contamination testing, records review, and sampling.

  11. Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions. Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampl, Susan; Kadden, Ronald

    This manual is designed to help train substance abuse treatment counselors to conduct a brief five-session treatment intervention for adolescents with cannabis use disorders presenting for outpatient treatment. It combines two sessions of motivational enhancement therapy provided individually and three sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy…

  12. Specific Phobias in Youth: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing One-Session Treatment to a Parent-Augmented One-Session Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Fraire, Maria G; Austin, Kristin E.; Noguchi, Ryoichi J. P.; Lewis, Krystal M.; Jarrett, Matthew A.; Cunningham, Natoshia R.; Canavera, Kristin; Allen, Kristy B.; Whitmore, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine the efficacy of a parent-augmented One Session Treatment (A-OST) in treating specific phobias (SP) in youth by comparing this novel treatment to child-focused OST, a well-established treatment. Method A total of 97 youth (ages 6–15, 51.5% female, 84.5% white) who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for SP were randomized to either A-OST or OST. SPs were assessed with semi-structured diagnostic interviews, clinician improvement ratings, and parent and child improvement ratings. In addition, measures of treatment satisfaction and parental self-efficacy were obtained. Blind assessments were completed pretreatment, post-treatment, and 1-month and 6-months following treatment. Analyses were undertaken using mixed models. In addition, gender, age, internalizing/externalizing problems, parent overprotection, and parent anxiety were examined as potential predictors and moderators of treatment outcome. Results Both treatment conditions produced similar outcomes with approximately 50% of youth in both treatments diagnosis free and judged to be much or very much improved at post-treatment and 1-month follow up. At 6-month follow up, however, the treatments diverged with OST resulting in marginally superior outcomes to A-OST, contrary to predictions. Only age of child predicted treatment outcome across the two treatments (older children did better); unexpectedly, none of the variables moderated treatment outcomes. Conclusions Parent augmentation of OST produced no appreciable gains in treatment outcomes. Directions for future research are highlighted. PMID:25645164

  13. Informal Discussions in Substance Abuse Treatment Sessions with Spanish-speaking Clients

    PubMed Central

    Bamatter, Wendy; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Añez, Luis M.; Paris, Manuel; Ball, Samuel A.; Nich, Charla; Frankforter, Tami L.; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Szapocznik, Jose; Martino, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which bilingual counselors initiated informal discussions about topics that were unrelated to the treatment of their monolingual Spanish-speaking Hispanic clients in a National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trial Network protocol examining the effectiveness of motivational enhancement therapy (MET). Session audiotapes were independently rated to assess counselor treatment fidelity and the incidence of informal discussions. Eighty-three percent of the 23 counselors participating in the trial initiated informal discussions at least once in one or more of their sessions. Counselors delivering MET in the trial initiated informal discussion significantly less often than the counselors delivering standard treatment. Counselors delivering standard treatment were likely to talk informally the most when they were ethnically non-Latin. Additionally, informal discussion was found to have significant inverse correlations with client motivation to reduce substance use and client retention in treatment. These results suggest that informal discussion may have adverse consequences on Hispanic clients’ motivation for change and substance abuse treatment outcomes and that maintaining a more formal relationship in early treatment sessions may work best with Hispanic clients. Careful counselor training and supervision in MET may suppress the tendency of counselors to talk informally in sessions. PMID:20817381

  14. Neural correlates of a single-session massage treatment.

    PubMed

    Sliz, D; Smith, A; Wiebking, C; Northoff, G; Hayley, S

    2012-03-01

    The current study investigated the immediate neurophysiological effects of different types of massage in healthy adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Much attention has been given to the default mode network, a set of brain regions showing greater activity in the resting state. These regions (i.e. insula, posterior and anterior cingulate, inferior parietal and medial prefrontal cortices) have been postulated to be involved in the neural correlates of consciousness, specifically in arousal and awareness. We posit that massage would modulate these same regions given the benefits and pleasant affective properties of touch. To this end, healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: 1. Swedish massage, 2. reflexology, 3. massage with an object or 4. a resting control condition. The right foot was massaged while each participant performed a cognitive association task in the scanner. We found that the Swedish massage treatment activated the subgenual anterior and retrosplenial/posterior cingulate cortices. This increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was maintained only in the former brain region during performance of the cognitive task. Interestingly, the reflexology massage condition selectively affected the retrosplenial/posterior cingulate in the resting state, whereas massage with the object augmented the BOLD response in this region during the cognitive task performance. These findings should have implications for better understanding how alternative treatments might affect resting state neural activity and could ultimately be important for devising new targets in the management of mood disorders. PMID:22261925

  15. Japanese Cancer Association Meeting UICC International session--what is cost-effectiveness in cancer treatment?

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Kawahara, Norie; Roh, Jae Kyung; Inoue, Hajime; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Kwang-Sig; Kim, Sukyeong; Hayre, Jasdeep; Naidoo, Bhash; Wilkinson, Thomas; Fukuda, Takashi; Jang, Woo Ick; Nogimori, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    The Japan National Committee for the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and UICC-Asia Regional Office (ARO) organized an international session as part of the official program of the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Japanese Cancer Association to discuss the topic "What is cost-effectiveness in cancer treatment? " Healthcare economics are an international concern and a key issue for the UICC. The presenters and participants discussed the question of how limited medical resources can be best used to support life, which is a question that applies to both developing and industrialized countries, given that cancer treatment is putting medical systems under increasing strain. The emergence of advanced yet hugely expensive drugs has prompted discussion on methodologies for Health Technology Assessment (HTA) that seek to quantify cost and effect. The session benefited from the participation of various stakeholders, including representatives of industry, government and academia and three speakers from the Republic of Korea, an Asian country where discussion on HTA methodologies is already advanced. In addition, the session was joined by a representative of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) of the United Kingdom, which has pioneered the concept of cost-effectiveness in a medical context. The aim of the session was to advance and deepen understanding of the issue of cost-effectiveness as viewed from medical care systems in different regions. PMID:24528045

  16. Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration in electrochemotherapy to reduce the number of treatment sessions

    PubMed Central

    Tellado, Matias; Olaiz, Nahuel; Michinski, Sebastian; Marshall, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Background Electrochemotherapy (ECT), a medical treatment widely used in human patients for tumor treatment, increases bleomycin toxicity by 1000 fold in the treated area with an objective response rate of around 80%. Despite its high response rate, there are still 20% of cases in which the patients are not responding. This could be ascribed to the fact that bleomycin, when administered systemically, is not reaching the whole tumor mass properly because of the characteristics of tumor vascularization, in which case local administration could cover areas that are unreachable by systemic administration. Patients and methods We propose combined bleomycin administration, both systemic and local, using companion animals as models. We selected 22 canine patients which failed to achieve a complete response after an ECT treatment session. Eleven underwent another standard ECT session (control group), while 11 received a combined local and systemic administration of bleomycin in the second treatment session. Results According to the WHO criteria, the response rates in the combined administration group were: complete response (CR) 54% (6), partial response (PR) 36% (4), stable disease (SD) 10% (1). In the control group, these were: CR 0% (0), PR 19% (2), SD 63% (7), progressive disease (PD) 18% (2). In the combined group 91% objective responses (CR+PR) were obtained. In the control group 19% objective responses were obtained. The difference in the response rate between the treatment groups was significant (p < 0.01). Conclusions Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration was effective in previously to ECT non responding canine patients. The results indicate that this approach could be useful and effective in specific population of patients and reduce the number of treatment sessions needed to obtain an objective response. PMID:27069450

  17. Augmenting one-session treatment of children's specific phobias with attention training to positive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Waters, Allison M; Farrell, Lara J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Milliner, Ella; Tiralongo, Evelin; Donovan, Caroline L; McConnell, Harry; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the efficacy of combining two promising approaches to treating children's specific phobias, namely attention training and one 3-h session of exposure therapy ('one-session treatment', OST). Attention training towards positive stimuli (ATP) and OST (ATP+OST) was expected to have more positive effects on implicit and explicit cognitive mechanisms and clinical outcome measures than an attention training control (ATC) condition plus OST (ATC+OST). Thirty-seven children (6-17 years) with a specific phobia were randomly assigned to ATP+OST or ATC+OST. In ATP+OST, children completed 160 trials of attention training responding to a probe that always followed the happy face in happy-angry face pairs. In ATC+OST, the probe appeared equally often after angry and happy faces. In the same session, children completed OST targeting their phobic situation/object. Clinical outcomes included clinician, parent and child report measures. Cognitive outcomes were assessed in terms of change in attention bias to happy and angry faces and in danger and coping expectancies. Assessments were completed before and after treatment and three-months later. Compared to ATC+OST, the ATP+OST condition produced (a) significantly greater reductions in children's danger expectancies about their feared situations/object during the OST and at three-month follow-up, and (b) significantly improved attention bias towards positive stimuli at post-treatment, which in turn, predicted a lower level of clinician-rated phobia diagnostic severity three-months after treatment. There were no significant differences between ATP+OST and ATC+OST conditions in clinician, parent, or child-rated clinical outcomes. Training children with phobias to focus on positive stimuli is effective in increasing attention towards positive stimuli and reducing danger expectancy biases. Studies with larger sample sizes and a stronger 'dose' of ATP prior to the OST may reveal promising outcomes on clinical measures

  18. Session introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Brook, Anna; D'Auria, Luca; Tizzani, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Environmental processes cover spatial and temporal scales of different orders of magnitude. Quantitative and qualitative models, covering differentresearch fields, have provided important insights as to the interplay between processes acting in environmental systems at different scales, such asglobal geodynamics processes, volcanology, seismology, earth's critical zone, soil hydrology, landslide phenomena, etc. In this context, the proposed session will emphasize the multiscale nature of environmental issues, relevant for both natural and anthropic processes, and the need for knowledge sharing between different scientific communities. The session will be introduced by em.prof. Johan Bouma.

  19. Optimizing injectable poly-L-lactic acid administration for soft tissue augmentation: The rationale for three treatment sessions

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Ute; Graivier, Miles H

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability and variety of different injectable modalities has led to a dramatic increase in soft tissue augmentation procedures in recent years. Injectable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a synthetic, biodegradable polymer device approved in the United States for use in immunocompetent patients as a single regimen of up to four treatment sessions for correction of shallow to deep nasolabial fold contour deficiencies and other facial wrinkles. Injectable PLLA is also approved for restoration and/or correction of signs of facial fat loss (lipoatrophy) in individuals with HIV. METHODS: The present article provides an overview of previous studies with injectable PLLA, and specifically focuses on the number of recommended treatment sessions and intervals between treatment sessions. The authors also provide two case studies to support their recommendations for an average of three treatment sessions. RESULTS: Although the specific mechanisms remain hypothetical, injections of PLLA are believed to cause a cascade of cellular events that lead to collagen repair and subsequent restoration of facial volume. Because the development of a response to injectable PLLA is gradual and its duration of effect is long lasting, sufficient time between treatment sessions should be allocated to avoid overcorrection. CONCLUSION: Studies of injectable PLLA support the hypothesized mode of operation, and the experience and clinical recommendations of the authors that suggest that three treatment sessions are an optimal regimen for use of injectable PLLA in the majority of patients. PMID:22942665

  20. Thermal treatment of fuel-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    A patent has been issued for the apparatus and method for Low Temperature Thermal Stripping (LT/sup 3/) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil. LT/sup 3/ is a hazardous waste thermal treatment system and is used to clean up fuel-contaminated soil from leaking underground storage tanks. Representing a significant breakthrough in the treatment of polluted soil, LT/sup 3/ is a unique mix of proven techniques combined in an innovative way to provide an efficient cost-effective treatment method.

  1. RESULTS OF TREATMENT EVALUATIONS OF CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil and debris from Superfund sites must be treated to minimize their threat to human health and the environment as part of remedial actions at such sites. Studies were conducted on the effectiveness with which five treatment processes removed or immobilized synthetic soils cont...

  2. Uranium-contaminated soil pilot treatment study

    SciTech Connect

    Turney, W.R.J.R.; Mason, C.F.V.; Michelotti, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    A pilot treatment study is proving to be effective for the remediation of uranium-contaminated soil from a site at the Los Alamos National Laboratory by use of a two-step, zero-discharge, 100% recycle system. Candidate uranium-contaminated soils were characterized for uranium content, uranium speciation, organic content, size fractionization, and pH. Geochemical computer codes were used to forecast possible uranium leach scenarios. Uranium contamination was not homogenous throughout the soil. In the first step, following excavation, the soil was sorted by use of the ThemoNuclean Services segmented gate system. Following the sorting, uranium-contaminated soil was remediated in a containerized vat leach process by use of sodium-bicarbonate leach solution. Leach solution containing uranium-carbonate complexes is to be treated by use of ion-exchange media and then recycled. Following the treatment process the ion exchange media will be disposed of in an approved low-level radioactive landfill. It is anticipated that treated soils will meet Department of Energy site closure guidelines, and will be given {open_quotes}no further action{close_quotes} status. Treated soils are to be returned to the excavation site. A volume reduction of contaminated soils will successfully be achieved by the treatment process. Cost of the treatment (per cubic meter) is comparable or less than other current popular methods of uranium-contamination remediation.

  3. One session treatment for pediatric blood-injection-injury phobia: A controlled multiple baseline trial.

    PubMed

    Oar, Ella L; Farrell, Lara J; Waters, Allison M; Conlon, Elizabeth G; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a modified One Session Treatment (OST), which included an e-therapy homework maintenance program over 4 weeks for Blood-Injection-Injury (BII) phobia in children and adolescents. Using a single case, non-concurrent multiple-baseline design, 24 children and adolescents (8-18 years; 7 males, 17 females) with a primary diagnosis of BII phobia were randomly assigned to a one, two or three week baseline prior to receiving OST. Primary outcome measures included diagnostic severity, diagnostic status, and child and parent fear ratings. Secondary outcome measures included avoidance during behavioural avoidance tasks (BAT), global functioning and self and parent reported anxiety, fear and depression. Efficacy was assessed at post-treatment, 1-month, and 3-month follow-up. BII symptoms and diagnostic severity remained relatively stable during the baseline periods and then significantly improved following implementation of the intervention. Treatment response was supported by changes across multiple measures, including child, parent and independent clinician ratings. At post-treatment 8 of the 24 (33.33%) children were BII diagnosis free. Treatment gains improved at follow-ups with 14 (58.33%) children diagnosis free at 1-month follow-up and 15 (62.5%) diagnosis free at 3-month follow-up. Preliminary findings support the effectiveness of a modified OST approach for BII phobic youth with treatment outcomes improving over follow-up intervals. PMID:26313620

  4. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) reduces the concentrations and/or leachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. he objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and commercial viabili...

  5. Surfactants treatment of crude oil contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Urum, Kingsley; Pekdemir, Turgay; Copur, Mehmet

    2004-08-15

    This study reports experimental measurements investigating the ability of a biological (rhamnolipid) and a synthetic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) surfactant to remove the North Sea Ekofisk crude oil from various soils with different particle size fractions under varying washing conditions. The washing parameters and ranges tested were as follows: temperature (5 to 50 degrees C), time (5 to 20 min), shaking speed (80 to 200 strokes/min), volume (5 to 20 cm3), and surfactant concentration (0.004 to 5 mass%). The contaminated soils were prepared in the laboratory by mixing crude oil and soils using a rotating cylindrical mixer. Two contamination cases were considered: (1) weathered contamination was simulated by keeping freshly contaminated soils in a fan assisted oven at 50 degrees C for 14 days, mimicking the weathering effect in a natural hot environment, and (2) nonweathered contamination which was not subjected to the oven treatment. The surfactants were found to have considerable potential in removing crude oil from different contaminated soils and the results were comparable with those reported in literature for petroleum hydrocarbons. The removal of crude oil with either rhamnolipid or SDS was within the repeatability range of +/-6%. The most influential parameters on oil removal were surfactant concentration and washing temperature. The soil cation exchange capacity and pH also influenced the removal of crude oil from the individual soils. However, due to the binding of crude oil to soil during weathering, low crude oil removal was achieved with the weathered contaminated soil samples. PMID:15271574

  6. Safety Aspects of Pulsed Dose Rate Brachytherapy: Analysis of Errors in 1,300 Treatment Sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Koedooder, Kees Wieringen, Niek van; Grient, Hans N.B. van der; Herten, Yvonne R.J. van; Pieters, Bradley R.; Blank, Leo

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety of pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) brachytherapy by analyzing errors and technical failures during treatment. Methods and Materials: More than 1,300 patients underwent treatment with PDR brachytherapy, using five PDR remote afterloaders. Most patients were treated with consecutive pulse schemes, also outside regular office hours. Tumors were located in the breast, esophagus, prostate, bladder, gynecology, anus/rectum, orbit, head/neck, with a miscellaneous group of small numbers, such as the lip, nose, and bile duct. Errors and technical failures were analyzed for 1,300 treatment sessions, for which nearly 20,000 pulses were delivered. For each tumor localization, the number and type of occurring errors were determined, as were which localizations were more error prone than others. Results: By routinely using the built-in dummy check source, only 0.2% of all pulses showed an error during the phase of the pulse when the active source was outside the afterloader. Localizations treated using flexible catheters had greater error frequencies than those treated with straight needles or rigid applicators. Disturbed pulse frequencies were in the range of 0.6% for the anus/rectum on a classic version 1 afterloader to 14.9% for orbital tumors using a version 2 afterloader. Exceeding the planned overall treatment time by >10% was observed in only 1% of all treatments. Patients received their dose as originally planned in 98% of all treatments. Conclusions: According to the experience in our institute with 1,300 PDR treatments, we found that PDR is a safe brachytherapy treatment modality, both during and outside of office hours.

  7. One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias in Youth: A Randomized Clinical Trial in the United States and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Ost, Lars-Goran; Reuterskiold, Lena; Costa, Natalie; Cederlund, Rio; Sirbu, Cristian; Davis, Thompson E., III; Jarrett, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-six youth, ages 7-16, who fulfilled "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for various specific phobias were randomized to a one-session exposure treatment, education support treatment, or a wait list control group. After the waiting period, the wait list participants were offered…

  8. A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study of a Single-Session Psychoeducation Treatment for Urban, Culturally Diverse, Trauma-Exposed Adults.

    PubMed

    Ghafoori, Bita; Fisher, Dennis; Korosteleva, Olga; Hong, Madelyn

    2016-06-01

    This randomized pilot study aimed to determine whether a single session of psychoeducation improved mental health outcomes, attitudes toward treatment, and service engagement among urban, impoverished, culturally diverse, trauma-exposed adults. Sixty-seven individuals were randomly assigned to a single-session psychoeducation treatment or a delayed treatment comparison control group. The control group was found to be superior to the treatment group at posttest with respect to symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and occupational and family disability. At follow-up, all participants had completed the psychoeducation treatment, and a mixed-effects model indicated significant improvements over time in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, somatization, and attitudes toward treatment. Ninety-eight percent of the participants reported the psychoeducation was helpful at follow-up. Participants also reported a 19.1% increase in mental health service utilization at follow-up compared with baseline. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:27027660

  9. Comparison between one-session root canal treatment with aPDT and two-session treatment with calcium hydroxide-based antibacterial dressing, in dog's teeth with apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Lidia Regina da Costa; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Carvalho, Fabrício Kitazono; Lucisano, Marília Pacífico; Novaes, Arthur Belem

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate one-session endodontic treatment with aPDT and two-session treatment with calcium hydroxide (CH)-based dressing in dog's teeth with apical periodontitis. After experimental induction of apical periodontitis, 48 teeth were randomly assigned to the following groups: groups OS/aPDT120d and OS/aPDT180d (one-session treatment with aPDT) and groups TS/CH120d and TS/CH180d (two-session treatment with CH-based dressing-control groups). The animals were euthanized after 120 and 180 days. After histotechnical processing, microscopic and radiographic analyses were performed. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's exact tests (α = 0.05). Groups TS/CHs presented repaired resorbed cemental areas, with collagen bundles and few inflammatory cells. In groups OS/aPDTs, the areas of cemental resorption were not repaired with reduced presence of cells and fibers. In the analysis of the apical closure, fluorescence microscopy and percentage of radiographic reduction of lesions, there was significant difference between groups TS/CH120d and OS/aPDT120d and between TS/CH180d and OS/aPDT180d (p < 0.05). Groups TS/CHs had weak RANKL expression and positive immunostaining for RANK and OPG. In OS/aPDT120d, there was positive immunostaining for RANKL. In OS/aPDT180d, the three osteoclastogenesis markers were expressed. The results using aPDT were worse than those obtained with two-session endodontic treatment using a CH-based dressing in teeth with apical periodontitis. PMID:27389365

  10. INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An incineration test program was conducted at the US Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. he purp...

  11. INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The p...

  12. Incineration treatment of arsenic-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Waterland, L.R.; King, C.; Richards, M.K.; Thurnau, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    An incineration test program was conducted at the US Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the incinerability of these soils in terms of the fate of arsenic and lead and the destruction of organic contaminants during the incineration process. The test program consisted of a series of bench-scale experiments with a muffle furnace and a series of incineration tests in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator system.

  13. The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron

    This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…

  14. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-08-04

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage.

  15. Soluble P-selectin during a single hemodialysis session in patients with chronic renal failure and erythropoietin treatment.

    PubMed

    Stasko, Ján; Galajda, Peter; Ivanková, Jela; Hollý, Pavol; Rozborilová, Eva; Kubisz, Peter

    2007-10-01

    In several studies, hemodialysis (HD) patients treated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) because of renal anemia showed increased levels of soluble adhesion molecules. The purpose of the study was to investigate the changes of soluble P-selectin (sSELP) and its relationship to platelet activation during a single HD session in patients with long-term rHuEPO treatment. Fifty-two HD patients with chronic renal failure were involved--26 with rHuEPO treatment (EPO group) and 26 without (non-EPO group). Thirty healthy subjects served as the control group. The sSELP, beta-thromboglobulin, and platelet factor 4 plasma levels were measured before and after a single 4-hour HD session on a cuprophane dialyzer. The basal beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 plasma levels were significantly increased in both HD groups compared with healthy controls but did not change after a single HD session, except for a significant decrease of platelet factor 4 in the non-EPO group. The predialysis sSELP plasma levels did not differ significantly compared with those of the healthy controls, but there was a significant increase of sSELP levels after a single HD session in both groups (EPO, P < .005; non-EPO, P < .05, respectively). These results suppose that the increased sSELP level was released from platelets during the course of a single HD session. The more significant increase of the sSELP plasma levels in EPO group during HD indicates that platelets are more activated in patients with long-term rHuEPO treatment, and this fact could partially explain the suspected tendency for thrombosis in these patients. PMID:17911193

  16. Method for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants

    DOEpatents

    Wickramanayake, Godage B.

    1993-01-01

    A method for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil to decompose the organic compounds. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

  17. One-Session Exposure Treatment for Social Anxiety with Specific Fear of Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindo, Cindy S.; Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of one-session, exposure-based therapy, to treat social anxiety disorder (SAD) with specific fear of public speaking. Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-posttest design with repeated measures-within-subject Analysis of Variance and paired sample t-tests was used to compare pretest, posttest…

  18. One Session Treatment for Specific Phobias: An Adaptation for Paediatric Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia in Youth.

    PubMed

    Oar, Ella L; Farrell, Lara J; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2015-12-01

    Blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia is a chronic and debilitating disorder, which has largely been neglected in the child literature. The present paper briefly reviews the aetiology of specific phobias with particular attention to BII and provides an integrated developmental model of this disorder in youth. Evidence-based treatments for child-specific phobias are discussed, and the development of a modified one session treatment (OST) approach to enhance treatment outcomes for BII phobia in children and adolescents is described. This approach is illustrated in two children with a primary diagnosis of BII phobia. The cases illustrate the unique challenges associated with treating BII in youth and the need for a modified intervention. Modifications included addressing the role of pain (e.g., psychoeducation, more graduated exposure steps) and disgust (e.g., disgust eliciting exposure tasks) in the expression of the phobia and fainting in the maintenance of this phobia. Moreover, it is recommended that parents be more actively involved throughout treatment (e.g., education session prior to OST, contingency management training, guidance regarding planning exposure tasks following treatment) and for families to participate in a structured e-therapy maintenance programme post-treatment. PMID:26374227

  19. Thermal treatment of soils contaminated with gas oil: influence of soil composition and treatment temperature.

    PubMed

    Piña, Juliana; Merino, Jerónimo; Errazu, Alberto F; Bucalá, Verónica

    2002-10-14

    Samples of two soils containing different organic matter contents, neat or contaminated with gas oil (diesel fuel oil) at 2.5 wt.% were heated from room temperature to different final temperatures (200-900 degrees C). The experiments, performed in an anaerobic media, simulate conditions pertinent to ex situ thermal desorptive and thermal destructive treatments. The products generated during the heating were collected and light gases were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the soil is a key factor since it strongly influences the quantity and composition of the off-gases. According to the liquid and light gas yields, the gas oil does not affect appreciably the generation of pyrolysis products of the own soil constituents and the gas oil does not suffer significant chemical transformations even at high operating temperatures (e.g. 900 degrees C). With surface areas of 16000 cm(2)/g (Soil A) and 85000 cm(2)/g (Soil B) based on the monolayer adsorbed model, 4 and 20%, respectively, of the original gas oil can be adsorbed. These values are in good agreement with experimental data. Even for high temperatures, the employed thermal treatment is capable to practically remove the gas oil from the soil bed without changing appreciably the original chemical composition of the contaminant. PMID:12220829

  20. Culturally relevant family-based treatment for adolescent delinquency and substance abuse: understanding within-session processes.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Phillippe B; Foster, Sharon L; Warner, Sarah E

    2010-08-01

    Identifying psychotherapy processes that likely contribute to client outcome with ethnic minorities is a vital practice and research need, particularly within family-focused, evidence-based treatments (EBT) for youth with externalizing problems. Identifying process variables within a cross-cultural context may improve the efficacy of EBTs by informing psychotherapists how to modify their behavior when working with ethnically diverse clients. The authors described one approach to the development of culturally competent psychotherapy, using an observational coding system comprising Afrocentric codes to investigate culturally relevant therapist behaviors. Qualitative examples illustrated the quantitative findings relating to therapist in-session behavior that promote client engagement and positive responding during a midtreatment session of multisystemic therapy. PMID:20564683

  1. IN-SITU TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Techniques were investigated for in-situ treatment of hazardous wastes that could be applied to contaminated soils. Included were chemical treatment methods, biological treatment, photochemical transformations and combination methods. Techniques were developed based on fundamenta...

  2. Combined Therapies for the Treatment of Technically Unresectable Liver Malignancies: Bland Embolization and Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation within the Same Session

    SciTech Connect

    Bonomo, Guido Della Vigna, Paolo Monfardini, Lorenzo Orgera, Gianluigi; Chiappa, Antonio; Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Zampino, Maria Giulia; Orsi, Franco

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study evaluated the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of combining transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) in a single session for the treatment of technically unresectable liver-only malignancies. Methods: From May 2006 to January 2011, a total of 30 patients affected by liver metastases with single or multiple unresectable liver-only lesions underwent a combined treatment with TAE followed by RFA in the same session, for a total of 36 treated lesions. Patients were extrapolated from a cohort of patients discussed within the weekly institutional tumor board. TAE was performed by using 100 {mu}m microspheres; RFA was performed immediately after TAE by positioning the electrode needle via ultrasound and/or computed tomographic guidance. Local tumor responses and procedure-related complications were evaluated. Results: Completion of both procedures was obtained in all patients for all 36 lesions. Liver lesions had a maximum axial diameter ranging 16-59 mm. Postintervention unenhanced ablated areas ranged 28-104 mm in maximum axial diameter. Safety margins ranged 1-30.5 mm. Complete response, defined as complete devascularization at computed tomography, was obtained in all treated lesions for a maximum period of 12 months. Tumor relapse was observed in one patient at 12 months. Sixteen patients developed new liver lesions or progressive systemic disease during follow-up. Nine patients were still disease-free. Seven patients died as a result of systemic progressive disease. One major treatment-related complication was observed. Conclusions: In patients with technically unresectable liver-only malignancies, single-session combined TAE-RFA is an effective and safe treatment.

  3. Conscious sedation with inhaled 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen premix in photodynamic therapy sessions for vulvar lichen sclerosus treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Cabete, Joana; Campos, Sara; Lestre, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been described as an effective therapeutic option in selected cases of anogenital lichen sclerosus that are refractory to first-line treatments. However, procedure-related pain is a limiting factor in patient adherence to treatment. The authors report the case of a 75-year-old woman with highly symptomatic vulvar lichen sclerosus, successfully treated with photodynamic therapy. An inhaled 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen premix was administered during sessions, producing a pain-relieving, anxiolytic, and sedative effect without loss of consciousness. This ready-to-use gas mixture may be a well-tolerated and accepted alternative to classical anesthetics in Photodynamic therapy, facilitating patients' adherence to illumination of pain-prone areas. PMID:25672311

  4. Grey water treatment by the slanted soil system with unsorted soil media.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Ken; Tanaka, Erina; Suzuki, Laís Yuko; Hijikata, Nowaki; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Ito, Ryusei

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of unsorted soil media in the slanted soil treatment system, in terms of removal efficiency in suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) and Escherichia coli, and lifetime until clogging occurs. Unsorted soil performed longer lifetime until clogging than sorted fine soil. Removal of SS, COD, and LAS also performed same or better level in unsorted soil than fine soil. As reaction coefficients of COD and LAS were described as a function of the hydraulic loading rate, we can design a slanted soil system according to the expected hydraulic loading rate and the targeted level of COD or LAS in effluent. Regarding bacteria removal, unsorted soil performed sufficient reduction of E. coli for 5 weeks; however, the removal process occurred throughout all four chambers, while that of fine soil occurred in one to two chambers. PMID:25860717

  5. Apparatus for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants

    DOEpatents

    Wickramanayake, Godage B.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil in a manner adapted to decompose the organic compounds; one embodiment of the apparatus comprises a means to supply ozone as a gas-ozone mixture, a stability means to treat ozone obtained from the supply and distribution means to apply the stabilized gas-ozone to soil. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

  6. Soil respiration in a long-term tillage treatment experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelybó, Györgyi; Birkás, Márta; Dencsö, Márton; Horel, Ágota; Kása, Ilona; Tóth, Eszter

    2016-04-01

    Regular soil CO2 efflux measurements have been carried out at Józsefmajor longterm tillage experimental site in 2014 and 2015 with static chamber technique in no-till and ploughing plots in seven spatial replicates. The trial was established in 2002 on a loamy chernozem soil at the experimental site of the Szent István University nearby the city Hatvan, northern Hungary. At the site sunflower (Helianthus A.) and wheat (Triticum A.) was grown in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Ancillary measurements carried out at the site included weather parameters, soil water content, soil temperature. The aim of the investigation was to detect the effect of soil disturbance and soil tillage treatments on soil CO2 emission in agricultural ecosystems. Soil respiration measurements were carried out every week during the vegetation period and campaign measurements were performed scheduled to tillage application. In this latter case, measurements were carried out 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours and 7 days after tillage operation. Results showed that during the vegetation season in the majority of measurement occasions emission was higher in the no-till plots. These differences; however were not found to be statistically significant. Due to the short term effect of tillage treatment, emissions increased following tillage treatment in the ploughed plots. Soil water content was also examined as main driver of soil CO2 fluxes. Soil water content sharply decreases in the surface layer (5-10 cm depth) after tillage treatment indicating a fast drying due to soil disturbance. This effect slowly attenuated and eventually extincted in approx. two weeks. CO2 emission measurements were associated with high uncertainties as a result of the measurement technique. Our further aim is to reduce this uncertainty using independent measurement techniques on the field.

  7. History and current status of opioid maintenance treatments: blending conference session.

    PubMed

    Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Vocci, Frank J

    2002-09-01

    Opiate addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder. Left untreated, high morbidity and mortality rates are seen. Pharmacotherapies for this disorder using mu opiate agonists (methadone and levomethadyl acetate) and partial agonists have been developed in the last 40 years. Agonist pharmacotherapy with oral methadone for the treatment of opiate dependence was developed in clinical pharmacology studies at Rockefeller University by Dole, Nyswander, and Kreek. Further studies by this laboratory and others established that moderate to high dose treatment with methadone (80-120 mg) reduced or eliminated opiate use in outpatient settings with consequent reductions in morbidity and up to 4-fold reductions in mortality. Levomethadyl acetate (LAAM), a congener of methadone, is biotransformed to active metabolites responsible for its longer duration of action. The Federal Regulations regarding the dispensation of methadone and LAAM have recently been revised to facilitate the treatment of patients under a "medical maintenance" model. Future regulatory reform will likely involve the establishment of rules for "office based opioid treatment." PMID:12220607

  8. In-Session Exposure Tasks and Therapeutic Alliance across the Treatment of Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Comer, Jonathan S.; Marker, Craig D.; Creed, Torrey A.; Puliafico, Anthony C.; Hughes, Alicia A.; Martin, Erin D.; Suveg, Cynthia; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the shape of therapeutic alliance using latent growth curve modeling and data from multiple informants (therapist, child, mother, father). Children (n = 86) with anxiety disorders were randomized to family-based cognitive-behavioral treatment (FCBT; N = 47) with exposure tasks or to family education, support, and attention…

  9. ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR IN-SITU TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will study electrochemical processes for the in situ treatment of soils contaminated by mixed wastes, i.e., organic and inorganic. Soil samples collected from selected DOE waste sites will be characterized for specific organic and metal contaminants and hydraulic per...

  10. Soil cultivation for enhanced wastewater infiltration in soil aquifer treatment (SAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadav, Itamar; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona

    2012-11-01

    SummarySoil aquifer treatment is often employed as a tertiary treatment component of reclamation proceeding of wastewater for irrigation in agriculture. Reductions in infiltration rates due to increase in water repellency have been reported to be associated with organic matter (OM) accumulation in the soil (mainly in the top soil layer) as a result of treated wastewater (TWW) infiltration. Our aim was to reduce OM content in soils extensively loaded with TWW. Four model infiltration ponds were built to simulate large infiltration basins: three for TWW infiltration using different application regimes, and the fourth for freshwater (FW) infiltration (control). We examined changes in OM content, hydraulic conductivity (HC) and water repellency in these model ponds as a result of soil plowing. In field experiment, four soil-plowing events were performed. Reduced OM content and water repellency, and increased HC were found in all TWW-applied ponds following each soil plowing. These changes were attributed to OM burial in deeper soil layers elimination of the continuity of the OM based crust, and surface exposure of soil with low OM content. An overall reduction in OM content was found at the end of the experiment in all soil layers as a consequence of plowing. No changes in OM content, water repellency or HC were found in the FW-applied pond as a result of soil plowing.

  11. Deep soil mixing for reagent delivery and contaminant treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.; Gardner, F.G.; Cline, S.R.; West, O.R.

    1997-12-31

    Deep soil mixing was evaluated for treating clay soils contaminated with TCE and its byproducts at the Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant. The objective of the project was to evaluate the extent of limitations posed by the stiff, silty-clay soil. Three treatment approaches were tested. The first was vapor stripping. In contrast to previous work, however, laboratory treatability studies indicated that mixing saturated, clay soil was not efficient unless powdered lime was added. Thus, powder injection of lime was attempted in conjunction with the mixing/stripping operation. In separate treatment cells, potassium permanganate solution was mixed with the soil as a means of destroying contaminants in situ. Finally, microbial treatment was studied in a third treatment zone. The clay soil caused operational problems such as breakage of the shroud seal and frequent reagent blowouts. Nevertheless, treatment efficiencies of more than 70% were achieved in the saturated zone with chemical oxidation. Although expensive ($1128/yd{sup 3}), there are few alternatives for soils of this type.

  12. PROSPECTS FOR IN SITU CHEMICAL TREATMENT FOR CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treating large volumes of contaminated soil at Superfund sites is costly. he Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) have provisions, which regulate the removal treatment, and ultimate disposal of contaminated soi...

  13. EVALUATION OF DEMONSTRATED AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED LAND AND GROUNDWATER (PHASE III) - 1999 SPECIAL SESSION ON MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report includes the papers presented at the NATO/CCMS Pilot Study Meeting in Angers, France, May 9-14, 1999, for the special session on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA). This is the Phase III of the Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for the Treatment a...

  14. Biofilm treatment of soil for waste containment and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.; Dennis, M.L.; Osman, Y.A.; Chase, J.; Bulla, L.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper examines the potential for creating low-permeability reactive barriers for waste treatment and containment by treating soils with Beijerinckia indica, a bacterium which produces an exopolysaccharide film. The biofilm adheres to soil particles and causes a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity. In addition, B. Indica biodegrades a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chemical carcinogens. The combination of low soil hydraulic conductivity and biodegradation capabilities creates the potential for constructing reactive biofilm barriers from soil and bacteria. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of B. Indica on the hydraulic conductivity of a silty sand. Soil specimens were molded with a bacterial and nutrient solution, compacted at optimum moisture content, permeated with a nutrient solution, and tested for k{sub sat} using a flexible-wall permeameter. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub sat}) was reduced from 1 x 10{sup -5} cm/sec to 2 x 10{sup -8} cm/sec: by biofilm treatment. Permeation with saline, acidic, and basic solutions following formation of a biofilm was found to have negligible effect on the reduced k{sub sat}, for up to three pore volumes of flow. Applications of biofilm treatment for creating low-permeability reactive barriers are discussed, including compacted liners for bottom barriers and caps and creation of vertical barriers by in situ treatment.

  15. SUPERFUND ENGINEERING ISSUE: TREATMENT OF LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the contents of a seminar on treatment of lead-contaminated soils presented on August 28, 1990, to Region V Superfund and RCRA personnel by members of EPA's Engineering and Treatment Technology Support Center located in the Risk Reduction Engineering Labo...

  16. Remediation case studies: In situ soil treatment technologies (soil vapor extraction, thermal processes). Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The case studies present available cost and performance information for full-scale remediation efforts. The studies contain varying levels of detail, reflecting the differences in the availability of data and information. The case studies in this volume describe 14 applications of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and in situ thermal processes. These include 10 full-scale and one pilot-scale SVE applications used to treat soil contaminated with chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons. Three of these applications involved treatment or containment of both contaminated soil and groundwater through a combination of SVE, air sparging, groundwater extraction, and/or in situ bioremediation technologies. One case study describes a photolytic technology demonstrated for treatment of contaminated vapors from an SVE system. In addition, this volume describes two in situ thermal treatment applications, one used to recover free and residual coal tar, and one that was a demonstration of an in situ process to desorb PCBs from soil.

  17. REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD-TREATMENT CHEMICALS (PCP AND CREOSOTE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCP and creosote PAHs are found in most of the contaminated soils at wood-treatment sites. The treatment methods currently being used for such soils include soil washing, incineration, and biotreatment. Soil washing involves removal of the hazardous chemicals from soils ...

  18. Electrokinetic treatment of contaminated soils, sludges, and lagoons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wittle, J.K.; Pamukcu, S.

    1993-04-01

    The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in-situ soil decontamination, in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. Electrokinetics refer to movement of water, ions and charged particles relative to one another under the action of an applied direct current electric field. In a porous compact matrix of surface charged particles such as soil, the ion containing pore fluid may be made to flow to collection sites under the applied field. This report describes the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentration of a selected heavy metal salt solution or an organic compound. Metals, surrogate radio nuclides and organic compounds evaluated in the program were representatives of those found at a majority of DOE sites. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. The best removals, from about 85 to 95% were achieved at the anode side of the soil specimens. Transient pH change had an effect on the metal movement via transient creation of different metal species with different ionic mobilities, as well as changing of the surface characteristics of the soil medium.

  19. Panel Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Mid-Year Meeting, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Lists the speakers and summarizes the issues addressed for 12 panel sessions on topics related to networking, including libraries and national networks, federal national resources and energy programs, multimedia issues, telecommuting, remote image serving, accessing the Internet, library automation, scientific information, applications of Z39.50,…

  20. Ferritization treatment of copper in soil by electrokinetic remediation.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tomoyuki; Takase, Ken-Ichi; Terui, Norifumi; Tanaka, Shunitz

    2007-05-17

    The usefulness of the combined use of the electrokinetic (EK) remediation and a ferrite treatment zone (FTZ) was demonstrated for a treatment of the contaminated soil with heavy metal ions. Copper ions in contaminated soil were transferred into the FTZ by the EK technology and were ferritized in this system. The distribution of copper in a migration chamber after EK treatment with FTZ for 48h showed the large difference in the total and eluted concentration of copper. This indicated that copper ions transferred by EK into the FTZ were ferritized there with ferrite reagent in soil alkalified by EK process. The copper-ferrite compound, which was not dissolved with diluted acid, was retained in the FTZ and accumulated there. The ratio of the ferritized amount of copper against total copper was 92% in the EK process with FTZ after 48 h. PMID:17374444

  1. Evaluation of the Clinical Curative Effect of an O2-O3 mixture to Treat Lumbar Disc Herniation with Different Treatment Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, L.; Li, Z-L.; He, X-F.; Xiang, D-C.; Ma, J.; Hong, C-J.; He, J-X.; Yang, L.; Gong, Z-H.; Qiu, J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary To compare the effective rates among one week, two week and four week treatment sessions of ozone therapy for lumbar disc herniation to provide a foundation for clinical decision-making. One hundred and eighty-seven lumbar disc herniation patients were divided into three groups, 103 cases for one week, 61 cases for two week and 23 cases for four week treatment sessions. The clinical curative effective rates in the three groups were 82.52%, 85.24% and 95.65% respectively. The effective rate among the three groups showed no significant difference at statistical analysis. Considering the cost-effectiveness of ozone therapy, increasing the treatment course does not enhance the curative effect. PMID:20465893

  2. Innovative soil treatment process design for removal of trivalent chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Stallings, J.H.; Durkin, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    A soil treatment process has been developed as part of a US Air Force environmental compliance project at Air Force Plant 44, Tucson, AZ for treating soil contaminated with heavy metals including trivalent chromium, cadmium, copper, and nickel. The process was designed to treat a total of 133,000 tons of soil in a 400 ton per day facility. Features of the soil treatment process include physical treatment and separation, and a chemical treatment process of the remaining fines using a hypochlorite leach allowing chromium to be solubilized at a high pH. After treating, fines are washed in three stage countercurrent thickeners and chromium hydroxide cake is recovered as a final produce from the leach solution. Treatability studies were conducted, laboratory and a pilot plant was built. Process design criteria and flow sheet, material balances, as well as preliminary equipment selection and sizing for the facility have been completed. Facility was designed for the removal of Cr at a concentration of an average of 1230 mg/kg from the soil and meeting a risk based clean-closure limit of 400 mg/kg of Cr. Capital costs for the 400 tpd plant were estimated at 9.6 million with an operating and maintenance cost of $54 per ton As process is most economic for large quantities of soil with relatively low concentrations of contaminants, it was not used in final closure when the estimated volume of contaminated soil removed dropped to 65,000 tons and concentration of chromium increased up to 4000 mg/kg. However, the process could have application in situations where economics and location warrant.

  3. Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

  4. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO(4) precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P. PMID:22982614

  5. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22 years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO4 precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P.

  6. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen. PMID:27127923

  7. Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil

    SciTech Connect

    BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

    2005-11-14

    This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

  8. Poster Session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Poster Session, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Development of correlative measures for the assessment of attention and memory; Biodynamical Responses of the Crewmember Head/Neck System During Emergence Ejection; Fecundation in the Sky, a Ten Years Old Experiment in Microgravity; A Modified Botex Incubator as a Transport System For Developing Crickets into Space; Chromosomal Aberrations in Peripheral Lymphocytes of Cosmonauts and Astronauts after Space Flights; Method for Establishing Long term Bone Marrow; Cultures Under Microgravity Conditions Reproduction Under Simulated Weightlessness --Mammalian in vivo Experiments Under Suspension; Towards Human Movement Analysis Without the Use of Markers; Habitability Requirements For a Cogent Mars Mission; The Saucer Concept for Space Habitats; New Way In Modeling the Growth of the Organism; The Fractionation of Hydrogen and Oxygen Stable Isotopes By Life Support Systems of Space Station "MIR"; and Effect of Space Flight on Neutrophil Function.

  9. HANDBOOK ON IN SITU TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE- CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook comprises an update of Volume1 of the 1984 USEPA document entitled "Review of In-Place Treatment Techniques for Contaminated Surface Soils." The purpose of this handbook is the same as that of the original document - to provide state-of-the-art information on in sit...

  10. Overview of a large-scale bioremediation soil treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Stechmann, R. )

    1991-02-01

    How long does it take to remediate 290,000 yd{sup 3} of impacted soil containing an average total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of 3,000 ppm Approximately 15 months from start to end of treatment using bioremediation. Mittelhauser was retained by the seller of the property (a major oil company) as technical manager to supervise remediation of a 45-ac parcel in the Los Angeles basin. Mittelhauser completed site characterization, negotiated clean-up levels with the regulatory agencies, and prepared the remedial action plan (RAP) with which the treatment approach was approved and permitted. The RAP outlined the excavation, treatment, and recompaction procedures for the impacted soil resulting from leakage of bunker fuel oil from a large surface impoundment. The impacted soil was treated on site in unline Land Treatment Units (LTUs) in 18-in.-thick lifts. Due to space restraints, multiple lifts site. The native microbial population was cultivated using soil stabilization mixing equipment with the application of water and agricultural grade fertilizers. Costs on this multimillion dollar project are broken down as follows: general contractor cost (47%), bioremediation subcontractor cost (35%), site characterization (10%), technical management (7%), analytical services (3%), RAP preparation and permitting (1%), and civil engineering subcontractor cost (1%). Start-up of field work could have been severely impacted by the existence of Red Fox habitation. The foxes were successfully relocated prior to start of field work.

  11. Bioremediation treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils: influencing parameters.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Masoud; Barabadi, Abbas; Barabady, Javad

    2014-10-01

    The Arctic environment is very vulnerable and sensitive to hydrocarbon pollutants. Soil bioremediation is attracting interest as a promising and cost-effective clean-up and soil decontamination technology in the Arctic regions. However, remoteness, lack of appropriate infrastructure, the harsh climatic conditions in the Arctic and some physical and chemical properties of Arctic soils may reduce the performance and limit the application of this technology. Therefore, understanding the weaknesses and bottlenecks in the treatment plans, identifying their associated hazards, and providing precautionary measures are essential to improve the overall efficiency and performance of a bioremediation strategy. The aim of this paper is to review the bioremediation techniques and strategies using microorganisms for treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils. It takes account of Arctic operational conditions and discusses the factors influencing the performance of a bioremediation treatment plan. Preliminary hazard analysis is used as a technique to identify and assess the hazards that threaten the reliability and maintainability of a bioremediation treatment technology. Some key parameters with regard to the feasibility of the suggested preventive/corrective measures are described as well. PMID:24903252

  12. Immobilization of radioactive strontium in contaminated soils by phosphate treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.H.; Ammons, J.T. . Dept. of Plant and Soil Science); Lee, S.Y. )

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of in situ phosphate- and metal- (calcium, aluminum, and iron) solution treatment for {sup 90}Sr immobilization was investigated. Batch and column experiments were performed to find optimum conditions for coprecipitation of {sup 90}Sr with Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphate compounds in contaminated soils. Separate columns were packed with artificially {sup 85}Sr-contaminated acid soil as well as {sup 90}Sr-contaminated soil from the Oak Ridge Reservation. After metal-phosphate treatment, the columns were then leached successively with either tapwater or 0.001 M CaCl{sub 2} solution. Most of the {sup 85}Sr coprecipitated with the metal phosphate compounds. Immobilization of {sup 85}Sr and {sup 90}Sr was affected by such factors as solution pH, metal and phosphate concentration, metal-to-phosphate ratio, and soil characteristics. Equilibration time after treatments also affected {sup 85}Sr immobilization. Many technology aspects still need to be investigated before field applications are feasible, but these experiments indicate that phosphate-based in situ immobilization should prevent groundwater contamination and will be useful as a treatment technology for {sup 90}Sr-contaminated sites. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Soil washwater treatment system operating procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.W.

    1993-11-02

    This report describes the Met-Pro Physical Chemical Treatment System which incorporates numerous integrated processes either physical or chemical in nature. They include the following: coagulation with chemicals; rapid mixing to assure intimate contact of influent and coagulant; controlled flocculation for maximum flock growth via addition of polymer; extended time clarification for optimum settling of solids; solids collection and disposal, and recycle for seeding; filtration for additional suspended solids removal; and ion exchange removal of uranium and heavy metals.

  14. Therapeutic Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy According to Treatment Session on Gastrocnemius Muscle Spasticity in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Soon; Park, Gi-Young; Lee, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) according to treatment session on gastrocnemius muscle spasticity in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Twelve children with spastic CP underwent 1 ESWT and 2 sham ESWT sessions for gastrocnemius (group 1) or 3 ESWT sessions (group 2) once per week for 3 weeks. Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) score, passive range of motion (PROM) of the ankle plantar-flexor muscles with knee extension, and median red pixel intensity (RPI) of color histogram of medial gastrocnemius on real-time sonoelastography (RTS) were measured before ESWT, immediately after the first and third ESWT, and at 4 weeks after the third ESWT. Results Mean ankle PROM was significantly increased whereas as mean ankle MAS and median gastrocnemius RPI were significantly decreased in both groups after the first ESWT. Clinical and RTS parameters before ESWT were not significantly different from those immediately after the third ESWT or at 4 weeks after the third ESWT in group 1. However, they were significantly different from those immediately after the third ESWT or at 4 weeks after the third ESWT in group 2. Mean ankle PROM, mean ankle MAS, and median gastrocnemius RPI in group 2 were significantly different from that in group 1 at 4 weeks or immediately after the third ESWT. Conclusion The therapeutic effect of ESWT on spastic medial gastrocnemius in children with spastic CP is dependent on the number of ESWT sessions. PMID:26798605

  15. Chemical treatments of soil to decrease radiostrontium leachability

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B. P.

    1980-01-01

    The ready leachability of radiostrontium from radioactive waste is one of the most salient problems with shallow-land burial as a disposal method. The continuous leaching of buried waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for periods up to thirty years, has led to contamination of significant volumes of soil with /sup 90/Sr. The goal of the present investigation was to evaluate methods to effect the in situ fixation or decrease the leachability of /sup 90/Sr from soil. Small columns of three soils, collected from the solid waste disposal areas at ORNL, were labelled with /sup 85/Sr as a convenient tracer for /sup 90/Sr. After this labelling but prior to leaching, the soil columns were percolated with equivalent amounts of sodium salt solutions of hydroxide, fluoride, carbonate, phosphate, silicate, or aluminate. Leaching was then initiated with 0.1 N CaCl/sub 2/ (calcium chloride), and fractions of the leachate were analyzed for /sup 85/Sr. The CaCl/sub 2/ solution was selected to qualitatively simulate groundwater which contains Ca as the dominant dissolved cation. With two soils which were high in indigenous exchangeable Ca, only 30 to 35% of the /sup 85/Sr could be leached from the carbonate-treated columns. Presumably, the /sup 85/Sr was coprecipitated with the nascent CaCO/sub 3/ formed during this treatment. In contrast, greater than 98% of the /sup 85/Sr was readily leached from all untreated soils. Other anions fixed variable but generally less /sup 85/Sr than the carbonate treatment. Thus, sodium carbonate appears to have potential application to immobilize /sup 90/Sr in situ in contaminated soil.

  16. Treatment of NORM contaminated soil from the oilfields.

    PubMed

    Abdellah, W M; Al-Masri, M S

    2014-03-01

    Uncontrolled disposal of oilfield produced water in the surrounding environment could lead to soil contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Large volumes of soil become highly contaminated with radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). In the present work, laboratory experiments have been conducted to reduce the activity concentration of (226)Ra in soil. Two techniques were used, namely mechanical separation and chemical treatment. Screening of contaminated soil using vibratory sieve shaker was performed to evaluate the feasibility of particle size separation. The fractions obtained were ranged from less than 38 μm to higher than 300 μm. The results show that (226)Ra activity concentrations vary widely from fraction to fraction. On the other hand, leaching of (226)Ra from soil by aqueous solutions (distilled water, mineral acids, alkaline medias and selective solvents) has been performed. In most cases, relatively low concentrations of radium were transferred to solutions, which indicates that only small portions of radium are present on the surface of soil particles (around 4.6%), while most radium located within soil particles; only concentrated nitric acid was most effective where 50% of (226)Ra was removed to aqueous phase. However, mechanical method was found to be easy and effective, taking into account safety procedures to be followed during the implementation of the blending and homogenization. Chemical extraction methods were found to be less effective. The results obtained in this study can be utilized to approach the final option for disposal of NORM contaminated soil in the oilfields. PMID:24378731

  17. LAND TREATMENT OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SOIL: PERFORMANCE MEASURED BY CHEMICAL AND TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of a soil remediation process can be determined by measuring the reduction in target soil contaminant concentrations and by assessing the treatment's ability to lower soil toxicity. Land treatment of polycyclic armomatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a ...

  18. LAND TREATMENT OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SOIL: PERFORMANCE MEASURED BY CHEMICAL AND TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of a soil remediation process can be determined by measuring the reduction in target soil contaminant concentrations and by assessing the treatment's ability to lower soil toxicity. Land treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a ...

  19. Fate and transport of carbamazepine in soil aquifer treatment (SAT) infiltration basin soils.

    PubMed

    Arye, Gilboa; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The transport and fate of the pharmaceutical carbamazepine (CBZ) were investigated in the Dan Region Reclamation Project (SHAFDAN), Tel-Aviv, Israel. Soil samples were taken from seven subsections of soil profiles (150 cm) in infiltration basins of a soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. The transport characteristics were studied from the release dynamics of soil-resident CBZ and, subsequently, from applying a pulse input of wastewater containing CBZ. In addition, a monitoring study was performed to evaluate the fate of CBZ after the SAT. Results of this study indicate adsorption, and consequently retardation, in CBZ transport through the top soil layer (0-5 cm) and to a lesser extent in the second layer (5-25 cm), but not in deeper soil layers (25-150 cm). The soluble and adsorbed fractions of CBZ obtained from the two upper soil layers comprised 45% of the total CBZ content in the entire soil profile. This behavior correlated to the higher organic matter content observed in the upper soil layers (0-25 cm). It is therefore deduced that when accounting for the full flow path of CBZ through the vadose zone to the groundwater region, the overall transport of CBZ in the SAT system is essentially conservative. The monitoring study revealed that the average concentration of CBZ decreased from 1094 ± 166 ng L⁻¹ in the recharged wastewater to 560 ± 175 ng L⁻¹ after the SAT. This reduction is explained by dilution of the recharged wastewater with resident groundwater, which may occur as it flows to active reclamation wells. PMID:20947124

  20. Session Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliane Lessner, Co-Chair:

    2009-03-01

    A panel discussion session providing a worldwide assessment of the status and experiences of women in physics, paying attention to the different cultures and environments they work in and to how the age of the physicist affects their perspective. We will hear about women physicists in Korea in particular and Asia in general, in Egypt in particular and Africa in general, and in the Caribbean. Six invited speakers will present analyses of the progress being made in promoting women in physics from their personal experiences and as assessed from their participation in the Third International Conference on Women In Physics (ICWIP2008) convened in Seoul, Korea in October 2008. From Albania to Zimbabwe, with representation of all the continents, ICWIP2008 congregated 283 women and men physicists from 57 countries to share the participants' scientific accomplishments and evaluate international progress in improving the status of women in physics. This three-hour session is organized jointly by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics of the APS (CSWP) and the Forum on International Physics of the APS (FIP). Audience participation in the panel discussion will be strongly encouraged.

