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1

Using soils in sensitivity analysis for vegetation change models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of climate and landscape change often include soil variables to estimate the role of below-ground physics in rainfall and plant cover. Soil texture plays an important role in the cycling of water through the atmosphere, with feedbacks to precipitation. Plants are intermediaries in the recycling of water through ecosystems, and soil water storage capacity and soil fertility are critical to plant survival and resilience to disturbance. For this reason, it is essential that soil properties are not only included in models of vegetation change, but that these models are sensitive to changes in soils data. Our studies test the sensitivity of various forest growth and vegetation models to soil inputs. Increasing the realism of belowground processes and the sensitivity of vegetation models to soil conditions will improve their representation of real-world conditions, thus improving their predictive power.

Peterman, W. L.; Bachelet, D. M.

2013-12-01

2

A nonlinear coupled soil moisture-vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the physical analysis that the soil moisture and vegetation depend mainly on the precipitation and evaporation as well as the growth, decay and consumption of vegetation a nonlinear dynamic coupled system of soil moisture-vegetation is established. Using this model, the stabilities of the steady states of vegetation are analyzed. This paper focuses on the research of the vegetation catastrophe point which represents the transition between aridness and wetness to a great extent. It is shown that the catastrophe point of steady states of vegetation depends mainly on the rainfall P and saturation value v0, which is selected to balance the growth and decay of vegetation. In addition, when the consumption of vegetation remains constant, the analytic solution of the vegetation equation is obtained.

Liu, Shikuo; Liu, Shida; Fu, Zuntao; Sun, Lan

2005-06-01

3

Vegetation Dynamics And Soil Moisture: Consequences For Hydrologic Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current global population growth and economical development accelerates land cover conversion in many parts of the world. Introducing non-native species and woody species encroachment, with different water demands, can affect the partitioning of hydrological fluxes. The impacts on the hydrologic cycle at local to regional scales are poorly understood. The present study investigates the hydrologic implications of land use conversion from native vegetation to rubber. We first compare the vegetation dynamics of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), a non- native specie in Southeast Asia, to the other main vegetation types in the study area. The experimental catchment, Nam Ken (69km 2), is located in the Xishuangbanna Prefecture (21 °N, 100 °E), in the south of Yunnan province in South China. From 2005 to 2006, we collected continuous records of 2 m deep soil moisture profiles in four different land covers (tea, secondary forest, grassland and rubber), and measured surface radiation in tea and rubber canopies. Our observations show that root water uptake by rubber during the dry season is controlled by the change of day-length, whereas water demand of the native vegetation starts with the arrival of the first monsoon rainfall. The different root water uptake dynamics of rubber result in distinct depletion of deeper layer soil moisture. Traditional evapotranspiration and soil moisture models are unable to simulate this specific behavior, thus a different conceptual model is needed to predict hydrologic changes due to land use conversion in the area.

Guardiola-Claramonte, M.; Troch, P. A.

2007-12-01

4

Estimating root zone soil moisture from surface soil moisture data and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the possibility of estimating root zone soil moisture through the combined use of a time series of observed surface soil moisture data and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling. The analysis was based on the interactions between soil- biosphere-atmosphere surface scheme and two data sets obtained from soybean crops in 1989 and 1990. These data sets included detailed measurements of soil and vegetation characteristics and mass and energy transfer in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. The data measured during the 3-month experiment in 1989 are used to investigate the accuracy of soil reservoir retrievals, as a function of the time period and frequency of measurements of surface soil moisture involved in the retrieval process. This study contributes to better defining the requirements for the use of remotely sensed microwave measurements of surface soil moisture.

Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Olioso, Albert; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Bertuzzi, Patrick

1999-12-01

5

Modeling radium and radon transport through soil and vegetation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A one-dimensional flow and transport model was developed to describe the movement of two fluid phases, gas and water, within a porous medium and the transport of 226Ra and 222Rn within and between these two phases. Included in this model is the vegetative uptake of water and aqueous 226Ra and 222Rn that can be extracted from the soil via the transpiration stream. The mathematical model is formulated through a set of phase balance equations and a set of species balance equations. Mass exchange, sink terms and the dependence of physical properties upon phase composition couple the two sets of equations. Numerical solution of each set, with iteration between the sets, is carried out leading to a set-iterative compositional model. The Petrov-Galerkin finite element approach is used to allow for upstream weighting if required for a given simulation. Mass lumping improves solution convergence and stability behavior. The resulting numerical model was applied to four problems and was found to produce accurate, mass conservative solutions when compared to published experimental and numerical results and theoretical column experiments. Preliminary results suggest that the model can be used as an investigative tool to determine the feasibility of phytoremediating radium and radon-contaminated soil. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Kozak, J. A.; Reeves, H. W.; Lewis, B. A.