  1. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN. Project Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...

  2. Effect of Naltrexone During Extinction of Alcohol-Reinforced Responding and During Repeated Cue-Conditioned Reinstatement Sessions in a Cue Exposure Style Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Keith L.; Schimmel, Jasmine S.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of alcohol-related cues to promote craving can be attenuated independently by giving the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) or by subjecting alcohol-dependent patients to a cue exposure treatment. The effects of cue exposure treatment may be enhanced if conducted in the presence of NTX. The purpose of these experiments was to determine if NTX given during extinction of responding for alcohol in rats would alter cue-conditioned reinstatement of responding and to determine if NTX, paired with repeated cue-conditioned reinstatement, would reduce subsequent cue-conditioned reinstatement or reacquisition of self-administration in the absence of NTX. Rats lever-pressed for alcohol in the presence of an olfactory cue. Visual and auditory stimuli were presented during alcohol delivery. In the first experiment, rats were injected with saline or 3 mg/kg NTX prior to extinction sessions followed by cue-conditioned reinstatement tests. In the second experiment, extinction was followed by cue-conditioned reinstatement sessions presented twice per week. The rats received saline or NTX (3 and 10 mg/kg) prior to several sessions. All rats received reinstatement tests with and without a pretreatment of NTX followed by reacquisition of alcohol self-administration. NTX had no effect on responding during extinction or on subsequent cue-conditioned reinstatement. Only 10 mg/kg NTX reduced responding during the twice weekly reinstatement sessions. The twice weekly NTX treatment had no effect on subsequent cue-conditioned reinstatement in the absence of NTX. Reacquisition of responding for alcohol was reduced in the group receiving saline during repeated reinstatement sessions while this effect was blocked in the NTX group. These findings support the notion that NTX given during a brief abstinence period (i.e., extinction) has minimal effects on future sensitivity to alcohol cues and alcohol consumption. NTX given during repeated alcohol cue exposure does not alter the

  3. Fixed capital investments for the uranium soils integrated demonstration soil treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Stewart, R.N.

    1995-05-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the United States required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program was formed to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium contaminated soils. The USID Program has five major tasks in developing and demonstrating these technologies. Each must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies developed by the USID Program. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

  4. EFFECT OF SOIL PB INACTIVATION TREATMENTS ON BIOAVAILABILITY OF JOPLIN, MO, SMELTER CONTAMINATED SOIL PB TO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of treating contaminated soils with various soil amendments on the bioavailability of lead were assessed in the weanling rat model. The effect of treatment was assessed by comparing the adsorption of Pb of animals fed soil samples treated with (0.5%, 1% P and 2.5% Fe ...

  5. Sorption of lead by settling pond soils after reclamation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio, Verónica; Forján, Rubén; Vega, Flora A.; Andrade, Luisa; Covelo, Emma F.

    2013-04-01

    The reclamation of degraded soils adding waste amendments can add significant concentrations of Pb. Because of this, it is important to know the sorption capacity of Pb by the soils where wastes with high concentrations of this metal are applied. To determine the sorption capacity of Pb by mine soils, before and after reclamation treatments, four different sites were selected at a settling pond mine zone: an untreated one as the control sample (B1), a vegetated one with pines for 21 years (B2v), a vegetated with eucalyptus for 6 years (B3v) and an amended with sewage sludges and paper mill residues for 5 months (B4w). All soils had one horizon except B4w, where twice were sampled (B4Aw and B4Bw). The B4Bw is considered analogous of the control soil. To evaluate the sorption capacity by the soils, sorption isotherms were constructed using single-metal solutions of Pb2+ nitrates (0.03, 0.05, 0.08, 0.1 and 0.5 mmol L-1) containing 0.01 M NaNO3 as background electrolyte (Vega et al., 2009). The overall capacity of the soil to sorb Pb was evaluated as the slope Kr (Vega et al., 2008). The obtained results show that the sorption isotherm of Pb by control soil (B1) and its analogous (B4Bw) are of L-type curve, whereas the sorption isotherms of the treated soils (B2v, B3v and B4Aw) are of H-type curve (Giles et al., 1974). The most of the obtained isotherms do not fit with the models of Langmuir or Freundlich, therefore sorption capacity was evaluated by Kr parameter. According to the obtained Kr parameter, B1 and B4Bw have the lowest Pb sorption capacity (Kr = 0.480 and 0.556, respectively), which increased two times after recently waste amending (B4Aw; Kr = 0.998). The vegetated sites (B2v and B3v) also have higher sorption capacity than B1, but lower than B4Aw (Kr = 0.692 and 0.725, respectively). The highest sorption capacity of Pb by the amended soil is due to its characteristics such as high pH and organic carbon content. This is corroborated by the significantly

  6. Microbial Diversity in Soil Treatment Systems for Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cuyk, S.; Spear, J.; Siegrist, R.; Pace, N.

    2002-05-01

    There is an increasing awareness and concern over land based wastewater system performance with respect to the removal of bacteria and virus. The goal of this work is to describe and identify the organismal composition of the microbiota in the applied wastewater effluent, the rich biomat that develops at the infiltrative surface, and in the soil percolate in order to aid in the understanding of bacterial and virus purification in soil treatment systems. The traditional reliance on pure culture techniques to describe microbiota is circumvented by the employment of a molecular approach. Microbial community characterization is underway based on cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes for phylogenetic analyses, to determine the nature and quantity of microbiota that constitute these ecosystems. Knowledge of the organisms naturally present can influence the design and treatment capacity of these widely used land based systems. Laboratory, intermediate and field scale systems are currently under study. Since human pathogens are known to exist in sewage effluents, their removal in wastewater infiltration systems and within the underlying soil are in need of a more fundamental understanding. The relationship between design parameters and environmental conditions, including a microbial characterization, is essential for the prevention of contamination in groundwater sources. Preliminary results indicate the presence of uncultured organisms and phylogenetic kinds that had not been detected in these systems using other methods. Acinetobacter johnsonii and Acrobacter cryaerophilus were the two dominant species found in septic tank effluent, comprising 20% and 11% of the library respectively. In soil samples collected from the infiltrative surface of a column dosed with STE, there was no dominant bacterial species present. Percolate samples collected from the outflow of the column showed that a tuber borchii symbiont, a common soil microorganism, dominated the bacterial

  7. Combination of surfactant enhanced soil washing and electro-Fenton process for the treatment of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Huguenot, David; Mousset, Emmanuel; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2015-04-15

    In order to improve the efficiency of soil washing treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, an innovative combination of this soil treatment technique with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (i.e. electro-Fenton (EF)) has been proposed. An ex situ soil column washing experiment was performed on a genuinely diesel-contaminated soil. The washing solution was enriched with surfactant Tween 80 at different concentrations, higher than the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The impact of soil washing was evaluated on the hydrocarbons concentration in the leachates collected at the bottom of the soil columns. These eluates were then studied for their degradation potential by EF treatment. Results showed that a concentration of 5% of Tween 80 was required to enhance hydrocarbons extraction from the soil. Even with this Tween 80 concentration, the efficiency of the treatment remained very low (only 1% after 24 h of washing). Electrochemical treatments performed thereafter with EF on the collected eluates revealed that the quasi-complete mineralization (>99.5%) of the hydrocarbons was achieved within 32 h according to a linear kinetic trend. Toxicity was higher than in the initial solution and reached 95% of inhibition of Vibrio fischeri bacteria measured by Microtox method, demonstrating the presence of remaining toxic compounds even after the complete degradation. Finally, the biodegradability (BOD₅/COD ratio) reached a maximum of 20% after 20 h of EF treatment, which is not enough to implement a combined treatment with a biological treatment process. PMID:25646675

  8. A Retrospective Analysis of 5,195 Patient Treatment Sessions in an Integrative Veterinary Medicine Service: Patient Characteristics, Presenting Complaints, and Therapeutic Interventions.

    PubMed

    Shmalberg, Justin; Memon, Mushtaq A

    2015-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine, the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care, is increasingly prevalent in veterinary practice and a focus of clinical instruction in many academic teaching institutions. However, the presenting complaints, therapeutic modalities, and patient population in an integrative medicine service have not been described. A retrospective analysis of 5,195 integrative patient treatment sessions in a veterinary academic teaching hospital demonstrated that patients most commonly received a combination of therapeutic modalities (39% of all treatment sessions). The 274 patients receiving multiple modalities were most frequently treated for neurologic and orthopedic disease (50.7% versus 49.6% of all presenting complaints, resp.). Older neutered or spayed dogs (mean age = 9.0 years) and Dachshunds were treated more often than expected based on general population statistics. Acupuncture, laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and hydrotherapy were frequently administered (>50% patients). Neurologic patients were more likely to receive acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and therapeutic exercises but less likely than orthopedic patients to receive laser, hydrotherapy, or therapeutic ultrasound treatments (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the application of these specific modalities to orthopedic and neurologic diseases should be subjected to increased evidence-based investigations. A review of current knowledge in core areas is presented. PMID:26798552

  9. A Retrospective Analysis of 5,195 Patient Treatment Sessions in an Integrative Veterinary Medicine Service: Patient Characteristics, Presenting Complaints, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Mushtaq A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine, the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care, is increasingly prevalent in veterinary practice and a focus of clinical instruction in many academic teaching institutions. However, the presenting complaints, therapeutic modalities, and patient population in an integrative medicine service have not been described. A retrospective analysis of 5,195 integrative patient treatment sessions in a veterinary academic teaching hospital demonstrated that patients most commonly received a combination of therapeutic modalities (39% of all treatment sessions). The 274 patients receiving multiple modalities were most frequently treated for neurologic and orthopedic disease (50.7% versus 49.6% of all presenting complaints, resp.). Older neutered or spayed dogs (mean age = 9.0 years) and Dachshunds were treated more often than expected based on general population statistics. Acupuncture, laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and hydrotherapy were frequently administered (>50% patients). Neurologic patients were more likely to receive acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and therapeutic exercises but less likely than orthopedic patients to receive laser, hydrotherapy, or therapeutic ultrasound treatments (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the application of these specific modalities to orthopedic and neurologic diseases should be subjected to increased evidence-based investigations. A review of current knowledge in core areas is presented. PMID:26798552

  10. Phosphorus in soil treatment systems: accumulation and mobility.

    PubMed

    Eveborn, David; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Elmefors, Elin; Yu, Lin; Eriksson, Ann-Kristin; Ljung, Emelie; Renman, Gunno

    2014-11-01

    Septic tanks with subsequent soil treatment systems (STS) are a common treatment technique for domestic wastewater in rural areas. Phosphorus (P) leakage from such systems may pose a risk to water quality (especially if they are located relatively close to surface waters). In this study, six STS in Sweden (11-28 years old) were examined. Samples taken from the unsaturated subsoil beneath the distribution pipes were investigated by means of batch and column experiments, and accumulated phosphorus were characterized through X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis. At all sites the wastewater had clearly influenced the soil. This was observed through decreased pH, increased amounts of oxalate extractable metals and at some sites altered P sorption properties. The amount of accumulated P in the STS were found to be between 0.32 and 0.87 kg m(-3), which in most cases was just a fraction of the estimated P load (<30%). Column studies revealed that high P concentrations (up to 6 mg L(-1)) were leached from the material when deionized water was applied. However, the response to deionized water varied between the sites. As evidenced by XANES analysis, aluminium phosphates or P adsorbed to aluminium (hydr)oxides, as well as organically bound P, were important sinks for P. Generally soils with a high content of oxalate-extractable Al were also less vulnerable to P leakage. PMID:25036667

  11. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN-SITU STEAM/HOT AIR SOIL STRIPPING TOXIC TREATMENT (USA) INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology uses steam and hot air to strip volatile organics from contaminated soil. The treatment equipment is mobile and treats the soil in-situ without need for soil excavation or transportation. The organic contaminants volatilized from the soil are condensed and col...

  12. Impact of electrochemical treatment of soil washing solution on PAH degradation efficiency and soil respirometry.

    PubMed

    Mousset, Emmanuel; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Nihal; Guibaud, Gilles; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-04-01

    The remediation of a genuinely PAH-contaminated soil was performed, for the first time, through a new and complete investigation, including PAH extraction followed by advanced oxidation treatment of the washing solution and its recirculation, and an analysis of the impact of the PAH extraction on soil respirometry. The study has been performed on the remediation of genuine PAH-contaminated soil, in the following three steps: (i) PAH extraction with soil washing (SW) techniques, (ii) PAH degradation with an electro-Fenton (EF) process, and (iii) recirculation of the partially oxidized effluent for another SW cycle. The following criteria were monitored during the successive washing cycles: PAH extraction efficiency, PAH oxidation rates and yields, extracting agent recovery, soil microbial activity, and pH of soil. Two representative extracting agents were compared: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and a non-ionic surfactant, Tween(®) 80. Six PAH with different numbers of rings were monitored: acenaphthene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP). Tween(®) 80 showed much better PAH extraction efficiency (after several SW cycles) than HPCD, regardless of the number of washing cycles. Based on successive SW experiments, a new mathematical relation taking into account the soil/water partition coefficient (Kd*) was established, and could predict the amount of each PAH extracted by the surfactant with a good correlation with experimental results (R(2) > 0.975). More HPCD was recovered (89%) than Tween(®) 80 (79%), while the monitored pollutants were completely degraded (>99%) after 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Even after being washed with partially oxidized solutions, the Tween(®) 80 solutions extracted significantly more PAH than HPCD and promoted better soil microbial activity, with higher oxygen consumption rates. Moreover, neither the oxidation by-products nor the acidic media (p

  13. Large-scale experience with biological treatment of contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz-Berendt, V.; Poetzsch, E.

    1995-12-31

    The efficiency of biological methods for the cleanup of soil contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was demonstrated by a large-scale example in which 38,000 tons of TPH- and PAH-polluted soil was treated onsite with the TERRAFERM{reg_sign} degradation system to reach the target values of 300 mg/kg TPH and 5 mg/kg PAH. Detection of the ecotoxicological potential (Microtox{reg_sign} assay) showed a significant decrease during the remediation. Low concentrations of PAH in the ground were treated by an in situ technology. The in situ treatment was combined with mechanical measures (slurry wall) to prevent the contamination from dispersing from the site.

  14. TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project consists of a demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train. he treatment train consists of three processes. he first process utilizes an attrition soil wash process to separate relatively uncontaminated soil from a more heavil...

  15. Periodically operated bioreactors for the treatment of soils and leachates

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.; Cassidy, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rate and renders solid-phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bioslurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. Periodic aeration during solid-phase bioremediation has the potential to lower treatment costs relative to continuous aeration. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by periodic aeration in solid-phase sequencing batch reactors (SP-SBRs) was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty loam contaminated predominantly with the plasticizer bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP) or (DEHP) and a silty clay loam contaminated with diesel fuel. The first experiment evaluated the effect of water content and mixing time during slurrying on subsequent treatment in continuously aerated solid-phase bioreactors. The second experiment compared treatment of slurried soil in SP-SBRs using three different periodic aeration strategies with continuous aeration.

  16. Electrokinetic In Situ Treatment of Metal-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian A., III; Geiger, Cherie; Reinhart, Debra

    2004-01-01

    An electrokinetic technique has been developed as a means of in situ remediation of soils, sludges, and sediments that are contaminated with heavy metals. Examples of common metal contaminants that can be removed by this technique include cadmium, chromium, zinc, lead, mercury, and radionuclides. Some organic contaminants can also be removed by this technique. In the electrokinetic technique, a low-intensity direct current is applied between electrodes that have been implanted in the ground on each side of a contaminated soil mass. The electric current causes electro-osmosis and migration of ions, thereby moving aqueous-phase subsurface contaminants from one electrode to the other. The half reaction at the anode yields H+, thereby generating an acid front that travels from the anode toward the cathode. As this acid front passes through a given location, the local increase in acidity increases the solubility of cations that were previously adsorbed on soil particles. Ions are transported towards one electrode or the other which one depending on their respective electric charges. Upon arrival at the electrodes, the ionic contaminants can be allowed to become deposited on the electrodes or can be extracted to a recovery system. Surfactants and other reagents can be introduced at the electrodes to enhance rates of removal of contaminants. Placements of electrodes and concentrations and rates of pumping of reagents can be adjusted to maximize efficiency. The basic concept of electrokinetic treatment of soil is not new. What is new here are some of the details of application and the utilization of this technique as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., flushing or bioremediation) that are not suitable for treating soils of low hydraulic conductivity. Another novel aspect is the use of this technique as a less expensive alternative to excavation: The cost advantage over excavation is especially large in settings in which contaminated soil lies near and/or under

  17. Physical/chemical treatment of mixed waste soils

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I. ); Alperin, E.S.; Fox, R.D. )

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the results and findings of the demonstration testing of a physical/chemical treatment technology for mixed wastes. The principal objective of the tests was to demonstrate the capability of the low temperature thermal separation (LTTS) technology for rendering PCB-contaminated mixed waste soils as nonhazardous and acceptable for low level radioactive waste disposal. The demonstration testing of this technology was a jointly-conducted project by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) Waste Management Technology Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and IT Corporation. This pilot-scale demonstration program testing of IT's thermal separator technology in Oak Ridge was conducted as part of the DOE Model Program. This program has private industry, regulators, and universities helping to solve DOE waste management problems. Information gained from the DOE Model is shared with the participating organizations, other federal agencies, and regulatory agencies. The following represent the most significant findings from these demonstration tests: Thermal separation effectively separated PCB contamination from a mixed waste to enable the treated soil to be managed as low level radioactive waste. At the same operating conditions, mercury contamination of 0.8 ppM was reduced to less than 0.1 ppM. The majority of uranium and technetium in the waste feeds oil remained in the treated soil. Radionuclide concentration in cyclone solids is due to carry-over of entrained particles in the exit gas and not due to volatilization/condensation. Thermal separation also effectively treated all identified semi-volatile contaminants in the waste soil to below detection limits with the exception of di-n-butylphthalate in one of the two runs. 4 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  18. Successful treatment of metastatic relapse of medulloblastoma in childhood with single session stereotactic radiosurgery: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    King, David; Connolly, Daniel; Zaki, Hesham; Lee, Vicki; Yeomanson, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an increasingly used treatment modality in adults, but its use and effectiveness in pediatric brain tumors is still uncertain. We describe 3 patients with metastatic relapse of medulloblastoma, who were treated with SRS, and achieved prolonged, progression-free survival. Tolerability of the treatment was excellent with no adverse effects reported. This work adds to the growing evidence that SRS may have an important role to play in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors. PMID:23459380

  19. Repeated sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation for treatment of chronic subjective tinnitus: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Forogh, Bijan; Mirshaki, Zohre; Raissi, Gholam Reza; Shirazi, Ali; Mansoori, Korosh; Ahadi, Tannaz

    2016-02-01

    Subjective tinnitus is an auditory phantom sensation characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of an identifiable external source. This distressing audiological symptom can severely affect the quality of life. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique that can induce short-term relief in tinnitus in some patients. The purpose of this pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial was to investigate whether repeated application of anodal tDCS over left temporoparietal area could induce long-lasting relief in patients with chronic tinnitus. Twenty-two patients with chronic tinnitus for at least 6 months were randomly allocated into two groups and received five sessions of anodal (N = 11) or sham (N = 11) stimulation in five consecutive days. A current intensity of 2 mA for 20 min was used for anodal stimulation. Outcomes were assessed using Persian version of tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), loudness and distress visual analog scale (VAS) scores and clinical global impression (CGI) scale. The trial is registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) with the reference ID of IRCT2014082018871N1. No statistically significant difference was found between anodal and sham stimulation regarding either immediate or long-lasting effects over the 2 weeks follow-up period. Deterioration of symptoms and alteration in tinnitus characteristics were reported by a few patients. There were no significant long-term beneficial effects following tDCS of the left temporoparietal area. PMID:26498289

  20. Effects of different treatments on soil-borne DDT and HCH dynamics and plant uptake.

    PubMed

    Li, Huashou; Ling, Weifeng; Lin, Chuxia

    2011-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various fertilizers, as well as soil dilution treatments on the dynamics of soil-borne DDTs [sum of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and di- chlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)] and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs, sum of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH and δ-HCH) and their subsequent impacts on the uptake of DDTs and HCHs by a test plant. The results show that the soil residual DDTs and HCHs concentrations in the iron-rich fertilizer-treated soil were significantly lower than those in other fertilizer-treated soils. There was a close relationship between the soil residual DDTs and the plant tissue DDTs. This suggests that the uptake rate of DDTs by the plant was dependent on the concentration of soil-borne DDTs. A less close relationship between soil residual HCHs and plant tissue HCHs was also observed. Dilution of pesticide-contaminated soil with the non-contaminated soil not only physically reduced the concentration of pesticides in the soil but also enhanced the loss of soil-borne pesticides, possibly through the improvement of soil conditions for microbial degradation. Soil dilution had a better effect on promoting the loss of soil-borne HCHs, relative to soil-borne-DDTs. The research findings obtained from this study have implications for management of heavily contaminated soils with DDTs and HCHs. Remediation of DDTs and HCHs-contaminated soils in a cost-effective way can be achieved by incorporating treatment techniques into conventional agricultural practices. Applications of iron-rich fertilizer and soil dilution treatments could cost-effectively reduce soil-borne DDTs and HCHs, and subsequently the uptake of these organochlorine pesticides by vegetables. PMID:21790304

  1. Session IV: Current Insights into Wilderness and Adventure Therapy. Family Crisis and the Enrollment of Children in Wilderness Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Nevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Wilderness camps and programs have long been identified as viable residential treatment options for troubled adolescents (Durkin, 1988). Wilderness treatment programs in the United States, regardless of reputation and service quality, have recently received increased scrutiny from government, mainly by being depicted as in pedagogical alignment…

  2. Water treatment residuals amended soils release Mn, Na, S and C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are drinking water treatment byproducts containing chemicals used to purify raw water. Water treatment residuals are used to remediate P-enriched soils. Following soil application, elements present in WTRs have the potential of converting to soluble forms and cause c...

  3. Do therapist behaviors differ with Hispanic youth? A brief look at within-session therapist behaviors and youth treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Gaume, Jacques; Ernst, Denise B.; Rivera, Liana; Houck, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Brief addiction treatments, including motivational interviewing (MI), have shown promise with youth. One under-examined factor in this equation is the role of therapist behaviors. We therefore sought to assess whether and how therapist behaviors differ for Hispanic versus non-Hispanic youth and how that may be related to treatment outcome. With 80 substance-using adolescents (M age = 16 years; 65% male; 59% Hispanic; 41% non-Hispanic) we examined the relationship between youth ethnicity and therapist behaviors across two brief treatments (MI and Alcohol/Marijuana Education; AME). We then explored relationships to youth three-month treatment response across four target outcomes: binge drinking days, alcohol-related problems, marijuana use days, and marijuana-related problems. In this study, therapists showed significantly more MI skills within the MI condition and more didactic skills in the AME condition. With respect to youth ethnicity, across both conditions (MI and AME), therapists used less MI skills with Hispanic youth. Contrary to expectations, therapists’ use of MI skills was not connected to poorer outcomes for Hispanic youth across the board (e.g., for binge drinking days, marijuana use days, or marijuana-related problems). Rather, for Hispanic youth, therapists’ use of lower MI skills was only related to poorer treatment outcomes in the context of alcohol-related problems. The observed relationships highlight the importance of investigating salient treatment interactions between therapist factors and youth ethnicity to guide improvements in youth treatment response. PMID:25961144

  4. Do therapist behaviors differ with Hispanic youth? A brief look at within-session therapist behaviors and youth treatment response.

    PubMed

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Gaume, Jacques; Ernst, Denise B; Rivera, Liana; Houck, Jon M

    2015-09-01

    Brief addiction treatments, including motivational interviewing (MI), have shown promise with youth. One underexamined factor in this equation is the role of therapist behaviors. We therefore sought to assess whether and how therapist behaviors differ for Hispanic versus non-Hispanic youth and how that may be related to treatment outcome. With 80 substance-using adolescents (M age = 16 years; 65% male; 59% Hispanic; 41% non-Hispanic), we examined the relationship between youth ethnicity and therapist behaviors across two brief treatments (MI and alcohol/marijuana education [AME]). We then explored relationships to youth 3-month treatment response across four target outcomes: binge drinking days, alcohol-related problems, marijuana use days, and marijuana-related problems. In this study, therapists showed significantly more MI skills within the MI condition and more didactic skills in the AME condition. With respect to youth ethnicity, across both conditions (MI and AME), therapists used less MI skills with Hispanic youth. Contrary to expectations, therapists' use of MI skills was not connected to poorer outcomes for Hispanic youth across the board (e.g., for binge drinking days, marijuana use days, or marijuana-related problems). Rather, for Hispanic youth, therapists' use of lower MI skills was related only to poorer treatment outcomes in the context of alcohol-related problems. The observed relationships highlight the importance of investigating salient treatment interactions between therapist factors and youth ethnicity to guide improvements in youth treatment response. PMID:25961144

  5. TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port ...

  6. SITE DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL RECYCLING TREATMENT TRAIN - THE TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port...

  7. PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT BIOSOLIDS AND POULTRY LITTER APPLIED TO AGRICULTURAL SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in the properties of organic phosphorus (P) sources, particularly those that undergo treatment to reduce soluble P, can affect soil P solubility and P transport in surface runoff. This two year field study investigated soil P solubility and runoff P losses from two agricultural soils in...

  8. Exogenous IAA treatment enhances phytoremediation of soil contaminated with phenanthrene by promoting soil enzyme activity and increasing microbial biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiming; Wang, Dongsheng; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Ma, Lili; Xu, Li

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to confirm that indole-3-acetic acid promotes plant uptake of phenanthrene (PHE), stimulates the activity of soil enzymes or microflora, and thereby accelerates the dissipation of PHE in soil. Four treatments were evaluated: PHE-contaminated soil planted with (1) ryegrass (T0), (2) ryegrass and supplemented with 1 mg kg(-1) indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (T1), (3) ryegrass and supplemented with 5 mg kg(-1) IAA (T5), and (4) ryegrass and supplemented with 10 mg kg(-1) IAA (T10). After 30 days, PHE concentrations were lower for all treatments and the removal rate was 70.19, 89.17, 91.26, and 97.07 % for T0, T1, T5, and T10, respectively. PHE was only detected in the roots and not in the shoots. IAA facilitated the accumulation of PHE in the roots, and plants subjected to the T10 treatment had the highest levels. Exogenous IAA stimulated soil peroxidase activity in a dose-dependent manner, whereas soil polyphenoloxidase activity was not significantly increased, except in T10. Soil microbial biomass also increased in response to IAA treatment, particularly in T10. Furthermore, phospholipid fatty acid analysis showed that IAA treatment increased microbial biomass and alleviated environmental stress. Gram-positive bacteria are largely responsible for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, and we found that the ratio of gram-positive to gram-negative bacteria in the soil significantly increased as the IAA concentrations increased (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis indicated that the increase in soil microbial biomass, enzyme activity, and plant uptake of PHE promotes removal of PHE from the soil. PMID:26884240

  9. Treating Self-Injection Phobia in Patients Prescribed Injectable Medications: A Case Example Illustrating a Six-Session Treatment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Darcy; Mohr, David C.; Epstein, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a case description of a patient with multiple sclerosis prescribed interferon beta-1a (IFN[beta]-1a), a weekly intramuscular injection, who met "DSM-IV" criteria for specific phobia, blood/injection type. This patient successfully completed a 6-week manualized cognitive-behavioral treatment for self-injection anxiety. Issues…

  10. Feasibility of Soil Aquifer Treatment for Removal Chemical Pollutants of Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hattab, Ibrahim H.; Rashed, I. M.; Khalil, M. R.

    This study evaluated Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) as a method applied for removal of some chemical pollutants within wastewater. This study was made on two pilot areas in Egypt, in Abu Rawash district and El Mansouria district. The study concerned with evaluating the SAT system removal efficiency by different soil types, assessing optimum soil matrix for achieving adequate SAT, evaluating the renovated water quality conjugate to various water depths and assessing the change occur in some of the wastewater constituents (zinc, iron as heavy metals and magnesium, sodium as a basic cations). The results concluded that sandy loam soil was better than clayed soil for magnesium and sodium removal through SAT and sandy soil was not recommended for Magnesium and Sodium removal. Sandy soil was better than clayed soil for zinc and Iron removal through SAT system and sandy loam soil was not recommended for zinc and iron removal.

  11. Soil Aggregates and Organic Carbon Distribution in Red Soils after Long-term Fertilization with Different Fertilizer Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Red soils, a typical Udic Ferrosols, widespread throughout the subtropical and tropical region in southern China, support the majority of grain production in this region. The red soil is naturally low in pH values, cation exchange capacity, fertility, and compaction, resulting in low organic matter contents and soil aggregation. Application of chemical fertilizers and a combination of organic-chemical fertilizers are two basic approaches to improve soil structure and organic matter contents. We studied the soil aggregation and the distribution of aggregate-associated organic carbon in red soils with a long-term fertilization experiment during 1988-2009. We established treatments including 1) NPK and NK in the chemical fertilizer plots, 2) CK (Control), and 3) CK+ Peanut Straw (PS), CK+ Rice Straw (RS), CK+ Fresh Radish (FR), and CK + Pig Manure (PM) in the organic-chemical fertilizer plots. Soil samples were fractionated into 6 different sized aggregate particles through the dry-wet sieving method according to the hierarchical model of aggregation. Organic carbon in the aggregate/size classes was analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of mechanically stable aggregates in red soils after long-term fertilization decreased with the size, from > 5mm, 5 ~ 2 mm, 2 ~ 1 mm, 1~ 0.25 mm, to < 0.25 mm, but the distribution of water-stable aggregates did not follow this pattern. Compared with the chemical fertilizer application alone, the addition of pig manure and green manure can significantly improve the distribution of aggregates in the 5-2 mm, 2-1 mm and 1-0.25 mm classes. The organic carbon (OC) contents in red soils were all increased after the long-term fertilization. Compared with Treatment NK, soil OC in Treatment NPK was increased by 45.4%. Compared with Treatment CK (low chemical fertilizer), organic fertilizer addition increased soil OC. The OC in the different particle of water-stable aggregates were all significantly increased after long

  12. Concentration of soil CO2 as an indicator of the decalcification rate after liming treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmiel, Stanisław; Hałas, Stanisław; Głowacki, Sławomir; Sposób, Joanna; Maciejewska, Ewa; Trembaczowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation of decalcification of acid sandy and loamy sand soils by infiltration waters, and potential Ca-leaching after liming treatment. For this purpose, monthly measurements were made of the concentration of CO2 in the soil air, dissolved inorganic carbon in the soil waters, and their ionic composition. The determined dissolved inorganic carbon ranged from 5.9 to 10.6 mg dm-3 and from 9.9 to 16.5 mg dm-3 for the sandy and loamy sand soil, respectively. The Ca concentration in soil waters was determined as 5.9-12.4 mg dm-3 in sandy soil and 14.2-19.8 mg dm-3 in soil loamy sand. The calculated rate of decalcification amounted to 23.0 kg ha-1 year-1 in soil sandy and 19.4 kg ha-1 year-1 in loamy sand soil. The potential Ca-leaching is predicted as 124 kg ha-1 year-1 for S and 87 kg ha-1 year-1 for loamy sand soil. At the treatment level of 3 000 kg ha-1 4 year-1 of CaO, ~20% of the Ca-fertilizer can be leached after the liming treatment. The results of the CO2 concentration in the soil air may be useful in estimation of Ca-leaching from soils developed by slightly clayey sands and clayey sands in zones with a moderate climate.

  13. The Effects of Soil Type and Chemical Treatment on Nickel Speciation in Refinery Enriched Soils: A Multi-Technique Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    McNear, Jr.,D.; Chaney, R.; Sparks, D.

    2007-01-01

    Aerial deposition of Ni from a refinery in Port Colborne, Ontario, Canada has resulted in the enrichment of 29 km{sup 2} of land with Ni concentrations exceeding the Canadian Ministry of the Environment's remedial action level of 200 mg kg{sup -1}. Several studies on these soils have shown that making the soils calcareous was effective at reducing chemically extractable Ni, as well as alleviating Ni phytotoxicity symptoms in vegetable crops grown in the vicinity of the refinery. Conversely, dolomitic limestone additions resulted in increased uptake of Ni in the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale 'Kotodesh', a plant whose use was proposed as a remediation strategy for this area. In this paper we use multiple techniques to directly assess the role soil type and lime treatments play in altering the speciation of Ni in the Welland loam and Quarry muck soils around the refinery and relate these findings to Ni mobility and bioavailability. Stirred-flow dissolution experiments using pH 4 HNO{sub 3} showed that Ni release from the limed Quarry muck and Welland loam soils was reduced ({approx}0.10%) relative to the unlimed soils ({approx}2.0%). Electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) identified approximately spherical NiO and Ni metal particles, which are associated with no other metals, and range from 5 to 50 {mu}m in diameter. Synchrotron micro-X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopies showed that Ni and Al layered double hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) phases were present in both the limed and unlimed mineral soils, with a tendency towards more stable (e.g., aged-LDH and phyllosilicate) Ni species in the limed soil, possibly aided by the solubilization of Si with increasing pH. In the muck soils, Ni-organic complexes (namely fulvic acid) dominated the speciation in both limed and unlimed soils. The results reported herein show that both soil type and treatment have a pronounced effect on the speciation of Ni in the soils surrounding the Port Colborne

  14. Ecotoxicological impact of two soil remediation treatments in Lactuca sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Rede, Diana; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Ramos, Sandra; Oliva-Teles, Filipe; Antão, Cristina; Sousa, Susana R; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been identified as environmental emerging pollutants and are present in different compartments, including soils. Chemical remediation showed to be a good and suitable approach for soil remediation, though the knowledge in their impact for terrestrial organisms is still limited. Therefore, in this work, two different chemical remediation treatments (Fenton oxidation and nanoremediation) were applied to a soil contaminated with an environmental representative concentration of ibuprofen (3 ng g(-1)). The phytotoxic impact of a traditional soil remediation treatment (Fenton oxidation) and of a new and more sustainable approach for soil remediation (nanoremediation using green nano-scale zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs)) was evaluated in Lactuca sativa seeds. Percentage of seed germination, root elongation, shoot length and leaf length were considered as endpoints to assess the possible acute phytotoxicity of the soil remediation treatments as well as of the ibuprofen contaminated soil. Both chemical remediation treatments showed to have a negative impact in the germination and development of lettuce seeds, exhibiting a reduction up to 45% in the percentage of seed germination and a decrease around 80% in root elongation comparatively to the contaminated soil. These results indicate that chemical soil remediation treatments could be more prejudicial for terrestrial organisms than contaminated soils. PMID:27289206

  15. Effects of Vermicompost and Water Treatment Residuals on Soil Physical Properties and Wheat Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Mahmoud, Essawy K.; Ibrahim, Doaa A.

    2015-04-01

    The application of vermicompost and water treatment residuals to improve the physical properties in the salt affected soils is a promising technology to meet the requirements of high plant growth and cost-effective reclamation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vermicompost and its mixtures with water treatment residuals on selected physical properties of saline sodic soil and on wheat yield. The treatments were vermicompost, water treatment residuals, vermicompost + water treatment residuals (1:1 and 2:1 wet weight ratio) at levels of 5 and 10 g dry weight kg-1 dry soil. The considered physical properties included aggregate stability, mean weight diameter, pore size distribution and dry bulk density. The addition of vermicompost and water treatment residuals had significant positive effects on the studied soil physical properties, and improved the grain yield of wheat. The treatment of (2 vermicompost + 1 water treatment residuals) at level of 5 g kg-1 soil gave the best grain yield. Combination of vermicompost and water treatment residuals improved the water treatment residuals efficiency in ameliorating the soil physical properties, and could be considered as an ameliorating material for the reclamation of salt affected soils.

  16. Impact of different tillage treatments on soil respiration and microbial activity for different agricultural used soils in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klik, Andreas; Scholl, Gerlinde; Baatar, Undrakh-Od

    2015-04-01

    Soils can act as a net sink for sequestering carbon and thus attenuating the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide if appropriate soil and crop management is applied. Adapted soil management strategies like less intensive or even no tillage treatments may result in slower mineralization of soil organic carbon and enhanced carbon sequestration. In order to assess the impact of different soil tillage systems on carbon dioxide emissions due to soil respiration and on soil biological activity parameters, a field study of three years duration (2007-2010)has been performed at different sites in Austria. Following tillage treatments were compared: 1) conventional tillage (CT) with plough with and without cover crop during winter period, 2) reduced tillage (RT) with cultivator with cover crop, and 3) no-till (NT) with cover crop. Each treatment was replicated three times. At two sites with similar climatic conditions but different soil textures soil CO2 efflux was measured during the growing seasons in intervals of one to two weeks using a portable soil respiration system consisting of a soil respiration chamber attached to an infrared gas analyzer. Additionally, concurrent soil temperature and soil water contents of the top layer (0-5 cm)were measured. For these and additional three other sites with different soil and climatic conditions soil samples were taken to assess the impact of tillage treatment on soil biological activity parameters. In spring, summer and autumn samples were taken from each plot at the soil depth of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm to analyze soil microbial respiration (MR), substrate induced respiration (SIR), beta-glucasidase activity (GLU) and dehydrogenase (BHY). Samples were sieved (2 mm) and stored at 4 °C in a refrigerator. Analyses of were performed within one month after sampling. The measurements show a high spatial variability of soil respiration data even within one plot. Nevertheless, the level of soil carbon dioxide efflux was similar for

  17. Feasibility for application of soil bioengineering techniques to natural wastewater treatment systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.J.

    1992-12-01

    This report examines the general feasibility for application of Soil Bioengineering techniques in construction, operation, and management of natural wastewater treatment systems. Soil Bioengineering is an applied science that combines structural, biological, and ecological concepts to construct living structures for erosion, sediment, and flood control (Sotir and Gray, 1989). Using live plant parts as major structural components to reinforce the soil mantle, Soil Bioengineering offers natural and effective solutions to land instability problems along streams and rivers, transportation and utilities transmission corridors, and in forest and wetlands sites. Natural treatment systems are wastewater treatment processes which use the soil-water-plant matrix as a 'natural reactor' for physically, chemically, and biologically stabilizing applied wastes. Recognized natural treatment systems currently include constructed and natural wetlands, aquatic plant systems(aquaculture), wastewater stabilization ponds, and land application of wastes, termed 'land treatment'.

  18. Mutagenicity of an aged gasworks soil during bioslurry treatment.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Christine L; Lynes, Krista D; White, Paul A; Lundstedt, Staffan; Oberg, Lars; Lambert, Iain B

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated changes in the mutagenic activity of organic fractions from soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during pilot-scale bioslurry remediation. Slurry samples were previously analyzed for changes in PAH and polycyclic aromatic compound content, and this study examined the correspondence between the chemical and toxicological metrics. Nonpolar neutral and semipolar aromatic fractions of samples obtained on days 0, 3, 7, 24, and 29 of treatment were assayed for mutagenicity using the Salmonella mutation assay. Most samples elicited a significant positive response on Salmonella strains TA98, YG1041, and YG1042 with and without S9 metabolic activation; however, TA100 failed to detect mutagenicity in any sample. Changes in the mutagenic activity of the fractions across treatment time and metabolic activation conditions suggests a pattern of formation and transformation of mutagenic compounds that may include a wide range of PAH derivatives such as aromatic amines, oxygenated PAHs, and S-heterocyclic compounds. The prior chemical analyses documented the formation of oxygenated PAHs during the treatment (e.g., 4-oxapyrene-5-one), and the mutagenicity analyses showed high corresponding activity in the semipolar fraction with and without metabolic activation. However, it could not be verified that these specific compounds were the underlying cause of the observed changes in mutagenic activity. The results highlight the need for concurrent chemical and toxicological profiling of contaminated sites undergoing remediation to ensure elimination of priority contaminants as well as a reduction in toxicological hazard. Moreover, the results imply that remediation efficacy and utility be evaluated using both chemical and toxicological metrics. PMID:19274766

  19. Mutagenicity of an aged gasworks soil during bioslurry treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Christine L; Lynes, Krista D; White, Paul A; Lundstedt, Staffan; Öberg, Lars; Lambert, Iain B

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the mutagenic activity of organic fractions from soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during pilot-scale bioslurry remediation. Slurry samples were previously analyzed for changes in PAH and polycyclic aromatic compound content, and this study examined the correspondence between the chemical and toxicological metrics. Nonpolar neutral and semipolar aromatic fractions of samples obtained on days 0, 3, 7, 24, and 29 of treatment were assayed for mutagenicity using the Salmonella mutation assay. Most samples elicited a significant positive response on Salmonella strains TA98, YG1041, and YG1042 with and without S9 metabolic activation; however, TA100 failed to detect mutagenicity in any sample. Changes in the mutagenic activity of the fractions across treatment time and metabolic activation conditions suggests a pattern of formation and transformation of mutagenic compounds that may include a wide range of PAH derivatives such as aromatic amines, oxygenated PAHs, and S-heterocyclic compounds. The prior chemical analyses documented the formation of oxygenated PAHs during the treatment (e.g., 4-oxapyrene-5-one), and the mutagenicity analyses showed high corresponding activity in the semipolar fraction with and without metabolic activation. However, it could not be verified that these specific compounds were the underlying cause of the observed changes in mutagenic activity. The results highlight the need for concurrent chemical and toxicological profiling of contaminated sites undergoing remediation to ensure elimination of priority contaminants as well as a reduction in toxicological hazard. Moreover, the results imply that remediation efficacy and utility be evaluated using both chemical and toxicological metrics. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19274766

  20. Changes and recovery of soil bacterial communities influenced by biological soil disinfestation as compared with chloropicrin-treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Soil bacterial composition, as influenced by biological soil disinfestation (BSD) associated with biomass incorporation was investigated to observe the effects of the treatment on the changes and recovery of the microbial community in a commercial greenhouse setting. Chloropicrin (CP) was also used for soil disinfestation to compare with the effects of BSD. The fusarium wilt disease incidence of spinach cultivated in the BSD- and CP-treated plots was reduced as compared with that in the untreated control plots, showing effectiveness of both methods to suppress the disease. The clone library analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that members of the Firmicutes became dominant in the soil bacterial community after the BSD-treatment. Clone groups related to the species in the class Clostridia, such as Clostridium saccharobutylicum, Clostridium tetanomorphum, Clostridium cylindrosporum, Oxobacter pfennigii, etc., as well as Bacillus niacini in the class Bacilli were recognized as the most dominant members in the community. For the CP-treated soil, clones affiliated with the Bacilli related to acid-tolerant or thermophilic bacteria such as Tuberibacillus calidus, Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus, Pullulanibacillus naganoensis, Alicyclobacillus pomorum, etc. were detected as the major groups. The clone library analysis for the soil samples collected after spinach cultivation revealed that most of bacterial groups present in the original soil belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, TM7, etc. were recovered in the BSD-treated soil. For the CP-treated soil, the recovery of the bacterial groups belonging to the above phyla was also noted, but some major clone groups recognized in the original soil did not recover fully. PMID:23958081

  1. Changes and recovery of soil bacterial communities influenced by biological soil disinfestation as compared with chloropicrin-treatment.

    PubMed

    Mowlick, Subrata; Inoue, Takashi; Takehara, Toshiaki; Kaku, Nobuo; Ueki, Katsuji; Ueki, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Soil bacterial composition, as influenced by biological soil disinfestation (BSD) associated with biomass incorporation was investigated to observe the effects of the treatment on the changes and recovery of the microbial community in a commercial greenhouse setting. Chloropicrin (CP) was also used for soil disinfestation to compare with the effects of BSD. The fusarium wilt disease incidence of spinach cultivated in the BSD- and CP-treated plots was reduced as compared with that in the untreated control plots, showing effectiveness of both methods to suppress the disease. The clone library analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that members of the Firmicutes became dominant in the soil bacterial community after the BSD-treatment. Clone groups related to the species in the class Clostridia, such as Clostridium saccharobutylicum, Clostridium tetanomorphum, Clostridium cylindrosporum, Oxobacter pfennigii, etc., as well as Bacillus niacini in the class Bacilli were recognized as the most dominant members in the community. For the CP-treated soil, clones affiliated with the Bacilli related to acid-tolerant or thermophilic bacteria such as Tuberibacillus calidus, Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus, Pullulanibacillus naganoensis, Alicyclobacillus pomorum, etc. were detected as the major groups. The clone library analysis for the soil samples collected after spinach cultivation revealed that most of bacterial groups present in the original soil belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, TM7, etc. were recovered in the BSD-treated soil. For the CP-treated soil, the recovery of the bacterial groups belonging to the above phyla was also noted, but some major clone groups recognized in the original soil did not recover fully. PMID:23958081

  2. The Effect of a Self-Cueing Treatment on Top-Level Goal Setting Strategies and Attention to Task in Timed-Writing Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, JaneE

    A case study examined one college student's poor performances during timed-writing sessions to develop a method to allow students to maintain the quality and ease in writing they achieve in other writing situations. The student, assigned to write a movie review, volunteered to participate in two 90 minute talk-aloud protocol sessions to examine…

  3. SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND SOIL WASHING TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM WOOD PRESERVING SITES: BENCH SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction and soil washing studies were performed on soil samples obtained from three abandoned wood preserving sites that included in the NPL. The soil samples from these sites were contaminated with high levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pentachlo...

  4. Behavior of alkylphenol polyethoxylate metabolites during soil aquifer treatment.

    PubMed

    Montgomery-Brown, John; Drewes, Jörg E; Fox, Peter; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-09-01

    The attenuation of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs) metabolites was studied at a soil aquifer treatment (SAT) site located in Arizona, USA. Two parcels of water were monitored during infiltration; one parcel was predominantly oxic while the other was predominantly anoxic. In this study, only alkylphenol ethoxycarboxylates (APECs) and carboxyalkylphenol ethoxycarboxylates (CAPECs) were detected, no short-chained APEOs were observed-even under anoxic conditions. APEO metabolites were rapidly (<7 days) removed under both aerobic and anoxic conditions. In general, the length of the ethoxycarboxylate chain decreases with depth--at depths greater than 3m, only alkylphenoxy acetic acids (AP1ECs), carboxyalkylphenoxy acetic acids (CAP1ECs), and alkylphenols (APs) remain. Under aerobic conditions, octylphenol and nonylphenol concentrations decreased by approximately 80% (w/w) within 3m of the ground surface. Under anoxic conditions however, alkylphenol concentrations increased by approximately 200% during the first 1.5m and then decreased during the next 1.5m; overall, under anoxic conditions, alkylphenol concentrations increased by approximately 38% within 3m. During infiltration, APEC and CAPEC concentrations decrease by more than 95% within 3m of SAT. Alternate flooding and drying cycles appear to enhance overall APEO metabolite removal efficiencies. PMID:12867334

  5. Improving revegetation success: Evaluation of several soil treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, W.M.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Kemp, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    The current Hanford practice for stabilizing contaminated soil sites and retired burial grounds involves placing clean soil over the surface, followed by revegetation. This procedure has resulted in the establishment of a viable plant cover at a number of locations. In other cases, however, these efforts have failed to establish healthy shallow-rooted grass coverage. The establishment of a viable plant community is inherently difficult on the Hanford Site for a variety of reasons, including inadequate and sporadic natural precipitation; windy conditions that produce large erosive forces; soils low in nutrients and organic matter; invasion of disturbed sites by aggressive, weedy annuals; and limited supplies of quality topsoil. This report describes the results of work designed to address three environmental issues (soil moisture, erosion, and soil nutrients). Compost and soil sealants were evaluated in various combinations with the expectation of developing revegetation procedures with a higher probability of success.

  6. Innovative treatment for TCE-contaminated saturated clay soils

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Cameron, P.A.; Smuin, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the evaluation of mixed region vapor stripping (MRVS) coupled with calcium oxide conditioning for removing trichloroethylene (TCE) for a site underlain by saturated clay soils. Volatile organic compound removal during MRVS with and without calcium oxide conditioning were simulated using a previously developed model. The results of the modeling were compared with laboratory MRVS tests on undisturbed soil cores taken from the study site. The modeling results were consistent with laboratory simulations of MRVS on field-contaminated soils from the study site, and showed that calcium oxide conditioning is an effective method for enhancing VOC removal efficiencies in saturated clay soils.

  7. Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive contaminants. Final report September 1992--October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A research and development project to remove uranium and related radioactive contaminants from soil by an ultrasonically-aided chemical leaching process began in 1993. The project objective was to develop and design, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale experimental studies, a cost-effective soil decontamination process to produce a treated soil containing less than 35 pCi/g. The project, to cover a period of about thirty months, was designed to include bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to remove primarily uranium from the Incinerator Area soil, at Fernald, Ohio, as well as strontium-90, cobalt-60 and cesium-137 from a Chalk River soil, at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario. The project goal was to develop, design and cost estimate, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale ex-situ soil treatment studies, a process to remove radionuclides form the soils to a residual level of 35 pCi/g of soil or less, and to provide a dischargeable water effluent as a result of soil leaching and a concentrate that can be recovered for reuse or solidified as a waste for disposal. In addition, a supplementary goal was to test the effectiveness of in-situ soil treatment through a field study using the Chalk River soil.

  8. Pyrolytic Treatment and Fertility Enhancement of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Vidonish, Julia E; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Masiello, Caroline A; Gao, Xiaodong; Mathieu, Jacques; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2016-03-01

    Pyrolysis of contaminated soils at 420 °C converted recalcitrant heavy hydrocarbons into "char" (a carbonaceous material similar to petroleum coke) and enhanced soil fertility. Pyrolytic treatment reduced total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) to below regulatory standards (typically <1% by weight) within 3 h using only 40-60% of the energy required for incineration at 600-1200 °C. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was not observed, with post-pyrolysis levels well below applicable standards. Plant growth studies showed a higher biomass production of Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa (Simpson black-seeded lettuce) (80-900% heavier) in pyrolyzed soils than in contaminated or incinerated soils. Elemental analysis showed that pyrolyzed soils contained more carbon than incinerated soils (1.4-3.2% versus 0.3-0.4%). The stark color differences between pyrolyzed and incinerated soils suggest that the carbonaceous material produced via pyrolysis was dispersed in the form of a layer coating the soil particles. Overall, these results suggest that soil pyrolysis could be a viable thermal treatment to quickly remediate soils impacted by weathered oil while improving soil fertility, potentially enhancing revegetation. PMID:26284736

  9. Assessment of existing roadside swales with engineered filter soil: II. Treatment efficiency and in situ mobilization in soil columns.

    PubMed

    Ingvertsen, Simon T; Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina B; Magid, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Use of roadside infiltration systems using engineered filter soil for optimized treatment has been common practice in Germany for decades, but little documentation is available regarding their long-term treatment performance. Here we present the results of laboratory leaching experiments with intact soil columns (15 cm i.d., 25-30 cm length) collected from two German roadside infiltration swales constructed in 1997. The columns were irrigated with synthetic solutions of unpolluted or polluted (dissolved heavy metals and fine suspended solids) road runoff, as well as a soluble nonreactive tracer (bromide) and a dye (brilliant blue). The experiments were performed at two irrigation rates corresponding to catchment rainfall intensities of approximately 5.1 and 34 mm/h. The bromide curves indicated that preferential flow was more pronounced at high irrigation rates, which was supported by the flow patterns revealed in the dye tracing experiment. Nonetheless, the soils seemed to be capable of retaining most of the dissolved heavy metals from the polluted road runoff at both low and high irrigation rates, except for Cr, which appears to pass through the soil as chromate. Fluorescent microspheres (diameter = 5 μm) used as surrogates for fine suspended solids were efficiently retained by the soils (>99%). However, despite promising treatment abilities, internal mobilization of heavy metals and P from the soil was observed, resulting in potentially critical effluent concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Pb. This is mainly ascribed to high concentrations of in situ mobilized dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Suggestions are provided for possible improvements and further research to minimize DOC mobilization in engineered filter soils. PMID:23128754

  10. Evaluating Microbial Purification during Soil Treatment of Wastewater with Multicomponent Tracer and Surrogate Tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Cuyk, S.; Siegrist, R.L.; Lowe, K.; Harvey, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Soil treatment of wastewater has the potential to achieve high purification efficiency, yet the understanding and predictability of purification with respect to removal of viruses and other pathogens is limited. Research has been completed to quantify the removal of virus and bacteria through the use of microbial surrogates and conservative tracers during controlled experiments with three-dimensional pilot-scale soil treatment systems in the laboratory and during the testing of full-scale systems under field conditions. The surrogates and tracers employed included two viruses (MS-2 and PRID-1 bacteriophages), one bacterium (ice-nucleating active Pseudomonas), and one conservative tracer (bromide ion). Efforts have also been made to determine the relationship between viruses and fecal coliform bacteria in soil samples below the wastewater infiltrative surface, and the correlation between Escherichia coil concentrations measured in percolating soil solution as compared with those estimated from analyses of soil solids. The results suggest episodic breakthrough of virus and bacteria during soil treatment of wastewater and a 2 to 3 log (99-99.9%) removal of virus and near complete removal of fecal coliform bacteria during unsaturated flow through 60 to 90 cm of sandy medium. Results also suggest that the fate of fecal coliform bacteria may be indicative of that of viruses in soil media near the infiltrative surface receiving wastewater effluent. Concentrations of fecal coliform in percolating soil solution may be conservatively estimated from analysis of extracted soil solids.

  11. AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE TREATMENT OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM FUELS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report updates a 1992 report that summarizes available information on air emissions from the treatment of soils contaminated with fuels. Soils contaminated by leaks or spills of fuel products, such as gasoline or jet fuel, are a nationwide concern. Air emissions during remedi...

  12. IN SITU TREATMENT OF SOIL AND GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATED WITH CHROMIUM - TECHNICAL RESOURCE GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New information and treatment approaches have been developed for chromium-contaminated soil and groundwater treatment. The prupose of this report is to bring together the most current information pertaining to the science of chromium contamination and the insitu treatment and co...

  13. Influence of attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment, and oxidant additions on uranium removal from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.; Francis, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration Project being conducted by the US Department of Energy, bench-scale investigations of selective leaching of uranium from soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site in Ohio were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two soils (storage pad soil and incinerator soil), representing the major contaminant sources at the site, were extracted using carbonate- and citric acid-based lixiviants. Physical and chemical processes were used in combination with the two extractants to increase the rate of uranium release from these soils. Attrition scrubbing and ultrasonic dispersion were the two physical processes utilized. Potassium permanganate was used as an oxidizing agent to transform tetravalent uranium to the hexavalent state. Hexavalent uranium is easily complexed in solution by the carbonate radical. Attrition scrubbing increased the rate of uranium release from both soils when compared with rotary shaking. At equivalent extraction times and solids loadings, however, attrition scrubbing proved effective only on the incinerator soil. Ultrasonic treatments on the incinerator soil removed 71% of the uranium contamination in a single extraction. Multiple extractions of the same sample removed up to 90% of the uranium. Additions of potassium permanganate to the carbonate extractant resulted in significant changes in the extractability of uranium from the incinerator soil but had no effect on the storage pad soil.

  14. Thermal treatment of low permeability soils using electrical resistance heating

    SciTech Connect

    Udell, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    The acceleration of recovery rates of second phase liquid contaminants from the subsurface during gas or water pumping operations is realized by increasing the soil and ground water temperature. Electrical heating with AC current is one method of increasing the soil and groundwater temperature and has particular applicability to low permeability soils. Several mechanisms have been identified that account for the enhanced removal of the contaminants during electrical heating. These are vaporization of liquid contaminants with low boiling points, temperature-enhanced evaporation rates of semi-volatile components, and removal of residual contaminants by the boiling of residual water. Field scale studies of electrical heating and fluid extraction show the effectiveness of this technique and its applicability to contaminants found both above and below the water table and within low permeability soils. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Plasma treatment of INEL soil contaminated with heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, B.A.; Batdorf, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    INEL soil spiked with inorganic salts of chromium, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc was melted in a 150 kW plasma furnace to produce a glassy slag product. This glassy slag is an environmentally safe waste form. In order to reduce the melting temperature of the soil, sodium carbonate was added to half of the test batches. Random sample from each batch of glassy slag product were analyzed by an independent laboratory for total metals concentration and leachability of metals via the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxicity characterization leaching procedure (RCLP) tests. These tests showed the residual metals were very tightly bound to the slag matrix and were within EPA TCLP limits under these test conditions. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and emissions dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the vitrified soil also confirmed that the added metals present in the vitrified soil were totally contained in the crystalline phase as distinct oxide crystallites.

  16. Degradation and formation of polycyclic aromatic compounds during bioslurry treatment of an aged gasworks soil.

    PubMed

    Lundstedt, Staffan; Haglund, Peter; Oberg, Lars

    2003-07-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate the relative degradation rates of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in contaminated soil, and to assess whether persistent oxidation products are formed during their degradation. Samples were taken on five occasions during a pilot-scale bioslurry treatment of soil from a former gasworks site. More than 100 PACs were identified in the soil, including unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs (alkyl-PAHs), heterocyclic PACs, and oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs), such as ketones, quinones, and coumarins. During the treatment, the low molecular weight PAHs and heterocyclics were degraded faster than the high molecular weight compounds. The unsubstituted PAHs also appear to have degraded more quickly than the corresponding alkyl-PAHs and nitrogen-containing heterocyclics. No new oxidation products that were not present in the untreated soil were identified after the soil treatment. However, oxy-PAHs that were present in the untreated soil were generally degraded more slowly than the parent compounds, suggesting that they were formed during the treatment or that they are more persistent. Two oxidation products, 1-acenaphthenone and 4-oxapyrene-5-one, were found at significantly higher concentrations at the end of the study. Because oxy-PAHs can be acutely toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic, we suggest that this group of compounds should also be monitored during the treatment of PAH-contaminated soil. PMID:12836964

  17. ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF SOIL WASH FLUIDS FROM A WOOD PRESERVING SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated system has been developed to remediate sols contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This system involves the coupling of two treatment technologies, soil solvent washing and anaerobic biotreatment of the extract. Specif...

  18. ASP Networking Sessions Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolone, L. M.

    2008-06-01

    In response to evaluation conducted during the Annual Meeting of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in 2006, ``Engaging the EPO Community: Best Practices, New Approaches,'' loosely structured networking sessions were added by the program committee in an effort to assist conference attendees in achieving their stated conference goals. The co-chairs of the 2007 conference invited registrants to serve as facilitators for twelve networking sessions. This work aims to summarize the conversations that took place during those sessions, based upon notes and artifacts provided to the author by the session facilitators.

  19. [Consideration on revision of current sanitary standard for non-hazardous treatment of night soil].

    PubMed

    Hai-Chun, Wei

    2011-02-01

    With the decrease of parasitic ovum in night soil, the current Sanitary Standard for the Non-hazardous Treatment of Night Soil is not suitable for health situation of populations and actually sanitary state of night soil. The concept of green decontamination should be introduced into the design, construction, utilization and management. The feasibility of the current standard need to be improved. Considering the current sanitary state of night soil, decontamination, the impact to environment, actual constructing situations of sanitary toilet and its implementation, it is necessary to establish a new assessment system by adding environmental indicators and sensitive markers reflecting terminal contaminated state. PMID:22164392

  20. Study on ozone treatment of soil for agricultural application of surface dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Takuya; Abiru, Tomoya; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ebihara, Kenji; Nagahama, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Recently, application of plasma technologies to the agricultural field has attracted much interest because residual pesticides and excessive nitrogen oxides contained in plants, soil, and groundwater have become a serious issue worldwide. Since almost all of the atmospheric discharge plasma generates ozone, the effects of ozone are among the key factors for their agricultural applications. We have proposed the use of ozone generated using surface barrier discharge plasma for soil disinfection or sterilization. In this work, the ozone consumption coefficient and diffusion coefficient in soil were measured by the ultraviolet absorption method. The pH(H2O) and amount of nitrogen nutrient in soil after ozone diffusion treatment were studied and plant growth was observed simultaneously. The effect of ozone treatment on the amount of DNA in soil was also investigated and compared with that determined from the obtained ozone consumption coefficient.

  1. Evaluation of aromatic pathway induction for creosote contaminated soils in slurried soil media designed to achieve environmentally acceptable treatment endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.; McCauley, P.; Potter, C.; Herrmann, R.; Dosani, M.

    1995-12-31

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon contaminants (PAHs) are commonly associated with the use of creosote for wood preservation and the process residues left by municipal gas production. The biological treatment of this set of organic compounds has been found to be difficult since they have low water solubility and reactivity in soil systems. Liquid culture studies have shown that inducer chemicals may assist the biotreatment of PAH contaminated soils. A set of designed experimental treatments were conducted to evaluate the incorporation of potential inducer compounds. The inducers chosen for evaluation were 2-hydroxybenzoic acid and phthalic acid with treatment controls of 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and terephthalic acid at three concentrations in slurried creosote-contaminated soil. An abiotic treatment control of formaldehyde was used for contrast. The designed treatment evaluation used 250mL Erlenmeyer flask slurry reaction vessels. The flask study used an orbital shaker to maintain slurry suspension. At selected time points throughout the study individual flask reactors were sacrificed and the contents were analyzed for PAH concentration, nutrients, and biomass (FAME Analysis). Depletion of individual PAHs, total PAHs, 2 and 3-ring, and 4 and 6-ring PAHs was correlation with the biomass. The effect of selected surfactant addition was also evaluated. Rates of PAH depletion and applications to larger scale investigations will be discussed.

  2. Response of autochthonous microbiota of diesel polluted soils to land-farming treatments.

    PubMed

    Silva-Castro, Gloria Andrea; Uad, Imane; Rodríguez-Calvo, Alfonso; González-López, Jesús; Calvo, Concepción

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the response of autochthonous microorganisms of diesel polluted soils to land-farming treatments. Inorganic NPK (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium) fertilizer and Ivey surfactant were applied alone or in combination as biostimulating agents. The study was carried out in experimental separated land-farming plots performed with two soils: a sandy clay soil with low biological activity and a sandy clay soil with higher biological activity, contaminated with two concentrations of diesel: 10,000 and 20,000mgkg(-1). Bacterial growth, dehydrogenase activity and CO2 production were the biological parameters evaluated. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis proved that moisture content showed a tendency related to microbial growth and that heterotrophic and degrading microorganisms had the best relationship. Initial biological activity of soil influenced the response with 11.1% of variability attributed to this parameter. Soils with low activity had higher degree of response to nutrient addition. PMID:25486545

  3. Remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by ex situ microwave treatment: technical, energy and economic considerations.

    PubMed

    Falciglia, P P; Vagliasindi, F G A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the remediation of diesel-polluted soils was investigated by simulating an ex situ microwave (MW) heating treatment under different conditions, including soil moisture, operating power and heating duration. Based on experimental data, a technical, energy and economic assessment for the optimization of full-scale remediation activities was carried out. Main results show that the operating power applied significantly influences the contaminant removal kinetics and the moisture content in soil has a major effect on the final temperature reachable during MW heating. The first-order kinetic model showed an excellent correlation (r2 > 0.976) with the experimental data for residual concentration at all operating powers and for all soil moistures tested. Excellent contaminant removal values up to 94.8% were observed for wet soils at power higher than 600 W for heating duration longer than 30 min. The use of MW heating with respect to a conventional ex situ thermal desorption treatment could significantly decrease the energy consumption needed for the removal of hydrocarbon contaminants from soils. Therefore, the MW treatment could represent a suitable cost-effective alternative to the conventional thermal treatment for the remediation of hydrocarbon-polluted soil. PMID:25145181

  4. Reducing phosphorus flux from organic soils in surface flow treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Susan M; White, John R

    2011-10-01

    Treatment wetlands have a finite period of effective nutrient removal after which treatment efficiency declines. This is due to the accumulation of organic matter which decreases the capacity and hydraulic retention time of the wetland. We investigated four potential solutions to improve the soluble reactive P (SRP) removal of a municipal wastewater treatment wetland soil including; dry down, surface additions of alum or calcium carbonate and physical removal of the accreted organic soil under both aerobic and anaerobic water column conditions. The flux of SRP from the soil to the water column under aerobic conditions was higher for the continuously flooded controls (1.1±0.4 mg P m(-2) d(-1)), dry down (1.5±0.9 mg P m(-2) d(-1)) and CaCO3 (0.8±0.7 mg P m(-2) d(-1)) treatments while the soil removal and alum treatments were significantly lower at 0.02±0.10 and -0.07±0.02 mg P m(-2) d(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate that the two most effective management strategies at sequestering SRP were organic soil removal and alum additions. There are difficulties and costs associated with removal and disposal of soils from a treatment wetland. Therefore our findings suggest that alum addition may be the most cost effective and efficient means of increasing the sequestering of P in aging treatment wetlands experiencing reduced P removal rates. However, more research is needed to determine the longer term effects of alum buildup in the organic soil on the wetland biota, in particular, on the macrophytes and invertebrates. Since alum effectiveness is time limited, a longer term solution to P flux may favor the organic soil removal. PMID:21802114

  5. Responses of soil buffering capacity to acid treatment in three typical subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Ying-Ping; Yu, Mengxiao; Li, Kun; Shao, Yijing; Yan, Junhua

    2016-09-01

    Elevated anthropogenic acid deposition can significantly affect forest ecosystem functioning by changing soil pH, nutrient balance, and chemical leaching and so on. These effects generally differ among different forests, and the dominant mechanisms for those observed responses often vary, depending on climate, soil conditions and vegetation types. Using soil monoliths (0-40cm) from pine forest (pioneer), coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (transitional) and broadleaved forest (mature) in southern China, we conducted a leaching experiment with acid treatments at different pH levels (control: pH≈4.5; pH=3.5; pH=2.5). We found that pH3.5 treatment significantly reduced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in leachate from the pioneer forest soil. pH2.5 treatment significantly increased concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the pioneer forest soil, and also concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the transitional forest soil. All acid treatments had no significant effects on concentrations of these chemicals in leachate from the mature forest soil. The responses can be explained by the changes in soil pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and concentrations of Al and Fe. Our results showed that acid buffering capacity of the pioneer or transitional forest soil was lower than that of the mature forest soil. Therefore preserving mature forests in southern China is important for reducing the adverse impacts of high acid deposition on stream water quality at present and into the future. PMID:27185346

  6. Nitrate removal and denitrification affected by soil characteristics in nitrate treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan; Chang, Yih-Feng; Shih, Kai-Chung

    2007-03-01

    Several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis, Pennisetum purpureum, Ipomoea aquatica, and Pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. The results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitrate removal efficiencies (70-99%) and soil denitrification rates (3.78-15.02 microg N2O-N/g dry soil/h) than an unplanted covered wetland cell (1%, 0.11 microg N2O-N/g/h). However, the unplanted uncovered wetland cell showed a nitrate removal efficiency (55%) lower than but a soil denitrification rate (9.12 microg N2O-N/g/h) comparable to the planted cells. The nitrate removal rate correlated closely and positively with the soil denitrification rate for the planted cells, indicating that soil denitrification is an important process for removing nitrate in constructed wetlands. The results of nitrogen budget revealed that around 68.9-90.7% of the overall nitrogen removal could be attributed to the total denitrification. The soil denitrification rate was found to correlate significantly (P < 0.01) with the extractable organic carbon, organic matter, and in situ-measured redox potential of wetland soil, which accordingly were concluded as suitable indicators of soil denitrification rate and nitrate removal rate in nitrate treatment wetlands. PMID:17365317

  7. Electrokinetic treatment of firing ranges containing tungsten-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Braida, Washington; Christodoulatos, Christos; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Dermatas, Dimitris; O'Connor, Gregory

    2007-11-19

    Tungsten-based alloys and composites are being used and new formulations are being considered for use in the manufacturing of different types of ammunition. The use of tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) in new munitions systems and tungsten composites in small caliber ammunition could potentially release substantial amounts of this element into the environment. Although tungsten is widely used in industrial and military applications, tungsten's potential environmental and health impacts have not been thoroughly addressed. This necessitates the research and development of remedial technologies to contain and/or remove tungsten from soils that may serve as a source for water contamination. The current work investigates the feasibility of using electrokinetics for the remediation of tungsten-contaminated soils in the presence of other heavy metals of concern such as Cu and Pb with aim to removing W from the soil while stabilizing in situ, Pb and Cu. PMID:17686582

  8. The Public Poster Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine-Rasky, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This note describes the use of a student poster session as an innovative approach to student learning. The local context for the assignment is provided, followed by a description of the course for which the poster was prepared, details about the assignment including its evaluation, and practical considerations for planning a poster session. The…

  9. The Constitutional Law Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Daniel O.

    1972-01-01

    Teachers, attorneys, and law educators met to evaluate 1971 workshops in law education and to plan improved learning experiences at future workshops. Coordination between substantive law sessions and teaching methodology sessions was cited as a major necessity. Teachers were encouraged to develop their own material. (JB)

  10. A Radical Poster Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Camp, Cameron J.

    1987-01-01

    Presents the use of a poster session as an integral part of an experimental design course. Describes how the principles of experimental design are demonstrated when undergraduates design and conduct original experiments, using radishes as subjects, and present their results in a poster session. Discusses the benefits of using radishes as subjects.…

  11. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lombi, E; Stevens, D P; McLaughlin, M J

    2010-06-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. PMID:20378219

  12. Land treatment of PAH-contaminated soil: Performance measured by chemical and toxicity assays

    SciTech Connect

    Sayles, G.D.; Acheson, C.M.; Kupferle, M.J.; Shan, Y.; Zhou, Q.; Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.; Brenner, R.C.

    1999-12-01

    The performance of a soil remediation process can be determined by measuring the reduction in target soil contaminant concentrations and by assessing the treatment's ability to lower soil toxicity. Land treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former wood-treating site was simulated at pilot scale in temperature-controlled sol pans. Nineteen two- through six-ring PAHs were monitored with time (initial total PAHs = 2,800 mg/kg). Twenty-five weeks of treatment yielded a final total PAH level of 1,160 mg/kg. Statistically significant decreases in concentrations were seen in total, two-, three-, and four-ring PAHs. Carcinogenic and five- and six-ring PAHs showed no significant change in concentration. Land treatment resulted in significant toxicity reduction based on root elongation, Allium chromosomal aberration, and solid-phase Microtox bioassays. Acute toxicity, as measured by the earthworm survival assay, was significantly reduced and completely removed. The Ames spiral plate mutagenicity assay revealed that the untreated soil was slightly mutagenic and that treatment may have reduced mutagenicity. The variety of results generated from the chemical and toxicity assays emphasize the need for conducting a battery of such tests to fully understand soil remediation processes.

  13. EFFECTS OF DRYING TREATMENTS ON POROSITY OF SOIL MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of three drying techniques on total porosity and pore size distribution of three soil materials were studied by Hg intrusion porosimetry. Some samples were dried in an oven at 40 C for 7 d; some samples were quick frozen in liquid N and lyophilized; some samples were ...

  14. Soil treatments against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few economically feasible disease management options are available for California cotton producers with fields infested with race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. For treating soil to reduce inoculum levels, past studies indicate that solarization and fumigation with metam-sodium may be a...

  15. Electrochemical processes for in-situ treatment of contaminated soils. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.P.

    1998-06-01

    'This research project is to develop electrochemical processes for in-situ treatment of contaminated soils. Specifically, it is to study electrokinetic (EK) and electro-Fento (EF) processes and to integrate these processes for the treatment of soils containing mixed contaminants. The objectives are: (1) To study important parameters controlling the mobilization and the transport of selected organics and metals in soils by the electrokinetic (EK) process. Factors to be studied include field strength, pH, ionic strength, soil washing agents, types of organic and metal contaminants, and soil surface properties such as cation exchange capacity(CEC), soil organic content, soil moisture content, soil composition, and surface charge. (2) To study the important factors governing the oxidation of selected organic contaminants by the electro-Fenton (EF) process. Parameters such as pH, surface area and the configuration of working electrode, oxygen concentration, ferrous ion, and temperature that may affect the performance of the EF process will be investigated. (3) To understand the mechanism of the oxidation of selected organic contaminants by the electro-Fenton oxidation process.'

  16. Medium-long term soil resilience against different disturbances: wildfires, silvicultural treatments and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo de Santiago, Javier; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; de las Heras, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Soils of semiarid Mediterranean forest ecosystems are very fragile and sensitive to changes due to different anthropogenic and natural disturbances. The increasing vulnerability of semiarid lands within this world framework has generated growing awareness in the field of research, with highly intensified study into soils properties. One of the main problems of Mediterranean forests is wildfire disturbance. Fire should be considered more an ecological factor but, in contrast to the role of fire, it is now a closely related factor to human action. On the other hand, to improve the recovery of forest communities after fire, silvicultural treatments are needed and, for that matter, another disturbance is added to the ecosystem. By last, climate change is also affecting the fire regime increasing fire frequency and burned area, enhancing the destructiveness to Mediterranean ecosystems. After all of these three disturbances, changes in vegetation dynamics and soil properties are expected to occur due to the plant-soil feedback. Soil plays an essential role in the forest ecosystem's fertility and stability and specifically soil microorganisms, which accomplish reactions to release soil nutrients for vegetation development, for that is essential to enlarge knowledge about soil properties resilience in semiarid forest ecosystems. Physico-chemical and microbiological soil properties, and enzyme activities have been studied in two Aleppo pine forest stands that have suffered three disturbances: 1) a wildfire event, 2) silvicultural treatments (thinning) and 3) an artificial drought (simulating climate change) and results showed that soil recovered after 15 years. Final results showed that soils have been recovered from the three disturbances at the medium-long term.

  17. Fate of trace organic compounds during vadose zone soil treatment in an onsite wastewater system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    During onsite wastewater treatment, trace organic compounds are often present in the effluents applied to subsurface soils for advanced treatment during vadose zone percolation and groundwater recharge. The fate of the endocrine-disrupting surfactant metabolites 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (NP1EO), and 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate (NP1EC), metal-chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), antimicrobial agent triclosan, stimulant caffeine, and antibiotic sulfamethoxazole during transport through an unsaturated sandy loam soil was studied at a field-scale test site. To assess the effects of effluent quality and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on compound fate in the soil profile, two effluents (septic tank or textile biofilter) were applied at two design HLRs (2 or 8 cm/d). Chemical concentrations were determined in the two effluents and soil pore water at 60, 120, and 240 cm below the soil infiltrative surface. Concentrations of trace organic compounds in septic tank effluent were reduced by more than 90% during transport through 240 cm (often within 60 cm) of soil, likely due to sorption and biotransformation. However, the concentration of NP increased with depth in the shallow soil profile. Additional treatment of anaerobic septic tank effluent with an aerobic textile biofilter reduced effluent concentrations of many compounds, but generally did not affect any changes in pore water concentrations. The soil profile receiving septic tank effluent (vs. textile biofilter effluent) generally had greater percent removal efficiencies. EDTA, NP, NP1EC, and sulfamethoxazole were measured in soil pore water, indicating the ability of some trace organic compounds to reach shallow groundwater. Risk is highly dependent on the degree of further treatment in the saturated zone and the types and proximity of uses for the receiving groundwater environment. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  18. Changes in physical properties of sandy soil after long-term compost treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranyos, József Tibor; Tomócsik, Attila; Makádi, Marianna; Mészáros, József; Blaskó, Lajos

    2016-07-01

    Studying the long-term effect of composted sewage sludge application on chemical, physical and biological properties of soil, an experiment was established in 2003 at the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza in Hungary. The applied compost was prepared from sewage sludge (40%), straw (25%), bentonite (5%) and rhyolite (30%). The compost was ploughed into the 0-25 cm soil layer every 3rd year in the following amounts: 0, 9, 18 and 27 Mg ha-1 of dry matter. As expected, the compost application improved the structure of sandy soil, which is related with an increase in the organic matter content of soil. The infiltration into soil was improved significantly, reducing the water erosion under simulated high intensity rainfall. The soil compaction level was reduced in the first year after compost re-treatment. In accordance with the decrease in bulk density, the air permeability of soil increased tendentially. However, in the second year the positive effects of compost application were observed only in the plots treated with the highest compost dose because of quick degradation of the organic matter. According to the results, the sewage sludge compost seems to be an effective soil improving material for acidic sandy soils, but the beneficial effect of application lasts only for two years.

  19. LAND TREATMENT AND THE TOXICITY RESPONSE OF SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD PRESERVING WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils contaminated with wood preserving wastes, including pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote, are treated at a field-scale in an engineered prepared-bed system consisting of two one-acre land treatment units (LTUs). he concentration of selected indicator compounds of treatment ...

  20. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treatment Standards are identified in 40 CFR 268.48 Table UTS. (2) Soils that exhibit the characteristic of... applicability, see 40 CFR Part 268 Appendix VII. To determine the date any given listed hazardous waste... section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to...

  1. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Treatment Standards are identified in 40 CFR 268.48 Table UTS. (2) Soils that exhibit the characteristic of... applicability, see 40 CFR Part 268 Appendix VII. To determine the date any given listed hazardous waste... section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to...

  2. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treatment Standards are identified in 40 CFR 268.48 Table UTS. (2) Soils that exhibit the characteristic of... applicability, see 40 CFR Part 268 Appendix VII. To determine the date any given listed hazardous waste... section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to...

  3. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Treatment Standards are identified in 40 CFR 268.48 Table UTS. (2) Soils that exhibit the characteristic of... applicability, see 40 CFR Part 268 Appendix VII. To determine the date any given listed hazardous waste... section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to...

  4. IN SITU SOIL TREATMENTS TO REDUCE THE PHYTO- AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD, ZINC, AND CADMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was established in Joplin, MO near a former Pb smelter to test a range of treatments to reduce the avialability of Pb, Zn, and Cd in situ. Soil from the field was incubated in lab studies prior to amendment addition in the field. Treatments induded P added as triple sup...

  5. REVIEW OF IN-PLACE TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOILS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two-volume report presents information on in-place treatment technologies applicable to contaminated soils at shallow depths. This volume discusses the selection of the appropriate in-place treatment technology for a particular site and provides specific information on each ...

  6. Remediation case studies: Ex situ soil treatment technologies (bioremediation, solvent extraction, thermal desorption). Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The case studies in this volume describe ten applications of ex situ soil treatment technologies, including three applications of land treatment (bioremediation), one application of solvent extraction, and six applications of thermal desorption. Two of the land treatment applications were full-scale remediations of sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum hydrocarbons, and one was a field demonstration at a site contaminated with pesticides. The solvent extraction application was a full-scale application to treat soil contaminated with PCBs. All six thermal desorption applications were full-scale, and involved treatment of soil contaminated with chlorinated solvents, petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs, and pesticides. All case studies in this volume are for completed applications.

  7. Phosphate Treatment of Lead-Contaminated Soil: Effects on Water Quality, Plant Uptake, and Lead Speciation.

    PubMed

    Weber, John S; Goyne, Keith W; Luxton, Todd P; Thompson, Allen L

    2015-07-01

    Water quality threats associated with using phosphate-based amendments to remediate Pb-contaminated soils are a concern, particularly in riparian areas. This study investigated the effects of P application rates to a Pb-contaminated alluvial soil on Pb and P loss via surface water runoff, Pb accumulation in tall fescue ( Schreb; Kentucky 31), and Pb speciation. An alluvial soil was treated with triple superphosphate at P to Pb molar ratios of 0:1 (control), 4:1, 8:1, and 16:1. After a 6-mo reaction period, rainfall simulation (RFS) studies were conducted, followed by tall fescue establishment and a second set of RFS studies (1 yr after treatment). Results from the first RFS study (unvegetated) demonstrated that the total Pb and P concentrations in the effluents of 8:1 and 16:1 (P:Pb molar ratio) treatment levels were significantly greater ( < 0.05) than the control. One year after P treatment and 6 mo after vegetation establishment, total P and Pb concentrations of the effluents from a second RFS decreased by one to three orders of magnitude. Total and dissolved P concentration in runoff from the 16:1 P:Pb treatment remained significantly greater than all other treatments. However, total Pb concentration in the runoff was comparable among the treatments. Phosphorus treatment also reduced Pb uptake into tall fescue by >55%. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy data showed that pyromorphite [Pb(PO)OH,Cl,F] abundance ranged from 0% (control) to 32% (16:1 P:Pb; 1 yr after treatment) of the total soil Pb. Although P treatment stimulated pyromorphite formation, pyromorphite abundance was comparable between the P-treated soils. These findings suggest that a 4:1 (P:Pb molar ratio) P treatment may be a sufficient means of reducing Pb bioavailability while minimizing concerns related to P loss in an alluvial setting. PMID:26437094

  8. [Biological treatments for contaminated soils: hydrocarbon contamination. Fungal applications in bioremediation treatment].

    PubMed

    Martín Moreno, Carmen; González Becerra, Aldo; Blanco Santos, María José

    2004-09-01

    Bioremediation is a spontaneous or controlled process in which biological, mainly microbiological, methods are used to degrade or transform contaminants to non or less toxic products, reducing the environmental pollution. The most important parameters to define a contaminated site are: biodegradability, contaminant distribution, lixiviation grade, chemical reactivity of the contaminants, soil type and properties, oxygen availability and occurrence of inhibitory substances. Biological treatments of organic contaminations are based on the degradative abilities of the microorganisms. Therefore the knowledge on the physiology and ecology of the biological species or consortia involved as well as the characteristics of the polluted sites are decisive factors to select an adequate biorremediation protocol. Basidiomycetes which cause white rot decay of wood are able to degrade lignin and a variety of environmentally persistent pollutants. Thus, white rot fungi and their enzymes are thought to be useful not only in some industrial process like biopulping and biobleaching but also in bioremediation. This paper provides a review of different aspects of bioremediation technologies and recent advances on ligninolytic metabolism research. PMID:15709784

  9. Scaling up a treatment to simultaneously remove persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Huguet, Mario; Marshall, William D

    2011-04-01

    Soil washing is a treatment process that can be used to remediate both organic and inorganic pollutants from contaminated soils, sludges, and sediments. A soil washing procedure was evaluated utilizing about 100g samples of soil that had been field-contaminated with arsenic, chromium, copper, pentachlorophenol (PCP), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The highest level of mobilization/detoxification was achieved in three soil washes with a mixture of 0.1M [S,S]-ethyelnediaminedisuccinate ([S,S]-EDDS) and 2% Brij 98 at pH 9 with 20 min of ultrasonication treatment at room temperature. This combination mobilized 70% of arsenic, 75% of chromium, 80% of copper, 90% of PCP, and 79% of PCDDs and PCDFs, so that the decontaminated soil met the maximum acceptable concentrations of the generic C-level criteria regulated by the Ministère du Développement Durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs for the Province of Québec, Canada. The organic pollutants were back-extracted from the aqueous suspension with hexane. Heavy metals were virtually completely precipitated from the aqueous washing suspension with Mg(0) particles at room temperature. The PCP was detoxified by catalytic hydrodechlorination with a stream of 5% (v/v) H(2)-supercritical CO(2) that transported the organosoluble fraction through a reaction chamber containing 2% Pd/γ-Al(2)O(3). In toto, this soil washing procedure demonstrates that persistent organic pollutants and selected heavy metals can be co-extracted efficiently from a field-contaminated soil with three successive washes with the same soil washing solution containing [S,S]-EDDS and a non-ionic surfactant (Brij 98) in admixture. An industrial-scale ex situ soil washing procedure with a combination of a non-ionic surfactant and a complexing reagent seems to be a plausible remediation technique for this former wooden utility pole storage facility. PMID:21354593

  10. Removal of PAHs and pesticides from polluted soils by enhanced electrokinetic-Fenton treatment.

    PubMed

    Bocos, Elvira; Fernández-Costas, Carmen; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, M Ángeles

    2015-04-01

    In this study, electrokinetic-Fenton treatment was used to remediate a soil polluted with PAHs and the pesticide pyrimethanil. Recently, this treatment has emerged as an interesting alternative to conventional soil treatments due to its peculiar advantages, namely the capability of treating fine and low-permeability materials, as well as that of achieving a high yield in the removals of salt content and inorganic and organic pollutants. In a standard electrokinetic-Fenton treatment, the maximum degradation of the pollutant load achieved was 67%, due to the precipitation of the metals near the cathode chamber that reduces the electro-osmotic flow of the system and thus the efficiency of the treatment. To overcome this problem, different complexing agents and pH control in the cathode chamber were evaluated to increase the electro-osmotic flux as well as to render easier the solubilization of the metal species present in the soil. Four complexing agents (ascorbic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in the Fenton-like treatment were evaluated. Results revealed the citric acid as the most suitable complexing agent. Thereby its efficiency was tested as pH controller by flushing it in the cathode chamber (pH 2 and 5). For the latter treatments, near total degradation was achieved after 27 d. Finally, phytotoxicity tests for polluted and treated samples were carried out. The high germination levels of the soil treated under enhanced conditions concluded that nearly complete restoration was achieved. PMID:25577698

  11. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  12. Amino acid treatment enhances protein recovery from sediment and soils for metaproteomic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nicora, Carrie D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Jansson, Janet K.; Mason, Olivia U.; David, Maude; Jurelevicius, Diogo D.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2013-10-01

    Characterization of geomicrobial protein expression provides information necessary to better understand the unique biological pathways that occur within soil microbial communities and the role they play in regulating atmospheric CO2 levels and the Earth’s climate. A significant challenge in studying soil microbial proteins is their initial dissociation from the complex mixture of particles found in natural soil. Due to bias of the most robust cells, the removal of intact bacterial cells limits the characterization of the complete representation of a microbial community. However, in-situ lysis of bacterial cells leads to the expulsion of proteins to the soil surface, which can lead to potentially high levels of adsorption due to the physicochemical properties of both the protein and the soil. We investigated various compounds for their ability to block protein adsorption soil sites prior to in-situ lysis of bacterial cells, as well as their compatibility with both tryptic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis. The treatments were tested by adding lysed Escherichia coli proteins to representative treated and untreated soil samples. The results show that it is possible to significantly increase protein identifications through blockage of binding sites on a variety of soil textures; use of an optimized desorption buffer further increases the number of identifications.

  13. Effect of temperature on the release of hexadecane from soil by thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Merino, Jerónimo; Bucalá, Verónica

    2007-05-01

    A natural organic soil (2.5% of total organic carbon) was artificially contaminated with hexadecane, and thermally treated under an inert medium up to different final temperatures (150-800 degrees C) for 30 min to simulate ex situ thermal process conditions. The experiments were conducted using a complete organic soil, instead of the clays or isolated soil fractions that are commonly used. Neat and contaminated samples were separately heated to understand the impact of the soil itself and the contaminant in the release of volatiles. The soil quality as well as the quality and amount of volatile compounds generated during the process were monitored. More than 80-88% of the initial hexadecane content in the soil matrix was recovered in liquids traps after the thermal treatment, therefore the contaminant could be recovered for further recycling. The high amount of hexadecane collected without suffering chemical transformations indicated that the main mechanism for the hexadecane removal was evaporation. The analysis of the light gases released from contaminated samples indicated negligible or null hexadecane pyrolysis reaction rates, confirming that the evaporation/desorption of the contaminant are the processes that governed the removal of the contaminant from the soil. For the soil tested, of a relatively low surface area, good removal efficiencies (higher than 99.9%) were detected at about 300 degrees C, being higher temperatures not necessary to significantly improve the contamination removal. PMID:17084527

  14. Effect of Low Temperature Thermal Treatment on Soils Contaminated with Pentachlorophenol and Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    dela Cruz, Albert Leo N.; Cook, Robert L.; Lomnicki, Slawomir M.; Dellinger, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The effect of low temperature thermal treatment on soils from a former Superfund wood-treating site contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and the environmentally persistent free radical (EPFR), pentachlorophenoxyl, was determined. The pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs’ and the PCP molecules’ chemical behavior were simultaneously monitored at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 300 °C via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Two types of thermal treatment were employed: a closed heating (oxygen-starved condition) where the soil was heated under vacuum and an open heating system (oxygen-rich conditions), where the soil was heated in ambient air. EPR analyses for closed heating indicated the EPFR concentration was 2–12 × 1018 spins/g of soil, with a g-factor and linewidth (ΔHp-p) of 2.00311 – 2.00323 and 4.190 – 5.472 Gauss, respectively. EPR analyses for the open heating soils revealed a slightly broader and weaker radical signal, with a concentration of 1–10 × 1018 spins/g of soil, g-factor of 2.00327 – 2.00341, and ΔHp-p of 5.209 – 6.721 Gauss. This suggested the open heating resulted in the formation of a more oxygen-centered structure of the pentachlorophenoxyl radical or additional, similar radicals. The EPFR concentration peaked at 10 × 1018 spins/g of soil at 100 °C for open heating and 12 × 1018 spins/g at 75 °C for closed heating. The half-lives of the EPFRs were 2 – 24 days at room temperature in ambient air. These results suggest low temperature treatment of soils contaminated with PCP can convert the PCP to potentially more toxic pentachlorophenoxyl EPFRs, which may persist in the environment long enough for human exposure. PMID:22548284

  15. Technology evaluation report: Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) soil recycle treatment train

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenreich, L.C.; Matuson, A.; Peters, J.; Evans, J.

    1993-07-01

    The report summarizes the results and activities of the demonstration testing of Toronto Harbor Commissioners (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train. The Demonstration was conducted at a site within the Port Industrial District (PID) in Toronto, Ontario, Canada under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The demonstration examined a part of THC's on-going evaluation of the treatment train during the first nine months of 1992. EPA elected to sample the process during the processing of Soil B, which based on field sampling, was expected to exhibit relatively high organic (oil and grease, s) and inorganic (heavy metals) contaminants.

  16. Physical characterization of water treatment plant residual and top soil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Raghu, D.; Hsieh, H.N.; Basim, S.C.; Morgan, M.

    1997-12-31

    Disposal of water treatment plant residuals is not economically feasible due to their high moisture contents, high compressibilities and very low shear strengths. This paper evaluates the physical and geotechnical characteristics of water treatment residual-top soil mixtures for beneficial reuse in construction and land application. Index, compaction, consolidation, strength and durability tests were performed in accordance with the relevant ASTM standards. It was observed that the plasticity of the mixtures decreased and handling (compaction) and other engineering characteristics improved due to the addition of top soil to residuals. There is a potential for these mixtures to be used as liner material for landfills.

  17. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Soil as a Treatment Medium - Module 3, Objectives, Script and Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module examines the basic properties of soil which have an influence on the success of land treatment of wastes. These relevant properties include soil texture, soil structure, permeability, infiltration, available water capacity, and cation exchange capacity. Biological, chemical and physical mechanisms work to remove and renovate wastes…

  18. Remediation of arsenic contaminated soil by coupling oxalate washing with subsequent ZVI/Air treatment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Menghua; Ye, Yuanyao; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

    2016-02-01

    The application of a novel coupled process with oxalate washing and subsequent zero-valent iron (ZVI)/Air treatment for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil was investigated in the present study. Oxalate is biodegradable and widely present in the environment. With addition of 0.1 mol L(-1) oxalate under circumneutral condition, 83.7% and 52.6% of arsenic could be removed from a spiked kaolin and an actual contaminated soil respectively. Much more oxalate adsorption on the actual soil was attributed to the higher soil organic matter and clay content. Interestingly, oxalate retained in the washing effluent could act as an organic ligand to promote the oxidation efficiency of ZVI/Air at near neutral pH. Compared with the absence of oxalate, much more As(III) was oxidized. Arsenic was effectively adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides as the consumption of oxalate and the increase of pH value. For the actual soil washing effluent, about 94.9% of total arsenic was removed after 120 min's treatment without pH adjustment. It has been demonstrated that As(V) was the dominant arsenic speciation adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides. This study provides a promising alternative for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil in view of its low cost and environmental benign. PMID:26476769

  19. Combined soil treatments and sequence of application in improving the control of soilborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Eshel, D; Gamliel, A; Grinstein, A; Di Primo, P; Katan, J

    2000-07-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of reduced doses of methyl bromide (MB) or metham sodium, heating, short solarization, and soil microbial activity, alone or in combination, on survival of soilborne fungal pathogens were tested in a controlled-environment system and field plots. Sublethal doses of heating or MB delayed germination of Sclerotium rolfsii sclerotia. Combining MB and heating treatments was more effective than either treatment alone in controlling S. rolfsii and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici. The application heating followed by fumigation with MB, was significantly more effective in delaying and reducing germination of S. rolfsii sclerotia and in controlling F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici than the opposite sequence. Further, incubation in soil and exposure to microbial activity of previously heated or MB-treated sclerotia increased the mortality rate, indicating a weakening effect. Similarly, incubation of chlamydospores of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in soil in the field after fumigation further reduced their survival, confirming the laboratory results. In field tests, combining MB or metham sodium at reduced doses with short solarization was more effective in controlling fungal pathogens than either treatment alone. Treatment sequence significantly affected pathogen control in the field, similar to its effect under controlled conditions. This study demonstrates a frequent synergistic effect of combining soil treatments and its potential for improving pathogen control and reducing pesticide dose, especially when an appropriate sequence was followed. PMID:18944494

  20. EDTA leaching of Cu contaminated soil using electrochemical treatment of the washing solution.

    PubMed

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2009-06-15

    The feasibility of a two-phase method for remediation of Cu (364+/-2 mg kg(-1)) contaminated vineyard soil was evaluated. In the first phase we used ethylenediamine tetraacetae (EDTA) for Cu leaching, while in the second phase we used an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) for the treatment and reuse of the washing solution for soil rinsing (removal of soil-retained, chelant-mobilized Cu complexes) in a closed loop. In the EAOP, a boron-doped diamond anode was used for the generation of hydroxyl radicals and oxidative decomposition of EDTA-metal complexes at a constant current density (40 mA cm(-2)). The released Cu was removed from the solution mostly as an electro-deposit on the cathode. Two consecutive additions of 10 mmol kg(-1) EDTA removed 26% of Cu from the soil, mostly from carbonate and oxide soil fractions (58% and 40% Cu reduction). The soil Cu oral availability (in vitro Physiologically Based Extraction Test) was reduced after remediation by 42% and 51% in the simulated stomach and intestinal phases. The discharge solution was clear, almost colorless, with pH 8.4 and 0.5 mg L(-1) Cu and 0.07 mM EDTA. The novel method enables soil Cu availability stripping using small volumes of process waters, and no wastewater generation or other emissions into the environment. PMID:19022571

  1. Organic wastes to enhance phyto-treatment of diesel-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Dadrasnia, Arezoo; Agamuthu, P

    2013-11-01

    Toxic inorganic and organic chemicals are major contributors to environmental contamination and pose major health risks to human population. In this work, Dracaena reflexa and Podocarpus polystachyus were investigated for their potential to remove hydrocarbons from 2.5% and 1% diesel fuel-contaminated soil amended individually with 5% organic wastes (tea leaf, soy cake and potato skin) for a period of 270 days. Loss of 90% and 99% oil was recorded in soil contaminated with 2.5% and 1% oil with soy cake amendment, respectively, compared with 52% and 62% in unamended soil with D. reflexa at the end of 270 days. Similarly, 84% and 91% oil loss was recorded for P. polystachyus amended with organic wastes in 2.5% and 1% oil, respectively. Diesel fuel disappeared more rapidly in the soil amendment with SC than in other organic waste supplementation. It was evident that plants did not accumulate hydrocarbon from the soil, while the number of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria was high in the rhizosphere, thus suggesting that the mechanism of the oil degradation was rhizodegradation. The kinetic model result indicated a high rate of degradation in soil amendment with SC at 1% with D. reflexa compared with other treatments. Thus, a positive relationship was observed between diesel hydrocarbon degradation with plant biomass production. Dracaena reflexa with organic wastes amendment has a greater potential of restoring hydrocarbon-contaminated soil compared to P. polystachyus plant. PMID:24025373

  2. Removal of fluorine from contaminated soil by electrokinetic treatment driven by solar energy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Zhu, Shufa; Liu, Yana; Wang, Xuejian

    2013-08-01

    Instead of direct current power supply, a series of electrokinetic remediation experiments driven by solar energy on fluorine-contaminated soil were conducted in a self-made electrolyzer, in order to reduce energy expenditure of electrokinetic remediation. After the 12-day electrokinetic remediation driven by solar energy, the removal efficiency of fluorine was 22.3%, and electrokinetic treatment had an impact on changes in partitioning of fluorine in soil. It proved that the combination of electrokinetics and solar energy was feasible and effective to some extent for the remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil. Meanwhile, the experimental results also indicated that the electromigration was a more dominant transport mechanism for the removal of fluorine from contaminated soil than electroosmosis, and the weather condition was the important factor in affecting the removal efficiency. PMID:23475445

  3. Hydrologic Treatments Affect Gaseous Carbon Loss From Organic Soils, Twitchell Island, California, October 1995-December 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Robin L.; Hastings, Lauren; Fujii, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Subsidence of organic soils in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, has increased the potential for levee failure and flooding in the region. Because oxidation of the peat soils is a primary cause of subsidence, reversion of affected lands to wetlands has been proposed as a mitigation tool. To test this hypothesis, three 10 x 10 meter enclosures were built on Twitchell Island in the Delta and managed as different wetland habitats. Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane were measured in situ from October 1995 through December 1997, from the systems that developed under the different water-management treatments. Treatments included a seasonal control (SC) under current island management conditions; reverse flooding (RF), where the land is intentionally flooded from early dry season until midsummer; permanent shallow flooding (F); and a more deeply flooded, open-water (OW) treatment. Hydrologic treatments affected microbial processes, plant community and temperature dynamics which, in turn, affected carbon cycling. Water-management treatments with a period of flooding significantly decreased gaseous carbon emissions compared to the seasonal control. Permanent flooding treatments showed significantly higher methane fluxes than treatments with some period of aerobic conditions. Shallow flooding treatments created conditions that support cattail [Typha species (spp.)] marshes, while deep flooding precluded emergent vegetation. Carbon inputs to the permanent shallow flooding treatment tended to be greater than the measured losses. This suggests that permanent shallow flooding has the greatest potential for managing subsidence of these soils by generating organic substrate more rapidly than is lost through decomposition. Carbon input estimates of plant biomass compared to measurements of gaseous carbon losses indicate the potential for mitigation of subsidence through hydrologic management of the organic soils in the area.

  4. Plant reestablishment after soil disturbance: Effects of soils, treatment, and time

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Alford, K.; McIlveny, G.; Tijerina, A.

    1993-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined plant growth and establishment on 16 sites where severe land disturbance had taken place. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the different methods in term of their effects on establishment of native and alien plants. Disturbances ranged from 1 to 50 years in age. Revegetation using native plants had been attempted at 14 of the sites; the remainder were abandoned without any further management. Revegetation efforts variously included seeding, fertilizer application, mulching with various organic sources, compost application, application of Warden silt loam topsoil over sand and gravel soils, and moderate irrigation.

  5. Treatment of TNT-contaminated soils using Fenton`s reagent generated hydroxyl radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, B.; Allen, H.E.; Huang, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    The oxidation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soils using catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (Fenton`s reagent) was evaluated in laboratory-scale experiments. Three characterized soils, which varied in organic matter content were treated in batch experiments with a 1M hydrogen peroxide and 10 mM ferrous iron solution. Hydrogen peroxide slurry concentration of 1M was found to provide optimum degradation of TNT in soils. Slurry soil:solution ratio of 2:11 (w:w) was used and pH was maintained between 2 and 3. Compound degradation was monitored over 16 hours. Total mass of TNT was monitored by analyzing both the aqueous phase and sorbed phase. Greater than 95% of TNT was oxidized in all soils after eight hours of reaction time with a single treatment. The rate of TNT oxidation was shown to be slightly lower in the soil containing the highest percentage of organic matter, however, total oxidation after eight hours was the same for all three soils. The formation and oxidation of several oxidation products was also observed with HPLC and GC-MS. All oxidation products are intermediate products that existed in trace amounts relative to TNT and are therefore believed to not accumulate. Hydroxyl radical attack on TNT is initiated by hydrogen abstractions from the methyl group to form 2,4,6-trinitrobenzaldehyde, which then rapidly degrades to form other, currently unidentified, oxidation products. Advanced oxidation using Fenton`s reagent appears to be a promising treatment for TNT-contaminated soils.

  6. Physician's Breakout Session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, William

    2001-01-01

    Dr. William Barry, Manager, NASA Occupational Health Program, moderated this session. As in one of the opening sessions, he re-iterated that the overall theme for the next year will be facilitating and implementing NIAT-1 (NASA Integrated Action Team - Action 1). He presented a candidate list of topics for consideration and discussion: (1) NIAT-1; (2) Skin cancer detection and the NASA Solar Safe Program; (3) Weapons of mass destruction; (4) Quality assurance; (5) Audits; (6) Environment of care; (7) Infection control; (8) Medication management; and (9) Confidentiality of medical records.

  7. Operating and life-cycle costs for uranium-contaminated soil treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Stewart, R.N.

    1995-09-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the US required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To avoid disposal of these soils in low-level radioactive waste burial sites, increasing emphasis has been placed on the remediating soils contaminated with uranium and other radionuclides. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) evaluates and compares the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium-contaminated soils. Each technology must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

  8. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Paloma, Hueso; Juan Francisco, Martinez-Murillo; Damian, Ruiz-Sinoga Jose; Hanoch, Lavee

    2015-04-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers (HP); sewage sludge (RU); and control (C). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism (runoff, overland flow and soil moisture along the soil profile). The general overland flow characteristics showed that in the C plots the average overland flow was 8.0 ± 22.0 l per event, and the HP plots produced a similar mean value (8.1 ± 20.1 l). The average overland flow per event was significantly less for soil amended with SM, PM or RU (2.7 ± 8.3 l; 1.3 ± 3.5 l and 2.2 ± 5.9 l, respectively). There was a similar trend with respect to the maximum overland flow. The mean sediment yield per event was relatively high in the C and HP plots (8.6 ± 27.8 kg and 14.8 ± 43.4 kg, respectively), while significantly lower values were registered in the SM, PM and RU plots (0.4 ± 1.0 kg; 0.2 ± 0.3 kg and 0.2 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). Very similar trends were found for the maximum sediment yield. Regarding to the soil moisture values, there was a difference in the trends between the C and HP plots and the SM, PM and RU plots. In the C and HP plots the general trend was for a decrease in soil moisture downward through the soil profile, while in the SM, PM and RU plots the soil moisture remained relatively constant or increased, except for the RU treatment in which the soil moisture

  9. An Exploration of Mercury Soils Treatment Technologies for the Y-12 Plant - 13217

    SciTech Connect

    Wrapp, John; Julius, Jonathon; Browning, Debbie; Kane, Michael; Whaley, Katherine; Estes, Chuck; Witzeman, John

    2013-07-01

    There are a number of areas at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that have been contaminated with mercury due to historical mercury use and storage. Remediation of these areas is expected to generate large volumes of waste that are Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristically hazardous. These soils will require treatment to meet RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) prior to disposal. URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) performed a feasibility assessment to evaluate on-site and off-site options for the treatment and disposal of mercury-contaminated soil from the Y-12 Site. The focus of the feasibility assessment was on treatment for disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) located on the Oak Ridge Reservation. A two-phase approach was used in the evaluation process of treatment technologies. Phase 1 involved the selection of three vendors to perform treatability studies using their stabilization treatment technology on actual Y-12 soil. Phase II involved a team of waste management specialists performing an in-depth literature review of all available treatment technologies for treating mercury contaminated soil using the following evaluation criteria: effectiveness, feasibility of implementation, and cost. The result of the treatability study and the literature review revealed several viable on-site and off-site treatment options. This paper presents the methodology used by the team in the evaluation of technologies especially as related to EMWMF waste acceptance criteria, the results of the physical treatability studies, and a regulatory analysis for obtaining regulator approval for the treatment/disposal at the EMWMF. (authors)

  10. Biological permeable reactive barriers coupled with electrokinetic soil flushing for the treatment of diesel-polluted clay soil.

    PubMed

    Mena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Clara; Villaseñor, José; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Cañizares, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Removal of diesel from spiked kaolin has been studied in the laboratory using coupled electrokinetic soil flushing (EKSF) and bioremediation through an innovative biological permeable reactive barriers (Bio-PRBs) positioned between electrode wells. The results show that this technology is efficient in the removal of pollutants and allows the soil to maintain the appropriate conditions for microorganism growth in terms of pH, temperature, and nutrients. At the same time, EKSF was demonstrated to be a very interesting technology for transporting pollutants, microorganisms and nutrients, although results indicate that careful management is necessary to avoid the depletion of nutrients, which are effectively transported by electro-migration. After two weeks of operation, 30% of pollutants are removed and energy consumption is under 70 kWh m(-3). Main fluxes (electroosmosis and evaporation) and changes in the most relevant parameters (nutrients, diesel, microorganisms, surfactants, moisture conductivity and pH) during treatment and in a complete post-study analysis are studied to give a comprehensive description of the most relevant processes occurring in the soil (pollutant transport and biodegradation). PMID:25262485

  11. Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) soil recycle treatment train. Applications analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenreich, L.C.; Matuson, A.; Peters, J.; Evans, J.

    1993-04-01

    This project consists of a demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train. The treatment train consists of three processes. The first process utilizes an attrition soil wash process to separate relatively uncontaminated soil from a more heavily contaminated fine slurry. The contaminated fine slurry is then further processed in a metals removal process or a bioslurry reactor process or both to remove organic contaminants and heavy metals contamination. The Toronto Harbour Commissioners conducted a long-term evaluation of this treatment train at a 55 tons per day pilot plant at 185 Cherry Street in the port of Toronto, located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program conducted a demonstration project that examined in detail the processing of soil from one of the sites being evaluated in the overall project. The goals of this study were to evaluate the technical effectiveness and economics of a treatment process sequence and to assess the potential applicability of the process to other wastes and/or other Superfund and hazardous waste sites.

  12. SOLID-PHASE TREATMENT OF A PENTACHLOROPHENOL- CONTAMINATED SOIL USING LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abilities of three lignin-degrading fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete sordida, and Trametes hirsuta, to deplete pentachlorophenol (PCP) from soil contaminated with PCP and creosote were evaluated. A total of seven fungal and three control treatments ...

  13. BIOTROL SOIL WASHING SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF A WOOD PRESERVING SITE - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report analyzes the results of the SITE Program demonstration of BioTrol's Soil Washing System at the MacGillis & Gibbs wood treatment facility in New Brighton, MN. The contaminants of primary interest are pentachlorophenol (penta) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...

  14. BIOTROL SOIL WASHING SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF A WOOD PRESERVING SITE APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report analyzes the results of the SITE Program demonstration of BioTrol's Soil Washing System at the MacGillis & Gibbs wood treatment facility in New Brighton, MN. he contaminants of primary interest are pentachlorophenol (penta) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...

  15. USE OF CLIMATIC DATA IN ESTIMATING STORAGE DAYS FOR SOILS TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer programs have been developed to estimate storage needs for Soil Treatment Systems from analyses of daily climatological data. One program uses a set of thresholds for temperature, precipitation and/or snow depth to estimate storage needs in colder regions. A second progr...

  16. Treatment Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls In Two Surface Soils Using Catalyzed H2O2 Propagations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two surface soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) collected from Superfund sites in the New England region of the United States, Fletcher Paints and Merrimack Industrial Metals, were evaluated for field treatment at the bench level using catalyzed H2...

  17. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BIOTROL SOIL WASHING SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF A WOOD PRESERVING SITE - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents and evaluates the extensive database from the SITE Program demonstration at the MacGillis and Gibbs wood treatment facility in New Brighton, MN. Soil washing and segregation, biotreatment of contaminated process water, and biodegradation of a slurry of the con...

  18. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  19. An Observing Session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyle, Bob; Argyle, R. W.

    In this chapter I describe a typical observing session with the 8-in. (20-cm) Thorrowgood refractor at the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge. The telescope belongs to the Royal Astronomical Society but is on permanent loan to the Cambridge University Astronomical Society and has been on its present site since 1930 (Fig. 24.1).

  20. Student Poster Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Erin

    2004-01-01

    Poster presentations are one way scientists present their latest research findings at professional meetings. This format also works well in the classroom and gives students the opportunity to communicate the results of their experiments (perhaps the most critical portion of their studies). In a performance-based task such as a poster session,…

  1. Summary of Session III

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-06-19

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002.

  2. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  3. The outreach sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Trache, Livius

    2015-02-24

    These are moderator’s remarks about the outreach day in the middle of the CSSP14, and in particular about the afternoon outreach session in round table format with the announced theme: “CERN at 60 and the internationalization of science”.

  4. Application of pig slurry to soils. Effect of air stripping treatment on nitrogen and TOC leaching.

    PubMed

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; García-Sinovas, David; Alvarez-Benedí, Javier

    2010-12-01

    The effect of physical-chemical slurry treatment on the mobility and transformation of nitrogen and organic matter from pig slurry after soil application is evaluated. Two different pig slurries (one treated by stripping with air at pH=9 and another non-treated) were applied at the top of a soil column, containing approximately 100 kg of soil. Effluents were monitored measuring concentration values of ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and total organic carbon (TOC). The breakthrough curves were modelled using STANMOD and HYDRUS 1D codes. Low concentrations of ammonia were detected in the effluent recovered at the bottom of the soil profile for both types of slurry. Nitrate concentration in effluent was lower and more homogenous over time when applying stripping treated pig slurry. In N modelling, adsorption of ammonia by soil proved an important process, nitrite and nitrate adsorption being less significant, although not negligible. Transformation from ammonia to nitrite controls the kinetics of the nitrification process. Total organic carbon in the column effluent was higher in the experiment using treated pig slurry, which can be attributed to organic matter solubilisation in the stripping treatment process. PMID:20705384

  5. Efficient remediation of pentachlorophenol contaminated soil with tetrapolyphosphate washing and subsequent ZVI/Air treatment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Menghua; Wang, Li; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2015-07-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that pentachlorophenol contaminated soil can be efficiently remediated with tetrapolyphosphate washing and subsequent zerovalent iron (ZVI)/Air treatment. 2 mmol L(-1) of tetrapolyphosphate could wash away 52.8% of pentachlorophenol (PCP) at pH 7.0 and 84.2% of pentachlorophenol at pH 11.0 from contaminated soil owing to the promotion effect of tetrapolyphosphate on the soil matrix dispersion and the subsequent solubilization of pentachlorophenol. More importantly, tetrapolyphosphate ions remained in the washing effluent could greatly enhance the molecular oxygen activation by ZVI to oxidize the desorbed PCP without any pH adjustment, and also avoid the competitive consumption of reactive oxygen species, as caused by the common organic surfactants in the washing effluent. Therefore, 85.1% of pentachlorophenol could be aerobically removed from the washing effluent by merely using 5 g L(-1) of ZVI. We also interestingly found that the dissolved iron ions released from the soil could enhance the oxidation of pentachlorophenol in the washing effluent, but the dissolved organic matter had the opposite effect. This study suggests the coupling tetrapolyphosphate washing and subsequent ZVI/Air treatment is an optional approach to remediate pentachlorophenol contaminated soil in view of its low cost and environmental benign. PMID:25781373

  6. Effects of different remediation treatments on crude oil contaminated saline soil.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Chao; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wang, Jia-Ning; Li, Dan; Wang, Hui; Zeng, De-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Remediation of the petroleum contaminated soil is essential to maintain the sustainable development of soil ecosystem. Bioremediation using microorganisms and plants is a promising method for the degradation of crude oil contaminants. The effects of different remediation treatments, including nitrogen addition, Suaeda salsa planting, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi inoculation individually or combined, on crude oil contaminated saline soil were assessed using a microcosm experiment. The results showed that different remediation treatments significantly affected the physicochemical properties, oil contaminant degradation and bacterial community structure of the oil contaminated saline soil. Nitrogen addition stimulated the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon significantly at the initial 30d of remediation. Coupling of different remediation techniques was more effective in degrading crude oil contaminants. Applications of nitrogen, AM fungi and their combination enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency of S. salsa significantly. The main bacterial community composition in the crude oil contaminated saline soil shifted with the remediation processes. γ-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the pioneer oil-degraders at the initial stage, and Firmicutes were considered to be able to degrade the recalcitrant components at the later stage. PMID:25240723

  7. Persistence and efficacy of termiticides used in preconstruction treatments to soil in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Mulrooney, J E; Davis, M K; Wagner, T L; Ingram, R L

    2006-04-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the persistence and efficacy of termiticides used as preconstruction treatments against subterranean termites. Bifenthrin (0.067%), chlorpyrifos (0.75%), and imidacloprid (0.05%) ([AI]; wt:wt) were applied to soil beneath a monolithic concrete slab at their minimum labeled rates. Soil samples were taken from three depths (0-2.5, 2.6-7.6, and 7.7-15.2 cm) at six sampling times (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 48 mo) from sites in Harrison and Oktibbeha counties in Mississippi. Residue analyses were conducted on the 0-2.5- and 2.6-7.5-cm depths, and bioassays were conducted using all three depths. In field studies, significant termiticide degradation occurred between sampling times 0 and 48 mo for all termiticides. At all sampling times, the top 2.5 cm of soil contained more termiticide than the other depths. Time to 50% dissipation of termiticide in the 0-2.5-cm depth was 9, 6, and 2 mo for bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and imidacloprid, respectively. Termite mortalities in contact bioassays remained high for bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos throughout the 48-mo sampling period; however, mortality of termites exposed to imidacloprid-treated soil dropped after the initial sampling. Termites readily penetrated all termiticide-treated soil in bioassays of 52-mm soil cores at 48 mo. Percentage of mortality in these bioassays was 15, 43, and 13 for bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and imidacloprid respectively. PMID:16686149

  8. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, P.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.; Martínez-Murillo, J. F.; Lavee, H.

    2015-01-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCottem hydroabsorbent polymer (HP); and sewage sludge (RU). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha- 1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism. On one hand, the high macroporosity of SM and PM, together with the fact that soil moisture increased with depth, explains weak overland flow and thus low sediment yield due to saturation conditions. Therefore, regarding overland flow and sediment yield, RU behaves similarly to SM and PM. On the other hand, when HP was applied, overland flow developed quickly with relatively high amounts. This, together with the decrease downward in soil moisture along the soil profile, proved that mechanisms of overland flow are of the Hortonian type.

  9. A new technology for the treatment of mercury contaminated water and soils.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, J M; Walsh, T; Lam, T

    2003-07-01

    A new technology has been developed for the treatment of contaminated water and soils with lignin derivatives. It has been demonstrated that this technology can be used in the process of removal of high levels of mercury from water, and in the immobilization of leachable mercury in contaminated soils. Lignin derivatives contain an abundance of oxygen-containing functional groups such as phenolic, carboxyl, sulfonyl, alcoholic and enolic structures, which will form lignin-metal macromolecular complexes with high stability through ionic and coordinate covalent bonding. This feature is the basis for the application of lignin derivatives in the removal of metal contaminants from water and in the immobilization of leachable metal in soils or sediments. Tests have confirmed that lignin derivatives are capable of combining with a variety of metal ions including chromium, copper, lead, zinc, mercury, nickel and aluminum. In the new water treatment process, lignin derivatives are dissolved in mercury contaminated water to complex mercury in an exceptionally stable form of a lignin-mercury colloid. The lignin-mercury colloid is then coagulated through the addition of a flocculating agent such as ferric chloride. Under optimized conditions, a dean effluent is produced with a residual mercury level of less than 1 microg l(-1), together with a ferric sludge that is not leachable by TCLP, EPA Method 1311. In the new soil stabilization process, a new solid adsorbent of ferric-lignin is blended with mercury contaminated soil. This solid adsorbent can stabilize the soil by complexing with mercury and, thereby, greatly reduce the TCLP mercury of soil. PMID:12916841

  10. Transformation of PAHs during ethanol-Fenton treatment of an aged gasworks' soil.

    PubMed

    Lundstedt, Staffan; Persson, Ylva; Oberg, Lars

    2006-11-01

    PAH-contaminated soil from a former gasworks site was treated with Fenton's reagent in a number of lab-scale slurry reactors. The degradation result obtained by traditional Fenton oxidation and Fenton oxidation preceded by ethanol treatment were compared. The ethanol pre-treatment enhanced the depletion of all PAHs in the soil by facilitating their desorption from the soil matrix. However, some PAHs, especially anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene and perylene, were more extensively depleted than other PAHs with fewer or equal numbers of fused rings, indicating that the hydroxyl radicals react faster with these PAHs than with other kinds. The ethanol present in the slurry also appeared to influence the relative reactivity of the PAHs. Furthermore, the enhanced oxidation that occurred in the ethanol pre-treated soil resulted in the accumulation of oxidation products. For example, 1-indanone, anthracene-9,10-dione, 1-methylanthracenedione, 2-methylanthracenedione, 1,8-naphthalic anhydride, benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione and two compounds tentatively identified as hydroxy-9-fluorenones were found at higher concentrations after the treatment than before it. The accumulation was most evident for the quinones, and in many cases it could be attributed to extensive oxidation of their parent PAHs, although the total oxidation efficiency in this study was relatively poor. PMID:16735053

  11. Country break-out session highlights.

    PubMed

    Fazekas, Franz; Gehring, Klaus; Gallo, Paolo; Lebrun-Frénay, Christine; Moral, Ester; Myhr, Kjell-Morten

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity present a wide range of symptoms and disability levels that are frequently challenging to manage. At the MS Experts Summit 2015, five country breakout sessions were conducted in parallel, and mainly in the native language, to examine various aspects about the management of treatment-resistant MS spasticity. Topics covered included video documentation of MS spasticity management (Germany), use of cannabinoid medicines in daily practice (Italy), multidisciplinary approach to MS spasticity care (France), titration and adherence to treatments for MS spasticity (Spain) and management of MS symptoms (Norway/Rest of World). For the benefit of all attendees, session highlights were collated and presented in a Plenary Session which is summarized herein. PMID:26611270

  12. Bioavailability of (Geno)toxic Contaminants in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon–Contaminated Soil Before and After Biological Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Adrion, Alden C.; Nakamura, Jun; Shea, Damian; Aitken, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contaminated soil from a former manufactured-gas plant site was treated in a laboratory-scale bioreactor. Desorbability and biodegradability of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 4 oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) were investigated throughout a treatment cycle. Desorbability was determined using a mixed-function sorbent (Oasis® HLB) or a hydrophobic sorbent (Tenax®) in dialysis tubing suspended in the soil slurry. Toxicity and genotoxicity of the whole soil and the desorbable fractions were determined by DNA damage response analysis with the chicken DT40 B-lymphocyte isogenic cell line and its DNA repair-deficient mutant Rad54−/−. Biological treatment significantly removed both PAHs and oxy-PAHs, and their desorbability decreased throughout the bioreactor treatment cycle. Collectively, oxy-PAHs were more desorbable and biodegradable than the corresponding PAHs; for example, the oxy-PAH present at the highest concentration, 9,10-anthraquinone, was more desorbable and biodegradable than anthracene. For both PAHs and oxy-PAHs, the percentage removed in the bioreactor significantly exceeded the percentage desorbed from untreated soil, indicating that desorption did not control the extent of biodegradation. Consistent with previous results on the same soil, genotoxicity of the whole soil slightly increased after biological treatment. However, both toxicity and genotoxicity of the desorbable constituents in the soil decreased after treatment, suggesting that any genotoxic constituents that may have formed during treatment were primarily associated with less accessible domains in the soil. PMID:24803838

  13. Occurrence and distribution of organophosphorus esters in soils and wheat plants in a plastic waste treatment area in China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Weining; Zhang, Shuzhen; Huang, Honglin; Wu, Tong

    2016-07-01

    This study for the first time reported the occurrence, distribution and concentrations of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in soils caused by plastic waste treatment, as well as their influence on OPE accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Eight OPEs were detected with the total concentrations of 38-1250 ng/g dry weight in the soils from the treatment sites, and tributoxyethyl phosphate and tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate present as the dominant OPEs. There were similar distribution patterns of OPEs and significant correlations between the total OPE concentrations in the soils from the plastic waste treatment sites with those in the nearby farmlands (P < 0.005), indicating that plastic waste treatment caused the OPE contamination of farmland soils. The uptake and translocation of OPEs by wheat were determined, with OPEs of high hydrophobicity more easily taken up from soils and OPEs with low hydrophobicity more liable to be translocated acropetally. PMID:27107259

  14. Simulation of soil aquifer treatment - determination of reliable water quality benefits and process mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Quanrud, D.M.; Chipello, P.L.; Carroll, S.; Arnold, R.G.

    1996-11-01

    Significant improvements in water quality are obtained during percolation of municipal wastewater through the vadose zone, and eventually mixes with native ground water. Dissolved organics, nitrogen species, and pathogens present in the effluent are removed (or transformed) during percolation and storage by a combination of biological, chemical, and physical processes (biodegradation and adsorption being the most important) in the vadose zone and subsequently in the aquifer (saturated zone). Most treatment benefits are achieved during percolation through the vadose zone. Recharge basins are typically operated under alternating wet and dry cycles. During flooding, a clogging layer develops at the soil surface due to the combined effects of algal growth, suspended solids deposition, and bacterial growth in soil pore spaces. This clogging layer, or schmutzdecke, impedes wastewater infiltration. Drying cycles re-establish rates by allowing the soils surface to dry and crack apart.

  15. Session: Offshore wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gaarde, Jette; Ram, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.

  16. 98th LHCC meeting Agenda OPEN Session and CLOSED Session

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-07

    OPEN Session on Wednesday, 8 July at 9h00-11h00 in Main Auditorium, Live webcast, followed by CLOSED Session, Conference room 160-1-009 11h20-17h00. CLOSED Session continued on Thursday, 9 July at 9h00-12h30

  17. 98th LHCC meeting Agenda OPEN Session and CLOSED Session

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    OPEN Session on Wednesday, 8 July at 9h00-11h00 in Main Auditorium, Live webcast, followed by CLOSED Session, Conference room 160-1-009 11h20-17h00. CLOSED Session continued on Thursday, 9 July at 9h00-12h30

  18. Session: Reservoir Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  19. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  20. Comparison of reactor designs for biological ex-situ soil treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, C.; Haught, R.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of this project is to evaluate the potential of biological ex-situ soil treatment systems to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous chemicals. A laminar-type flow pilot-scale reactor with volume of 3 cu. yd has been constructed at EPA`s Test & Evaluation J&D Facility in Cincinnati. Laminar-type flow from one side of the reactor to the other may provide even aeration to all areas of the reactor while avoiding the use of pipes inside the reactor. This design greatly facilitates loading and unloading the reactor and is readily scalable to larger systems. Passing smoke through the reactor for visual observation of flow indicated uniform flow in the empty reactor. Further testing involves filling the reactor with vermiculite, flushing with Argon, and then passing air through the reactor at about 1 volume change per day to evaluate air flow through this uniform solid matrix. Oxygen probes, located at 27 positions within the reactor, provide information on air progression through the system. Analysis of gas flow through an empty reactor and through a uniform matrix (vermiculite) allows separation of reactor flaws from soil inhomogeneities as causes of any nonuniform aeration of the reactor space. Soil contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from The Reilly Tar Pit Superfund Site in St. Louis Park, MN has been shipped under the small quantity treatability exemption to the T&E Facility for research on soil aeration and effectiveness of this ex-situ reactor design for biological treatment of contaminated soils.

  1. Synergistic effects of dissolved organic carbon and inorganic nitrogen on methane uptake in forest soils without and with freezing treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haohao; Xu, Xingkai; Duan, Cuntao; Li, Tuansheng; Cheng, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about how the interaction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic nitrogen (N) released into the soil just after freezing can affect methane (CH4) uptake in forest soils. Here, we present how freezing treatment and glucose, as a DOC source, can affect the roles of NH4+-N and NO3−-N in inhibiting soil CH4 uptake, by using soil-core incubation experiments. A long-term freezing at low temperature reduced cumulative CH4 uptake in the soils sampled from two temperate forest stands without carbon (C) and N addition. The inhibition effects of N addition as NH4Cl and KNO3 on the soil CH4 uptake were much larger than C addition. Freezing treatment eliminated the inhibition effect of NH4Cl and KNO3 addition on CH4 uptake, and this response was affected by glucose addition and forest types. The addition of glucose eliminated the inhibition effect of NO3−-N on CH4 uptake in the forest soils without and with freezing treatment, while the addition of NH4+-N and glucose inhibited synergistically the soil CH4 uptake. The results highlight the importance of synergistic effects of DOC and N inputs on the soil CH4 uptake under forest stands during soil wetting and thawing periods. PMID:27572826

  2. Synergistic effects of dissolved organic carbon and inorganic nitrogen on methane uptake in forest soils without and with freezing treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haohao; Xu, Xingkai; Duan, Cuntao; Li, Tuansheng; Cheng, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about how the interaction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic nitrogen (N) released into the soil just after freezing can affect methane (CH4) uptake in forest soils. Here, we present how freezing treatment and glucose, as a DOC source, can affect the roles of NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N in inhibiting soil CH4 uptake, by using soil-core incubation experiments. A long-term freezing at low temperature reduced cumulative CH4 uptake in the soils sampled from two temperate forest stands without carbon (C) and N addition. The inhibition effects of N addition as NH4Cl and KNO3 on the soil CH4 uptake were much larger than C addition. Freezing treatment eliminated the inhibition effect of NH4Cl and KNO3 addition on CH4 uptake, and this response was affected by glucose addition and forest types. The addition of glucose eliminated the inhibition effect of NO3(-)-N on CH4 uptake in the forest soils without and with freezing treatment, while the addition of NH4(+)-N and glucose inhibited synergistically the soil CH4 uptake. The results highlight the importance of synergistic effects of DOC and N inputs on the soil CH4 uptake under forest stands during soil wetting and thawing periods. PMID:27572826

  3. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of arsenic in a soil amended with drinking-water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rachana; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Makris, Konstantinos C; Datta, Rupali; Sylvia, Victor L

    2009-11-01

    Earlier incubation and greenhouse studies in our laboratory confirmed the effectiveness of drinking-water treatment residual (WTR) in decreasing soil arsenic (As) bioaccessibility as determined with in vitro tests, which led us to hypothesize a similar outcome if animal studies were to be conducted. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of WTR in lowering soil As bioavailability by conducting in vivo experiments and compare the in vitro to the in vivo As data. This study was performed using 6-week-old male BALB/c mice that were fed with an As-contaminated soil slurry using the gavage method. Blood and stomach contents were collected at 1 and 24 h after feeding. Urine and excreta were collected at time 0 (before feeding) and 24 h after feeding. Relative As bioavailability (RBA) values calculated from the blood samples of mice fed with WTR and WTR-amended soil samples ranged from 13% to 24% and from 25% to 29%, respectively; both were significantly (p < 0.001) lower than that of the unamended (no-WTR) soil (approximately 100% RBA). Absolute As bioavailability (ABA) in the gastric phase was significantly (p < 0.001) lowered, to 7-16%, in the WTR-amended soil compared with that of the unamended control (26%). A significant (p < 0.001) linear correlation (r = 0.94) was observed between the in vitro (stomach-phase) and the in vivo RBA data. Percentage recovery of As obtained from four mice tissue compartments (i.e., blood, stomach, urine, and fecal matter) after oral and intramuscular administrations was 63-80%. Results illustrate the effectiveness of in situ WTR amendment in decreasing in vivo soil As bioavailability, thereby lowering the potential cancer risk via an oral ingestion pathway. PMID:19347240

  4. Physical soil properties and slope treatments effects on hydraulic excavator productivity for forest road construction.

    PubMed

    Parsakho, Aidin; Hosseini, Seyed Ataollah; Jalilvand, Hamid; Lotfalian, Majid

    2008-06-01

    Effects of moisture, porosity and soil bulk density properties, grubbing time and terrain side slopes on pc 220 komatsu hydraulic excavator productivity were investigated in Miana forests road construction project which located in the northern forest of Iran. Soil moisture and porosity determined by samples were taken from undisturbed soil. The elements of daily works were measured with a digital stop watch and video camera in 14 observations (days). The road length and cross section profiles after each 20 m were selected to estimate earthworks volume. Results showed that the mean production rates for the pc 220 komatsu excavators were 60.13 m3 h(-1) and earthwork 14.76 m h(-1) when the mean depth of excavation or cutting was 4.27 m3 m(-1), respectively. There was no significant effects (p = 0.5288) from the slope classes' treatments on productivity, whereas grubbing time, soil moisture, bulk density and porosity had significantly affected on excavator earthworks volume (p < 0.0001). Clear difference was showed between the earthwork length by slope classes (p = 0.0060). Grubbing time (p = 0.2180), soil moisture (p = 0.1622), bulk density (p = 0.2490) and porosity (p = 0.2159) had no significant effect on the excavator earthworks length. PMID:18817241

  5. [Stabilization Treatment of Pb and Zn in Contaminated Soils and Mechanism Studies].

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei-qiang; Li, Xiao-mingi; Chen, Can; Chen, Xun-feng; Zhong, Yu; Zhong, Zhen-yu; Wan, Yong; Wang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the combined application of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, quick lime and potassium chloride was used to immobilize the Pb and Zn in contaminated soils. The efficiency of the process was evaluated through leaching tests and Tessier sequential extraction procedure. The mechanism of stabilization was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to reveal the mechanism of stabilization. The results showed that the stabilizing efficiency of Pb contaminated soils was above 80% and the leaching concentrations of Pb, Zn were far below the threshold when the ratio of exogenous P and soil (mol · mol⁻¹) was 2:1-4: 1, the dosing ratio of CaO was 0.1%-0.5% ( mass fraction) and the dosage of potassium chloride was 0.02-0. 04 mol. Meanwhile, Pb and Zn in soil were transformed from the exchangeable fraction into residual fraction, which implied that the migration of Pb, Zn in soil could be confined by the stabilization treatment. XRD and SEM analysis revealed that Ca-P-Pb precipitation, lead orthophosphate [PbHP0₄, Pb₃ (PO₄)₂], pyromorphite (Pb-PO₄-Cl/OH) and mixed heavy metal deposits (Fe-PO₄- Ca-Pb-Zn-OH) could be formed after solidification/stabilization in which Pb and Zn could be wrapped up to form a solidified composition and to prevent leaching. PMID:27012000

  6. Does ochre have the potential to be a remedial treatment for As-contaminated soils?

    PubMed

    Olimah, J A; Shaw, L J; Hodson, M E

    2015-11-01

    Ochre is an iron oxyhydroxide-rich waste that accumulates in water bodies associated with disused mines. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the potential of four different ochres to be used as remedial agents for As contaminated soils. The ochres removed As from solution (200 and 500 mg L(-1)) in adsorption experiments at pH 3 and 8 and, when added to As contaminated soil (5% w/w) significantly reduced As release to solution. In both these experiments the highest surface area ochres performed best. The impact of ochre amendments on uptake of As from soil by plants and humans and release of As to ground water was assessed in a year-long incubation study. Ochres increased soil pH and reduced CaCl2 extractable As but had no consistent effect on plant growth, plant As uptake or As extraction in physiologically-based extraction tests. Ochre may be better used for water treatment than soil remediation. PMID:26162334

  7. Innovative silvicultural treatments to enhance soil biodiversity in artificial black pine stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocali, Stefano; De Meo, Isabella; Bianchetto, Elisa; Landi, Silvia; Salerni, Elena; Mori, Paolo; Bruschini, Silvia; Montini, Piergiuseppe; Samaden, Stefano; Cantiani, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The decay of forest cover and soil erosion is a consequence of continual intensive forest exploitation, such as grazing and wildfires over the centuries. From the end of the eighteenth century up to the mid-1900s, black pine plantations were established throughout the Apennines' range in Italy, to improve forest soil quality. The main aim of this reafforestation was to re-establish the pine as a first cover, pioneer species. This was a preparatory step to the reintroduction of broadleaf trees, such as oaks and beech trees, and thus the reestablishment of mixed forest. A series of thinning activities were planned by foresters when these plantations were designed. Many stands, however, remain unthinned, which over time, has weakened the trees in the plantations. Alternative forms of regeneration have been and are being tested to improve the natural and artificial establishment of indigenous species. Thinning, however, remains the most common and one of the most successful regeneration methods used in pine forests. The project's main objective is to demonstrate the potential of an innovative silvicultural treatment to enhance the level of biodiversity in the soil of black pine stands. In particular, the project aims to evaluate the effects of selective thinning on soil biodiversity on young black pine stands. These effects will be compared to traditional thinning methods (selecting trees from below leaving well-spaced, highest-quality trees) and to areas of forest where silvicultural treatments (e.g. weeding, cleaning, liberation cutting) are not carried out.

  8. A new separation and treatment method for soil and groundwater restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchens, G.D.

    1997-10-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination by organic compounds is a widespread environmental pollution problem. In many cases, contaminated soil is excavated and transported to a landfill or is incinerated to remove contaminants. These remediation practices are expensive, environmentally disruptive, require extensive permitting, and only move contamination from one location to another. Onsite and in situ treatment techniques offer a safer, more cost-effective, and permanent solution. Many soil and groundwater contaminants are highly volatile, enabling the use of methods such as in situ vacuum extraction and air injection for their removal. However, these methods are often difficult to use because of slow volatilization rates and the lack of effective methods to treat the extracted hazardous material. This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program focuses on developing an in situ soil and groundwater remediation technique that is effective against volatile as well as nonvolatile compounds and that will shorten treatment times. The technique forms the basis of a new catalytic process to degrade extracted contaminants onsite. Key hardware elements on which the new technique is based have been proven in preliminary research. The method has a high potential for public and regulatory acceptance because of its low environment impact.

  9. The treatment of snoring by radiofrequency-assisted uvulopalatoplasty and results after one-session protocol: a prospective, longitudinal, non-randomized study.

    PubMed

    Chiesa Estomba, Carlos Miguel; Rivera Schmitz, Teresa; Ossa Echeverri, Carla Cristina; Betances Reinoso, Frank Alberto; Fariña Conde, José; Alonso Parraga, Dionisio

    2015-10-01

    Snoring is usually caused by the vibration of walls of the soft palate at the pharyngeal level. Its worldwide prevalence is estimated to range between 2 and 85% depending on age, gender or population group. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of improvement that can be subjectively evident in patients treated by snoring with radiofrequency-assisted uvulopalatoplasty based on a one-session protocol. This is a prospective, longitudinal, non-randomized study. Patients of both sexes, aged 18 years, who attended to the ENT consultation in a tertiary hospital with snoring during the period of July 2012-July 2013 were included. Age, body mass index, Epworth sleepiness scale were calculated. The volume of snoring of each subject was assessed using a visual analog scale. A total of 27 patients were included in the study; the average age of the sample was 49 years (±8.7; min 36/max 74); of these 22 (81.5%) were male and 5 (18.5%) females. The average BMI was 27.07 ± 2.5 (min 23.15/max 29.39) before the test and after 1 year was 26.75 ± 2.32 (min 23.11/max 29.56) with no statistically significant differences in BMI before and after surgery (p = 0.407). Preoperative snoring intensity was 8.10 ± 0.93 according to VAS. We found a statistically significant difference in the post-operative intensity at 3 months of 3.93 ± 0.88 (p ≤ 0.05) at 6 months of 4.41 ± 1.08 (p ≤ 0.05), and after 1 year 4.90 ± 0.77 (p ≤ 0.05). The average rate of ESS was significantly higher preoperatively than post-operative, being 8.76 ± 3.1 preoperative and 6.93 ± 1.68 post-operative (p ≤ 0.05). We conclude that the use of radiofrequency in simple snorers with an apnea/hypopnea index <15 events per hour and a BMI < 30 kg/m(2) in whom clinically proven that the source of snoring is the soft palate, can be treated by one-session protocol, being possible to obtain an improvement of snoring up to 70% of cases by a short follow-up period. PMID:25837987

  10. Electrochemical Processes for In-Situ Treatment of Contaminated Soils - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 01/31/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chin-Pao

    2001-05-31

    This project will study electrochemical processes for the in situ treatment of soils contaminated by mixed wastes, i.e., organic and inorganic. Soil samples collected form selected DOE waste sites will be characterized for specific organic and metal contaminants and hydraulic permeability. The soil samples are then subject to desorption experiments under various physical-chemical conditions such as pH and the presence of surfactants. Batch electro-osmosis experiments will be conducted to study the transport of contaminants in the soil-water systems. Organic contaminants that are released from the soil substrate will be treated by an advanced oxidation process, i.e., electron-Fantan. Finally, laboratory reactor integrating the elector-osmosis and elector-Fantan processes will be used to study the treatment of contaminated soil in situ.

  11. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - biocell treatment of petroleum contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Biocells are engineered systems that use naturally occurring microbes to degrade fuels and oils into simpler, nonhazardous, and nontoxic compounds. Biocells are able to treat soils contaminated with petroleum based fuels and lubricants, including diesel, jet fuel, and lubricating and hydraulic oils. The microbes use the contaminants as a food source and thus destroy them. By carefully monitoring and controlling air and moisture levels, degradation rates can be increased and total treatment time reduced over natural systems.

  12. Impact of reclamation treatment on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, L. V.; Khamova, O. F.; Paderina, E. V.; Gindemit, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    The abundance and activity of the soil microflora were studied in a field experiment with the use of green manure crops to assess the impact of reclamation measures on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex. The number of microorganisms in the plow soil horizon increased in the background of the green fallows as compared to the black ones. Coefficients of mineralization, immobilization, and transformation of organic compounds were calculated for different variants of the soil treatment. The value of the mineralization coefficient indicates the intense decomposition of the green manure that entered the soil. In the first year, peas were actively decomposed, while oats, in the second year (aftereffect). The activity of the soil enzymes (invertase, urease, and catalase) was determined. A close relationship between the catalase activity and the intensity of the microbiological processes in the soils was revealed.

  13. Ex situ bioremediation of mineral oil in soils: Land treatment and composting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, K.

    1998-06-01

    Mineral oil dielectric fluid (MODF) has replaced PCB oil as the insulating medium in electrical transformers. Although eliminating PCBs has reduced the environmental impact resulting from transformer leaks, soil contaminated with mineral oil still often requires remediation. This study evaluated the feasibility of ex situ biotreatment by land farming and composting for Southern Company Services/Georgia Power. Research results indicate that composting does not enhance the biodegradation of mineral oil compared to land treatment. Furthermore, while land treatment does degrade mineral oil, the process takes nearly a year and may not meet regulatory limits. Because the environmental impact of MODF spills into soil is not well understood, states regulate this fluid similarly to petroleum fuel oil for cleanup purposes. This has led to costly remedial efforts, with utilities excavating contaminated media and disposing it in landfills. However, landfills are becoming increasingly regulated, and their use leaves future liability issues unresolved. Southern Company Services/Georgia Power and EPRI sought to explore the effectiveness of ex situ treatment technologies of land farming and composting to decontaminate soil for on-site reuse.

  14. Laboratory and field evaluation of the gas treatment approach for insitu remediation of chromate-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, E.C.; Jackson, R.L.

    1994-04-01

    Laboratory scale soil treatment tests have been conducted as part of an effort to develop and implement an in situ chemical treatment approach to the remediation of chromate-contaminated soils through the use of reactive gases. These tests involved three different soil samples that were contaminated with Cr(VI) at the 200 ppM level. Treatment of the contaminated soils was performed by passing 100 ppM and 2000 ppM concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in nitrogen through soil columns until a S:Cr mole ratio of 10:1 was achieved. The treated soils were then leached with groundwater or deionized water and analyzed to assess the extent of chromium immobilization. Test results indicate >90% immobilization of chromium and demonstrate that the treatment process is irreversible. Ongoing developmental efforts are being directed towards the demonstration and evaluation of the gas treatment approach in a field test at a chromate-contaminated site. Major planned activities associated with this demonstration include laboratory testing of waste site soil samples, design of the treatment system and injection/extraction well network, geotechnical and geochemical characterization of the test site, and identification and resolution of regulatory and safety requirements.

  15. Application of CFG Piles to Soft Soil Treatment of Municipal Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qingli; Song, Yan; Han, Xinzhan

    With rapid development of constructional engineering, methods used for soft soil foundation treatment become increasingly diversified. Because composite foundation has the peculiar advantage that that it makes full use of earth among piles and piles and is featured by short construction period, large treatment depth and relatively good effect, it has been applied more and more widely. The engineering applies CFG pipes, utilizes high bearing capacity of piles and gives full play to carrying capacity of earth among piles by establishing a mattress layer.

  16. Water treatment residuals and biosolids co-applications affect phosphatases in a semi-arid rangeland soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosolids and water treatment residuals (WTR) land co-application has not been extensively studied, but may be beneficial by sorbing excess biosolids-borne or soil P onto WTR, reducing the likelihood of off-site movement. Reduction of excess soil P may affect the role of specific P-cleaving enzymes...

  17. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: LOW TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF CERCLA SOILS AND DEBRIS USING THE IT LABORATORY SCALE THERMAL DESORPTION FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study report on laboratory experiments on low temperature treatment of soils using thermal desorption. The purpose of the study was to determine if thermal desorption could remove volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from a synthetically prepared soil spiked with pre...

  18. First-Session Competency: The Brief Strategic Therapy Scale-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amini, Rachelle L.; Woolley, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    The first session in brief strategic therapy is the most critical phase of treatment. More than a mere "assessment phase," the first session in a true intervention sets the stage for all subsequent therapeutic maneuvers. This article presents a supervisory observation tool, the Brief Strategic Therapy Scale-1 (BSTS-1), a fidelity measure proposed…

  19. Evaluation of water quality functions of conventional and advanced soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jennifer A; Loomis, George W; Kalen, David V; Amador, Jose A

    2015-05-01

    Shallow narrow drainfields are assumed to provide better wastewater renovation than conventional drainfields and are used for protection of surface and ground water. To test this assumption, we evaluated the water quality functions of two advanced onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) drainfields-shallow narrow (SND) and Geomat (GEO)-and a conventional pipe and stone (P&S) drainfield over 12 mo using replicated ( = 3) intact soil mesocosms. The SND and GEO mesocosms received effluent from a single-pass sand filter, whereas the P&S received septic tank effluent. Between 97.1 and 100% of 5-d biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), fecal coliform bacteria, and total phosphorus (P) were removed in all drainfield types. Total nitrogen (N) removal averaged 12.0% for P&S, 4.8% for SND, and 5.4% for GEO. A mass balance analysis accounted for 95.1% (SND), 94.1% (GEO), and 87.6% (P&S) of N inputs. When the whole treatment train (excluding the septic tank) is considered, advanced systems, including sand filter pretreatment and SND or GEO soil-based treatment, removed 99.8 to 99.9% of BOD, 100% of fecal coliform bacteria and P, and 26.0 to 27.0% of N. In contrast, the conventional system removed 99.4% of BOD and 100% of fecal coliform bacteria and P but only 12.0% of N. All drainfield types performed similarly for most water quality functions despite differences in placement within the soil profile. However, inclusion of the pretreatment step in advanced system treatment trains results in better N removal than in conventional treatment systems despite higher drainfield N removal rates in the latter. PMID:26024275

  20. Toxicity of emerging energetic soil contaminant CL-20 to potworm Enchytraeus crypticus in freshly amended or weathered and aged treatments.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Anthony, J Steven; Kolakowski, Jan E; Davis, Emily A

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the toxicity of an emerging polynitramine energetic material hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) to the soil invertebrate species Enchytraeus crypticus by adapting then using the Enchytraeid Reproduction Test (ISO/16387:2003). Studies were designed to develop ecotoxicological benchmark values for ecological risk assessment of the potential impacts of accidental release of this compound into the environment. Tests were conducted in Sassafras Sandy Loam soil, which supports relatively high bioavailability of CL-20. Weathering and aging procedures for CL-20 amended into test soil were incorporated into the study design to produce toxicity data that better reflect soil exposure conditions in the field compared with the toxicity in freshly amended soils. Concentration-response relationships for measurement endpoints were determined using nonlinear regressions. Definitive tests showed that toxicities for E. crypticus adult survival and juvenile production were significantly increased in weathered and aged soil treatments compared with toxicity in freshly amended soil, based on 95% confidence intervals. The median effect concentration (EC50) and EC20 values for juvenile production were 0.3 and 0.1 mg kg-1, respectively, for CL-20 freshly amended into soil, and 0.1 and 0.035 mg kg-1, respectively, for weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments. These findings of increased toxicity to E. crypticus in weathered and aged CL-20 soil treatments compared with exposures in freshly amended soils show that future investigations should include a weathering and aging component to generate toxicity data that provide more complete information on ecotoxicological effects of emerging energetic contaminants in soil. PMID:16213571

  1. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON AND HEAVY-METAL- CONTAMINATED SOIL - INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The batch steam distillation and metal extraction treatment process is a two-stage system that treats soils contaminated with organics and inorganics. This system uses conventional, readily available process equipment, and does not produce hazardous combustion products. Hazar...

  2. Soil and phosphorus accretion rates in sub-tropical wetlands: Everglades Stormwater Treatment Areas as a case example.

    PubMed

    Bhomia, R K; Inglett, P W; Reddy, K R

    2015-11-15

    Wetlands are known to serve as sinks for particulate matter and associated nutrients and contaminants. Consequently rate of soil accretion is critical for continued performance of wetlands to provide ecosystem services including water quality improvement and reduce excess contaminant loads into downstream waters. Here we demonstrate a new technique to determine rate of soil accretion in selected subtropical treatment wetlands located in southern USA. We also report changes in soil accretion rates and subsequent phosphorus (P) removal efficiency with increasing operational history of these treatment wetlands. Utilizing discernible signatures preserved within the soil depth profiles, 'change points' (CP) that corresponded to specific events in the life history of a wetland were determined. The CP was observed as an abrupt transition in the physico-chemical properties of soil as a manifestation of prevailing historical conditions (e.g. startup of treatment wetlands in this case). Vertical depth of CP from the soil surface was equivalent to the depth of recently accreted soil (RAS) and used for soil accretion rate calculations. Annual soil and P accretion rates determined using CP technique (CPT) in studied wetlands ranged from 1.0±0.3 to 1.7±0.8 cm yr(-1) and 1.3±0.6 to 3.3±2 g m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. There was no difference in RAS depth between emergent and submerged aquatic vegetation communities found at the study location. Our results showed that soil and P accretion rates leveled off after 10 yr of treatment wetlands' operation. On comparison, soil accretion rates and RAS depth determined by CPT were commensurate with that measured by other techniques. CPT can be easily used where a reliable record of wetland establishment date or some significant alteration/perturbation is available. This technique offers a relatively simple alternative to determine vertical accretion rates in free-water surface wetlands. PMID:26172597

  3. Accumulation of metals in the soil of an overland flow wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Stefanutti, Ronaldo; Packer, Ana Paula; Filho, Bruno Coraucci; Mattiazzo, Maria Emilia; de Figueiredo, Roberto F

    2002-12-01

    Accumulation of Co, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn was evaluated in a soil profile of an overland flow system used for the post-treatment of urban wastewater. A pilot version of the overland flow system received urban wastewater from five up-flow anaerobic filters filled with bamboo (Bambusa tuldoides) rings. The anaerobic effluent was applied as feed over 18 months at rates varying from 7 to 28 L min(-1), to a vegetated slope length covered with Tifton 85 (Cynodon) sp. grass. Soil and plant samples were collected in triplicate from the top to the bottom of the slope. In addition, the soils were sampled at the depths 0-20 and 20-40 cm. The metal concentrations found in the overall system were compared to those obtained in a control area located at the beginning of the slope onto which nothing was applied. A month of monitoring the urban wastewater of Limeira City (São Paulo State, Brazil) showed a drastic change in metals concentration due to the irregular discharge of industrial waste. This irregular discharge introduces Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn into the system used to treat domestic wastewater. The mass balance indicates the accumulation of metals in the soil and the translocation to the plants; also that they could be evapotranspirated, percolated and discharged. PMID:12509052

  4. Microbial communities in riparian soils of a settling pond for mine drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Fan, Miaochun; Lin, Yanbing; Huo, Haibo; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Entao; Chen, Weimin; Wei, Gehong

    2016-06-01

    Mine drainage leads to serious contamination of soil. To assess the effects of mine drainage on microbial communities in riparian soils, we used an Illumina MiSeq platform to explore the soil microbial composition and diversity along a settling pond used for mine drainage treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the microbial communities differed significantly among the four sampling zones (influent, upstream, downstream and effluent), but not seasonally. Constrained analysis of principal coordinates indicated heavy metals (zinc, lead and copper), total sulphur, pH and available potassium significantly influenced the microbial community compositions. Heavy metals were the key determinants separating the influent zone from the other three zones. Lower diversity indices were observed in the influent zone. However, more potential indicator species, related to sulphur and organic matter metabolism were found there, such as the sulphur-oxidizing genera Acidiferrobacter, Thermithiobacillus, Limnobacter, Thioprofundum and Thiovirga, and the sulphur-reducing genera Desulfotomaculum and Desulfobulbus; the organic matter degrading genera, Porphyrobacter and Paucimonas, were also identified. The results indicated that more microorganisms related to sulphur- and carbon-cycles may exist in soils heavily contaminated by mine drainage. PMID:27055175

  5. Screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Ballou, S.W.; Besmer, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    As part of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, RMA has contracted Argonne National Laboratory to investigate potential remedial alternatives for the cleanup of agent-contaminated soils. The chemical agents of concern include levinstein mustard, lewisite, sarin, and VX. This investigation has been initially divided into three phases: (1) a literature search to determine what, if any, previous studies have been conducted; (2) a technologies-screening critique of remedial technologies as alternatives to incineration; and (3) an investigation of promising alternatives on RMA soil at the laboratory and bench-scale levels. This paper summarizes the document produced as a result of the technologies screening. The purpose of the document was to determine the applicability of 25 technologies to remediation of agent-contaminated soil for a general site. Technologies were critiqued on the basis of applicability to soil type, applicability to the agents of concern at RMA, applicability to other types of contaminants, cost of the treatment, current status of the technology, and residuals produced.

  6. Resilience of soil microbial and nematode communities after biofumigant treatment with defatted seed meals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocali, Stefano; Landi, Silvia; Curto, Giovanna; Elisabetta, Dallavalle; Infantino, Alessandro; Colzi, Claudia; d'Errico, Giada; Roversi, Pio Federico; D'Avino, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The use of alternative biocidal compounds to replace chemical pesticides after the Directive 2009/128/EC has raised renewed interest in the biofumigation technique. In particular, the defatted seed meals (DSM) derived from brassicaceae plant tissues with high glucosinolate content represent an efficient practice to control soil-born plant pathogens and pests that can be applied in synergy to catch crop green manures. For a wider and safer application of this technique, the impacts on non-target soil microorganisms and free-living nematodes have to be investigated in more depth. In this pot-scale experiment a naturally nematode-infected soil was amended with a glucosinolate-containing DSM from Brassica carinata (CAR), a non-glucosinolate-containing DSM from sunflower (SUN) and the metham-sodium fumigant (VAP). Tomato plants were transplanted and checked for the presence of pests and/or pathogens and plant vigour. The response of soil microbial communities was assessed through 454-pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal 18S rRNA genes, whereas nematode indices were applied to assess their community structure 0, 10, 32 and 62 days after the treatments. Significant shifts were observed among both bacterial and fungal communities, whereas various changes of nematode communities occurred depending on the nematode family. Similar changes initially occurred in both bacterial and fungal community structure in response to DSM and VAP amendments, but after 62 days fungal communities were more strongly shaped by VAP fumigation than bacteria. The non-biofumigant SUN treatment added organic matter into the soil inducing significant changes in microbial communities, but it was not effective against M. incognita root infestation. Although the free-living nematode structure was negatively influenced by all treatments, B. carinata DMS proved the best compromise between efficiency to control M. incognita and environmental impact. These results confirmed the

  7. Effects of vegetation and soil-surface cover treatments on the hydrologic behavior of low-level waste trench caps

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, E.A.; Barnes, F.J.; Antonio, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on a three-year field study at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the influence of different low-level radioactive waste trench cap designs on water balance under natural precipitation. Erosion plots having two different vegetative covers (shrubs and grasses) and with either gravel-mulched or unmulched soil surface treatments have been established on three different soil profiles on a decommissioned waste site. Total runoff and soil loss from each plot is measured after each precipitation event. Soil moisture is measured biweekly while plant canopy cover is measured seasonally. Preliminary results from the first year show that the application of a gravel mulch reduced runoff by 73 to 90%. Total soil loss was reduced by 83 to 93% by the mulch treatment. On unmulched plots, grass cover reduced both runoff and soil loss by about 50% compared to the shrub plots. Continued monitoring of the study site will provide data that will be used to analyze complex interactions between independent variables such rainfall amount and intensity, antecedent soil moisture, and soil and vegetation factors, as they influence water balance, and soil erosion. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Soil amendment using poplar woodchips to enhance the treatment of wastewater-originated nutrients.

    PubMed

    Meffe, Raffaella; de Miguel, Ángel; Martínez Hernández, Virtudes; Lillo, Javier; de Bustamante, Irene

    2016-09-15

    Vegetation filters, a nature based wastewater regeneration technology, have been reported as a feasible solution for small municipalities and scattered populations with limited access to sewage networks. However even when such a treatment is properly planned, the leaching of contaminants through the unsaturated zone may occur. The amendment of soil with a readily-labile source of carbon is supposed to ameliorate the removal of contaminants by stimulating microbial activity and enhancing sorption processes. In this study, lab-scale leaching column experiments were carried out to explore if the addition of woodchips to the soil could be a feasible strategy to be integrated in a vegetation filter. Two different types of arrangement of soil and woodchips layers were tested. The soil was collected from an operating vegetation filter treating wastewater of an office building characterised by a high nutrient load. Daily pulse of synthetic wastewater were applied into the columns and effluent samples were collected and analyzed for major ions, total nitrogen (NT), total phosphorous (PT) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). By the end of the experiment, NT, NO3-N and PT soil contents were also measured. Results indicate that amendments with woodchips enhance the elimination of wastewater-originated contaminants. NT removal in the columns with woodchips reaches a value of 99.4%. The main processes responsible for this elimination are NH4-N sorption and nitrification/denitrification. This latter fostered by the reduced redox conditions due to the enhanced microbial activity. High removal of PT (99%) is achieved independently of the woodchips presence due to retention and/or precipitation phenomena. The COD removal efficiency is not affected by the presence of the woodchips. The leaching of organic carbon occurs only during the experimental start-up period. PMID:27288555

  9. Enhanced infiltration regime for treated-wastewater purification in soil aquifer treatment (SAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadav, Itamar; Arye, Gilboa; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona

    2012-02-01

    SummaryUtilization of treated wastewater (TWW) for agriculture is a widely accepted practice in regions suffering from freshwater (FW) shortages. Soil aquifer treatment is often employed for wastewater purification in regions with sandy soil. Infiltration rates of water through the soil can decrease as a result organic matter (OM) accumulation and the consequential water repellency. We examined several infiltration regimes with the aim of achieving lower levels of OM accumulation, reduced water repellency and increased infiltration rate in the topsoil layer of the infiltration basin. OM accumulation in the topsoil layer was found to be the main factor adversely affecting soil permeability. In measurements performed in the infiltration basins of the Tel Aviv wastewater-purification facility over a 1-year period, infiltration rates were found to differ with season, being low in the winter and high in the summer. Similar observations were made on small model infiltration ponds established to simulate the large basins. Several water-application regimes were tested for enhancement of the infiltration rates. Rapid application of TWW was the most efficient method in terms of reducing OM accumulation and water repellency in the topsoil layer. Low-rate, and spraying of TWW over the soil using sprinklers produced the highest OM accumulation and consequently, higher water repellency. Low-rate, single outlet application—the conventional infiltration method employed in the commercial infiltration basins—exhibited moderate OM accumulation and water repellency. Neither water repellency nor OM accumulation were observed in the FW-application regime. Accumulation of OM originating from the percolating TWW, at the topsoil layer was identified as dominating infiltration rate at the infiltration basins. Reduction of OM content by the means proposed and evaluated in this experiment can drastically increase infiltration rates.

  10. Electrochemical treatment of spent solution after EDTA-based soil washing.

    PubMed

    Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

    2012-04-15

    The use of EDTA in soil washing technologies to remediate soils contaminated with toxic metals is prohibitive because of the large volumes of waste washing solution generated, which must be treated before disposal. Degradation of EDTA in the waste solution and the removal of Pb, Zn and Cd were investigated using electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOP) with a boron-doped diamond anode (BDDA), graphite and iron anodes and a stainless-steel cathode. In addition to EAOP, the efficiency of electro-Fenton reactions, induced by the addition of H(2)O(2) and the regulation of electrochemical systems to pH 3, was also investigated. Soil extraction with 15 mmol kg(-1) of soil EDTA yielded waste washing solution with 566 ± 1, 152 ± 1 and 5.5 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. Treatments of the waste solution in pH unregulated electrochemical systems with a BDDA and graphite anode (current density 67 mA cm(-2)) were the most efficient and removed up to 98 ± 1, 96 ± 1, 99 ± 1% of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, by electrodeposition on the cathode and oxidatively degraded up to 99 ± 1% of chelant. In the electrochemical system with an Fe anode operated at pH 3, the chelant remained preserved in the treated solution, while metals were removed by electrodeposition. This separation opens up the possibility of a new EDTA recycling method from waste soil washing solution. PMID:22305659

  11. Three featured plenary sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-07-01

    The conference included three plenary sessions. The plenary on Governance, Security, Economy, and the Ecosystem of the Changing Arctic featured Vera Alexander, president, Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S.; Alan Thornhill, chief environmental officer, U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management; and Fran Ulmer, chair, U.S. Arctic Research Commission. A plenary on the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea featured Ambassador David Balton, deputy assistant secretary for oceans and fisheries, U.S. Department of State; and Rear Admiral Frederick Kenney Jr., judge advocate general and chief counsel, U.S. Coast Guard. The plenary on Science and the 21st Century featured Phil Keslin, chief technology officer, small lab within Google.

  12. Nutrition Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen; Stein, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrition deficiencies affect multiple systems including muscle, bone, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal. Humans require many nutrients, ranging from the macronutrients (water, protein, energy sources) to micronutrients (minerals, vitamins). The ability to withstand shortfalls in intake of individual nutrients ranges from one or two days (e.g., water) to weeks (energy, protein, potassium) and months (some vitamins, minerals). In addition to putting humans at risk for nutrition deficiencies, space flight may also change the absorption, hence the pharmacodynamics, of several important medications. Papers given in this session dealt with all of these nutritional and pharmacological factors related to space flight: (1) Protein metabolism and muscle formation. (2) Pharmacodynamics. (3) Calcium metabolism and bone formation/resorption. and (4) Fluid and electrolytes.

  13. Modified clay sorbents for wastewater treatment and immobilization of heavy metals in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlakovs, Juris; Klavins, Maris; Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Stapkevica, Mara

    2014-05-01

    Soil and groundwater pollution with heavy metals is the result of both, anthropogenic and natural processes in the environment. Anthropogenic influence in great extent appears from industry, mining, treatment of metal ores and waste incineration. Contamination of soil and water can be induced by diffuse sources such as applications of agrochemicals and fertilizers in agriculture, air pollution from industry and transport, and by point sources, e.g., wastewater streams, runoff from dump sites and factories. Treatment processes used for metal removal from polluted soil and water include methodologies based on chemical precipitation, ion exchange, carbon adsorption, membrane filtration, adsorption and co-precipitation. Optimal removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous medium can be achieved by adsorption process which is considered as one of the most effective methods due to its cost-effectiveness and high efficiency. Immobilization of metals in contaminated soil also can be done with different adsorbents as the in situ technology. Use of natural and modified clay can be developed as one of the solutions in immobilization of lead, zinc, copper and other elements in polluted sites. Within the present study clay samples of different geological genesis were modified with sodium and calcium chlorides, iron oxyhydroxides and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate in variable proportions of Ca/P equimolar ratio to test and compare immobilization efficiency of metals by sorption and batch leaching tests. Sorption capacity for raw clay samples was considered as relatively lower referring to the modified species of the same clay type. In addition, clay samples were tested for powder X-ray difractometry, cation exchange, surface area properties, elemental composition, as well as scanning electron microscopy pictures of clay sample surface structures were obtained. Modified clay sorbents were tested for sorption of lead as monocontaminant and for complex contamination of heavy metals. The

  14. Occurrence and treatment of arsenic in groundwater and soil in northern Mexico and southwestern USA.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Lucy Mar; Gutiérrez, Mélida; Alarcón-Herrera, Maria Teresa; Villalba, Maria de Lourdes; Deng, Shuguang

    2011-04-01

    This review focuses on the occurrence and treatment of arsenic (As) in the arid region of northern Mexico (states of Chihuahua and Coahuila) and bordering states of the southwestern US (New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas), an area known for having high As concentrations. Information assembled and assessed includes the content and probable source of As in water, soil, and sediments and treatment methods that have been applied in the area. High As concentrations were found mainly in groundwater, their source being mostly from natural origin related to volcanic processes with significant anthropogenic contributions near mining and smelting of ores containing arsenic. The affinity of As for solid phases in alkaline conditions common to arid areas precludes it from being present in surface waters, accumulating instead in sediments and shifting its threat to its potential remobilization in reservoir sediments and irrigation waterways. Factors such as oxidation and pH that affect the mobility of As in the subsurface environment are mentioned. Independent of socio-demographic variables, nutritional status, and levels of blood lead, cognitive development in children is being affected when exposed to As. Treatments known to effectively reduce As content to safe drinking water levels as well as those that are capable of reducing As content in soils are discussed. Besides conventional methods, emergent technologies, such as phytoremediation, offer a viable solution to As contamination in drinking water. PMID:21216433

  15. 96th LHCC meeting Agenda OPEN Session and CLOSED Session

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-07

    OPEN Session on Wednesday, 19 November 2008 at 9h00-11h00 in Main Auditorium, Live webcast. Followed by CLOSED Session , 6th floor Conference room and continued on Thursday, 20 November 2008 9h00-13h00

  16. 96th LHCC meeting Agenda OPEN Session and CLOSED Session

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    OPEN Session on Wednesday, 19 November 2008 at 9h00-11h00 in Main Auditorium, Live webcast. Followed by CLOSED Session , 6th floor Conference room and continued on Thursday, 20 November 2008 9h00-13h00

  17. Treatment of Y-12 storm sewer sediments and DARA soils by thermal desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.; Shealy, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    The 1992 Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) listed a number of mixed wastes, subject to land disposal restrictions (LDR), for which no treatment method had been identified, and required DOE to develop strategies for treatment and ultimate disposal of those wastes. This paper presents the results of a program to demonstrate that thermal desorption can remove both organics and mercury from two mixed wastes from the DOE Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first waste, the Y-12 Storm Sewer Sediments (SSSs) was a sediment generated from upgrades to the plant storm sewer system. This material contained over 4 percent mercury, 2 percent uranium and 350 mg/kg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Leachable mercury exceeded toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and LDR criteria. The second waste, the Disposal Area Remedial Action (DARA) Soils, are contaminated with uranium, mercury and PCBs. This treatability study included bench-scale testing of a thermal desorption process. Results of the testing showed that, for the SSSs, total mercury could be reduced to 120 mg/kg by treatment at 600{degrees}C, which is at the high end of the temperature range for typical thermal desorption systems. Leachable TCLP mercury was less than 50 {mu}g/L and PCBs were below 2 mg/kg. Treatment of the DARA Soils at 450{degrees}C for 10 minutes resulted in residual PCBs of 0.6 to 3.0 mg/kg. This is too high (goal < 2mg/kg) and higher treatment temperatures are needed. The testing also provided information on the characteristics and quantities of residuals from the thermal desorption process.

  18. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils: LEFPC appendices, volume 1, appendix I-IV

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This document contains Appendix I-IV for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are calibration records; quality assurance; soils characterization; pilot scale trial runs.

  19. [Matching study on treatment of sewage from highway service area by ecological soil system in Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Zhi-Min; He, Juan

    2011-04-01

    The osmotic coefficient by clear water and sewage, static adsorption, dynamic and water penetration tests were conducted to determine the parameters, which including materials matching, hydraulic loading, and wet to dry ratio, in the treatment of sewage from highway service area (SHSA) in Chongqing by ecological soil system. The results showed that, according to principles of easier getting, high and stable hydraulic load, large decontamination capability, the materials matching of working layer SHSA was made of 30.67% soil, 61.33% sand and 8.00% cinder in Chongqing, and the supporting layer was consisted of 0.20 m cable and 0.10 m broken stone (height). The total height of the ecological soil system was 1.6 m, at which 1.00, 1.20, 1.40, 1.60 m department of hydraulic loading were 0.344, 0.322, 0.307, 0.298 m x d(-1), respectively. The flooding period of working layer was 1 d and the drying period 1.5 d, i. e, the ratio of wet to dry was 1:1.5. PMID:21717749

  20. A Model to Predict Nitrogen Losses in Advanced Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, I.; Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Amador, J.; Boving, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Most of the non-point source Nitrogen (N) load in rural areas is attributed to onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). Nitrogen compounds are considered environmental pollutants because they deplete the oxygen availability in water bodies and produce eutrophication. The objective of this study was to simulate the fate and transport of Nitrogen in OWTS. The commercially-available 2D/3D HYDRUS software was used to develop a transport and fate model. Experimental data from a laboratory meso-cosm study included the soil moisture content, NH4 and NO3- data. That data set was used to calibrate the model. Three types of OWTS were simulated: (1) pipe-and-stone (P&S), (2) advanced soil drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (SND) and (3) Geomat (GEO), a variation of SND. To better understand the nitrogen removal mechanism and the performance of OWTS technologies, replicate (n = 3) intact soil mesocosms were used with 15N-labelled nitrogen inputs. As a result, it was estimated that N removal by denitrification was predominant in P&S. However, it is suggested that N was removed by nitrification in SND and GEO. The calibrated model was used to estimate Nitrogen fluxes for both conventional and advanced OWTS. Also, the model predicted the N losses from nitrification and denitrification in all OWTS. These findings help to provide practitioners with guidelines to estimate N removal efficiencies for OWTS, and predict N loads and spatial distribution for identifying non-point sources.

  1. A session-to-session examination of homework engagement in cognitive therapy for depression: Do patients experience immediate benefits?

    PubMed

    Conklin, Laren R; Strunk, Daniel R

    2015-09-01

    Homework is a key component of Cognitive Therapy (CT) for depression. Although previous research has found evidence for a positive relationship between homework compliance and treatment outcome, the methods used in previous studies have often not been optimal. In this study, we examine the relation of specific aspects of homework engagement and symptom change over successive session-to-session intervals. In a sample of 53 depressed adults participating in CT, we examined the relation of observer-rated homework engagement and session-to-session symptom change across the first five sessions. Within patient (and not between patient) variability in homework engagement was significantly related to greater session-to-session symptom improvements. These findings were similar when homework engagement was assessed through a measure of general engagement with homework assignments and a measure assessing engagement in specific assignments often used in CT. Secondary analyses suggested that observer ratings of the effort patients made on homework and the completion of cognitive homework were the numerically strongest predictors of depressive symptom improvements. Patient engagement with homework assignments appears to be an important predictor of early session-to-session symptom improvements. Future research is needed to identify what therapist behaviors promote homework engagement. PMID:26183022

  2. ASCO Plenary Sessions: impact, legacy, future.

    PubMed

    Vandross, Andrae; Prasad, Vinay; Mailankody, Sham

    2016-06-01

    The ASCO annual meeting draws a large crowd of physicians, cancer researchers, policy makers, and industry representatives. The crown jewel of the annual events is the Plenary session where impactful, influential and visible abstracts are selected for the largest audience. Plenary topics are frequently paired with concurrent New England Journal or Lancet publications.  Here, we review 9 years of ASCO plenary sessions.  Several themes emerge.  First, many of the topics selected have indeed been practice changing, such as the use of ALK inhibitors for ALK rearranged NSCLC, or checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic melanoma.  Second, although some plenary topics seemed destined to change practice, they ultimately falter, such as the use of Cetuximab in NSCLC, vaccine therapy for follicular lymphoma, and even Bevacizumab in metastatic renal cell cancer. Who could have forseen bevacizumab displaced by several VEGF TKIs?  Third, negative trials are rare among Plenary sessions, but when they are presented they are immensely important.  Examples include a seminal study using CA-125 levels to guide treatment of relapsed ovarian cancer, the use of lapatinib combined with traztuzumab in the adjuvant treatment of HER2 + disease, and studies showing no survival benefit to upfront bevacizumab in glioblastoma multiforme.   Fourth, we note a large industry presence among Plenary sessions, as the Industry in part sponsored 62% of Plenary abstracts.  Ultimately a review of 9 years of ASCO plenary reveals the plenary for what it is: a conservative selection of abstracts that, at the time, are thought to change the face of oncology.  Time, however, is the true arbiter, and some succeed in this quest, while others falter.  ASCO plenary sessions reveal the influence, legacy and future of cancer care. PMID:27178681

  3. Fate and transport of carbamazepine in a soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system: evaluation of a monitoring study and soil column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arye, G.; Dror, I.; Berkowitz, B.

    2009-12-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ), an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug, is found to be highly persistent in wastewater treatment plants and when subsequently released to the environment. Because of its physicochemical properties, CBZ is only weakly sorbed to mineral soils and is resistant to biodegradation. As a consequence, CBZ has been suggested as an appropriate anthropogenic marker to track the fate of wastewater in aquatic systems. We study the fate and transport of CBZ in the Dan Region Reclamation Project (Shafdan) in Israel, where about one quarter of the country’s wastewater undergoes purification. The secondary treatment of raw wastewater consists of mechanical and biological treatment by activated sludge, with an additional step of nitrification-denitrification, and subsequent recharge of treated effluent to groundwater via infiltration basins, as a complementary tertiary treatment known as soil aquifer treatment (SAT). Water produced from the SAT system is pumped from a depth of 100-200 m by means of approximately 100 recovery wells, located 300-1,500 m from the recharge basins. This water is then delivered through a single 87 km long pipeline to the southern part of the country, where it is used for irrigation. We examine the fate of CBZ before and after treatment with the SAT system. To date, our monitoring has detected up to 1300 ng/L of CBZ in the recharged effluent before SAT, and up to 700 ng/L after treatment, prior to use for irrigation. The latter may considered as an aggregate value from all recovery wells. Additional information on CBZ transport characteristics has been gained from a series of soil column experiments using soil samples taken from the SAT infiltration basin to a depth of 170 cm. For each soil layer examined, the soil column was first leached of CBZ and subsequently loaded with secondary treated wastewater containing CBZ. The CBZ breakthrough curves resemble transport of a conservative tracer in most of the soil samples. We

  4. Land subsidence session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Thomas L.

    A session on land subsidence caused by withdrawal of groundwater was held December 10, 1985, in San Francisco, Calif., at the AGU Fall Meeting. The symposium was organized by William E. Strange (National Geodetic Survey, Rockville, Md.) and Thomas L. Holzer (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Menlo Park, Calif.) and was cosponsored by the AGU Geodesy and Hydrology sections. Nine papers were presented on topics that ranged from evaluations of the suitability of the new satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) to theoretical analyses of land subsidence.T. N. Narasimhan (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, Berkeley, Calif.) introduced the general subject of subsidence with a review of relevant physical processes. Compaction, although conceptually simple, involves several complexities, including plastic deformation and translation of deep-seated deformation through the overburden. Sashi Mathur (Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Tex.), in a paper coauthored with M. Yavuz Corapcioglu (City College of New York, New York), analyzed deformation in the unsaturated zone above a falling water table. Their theoretical formulation was able to reproduce results from laboratory studies of sand columns.

  5. Development of natural treatment system consisting of black soil and Kentucky bluegrass for the post-treatment of anaerobically digested strong wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochen; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-03-01

    To develop a sound post-treatment process for anaerobically-digested strong wastewater, a novel natural treatment system comprising two units is put forward. The first unit, a trickling filter, provides for further reduction of biochemical oxygen demand and adjustable nitrification. The subsequent soil-plant unit aims at removing and recovering the nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). As a lab-scale feasibility study, a soil column test was conducted, in which black soil and valuable Kentucky bluegrass were integrated to treat artificial nutrient-enriched wastewater. After a long-term operation, the nitrification function was well established in the top layers, despite the need for an improved denitrification process prior to discharge. P and K were retained by the soil through distinct mechanisms. Since they either partially or totally remained in plant-available forms in the soil, indirect nutrient reuse could be achieved. As for Kentucky bluegrass, it displayed better growth status when receiving wastewater, with direct recovery of 8%, 6% and 14% of input N, P and K, respectively. Furthermore, the indispensable role of Kentucky bluegrass for better treatment performance was proved, as it enhanced the cell-specific nitrification potential of the soil nitrifying microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere. After further upgrade, the proposed system is expected to become a new solution for strong wastewater pollution. PMID:26969049

  6. Comparison of in situ vitrification and rotary kiln incineration for soils treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, T.L. )

    1991-09-01

    In the hazardous waste community, the term thermal destruction' is a catchall phrase that broadly refers to high temperature destruction of hazardous contaminants. Included in the thermal destruction category are treatment technologies such as rotary kiln incineration, fluidized bed incineration, infrared thermal treatment, wet air oxidation, pyrolytic incineration, and vitrification. Among them, conventional rotary kiln incineration, a disposal method for many years, is the most well established, and often serves as a barometer to gauge the relative success of similar technologies. Public sentiment on an environmental issues and increasingly stringent environmental regulations has, over time, spurred design and development of innovative thermal treatment processes directed toward reducing harmful emissions and residuals that may require further treatment or disposal. In situ vitrification (ISV), a technology that combines heat and immobilization, is one such innovative and relatively new technology. This paper presents a comparison of ISV and rotary kiln incineration for soils treatment in the areas of process performance, process residuals, process limitations, applicable or relevant and appropriate (ARARs) regulations, criteria and limitations, and costs.

  7. Integrated monitoring technologies for the management of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment (SAT) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallioras, Andreas; Kofakis, Petros; Bumberger, Jan; Athanasiou, Georgios; Schimdt, Felix; Apostolopoulos, Georgios; Uzunoglou, Nikolaos; Dietrich, Peter; Schuth, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse as treated wastewater effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for aquifer recharge. As the effluent moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. The pilot site of Lavrion Technological & Cultural Park (LTCP) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), involves the employment of plot infiltration basins at experimental scale, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. Τhe LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved by the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensing technologies, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time and Frequency Domain Reflectometry (TDR & FDR) sensors is developed and will be installed, in order to achieve continuous quantitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone through the entire soil column down to significant depths below the SAT basin. Additionally, the system contains two different radar-based sensing systems that will be offering (i) identification of preferential

  8. Integrated monitoring technologies for the management of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment (SAT) system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Alexandros; Kallioras, Andreas; Kofakis, Petros; Bumberger, Jan; Schmidt, Felix; Athanasiou, Georgios; Uzunoglou, Nikolaos; Amditis, Angelos; Dietrich, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse as treated wastewater effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for aquifer recharge. As the effluent moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. The pilot site of Lavrion Technological & Cultural Park (LTCP) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), involves the employment of plot infiltration basins at experimental scale, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. Τhe LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved by the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensing technologies, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time and Frequency Domain Reflectometry (TDR & FDR) sensors is developed and will be installed, in order to achieve continuous quantitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone through the entire soil column down to significant depths below the SAT basin. Additionally, the system contains two different radar-based sensing systems that will be offering (i) identification of preferential

  9. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge. PMID:26517996

  10. Evaluation of Water Quality Renovation by Advanced Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T.; Morales, I.; DeLuca, J.; Amador, J.

    2013-12-01

    25% of US households utilize onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) for wastewater management. Advanced technologies were designed to overcome the inadequate wastewater treatment by conventional OWTS in critical shallow water table areas, such as coastal zones, in order to protect ground water quality. In addition to the septic tank and soil drainfield that comprise a conventional OWTS, advanced systems claim improved water renovation with the addition of sand filtration, timed dosing controls, and shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. We determined water quality renovation functions under current water table and temperature conditions, in anticipation of an experiment to measure OWTS response to a climate change scenario of 30-cm increase in water table elevation and 4C temperature increase. Replicate (n=3) intact soil mesocosms were used to evaluate the effectiveness of drainfields with a conventional wastewater delivery (pipe-and-stone) compared to two types of pressurized, shallow narrow drainfield. Results under steady state conditions indicate complete removal of fecal coliform bacteria, phosphorus and BOD by all soil-based systems. By contrast, removal of total nitrogen inputs was 16% in conventional and 11% for both advanced drainfields. Effluent waters maintained a steady state pH between 3.2 - 3.7 for all technologies. Average DO readings were 2.9mg/L for conventional drainfield effluent and 4.6mg/L for advanced, showing the expected oxygen uptake with shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. The conventional OWTS is outperforming the advanced with respect to nitrogen removal, but renovating wastewater equivalently for all other contaminants of concern. The results of this study are expected to facilitate development of future OWTS regulation and planning guidelines, particularly in coastal zones and in the face of a changing climate.

  11. Soil biodiversity in artificial black pine stands after selective silvicultural treatments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Butti, Fabrizio; De Meo, Isabella; Bianchetto, Elisa; Landi, Silvia; Montini, Piergiuseppe; Samaden, Stefano; Cantiani, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The decay of forest cover and soil erosion is a consequence of continual intensive forest exploitation, such as grazing and wildfires over the centuries. From the end of the eighteenth century up to the mid-1900s, black pine plantations were established throughout the Apennines' range in Italy, to improve forest soil quality. The main aim of this reafforestation was to re-establish the pine as a first cover, pioneer species. A series of thinning activities were therefore planned by foresters when these plantations were designed. The project Selpibiolife (LIFE13 BIO/IT/000282) has the main objective to demonstrate the potential of an innovative silvicultural treatment to enhance soil biodiversity under black pine stands. The monitoring will be carried out by comparing selective and traditional thinning methods (selecting trees from below leaving well-spaced, highest-quality trees) to areas without any silvicultural treatments (e.g. weeding, cleaning, liberation cutting). The monitoring survey was carried out in Pratomagno and Amiata Val D'Orcia areas on the Appennines (Italy) and involved different biotic levels: microorganisms, mesofauna, nematodes and macrofauna (Coleoptera). The results displayed a significant difference between the overall biodiversity of the two areas. In particular, microbial diversity assessed by both biochemical (microbial biomass, microbial respiration, metabolic quotient) and molecular (PCR-DGGE) approaches highlighted different a composition and activity of microbial communities within the two areas before thinning. Furthermore, little but significant differences were observed for mesofauna and nematode community as well which displayed a higher diversity level in Amiata areas compared to Pratomagno. In contrast, Coleoptera showed higher richness values in Pratomagno, where the wood degrader Nebria tibialis specie dominated, compared to Amiata. As expected, a general degraded biodiversity was observed in both areas before thinning.

  12. Soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhe; Li, Lu; Feng, Chuanping; Chen, Nan; Dong, Shanshan; Hu, Weiwu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an integrated two-stage soil infiltration bioreactor incorporated with pyrite-based (mixotrophic) denitrification (SIBPD) was designed for domestic wastewater treatment. Benefited from excellent adsorption ability and water-permeability, soil infiltration could avoid clogging, shorten operating time and lower maintenance cost. Respiration and nitrification were mostly engaged in aerobic stage (AES), while nitrate was majorly removed by pyrite-based mixotrophic denitrification mainly occurred in anaerobic stage (ANS). Fed with synthetic and real wastewater for 120days at 1.5h HRT, SIBPD demonstrated good removal performance showing 87.14% for COD, 92.84% for NH4(+)-N and 82.58% for TP along with 80.72% of nitrate removed by ANS. TN removal efficiency was 83.74% when conducting real wastewater. Compared with sulfur-based process, the effluent pH of SIBPD was maintained at 6.99-7.34 and the highest SO4(2-) concentration was only 64.63mgL(-1). This study revealed a promising and feasible application prospect for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:25827248

  13. Development of soil-covered SBR process for small scale sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Han, G B; Lee, J G; Lee, B H; Lee, Y W

    2006-07-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, mainly from the households in residential areas are responsible for eutrophication occurring in lakes or estuaries. In Korea, there is a growing trend for villages in the countryside, rest areas of express ways, military unit bases, etc. to use small scale sewage treatment plants (SSTPs). However, the technological developments have mainly focused on medium or large scale sewage treatment plants, leaving a gap in the development of technologies for SSTPs without a residing operator. In this study, a soil-covered sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process for SSTPs in combination with a natural purification technology is developed to remove nitrogen and phosphorus as well as organic contamination (BOD), and the results are as follows: (1) the removal rates of BOD, total nitrogen (T-N), total phosphorus (T-P) and suspended solids (SS) are 93%, 74%, 80% and 95%, respectively, (2) the soil-covered SBR process without the decanter used for effluent discharge is similar to other SBR processes in suspended solids removal rate, and (3) the performance of the field pilot plant was monitored by remote sensing system in real time, and the results show that this system can be applied to SSTPs with no residing operators. PMID:16894815

  14. Soil resources influence vegetation and response to fire and fire-surrogate treatments in sagebrush-steppe ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, Benjamin M.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Doescher, Paul; Caldwell, Todd G.

    2014-01-01

    Current paradigm suggests that spatial and temporal competition for resources limit an exotic invader, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), which once established, alters fire regimes and can result in annual grass dominance in sagebrush steppe. Prescribed fire and fire surrogate treatments (mowing, tebuthiuron, and imazapic) are used to reduce woody fuels and increase resistance to exotic annuals, but may alter resource availability and inadvertently favor invasive species. We used four study sites within the Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) to evaluate 1) how vegetation and soil resources were affected by treatment, and 2) how soil resources influenced native herbaceous perennial and exotic annual grass cover before and following treatment. Treatments increased resin exchangeable NH4+, NO3−, H2PO4−, and K+, with the largest increases caused by prescribed fire and prolonged by application of imazapic. Burning with imazapic application also increased the number of wet growing degree days. Tebuthiuron and imazapic reduced exotic annual grass cover, but imazapic also reduced herbaceous perennial cover when used with prescribed fire. Native perennial herbaceous species cover was higher where mean annual precipitation and soil water resources were relatively high. Exotic annual grass cover was higher where resin exchangeable H2PO4− was high and gaps between perennial plants were large. Prescribed fire, mowing, and tebuthiuron were successful at increasing perennial herbaceous cover, but the results were often ephemeral and inconsistent among sites. Locations with sandy soil, low mean annual precipitation, or low soil water holding capacity were more likely to experience increased exotic annual grass cover after treatment, and treatments that result in slow release of resources are needed on these sites. This is one of few studies that correlate abiotic variables to native and exotic species cover across a broad geographic setting, and that

  15. Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

    PubMed

    LaRowe, Steven D; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2007-12-01

    The present study investigated whether reactivity to nicotine-related cues would attenuate across four experimental sessions held 1 week apart. Participants were nineteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent males. Cue reactivity sessions were performed in an outpatient research center using in vivo cues consisting of standardized smoking-related paraphernalia (e.g., cigarettes) and neutral comparison paraphernalia (e.g., pencils). Craving ratings were collected before and after both cue presentations while physiological measures (heart rate, skin conductance) were collected before and during the cue presentations. Although craving levels decreased across sessions, smoking-related cues consistently evoked significantly greater increases in craving relative to neutral cues over all four experimental sessions. Skin conductance was higher in response to smoking cues, though this effect was not as robust as that observed for craving. Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions. PMID:17537583

  16. Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multiyear seed treatment applications

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Dan G.; McConnell, Laura L.; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Allen, Richard; Heinemann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. The present study is the first large‐scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee‐relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed‐treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 yr to 11 yr of planting clothianidin‐treated seeds was 7.0 ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of Poncho 250‐treated corn seeds (6.3 ng/g). The water‐extractable (i.e., plant‐bioavailable) clothianidin residues in soil were only 10% of total residues. Clothianidin concentrations in soil reached a plateau concentration (amount applied equals amount dissipated) in fields with 4 or more application years. Concentrations in corn pollen from these fields were low (mean: 1.8 ng/g) with no correlation to total years of use or soil concentrations. For canola, soil concentrations from 27 Canadian fields with 2 yr to 4 yr of seed treatment use (mean = 5.7 ng/g) were not correlated with use history, and plant bioavailability was 6% of clothianidin soil residues. Average canola nectar concentrations were 0.6 ng/g and not correlated to use history or soil concentrations. Under typical cropping practices, therefore, clothianidin residues are not accumulating significantly in soil, plant bioavailability of residues in soil is limited, and exposure to pollinators will not increase over time in fields receiving multiple applications of clothianidin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:311–321. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:26467536

  17. Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multiyear seed treatment applications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianbo; Dyer, Dan G; McConnell, Laura L; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Allen, Richard; Heinemann, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. The present study is the first large-scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee-relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed-treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 yr to 11 yr of planting clothianidin-treated seeds was 7.0 ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of Poncho 250-treated corn seeds (6.3 ng/g). The water-extractable (i.e., plant-bioavailable) clothianidin residues in soil were only 10% of total residues. Clothianidin concentrations in soil reached a plateau concentration (amount applied equals amount dissipated) in fields with 4 or more application years. Concentrations in corn pollen from these fields were low (mean: 1.8 ng/g) with no correlation to total years of use or soil concentrations. For canola, soil concentrations from 27 Canadian fields with 2 yr to 4 yr of seed treatment use (mean = 5.7 ng/g) were not correlated with use history, and plant bioavailability was 6% of clothianidin soil residues. Average canola nectar concentrations were 0.6 ng/g and not correlated to use history or soil concentrations. Under typical cropping practices, therefore, clothianidin residues are not accumulating significantly in soil, plant bioavailability of residues in soil is limited, and exposure to pollinators will not increase over time in fields receiving multiple applications of clothianidin. PMID:26467536

  18. Neurovestibular Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Charles; Cohen, Malcolm

    1999-01-01

    . Three examples were presented at this meeting: 1) Transgenic animal experiments suggest that in addition to the light illumination cycle, vestibular inputs may also serve as an important input to the circadian system. 2) Radiation can cause important CNS effects in animals, including loss of spatial memory. 3) As described in our session, otolith inputs may contribute to cardiovascular regulation of orthostatic tolerance. Over the past three days, we've all enjoyed catching up with old friends, and making many new ones. On behalf of my colleagues, I want to thank Al Coats and the USRA DSLS staff for the great job they did in running this meeting. And keeping the emphasis on fun. And also my Co- Chair, Mal Cohen, who had more stamina than many of us, despite major surgery only three weeks ago. Mal and I have written a few lines describing each of the seventeen papers in our session, to give you a quick over-view, and as a guide to the full abstracts, We have grouped them under five themes: preflight and inflight countermeasurements, postlanding posture and locomotion deficits: assessment and prediction, adaptive processes, relationships among physical simuli, perceptions, and eye movements, vestibular contribution to human autonomic responses, and implications and recommendations.

  19. Screening Nonionic Surfactants for Enhanced Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Remaining in Soil After Conventional Biological Treatment.

    PubMed

    Adrion, Alden C; Nakamura, Jun; Shea, Damian; Aitken, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    A total of five nonionic surfactants (Brij 30, Span 20, Ecosurf EH-3, polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate, and R-95 rhamnolipid) were evaluated for their ability to enhance PAH desorption and biodegradation in contaminated soil after treatment in an aerobic bioreactor. Surfactant doses corresponded to aqueous-phase concentrations below the critical micelle concentration in the soil-slurry system. The effect of surfactant amendment on soil (geno)toxicity was also evaluated for Brij 30, Span 20, and POESH using the DT40 B-lymphocyte cell line and two of its DNA-repair-deficient mutants. Compared to the results from no-surfactant controls, incubation of the bioreactor-treated soil with all surfactants increased PAH desorption, and all except R-95 substantially increased PAH biodegradation. POESH had the greatest effect, removing 50% of total measured PAHs. Brij 30, Span 20, and POESH were particularly effective at enhancing biodegradation of four- and five-ring PAHs, including five of the seven carcinogenic PAHs, with removals up to 80%. Surfactant amendment also significantly enhanced the removal of alkyl-PAHs. Most treatments significantly increased soil toxicity. Only the no-surfactant control and Brij 30 at the optimum dose significantly decreased soil genotoxicity, as evaluated with either mutant cell line. Overall, these findings have implications for the feasibility of bioremediation to achieve cleanup levels for PAHs in soil. PMID:26919662

  20. Petroleum contaminated soil in Oman: evaluation of bioremediation treatment and potential for reuse in hot asphalt mix concrete.

    PubMed

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Hassan, Hossam; Al-Oraimi, Salem

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study that aims at evaluating the leaching characteristics of petroleum contaminated soils as well as their application in hot mix asphalt concrete. Soil samples are environmentally characterized in terms of their total heavy metals and hydrocarbon compounds and leachability. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) present in the PCS before and after treatment was determined to be 6.8% and 5.3% by dry weight, indicating a reduction of 1% in the TPH of PCS due to the current treatment employed. Results of the total heavy metal analysis on soils indicate that the concentrations of heavy metals are lower when extraction of the soil samples is carried out using hexane in comparison to TCE. The results show that the clean soils present in the vicinity of contaminated sites contain heavy metals in the following decreasing order: nickel (Ni), followed by chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V). The current treatment practice employed for remediation of the contaminated soil reduces the concentrations of nickel and chromium, but increases the concentrations of all remaining heavy metals. PMID:16957858

  1. Solubility and changes of mercury binding forms in contaminated soils after immobilization treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Biester, H.; Zimmer, H.

    1998-09-15

    Mobility at different pH and binding forms of mercury (Hg) have been investigated in three Hg-contaminated soils after immobilization treatment with alkali-polysulfide (APS) and trimercapto-s-triazine trisodium salt solution (TMT). Changes of solid-phase Hg binding forms after immobilization were determined by Hg pyrolysis. Hg concentrations in the water extracts of all samples increased after treatments due to the formation of soluble mercury sulfides (APS treatment), and the mobilization of humic acid bound Hg at the high pH of the reagents. In contrast, Hg concentrations decreased sharply at low pH due to decomposition of soluble mercury sulfides and precipitation of humic acid-bound Hg. Inorganic Hg compounds such as Hg{sup 0} or HgCl{sub 2} are effectively transformed to mercury sulfides by APS treatment, whereas TMT could transform HgCl{sub 2} but not Hg{sup 0}. Both reagents were found to affect humic acid bound Hg by way of increasing Hg desorption temperatures, although APS was found not to desorb Hg completely from humic acids and TMT-Hg complexes are actually incorporated into humic acids.

  2. Designing slanted soil system for greywater treatment for irrigation purposes in rural area of arid regions.

    PubMed

    Maiga, Y; Moyenga, D; Nikiema, B C; Ushijima, K; Maiga, A H; Funamizu, N

    2014-01-01

    To solve the unpleasant disposal of greywater in rural area and allow its collection for reuse in gardening, a slanted soil treatment system (SSTS) was designed and installed in two households. Granitic gravel of 1-9 mm size was used as the filter medium. The aim of this study was to design a SSTS and assess its suitability as a treatment system allowing greywater reuse in gardening. The efficiency of the SSTS was assessed based on organic matter and bacterial pollution removal. The developed SSTS allowed the collection of greywater from three main sources (shower, dishwashing and laundry) in rural area. The SSTS is efficient in removing at least 50% of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand. The study highlighted that, contrary to the common perception, greywater streams in rural area are heavily polluted with faecal indicators. The removal efficiency of faecal indicators was lower than 2 log units, and the bacteriological quality of the effluents is generally higher than the WHO reuse guidelines for restricted irrigation. Longer retention time is required to increase the efficiency. The possibility of reusing the treated greywater as irrigation water is discussed on the basis of various qualitative parameters. The SSTS is a promising greywater treatment system for small communities in the rural area in the Sahelian region. To increase the treatment efficiency, future research will focus on the characteristics of the SSTS, the grain size and the establishment of a pretreatment step. PMID:25189850

  3. Treatment of a Chromate-Contaminated Soil Site by In Situ Gaseous Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Edward C.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Olsen, Khris B.; Giblin, Joel T.; Phelan, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory testing activities indicate that hexavalent chromium, a vadose zone contaminant at many waste sites owing to its mobility and toxicity, can be immobilized in place through chemical reduction to the nontoxic trivalent oxidation state using diluted hydrogen sulfide gas. Treating vadose zone contamination by in situ gaseous reduction thus may be potentially applied as part of an overall strategy for groundwater protection and remediation. A proof-of-concept field test has been undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Department of Defense in a joint demonstration conducted at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, to evaluate this remedial approach. This test involved injecting hydrogen sulfide diluted in air into contaminated vadose zone sediments via a centrally located borehole over a 76-day period. The gas mixture was then directed through the sediments using a vacuum applied to six extraction boreholes at the site periphery. Comparison of soil samples taken before and after the test indicated that 70% of the total mass of hexavalent chromium originally present at the site was reduced and immobilized. The zone of highest Cr(VI) contamination was nearly completely treated, with Cr(VI) concentrations of soil samples decreasing from an average of 8.1 mg/kg before treatment to 1.14 mg/kg after treatment and a mass reduction of 88% achieved. Treatment was generally better in zones of higher permeability sand containing less silt and clay. However, all Cr(VI) concentrations measured in post-test samples were well below the EPA Region 9 Residential Preliminary Remediation Goal of 30 mg/kg, compared to a maximum pre-test concentration as high as 85 mg/kg, thus indicating the viability of the technology as a remediation approach.

  4. Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  5. SEPARATION OF HAZARDOUS ORGANICS BY LOW PRESSURE MEMBRANES: TREATMENT OF SOIL-WASH RINSE WATER LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil washing is a promising technology for treating contaminated soils. n the present work, low-pressure, thin-film composite membranes were evaluated to treat he soil-wash leachates so that the treated water could be recycled back to the soil washing step. Experiments were done ...

  6. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime-adjusted pH treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüppi, R.; Felber, R.; Neftel, A.; Six, J.; Leifeld, J.

    2015-07-01

    Biochar, a carbon-rich, porous pyrolysis product of organic residues may positively affect plant yield and can, owing to its inherent stability, promote soil carbon sequestration when amended to agricultural soils. Another possible effect of biochar is the reduction in emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced N2O emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements under field conditions however are more scarce and show weaker or no reductions, or even increases in N2O emissions. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH following the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions in a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t ha-1 biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as the biochar treatment, and a control treatment without any addition. An automated static chamber system measured N2O emissions for each replicate plot (n = 3) every 3.6 h over the course of 8 months. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N ha-1 in 3 applications of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N ha-1. Cumulative N2O emissions were 53 % smaller in the biochar compared to the control treatment. However, the effect of the treatments overall was not statistically significant (p = 0.26) because of the large variability in the dataset. Limed soils emitted similar mean cumulative amounts of N2O as the control. This indicates that the observed N2O reduction effect of biochar was not caused by a pH effect.

  7. Monitoring technologies for the evaluation of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment system in coastal aquifer environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallioras, Andreas; Tsertou, Athanasia; Foglia, Laura; Bumberger, Jan; Vienken, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter; Schüth, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse. Treated sewage effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for recharge of aquifers. As the effluent water moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. Recharge systems for SAT can be designed as infiltration-recovery systems, where all effluent water is recovered as such from the aquifer, or after blending with native groundwater. SAT typically removes essentially all suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminthic eggs). Concentrations of synthetic organic carbon, phosphorous, and heavy metals are greatly reduced. The pilot site of LTCP will involve the employment of infiltration basins, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. T he LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved through the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensors, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensors will be developed, in order to achieve

  8. Comparing the Efficiency of an Eight-Session Versus Four-Session Memory Intervention for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Heather; McDougall, Graham J.; Douglas, Nora E.; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence that a reduced treatment achieves similar outcomes is beneficial because shorter interventions may be more cost-effective and more acceptable to participants. We examined the effects of shortening a memory intervention for elders from 8 sessions to 4 sessions. Shortening the intervention had little impact on either self-reported or performance measures of memory and daily living activities. Small to moderate effects were associated with positive change in both groups. When examining the cost-effectiveness, the 8-session intervention produced slightly greater gains in memory performance, but at a higher cost. Future studies should systematically vary key intervention components in more diverse samples. PMID:18346565

  9. Bacterial and fungal growth for monitoring the impact of wildfire combined or not with different soil stabilization treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro, Ana; Baath, Erland; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat

    2015-04-01

    Soil stabilization techniques are rapidly gaining acceptance as efficient tool for reducing post-fire erosion. However, despite its interest, information concerning their impact on soil biota is scarce. We examined, under field conditions, the bacterial and fungal medium-term responses in a hillslope area located in Laza (NW Spain) affected by a high severity wildfire with the following treatments established by triplicate (4 x 20 m plots): unburnt control soil, burnt control soil, burnt soil with rye seeding and burnt soil with straw mulch. The bacterial and fungal growth, as well as respiration, were measured 4 years after fire and application of treatments using leucine incorporation for bacterial growth and acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation for fungal growth. The results showed that soil respiration and fungal biomass were negatively affected by fire, in the top layer (0-5 cm), while bacterial and fungal growth was stimulated. These microbial changes induced by fire were associated with modifications in organic matter (50% reduction in C content) and soil pH (increase of 0.5-0.9 units). Thus, the results suggested that under acid environment (pH in water 3.5) post-fire conditions might have favoured both microbial groups, which is supported by the fact that estimated bacterial and fungal growth were positive and significant correlated with soil pH (range of 3.5-4.5). This contrast with the well-known reported investigations showing that bacteria rather than fungi proliferation occurred after prescribed fire or wildfire; it should be noticed, however, that soils with a higher pH than that in the present study were used. Our data also indicated that bacterial and fungal communities were not significantly affected by seeding and mulching treatments. The results highlighted the importance of pre-fire soil pH as key factor in determining the microbial response after fire. Acknowledgements. A. Barreiro is recipient of FPU grant from Spanish Ministry of Education

  10. Development of Site-Specific Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU)

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Suzette

    2008-08-01

    Horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) 5% damped spectra, corresponding time histories, and strain-compatible soil properties were developed for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU). The IWTU is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Mean and 84th percentile horizontal DBE spectra derived from site-specific site response analyses were evaluated for the IWTU. The horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil DBE 5% damped spectra at the 84th percentile were selected for Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analyses at IWTU. The site response analyses were performed consistent with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) Standards, recommended guidance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standards, and recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) and Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB).

  11. Design and field-scale implementation of an "on site" bioremediation treatment in PAH-polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Pelaez, A I; Lores, I; Sotres, A; Mendez-Garcia, C; Fernandez-Velarde, C; Santos, J A; Gallego, J L R; Sanchez, J

    2013-10-01

    An "on site" bioremediation program was designed and implemented in soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially naphthalene. We began by characterizing the soil's physical and chemical properties. A microbiological screening corroborated the presence of microorganisms capable of metabolizing PAHs. We then analyzed the viability of bioremediation by developing laboratory microcosms and pilot scale studies, to optimize the costs and time associated with remediation. The treatment assays were based on different types of biostimulants, such as a slow or fast-release fertilizer, combined with commercial surfactants. Once the feasibility of the biostimulation was confirmed, a real-scale bioremediation program was undertaken in 900 m(3) of contaminated soil. The three-step design reduced PAH contamination by 94.4% at the end of treatment (161 days). The decrease in pollutants was concomitant with the selection of autochthonous bacteria capable of degrading PAHs, with Bacillus and Pseudomonas the most abundant genera. PMID:23867700

  12. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime adjusted pH treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Felber, Raphael; Neftel, Albrecht; Six, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous product from pyrolysis of organic residues. Especially tropical soils have shown positive response in yield to biochar addition. Its high stability in soil makes biochar a potent carbon sequestration option at the same time. A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements from the field show the same trend but are much more scarce. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH from the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions from a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t/ha biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as with biochar and a control without addition. An automated static chamber greenhouse gas measurement system measured N2O emissions for each replicated (n=3) every 3.6 hours. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N/ha in 3 doses of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N/ha. Cumulative emissions show a significant reduction for N2O in the biochar treatment by about 55 % relative to the control. The limed treatment shows similar emissions than control but with higher variability. This suggests that the N2O reduction effect of biochar is not mainly due to its liming effect. In conclusion, we confirm that biochar is a promising material to reduce N2O emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils.

  13. SEPARATION OF ALGAL CELLS FROM WASTEWATER LAGOON EFFLUENTS. VOLUME III: SOIL MANTLE TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER STABILIZATION POND EFFLUENT - SPRINKLER IRRIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lysimeter studies and a two-year field study were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of sprinkler irrigation wastewater treatment as a means of polishing wastewater stabilization lagoon effluent. In the lysimeter study four typical Utah soils were evaluated for their effectiven...

  14. Resistant Pepper Genotypes and Soil Treatments for Managing Root Disease and Root-knot Nematode in Pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistant pepper cultivars and soil treatments in various combinations were evaluated for managing Pythium and root-knot nematodes in field trials in Charleston, SC and Citra, FL. Five pepper genotypes differing in resistance to Phytophthora capsici and Meloidogyne incognita were studied in combina...

  15. Large-scale downy brome treatments alter plant-soil relationships and promote perennial grasses in salt desert shrublands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interrelationship between invasive annual grass abundance and soil resource availability varies spatially and temporally within ecosystems and may be altered by land treatments. We evaluated these relationships in two salt desert landscapes where the local abundance of Bromus tectorum L. (downy...

  16. Biological treatment of TNT-contaminated soil. 2: Biologically induced immobilization of the contaminants and full-scale application

    SciTech Connect

    Lenke, H.; Daun, G.; Sieglen, U.; Knackmuss, H.J.; Warrelmann, J.; Walter, U.; Hund, K.

    1998-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment of originally contaminated soil from a former ammunition plant was carried out in a laboratory slurry reactor. While fermenting glucose to ethanol, acetate, and propionate, the anaerobic bacteria completely reduced the nitro groups of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and aminodinitrotoluenes, which led to a complete and irreversible binding of the reduced products to the soil. 2,4-dinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine were also reduced in the soil slurry and were no longer detectable after the anaerobic treatment. To mineralize the fermentation products, a subsequent aerobic treatment was necessary to complete the bioremediation process. This bioremediation process was tested in a technical scale at Hessisch Lichtenau-Hirschhagen, Germany. A sludge reactor (Terranox system) was filled with 18 m{sup 3} of contaminated soil (main contaminants were TNT, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and 10 m{sup 3} of water. The anaerobic stage was carried out by periodical feeding of sucrose. The sludge was subsequently dewatered and treated aerobically. Chemical analysis revealed an overall reduction of more than 99% of the contaminants. Ecotoxicological tests performed with various aquatic systems (luminescent bacteria, daphnids, algae) and terrestrial systems (respiring bacteria, nitrifying bacteria, cress plants, earth worms) showed that residual toxicity could not be detected after the anaerobic/aerobic treatment.

  17. Host resistance and soil treatments for managing Pythium root rot and southern root-knot nematode in pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five pepper (Capsicum annuum) genotypes differing in reactions to Phytophthora capsici and southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) were studied in combination with four soil treatments for managing Pythium root rot and southern root-knot nematode in field trials in Charleston, SC and Cit...

  18. Chlorpyrifos degradation in soils with different treatment regimes within Nzoia River Drainage Basin, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutua, Gershom Kyalo; Ngigi, Anastasiah Njoki; Getenga, Zachary Moranga

    2015-03-01

    Two organic amendments, filter mud compost and Tithonia diversifolia leaves generated within a sugarcane growing area were used to enhance the degradation of chlorpyrifos in soil. Filter mud compost and T. diversifolia leaves significantly enhanced degradation of chlorpyrifos in soils (p < 0.05) with DT50 values of 21 and 24 days, respectively. Furthermore, field degradation of chlorpyrifos in soil with prior exposure to chlorpyrifos was significantly enhanced (p = 0.034) with DT50 of 21 days compared to 30 days in soil with no previous exposure. Degradation of chlorpyrifos in sterile and non-sterile soils were significantly different (p = 0.023) with DT50 values of 161 and 27 days, respectively. Results show enhanced degradation of chlorpyrifos in organically amended soils and soils with prior exposure to the pesticide. These amendments show promise in a continuing effort to reduce chlorpyrifos concentrations in soils. PMID:25617186

  19. Soil-transmitted nematode infections and mebendazole treatment in Mafia Island schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Albonico, M; Ramsan, M; Wright, V; Jape, K; Haji, H J; Taylor, M; Savioli, L; Bickle, Q

    2002-10-01

    In August 2000, a cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted nematode infections in schoolchildren on Mafia Island. Hookworm infection was widespread (72.5% prevalence) whereas Trichuris trichiura was less prevalent (39.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides was present at a low prevalence (4.2%), mainly in urban areas. In a subsample of the study population, both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were found, although N. americanus was more prevalent. This survey was followed by a parasitological evaluation of mebendazole treatment using a single, 500-mg dose. The data on outcome were used for comparison with those from recent studies of similar treatment regimens in the neighbouring island of Pemba, Zanzibar, where periodic chemotherapy with mebendazole to schoolchildren has been implemented as part of a helminth-control programme since 1994. A higher efficacy of mebendazole against hookworm infection was found in Mafia Island (where a cure 'rate' of 31.3% and an egg-reduction 'rate' of 78.1% were recorded) when compared with that observed in Pemba Island, possibly indicating that hookworms may be developing mebendazole resistance on Pemba Island as a result of intense exposure to the drug there. PMID:12537633

  20. Modeling the transport behavior of 16 emerging organic contaminants during soil aquifer treatment.

    PubMed

    Nham, Hang Thuy Thi; Greskowiak, Janek; Nödler, Karsten; Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Spachos, Thomas; Rusteberg, Bernd; Massmann, Gudrun; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    In this study, four one-dimensional flow and transport models based on the data of a field scale experiment in Greece were constructed to investigate the transport behavior of sixteen organic trace pollutants during soil aquifer treatment. At the site, tap water and treated wastewater were intermittently infiltrated into a porous aquifer via a small pilot pond. Electrical conductivity data was used to calibrate the non-reactive transport models. Transport and attenuation of the organic trace pollutants were simulated assuming 1st order degradation and linear adsorption. Sorption was found to be largely insignificant at this site for the compounds under investigation. In contrast, flow path averaged first order degradation rate constants were mostly higher compared to the literature and lay between 0.036 d(-1) for clofibric acid and 0.9 d(-1) for ibuprofen, presumably owing to the high temperatures and a well adapted microbial community originating from the wastewater treatment process. The study highlights the necessity to obtain intrinsic attenuation parameters at each site, as findings cannot easily be transferred from one site to another. PMID:25687671

  1. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Technology evaluation and screening

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.; Morris, M.I.; Donaldson, T.L.; Palumbo, A.V.; Herbes, S.E.; Jenkins, R.A.; Morrissey, C.M.; Harris, M.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Ports) is located approximately 70 miles south of Columbus in southern Ohio. Among the several waste management units on the facility, the X-231B unit consists of two adjacent oil biodegradation plots. The plots encompass {approximately} 0.8 acres and were reportedly used from 1976 to 1983 for the treatment and disposal of waste oils and degreasing solvents, some containing uranium-235 and technetium-99. The X-231B unit is a regulated solid waste management unit (SWMU) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The X-231B unit is also a designated SWMU located within Quadrant I of the site as defined in an ongoing RCRA Facilities Investigation and Corrective Measures Study (RFI/CMS). Before implementing one or more Technology Demonstration Project must be completed. The principal goal of this project was to elect and successfully demonstrate one ore more technologies for effective treatment of the contaminated soils associated with the X-231B unit at PORTS. The project was divided into two major phases. Phase 1 involved a technology evaluation and screening process. The second phase (i.e., Phase 2) was to involve field demonstration, testing and evaluation of the technology(s) selected during Phase 1. This report presents the methods, results, and conclusions of the technology evaluation and screening portion of the project.

  2. APPLICATION OF STEAM INJECTION/VACUUM EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEMS TO CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steam Injection/Vacuum Extraction (SIVE) is a method to enable vacuum extraction to treat soils contaminated with semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCS) and to speed the cleanup of soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). he steam injection raises the soil tempe...

  3. SOLVENT WASHING OF PCP CONTAMINATED SOILS WITH ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF WASH FLUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solvent washing procedure for the removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from contaminated soils is presented. his procedure can be used in both in-situ and above ground soil washing applications. he in-situ solvent washing (flushing) of soil was simulated by continuously flushing ...

  4. Soil microbial community structure and target organisms under different fumigation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several high-value crop producers in California rely heavily on soil fumigants to control key diseases, nematodes, weeds and volunteer crops. Fumigants with broad biocidal activity can affect both target and non-target soil organisms. The ability of non-target soil organisms to recover after fumigat...

  5. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: EXTRACTIVE METHODS FOR SOIL DECONTAMINATION, A GENERAL SURVEY AND REVIEW OPERATIONAL TREATMENT INSTALLATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The treatability study report provides a general overview of soil decontamination by extraction and reports on the field application of three specific different soil washing/solvent extraction systems. Each system is similar in design and removed contaminants from soil includ...

  6. Artificial soils from alluvial tin mining wastes in Malaysia--a study of soil chemistry following experimental treatments and the impact of mycorrhizal treatment on growth and foliar chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, David S; Bakar, Baki B; Hill, Steve J

    2012-01-01

    For decades Malaysia was the world's largest producer of Sn, but now the vast open cast mining operations have left a legacy of some 100,000 ha of what is effectively wasteland, covered with a mosaic of tailings and lagoons. Few plants naturally recolonise these areas. The demand for such land for both urban expansion and agricultural use has presented an urgent need for better characterisation. This study reports on the formation of artificial soils from alluvial Sn mining waste with a focus on the effects of experimental treatments on soil chemistry. Soil organic matter, clay, and pH were manipulated in a controlled environment. Adding both clay tailings and peat enhanced the cation exchange capacity of sand tailings but also reduced the pH. The addition of peat reduced the extractable levels of some elements but increased the availability of Ca and Mg, thus proving beneficial. The use of clay tailings increased the levels of macro and micronutrients but also released Al, As, La, Pb and U. Additionally, the effects of soil mix and mycorrhizal treatments on growth and foliar chemistry were studied. Two plant species were selected: Panicum milicaeum and Pueraria phaseoloides. Different growth patterns were observed with respect to the additions of peat and clay. The results for mycorrhizal treatment (live inoculum or sterile carrier medium) are more complex, but both resulted in improved growth. The use of mycorrhizal fungi could greatly enhance rehabilitation efforts on sand tailings. PMID:22130476

  7. Thermodynamic driving forces for PAH isomerization and growth during thermal treatment of polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Pope, C J; Peters, W A; Howard, J B

    2000-12-01

    For a limiting case of thermodynamic equilibrium, the importance of two classes of thermal chemical reactions that modify the structure and bioactivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was assessed computationally. These reactions are molecular weight (MW) growth by acetylene addition, and intramolecular rearrangement (isomerization). Temperatures (300-1100 degrees C), and the chemical environment (C(2)H(2)/H(2) molar ratios) were selected for relevancy to thermal treatment of PAH-contaminated soils under oxygen-free conditions. Molecular mechanics methods [MM3(92)] were used to compute thermochemical properties for calculation of equilibrium constants, i.e., heats of formation, standard entropies, and heat capacities for 30 PAH with empirical formulae C(14)H(10), C(16)H(10), C(18)H(10), C(18)H(12), C(20)H(10), and C(20)H(12). Included were 11 PAH containing only six-membered rings and 19 PAH containing both five- and six-membered rings. For each of these PAH the calculations predict that with increasing temperature, isomerization increases the "complexity" of the PAH mixture, i.e., the relative abundance of each PAH isomer in the mixture other than the most stable isomer, increases. Isomerization also partially transforms non-mutagens to mutagens, e.g., pyrene and benzo[e]pyrene to fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, and partially converts cyclopenta[c, d]pyrene (CPEP) and chrysene, both human cell mutagens, to one and three additional human cell mutagens, respectively. Acetylene addition transforms the non-mutagens phenanthrene and pyrene to the mutagens triphenylene and CPEP, respectively. Some of the predicted PAH have been observed elsewhere among the products of aromatics pyrolysis. This study elucidates PAH reactivity for comparison with measurements, and identifies PAH reactions to be monitored and avoided in soil thermal decontamination and other waste remediation processes. PMID:11040395

  8. Quantification of the effects of various soil fumigation treatments on nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in laboratory incubation and field studies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Mao, Liangang; Li, Wei; Xie, Hongwei; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2013-01-01

    Better quantification of nitrogen mineralization and nitrification after fumigation would indicate if any adjustment is needed in fertilizer application. The effects of chloropicrin (Pic), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and metham sodium (MS) fumigation on soil nitrogen dynamics were evaluated in lab incubation and field studies. Although some differences were observed in NH(4)(+)-N and NO(3)(-)-N concentrations in lab incubation and field experiments, both studies led to the same conclusions: (1) Soil fumigation was shown to increase soil mineral nitrogen only during the first 2 weeks after fumigation (WAF). In particular, Pic significantly increased soil mineral nitrogen in both studies at 1 WAF. However, for all fumigant treatments the observed effect was temporary; the soil mineral content of treated samples recovered to the general level observed in the untreated control. (2) All the fumigation treatments depressed nitrification temporarily, although the treatments exhibited significant differences in the duration of nitrification inhibition. In both studies, for a limited period of time, Pic showed a stronger inhibitory effect on nitrification compared to other fumigant treatments. An S-shaped function was fitted to the concentrations of NO(3)(-)-N in lab incubation samples. The times of maximum nitrification (t(max)) in DMDS and MS treatments were 0.97 week and 1.03 week, which is similar to the untreated control (t(max)=1.02 week). While Pic has the longest effect on nitrifying bacteria, nitrification appears to restart at a later time (t(max)=14.37 week). PMID:23062947

  9. SRS Data Report for Lynntech Soil Ozone Treatment Demonstration Adjacent to the 321-M Solvent Storage Tank Pad

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K.M.

    2000-08-29

    At large industrial sites like the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), undissolved dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in soil and groundwater is the most significant barrier to successful clean up. DNAPL acts as a reservoir that will continue to generate contaminant levels far above remediation concentration goals well into the future. In an effort to achieve remediation goals and reduce future costs, the SRS DNAPL program is evaluating technologies that will recycle or destroy DNAPL. In situ oxidation is one class of DNAPL destruction technologies. A demonstration of this class of technologies was conducted at SRS in the winter of 1999 and spring of 2000 employing ozone as the oxidant. Lynntech Inc. through a Small Business Innovative Research grant partnered with the Savannah River Site to demonstrate their soil ozone treatment technology. The Savannah River Site provided the demonstration location and field support of the test. This demonstration involved treating a small vadose zone DNAPL plume in the A/M Area over a 29 day period. Approximately 2000 pounds of DNAPL (perchloroethylene [PCE] and trichloroethylene [TCE]) were removed through the soil vapor extraction unit (SVEU). Soil core data indicate that approximately 300 pounds of DNAPL were removed from the test site. This report documents the data collected by SRS personnel during the demonstration of Lynntech's Soil Ozone Treatment Technology.

  10. Biological treatment of TNT-contaminated soil. 1: Anaerobic cometabolic reduction and interaction of TNT and metabolites with soil components

    SciTech Connect

    Daun, G.; Lenke, H.; Knackmuss, H.J.; Reuss, M.

    1998-07-01

    The explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), found as a major contaminant at armament plants from the two world wars, is reduced by a variety of microorganisms when electron donors such as glucose are added. This study shows that the cometabolic reduction of TNT to 2,4,6-triaminotoluene by an undefined anaerobic consortium increased considerably with increasing TNT concentrations and decreased with decreasing concentrations and feeding rates of glucose. The interactions of TNT and its reduction products with montmorillonitic clay and humic acids were investigated in abiotic adsorption experiments and during the microbial reduction of TNT. The results indicate that reduction products of TNT particularly hydroxylaminodinitrotoluenes and 2,4,6-triaminotoluene bind irreversibly to soil components, which would prevent or prolong mineralization of the contaminants. Irreversible binding also hinders a further spread of the contaminants through soil or leaching into the groundwater.

  11. Growing season soil moisture following restoration treatments of varying intensity in semi-arid ponderosa pine forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, F. C.; Springer, A. E.; Sankey, T.; Masek Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    Forest restoration projects are being planned for large areas of overgrown semi-arid ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern US. Restoration involves the thinning of smaller trees and prescribed or managed fire to reduce tree density, restore a more natural fire regime, and decrease the risk of catastrophic wildfire. The stated goals of these projects generally reduced plant water stress and improvements in hydrologic function. However, little is known about how to design restoration treatments to best meet these goals. As part of a larger project on snow cover, soil moisture, and groundwater recharge, we measured soil moisture, an indicator of plant water status, in four pairs of control and restored sites near Flagstaff, Arizona. The restoration strategies used at the sites range in both amount of open space created and degree of clustering of the remaining trees. We measured soil moisture using 30 cm vertical time domain reflectometry probes installed on 100 m transects at 5 m intervals so it would be possible to analyze the spatial pattern of soil moisture. Soil moisture was higher and more spatially variable in the restored sites than the control sites with differences in spatial pattern among the restoration types. Soil moisture monitoring will continue until the first snow fall, at which point measurements of snow depth and snow water equivalent will be made at the same locations.

  12. Summary report of session VI

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou et al.

    2002-08-19

    This report gives a brief review of the presentations in Session VI of the Ecloud'02 Workshop and summarizes the major points during the discussions. Some points (e.g., the critical mass phenomenon) are not conclusive and even controversial. But it has been agreed that further investigations are warranted. The topic of Session VI in the Ecloud'02 workshop is ''Discussions of future studies, collaborations and possible solutions.'' Half of the session is devoted to presentations, another half to discussions. This report will focus on the latter. There are six presentations: (1) R. Macek, Possible cures to the e-cloud problem; (2) G. Rumolo, Driving the electron-cloud instability by an electron cooler; (3) U. Iriso Ariz, RF test benches for electron-cloud studies; (4) F. Caspers, Stealth clearing electrodes; (5) F. Ruggiero, Future electron-cloud studies at CERN; and (6) E. Perevedentsev, Beam-beam and transverse impedance model.

  13. Correlation of six anthropogenic markers in wastewater, surface water, bank filtrate, and soil aquifer treatment.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Marco; Storck, Florian Rüdiger; Graf, Carola; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen; Ruck, Wolfgang; Lev, Ovadia; Lange, Frank Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Six trace contaminants (acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), carbamazepine (CBZ), diatrizoic acid (DTA), 1H-benzotriazole (BTZ) and its 4-methyl analogue (4-TTri)) were traced from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to receiving waters and further to riverbank filtration (RBF) wells to evaluate their prediction power as potential wastewater markers. Furthermore, the persistence of some compounds was investigated in advanced wastewater treatment by soil aquifer treatment (SAT). During wastewater treatment in four conventional activated sludge WWTPs ACE, SUC, and CBZ showed a pronounced stability expressed by stable concentration ratios in influent (in) and effluent (out) (ACE/CBZ: in45, out40; SUC/CBZ: in1.8, out1.7; and ACE/SUC: in24, out24). In a fifth WWTP, additional treatment with powdered activated carbon led to a strong elimination of CBZ, BTZ, and 4-TTri of about 80% and consequently to a distinctive shift of their ratios with unaffected compounds. Data from a seven month monitoring program at seven sampling locations at the rivers Rhine and Main in Germany revealed the best concentration correlation for ACE and CBZ (r(2) = 0.94) and also a good correlation of ACE and CBZ concentrations to BTZ and 4-TTri levels (r(2) = 0.66 to 0.82). The comparison of ratios at different sampling sites allowed for the identification of a CBZ point source. Furthermore, in Switzerland a higher consumption of SUC compared to Germany can be assumed, as a steadily increasing ACE/SUC ratio along the river Rhine was observed. In RBF wells a good correlation (r(2) = 0.85) was again observed for ACE and CBZ. Both also showed the highest stability at a prolonged residence time in the subsurface of a SAT field. In the most peripheral wells ACE and CBZ were still detected with mean values higher than 36 µg L(-1) and 1.3 µg L(-1), respectively. Although SUC concentrations in wastewater used for SAT decreased by more than 80% from about 18 µg L(-1) to 2.1 µg L(-1) and 3.5 µg L(-1) in

  14. Laboratory evaluation of the hydrogen sulfide gas treatment approach for remediation of chromate-, uranium(VI)-, and nitrate-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, E.C.; Baechler, M.A.; Beck, M.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    Bench-scale soil treatment tests were conducted as part of an effort to develop and implement an in situ chemical treatment approach to the remediation of metal and radionuclide contaminated soils through the use of reactive gases. In general, > 90% immobilization of chromium and > 50% immobilization of uranium was achieved. Leach test results indicate that the treatment process is irreversible for chromium but partially reversible for uranium indicates that immobilization for this contaminant is more readily achieved in organic rich soils. This observation is ascribed to the reducing nature of organic matter. Additional tests were also conducted with soils contaminated to the 5,000 ppm level with nitrate. Nitrate was not found to interfere significantly with treatment of the contaminants. Nitrite was observed in the leachate samples obtained from tests with an organic-rich soil containing clay, however. Leachate chemistries suggested that no other significantly hazardous byproducts were generated by the treatment process and that soil alteration effects were minimal. Test results also suggest that treatment effectiveness is somewhat lower in very dry soils but still able to immobilize chromium and uranium to an acceptable degree. Results of these testing activities indicate that the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the gas mixture is not a limited factor in treatment as long as a sufficient volume of the mixture is delivered to the soil to achieve a mole ratio of hydrogen sulfide to contaminant of at least 10.

  15. Poster Sessions. [Concurrent Poster Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains presentations from four poster sessions at a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Human Resource and Organization Development Program Brochures: What Prospective Students Want" (Rose Opengart, Mary Wilson Callahan) reports on a study of promotional materials of graduate programs in the field of human resource and…

  16. Practical Session: Introduction to R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausel, M.; Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    An introduction to R is proposed. This pratical session is an excerpt from practical exercises proposed by A. Dalalyan at EPNC (see href="http://certis.enpc.fr/~dalalyan/Download/TP_ENPC_1.pdf). Datas are also extracted from a practical session proposed by hydrologic data from Amazonia proposed by D. Chessel A.B. Dufour in Lyon 1 (website indicated in the text below) and from other practical exercises proposed by A. Dalalyan at ENPC (same address as above but ended by /TP_ENPC_4.pdf).

  17. Interactive TV on parliament session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, J.; Nguyen, H.; Martinot, O.; Preda, M.; Preteux, F.; Zaharia, T.

    2007-09-01

    This paper introduces a new interactive mobile TV application related to parliament session. This application aims to provide additional information to mobile TV users by inserting automatically and in real-time interactive contents (complementary information, subject of the current session...) into original TV program, using MPEG-4 streaming video and extra real time information (news, events, databases... from RSS streams, Internet links...). Here, we propose an architecture based on plug-in multimedia analyzers to generate the contextual description of the media and on an interactive scene generator to dynamically create related interactive scenes. Description is implemented according to the MPEG-7 standard.

  18. Soil-borne reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are established following therapeutic treatment of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxin; Zhao, Zhe; Orfe, Lisa; Subbiah, Murugan; Call, Douglas R

    2016-02-01

    We determined if antibiotics residues that are excreted from treated animals can contribute to persistence of resistant bacteria in agricultural environments. Administration of ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin, resulted in a ∼ 3 log increase in ceftiofur-resistant Escherichia coli found in the faeces and pen soils by day 10 (P = 0.005). This resistant population quickly subsided in faeces, but was sustained in the pen soil (∼ 4.5 log bacteria g(-1)) throughout the trial (1 month). Florfenicol treatment resulted in a similar pattern although the loss of florfenicol-resistant E. coli was slower for faeces and remained stable at ∼ 6 log bacteria g(-1) in the soil. Calves were treated in pens where eGFP-labelled E. coli were present in the bedding (∼ 2 log g(-1)) resulting in amplification of the eGFP E. coli population ∼ 2.1 log more than eGFP E. coli populations in pens with untreated calves (day 4; P < 0.005). Excreted residues accounted for > 10-fold greater contribution to the bedding reservoir compared with shedding of resistant bacteria in faeces. Treatment with therapeutic doses of ceftiofur or florfenicol resulted in 2-3 log g(-1) more bacteria than the estimated ID50 (2.83 CFU g(-1)), consistent with a soil-borne reservoir emerging after antibiotic treatment that can contribute to the long-term persistence of antibiotic resistance in animal agriculture. PMID:26486254

  19. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Laboratory evaluation of chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    Treatability studies were conducted as part of a comprehensive research project initiated to demonstrate as well as evaluate in situ treatment technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radioactive substances in wet, slowly permeable soils. The site of interest for this project was the X-231B Oil Biodegradation unit at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility in southern Ohio. This report describes the treatability studies that investigated the feasibility of the application of low-strength hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) solutions to treat trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated soil.

  20. Soil, vegetation, and seed bank of a Sonoran Desert ecosystem along an exotic plant (Pennisetum ciliare) treatment gradient.

    PubMed

    Abella, Scott R; Chiquoine, Lindsay P; Backer, Dana M

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1% median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70%) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93% relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93%) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species. PMID:23771285

  1. Treatment of facial skin using combinations of CO2, Q-switched alexandrite, and/or flashlamp-pumped dye and/or erbium lasers in the same treatment session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard E.; Manuskiatti, Woraphong; Goldman, Mitchel P.

    1998-07-01

    Skin aging caused from chronological and photodamage processes results in many alterations in skin appearance. In many circumstances, patients who pursue CO2 laser resurfacing for facial rejuvenation are also concerned with other photoaging alternations that are beyond the efficacy of the CO2 laser. We demonstrated an approach to aged facial skin by using combined treatments of appropriate lasers.

  2. Treatment of swine wastewater using a saturated-soil-culture soybean and flooded rice system

    SciTech Connect

    Szoegi, A.A.; Hunt, P.G.; Humenik, F.J.

    2000-04-01

    Constructed wetlands have potential for treatment of livestock wastewater, but they generally contain wetland plants rather than agronomic crops. The authors evaluated two agronomic crops, saturated-soil-culture (SSC) soybean and flooded rice, in a constructed wetland system used for swine wastewater treatment. Both crop production and treatment efficiency were evaluated from 1993 to 1996 in two 4-m x 33.5-m constructed wetland cells that were connected in series. The first cell contained SSC soybean--four cultivars planted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Flooded rice Maybelle was planted in the second cell. From the first to fourth year, wastewater application rates were gradually increased to obtain rates of 2.0 to 8.8 and 0.5 to 2.2 kg/ha d for total N and P, respectively. The best soybean grain and dry matter yields were 4.0 and 9.1 Mg/ha, respectively. These were obtained with soybean Young at the lowest wastewater application rate. Increasing total N loading rates and the associated higher NH{sub 4}-N concentrations depressed soybean seed yield and dry matter production. On the other hand, both rice grain and dry matter production were stable over the application range; mean values were 4.0 and 10.9 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Nutrient mass reductions were good; removal values increased linearly with loading rates (y = 0.69N load + 0.45, R{sup 2} = 0.99 and y = 0.45P load + 0.20, R{sup 2} = 0.95). At the highest loading rate, the system removed 751 and 156 kg/ha yr N and P, respectively. It appears that the SSC soybean and flooded rice system could be useful for liquid manure management in confined livestock production. The system produced comparable treatment to systems with natural wetland plants; moreover, the soybean and rice are marketable crops. However, the flooded rice seems to be the more robust component for high wastewater application rates.

  3. Poster Session A

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    , Joshua Baughman, Lilian Phu, Taner Dogan, William F. Forrest, Klaus P. Hoeflich, Donald S. Kirkpatrick Genentech, So. San Francisco, CA, USA Small molecule inhibitors of MEK (GDC-0973) and PI3K (GDC-0941) have been developed for the treatment of cancer and effective at triggering tumor cell death in preclinical models. We previously demonstrated that the combination of these inhibitors in A2058 melanoma cells induced a DNA damage like response involving amplification of protein phosphorylation coincident with apoptosis (Kirkpatrick et al. PNAS 2013). These results were obtained using motif-specific immunoaffinity enrichment and label free quantitative mass spectrometry of phosphopeptides at various time points following treatment with GDC-0973 and GDC-0941. In parallel with these studies, ubiquitin substrate profiling was performed by K-GG immunoaffinity enrichment. K-GG peptides were captured using an antibody targeting the diglycine remnant (-GG) from ubiquitin, which remains covalently attached to substrate lysine (K) residues after tryptic digestion. Linear mixed effect modeling (LiME) was employed to assemble K-GG peptide data at the protein level and select top candidates for follow up analysis. Noted in these timecourse results were early responding substrates within the inhibitor targeted pathway, the DNA damage response and the cell death regulatory network, such as MEK1, PRKDC and PGAM5. Ubiquitination of MEK1 was maximally induced within the first hour following treatment, while extensive ubiquitination of PRKDC and PGAM5 occurred at later time points consistent with their posited roles in the downstream response. Concurrent with these, a marked increase in ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates such as cytochrome C, MIRO2, IMMT, and CHCH3 upon commitment to the apoptotic state. Cells treated over 8h with a 4xEC50 combination of GDC-0973 and GDC-0941 demonstrated significantly increased ubiquitination for over 25 mitochondrial substrates including

  4. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea versus bacteria in two soil aquifer treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Ding, Kun; Wen, Xianghua; Li, Yuyang; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Bing

    2015-02-01

    So far, the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) to ammonia oxidation in wastewater treatment processes has not been well understood. In this study, two soil aquifer treatment (SATs) systems were built up to treat synthetic domestic wastewater (column 1) and secondary effluent (column 4), accomplishing an average of 95% ammonia removal during over 550 days of operation. Except at day 322, archaeal amoA genes always outnumbered bacterial amoA genes in both SATs as determined by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). The ratios of archaeal amoA to 16S rRNA gene averaged at 0.70 ± 0.56 and 0.82 ± 0.62 in column 1 and column 4, respectively, indicating that all the archaea could be AOA carrying amoA gene in the SATs. The results of MiSeq-pyrosequencing targeting on archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes with the primer pair of modified 515R/806R indicated that Nitrososphaera cluster affiliated with thaumarchaeal group I.1b was the dominant AOA species, while Nitrosospira cluster was the dominant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The statistical analysis showed significant relationship between AOA abundance (compared to AOB abundance) and inorganic and total nitrogen concentrations. Based on the mathematical model calculation for microbial growth, AOA had much greater capacity of ammonia oxidation as compared to the specific influent ammonia loading for AOA in the SATs, implying that a small fraction of the total AOA would actively work to oxidize ammonia chemoautotrophically whereas most of AOA would exhibit some level of functional redundancy. These results all pointed that AOA involved in microbial ammonia oxidation in the SATs. PMID:25381908

  5. Controlled field studies on soil aquifer treatment in a constructed coastal sandfill.

    PubMed

    Chua, Lloyd H C; Leong, Melvin C M; Lo, Edmond Y M; Reinhard, Martin; Robertson, Alexander P; Lim, T T; Shuy, E B; Tan, S K

    2009-01-01

    A controlled artificial recharge experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil aquifer treatment during percolation of secondary and tertiary (ultrafiltered) treated wastewater through the shallow vadoze zone of a newly constructed coastal sandfill. The sandfill is a reclaimed land constructed from marine sand dredged from the seabed. To obtain 1-D flow, a stainless steel column was driven to a depth of 2.5 m, penetrating the phreatic surface. Wastewater was percolated through the column under fully-saturated and unsaturated conditions. Infiltration rates, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultra-violet absorption (UVA) were monitored. The wastewaters were recharged at similar infiltration rates of approximately 5.5 m/day and 3.5 m/day under fully-saturated and unsaturated conditions, respectively. In both cases, clogging occurred 40 days after the start of recharge, under saturated conditions. For secondary treated wastewater, DOC concentration (mg/l) reduced by 28% and 13% under unsaturated and saturated conditions, respectively. The corresponding UVA reduction was 19.4% and 14.1%. Similar reductions in DOC were observed for the tertiary treated wastewater; however, the reduction in UVA was higher; 28% and 22% under unsaturated and saturated conditions, respectively. On an mass removal (mg/m(2) DOC) basis, DOC reduction appeared to be more significant under unsaturated conditions. This is attributed to the presence of interstitial oxygen. PMID:19717916

  6. Kinetics of model high molecular weight organic compounds biodegradation in soil aquifer treatment.

    PubMed

    Fox, Peter; Makam, Roshan

    2011-10-01

    Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) is a process where treated wastewater is purified during transport through unsaturated and saturated zones. Easily biodegradable compounds are rapidly removed in the unsaturated zone and the residual organic carbon is comprised of primarily high molecular weight compounds. This research focuses on flow in the saturated zone where flow conditions are predictable and high molecular weight compounds are degraded. Flow through the saturated zone was investigated with 4 reactors packed with 2 different particle sizes and operated at 4 different flow rates. The objective was to evaluate the kinetics of transformation for high molecular weight organics during SAT. Dextran was used as a model compound to eliminate the complexity associated with studying a mixture of high molecular weight organics. The hydrolysis products of dextran are easily degradable sugars. Batch experiments with media taken from the reactors were used to determine the distribution of microbial activity in the reactors. Zero-order kinetics were observed for the removal of dextran in batch experiments which is consistent with hydrolysis of high molecular weight organics where extracellular enzymes limit the substrate utilization rate. Biomass and microbial activity measurements demonstrated that the biomass was independent of position in the reactors. A Monod based substrate/biomass growth kinetic model predicted the performance of dextran removal in the reactors. The rate limiting step appears to be hydrolysis and the overall rate was not affected by surface area even though greater biomass accumulation occurred as the surface area decreased. PMID:21723581

  7. Fate of effluent organic matter during soil aquifer treatment: biodegradability, chlorine reactivity and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Quanrud, David M; Arnold, Robert G; Lansey, Kevin E; Begay, Carmen; Ela, Wendell; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2003-03-01

    Hydrophobic acid (HPO-A) and transphilic acid (TPI-A) fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were isolated from a domestic secondary wastewater effluent that was polished via soil aquifer treatment (SAT). Fractions were isolated using XAD resin adsorption chromatography from samples obtained along the vadose zone flowpath at a full-scale basin recharge facility in Tucson, Arizona. Changes in isolate character during SAT were established via biodegradability (batch test), specific ultraviolet light absorbance (SUVA), trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), and Ames mutagenicity assays. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration decreased by >90% during SAT. A significant fraction (up to 20%) of isolated post-SAT HPO-A was biodegradable. The (apparent) refractory nature of DOM that survives SAT may be a consequence of low DOC concentration in groundwater as well as the nature of the compounds themselves. Specific THMFP (microg THM per mg DOC) of HPO-A and TPI-A varied little as a consequence of SAT, averaging 52 and 49 microg THM per mg DOC, respectively. The nonbiodegradable fractions of HPO-A and TPI-A exhibited higher reactivities: 89 and 95 microg THM per mg DOC, respectively. Genotoxicity of HPO-A (on a per mass basis) increased after SAT, suggesting that responsible compounds are removed less efficiently than bulk organics during vadose zone transport. PMID:15384271

  8. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Desert Soil: Effect of Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation and Bioavailability in Biopile Treatment Systems.

    PubMed

    Benyahia, Farid; Embaby, Ahmed Shams

    2016-02-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. The bioaugmented biopile system led to a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction of 77% over 156 days while the system with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) gave a 56% decrease in TPH. The biostimulated system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23% reduction in TPH. The control system gave 4% TPH reduction. The addition of Tween 80 led to a respiration rate that peaked in 48 days compared to 88 days for the bioaugmented system and respiration declined rapidly due to nitrogen depletion. The residual hydrocarbon in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics (PAH) in quantities that may be considered as hazardous. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation. PMID:26891314

  9. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Desert Soil: Effect of Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation and Bioavailability in Biopile Treatment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Benyahia, Farid; Embaby, Ahmed Shams

    2016-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. The bioaugmented biopile system led to a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction of 77% over 156 days while the system with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) gave a 56% decrease in TPH. The biostimulated system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23% reduction in TPH. The control system gave 4% TPH reduction. The addition of Tween 80 led to a respiration rate that peaked in 48 days compared to 88 days for the bioaugmented system and respiration declined rapidly due to nitrogen depletion. The residual hydrocarbon in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics (PAH) in quantities that may be considered as hazardous. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation. PMID:26891314

  10. Introduction to Session 1A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmel, Michael E.

    Understanding and overcoming the natural resistance of plant cell walls to enzymatic hydrolysis remains one of the most active research areas in biofuels production (as indicated by the number of abstracts and papers submitted to this session). A number of the oral presentations given during the Enzyme Catalysis and Engineering session highlighted the use of new and innovative tools for advancing our understanding of plant cell wall deconstruction. The oral presentations and posters given for this session included applications of imaging tools and computational models to advance our understanding of biomass recalcitrance relative to enzymatic deconstruction. This session was opened with a presentation by Dr. Danny Akin, who outlined the structural and chemical barriers for the bioconversion of grasses to sugars. Lignocelluloses from grasses, such as switch grass, are resistant to bioconversion by various aromatic constituuents, which include both lignins and phenolic acid esters. However, Akin and coworkers demonstrated the use of selected white rot fungal enzymes, which lack cellulases that could be used to produce delignified lignocellulosic materials, resulting in improved bioconversion.

  11. Poster Session B

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    proteins which are fundamental regulators of PPARg and the fat cell commitment decision. B.6 Application of Quantitative and Functional Phosphoproteomics In Study of Ethylene Signaling Ning Li 1 1The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China Ethylene is a major plant hormone that regulates a diverse aspect of plant growth and development. The regulatory roles of ethylene in plants include promotion of leaf and flower petal senescence, yellowing and abscission, as well as promotion of fruit abscission and ripening. This key hormone is also involved in regulation of a number of plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. A dramatic effect of ethylene on tropic response is the dual-and-opposing effect of ethylene on stem negative gravitropic response, in which short-term ethylene treatment (0.5 hour) appears to inhibit stem bending up following re-orientation of inflorescence of Arabidopsis. In contrast, a long-term treatment (12 hours) stimulates gravitropic response and promote stem curve up faster. This time-dependent and dose- independent dual-and-opposing effect of ethylene on stem gravitropism may involve multiple signaling pathways. Stable isotope metabolic labeling-based quantitative phosphoproteomics performed on ein2–5, ctr1–1 and rcn1–1 ethylene signaling mutants indeed confirmed the time-dependent protein phosphorylation changes and some of phosphorylation events are independent to ein2 loss-of- function gene in response to ethylene treatment. Functional studies on the phosphorylated transcription factor ERF110 isoform suggest that it is required for the control of flowering time via multiple ethylene signaling pathways. B.7 Intact N- and O-linked Glycopeptide Identification from HCD Data Using Byonic Katalin F. Medzihradszky1, Jason Maynard1, Krista Kaasik1, Marshall Bern2 1University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Protein Metrics, San Carlos, CA, USA The importance of high quality analysis of glycosylated proteins is steadily

  12. Dissolved organic matter removal during coal slag additive soil aquifer treatment for secondary effluent recharging: Contribution of aerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangliang; Li, Siliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Qin, Kena; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Kong, Xiangjuan; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-06-01

    Recycling wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent at low cost via the soil aquifer treatment (SAT), which has been considered as a renewable approach in regenerating potable and non-potable water, is welcome in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In this study, the effect of a coal slag additive on the bulk removal of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in WWTP effluent during SAT operation was explored via the matrix configurations of both coal slag layer and natural soil layer. Azide inhibition and XAD-resins fractionation experiments indicated that the appropriate configuration designing of an upper soil layer (25 cm) and a mixture of soil/coal slag underneath would enhance the removal efficiency of adsorption and anaerobic biodegradation to the same level as that of aerobic biodegradation (31.7% vs 32.2%), while it was only 29.4% compared with the aerobic biodegradation during traditional 50 cm soil column operation. The added coal slag would preferentially adsorb the hydrophobic DOM, and those adsorbed organics could be partially biodegraded by the biomass within the SAT systems. Compared with the relatively lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet light adsorption at 254 nm (UV-254) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) removal rate of the original soil column (42.0%, 32.9%, and 28.0%, respectively), SSL2 and SSL4 columns would enhance the bulk removal efficiency to more than 60%. Moreover, a coal slag additive in the SAT columns could decline the aromatic components (fulvic-like organics and tryptophan-like proteins) significantly. PMID:25845997

  13. Cleanup and treatment (CAT) test: a land-area decontamination project utilizing a vacuum method of soil removal

    SciTech Connect

    Orcutt, J.A.

    1982-08-01

    Areas 11 and 13 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are contaminated with varying concentrations of Pu-239, 240 and Am-241. An investigation of a vacuum method of soil removal, the Cleanup and Treatment (CAT) test, was conducted over a 3-month period in the plutonium safety shot or Plutonium Valley portion of Area 11. Soil in Plutonium Valley is of the Aridisol Order. The surface 0 to 10 cm is a gravelly loam, and is strongly alkaline (pH 8.8). A large truck-mounted vacuum unit, rather than conventional earth-moving equipment, was used as the primary soil collection unit. Effectiveness of the vacuum method of soil removal was evaluated in relation to conventional earthmoving procedures, particularly in terms of volume reduction of removed soil achieved over conventional techniques. Radiological safety considerations associated with use of the vacuum unit were evaluated in relation to their impact on a full-scale land decontamination program. Environmental and operational impacts of devegetation with retention of root crowns or root systems were investigated. It is concluded that the CAT test was successful under difficult environmental conditions.

  14. Kinetics of hydrocarbon and pesticide removal from clay soils during thermal treatment in a pilot-scale rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Silcox, G.D.; Larsen, F.S.; Owens, W.D.; Choroszy-Marshall, M.

    1995-12-31

    The kinetics of hydrocarbon removal from contaminated clay soils during thermal treatment in rotary kilns were studied experimentally, and kinetic parameters were obtained for simple first-order models. Results are given for seven hydrocarbons: toluene, naphthalene, n-hexadecane, lindane ({gamma}-HCH or 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane), DDT (1,1{prime}-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene) bis [4-chlorobenzene]), DDD (1,1{prime}-(2,2-dichloroethylidene) bis [4-chlorobenzene]), and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis [p-chlorophenyl] ethylene). The activation energies ranged from 18 kJ/mol for toluene on wet soil, to 90 kJ/mol for the chlorinated pesticides. All the kinetic data were obtained in a 130 kW pilot-scale rotary kiln. The wall temperature of the kiln was 700 C for the pesticides. Three of the hydrocarbons, toluene, naphthalene and n-hexadecane, were studied on both wet soil (5.0 and 8.5 wt%) and on oven-dried soil at temperatures ranging from 300 to 650 C in order to understand better the effects of water on desorption rates. Water increases the rate of desorption of toluene but decreases the rates for the heavier compounds. The pilot-scale data and correlations should be useful to those who are operating and/or designing rotary kilns to remediate soils thermally. A methodology for taking pilot-scale results and using them to estimate full-scale performance is given.

  15. Alkylphenol Polyethoxylate Metabolite Behavior During Short-Term Soil Aquifer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, M.

    2002-12-01

    The attenuation of alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEO) metabolites was studied at a soil aquifer treatment (SAT) facility located in Mesa, Arizona, USA. SAT is a technique commonly used in arid environments to augment groundwater supplies. In SAT, municipal wastewater is discharged into basins and allowed to infiltrate into the subsurface; the basins are most often filled for several days and then allowed to dry out. During SAT the quality of the recharged water is substantially improved. Because this water may eventually be used to augment drinking water supplies, there is a concern whether organic contaminants survive SAT. APEO metabolites are among the most frequently detected anthropogenic contaminants in the environment. The ubiquitous presence of these compounds may be of concern because they are relatively recalcitrant, can sorb and accumulate in soils and sediments, can bioaccumulate in plants and animals, and can be estrogenic to wildlife at low concentrations. In this study, two parcels of water were monitored during SAT -- one aerobic, the other anaerobic. During infiltration, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, both alkylphenol ethoxycarboxylates (APECs) and carboxyalkylphenol ethoxycarboxylates (CAPECs) were substantially attenuated (> 90%) within 3 m. As expected, nonylphenol was removed under aerobic conditions, but produced under anaerobic conditions. Interestingly, no short-chained APEOs were detected. The rapid attenuation of CAPECs was surprising, as other researchers have found these metabolites to be very persistent. During infiltration, APEO metabolites with the longest ethoxycarboxylate side chain are attenuated fastest. Unlike several recent studies, alkylphenoxyacetic acids (AP1ECs) and carboxyalkylphenoxyacetic acids (CAP1ECs) were almost twice as abundant as alkylphenoxyethoxyacetic acids (AP2ECs) and carboxyalkylphenoxyethoxyacetic acids (CAP2ECs). Nonylphenol concentrations in both the wastewater and effluent SAT water were > 10

  16. Immobilization of tetracyclines in manure and manure-amended soils using aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Rakshit, Sudipta; Elzinga, Evert J; Datta, Rupali

    2016-02-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are emerging contaminants of concern in the environment, mainly due to the potential for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and effect on microbiota that could interfere with crucial ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling and decomposition. High levels of VAs such as tetracyclines (TCs) have been reported in agricultural soils amended with manure, which also has the potential to cause surface and groundwater contamination. Several recent studies have focused on developing methods to immobilize VAs such as composting with straw, hardwood chips, commercial biochar, aeration, mixing, heat treatment, etc. The major shortcomings of these methods include high cost and limited effectiveness. In the current study, we assessed the effectiveness of aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) as a "green" sorbent to immobilize TCs in manure and manure-applied soils with varying physicochemical properties by laboratory incubation study. Results show that Al-WTR is very effective in immobilizing tetracycline (TTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC). The presence of phosphate resulted in significant (p < 0.01) decrease in TTC/OTC sorption by Al-WTR, but the presence of sulfate did not. attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy indicate that TTC and OTC likely forming surface complexes via inner-sphere-type bonds in soils, manure, and manure-applied soils amended with Al-WTR. PMID:26490907

  17. Studies on the integration of nanofiltration and soil treatment for municipal effluent reclamation as a groundwater supplement.

    PubMed

    Linlin, Wu; Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Water shortage leads to increasing attention to artificial groundwater recharge by reclaimed water. An injection well is the most common recharge approach. In this paper, a new kind of integrated technology-short-term vadose soil treatment followed by nanofiltration-is recommended as pretreatment for artificial groundwater recharge by an injection well. Laboratory-scale experiments demonstrate that the short-term vadose soil can remove approximately 30% of the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and 40% of dissolved organic matter with a molecular weight less than 1 kDa. As a compensatory process of soil treatment, nanofiltration offers a favorable desalination and additional organics removal. The removal efficiencies for total dissolved solids and conductivity amount to 45 and 48%, respectively. The residual DOC in the final effluent is below 1.0 mg/L. In addition, short-term vadose soil offers effective elimination of aromatic protein-like and polysaccharide-like substances, which are detected as components of the membrane foulant. PMID:20112534

  18. Bacteria Transport in a Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment System under Simulated Operational and Climate Change Conditions.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ivan; Amador, José A; Boving, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Bacteria removal efficiencies in a conventional soil-based wastewater treatment system (OWTS) have been modeled to elucidate the fate and transport of bacteria under environmental and operational conditions that might be expected under changing climatic conditions. The HYDRUS 2D/3D software was used to model the impact of changing precipitation patterns, bacteria concentrations, hydraulic loading rates (HLRs), and higher subsurface temperatures at different depths and soil textures. Modeled effects of bacteria concentration shows that greater depth of treatment was required in coarser soils than in fine-textured ones to remove . The initial removal percentage was higher when HLR was lower, but it was greater when HLR was higher. When a biomat layer was included in the transport model, the performance of the system improved by up to 12.0%. Lower bacteria removal (<5%) was observed at all depths under the influence of precipitation rates ranging from 5 to 35 cm, and 35-cm rainfall combined with a 70% increase in HLR. Increased subsurface temperature (23°C) increased bacteria removal relative to a lower temperature range (5-20°C). Our results show that the model is able to effectively simulate bacteria removal and the effect of precipitation and temperature in different soil textures. It appears that the performance of OWTS may be impacted by changing climate. PMID:26436263

  19. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection after Drug Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Tie-Wu; Melville, Sara; Utzinger, Jürg; King, Charles H.; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections (i.e., Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura) affect more than a billion people. Preventive chemotherapy (i.e., repeated administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations), is the mainstay of control. This strategy, however, does not prevent reinfection. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess patterns and dynamics of STH reinfection after drug treatment. Methodology We systematically searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Google Scholar. Information on study year, country, sample size, age of participants, diagnostic method, drug administration strategy, prevalence and intensity of infection pre- and posttreatment, cure and egg reduction rate, evaluation period posttreatment, and adherence was extracted. Pooled risk ratios from random-effects models were used to assess the risk of STH reinfection after treatment. Our protocol is available on PROSPERO, registration number: CRD42011001678. Principal Findings From 154 studies identified, 51 were included and 24 provided STH infection rates pre- and posttreatment, whereas 42 reported determinants of predisposition to reinfection. At 3, 6, and 12 months posttreatment, A. lumbricoides prevalence reached 26% (95% confidence interval (CI): 16–43%), 68% (95% CI: 60–76%) and 94% (95% CI: 88–100%) of pretreatment levels, respectively. For T. trichiura, respective reinfection prevalence were 36% (95% CI: 28–47%), 67% (95% CI: 42–100%), and 82% (95% CI: 62–100%), and for hookworm, 30% (95% CI: 26–34%), 55% (95% CI: 34–87%), and 57% (95% CI: 49–67%). Prevalence and intensity of reinfection were positively correlated with pretreatment infection status. Conclusion STH reinfections occur rapidly after treatment, particularly for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Hence

  20. Stabilization/solidification (S/S) of heavy metal contaminated soils by means of a quicklime-based treatment approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dermatas, D.; Meng, X.

    1996-12-31

    The effectiveness of a quicklime-based treatment on reducing the mobility of heavy metals (lead, chromium, arsenic and mercury) in contaminated soils was evaluated using both slurry batch-contact and optimum water content compaction experimental techniques. The results indicated that lead, arsenic and trivalent chromium leachabilities were significantly reduced as a result of the quicklime treatment, while at the same time significant strength gains were evidenced for the treated soils. However, more hexavalent chromium was released from lime treated mixes than from the untreated solid due to the low adsorption and high solubility of chromate at high pHs. The results obtained from pH-controlled extraction, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy suggested that a significant portion of the immobilized heavy metals are strongly associated with pozzolanic reaction products.

  1. POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON (PAH) RELEASE FROM SOIL DURING TREATMENT WITH FENTON'S REAGENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenton's Reagent was used to treat soil from a wood-treating site in southeastern Ohio which had been contaminated with creosote. Slurries, consisting of 10 µg of contaminated soil and 30 mL water were treated with 40 mL of Fenton's Reagent (1:1 of 30% H2O2 ...

  2. BESCORP SOIL WASHING SYSTEM FOR LEAD BATTERY SITE TREATMENT - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates the Brice Environmental Services Corporation (BESCORP) Soil Washing System (BSWS) and Its applicability in remediating lead-contaminated soil at lead battery sites. It presents performance and economic data, developed from the U.S. Environmental Protection A...

  3. Phosphate Treatment of Lead-Contaminated Soil: Effects on Water Quality, Plant Uptake, and Lead Speciation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality threats associated with using phosphate-based amendments to remediate Pb-contaminated soils are a concern, particularly in riparian areas. This study investigated the effects of P application rates to a Pb-contaminated alluvial soil on Pb and P loss via surface wat...

  4. BESCORP SOIL WASHING SYSTEM FOR LEAD BATTERY SITE TREATMENT - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Brice Environmental Services Corporation (BESCORP Soil Washing System (BSWS) and its applicability in remediating lead-contaminated soil at lead battery sites was evaluated. he report presents performance and economic data, developed from the U.S. Environmental Protection Age...

  5. Electrokinetic treatment of polluted soil at pilot level coupled to an advanced oxidation process of its wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, B.; Ramos, L.; Garibay, A.; Pérez-Corona, M.; Cuevas, M. C.; Cárdenas, J.; Teutli, M.; Bustos, E.

    2016-02-01

    Soil contaminated with hydrocarbons is a current problem of great importance. These contaminants may be toxic, can retain water and block gas exchange with the atmosphere, which produces a poor-quality soil unsuitable for ecological health. Electroremediation is among the treatments for the removal of such contaminants. In this research, a pilot-level electroremediation test was applied using a circular arrangement of electrodes with a Ti cathode at the middle of the cell surrounded by six IrO2-Ta2O5 | Ti anodes. The presence of an NaOH electrolyte helps to develop the electromigration and electro-osmosis of gasoline molecules (at 1126 mg kg-1) surrounded by Na+ ions. The hydrocarbons are directed towards the cathode and subsequently removed in an aqueous Na+ - hydrocarbon solution, and the -OH migrates to the anode. During electrokinetic treatment, the physicochemical characteristics of the soil close to either the cathode or anode and at the half-cell were evaluated during the three weeks of treatment. During that time, more than 80% of hydrocarbons were removed. Hydrocarbons removed by the electrokinetic treatment of gasoline-polluted soil were collected in a central wastewater compartment and subsequently treated with a Fenton-type advanced oxidation process. This achieved more than 70% mineralization of the hydrocarbons to CO2 and H2O within 1.5 h; its low toxicity status was verified using the Deltatox® kit test. With this approach, the residual water complied with the permissible limits of COD, pH, and electrical conductivity for being discharged into water bodies, according to Mexican norm NOM-001-SEMARNAT-1996.

  6. Column experiment on activation aids and biosurfactant application to the persulphate treatment of chlorophene-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bolobajev, J; Öncü, N Bilgin; Viisimaa, M; Trapido, M; Balcıoğlu, I; Goi, A

    2015-01-01

    An innovative strategy integrating the use of biosurfactant (BS) and persulphate activated by chelated iron for the decontamination of soil from an emerging pollutant chlorophene was studied in laboratory down-flow columns along with other persulphate activation aids including combined application of persulphate and hydrogen peroxide, and persulphate activation with sodium hydroxide. Although BS addition improved chlorophene removal by the persulphate treatment, the addition of chelated iron did not have a significant influence. Combined application of persulphate with hydrogen peroxide resulted in a significant (p≤.05) overall improvement of chlorophene removal compared with treatment with persulphate only. The highest removal rate (71%) of chlorophene was achieved with the base-activated persulphate, but only in the upper part (of 0.0-3.5 cm in depth) of the column. The chemicals at the applied dosages did not substantially influence the Daphnia magna toxicity of the effluent. Dehydrogenase activity (DHA) measurements indicated no substantial changes in the microbial activity during the persulphate treatment. The highest oxygen consumption and a slight increase in DHA were observed with the BS addition. The combined application of persulphate and BS at natural soil pH is a promising method for chlorophene-contaminated soil remediation. Hydroquinone was identified among the by-products of chlorophene degradation. PMID:25514136

  7. Introduction to Session 1B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sticklen, Mariam B.

    Topics presented in the "Plant Biotechnology and Genomics" session focused on technologies that highlight the important role of plant biotechnology and genomics in the development of future energy crops. Several excellent presentations demonstrated the latest advances in energy crop development through the use of plant cell wall regulation and by engineering new energy crops such as brown midrib sweet sorghum. Approaches included the control of cellulose production by increased expression of cellulase synthase genes and the selection of high-yield varieties of shrub willows. The potential of producing hydrolytic enzymes using transgenic plants as a cost-effective means for the large-scale production of these enzymes was also explored in the session, as was the role of posttranslational modifications on the activities of heterologous expressed cellulases in hosts such as Pichia pastoris.

  8. Treatment of turtle aquaculture effluent by an improved multi-soil-layer system*

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ying; Huang, Yu-ting; Ji, Hong-fang; Nie, Xin-jun; Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Ge, Chuan; Luo, An-cheng; Chen, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Concentrated turtle aquaculture effluent poses an environmental threat to water bodies, and therefore needs to be treated prior to disposal. This study was conducted to assess the effect of multi-soil-layer (MSL) systems treating turtle aquaculture effluent with adding different amounts of sludge. Four MSL systems were constructed with dry weight ratios of sludge with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% (MSL 1, MSL 2, MSL 3, and MSL 4, respectively). The turtle aquaculture effluent had an average chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH4 +-N) and total nitrogen (TN) concentration of 288.4, 213.4, and 252.0 mg/L, respectively. The COD/TN (C/N) ratio was 1.2. The results showed that the four MSL systems could effectively treat the COD, NH4 +-N, and TN, and MSL 4 showed significantly improved NH4 +-N removal efficiency, suggesting the potential of sludge addition to improve the turtle aquaculture effluent treatment. The average COD, TN, and NH4 +-N removal efficiencies of MSL 4 were 70.3%, 66.5%, and 72.7%, respectively. To further interpret the contribution of microorganisms to the removal, the microbial community compositions and diversities of the four MSL systems were measured. Comparisons of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles revealed that the amount of nitrifying bacteria and diversity in MSL 4 were higher than those in the other three systems. We concluded that adding 20% of sludge improved the NH4 +-N removal and stability of the system for nitrification, due to the enrichment of the nitrifying bacteria in MSL 4. PMID:25644469

  9. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  10. Stabilization of Pb and As in soils by applying combined treatment with phosphates and ferrous iron.

    PubMed

    Xenidis, Anthimos; Stouraiti, Christina; Papassiopi, Nymphodora

    2010-05-15

    The chemical immobilization of Pb and As in contaminated soil from Lavrion, Greece, using monocalcium phosphate and ferrous sulfate as stabilizing agents was investigated. Monocalcium phosphate was added to contaminated soil at PO(4) to Pb molar ratios equal to 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.5, whereas ferrous sulfate was added at Fe to As molar ratios equal to 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20. Phosphates addition to contaminated soil decreased Pb leachability, but resulted in significant mobilization of As. Simultaneous immobilization of Pb and As was obtained only when soil was treated with mixtures of phosphates and ferrous sulfate. Arsenic uptake by plants was also seen to increase when soil was treated only with phosphates, but co-addition of ferrous sulfate was efficient in maintaining As phytoaccumulation at low levels. The addition of at least 1.5M/M phosphates and 10M/M iron sulfate to soil reduced the dissolved levels of Pb and As in the water extracts to values in compliance with the EU drinking water standards. However, both additives contributed in the acidification of soil, decreasing pH from 7.8 to values as low as 5.6 and induced the mobilization of pH sensitive elements, such as Zn and Cd. PMID:20116921

  11. Surface study of stainless steel electrode deposition from soil electrokinetic (EK) treatment using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Embong, Zaidi; Johar, Saffuwan; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad; Sahdan, Mohd Zainizan

    2015-04-29

    Electrokinetic (EK) remediation relies upon application of a low-intensity direct current through the soil between stainless steel electrodes that are divided into a cathode array and an anode array. This mobilizes charged species, causing ions and water to move toward the electrodes. Metal ions and positively charged organic compounds move toward the cathode. Anions such as chloride, fluoride, nitrate, and negatively charged organic compounds move toward the anode. Here, this remediation techniques lead to a formation of a deposition at the both cathode and anode surface that mainly contributed byanion and cation from the remediated soil. In this research, Renggam-Jerangau soil species (HaplicAcrisol + RhodicFerralsol) with a surveymeter reading of 38.0 ± 3.9 μR/hr has been investigation in order to study the mobility of the anion and cation under the influence electric field. Prior to the EK treatment, the elemental composition of the soil and the stainless steel electrode are measured using XRF analyses. Next, the soil sample is remediated at a constant electric potential of 30 V within an hour of treatment period. A surface study for the deposition layer of the cathode and anode using X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that a narrow photoelectron signal from oxygen O 1s, carbon, C 1s silica, Si 2p, aluminium, Al 2p and chromium, Cr 2p exhibited on the electrode surface and indicate that a different in photoelectron intensity for each element on both electrode surface. In this paper, the mechanism of Si{sup 2+} and Al{sup 2+} cation mobility under the influence of voltage potential between the cathode and anode will be discussed in detail.

  12. Surface study of stainless steel electrode deposition from soil electrokinetic (EK) treatment using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embong, Zaidi; Johar, Saffuwan; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad; Sahdan, Mohd Zainizan

    2015-04-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) remediation relies upon application of a low-intensity direct current through the soil between stainless steel electrodes that are divided into a cathode array and an anode array. This mobilizes charged species, causing ions and water to move toward the electrodes. Metal ions and positively charged organic compounds move toward the cathode. Anions such as chloride, fluoride, nitrate, and negatively charged organic compounds move toward the anode. Here, this remediation techniques lead to a formation of a deposition at the both cathode and anode surface that mainly contributed byanion and cation from the remediated soil. In this research, Renggam-Jerangau soil species (HaplicAcrisol + RhodicFerralsol) with a surveymeter reading of 38.0 ± 3.9 μR/hr has been investigation in order to study the mobility of the anion and cation under the influence electric field. Prior to the EK treatment, the elemental composition of the soil and the stainless steel electrode are measured using XRF analyses. Next, the soil sample is remediated at a constant electric potential of 30 V within an hour of treatment period. A surface study for the deposition layer of the cathode and anode using X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that a narrow photoelectron signal from oxygen O 1s, carbon, C 1s silica, Si 2p, aluminium, Al 2p and chromium, Cr 2p exhibited on the electrode surface and indicate that a different in photoelectron intensity for each element on both electrode surface. In this paper, the mechanism of Si2+ and Al2+ cation mobility under the influence of voltage potential between the cathode and anode will be discussed in detail.

  13. Fenton oxidation and combined Fenton-microbial treatment for remediation of crude oil contaminated soil in Assam - India.

    PubMed

    Buragohain, Surabhi; Deka, Dibakar Chandra; Devi, Arundhuti

    2013-10-01

    The study is aimed at the remediation of soil spiked with crude oil (5%) by employing Fenton oxidation, biological treatment and combined Fenton-biological treatment. A spiked concentration of 5% crude oil was selected on the basis of contamination levels of 0-5% as found in the soil of upper Assam oil fields (India). The degradation of the aliphatic fraction (C14-C28) of the crude oil was investigated by gas chromatography. Fenton oxidation was carried out at different pH (3 to 8) in a laboratory batch reactor and maximum oxidative degradation was observed at pH 3-5. At pH 3, single Fenton oxidation resulted in 36 and 57% degradation in 5 and 10 days respectively. Biological treatment (with Fusarium solani) and combined Fenton-biological treatment were carried out with a one month incubation period. Biological treatment alone brought about 61% degradation of the crude oil while the combined process could achieve as much as 75% degradation of the aliphatic fractions of the crude oil. PMID:24056615

  14. Hypnosis and Smoking: A Five-Session Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Helen H.

    An active five-session, individualized treatment approach to the stopping of smoking is described. This approach emphasized the following: (a) the feedback, in and out of hypnosis, of the client's own reasons for quitting, (b) the visualization of both positive and negative smoking experiences meaningful to the client, (c) maintaining contact with…

  15. Image Interpretation Session: Sunday, November 27, 2005.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Geoffrey D; Bradley, William G; Foley, W Dennis; Herold, Christian J; Jaramillo, Diego; Seeger, Leanne L

    2005-01-01

    The Sunday afternoon Image Interpretation Session has been a high point of the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America for over 65 years. A panel of five experts has been selected, representing the very best from the fields of neurologic, abdominal, thoracic, pediatric, and musculoskeletal radiology. Each panelist will dazzle us with an insightful analysis of two difficult cases in their area of expertise. The panelists are to be lauded for their bravery in subjecting their diagnostic acumen to the scrutiny of the thousands of radiologists in the audience. The cases, representing a diverse spectrum of diseases and disease manifestations, were selected from recent clinical imaging studies performed at the Stanford University Medical Center or the Lucille Salter Packard Children's Hospital. This session celebrates the skills of diagnostic radiologists worldwide, who are called on daily to amalgamate disparate clinical information with complex imaging data into focused differential diagnoses and effective treatment planning. We hope that these cases will serve to illustrate the central role that expert image interpretation plays in the care of patients. We welcome our audience of RSNA attendees, readers of RadioGraphics, and cyberspace denizens to join with our experts in solving these medical puzzles and to enjoy the excitement of unraveling the unknown. PMID:16163794

  16. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices, Volume 4, Appendix V-C

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This is the the final verification run data package for pilot scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are data on volatiles, semivolatiles, and TCLP volatiles.

  17. Herbicide treatment effects on properties of mountain big sagebrush soils after fourteen years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, I. C.; Reiners, W. A.; Sturges, D. L.; Matson, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of sagebrush conversion on the soil properties of a high-elevation portion of the Western Intermountain Sagebrush Steppe (West, 1983) are described. Changes were found in only a few soil chemical properties after conversion to grassland. It was found that surface concentrations of N were lower under grass vegetation than under undisturbed vegetation. Undershrub net N mineralization rates were higher under shrubs in the sagebrush vegetation than under former shrubs in the grass vegetation.

  18. Summer Session Organizational Models at Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kops, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The issue of summer session organizational models continues to be of interest to summer session deans/directors and university administrators. The University of Victoria surveyed Canadian universities on this issue in 1994. Based on a similar survey done in 2009, this paper updates the status of Canadian university summer session organizational…

  19. Long-term assessment of the environmental fate of heavy metals in agricultural soil after cessation of organic waste treatments.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Ik; Jang, Yeon-A; Owens, Gary; Kim, Min-Kyeong; Jung, Goo-Bok; Hong, Seung-Chang; Chae, Mi-Jin; Kim, Kwon-Rae

    2014-06-01

    The current study examined the anthropogenic accumulation and natural decrease in metal concentrations in agricultural soils following organic waste application. Three common organic wastes, including municipal sewage sludge, alcohol fermentation processing sludge, and pig manure compost (PMC), were applied annually to an agricultural soil under field conditions over 7 years (1994-2000) at a rate of 12.5, 25, and 50 ton ha(-1) year(-1) and the soil accumulation of three metals of concern (Cu, Pb, and Zn) was monitored. Subsequently, organic waste amendments ceased and the experimental plots were managed using conventional fertilization for another 10 years (2001-2010) and the natural decrease in metal concentrations monitored. Although Cu and Zn concentrations in all experimental plots did not exceed the relevant guideline values (150 mg kg(-1) for Cu and 300 mg kg(-1) for Zn), significant increases in metal concentrations were observed from cumulative application of organic wastes over 7 years. For instance, PMC treatment resulted in an increase in Cu and Zn from 9.8 and 72 mg kg(-1) to 108.2 and 214.3 mg kg(-1), respectively. In addition, the natural decrease in Cu and Zn was not significant as soils amended with PMC showed only a 16 and 19 % decline in Cu and Zn concentrations, respectively, even 10 years after amendment ceased. This research suggested that more attention must be paid during production of organic waste-based amendments and at the application stage. PMID:24026571

  20. Stabilization treatment of soft subgrade soil by sewage sludge ash and cement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Lin, Deng-Fong

    2009-02-15

    In this study, incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) is mixed with cement in a fixed ratio of 4:1 for use as a stabilizer to improve the strength of soft, cohesive, subgrade soil. Five different ratios (in wt%: 0%, 2%, 4%, 8%, and 16%) of ISSA/cement admixture are mixed with cohesive soil to make soil samples. In order to understand the influences of admixtures on the soil properties, tests of the pH value, Atterberg limits, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR), unconfined compressive strength, and triaxial compression were performed on those samples. The study shows that the unconfined compressive strength of specimens with the ISSA/cement addition was improved to approximately 3-7 times better than that of the untreated soil; furthermore, the swelling behavior was also effectively reduced as much as 10-60% for those samples. In some samples, the ISSA/cement additive improved the CBR values by up to 30 times that of untreated soil. This suggests that ISSA/cement has many potential applications in the field of geotechnical engineering. PMID:18579294

  1. Effect of operating conditions in soil aquifer treatment on the removals of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Echigo, Shinya; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2016-09-15

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an alternative advanced treatment for wastewater reclamation, and it has the potential to control micropollutants including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). However, the relationship of operating conditions in SAT and removals of micropollutants was not clear. In this study, the effects of operating conditions on the removals of PPCPs were evaluated by using lab-scale columns and plant pilot-scale reactors under different operating conditions. Firstly, weathered granite soil (WGS), standard sand (SAND) and Toyoura standard sand (TS) have different soil characteristics such as total organic carbon (TOC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). In the columns with these packing materials, the removals of carboxylic analgesics and antilipidemics were effective regardless packing materials. The removals of antibiotics were more effective in WGS than in TS and SAND, indicating high TOC and CEC enhance the sorption in SAT. Secondly, with the extension of hydraulic retention time (HRT), the removals of sulfamethoxazole, acetaminophen, crotamiton, and antipyrine were improved in WGS columns, and adaptable biodegradation for moderately removable PPCPs was formed. Thirdly, the removal efficiencies of sulfamethoxazole and crotamiton were higher in the WGS column under vadose condition than in the WGS column under saturated condition, because of aerobic condition in WGS column under vadose condition. Though long HRT and vadose condition had positive influence on the removals of several PPCPs such as sulfamethoxazole, WGS column with an HRT of 7days under saturated condition removed most PPCPs. PMID:27213846

  2. Comparative study on oxidative treatments of NAPL containing chlorinated ethanes and ethenes using hydrogen peroxide and persulfate in soils.

    PubMed

    Ko, Saebom; Crimi, Michelle; Marvin, Bruce K; Holmes, Victor; Huling, Scott G

    2012-10-15

    The goal of this study was to assess the oxidation of NAPL in soil, 30% of which were composed of chlorinated ethanes and ethenes, using catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (CHP), activated persulfate (AP), and H(2)O(2)-persulfate (HP) co-amendment systems. Citrate, a buffer and iron ligand, was amended to the treatment system to enhance oxidative treatment. Four activation/catalysis methods were employed: (1) oxidant only, (2) oxidant-citrate, (3) oxidant-iron(II), and (4) oxidant-citrate-iron(II). The NAPL treatment effectiveness was the greatest in the CHP reactions, the second in HP, and the third in AP. The effective activation and catalysis methods depended on the oxidant types; oxidant only for CHP and HP and oxidant-citrate-iron for AP. The treatability trend of chlorinated ethanes and ethenes in the soil mixture was as follows: trichloroethene > tetrachloroethene > dichloroethane > trichloroethane > tetrachloroethane. A significant fraction of persulfate remained in the oxidation systems after the 2-day reaction period, especially in the citrate-iron(II) AP. In general, oxidation systems that included citrate maintained a post-treatment pH in the range of 7-9. A final pH of AP oxidation systems was acidic (pH 2-3), where a molar ratio of citrate-iron(II) was less than 1.8 and where no citrate was amended. PMID:22658989

  3. Three-phase Discussion Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr, M. C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes the procedures, organizational pattern and design of basic soils course used by teaching assistants. Cites studies which support small-group discussion for promoting higher levels of intellectual functioning. Presents tables showing survey evaluation results of this method. (RT)

  4. Institutional computing (IC) information session

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kenneth R; Lally, Bryan R

    2011-01-19

    The LANL Institutional Computing Program (IC) will host an information session about the current state of unclassified Institutional Computing at Los Alamos, exciting plans for the future, and the current call for proposals for science and engineering projects requiring computing. Program representatives will give short presentations and field questions about the call for proposals and future planned machines, and discuss technical support available to existing and future projects. Los Alamos has started making a serious institutional investment in open computing available to our science projects, and that investment is expected to increase even more.

  5. Practical Session: Simple Linear Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausel, M.; Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    Two exercises are proposed to illustrate the simple linear regression. The first one is based on the famous Galton's data set on heredity. We use the lm R command and get coefficients estimates, standard error of the error, R2, residuals …In the second example, devoted to data related to the vapor tension of mercury, we fit a simple linear regression, predict values, and anticipate on multiple linear regression. This pratical session is an excerpt from practical exercises proposed by A. Dalalyan at EPNC (see Exercises 1 and 2 of http://certis.enpc.fr/~dalalyan/Download/TP_ENPC_4.pdf).

  6. Working session 3: Tubing integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Strosnider, J.

    1997-02-01

    Twenty-three individuals representing nine countries (Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Japan, the Slovak Republic, Spain, the UK, and the US) participated in the session on tube integrity. These individuals represented utilities, vendors, consultants and regulatory authorities. The major subjects discussed by the group included overall objectives of managing steam generator tube degradation, necessary elements of a steam generator degradation management program, the concept of degradation specific management, structural integrity evaluations, leakage evaluations, and specific degradation mechanisms. The group`s discussions on these subjects, including conclusions and recommendations, are summarized in this article.

  7. Correspondence of Motivational Interviewing Adherence and Competence Ratings in Real and Role-Played Client Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Suzanne E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Canning-Ball, Monica; Martino, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Treatment integrity ratings (adherence and competence) are frequently used as outcome measures in clinician training studies, drawn from recorded real client or role-played client sessions. However, it is unknown whether clinician adherence and competence are similar in real client and role-played sessions or whether real and role-play clients…

  8. From In-Session Behaviors to Drinking Outcomes: A Causal Chain for Motivational Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyers, Theresa B.; Martin, Tim; Houck, Jon M.; Christopher, Paulette J.; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Client speech in favor of change within motivational interviewing sessions has been linked to treatment outcomes, but a causal chain has not yet been demonstrated. Using a sequential behavioral coding system for client speech, the authors found that, at both the session and utterance levels, specific therapist behaviors predict client change talk.…

  9. A Comparison of Core Conflictual Relationship Themes before Psychotherapy and during Early Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jacques P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Shows that the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme (CCRT) can be rated reliably either from therapy sessions or from a special pretreatment interview. Pretreatment CCRTs resembled CCRTs extracted from early sessions of brief dynamic psychotherapy, suggesting that therapist influences in early treatment did not significantly alter patient CCRTs.…

  10. The disposal of a lime water treatment residue on soil and spoil material from a coalmine: a glasshouse investigation.

    PubMed

    Titshall, L W; Hughes, J C; Morris, C D; Zacharias, P J K

    2007-01-01

    Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., and Digitaria eriantha Steud. were grown in a soil (Psammentic Haplustalf) and spoil material from a coalmine both treated with a lime water treatment residue (WTR) at rates of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 g kg(-1). The yield of the grasses, from the sum of the three harvests, and concentrations of B, Ca, Cu, K, Fe, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, and Zn in foliage from the second harvest were determined. The yield of grasses grown in the soil decreased exponentially as WTR application increased. The yields of C. ciliaris, D. eriantha, and E. tef (in the 400 g kg(-1) WTR treated soil) decreased by 74.4, 78.7, and 59.8%, respectively, when compared with the control treatments. In the spoil, the yield of E. tef and D. eriantha decreased by 13.6% and and D. eriantha by 23.9%, while an increase was observed for C. ciliaris (45.4%), at the highest WTR application rate. No relationship existed between yield of E. tef and WTR application rate when grown in the spoil, while a weak negative linear relationship (p < 0.05) was found for D. eriantha and a positive linear relationship existed for C. ciliaris. Magnesium concentrations of the grasses were positively correlated to WTR application rate. Grasses grown in the soil had higher Na concentrations, while those grown in the spoil typically had higher B, N, and Zn concentrations. The decreases in yield were attributed to nutrient deficiencies (notably Zn), induced by high WTR application rates that led to high substrate pH. Disposal of high rates of WTR on the mine materials was not recommended. PMID:17332261

  11. Sustainable measures for sewage sludge treatment - evaluating the effects on P reaction in soils and plant P uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenker, Moshe; Einhoren, Hana

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater treatment, whether for water reusing or for releasing into the environment, results in sewage sludge rich in organic matter and nutrients. If free of pathogens and pollutants, this waste material is a widely used as soil amendment and source of valuable nutrients for agronomic use. Nevertheless, its P/N ratio largely exceeds plant P/N demand. Limiting its application rates according to the P demand of crops will largely limit its application rates and its beneficial effect as a soil amendment and as a source for other nutrients. An alternative approach, in which P is stabilized before application, was evaluated in this study. Anaerobically digested fresh sewage sludge (FSS) was stabilized by aluminum sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and calcium oxide (CaO), as well as by composting with shredded woody yard-waste to produce Al-FSS, Fe-FSS, CaO-FSS, and FSS-compost, respectively. Defined organic-P sources (glucose-1-phosphate and inositol-hexa-phosphate) and a P fertilizer (KH2PO4) were included as well and a control with no P amendments was included as a reference. Each material was applied at a fixed P load of 50 mg kg-1 to each of three soils and P speciation and plants P uptake were tested along 112 days of incubation at moderate (near field capacity) water content. Tomato seedlings were used for the P uptake test. The large set of data was used to evaluate the effect of each treatment on P reactions and mechanisms of retention in the tested soils and to correlate various P indices to P availability for plants. Plant P uptake was highly correlated to Olsen-P as well as to water-soluble inorganic-P, but not to water-soluble organic-P and not to total P or other experimentally-defined stable P fractions. We conclude that the P stabilization in the sludge will allow beneficial and sustainable use of sewage sludge as a soil amendment and source of nutrients, but the stabilization method should be selected in accordance with the target soil properties.

  12. Chemical oxidation treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soil using Fenton`s reagent

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.C.; Tafuri, A.; Rahman, M.

    1995-12-31

    This study assesses the effectiveness of Fenton`s reagent to oxidize the constituents of petroleum products such as 2-methylnaphthalene and n-hexadecane in soils. Laboratory tests were conducted in 2.5 liter glass bottles at various pH levels and organic concentrations. The results showed that 2-methylnaphthalene was rapidly removed by Fenton`s reagent in soil matrix; however, n-hexadecane was removed at a slower rate. The natural organic content of the soil does not appear to affect the 2-methylnaphthalene destruction. Both contaminants showed higher reaction rates at pH 7 than at pH 2. The slower degradation of n-hexadecane may be due to the competition of natural organic compounds; therefore, alkanes may need additional hydrogen peroxide to be effectively oxidized.

  13. Session: Wind industry project development

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Tom; Enfield, Sam

    2004-09-01

    This first session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a question and answer period. The session was intended to provide a general overview of wind energy product development, from the industry's perspective. Tom Gray of AWEA presented a paper titled ''State of the Wind Energy Industry in 2004'', highlighting improved performance and lower cost, efforts to address avian impacts, a status of wind energy in comparison to other energy-producing sources, and ending on expectations for the near future. Sam Enfield of Atlantic Renewable Energy Corporation presented a paper titled ''Key Factors for Consideration in Wind Plant Siting'', highlighting factors that wind facility developers must consider when choosing a site to build wind turbines and associated structures. Factors covered include wind resources available, ownership and land use patterns, access to transmission lines, accessibility and environmental impacts. The question and answer sum mary included topics related to risk taking, research and development, regulatory requirements, and dealing with utilities.

  14. Working session 1: Tubing degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Turluer, G.

    1997-02-01

    A general introductory overview of the purpose of the group and the general subject area of SG tubing degradation was given by the facilitator. The purpose of the session was described as to {open_quotes}develop conclusions and proposals on regulatory and technical needs required to deal with the issues of SG tubing degradation.{close_quotes} Types, locations and characteristics of tubing degradation in steam generators were briefly reviewed. The well-known synergistic effects of materials, environment, and stress and strain/strain rate, subsequently referred to by the acronym {open_quotes}MESS{close_quotes} by some of the group members, were noted. The element of time (i.e., evolution of these variables with time) was emphasized. It was also suggested that the group might want to consider the related topics of inspection capabilities, operational variables, degradation remedies, and validity of test data, and some background information in these areas was provided. The presentation given by Peter Millet during the Plenary Session was reviewed; Specifically, the chemical aspects and the degradation from the secondary side of the steam generator were noted. The main issues discussed during the October 1995 EPRI meeting on secondary side corrosion were reported, and a listing of the potential SG tube degradations was provided and discussed.

  15. Treatment of TNT contaminated soil and groundwater using plant-based enzyme systems

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, V.F.; Wolfe, L.; McCutcheon, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is considered toxic and a mutagen. For over 100 years, TNT has been widely used in explosives for both military and commercial applications. Soil and groundwater contamination by TNT is prevalent at military bases, manufacturing facilities and at commercial (such as mining) sites were TNT was used or stored. TNT is a difficult compound to treat. It is resistant to complete microbial degradation. Although incineration is feasible, it can be costly. One promising technology is degradation using plant enzyme systems, which has become known as phytoremediation. This paper will highlight bench and field studies of phytoremediation of TNT contaminated soil and groundwater. Parameters for developing a model will be discussed.

  16. Pre-treatment of seeds with static magnetic field ameliorates soil water stress in seedlings of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Anand, Anjali; Nagarajan, Shantha; Verma, A P S; Joshi, D K; Pathak, P C; Bhardwaj, Jyotsna

    2012-02-01

    The effect of magnetic field (MF) treatments of maize (Zea mays L.) var. Ganga Safed 2 seeds on the growth, leaf water status, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme system under soil water stress was investigated under greenhouse conditions. The seeds were exposed to static MFs of 100 and 200 mT for 2 and 1 h, respectively. The treated seeds were sown in sand beds for seven days and transplanted in pots that were maintained at -0.03, -0.2 and -0.4 MPa soil water potentials under greenhouse conditions. MF exposure of seeds significantly enhanced all growth parameters, compared to the control seedlings. The significant increase in root parameters in seedlings from magnetically-exposed seeds resulted in maintenance of better leaf water status in terms of increase in leaf water potential, turgor potential and relative water content. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content increased in plants from treated seeds, compared to control under irrigated and mild stress condition. Leaves from plants of magnetically-treated seeds showed decreased levels of hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant defense system enzymes (peroxidases, catalase and superoxide dismutase) under moisture stress conditions, when compared with untreated controls. Mild stress of -0.2 MPa induced a stimulating effect on functional root parameters, especially in 200 mT treated seedlings which can be exploited profitably for rain fed conditions. Our results suggested that MF treatment (100 mT for 2 h and 200 for 1 h) of maize seeds enhanced the seedling growth, leaf water status, photosynthesis rate and lowered the antioxidant defense system of seedlings under soil water stress. Thus, pre sowing static magnetic field treatment of seeds can be effectively used for improving growth under water stress. PMID:22435146

  17. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BIOTROL SOIL WASHING SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF A WOOD PRESERVING SITE - VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SITE Program demonstration of one configuration of the BioTrol Soil Washing System (BSWS) was conducted to obtain reliable performance and cost data that can be used to evaluate the potential applicability of the technology as a remediation alternative for sites contaminated ...

  18. Treatment and Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils Using Selective Ornamental Plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Jadeja, Rajendrasinh N; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Zhe

    2012-06-01

    Pot-culture experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of 14 ornamental plants in weathered petroleum-contaminated soil, which was collected in the Shengli Oil Field, one of the biggest oil fields in China, by examining their impact on the degradation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and its composition. Results showed Gaillardia aristata, Echinacea purpurea, Fawn (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. could effectively reduce TPHs and its composition in 10,000 mg kg(-1) TPH-contaminated soil. After a 30-day pot-culture experiment, the removal rates were 37.16%, 46.74%, 49.42%, 41.00%, and 37.93%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (only 12.93%). Removal rates of TPH composition including saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, asphaltene, and polar compound reached 39.41%, 38.47%, 45.11%, 42.92%, and 37.52%, respectively, also higher than that in the control (only 6.90%). Further, the total biomass did not significantly decrease for all plants tested in 10,000 mg kg(-1) TPH-contaminated soil. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of oil in the plant tissues. These results suggested that the typical ornamental species including G. aristata, E. purpurea, Fawn, Fire Phoenix, and M. sativa can be adopted in phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil. PMID:22693416

  19. Treatment and Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils Using Selective Ornamental Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Jadeja, Rajendrasinh N.; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pot-culture experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of 14 ornamental plants in weathered petroleum-contaminated soil, which was collected in the Shengli Oil Field, one of the biggest oil fields in China, by examining their impact on the degradation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and its composition. Results showed Gaillardia aristata, Echinacea purpurea, Fawn (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. could effectively reduce TPHs and its composition in 10,000 mg kg−1 TPH-contaminated soil. After a 30-day pot-culture experiment, the removal rates were 37.16%, 46.74%, 49.42%, 41.00%, and 37.93%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (only 12.93%). Removal rates of TPH composition including saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, asphaltene, and polar compound reached 39.41%, 38.47%, 45.11%, 42.92%, and 37.52%, respectively, also higher than that in the control (only 6.90%). Further, the total biomass did not significantly decrease for all plants tested in 10,000 mg kg−1 TPH-contaminated soil. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of oil in the plant tissues. These results suggested that the typical ornamental species including G. aristata, E. purpurea, Fawn, Fire Phoenix, and M. sativa can be adopted in phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil. PMID:22693416

  20. Biostimulation and bioaugmentation for on-site treatment of weathered diesel fuel in Arctic soil.

    PubMed

    Thomassin-Lacroix, E J M; Eriksson, M; Reimer, K J; Mohn, W W

    2002-08-01

    Bioremediation of weathered diesel fuel in Arctic soil at low temperature was studied both on-site in small-scale biopiles and in laboratory microcosms. The field study site was on Ellesmere Island (82 degrees 30'N, 62 degrees 20'W). Biostimulation was by fertilization with phosphorous and nitrogen. Bioaugmentation was with an enrichment culture originating from the field site. In biopiles, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were reduced from 2.9 to 0.5 mg/g of dry soil over a period of 65 days. In microcosms at 7 degrees C, TPH were reduced from 2.4 to 0.5 mg/g of dry soil over a period of 90 days. Inoculation had no effect on hydrocarbon removal in biopiles or in microcosms. Maximum TPH removal rates in the biopiles were approximately 90 micro g of TPH g(-1) of soil day(-1), occurring during the first 14 days when ambient temperature ranged from 0 to 10 degrees C. The fate of three phylotypes present in the inoculum was monitored using most-probable-number PCR, targeting 16S rRNA genes. Populations of all three phylotypes increased more than 100-fold during incubation of both uninoculated and inoculated biopiles. The inoculum increased the initial populations of the phylotypes but did not significantly affect their final populations. Thus, biostimulation on site enriched populations that were also selected in laboratory enrichment cultures. PMID:12172625

  1. UTILIZATION OF BACTERIA TO REMEDIATE CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN THE US: LASAGNA AND OTHER TREATMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an overview of the work underway at USEPA/ORD/NRMRL's Center Hill Microbiology Laboratory on bioremediation of contaminated soils and sediments. The Laboratory has isolated and naturally selected for various isolates. An isolate that will be reviewed is CHL-004, a Pseudom...

  2. FIELD EVALUATION OF IN-SITU TREATMENTS TO REDUCE SOIL-LEAD BIOAVAILABILITY: INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The In-place Inactivation and Natural Ecological Restoration Technologies (IINERT) Soil-Metals Action Team was established in 11/95 as one of several Action Teams under the USEPA Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF). Its primary goal was to examine in situ remediatio...

  3. Microbial characteristics and nitrogen transformation in planted soil filter for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Nurk, Kaspar; Truu, Jaak; Truu, Marika; Mander, Ulo

    2005-01-01

    We studied an experimental horizontal subsurface-flow planted sand filter in Kodijärve, Estonia. We measured the microbial biomass, nitrogen immobilization, potential nitrification, soil respiration, multiple carbon source utilization patterns of the microbial consortia of the soil samples, the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content of the soil samples, the water quality and physicochemical indicators in water sampling wells as well as emissions of CO2, N2, NO2, and CH4 from the two beds (the dry bed and the wet bed) in the wetland. The potential nitrification of the upper layer of the dry bed could not be attributed primarily to autotrophic nitrification, or the nitrifying bacteria in this layer could be facultative heterotrophs, whereas autotrophic nitrification is predominant in the upper layer of the wet bed. It also was found that changing aeration conditions in the lower layer of the dry bed have resulted in a lower diversity of the microbial community and led to a relative depletion of easily degradable soil carbon resources. PMID:15921276

  4. A mechanistic treatment of the dominant soil nitrogen cycling processes: Model development, testing, and application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development and initial application of a mechanistic model (TOUGHREACT-N) designed to characterize soil nitrogen (N) cycling and losses are described. The model couples advective and diffusive nutrient transport, multiple microbial biomass dynamics, and equilibrium and kinetic chemical reactions...

  5. EFFECTS OF TREATMENTS ON SOIL-LEAD BIOAVAILABILITY: IMPLICATIONS OF IN-VITRO EXTRACTION TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field-scale study on the use of phosphate amendments to reduce lead bioavailabity from soil is being conducted at the Joplin site. One of the tools used to evaluate whether lead bioavailability is being reduced is an in vitro extraction test. The in vitro test simulates the gas...

  6. Responses of non-structural carbohydrates to shoot removal and soil moisture treatments in Salix nigra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Above-ground disturbances are common in dynamic riparian environments, and Salix nigra is well-adapted with a vigorous resprouting response. Soil moisture stresses are also common, and S. nigra is flood tolerant and drought sensitive. Nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) reserves provide energy for rege...

  7. MANAGING ARSENIC CONTAMINATED SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE WITH SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater is a widespread problem in certain areas and has caused great public concern due to increased awareness of the health risks. Often the contamination is naturally occurring, but it can also be a result of waste generated from...

  8. ONSITE ENGINEERING REPORT FOR SOLIDIFICATION/ STABILIZATION TREATMENT TESTING OF CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) is currently developing land disposal restrictions (LDRs) for contaminated soil and debris (CS&D). The Office of Research and Development, through its Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL), is providing support...

  9. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF OFF-GAS FROM SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report will be a survey of methods to treat the contaminated air streams from soil vapor extraction. The report will cover all available processes, but focus on newer and innovative methods such as adsorptants, physical/chemical and biological processes. Operating experien...

  10. Correspondence of Motivational Interviewing Adherence and Competence Ratings in Real and Role-Played Client Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Suzanne E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Canning-Ball, Monica; Martino, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Treatment integrity ratings (adherence and competence) are frequently used as outcome measures in clinician training studies, drawn from recorded real client or role-played client sessions. However, it is unknown whether clinician adherence and competence are similar in real client and role-played sessions or whether real and role-play clients provide similar opportunities for skill demonstration. This study examined the correspondence of treatment adherence and competence ratings obtained in real client and role-played sessions for 91 clinicians trained in Motivational Interviewing (MI), using data from a multi-site trial examining three methods of clinician training (Martino et al., 2011). Results indicated overall poor integrity rating correspondence across the two session types, as indicated by weak correlations (r = .05–.27). Clinicians were rated significantly more MI adherent overall and specifically used more advanced MI strategies in role-played than real client sessions at several assessment time points (d = 0.36, 0.42). Real clients, in comparison to the role-play actor, demonstrated greater motivation at the beginning of the session (d = 1.09), discussion of unrelated topics (d = 0.70), and alliance with the clinician (d = 0.72). These findings suggest that MI integrity rating data obtained from real client and role-played sessions may not be interchangeable. More research is needed to improve the procedures and psychometric strength of treatment integrity assessment based on role-played sessions. PMID:23205626

  11. Subcritical water treatment of explosive and heavy metals co-contaminated soil: Removal of the explosive, and immobilization and risk assessment of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Jung, Ho-Young; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-11-01

    Co-contamination of explosives and heavy metals (HMs) in soil, particularly army shooting range soil, has received increasing environmental concern due to toxicity and risks to ecological systems. In this study, a subcritical water (SCW) extraction process was used to remediate the explosives-plus-HMs-co-contaminated soil. A quantitative evaluation of explosives in the treated soil, compared with untreated soil, was applied to assess explosive removal. The immobilization of HMs was assessed by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, and by investigating the migration of HMs fractions. The environmental risk of HMs in the soil residue was assessed according to the risk assessment code (RAC) and ecological risk indices (Er and RI). The results indicated that SCW treatment could eliminate the explosives, >99%, during the remediation, while the HM was effectively immobilized. The effect of water temperature on reducing the explosives and the risk of HMs in soil was observed. A marked increase in the non-bioavailable concentration of each HM was observed, and the leaching rate of HMs was decreased by 70-97% after SCW treatment at 250 °C, showing the effective immobilization of HMs. According to the RAC or RI, each tested HM showed no or low risk to the environment after treatment. PMID:26340419

  12. The effect of compost treatments and a plant cover with Agrostis tenuis on the immobilization/mobilization of trace elements in a mine-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, P; de Varennes, A; Cunha-Queda, A C

    2014-01-01

    A semi-field experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of mixed municipal solid waste compost (MMSWC) and green waste-derived compost (GWC) as immobilizing agents in aided-phytostabilization of a highly acidic soil contaminated with trace elements, with and without a plant cover of Agrostis tenuis. The compost application ratio was 50 Mg ha(-1), and GWC amended soil was additionally limed and supplemented with mineral fertilizers. Both treatments had an equivalent capacity to raise soil organic matter and pH, without a significant increase in soil salinity and in pseudo-total As, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations, allowing the establishment of a plant cover. Effective bioavailable Cu and Zn decreased as a consequence of both compost treatments, while effective bioavailable As increased by more than twice but remained as a small fraction of its pseudo-total content. Amended soil had higher soil enzymatic activities, especially in the presence of plants. Accumulation factors for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn by A. tenuis were low, and their concentrations in the plant were lower than the maximum tolerable levels for cattle. As a consequence, the use of A. tenuis can be recommended for assisted phytostabilization of this type of mine soil, in combination with one of the compost treatments evaluated. PMID:24912206

  13. The survival of Escherichia coli, faecal coliforms and enterobacteriaceae in general in soil treated with sludge from wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Estrada, I B; Aller, A; Aller, F; Gómez, X; Morán, A

    2004-06-01

    We monitored the effect of the application of treated sludge on the behaviour of enterobacteriaceae (mainly faecal coliforms and especially Escherichia coli) in the soil, and studied their evolution over time after application. Three different sludges were used: two from a municipal sewage plant, one of them had been subjected to anaerobic digestion and heat drying, and the other to anaerobic digestion and mechanical dehydration, and one from a dairy waste treatment to aerobic digestion and gravity thickening. Two types of tests were carried out: type O, in the open air, with no possibility of controlling humidity or temperature; and type L, under laboratory conditions, with controlled temperature and humidity. Sludge tests were also run on unscreened soil previously treated with chemical fertilizer. After 80 days of experimentation the populations of faecal coliforms and E. coli had decreased considerably or were undetectable in assays carried out on the soil/sludge mixtures, under both open-air and laboratory conditions, but that, over the same period, in the mixtures containing chemical fertilizer (calcium ammonium nitrate) there had been a considerable increase in the micro-organism populations studied. PMID:15051081

  14. Modeling Nitrogen Losses in Conventional and Advanced Soil-Based Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems under Current and Changing Climate Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Most of the non-point source nitrogen (N) load in rural areas is attributed to onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). Nitrogen compounds cause eutrophication, depleting the oxygen in marine ecosystems. OWTS rely on physical, chemical and biological soil processes to treat wastewater and these processes may be affected by climate change. We simulated the fate and transport of N in different types of OWTS drainfields, or soil treatment areas (STA) under current and changing climate scenarios, using 2D/3D HYDRUS software. Experimental data from a mesocosm-scale study, including soil moisture content, and total N, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, were used to calibrate the model. A water content-dependent function was used to compute the nitrification and denitrification rates. Three types of drainfields were simulated: (1) a pipe-and-stone (P&S), (2) advanced soil drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (PSND) and (3) Geomat (GEO), a variation of SND. The model was calibrated with acceptable goodness-of-fit between the observed and measured values. Average root mean square error (RSME) ranged from 0.18 and 2.88 mg L-1 for NH4+ and 4.45 mg L-1 to 9.65 mg L-1 for NO3- in all drainfield types. The calibrated model was used to estimate N fluxes for both conventional and advanced STAs under current and changing climate conditions, i.e. increased soil temperature and higher water table. The model computed N losses from nitrification and denitrification differed little from measured losses in all STAs. The modeled N losses occurred mostly as NO3- in water outputs, accounting for more than 82% of N inputs in all drainfields. Losses as N2 were estimated to be 10.4% and 9.7% of total N input concentration for SND and Geo, respectively. The highest N2 losses, 17.6%, were estimated for P&S. Losses as N2 increased to 22%, 37% and 21% under changing climate conditions for Geo, PSND and P&S, respectively. These findings can provide practitioners

  15. Modeling Nitrogen Losses in Conventional and Advanced Soil-Based Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems under Current and Changing Climate Conditions.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ivan; Cooper, Jennifer; Amador, José A; Boving, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Most of the non-point source nitrogen (N) load in rural areas is attributed to onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). Nitrogen compounds cause eutrophication, depleting the oxygen in marine ecosystems. OWTS rely on physical, chemical and biological soil processes to treat wastewater and these processes may be affected by climate change. We simulated the fate and transport of N in different types of OWTS drainfields, or soil treatment areas (STA) under current and changing climate scenarios, using 2D/3D HYDRUS software. Experimental data from a mesocosm-scale study, including soil moisture content, and total N, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, were used to calibrate the model. A water content-dependent function was used to compute the nitrification and denitrification rates. Three types of drainfields were simulated: (1) a pipe-and-stone (P&S), (2) advanced soil drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (PSND) and (3) Geomat (GEO), a variation of SND. The model was calibrated with acceptable goodness-of-fit between the observed and measured values. Average root mean square error (RSME) ranged from 0.18 and 2.88 mg L-1 for NH4+ and 4.45 mg L-1 to 9.65 mg L-1 for NO3- in all drainfield types. The calibrated model was used to estimate N fluxes for both conventional and advanced STAs under current and changing climate conditions, i.e. increased soil temperature and higher water table. The model computed N losses from nitrification and denitrification differed little from measured losses in all STAs. The modeled N losses occurred mostly as NO3- in water outputs, accounting for more than 82% of N inputs in all drainfields. Losses as N2 were estimated to be 10.4% and 9.7% of total N input concentration for SND and Geo, respectively. The highest N2 losses, 17.6%, were estimated for P&S. Losses as N2 increased to 22%, 37% and 21% under changing climate conditions for Geo, PSND and P&S, respectively. These findings can provide practitioners

  16. Session: Discussion of Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2004-09-01

    This final session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop was lead by a facilitator who asked participants for their overall reaction to the research that had been presented during the workshop. Questions addressed by workshop participants included: how do you develop trust and confidence in the research, what are some of the specific gaps in our understanding of wind energy's impact on birds and bats; how do we prioritize and proceed with closing the data/research gaps; how do we connect the dots and bring various research and mapping efforts together; given gaps in the data, what are the critical questions we need to answer to make project decisions now; and, how do we track/influence the policies that will shape wind energy development. Conclusions reached regarding these questions are included in summary form.

  17. Working session 2: Tubing inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J.; Tapping, R.L.

    1997-02-01

    This session was attended by delegates from 10 countries, and four papers were presented. A wide range of issues was tabled for discussion. Realizing that there was limited time available for more detailed discussion, three topics were chosen for the more detailed discussion: circumferential cracking, performance demonstration (to focus on POD and sizing), and limits of methods. Two other subsessions were organized: one dealt with some challenges related to the robustness of current inspection methods, especially with respect to leaving cracked tubes in service, and the other with developing a chart of current NDE technology with recommendations for future development. These three areas are summarized in turn, along with conclusions and/or recommendations. During the discussions there were four presentations. There were two (Canada, Japan) on eddy current probe developments, both of which addressed multiarray probes that would detect a range of flaws, one (Spain) on circumferential crack detection, and one (JRC, Petten) on the recent PISC III results.

  18. DWPF recycle minimization: Brainstorming session

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R.A.; Poirier, M.R.

    1993-10-12

    The recycle stream from the DWPF constitutes a major source of water addition to the High Level Waste evaporator system. As now designed, the entire flow of 3.5 to 6.5 gal/min (@ 25% and 75% attainment, respectively), or 2 gal/min during idling, flow to the 2H evaporator system (Tank 43). Substantial improvement in the HLW water balance and tank volume management is expected if the DWPF recycle to the HLW evaporator system can be significantly reduced. A task team has been appointed to study alternatives for reducing the flow to the HLW evaporator system and make recommendations for implementation and/or further study and evaluation. The brainstorming session detailed in this report was designed to produce the first cut options for the task team to further evaluate.

  19. Comparative assessment of fungal augmentation treatments of a fine-textured and historically oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Covino, Stefano; Stella, Tatiana; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Lladó, Salvador; Baldrian, Petr; Čvančarová, Monika; Cajthaml, Tomas; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2016-10-01

    The removal of aged hydrophobic contaminants from fine-textured soils is a challenging issue in remediation. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of augmentation treatments to that of biostimulation in terms of total aliphatic hydrocarbon (TAH) and toxicity removal from a historically contaminated clay soil and to assess their impact on the resident microbial community. To this aim, Pleurotus ostreatus, Botryosphaeria rhodina and a combination of both were used as the inoculants while the addition of a sterilized lignocellulose mixture to soil (1:5, w/w) was used as a biostimulation approach. As opposed to the non-amended control soil, where no changes in TAH concentration and residual toxicity were observed after 60days, the activation of specialized bacteria was found in the biostimulated microcosms resulting in significant TAH removal (79.8%). The bacterial community structure in B. rhodina-augmented microcosms did not differ from the biostimulated microcosms due to the inability of the fungus to be retained within the resident microbiota. Best TAH removals were observed in microcosms inoculated with P. ostreatus alone (Po) and in binary consortium with B. rhodina (BC) (86.8 and 88.2%, respectively). In these microcosms, contaminant degradation exceeded their bioavailability thresholds determined by sequential supercritical CO2 extraction. Illumina metabarcoding of 16S rRNA gene showed that the augmentation with Po and BC led to lower relative abundances of Gram(+) taxa, Actinobacteria in particular, than those in biostimulated microcosms. Best detoxification, with respect to the non-amended incubation control, was found in Po microcosms where a drop in collembola mortality (from 90 to 22%) occurred. At the end of incubation, in both Po and BC, the relative abundances of P. ostreatus sequences were higher than 60% thus showing the suitability of this fungus in bioaugmentation-based remediation applications. PMID:27220102

  20. Soil erosion measurements under organic and conventional land use treatments and different tillage systems using micro-scale runoff plots and a portable rainfall simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Steffen; Goebes, Philipp; Song, Zhengshan; Wittwer, Raphaël; van der Heijden, Marcel; Scholten, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major environmental problem of our time and negatively affects soil organic matter (SOM), aggregate stability or nutrient availability for instance. It is well known that agricultural practices have a severe influence on soil erosion by water. Several long-term field trials show that the use of low input strategies (e.g. organic farming) instead of conventional high-input farming systems leads to considerable changes of soil characteristics. Organic farming relies on crop rotation, absence of agrochemicals, green manure and weed control without herbicides. As a consequence, SOM content in the top soil layer is usually higher than on arable land under conventional use. Furthermore, the soil surface is better protected against particle detachment and overland flow due to a continuous vegetation cover and a well-developed root system increases soil stability. Likewise, tillage itself can cause soil erosion on arable land. In this respect, conservation and reduced tillage systems like No-Till or Ridge-Till provide a protecting cover from the previous year's residue and reduce soil disturbance. Many studies have been carried out on the effect of farming practices on soil erosion, but with contrasting results. To our knowledge, most of those studies rely on soil erosion models to calculate soil erosion rates and replicated experimental field measurement designs are rarely used. In this study, we performed direct field assessment on a farming system trial in Rümlang, Switzerland (FAST: Farming System and Tillage experiment Agroscope) to investigate the effect of organic farming practises and tillage systems on soil erosion. A portable single nozzle rainfall simulator and a light weight tent have been used with micro-scale runoff plots (0.4 m x 0.4 m). Four treatments (Conventional/Tillage, Conventional/No-Tillage, Organic/Tillage, Organic/Reduced-tillage) have been sampled with 8 replications each for a total of 32 runoff plots. All plots have been

  1. Chemometric treatment of multimode laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) data of fuel-spiked soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Benthem, Mark H.; Mitchell, Ben C.; Gillispie, Gregory D.; St. Germain, Randy W.

    1996-11-01

    Field screening of fuel-contaminated soils using laser- induced fluorescence is a cost effective and timely method of characterizing contaminated sites. Data collected with laser-based screening tools are often extensive and difficult to interpret. Pattern recognition algorithms can be utilized to enable less highly trained personnel to identify contaminants. In this work, fluorescence intensity of various hydrocarbon fuels deposited on various soil types was measured as a function of emission wavelength and decay time, generating wavelength-time matrices. The data were arranged into a three mode array and subjected to trilinear decomposition (TLD). The results of the TLD were then utilized in pattern recognition schemes, specifically, linear discrimination and classification and hierarchical cluster analysis. Classification rates and clustering results indicate that these techniques can be very valuable tools in site characterization.

  2. Chemometric treatment of multimode laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) data of fuel-spiked soils

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, M.H.; Mitchell, B.C.; Gillispie, G.D.; St. Germain, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    Field screening of fuel-contaminated soils using laser-induced fluorescence is a cost effective and timely method of characterizing contaminated sites. Data collected with laser-based screening tools are often extensive and difficult to interpret. Pattern recognition algorithms can be utilized to enable less highly trained personnel to identify contaminants. In this work, fluorescence intensity of various hydrocarbon fuels deposited on various soil types was measured as a function of emission wavelength and decay time, generating wavelength-time matrices (WTMs). The data were arranged into a three mode array and subjected to trilinear decomposition (TLD). The results of the TLD were then utilized in pattern recognition schemes, specifically, linear discrimination and classification and hierarchical cluster analysis. Classification rates and clustering results indicate that these techniques can be very valuable tools in site characterization.

  3. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.

    1997-01-01

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders.

  4. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.

    1997-10-28

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders. 1 fig.

  5. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility closure activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1997-05-01

    Amendment V.13.B.b to the approved closure plan (DOE-RL 1995a) requires that a soil sampling and analysis plan be prepared and submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for review and approval. Amendment V.13.B.c requires that a diagram of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility unit (the treatment, storage, and disposal [TSD] unit) boundary that is to be closed, including the maximum extent of operation, be prepared and submitted as part is of the soil sampling and analysis plan. This document describes the sampling and analysis that is to be performed in response to these requirements and amends the closure plan. Specifically, this document supersedes Section 6.2, lines 43--46, and Section 7.3.6 of the closure plan. Results from the analysis will be compared to cleanup levels identified in the closure plan. These cleanup levels will be established using residential exposure assumptions in accordance with the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Cleanup Regulation (Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-340) as required in Amendment V.13.B.I. Results of all sampling, including the raw analytical data, a summary of analytical results, a data validation package, and a narrative summary with conclusions will be provided to Ecology as specified in Amendment V.13.B.e. The results and process used to collect and analyze the soil samples will be certified by a licensed professional engineer. These results and a certificate of closure for the balance of the TSD unit, as outlined in Chapter 7.0 of the approved closure plan (storage shed, concrete pad, burn building, scrubber, and reaction tanks), will provide the basis for a closure determination.

  6. Transformation of soil organic matter in leached chernozems under minimized treatment in the forest-steppe of West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, I. N.; Samokhvalova, L. M.; Mishina, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    Changes in the contents of total organic carbon and the carbon of easily mineralizable fractions of organic matter (labile humus, detritus, and mortmass) in the layers of 0-10, 10-25, and 0-25 cm were studied in leached chernozems ((Luvic Chernozems (Loamic, Aric)) subjected to deep plowing and surface tillage for nine years. In the layer of 0-25 cm, the content of Corg did not show significant difference between these two treatments and comprised 3.68-3.92% in the case of deep plowing and 3.63-4.08% in the case of surface tillage. Tillage practices greatly affected the distribution of easily mineralizable fractions of organic matter in the layers of 0-10 and 10-25 cm, though the difference between two treatments for the entire layer (0-25 cm) was insignificant. Surface tillage resulted in the increase in the contents of mortmass (by 59%), detritus (by 32%), and labile humus (by 8%) in the layer of 0-10 cm in comparison with deep plowing. At the same time, the contents of these fractions in the layer of 10-25 cm in the surface tillage treatment decreased by 67, 46, and 3%, respectively. The estimate of the nitrogen-mineralizing capacity made according to the data on the uptake of soil nitrogen by oat plants in a special greenhouse experiment confirmed the observed regularities of the redistribution of easily mineralizable organic matter fractions by the soil layers. In case of surface tillage, it increased by 23% in the layer of 0-10 cm; for the layer of 0-25 cm, no significant differences in the uptake of nitrogen by oat plants were found for the two studied treatments.

  7. Impact of mechanical mowing and chemical treatment on phytosociological, pedochemical and biological parameters in roadside soils and vegetation.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Elisa; Falcone, Lino; Loppi, Stefano; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Nali, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Many chemical and non-chemical strategies have been applied to control weeds in agricultural and industrial areas. Knowledge regarding the effects of these methods on roadside vegetation is still poor. A 2-year field experiment was performed along a road located near Livorno (Tuscany, central Italy). Eight plots/strips were identified, of which four were subjected to periodical mechanical mowing and the remaining four were treated with a chemical herbicide based on glyphosate (the producer's recommended rates were used for the selective control of broad-leaved weeds). Our results clearly showed that roadside soil and vegetation are a significant reservoir of anthropogenic activities which have a strong negative effect on several phytosociological, pedochemical and biological parameters. Compared with conventional mechanical mowing, chemical treatment induced (i) a significant increase in organic matter in the upper plot layers (+18%), and (ii) a marked reduction in weed height throughout the entire period of the experiment. Irrespectively of the kind of treatment, no significance differences were detected in terms of (i) biological quality of soil (the abundance and diversity of arthropod communities did not change), and (ii) plant elemental content (bulk concentrations of analysed trace elements had a good fit within ranges of occurrence in the "reference plant"). The glyphosate partially controlled broad-leaved weeds and this moderate efficacy is dependent upon the season/time of application. In conclusion, the rational and sustainable use of chemical herbicides may be a useful tool for the management of roadside vegetation. PMID:26573685

  8. Final report for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    IT Corporation (IT) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the effectiveness of thermal desorption as a remedial technology for removing mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain soil. Previous laboratory studies by Energy Systems suggested that this technology could reduce mercury to very low levels. This pilot-scale demonstration study was initiated to verify on an engineering scale the performance of thermal desorption. This report includes the details of the demonstration study, including descriptions of experimental equipment and procedures, test conditions, sampling and analysis, quality assurance (QA), detailed test results, and an engineering assessment of a conceptual full-scale treatment facility. The specific project tasks addressed in this report were performed between October 1993 and June 1994. These tasks include soil receipt, preparation, and characterization; prepilot (bench-scale) desorption tests; front-end materials handling tests; pilot tests; back-end materials handling tests; residuals treatment; and engineering scale-up assessment.

  9. Treatment of soil eluate containing nitro aromatic compounds by adsorption on activated coke (AC).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiping; Jiang, Zhenming; Zhao, Quanlin; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Su, Hongping; Gao, Xuewen; Ye, Zhengfang

    2016-01-01

    Soil washing is a kind of physical method to remove organic matters from contaminated soil. However, its eluate after washing may result in secondary pollution to the environment. In this study, activated coke (AC) was used to remove organic pollutants from contaminated soil eluate. The effect of temperature, initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) and AC dosage on COD removal efficiency was investigated. The results showed that the organic matter can be removed in the eluate because the COD dropped a lot. When the AC dosage was 20 g·L(-1), 88.92% of COD decreased after 480 min of adsorption at 50 °C. The process of adsorption can be described by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm. The adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The pseudo-second-order model can be used to describe the adsorption process. After adsorption, the acute toxicity of the eluate was reduced by 76%, and the water qualities were in agreement with Chinese discharge standard GB 14470.1-2002, which means the eluate could be discharged to the environment. PMID:27003071

  10. On the fundamentals of thermal treatment for the cleanup of contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lighty, J.S.; Silcox, G.D.; Pershing, D.W. ); Cundy, V.A. )

    1988-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on air emissions from the afterburner, mainly as a result of the regulations regarding destruction and removal efficiency of a principle organic hazardous constituent (POHC) -99.99% of the POHC must be destroyed in the system based on gas measurements from the afterburner. Research focusing on the primary desorber environment, the evolution of contaminants from solids and the resulting quality of the ash, is limited. The primary desorber is often operated at high temperatures which is costly, particularly for the cleanup of contaminated solid, due to high auxiliary fuel requirements. A more desirable option would be to desorb the contaminants from the soil at lower temperatures and then expose the off-gas to a high-temperature afterburner for decomposition of the hazardous compounds. In addition, the ability to predict the quality of the resulting soil is desirable for delisting purposes. To understand the desorption process, research must explore the rate controlling processes that are occurring. The overall goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the fundamental transport phenomena associated with the evolution of hazardous materials from soils in the primary desorber environment. As well, the rate information obtained can be used to model the thermal desorption of contaminants under a variety of experimental conditions; from these results large-scale operating parameters can be determined for optimum cleanup conditions.

  11. Enhanced treatment of refinery soils with open-system slurry reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, J.W.; Lee, M.K.; Horn, W.C.

    1995-12-31

    Refinery site cleanups of residual hydrocarbons arising from long-term operations have become a concern. Because contaminated soil has been generated over many years from spills of many types of materials, it is often difficult to identify the actual spilled material. Because many of these materials are weathered, the less degradable fractions can predominate, creating a challenge for bioremedial process solutions. Open-system slurry reactors were run with an aged refinery soil after a 6-month period of field bioremediation in which 23% TPH removal resulted. The open system (a system where the liquid medium was replaced daily and the solids were retained in the reactor for 2 weeks) achieved 60 to 80% total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal based on the initial, prefield bioremediation soil concentration. A process concept twice as effective as other bioremediation schemes has been devised that takes advantage of the formation and removal of small black particulate solids in an open or continuous slurry reactor configuration. These small black particles are chemically or biologically produced in the open system and with their small size and low density are easily elutriated from the bioreactor as the liquid medium is changed. A statistically designed experiment has determined optimal values of nutrients, temperature, and mixing.

  12. Maintenance Sessions Prolong Cigarette Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Thomas H.; And Others

    Recent smoking treatment programs have shifted emphasis from initial cessation rates to long-term abstinence, with aversion therapy and coping response training having had the most success. A smoking cessation treatment consisting of rapid smoking and behavioral counseling was supplemented with two maintenance treatments. After completing the…

  13. Development and Validation of the Documentation of Occupational Therapy Session during Intervention (D.O.T.S.I.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, O.; Avrech Bar, M.; Rosenberg, L.; Hamudot, V.; Jarus, T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate a form for Documentation of Occupational Therapy Session during Intervention (D.O.T.S.I) based on the OTPF. This form may fill the need for more consistent and detailed documentation of the intervention process. Method: Fifty five pediatric OT's documented 2-3 treatment sessions. A total of 120 treatment sessions…

  14. Calcineurin inhibition blocks within-, but not between-session fear extinction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, Thiago C.; Carneiro, Clarissa F. D.; Gonçalves, Marina M. C.; Junqueira, Lara S.; Amaral, Olavo B.

    2015-01-01

    Memory extinction involves the formation of a new associative memory that inhibits a previously conditioned association. Nonetheless, it could also depend on weakening of the original memory trace if extinction is assumed to have multiple components. The phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) has been described as being involved in extinction but not in the initial consolidation of fear learning. With this in mind, we set to study whether CaN could have different roles in distinct components of extinction. Systemic treatment with the CaN inhibitors cyclosporin A (CsA) or FK-506, as well as i.c.v. administration of CsA, blocked within-session, but not between-session extinction or initial learning of contextual fear conditioning. Similar effects were found in multiple-session extinction of contextual fear conditioning and in auditory fear conditioning, indicating that CaN is involved in different types of short-term extinction. Meanwhile, inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide (CHX) treatment did not affect within-session extinction, but disrupted fear acquisition and slightly impaired between-session extinction. Our results point to a dissociation of within- and between-session extinction of fear conditioning, with the former being more dependent on CaN activity and the latter on protein synthesis. Moreover, the modulation of within-session extinction did not affect between-session extinction, suggesting that these components are at least partially independent. PMID:25691516

  15. Single-Session Radiofrequency Ablation of Bilateral Lung Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Palussiere, Jean Gomez, Fernando; Cannella, Matthieu; Ferron, Stephane; Descat, Edouard; Fonck, Marianne; Brouste, Veronique; Avril, Antoine

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study examined the feasibility and efficacy of bilateral lung radiofrequency ablation (RFA) performed in a single session. Methods: From 2002-2009, patients with bilateral lung metastases were treated by RFA, where possible in a single session under general anesthesia with CT guidance. The second lung was punctured only if no complications occurred after treatment of the first lung. Five lung metastases maximum per patient were treated by RFA and prospectively followed. The primary endpoint was the evaluation of acute and delayed complications. Secondary endpoints were calculation of hospitalization duration, local efficacy, median survival, and median time to tumor progression. Local efficacy was evaluated on CT or positron emission tomography (PET) CT. Results: Sixty-seven patients were treated for bilateral lung metastases with RFA (mean age, 62 years). Single-session treatment was not possible in 40 due to severe pneumothoraces (n = 24), bilateral pleural contact (n = 14), and operational exclusions (n = 2). Twenty-seven (41%) received single-session RFA of lesions in both lungs for 66 metastases overall. Fourteen unilateral and four bilateral pneumothoraces occurred (18 overall, 66.7%). Unilateral (n = 13) and bilateral (n = 2) chest tube drainage was required. Median hospitalization was 3 (range, 2-8) days. Median survival was 26 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 19-33). Four recurrences on RFA sites were observed (4 patients). Median time to tumor progression was 9.5 months (95% CI, 4.2-23.5). Conclusions: Although performing single-session bilateral lung RFA is not always possible due to pneumothoraces after RFA of first lung, when it is performed, this technique is safe and effective.

  16. Investigating the effects of anaerobic and aerobic post-treatment on quality and stability of organic fraction of municipal solid waste as soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Y A; Akunna, J C; White, N A; Hallett, P D; Wheatley, R

    2008-12-01

    The use of OFMSW for biogas and compost production is considered as a sustainable strategy in saving valuable landfill space while producing valuable product for soil application. This study examines the effects of anaerobic and aerobic post-treatment of OFMSW on the stability of anaerobic digestate and compost and soil quality using seed germination tests. Anaerobic digestion of OFMSW was carried out for fifteen days after which the residual anaerobic digestate was subjected to aerobic post-treatment for seventy days. Seed germination tests showed that fresh feedstock and digestates collected during anaerobic digestion and during the early stages of aerobic post-treatment were phytotoxic. However, phytotoxic effects were not observed in soils amended with the fully stabilised anaerobic digestate compost, ADC. It was also found that seed germination increases with dilution and incubation time, suggesting that lower soil application rates and longer lag periods between soil application of ADC and planting can reduce the amount of biodegradable organics in the ADC, thus enhancing the benefits of ADC as soil amendment. PMID:18511266

  17. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicability, see 40 CFR Part 268 Appendix VII. To determine the date any given listed hazardous waste... section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to the... Standards may be modified through a treatment variance approved in accordance with 40 CFR 268.44....

  18. Potential dual use of biochar for wastewater treatment and soil amelioration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschner, Bernd; Werner, Steffen; Alfes, Karsten; Lübken, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    Irrigating crops with wastewater from open drainage channels is a common practice in urban agricultural production in many dry regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. While the wastewater-borne nutrients reduce the need for inputs of mineral fertilizers or manures and thus reduce production costs, wastewater-borne pathogens and contaminants pose a health risk for the producers and consumers of the crops. Furthermore, the input of nutrients with the irrigation water may greatly exceed crop requirements and thus lead to unproductive leaching losses of nutrients. It is generally acknowledged that biochar additions can increase the soil's sorption and retention capacity for nutrients and water. However, positive effects on crop production are generally only observed, if this is combined with mineral fertilizers or manures due to the low nutrient content of biochars. Biochar possibly also has a high potential for use in water purification, replacing the coal-based activated carbon as a sorbent for contaminants and pathogens. It was therefore hypothesized that biochar can be used for pathogen removal from wastewater while at the same time being loaded with nutrients and contaminants. If contaminants are of minor concern the "loaded" biochar can be used as a soil amendment, providing not only long-term sorption capacity but also nutrients. Experiments were conducted with pyrochar from Miscanthus, rice husks and wood chips, which strongly differed in elemental composition, MIR-DRIFT spectra, surface charge properties and sorption potential for DOC and phosphate. When used as top filter layer in a sand column system, the biochars effectively reduced E. coli concentrations from raw wastewater by up to 2 log units. While biochars from rice husks and Miscanthus accumulated N substantially, wood chip biochar showed no N retention. On the other hand, P accumulation was most pronounced for wood chip biochar. Ongoing incubation experiments with the "loaded" and fresh biochar in

  19. Ipomoea hederifolia rooted soil bed and Ipomoea aquatica rhizofiltration coupled phytoreactors for efficient treatment of textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rane, Niraj R; Patil, Swapnil M; Chandanshive, Vishal V; Kadam, Suhas K; Khandare, Rahul V; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2016-06-01

    Ipomoea aquatica, a macrophyte was found to degrade a highly sulfonated and diazo textile dye Brown 5R up to 94% within 72 h at a concentration of 200 mg L(-1). Induction in the activities of enzymes such as azoreductase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, DCIP reductase, tyrosinase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed in leaf and root tissue in response to Brown 5R exposure. There was significant reduction in contents of chlorophyll a (25%), chlorophyll b (17%) and carotenoids (30%) in the leaves of plants. HPLC, FTIR, UV-vis spectrophotometric and HPTLC analyses confirmed the biotransformation and removal of parent dye from solution. Enzymes activities and GC-MS analysis of degradation products lead to the proposal of a possible pathway of phytotransformation of dye. The proposed pathway of dye metabolism revealed the formation of Napthalene-1,2-diamine and methylbenzene. Toxicity study on HepG2 cell lines showed a 3 fold decrease in toxicity of Brown 5R after phytoremediation by I. aquatica. Hydrophytic nature of I. aquatica leads to its exploration in a combinatorial phytoreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia soil bed system. Rhizofiltration with I. aquatica and soil bed treatment by I. hederifolia treated 510 L of effluent effectively within 72 h. I. aquatica along with I. hederifolia could decolorize textile industry effluent within 72 h of treatment as evident from the significant reductions in the values of COD, BOD, solids and ADMI. Further on field trials of treatment of textile wastewater was successfully carried out in a constructed lagoon. PMID:27016633

  20. On the treatment of evapotranspiration, soil moisture accounting, and aquifer recharge in monthly water balance models.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Several two- to six-parameter regional water balance models are examined by using 50-year records of monthly streamflow at 10 sites in New Jersey. These models include variants of the Thornthwaite-Mather model, the Palmer model, and the more recent Thomas abcd model. Prediction errors are relatively similar among the models. However, simulated values of state variables such as soil moisture storage differ substantially among the models, and fitted parameter values for different models sometimes indicated an entirely different type of basin response to precipitation.-from Author

  1. Effects of Post-Session Wheel Running on Within-Session Changes in Operant Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoyama, Kenjiro

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the effects of post-session wheel running on within-session changes in operant responding. Lever-pressing by six rats was reinforced by a food pellet under a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule in 30-min sessions. Two different flavored food pellets were used as reinforcers. In the wheel conditions, 30-min operant-sessions…

  2. A Recipe for Successful Poster Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazard, Brenda L.

    2007-01-01

    Poster sessions are frequently on the menu at professional conferences and meetings. They offer an opportunity to share an idea, a solution, an experiment (successful or failed), or a discovery. Poster sessions tell a short visual story and include a frequently repeated, brief presentation (5-10 minutes), accompanying materials, and informal…

  3. Undergraduate Researchers and the Poster Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gail; Green, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduates presented original research in classroom poster sessions open to students, faculty, and friends. We assessed the reaction of the students to the experience and their reported change in their interest in presenting at conferences. Students enjoyed the poster session experience and indicated they preferred this method over other…

  4. Client Introversion and Counseling Session Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nocita, Andrew; Stiles, William B.

    1986-01-01

    Examined impact of counseling sessions as a function of clients' personality characteristics. Results indicated introverted clients rated their sessions as uncomfortable, unpleasant, tense, rough, and difficult and rated their postsession mood as relatively unfriendly, uncertain, sad, angry, and afraid. Conversely, extroverted clients rated their…

  5. 1971 AERA Research Training Sessions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Joe L.

    This is a report of a 5-day research training session held in New York City from January 30 to February 3, 1971 under the sponsorship of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) with support from the U.S. Office of Education. The purpose of the training session was to develop and improve research competencies of individuals engaged in…

  6. The International Mathematical Olympiad Training Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Cecil; Patruno, Gregg

    1985-01-01

    The Mathematical Olympiad Training Session is designed to give United States students a problem-oriented exposure to subject areas (algebra, geometry, number theory, combinatorics, and inequalities) through an intensive three-week course. Techniques used during the session, with three sample problems and their solutions, are presented. (JN)

  7. Summary of the session on other effects

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this workshop is to discuss the effects of foreign particles on the native beam in a storage ring. This paper summarizes the session on effects not covered in sessions on fast ion instability, electron cloud instability, and cures. The topics discussed are the beam, the foreign particle, how are foreign particles trapped, and how do foreign particles and beam couple.

  8. Early Adolescence: Experiment with Poster Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Michael J.; Shaw, Edward

    1983-01-01

    In a poster session, students explain an experiment with the help of a poster that outlines the experimental procedures followed. Suggestions for preparing posters and conducting poster sessions are provided. A sample poster on the strength of electromagnets is also provided. (JN)

  9. SEPARATION OF HAZARDOUS ORGANICS BY LOW PRESSURE MEMBRANES: TREATMENT OF SOIL-WASH RINSE-WATER LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil washing is a promising technology for treating contaminated soils. In the present work, low-pressure, thin-film composite membranes were evaluated to treat the soil-wash leachates so that the treated water could be recycled back to the soil washing step. Experiments were don...

  10. Dynamic immobilization of simulated radionuclide 133Cs in soil by thermal treatment/vitrification with nanometallic Ca/CaO composites.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Simion, Cristian; Lee, Byeong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Although direct radiation induced health impacts were considered benign, soil contamination with (137)Cs, due to its long-term radiological impact (30 years half-life) and its high biological availability is of a major concern in Japan in the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. Therefore (137)Cs reduction and immobilization in contaminated soil are recognized as important problems to be solved using suitable and effective technologies. One such thermal treatment/vitrification with nanometallic Ca/CaO amendments is a promising treatment for the ultimate immobilization of simulated radionuclide (133)Cs in soil, showing low leachability and zero evaporation. Immobilization efficiencies were 88%, 95% and 96% when the (133)Cs soil was treated at 1200 °C with activated carbon, fly ash and nanometallic Ca/CaO additives. In addition, the combination of nanometallic Ca/CaO and fly ash (1:1) enhanced the immobilization efficiency to 99%, while no evaporation of (133)Cs was observed. At lower temperatures (800 °C) the leachable fraction of Cs was only 6% (94% immobilization). Through the SEM-EDS analysis, decrease in the amount of Cs mass percent detectable on soil particle surface was observed after soil vitrified with nCa/CaO + FA. The (133)Cs soil was subjected to vitrified with nCa/CaO + FA peaks related to Ca, crystalline phases (CaCO3/Ca(OH)2), wollastonite, pollucite and hematite appeared in addition to quartz, kaolinite and bentonite, which probably indicates that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials includes Ca-associated complexes. Thus, the thermal treatment with the addition of nanometallic Ca/CaO and fly ash may be considered potentially applicable for the remediation of radioactive Cs contaminated soil at zero evaporation, relatively at low temperature. PMID:25464047

  11. COMPARISON OF IN-SITU VITRIFICATION AND ROTARY KILN INCINERATION FOR SOILS TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the hazardous waste community, the term "thermal destruction" is a catch-all phrase that broadly refers to high temperature destruction of hazardous contaminants. ncluded in the thermal destruction category are treatment technologies such as rotary kiln incineration, fluidized...

  12. A COMPARISON OF IN-SITU VITRIFICATION AND ROTARY KILN INCINERATION FOR SOILS TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the hazardous waste community, the term "thermal destruction" is a catch-all phrase that broadly refers to high temperature destruction of hazardous contaminants. ncluded in the thermal destruction category are treatment technologies such as rotary kiln incineration, fluidized...

  13. Effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculum treatments in increasing pH and reducing sulfur-total of acid sulfate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufieq, Nur Anny Suryaningsih; Rahim, Sahibin Abdul; Jamil, Habibah

    2013-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness ofsulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in using bran as a source of food and energy, and to see the effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculums treatments for pH and sulfur-total of acid sulfate reduction insoils. This study used two factors in group random designs with four treatments for bacteria inoculum of B1 (1%), B2 (5%), B3 (10%), B4 (15%) and two treatments for organic media (bran) of D1 (1:1) and D2 (1:19). Based on three replications, the combination resulted in a total of 24 treatments. Soil pH was measured using the Duddridge and Wainright method and determination of sulfate content in soil was conducted by the spectrophotometry method. The data obtained was analyzed for significance by Analysis of Variance and the Least Significant Difference Test. The pH of the initial acid sulfate soils ranged from 3 to 4 and the soil sulfur-total ranged from 1.4% to 10%. After mixing sulfate reducing bacteria with the bran mediaand incubated for four days, the pH of the acid sulfate soils increased from 3.67 to 4.20, while the soil sulfur-total contents had been reduced by 2.85% to 0.35%. This experiment has proven that an acid sulfate soil with low pH is a good growth medium for the sulfate reducing bacteria. The bestincubation period to achieve an effective bioremediation resultthrough sulfate percentage reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria was 10 days, while the optimum bran media dose was 1:19, and the bacteria inoculums dose was 10%.

  14. Mixed yeasts inocula for simultaneous production of SCP and treatment of vinasse to reduce soil and fresh water pollution.

    PubMed

    Pires, Josiane F; Ferreira, Gustavo M R; Reis, Kelly C; Schwan, Rosane F; Silva, Cristina F

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the use of vinasse as a substrate for microbial biomass production and its disposal impact on the environment. After grown in vinasse, the microbial biomass (SCP) of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, CCMA 0137 and CCMA 0188, showed high levels of essential amino acids (3.78%), varying levels of chemical elements, and low nucleic acid content (2.38%), i. e, good characteristics to food supplemements. Following biological treatment, spent vinasse biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased to 51.56 and 29.29%, respectively. Cultivation with S. cerevisiae significantly reduced short term phytotoxicity and toxicity on soil microbiota of spent vinasse. PMID:27526083

  15. Bacillus subtilis Strain Engineered for Treatment of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie M.; Derman, Alan I.; Ellis, Brian L.; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Pogliano, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (hookworms, whipworms, and large roundworms) are agents of intestinal roundworm diseases of poverty that infect upwards of 2 billion people worldwide. A great challenge in treating these diseases is the development of anthelmintic therapeutics that are inexpensive, can be produced in great quantity, and are capable of delivery under varied and adverse environmental conditions. A potential solution to this challenge is the use of live bacteria that are acceptable for human consumption, e.g., Bacillus subtilis, and that can be engineered with therapeutic properties. In this study, we expressed the Bacillus thuringiensis anthelmintic protein Cry5B in a bacterial strain that has been used as a model for live bacterial therapy, Bacillus subtilis PY79. PY79 transformed with a Cry5B expression plasmid (PY79-Cry5B) is able to express Cry5B from the endogenous B. thuringiensis cry5B promoter. During sporulation of PY79-Cry5B, Cry5B is packaged as a crystal. Furthermore, Cry5B produced in PY79 is bioactive, with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.3 μg/ml against the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. PY79-Cry5B was a significantly effective therapeutic in experimental Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm infections of hamsters. A single 10-mg/kg (0.071 μmol/kg of body weight) dose of Cry5B administered as a Cry5B-PY79 spore crystal lysate achieved a 93% reduction in hookworm burdens, which is superior on a molar level to reductions seen with clinically used anthelmintics. Given that a bacterial strain such as this one can be produced cheaply in massive quantities, our results demonstrate that the engineering and delivery of live bacterial strains have great potential to treat a significant contributor to poverty worldwide, namely, hookworm disease and other soil-transmitted helminthiasis. PMID:23835175

  16. Editorial: Organic wastes in soils: Biogeochemical and Environmental Aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue of Soil Biology and Biochemistry presents papers from the Second General Annual Conference of European Geosciences Union, Session SSS12 Recycling of Organic Wastes in Soils: Biogeochemical and Environmental Issues, held at the Austria Center Vienna, 24-29 April 2005. Session SSS12...

  17. Drug Abuse Office, Prevention, and Treatment Amendments of 1978. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session on S. 2916.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Human Resources.

    The purpose of the testimony presented before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse in April, 1978 was to amend the drug abuse office and treatment act of 1972, thereby extending assistance programs for drug abuse prevention, education, treatment, rehabilitation and other purposes. Speakers represented such organizations as National…

  18. Influence of a compost layer on the attenuation of 28 selected organic micropollutants under realistic soil aquifer treatment conditions: insights from a large scale column experiment.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Mario; Kröger, Kerrin Franziska; Nödler, Karsten; Ayora, Carlos; Carrera, Jesús; Hernández, Marta; Licha, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Soil aquifer treatment is widely applied to improve the quality of treated wastewater in its reuse as alternative source of water. To gain a deeper understanding of the fate of thereby introduced organic micropollutants, the attenuation of 28 compounds was investigated in column experiments using two large scale column systems in duplicate. The influence of increasing proportions of solid organic matter (0.04% vs. 0.17%) and decreasing redox potentials (denitrification vs. iron reduction) was studied by introducing a layer of compost. Secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant was used as water matrix for simulating soil aquifer treatment. For neutral and anionic compounds, sorption generally increases with the compound hydrophobicity and the solid organic matter in the column system. Organic cations showed the highest attenuation. Among them, breakthroughs were only registered for the cationic beta-blockers atenolol and metoprolol. An enhanced degradation in the columns with organic infiltration layer was observed for the majority of the compounds, suggesting an improved degradation for higher levels of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon. Solely the degradation of sulfamethoxazole could clearly be attributed to redox effects (when reaching iron reducing conditions). The study provides valuable insights into the attenuation potential for a wide spectrum of organic micropollutants under realistic soil aquifer treatment conditions. Furthermore, the introduction of the compost layer generally showed positive effects on the removal of compounds preferentially degraded under reducing conditions and also increases the residence times in the soil aquifer treatment system via sorption. PMID:25723339

  19. Arsenic bioaccessibility and speciation in the soils amended with organoarsenicals and drinking-water treatment residuals based on a long-term greenhouse study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagar, Rachana; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Makris, Konstantinos C.; Datta, Rupali

    2014-10-01

    SummaryAlthough organoarsenical pesticides are no longer applied to agricultural fields in the US, their widespread use until recently, toxicity, and potential transformation to inorganic arsenic has raised serious concern. Drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs) have been proposed as a low-cost amendment for remediation of organoarsenical pesticide contaminated soils. A long-term greenhouse study was initiated to evaluate the effect WTR application on bioaccessibility, geochemical partitioning, and speciation of the Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Two soils (Immokalee and Orelia series) were spiked with DMA (1500 mg As kg-1) and amended with an Al- and Fe-based WTR at two rates (5% and 10% by wt.). Soil sampling was done immediately after spiking (time zero) and after 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 3 (time final) years of equilibration and subjected to bioaccessibility test and sequential extraction. Results showed that compared to the unamended (no WTR) control, As bioaccessibility in the WTR-amended soils significantly (p < 0.001) decreased by 40-70% in 3 years. The Fe-WTR was more effective than Al-WTR in decreasing soil As bioaccessibility. The in vitro and water-extracted samples were subjected to As speciation at time zero and time final. Results showed transformation of DMA into inorganic As, irrespective of WTR amendments. The Orelia soil showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher transformation than the Immokalee soil.

  20. Impact of aging on the formation of bound residues after peroxidase-mediated treatment of 2,4-DCP contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Mónica; Bhandari, Alok

    2006-05-15

    This study evaluated the impact of solute-soil contact time on the formation of "bound" residue in two surface soils exposed to solutions containing 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) or DCP polymerization products (DPP). DPP was generated by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) mediated oxidative polymerization of 14C-labeled DCP in the soil slurry. Soils were preloaded with DCP or DPP for durations ranging from 2 h to 84 days. Bound residue was described as solute that was resistant to methanol extraction. Alkali extractions were conducted to estimate the 14C-activity associated with the humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin/mineral components of the soil. Changes in the distribution of the preloaded 14C-DCP and 14C-DPP were observed as a function of the solute-soil contact time. Results suggest that an assumption of sorption equilibrium based solely on the achievement of constant aqueous- or solid-phase solute concentrations can lead to erroneous conclusions about the establishment of true thermodynamic sorption equilibrium. This work also illustrated that (i) significant "irreversible" binding of phenolic contaminants to soils can be achieved during peroxidase-mediated treatment; and (ii) the "aging" process can lead to greater bound-residue formation over time. PMID:16749713

  1. Flexible session management in a distributed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Zach; Bradley, Dan; Tannenbaum, Todd; Sfiligoi, Igor; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Many secure communication libraries used by distributed systems, such as SSL, TLS, and Kerberos, fail to make a clear distinction between the authentication, session, and communication layers. In this paper we introduce CEDAR, the secure communication library used by the Condor High Throughput Computing software, and present the advantages to a distributed computing system resulting from CEDAR's separation of these layers. Regardless of the authentication method used, CEDAR establishes a secure session key, which has the flexibility to be used for multiple capabilities. We demonstrate how a layered approach to security sessions can avoid round-trips and latency inherent in network authentication. The creation of a distinct session management layer allows for optimizations to improve scalability by way of delegating sessions to other components in the system. This session delegation creates a chain of trust that reduces the overhead of establishing secure connections and enables centralized enforcement of system-wide security policies. Additionally, secure channels based upon UDP datagrams are often overlooked by existing libraries; we show how CEDAR's structure accommodates this as well. As an example of the utility of this work, we show how the use of delegated security sessions and other techniques inherent in CEDAR's architecture enables US CMS to meet their scalability requirements in deploying Condor over large-scale, wide-area grid systems.

  2. Evaluation of the effectiveness of phosphate treatment for the remediation of mine waste soils contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Mignardi, Silvano; Corami, Alessia; Ferrini, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of phosphate treatment for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn immobilization in mine waste soils was examined using batch conditions. Application of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) and natural phosphate rock (FAP) effectively reduced the heavy metal water solubility generally by about 84-99%. The results showed that HA was slightly superior to FAP for immobilizing heavy metals. The possible mechanisms for heavy metal immobilization in the soil involve both surface complexation of the metal ions on the phosphate grains and partial dissolution of the phosphate amendments and precipitation of heavy metal-containing phosphates. HA and FAP could significantly reduce Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn availability in terms of water solubility in contaminated soils while minimizing soil acidification and potential risk of eutrophication associated with the application of highly soluble phosphate sources. PMID:22024096

  3. Polyacrylamide treatments for reducing seepage in soil-lined reservoirs: A field evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation water supplies are becoming limited and there is a need to extend the usefulness of current water resources. Previous laboratory studies demonstrated that certain water soluble polyacrylamide solution (WSPAM) and cross-linked PAM granule (XPAM) treatments effectively reduced infiltration...

  4. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BIOTROL SOIL WASHING SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF A WOOD PRESERVING SITE - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents and evaluates the extensive database from the SITE Program demonstration at the MacGillis and Gibbs wood treatment facility in New Brighton, MN. oil washing and segregation, biotreatment of contaminated process water, and biodegradation of a slurry of the con...

  5. Impact of Long-Term Treatment with Ivermectin on the Prevalence and Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Ana Lucia; Vaca, Maritza; Amorim, Leila; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Erazo, Silvia; Oviedo, Gisela; Quinzo, Isabel; Padilla, Margarita; Chico, Martha; Lovato, Raquel; Gomez, Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Cooper, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections relies on the periodic and long-term administration of anthelmintic drugs to high-risk groups, particularly school-age children living in endemic areas. There is limited data on the effectiveness of long-term periodic anthelmintic treatment on the prevalence of STHs, particularly from operational programmes. The current study investigated the impact of 15 to 17 years of treatment with the broad-spectrum anthelmintic ivermectin, used for the control of onchocerciasis, on STH prevalence and intensity in school-age and pre-school children. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities that had received annual or twice-annual ivermectin treatments and geographically adjacent communities that had not received treatment in two districts of Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. Stool samples were collected from school-age children and examined for STH infection using the Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration methods. Samples were collected also from pre-school children and examined by the formol-ether concentration method. Data on risk factors for STH infection were collected by parental questionnaire. We sampled a total of 3,705 school-age children (6–16 years) from 31 treated and 27 non-treated communities, and 1,701 pre-school children aged 0–5 years from 18 treated and 18 non-treated communities. Among school-age children, ivermectin treatment had significant effects on the prevalence (adjusted OR =  0.06, 95% CI 0.03–0.14) and intensity of Trichuris trichiura infection (adjusted RR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.70), but appeared to have no impact on Ascaris lumbricoides or hookworm infection. Reduced prevalence and intensities of T. trichiura infection were observed among children not eligible to receive ivermectina, providing some evidence of reduced transmission of T. trichiura infection in communities receiving mass ivermectin treatments. Conclusion Annual and twice

  6. A Mechanistic Treatment of the Dominant Soil Nitrogen Cycling Processes: Model Development, Testing, and Application

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, William; Maggi, F.; Gu, C.; Riley, W.J.; Hornberger, G.M.; Venterea, R.T.; Xu, T.; Spycher, N.; Steefel, C.; Miller, N.L.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2008-05-01

    The development and initial application of a mechanistic model (TOUGHREACT-N) designed to characterize soil nitrogen (N) cycling and losses are described. The model couples advective and diffusive nutrient transport, multiple microbial biomass dynamics, and equilibrium and kinetic chemical reactions. TOUGHREACT-N was calibrated and tested against field measurements to assess pathways of N loss as either gas emission or solute leachate following fertilization and irrigation in a Central Valley, California, agricultural field as functions of fertilizer application rate and depth, and irrigation water volume. Our results, relative to the period before plants emerge, show that an increase in fertilizer rate produced a nonlinear response in terms of N losses. An increase of irrigation volume produced NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} leaching, whereas an increase in fertilization depth mainly increased leaching of all N solutes. In addition, nitrifying bacteria largely increased in mass with increasing fertilizer rate. Increases in water application caused nitrifiers and denitrifiers to decrease and increase their mass, respectively, while nitrifiers and denitrifiers reversed their spatial stratification when fertilizer was applied below 15 cm depth. Coupling aqueous advection and diffusion, and gaseous diffusion with biological processes, closely captured actual conditions and, in the system explored here, significantly clarified interpretation of field measurements.

  7. A mechanistic treatment of the dominant soil nitrogen cycling processes: Model development, testing, and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, F.; Gu, C.; Riley, W. J.; Hornberger, G. M.; Venterea, R. T.; Xu, T.; Spycher, N.; Steefel, C.; Miller, N. L.; Oldenburg, C. M.

    2008-06-01

    The development and initial application of a mechanistic model (TOUGHREACT-N) designed to characterize soil nitrogen (N) cycling and losses are described. The model couples advective and diffusive nutrient transport, multiple microbial biomass dynamics, and equilibrium and kinetic chemical reactions. TOUGHREACT-N was calibrated and tested against field measurements to assess pathways of N loss as either gas emission or solute leachate following fertilization and irrigation in a Central Valley, California, agricultural field as functions of fertilizer application rate and depth, and irrigation water volume. Our results, relative to the period before plants emerge, show that an increase in fertilizer rate produced a nonlinear response in terms of N losses. An increase of irrigation volume produced NO2- and NO3- leaching, whereas an increase in fertilization depth mainly increased leaching of all N solutes. In addition, nitrifying bacteria largely increased in mass with increasing fertilizer rate. Increases in water application caused nitrifiers and denitrifiers to decrease and increase their mass, respectively, while nitrifiers and denitrifiers reversed their spatial stratification when fertilizer was applied below 15 cm depth. Coupling aqueous advection and diffusion, and gaseous diffusion with biological processes, closely captured actual conditions and, in the system explored here, significantly clarified interpretation of field measurements.

  8. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC Appendices, Volume 2, Appendix V-A

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This document contains information concerning validation of analytical data for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Floodplain soils located at the Y-12 Plant site. This volume is an appendix of compiled data from this validation process.

  9. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 5. Appendix V-D

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 5, Appendix V - D. This appendix includes the final verification run data package (PAH, TCLP herbicides, TCLP pesticides).

  10. Effects of water treatment residuals and coal combustion byproduct amendments on properties of a sandy soil and impact on crop production – A pot experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Byproducts of coal combustion (such as fly ash: FA), livestock industry (such as chicken manure: CM, or animal manure, etc), or water treatment residuals (such as sewage sludge: SS, or incinerated sewage sludge: ISS) can be used as amendments to agricultural soils, provided that these byproducts (ap...

  11. Session title: Distributed and intelligent databases

    SciTech Connect

    Argos, P.; Mewes, H.W.; Frishman, D.

    1996-12-31

    This session focuses on the recent advances in the delivery of information to the biological community concerning genome sequencing and related information. New approaches include interconnecting existing databases, knowledge-based expert systems, interface languages and multiserver management.

  12. Session summary: Electronics, triggering and data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Rescia, S.

    1991-12-01

    The session focused on the requirements for calorimetry at the SSC/LHC. Results on new readout techniques, calibration, radiation hard electronics and semiconductor devices, analog and digital front and electronics, and trigger strategies are presented.

  13. Teaching Students about Research: Classroom Poster Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley-Long, Kathleen; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Finds that undergraduate students in an introductory psychology class acquired more favorable attitudes toward research as a result of their active participation in the creation and presentation of a poster that illustrates their independent work. Appends poster session instructions. (RS)

  14. Einstein Session of the Pontifical Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The texts of four speeches, given at the 1979 Einstein Session of the Pontifical Academy held in Rome, are presented. Each address relates to some aspect of the life and times of Albert Einstein. (SA)

  15. 78 FR 44922 - Notice of an Education Listening Session Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Notice of an Education Listening Session Meeting SUMMARY: The Education... an Education Listening Session stakeholder meeting for all interested agricultural education stakeholders. DATES: The Education Listening Session will be held August 1, 2013. The public may file...

  16. Analysis and occurrence of seven artificial sweeteners in German waste water and surface water and in soil aquifer treatment (SAT).

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Marco; Brauch, Heinz-J; Lange, Frank T

    2009-07-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of seven commonly used artificial sweeteners in water is presented. The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction using Bakerbond SDB 1 cartridges at pH 3 and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Ionization was enhanced by post-column addition of the alkaline modifier Tris(hydroxymethyl)amino methane. Except for aspartame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, recoveries were higher than 75% in potable water with comparable results for surface water. Matrix effects due to reduced extraction yields in undiluted waste water were negligible for aspartame and neotame but considerable for the other compounds. The widespread distribution of acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamate, and sucralose in the aquatic environment could be proven. Concentrations in two influents of German sewage treatment plants (STPs) were up to 190 microg/L for cyclamate, about 40 microg/L for acesulfame and saccharin, and less than 1 microg/L for sucralose. Removal in the STPs was limited for acesulfame and sucralose and >94% for saccharin and cyclamate. The persistence of some artificial sweeteners during soil aquifer treatment was demonstrated and confirmed their environmental relevance. The use of sucralose and acesulfame as tracers for anthropogenic contamination is conceivable. In German surface waters, acesulfame was the predominant artificial sweetener with concentrations exceeding 2 microg/L. Other sweeteners were detected up to several hundred nanograms per liter in the order saccharin approximately cyclamate > sucralose. PMID:19533103

  17. Comparison of tillage treatments on greenhouse gas and soil carbon and nitrogen cycling in established winter wheat production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage is commonly used to control weeds and prepare fields for planting. Repeated tillage can result in soil drying, sudden bursts of mineralized carbon and nitrogen from soil organic matter, and alterations in soil microbial communities. The effects of tillage on winter wheat cropping systems an...

  18. Chemical characterization and bioactivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from non-oxidative thermal treatment of pyrene-contaminated soil at 250-1,000 degrees C.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, H; Risoul, V; Lafleur, A L; Plummer, E F; Howard, J B; Peters, W A

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we report yields, identities, and mutagenicities of products from heating a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated, Superfund-related synthetic soil matrix without exogenous oxygen. We heated batch samples of soil pretreated with 5.08 wt% (by weight) pyrene in a tubular furnace under a constant flow of helium gas at 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 +/- 20 degrees C. Dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of cooled residues of heated soil and of volatiles condensed on a cold finger after 1 sec residence time at furnace temperature were assayed gravimetrically and analyzed for PAH by HPLC, HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. All four temperatures volatilized pyrene and generated other PAHs, including alkylated pyrenes. We detected bioactive PAHs in the product volatiles: cyclopenta[cd]pyrene (CPP) at 750 and 1,000 degrees C and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) at 1,000 degrees C. We found a clean soil residue, i.e., no pyrene or other DCM extracts, only at 750 degrees C. Control experiments with uncontaminated soil, pyrene, and Ottawa sand plus 4.89 wt% pyrene revealed no CPP or BaP production from soil itself, but these experiments imply that pyrene interactions with soil, e.g., soil-bound silica, stimulate CPP and BaP production. We detected mutagenicity to human diploid lymphoblasts (in vitro) in volatiles from 1,000 degrees C heating of soil plus pyrene and sand plus pyrene, and in the residue from 500 degrees C heating of soil plus pyrene. Three plausible pathways for pyrene conversion to other PAHs are a) a reaction with light gas species, e.g., soil- or pyrene-derived acetylene; b) loss of C(2)-units followed by reaction with a PAH; and c) dimerization with further molecular weight growth via cyclodehydrogenation. This study shows that thermal treatment of PAH-polluted soil may generate toxic by-products that require further cleanup by oxidation or other measures. Images Figure 2 PMID:10964790

  19. Determination of selected parabens, benzophenones, triclosan and triclocarban in agricultural soils after and before treatment with compost from sewage sludge: A lixiviation study.

    PubMed

    Camino-Sánchez, F J; Zafra-Gómez, A; Dorival-García, N; Juárez-Jiménez, B; Vílchez, J L

    2016-04-01

    An accurate and sensitive method for the determination of selected EDCs in soil and compost from wastewater treatment plants is developed and validated. Five parabens, six benzophenone-UV filters and the antibacterials triclosan and triclocarban were selected as target analytes. The parameters for ultrasound-assisted extraction were thoroughly optimized. After extraction, the analytes were detected and quantified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Ethylparaben (ring-(13)C6 labelled) and deuterated benzophenone (BP-d10) were used as internal standards. The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration and recovery assays with spiked samples. The limits of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.40 ng g(-1) and the limits of quantification from 0.1 to 1.0 ng g(-1), while precision in terms of relative standard deviation was between 9% and 21%. Recovery rates ranged from 83% to 107%. The validated method was applied for the study of the behavior of the selected compounds in agricultural soils treated and un-treated with compost from WWTP. A lixiviation study was developed in both agricultural soil and treated soil and first order kinetic models of their disappearance at different depths are proposed. The application of organic composts in the soil leads to an increase of the disappearance rate of the studied compounds. The lixiviation study also shows the risk of pollution of groundwater aquifers after disposal or waste of these EDCs in agricultural soils is not high. PMID:26838425

  20. Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by a Microbial Consortium Developed from Compost Soils

    PubMed Central

    Nwuche, Charles O.; Ogbonna, James C.

    2014-01-01

    A method for the aerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in shake-flask experiments using a consortium developed from POME compost. POME was initially centrifuged at 4,000 g for 15 min and the supernatant was enriched with (NH4)2SO4 (0.5%) and yeast extract (0.25%) to boost its nitrogen content. At optimum pH (pH 4) and temperature (40°C) conditions, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent decreased from 10,350 to 1,000 mg/L (90.3%) after 7 days. The total bacterial population determined by plate count enumeration was 2.4 × 106 CFU/mL, while the fungal count was 1.8 × 103 colonies/mL. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Bacillus were isolated, while the fungal genera included Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Mucor. When the isolated species were each inoculated into separate batches of the raw effluent, both pH and COD were unchanged. However, at 75 and 50% POME dilutions, the COD dropped by 52 and 44%, respectively, while the pH increased from 4 to 7.53. POME treatment by aerobic method is sustainable and holds promising prospects for cushioning the environment from the problems associated with the use of anaerobic systems. PMID:27433536

  1. Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment in the 1990s. Keeping Old Promises, Meeting New Demands. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session (Denver, CO, September 15, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    Testimony on the topic of child abuse prevention and treatment is presented in this document. After an opening statement by Representative Patricia Schroeder of Colorado, testimony and supplemental materials by these persons are included: (1) Marilyn Van Derbur, motivational lecturer, Denver, Colorado; (2) Barry Bennett, program manager,…

  2. Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect: Policy Directions for the Future. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (October 17, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    These transcripts present testimony from the second hearing held on the reauthorization of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA). Discussed at this hearing were total financial costs of child abuse and neglect, cost savings from prevention programs, the role of infant safe havens, and parents' rights. Representative Robert Scott…

  3. Getting Straight: Overcoming Treatment Barriers for Addicted Women and Their Children. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session (Detroit, Michigan, April 23, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document contains the second in a series of Congressional hearings being held by the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families to examine substance abuse among pregnant and parenting women and to explore prevention and treatment strategies. In his opening statement, Committee Chairman George Miller expresses hope that testimony…

  4. Current Status of Drug Abuse Prevention and Treatment. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Crime of the Committee on the Judiciary. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session (September 22, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    This document contains transcripts of witness testimony, prepared statements, and supplemental materials from the Congressional hearing called to examine the current status of drug abuse prevention and treatment programs in the United States. Witnesses include Dr. Edward N. Brandt, the assistant secretary for health of the United States Department…

  5. Microbial Detoxification of Bifenthrin by a Novel Yeast and Its Potential for Contaminated Soils Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Meiying; Geng, Peng; Zhang, Yanbo

    2012-01-01

    Bifenthrin is one the most widespread pollutants and has caused potential effect on aquatic life and human health, yet little is known about microbial degradation in contaminated regions. A novel yeast strain ZS-02, isolated from activated sludge and identified as Candida pelliculosa based on morphology, API test and 18S rDNA gene analysis, was found highly effective in degrading bifenthrin over a wide range of temperatures (20–40°C) and pH (5–9). On the basis of response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal degradation conditions were determined to be 32.3°C and pH 7.2. Under these conditions, the yeast completely metabolized bifenthrin (50 mg·L−1) within 8 days. This strain utilized bifenthrin as the sole carbon source for growth as well as co-metabolized it in the presence of glucose, and tolerated concentrations as high as 600 mg·L−1 with a qmax, Ks and Ki of 1.7015 day−1, 86.2259 mg·L−1 and 187.2340 mg·L−1, respectively. The yeast first degraded bifenthrin by hydrolysis of the carboxylester linkage to produce cyclopropanecarboxylic acid and 2-methyl-3-biphenylyl methanol. Subsequently, 2-methyl-3-biphenylyl methanol was further transformed by biphenyl cleavage to form 4-trifluoromethoxy phenol, 2-chloro-6-fluoro benzylalcohol, and 3,5-dimethoxy phenol, resulting in its detoxification. Eventually, no persistent accumulative product was detected by gas chromatopraphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. This is the first report of a novel pathway of degradation of bifenthrin by hydrolysis of ester linkage and cleavage of biphenyl in a microorganism. Furthermore, strain ZS-02 degraded a variety of pyrethroids including bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, and fenpropathrin. In different contaminated soils introduced with strain ZS-02, 65–75% of the 50 mg·kg−1 bifenthrin was eliminated within 10 days, suggesting the yeast could be a promising candidate for remediation of environments affected by bifenthrin

  6. Seed treatment with 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing pseudomonads improves crop health in low-pH soils by altering patterns of nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Raudales, Rosa E; Stone, Erica; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B

    2009-05-01

    Seed treatment with a 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG)-producing Pseudomonas strain ameliorated abiotic stress disorder in corn caused by growth in a low-pH soil. In two consecutive growing seasons, Wood1R-treated seed gave rise to plants that grew taller (Psoil with a pH<5.0. Under controlled conditions, seed treatment with Wood1R also reduced foliar lesion severity (Psoil. Significant (Ptreatment under both sets of growing conditions. In contrast, suppression of seedling damping-off disease was not indicated in this low-pH soil, because no difference in crop stand was observed for any experiment. Additionally, Wood1R-mediated growth inhibition of seedling pathogens was reduced in vitro at pH<5.0, indicating that secretion of antifungal metabolites may not occur in low-pH soils. This is the first report of an abiotic stress amelioration of acid soil stress-related symptoms by a DAPG-producing pseudomonad. PMID:19351246

  7. Probabilistic assessment of environmental exposure to the polycyclic musk, HHCB and associated risks in wastewater treatment plant mixing zones and sludge amended soils in the United States.

    PubMed

    Federle, Thomas; Sun, Ping; Dyer, Scott; Kiel, Brian

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this work was to conduct an environmental risk assessment for the consumer use of the polycyclic musk, HHCB (CAS No. 1222-05-5) in the U.S. focusing on mixing zones downstream from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and sludge amended soils. A probabilistic exposure approach was utilized combining statistical distributions of effluent and sludge concentrations for the U.S. WWTPs with distributions of mixing zone dilution factors and sludge loading rates to soil to estimate HHCB concentrations in surface waters and sediments below WWTPs and sludge amended soils. These concentrations were then compared to various toxicity values. Measured concentrations of HHCB in effluent and sludge from a monitoring program of 40 WWTPs across the U.S. formed the basis for estimating environmental loadings. Based upon a Monte Carlo analysis, the probability of HHCB concentrations being below the PNEC (predicted no effect concentration) for pelagic freshwater organisms was greater than or equal to 99.87% under both mean and low flow regimes. Similarly, the probability of HHCB concentrations being less than the PNEC for freshwater sediment organisms was greater than or equal to 99.98%. Concentrations of HHCB in sludge amended soils were estimated for single and repeated annual sludge applications with tilling of the sludge into the soil, surface application without tilling and a combination reflecting current practice. The probability of soil HHCB concentrations being below the PNEC for soil organisms after repeated sludge applications was 94.35% with current sludge practice. Probabilistic estimates of HHCB exposures in surface waters, sediments and sludge amended soils are consistent with the published values for the U.S. In addition, the results of these analyses indicate that HHCB entering the environment in WWTP effluent and sludge poses negligible risk to aquatic and terrestrial organisms in nearly all exposure scenarios. PMID:24802072

  8. Parameter selection and testing the soil water model SOIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGechan, M. B.; Graham, R.; Vinten, A. J. A.; Douglas, J. T.; Hooda, P. S.

    1997-08-01

    The soil water and heat simulation model SOIL was tested for its suitability to study the processes of transport of water in soil. Required parameters, particularly soil hydraulic parameters, were determined by field and laboratory tests for some common soil types and for soils subjected to contrasting treatments of long-term grassland and tilled land under cereal crops. Outputs from simulations were shown to be in reasonable agreement with independently measured field drain outflows and soil water content histories.

  9. SOIL ECOTOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, remedial technologies developed to reduce the risk associated with contaminated soils have been evaluated using specific chemical concentrations as clean up goals. A more complete understanding of remedial treatments can be obtained by evaluating soil ecotoxicity ...

  10. H. R. 4681: a bill relating to the treatment of environmental protection and natural resource conservation as aspects of open and fair international trade. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, April 23, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    A bill relating to the treatment of environmental protection and natural resource conservation as aspects of open and fair international trade was introduced and referred to the House Ways and Means Committee. Finding that fair international trade is important to the economic development of all nations, the bill addresses those countries which damage their environments and renewable natural resources in order to achieve a short-term competitive advantage. The bill reaffirms US policy of preventing the degradation of the world's environment in relation to overseas investments, United Nations programs, and the protection of endangered species. The bill establishes an interagency advisory committee to advise the President and Congress.

  11. Characteristics of the soil-like substrates produced with a novel technique combining aerobic fermentation and earthworm treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wenli; He, Wenting; Li, Leyuan; Liu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    The soil-like substrate (SLS) technique is key for improving the closure of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) by recycling the inedible biomass of higher plants. In this study, a novel SLS technique (NSLST) was proposed: aerobic fermentations at 35 °C for 1 day, then 60 °C for 6 days, finally 30 °C for 3 days, followed by earthworm treatment for 70 days. Comparing with the original SLS technique (OSLST), its process cycle was 13 days shorter, and the dry weight loss rate (81.1%) was improved by 24.77%. The cellulose and lignin degradation rates were 96.6% and 94.6%. The concentrations of available N, P and K in mature SLS were respectively 776.1 mg/L, 348.0 mg/L and 7943.0 mg/L. Low CH4 and NH3 production was observed, but no accumulation. According to the seed germination test, the SLSs were feasible for plant growth. This investigation will provide a preliminary foundation for BLSS design.

  12. Effects of cattle-slurry treatment by acidification and separation on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential after surface application to an acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, David; Pereira, José; Bichana, André; Surgy, Sónia; Cabral, Fernanda; Coutinho, João

    2015-10-01

    Cattle-slurry (liquid manure) application to soil is a common practice to provide nutrients and organic matter for crop growth but it also strongly impacts the environment. The objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of cattle-slurry treatment by solid-liquid separation and/or acidification on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential (GWP) following application to an acidic soil. An aerobic laboratory incubation was performed over 92 days with a Dystric Cambisol amended with raw cattle-slurry or separated liquid fraction (LF) treated or not by acidification to pH 5.5 by addition of sulphuric acid. Soil mineral N contents and NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured. Results obtained suggest that the acidification of raw cattle-slurry reduced significantly NH3 emissions (-88%) but also the GWP (-28%) while increased the N availability relative to raw cattle-slurry (15% of organic N applied mineralised against negative mineralisation in raw slurry). However, similar NH3 emissions and GWP were observed in acidified LF and non-acidified LF treatments. On the other hand, soil application of acidified cattle-slurry rather than non-acidified LF should be preferred attending the lower costs associated to acidification compared to solid-liquid separation. It can then be concluded that cattle-slurry acidification is a solution to minimise NH3 emissions from amended soil and an efficient strategy to decrease the GWP associated with slurry application to soil. Furthermore, the more intense N mineralisation observed with acidified slurry should lead to a higher amount of plant available N and consequently to higher crop yields. PMID:26217884

  13. Poster Sessions in Marketing Education: An Empirical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegemann, Nicole; Sutton-Brady, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Poster sessions provide a creative and stimulating alternative to traditional assessment methods in marketing. Poster sessions, as a means of assessment, have long been used in science fields. This article presents the successful implementation of poster sessions as a means of assessment in a postgraduate unit of study. Poster sessions in…

  14. The two-phase leaching of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil using EDTA and electrochemical treatment of the washing solution.

    PubMed

    Finzgar, Neza; Lestan, Domen

    2008-11-01

    The feasibility of a novel two-phase method for remediation of Pb (1374 mg kg(-1)), Zn (1007 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (9.1 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soil was evaluated. In the first phase we used EDTA for leaching heavy metals from the soil. In the second phase we used an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) for the treatment and reuse of washing solution for soil rinsing (removal of the soil-retained, chelant-mobilized metallic species). In EAOP, a boron-doped diamond anode was used for the generation of hydroxyl radicals and oxidative decomposition of EDTA-metal complexes at a constant current density (15 mA cm(-2)). The released metals were removed from the solution by filtration as insoluble participate and by electro-deposition on the cathode. Four consecutive additions of 5.0 mm ol kg(-1) EDTA (total 20 mmol kg(-1)) removed 44% Pb, 14% Zn and 35% Cd from the soil. The mobility of the Pb, Zn and Cd (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) left in the soil after remediation was reduced by 1.6, 3.4 and 1.5 times, respectively. The Pb oral availability (Physiologically Based Extraction Test) in the simulated stomach phase was reduced by 2.4 and in the intestinal phase by 1.7 times. The discharge solution was clear, almost colorless, with pH 7.73 and 0.47 mg L(-1) Pb, 1.03 mg L(-1) Zn, bellow the limits of quantification of Cd and 0.023 mM EDTA. The novel method enables soil leaching with small water requirements and no wastewater generation or other emissions into the environment. PMID:18762318

  15. IFESS 2005 Special Session 5 Artifical Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, J.D.; Greenbaum, E.; Delbeke, J.; Troyk, P.R.; Sawan, M.

    2005-07-01

    A special session on visual prostheses was held during the Annual Meeting of the International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS), in Montreal, Canada, July 5-9, 2005. IFESS is a meeting that typically attracts researchers in implantable nerve stimulators, functional electrical stimulation, and rehabilitation. All of these areas have significant overlap with the retinal prosthesis, but these areas have decades of research behind them. The special session provided a forum for researchers with vast experience in nerve stimulation to interact with leading research in retinal and cortical visual prostheses. The grant paid for the travel and conference costs of the presenters in the session. The session was chaired by James Weiland (the PI on this grant). The session co-chair was Phil Troyk, Ph.D., from the Illinois Institute of Technology. The Department of Energy was acknowledged at the start of the session as the sponsor. The following talks were delivered: Clinical Trial of a Prototype Retinal Prosthesis James Weiland, Ph.D. Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, California The U.S. Department of Energy's Artificial Sight Program Elias Greenbaum, Ph.D. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee A 16-Channel stimulator ASIC for use in an intracortical visual prosthesis Phillip R. Troyk, Ph.D. Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois Two approaches to the Optic Nerve Visual Prosthesis Jean Delbeke, M.D. University Cath de Louvain, Louvain, Belgium Design and Implementation of High Power Efficiency Modules for a Cortical Visual Stimulator Mohammad Sawan, Ph.D. Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, Canada Remaining funds from the grant were used to support Dr. Weiland's travel to the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology in May 2006, with DOE approval, where several projects, supported by the DOE artificial retina program, were presented.

  16. Identification of significant transport processes for organic micropollutant classes during soil aquifer treatment (SAT) - a controlled field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Supplementing existing water resources with alternative sources of water is a challenge in semi-arid areas, as deterioration of water quality must be avoided. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) can greatly improve the quality of the injected water by attenuation of organic pollutants via sorption and degradation processes. However, only little is known about the specific transport processes of organic micropollutants under artificial recharge conditions. Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and their metabolites exhibit a wide range of chemical properties and may undergo very different environmental processes resulting in specific reactions within specified environments. In the presented study fate and transport processes of 25 organic micropollutants (iodinated contrast media, antihypertensive agents, antibiotics, anticonvulsants, lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories, antihistamines and analgesics) were investigated under SAT conditions in a controlled field experiment. Secondary treated effluent (STE) containing the compounds of interest was introduced into the aquifer by an infiltration pond and shallow wells in the vicinity were used for water quality monitoring. By means of strategic sampling procedure and a specialized multi-residue analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography / tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) 3 main transport processes were identified: 1. Transport of non-polar compounds according to their respective octanol-water distribution coefficient (Kow) 2. Cation exchange 3. Colloidal transport Identification of transport processes 2 & 3 was not expected to act as a transport controlling process. Results of the positively charged beta-blockers sotalol, atenolol and metoprolol gave clear evidence for cation exchange processes of the compounds with the aquifer material. Correlation of turbidity and concentrations of macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin) demonstrated the colloidal transport

  17. Upscaling Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Experimental Study of Scaling Relationships for Smouldering Combustion to Remediate Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsman, L.; Gerhard, J.; Torero, J.; Scholes, G.; Murray, C.

    2013-12-01

    Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) is a relatively new remediation approach for soil contaminated with organic industrial liquids. This technology uses smouldering combustion, a controlled, self-sustaining burning reaction, to destroy nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and thereby render soil clean. While STAR has been proven at the bench scale, success at industrial scales requires the process to be scaled-up significantly. The objective of this study was to conduct an experimental investigation into how liquid smouldering combustion phenomena scale. A suite of detailed forward smouldering experiments were conducted in short (16 cm dia. x 22 cm high), intermediate (16 cm dia. x 127 cm high), and large (97 cm dia. x 300 cm high; a prototype ex-situ reactor) columns; this represents scaling of up to 530 times based on the volume treated. A range of fuels were investigated, with the majority of experiments conducted using crude oil sludge as well as canola oil as a non-toxic surrogate for hazardous contaminants. To provide directly comparable data sets and to isolate changes in the smouldering reaction which occurred solely due to scaling effects, sand grain size, contaminant type, contaminant concentration and air injection rates were controlled between the experimental scales. Several processes could not be controlled and were identified to be susceptible to changes in scale, including: mobility of the contaminant, heat losses, and buoyant flow effects. For each experiment, the propagation of the smouldering front was recorded using thermocouples and analyzed by way of temperature-time and temperature-distance plots. In combination with the measurement of continuous mass loss and gaseous emissions, these results were used to evaluate the fundamental differences in the way the reaction front propagates through the mixture of sand and fuel across the various scales. Key governing parameters were compared between the small, intermediate, and large

  18. Efficient Session Type Guided Distributed Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, K. C.; Nagaraj, Karthik; Ziarek, Lukasz; Eugster, Patrick

    Recently, there has been much interest in multi-party session types (MPSTs) as a means of rigorously specifying protocols for interaction among multiple distributed participants. By capturing distributed interaction as series of typed interactions, MPSTs allow for the static verification of compliance of corresponding distributed object programs. We observe that explicit control flow information manifested by MPST opens intriguing avenues also for performance enhancements. In this paper, we present a session type assisted performance enhancement framework for distributed object interaction in Java. Experimental evaluation within our distributed runtime infrastructure illustrates the costs and benefits of our composable enhancement strategies.

  19. The effectiveness of various treatments in changing the nutrient status and bioavailability of risk elements in multi-element contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Száková, Jiřina; Kaplan, Lukáš; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-09-01

    Potential changes in the mobility and bioavailability of risk and essential macro- and micro-elements achieved by adding various ameliorative materials were evaluated in a model pot experiment. Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was cultivated under controlled condition for 60 days in two soils, uncontaminated Chernozem and multi-element contaminated Fluvisol containing 4900 ± 200 mg/kg Zn, 35.4 ± 3.6 mg/kg Cd, and 3035 ± 26 mg/kg Pb. The treatments were all contained the same amount of sulfur and were as follows: (i) digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of biowaste, (ii) fly ash from wood chip combustion, and (iii) ammonium sulfate. Macro- and micro-nutrients Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Cu, P, and S, and risk elements Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn were assayed in soil extracts with 0.11 mol/l solution of CH3COOH and in roots, shoots, and grain of wheat after 30 and 60 days of cultivation. Both digestate and fly ash increased levels of macro- and micro-nutrients as well as risk elements (especially Cd and Zn; the mobility of Pb decreased after 30 days of cultivation). The changes in element mobility in ammonium sulfate-treated soils appear to be due to both changes in soil pH level and inter-element interactions. Ammonium sulfate tended to be the most effective measure for increasing nutrient uptake by plants in Chernozem but with opposite pattern in Fluvisol. Changes in plant yield and element uptake in treated plants may have been associated with the higher proline content of wheat shoots cultivated in both soils compared to control. None of the treatments decreased uptake of risk elements by wheat plants in the extremely contaminated Fluvisol, and their accumulation in wheat grains significantly exceeded maximum permissible levels; these treatments cannot be used to enable cereal and other crop production in such soils. However, the combination of increased plant growth alongside unchanged element content in plant biomass in pots treated with digestate

  20. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  1. Runoff and soil loss under different land management practices in vineyards: grass cover treatments and traditional tillage. Results from simulated rainfall.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Bienes, Ramon; Marques, Maria-Jose

    2010-05-01

    Land degradation control is crucial in croplands located in semiarid lands, due to its low soil formation rate, above all in slope fields. This study is located in the South East of Madrid (Spain), in a vineyard at 800 masl under Mediterranean semiarid climatic conditions, with an average slope of 14%. We studied the impact of traditional tillage measuring runoff and soil loss in plots in two critical moments of the vineyard crop: summer with dry soil, and fall when tillage is done in order to facilitate the infiltration of winter rainfalĺs water. Three treatments were tested in nine erosion plots (4m x 0,5m): traditional tillage ("till"); Brachypodium distachyon (L.) ("bra") allowing self-sowing; Secale cereale ("sec"), mown in early spring. Short (15 minutes) but intense (2,16 mm/min) simulated rainfalls were carried out at each plot: The simulated rainfalls made in summer over the vineyard tilled in spring ("till") produced little runoff (41 ml min-1; erosion rate of 0.24 g m-2) and it lasted 6 min from the start of the shower, it was due to the roughness and because the soil was near its wilting point. The low erosion rate is attributable to the sealing of soil after the rains occurred in spring. In treatments with plant cover runoff began earlier, at the 3rd minute. The average runoff was 516 and 730 ml min-1 and erosion rates were 3.04 g m-2 and 1.41 g m-2 in "bra" and "sec" respectively. There were significant differences (F = 31.6, P <0.001) in runoff coefficient between the three treatments with the highest ratio shown in "sec". The average runoff coefficients obtained were 16% in "sec", 13% in "bra" and 1.4% in "till". Moreover two simulated rainfalls were carried out in autumn in order to test the effect of the autumnal traditional tillage. The plant cover treatments were efficient controlling the erosion (sediment yield were in "till"; "sec" and "bra" respectively 2.66, 0. 29, 0. 11 g m-2 in the first simulation, and 11.67, 0.66, 0.14 g m-2 in the

  2. Students' Roles during Peer Response Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sandra Sim Phek; Samuel, Moses

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the types of roles played by students during peer response sessions and investigated how the students' roles facilitated learning. This qualitative case study involved six Grade 10 mixed-proficiency level students from a secondary school in Malaysia. Data were collected through multiple sources. The findings indicated that the…

  3. Summary of the pion production sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Dytman, S. A.

    2015-05-15

    This is a short summary of the 10 talks given in the Pion Production Sessions at NUINT12. There were 2 very interesting themes that spanned talks - problems with data for single nucleons and pion absorption in the nuclear medium. In addition, a number of interesting new efforts were described.

  4. The Sessional Lecturer as Migrant Labourer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mysyk, Avis

    2001-01-01

    Based on personal ethnographic experience of "becoming the phenomenon" of migrant laborer in Canada's postsecondary education system, critically examines three anthropological perspectives--the neoclassical, the historical structuralist, and the neo-Marxist--on labor migration. Argues that both migrant laborers and sessional lecturers have become…

  5. Posters. [Poster Session at AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    The first of the papers in this poster session, "Developing the Employment Brand: Targeting MBA Campus Hires" (Diane M. Bergeron), posits that employment branding benefits both individuals and organizations. It functions as a campus recruiting tool in a competitive labor market and communicates the organization's values and work environment to…

  6. My Session With André.

    PubMed

    Eigen, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The author shares personal reminiscences of a therapy session with André Green, as well as impressions of professional meetings, readings, and clinical work. He describes personal help he received and aspects of Green's writings on dynamics of madness, as well as the latter's end-of-life discussion of therapeutic limits. PMID:26485484

  7. 48 CFR 9901.311 - Executive sessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Executive sessions. 9901.311 Section 9901.311 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ADMINISTRATION RULES AND PROCEDURES...

  8. OJJDP Family Listening Sessions. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2013

    2013-01-01

    From March through July 2011, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), in collaboration with the Campaign for Youth Justice and the Education Development Center, convened four listening sessions with families and youth who had direct experiences with the juvenile justice system at the local and state levels. The…

  9. Working session 4: Preventative and corrective measures

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.; Slama, G.

    1997-02-01

    The Preventive and Corrective Measures working session included 13 members from France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Slovenia, and the United States. Attendee experience included regulators, utilities, three steam generator vendors, consultants and researchers. Discussions centered on four principal topics: (1) alternate materials, (2) mechanical mitigation, (3) maintenance, and (4) water chemistry. New or replacement steam generators and original equipment steam generators were separately addressed. Four papers were presented to the session, to provide information and stimulate various discussion topics. Topics discussed and issues raised during the several meeting sessions are provided below, followed by summary conclusions and recommendations on which the group was able to reach a majority consensus. The working session was composed of individuals with diverse experience and varied areas of specialized expertise. The somewhat broad range of topics addressed by the group at times saw discussion participation by only a few individuals. As in any technical meeting where all are allowed the opportunity to speak their mind, straying from an Individual topic was not unusual. Where useful, these stray topics are also presented below within the context In which they occurred. The main categories of discussion were: minimize sludge; new steam generators; maintenance; mechanical mitigation; water chemistry.

  10. Aeropropulsion 1987. Session 2: Aeropropulsion Structures Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Aeropropulsion systems present unique problems to the structural engineer. The extremes in operating temperatures, rotational effects, and behaviors of advanced material systems combine into complexities that require advances in many scientific disciplines involved in structural analysis and design procedures. This session provides an overview of the complexities of aeropropulsion structures and the theoretical, computational, and experimental research conducted to achieve the needed advances.

  11. 45 CFR 702.6 - Executive session.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... appear at executive session, except as provided in § 702.11. (e) If such persons intend to submit sworn... them an opportunity to appear as voluntary witnesses or to file a sworn statement in their own behalf and to submit brief and pertinent sworn statements of others....

  12. 45 CFR 702.6 - Executive session.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... appear at executive session, except as provided in § 702.11. (e) If such persons intend to submit sworn... them an opportunity to appear as voluntary witnesses or to file a sworn statement in their own behalf and to submit brief and pertinent sworn statements of others....

  13. Hydrogeophysical Monitoring of Water Infiltration in the Context of Soil Aquifer Treatment at the Shafdan Site (Israel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaken, K.; Furman, A.; Weisbrod, N.; Kemna, A.

    2014-12-01

    Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) is a sustainable technology in modern waste water management. The Shafdan SAT facility in Israel, one of the largest in the world, is being successfully operated for many years. However, due to increasing amounts of waste water the infiltration capacity approaches its limit. Our study aims at better understanding the infiltration process and hereupon improving the efficiency of the infiltration management using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) in combination with hydrological methods. We installed three permanent ERT lines within one infiltration pond close to the city of Yavneh, south of Tel Aviv. Each line comprises 96 electrodes, separated by 2 m in one line and 0.5 m in the other two lines. The sediments below the pond are mainly composed of sands and porous sandstone. In order to calibrate the ERT results, water content, temperature, and electrical conductivity were measured in-situ at different depths in shallow regions of the pond, and cores from Geoprobe drillings were taken for lithological analyses. Continuous ERT monitoring was conducted over two months spanning infiltration scenarios characterized by different flooding sequences. The averaged apparent resistivity data over time show a clear response which can be related to the overall water content dynamics in the vadose zone (over 30 m). The inverted ERT images indicate that the infiltration is strongly affected by subsurface heterogeneity. With a view to setting up a hydrological model, we analyzed the transient behavior of the local drying curves after breakthrough of the infiltration front for each pixel of the ERT image sequence. This approach represents a new, "dynamic" method for subsurface hydraulic zonation based on time-lapse ERT. Our study shows that ERT helps to better understand the dynamics of water infiltration processes in the context of SAT under real-world conditions, and by this may contribute to enhancing the efficiency of SAT facilities.

  14. Dose and frequency dependent effects of olive mill wastewater treatment on the chemical and microbial properties of soil.

    PubMed

    Magdich, Salwa; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Jarboui, Raja; Ben Rouina, Béchir; Boukhris, Makki; Ammar, Emna

    2013-11-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a problematic by-product of olive oil production. While its high organic load and polyphenol concentrations are associated with troublesome environmental effects, its rich mineral and organic matter contents represent valuable nutrients. This study aimed to investigate the valorization of this waste biomass as a potential soil conditioner and fertilizer in agriculture. OMW was assayed at three doses 50, 100, and 200 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1)) over three successive years in olive fields. The effects of the effluent on the physico-chemical and microbial properties of soil-layers were assessed. The findings revealed that the pH of the soil decreased but electrical conductivity and organic matter, total nitrogen, sodium, and potassium soil contents increased in proportion with OMW concentration and frequency of application. While no variations were observed in phosphorus content, slow increases were recorded in calcium and magnesium soil contents. Compared to their control soil counterparts, aerobic bacteria and fungi increased in proportion with OMW spreading rates. The models expressing the correlation between progress parameters and OMW doses were fitted into a second degree polynomial model. Principal component analysis showed a strong correlation between soil mineral elements and microorganisms. These parameters were not related to phosphorus and pH. PMID:23880238

  15. Aging effects on reactivity of an aluminum-based drinking-water treatment residual as a soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Agyin-Birikorang, S; O'Connor, G A

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that drinking-water treatment residuals (WTR) could be used to control mobility of excess phosphorus (P) and other oxyanions in poorly sorbing soils. Presently, only "aged" WTRs (those left, or manipulated, to dewater) are land applied. However, if demand for WTRs increase in the near future, freshly-generated WTRs could be considered for land application. To our knowledge, few studies have examined the reactivity and equilibration time of freshly-generated alum-based WTR (Al-WTR). A laboratory thermal incubation study was, therefore, conducted to determine various extractable Al forms in Al-WTR as a function of WTR "age", and the time required for freshly generated Al-WTR to stabilize. Freshly-generated Al-WTR samples were collected directly from the discharge pumps of a drinking-water treatment plant, and thermally incubated at 52 degrees C, either with or without moisture control, for < or = 24 wk. Additional dewatered Al-WTR samples of various ages (2 wk- to 2 y old) were also included in the study. Various methods of extracting Al [total-, oxalate (200 and 5 mM), and Mehlich 1 extractants] were utilized to assess Al extractability over time. Freshly-generated Al-WTR samples were potentially more reactive (as reflected in greater 5 mM oxalate extractable Al concentration) than dewatered Al-WTR samples stockpiled for > or = 6 mo. Aluminum reactivity of the freshly-generated Al-WTR decreased with time. At least 6 wk of thermal incubation (corresponding to > or = 6 mo of field drying) was required to stabilize the most reactive Al form (5mM oxalate extractable Al concentration) of the Al-WTR. Although no adverse Al-WTR effects have been reported on plants and grazing animals (apparently because of low availability of free Al(3+) in Al-WTR), land application of freshly-generated Al-WTRs (at least, those with similar physicochemical characteristics as the one utilized for the study) should be avoided. PMID:18976798

  16. Mechanistic Determination of Nitrogen Removal By Advanced Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment Systems Using 15n Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T. B.; Morales, I.; Amador, J.

    2014-12-01

    Current levels of nitrogen removal by onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are inadequate, with release of N from OWTS contributing to environmental N pollution, especially in coastal zones where aquatic ecosystems are sensitive to eutrophication. Current mechanistic understand of N removal are limited and mainly attributed to denitrification in the drainfield. Loss of N from N2O production during nitrification, a sparsely researched topic, may be a significant mechanism in advanced OWTS systems that enhance O2 diffusion by sand filter pre-treatment, shallow placement of infiltrative areas and timed dosing controls to prevent drainfield saturation. Replicate (n=3) intact soil mesocosms were used with 15N isotope to evaluate the effectiveness and mechanisms of N removal in drainfields with a conventional wastewater delivery (pipe-and-stone, P&S) compared to two advanced types of drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (SND) and Geomat (GEO), a variation of a SND drainfield. Over the 11 day experiment, dissolved O2 was 1.6 mg/L for P&S and 3.0 mg/L for SND and GEO. Removal of total N was 13.5% for P&S, 4.8% for SND and 5.4% for GEO. 15NH4 labeled nitrogen inputs to drainfields were transformed primarily to 15NO3 in all outputs. Consistent low 15N2O levels were present in P&S, with increasing levels of N2 peaking 48h after 15NH4 injection, suggesting denitrification dominated N removal. By contrast, SND and GEO 15N2O levels rose quickly, peaking 8h after 15NH4 injection, suggesting N loss by nitrification. When the whole system is considered, including sand filter removal, 26 - 27% of total N was removed by the SND and GEO systems, whereas 14% of total N was removed in the P&S system. Our results suggest the SND and GEO systems as a whole are capable of removing a greater mass of N than the P&S system.

  17. Discourse analytic study of counseling sessions in stroke physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Talvitie, Ulla; Pyöriä, Outi

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the interaction between physiotherapists and patients during treatment sessions have found low levels of communicative participation by patients and lack of direct influence by patients on the content of their treatment. This article reports the results of 7 counseling sessions in which physiotherapists and patients with stroke and their caregivers discussed the patients' postural control and balance, which had been tested and videotaped at different stages of the rehabilitation process. The physiotherapists' discourses relating to the videotaped test performances were either brief comments on the patient's performance or critical appraisals with references to difficulties encountered during performance. Performances of the easier tasks were treated by the physiotherapists with rhetorical questions. The second type of discourse consisted of the physiotherapists directing the patients' attention to their problems, and of the patients' and caregivers' initiatives leading to conversation about the patients' problems. The patients understood the significance of the test performance for their life at home in varying ways. The results of this study showed that successful counseling calls for physiotherapists to develop dialogic communication skills to help patients in coconstructing their home exercise together with their social network. PMID:16965256

  18. Utilisation of young and old soil carbon sources by microbial groups differ during the growing season and between experimental treatments in a long-term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, Gunnar; Menichetti, Lorenzo; Thornton, Barry; Campbell, Colin; Kätterer, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM)is the largest active carbon pool in the terrestrial environment. SOM is a key factor for soil fertility, but is also important for the sequestration of atmospheric CO2. In agricultural soils, management of plant residues and the use of organic fertilisers play important roles for maintaining SOM. Switching from C3 plants to C4 plants such as maize, enables a natural labelling in situ; when coupled with compound specific 13C isotope analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) it allows the proportion of new C (fixed after the switch added to soil from above- and belowground litter and root exudates) and the proportion of old C (fixed prior to the switch derived from turnover of organic matter) utilised by the soil microbial community to be determined. (new paragraph) A field experiment in Sweden, amended with different mineral and organic fertilisers since 1956, was grown with C3 plants, mainly cereals until 1999. From the year 2000 silage maize was grown every year. In 2012, soil from four replicate plots of five experimental treatments, N fertilised, N fertilised amended with straw and sewage sludge, and two controls (bare fallow and cropped unfertilised) were sampled three times, at the start, middle and end of the growing season. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were extracted from all soil samples and analysed for concentrations and 13C content. (new paragraph) Total PLFA concentrations and also the PLFA/SOM ratios increased with SOM in the different treatments. Seasonal variation in total PLFA was small except for the most SOM-rich treatment (sewage sludge) where concentrations significantly decreased during the growing season indicating the depletion of a labile SOM pool. Weighted mean values of δ13C in PLFAs show that the plots fertilised with only calcium nitrate had the highest δ13C-values in PLFAs before (-20.24 o) and after the vegetation period (-20.37 o), due to a large input of 13C-enriched plant material. However, during

  19. Bioremediation: Effective treatment of petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil, a common environmental problem at industrial and governmental agency sites

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Donaldson, T.L.; Siegrist, R.L.; Walker, J.F.; MacNeill, J.J.; Ott, D.W.; Machanoff, R.A.; Adler, H.I.; Phelps, T.J.

    1992-07-01

    Bioremediation methods are receiving increased attention for degradation of petroleum-fuel-hydrocarbon contamination in soils. An in situ bioremediation demonstration is being conducted on petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil at Kwajalein Island, a remote Pacific site. Bioreaction parameters studied include water, air, nutrient, and microorganism culture addition. This paper presents planning and design aspects of the demonstration that is scheduled to be completed in 1993.

  20. Bioremediation: Effective treatment of petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil, a common environmental problem at industrial and governmental agency sites

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Donaldson, T.L.; Siegrist, R.L.; Walker, J.F. ); MacNeill, J.J.; Ott, D.W. ); Machanoff, R.A. ); Adler, H.I. ); Phelps, T.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Bioremediation methods are receiving increased attention for degradation of petroleum-fuel-hydrocarbon contamination in soils. An in situ bioremediation demonstration is being conducted on petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil at Kwajalein Island, a remote Pacific site. Bioreaction parameters studied include water, air, nutrient, and microorganism culture addition. This paper presents planning and design aspects of the demonstration that is scheduled to be completed in 1993.