2003-01-01

6

Model of the Fate of Chemicals in Sludge-Amended Soils with Uptake in Vegetation and Soil-Dwelling Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BASL4 (Biosolids Amended Soil Level 4) soil biota models are described, applied, and discussed. The models simulate the fate of organic chemicals present in biosolids that are applied to a two-layer soil and address the processes of chemical degradation, volatilization, leaching, and sorption to decaying organic matter. Uptake in invertebrates (worms), small mammals (shrews), and vegetation is simulated involving

Lauren Hughes; Don Mackay

2011-01-01

7

Assessment of the impacts of dynamic soil properties and vegetation cover on soil erosion using distributed hydrological model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges in soil erosion modeling are mainly attributed to the heterogeneity of the soil properties and the complex interactions between vegetation cover and soil erosion processes. Current process-based soil erosion models apply empirical adjustment factors to account for the influences of vegetation cover and land managements. Most of soil erosion models assume that the temporal changes of soil properties are negligible over temporal scale ranging from several days to decades. Physically meaningful model representations of soil erosion processes require deep understanding of the mechanisms through which vegetation cover influences the soil particles detachment and transport, as well as the temporal-spatial changes of soil properties. In this study, the dynamic changes of soil properties in soil erosion modeling were investigated, through a distributed soil erosion model (GEOTOP-erosion). Specifically, spatially distributed and dynamical soil variables are introduced into the soil erosion model. Soil particles associated with different grain sizes experience different transport processes. Soil textures and organic matter (OM) contents are updated daily according to the feedbacks on erosion and deposition processes. Other related soil properties are derived by the updated soil textures and OM contents. The influences of vegetation cover are represented by four major mechanisms: (1) modifying net rainfall and raindrop energy by canopy interception, (2) reducing runoff generation by transpiration, (3) retarding overland flow by increasing surface roughness, and (4) increasing soil cohesion by root system. The simulations of this soil erosion model show appropriate interactions between vegetation cover and soil erosion processes. The erosion process could also be dynamically adjusted by the evolution of soil properties. An experimental catchment in Ireland was selected to test the soil erosion model. The simulation results show a good agreement between estimated and observed soil loss in complex land surface conditions. The simulations incorporated dynamic soil properties demonstrate more accurate soil erosion simulation. The coupled model could be extended to more broad applications, such as evaluation of anthropogenic activities, estimation of influences of soil disturbances and long term soil evolution.

Zi, T.; Kiely, G.; Albertson, J. D.

2012-12-01

8

Modeling the Effect of Vegetation on Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of vegetation on passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture is studied. The radiative transfer modeling work of Njoku and Kong is applied to a stratified medium of which the upper layer is treated as a layer of vegetation. An effective dielectric constant for this vegetation layer is computed using estimates of the dielectric constant of individual components of the vegetation layer. The horizontally-polarized brightness temperature is then computed as a function of the incidence angle. Model predictions are used to compare with the data obtained in the Huntsville '96, remote sensing of soil moisture experiment, and with predictions obtained using a correction procedure of Jackson and Schmugge.

Liu, Y. P.; Inguva, R.; Crosson, W. L.; Coleman, T. L.; Laymon, C.; Fahsi, A.

1998-01-01

9

Effects of different vegetation restoration models on soil microbial biomass in eroded hilly Loess Plateau, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation restoration is a key measure to improve the eco-environment in Loess Plateau, China. In order to find the effect\\u000a of soil microbial biomass under different vegetation restoration models in this region, six trial sites located in Zhifanggou\\u000a watershed were selected in this study. Results showed that soil microbial biomass, microbial respiration and physical and\\u000a chemical properties increased apparently. After

Sha Xue; Guobin Liu; Quanhou Dai; Xue Lan; Na Yu

2007-01-01

10

Measuring and modelling water related soil-vegetation feedbacks in a fallow plot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land fallowing is one possible response to shortage of water for irrigation. Leaving the soil unseeded implies a change of the soil functioning that has an impact on the water cycle. The development of a soil crust in the open spaces between the patterns of grass weed affects the soil properties and the field scale water balance. The objectives of this study are to test the potential of integrated non invasive geophysical methods and ground-image analysis and to quantify the effect of the soil vegetation interaction on the water balance of a fallow land at the local and plot scale. We measured repeatedly in space and time local soil saturation and vegetation cover over two small plots located in southern Sardinia, Italy, during a controlled irrigation experiment. One plot was left unseeded and the other was cultivated. The comparative analysis of ERT maps of soil moisture evidenced a considerably different hydrologic response to irrigation of the two plots. Local measurements of soil saturation and vegetation cover were repeated in space to evidence a positive feedback between weed growth and infiltration at the fallow plot. A simple bucket model captured the different soil moisture dynamics at the two plots during the infiltration experiment and was used to estimate the impact of the soil vegetation feedback on the yearly water balance at the fallow site.

Ursino, N.; Cassiani, G.; Deiana, R.; Vignoli, G.; Boaga, J.

2013-08-01

11

Developing Risk Models of Cryptosporidium Transport in Soils from Vegetated, Tilted Soilbox Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum through macroporous soils is poorly understood yet critical for assessing the risk of groundwater contamination. We developed a conceptual model of the physics of fl ow and transport in packed, tilted, and vegetated soilboxes during and immediately after a simulated rainfall event and applied it to 54 experiments implemented with diff erent soils, slopes, and rainfall

Thomas Harter; Edward R. Atwill; Betsy M. Karle; Kenneth W. Tate

12

Evaluation of a Linear Mixing Model to Retrieve Soil and Vegetation Temperatures of Land Targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple linear mixing model of heterogeneous soil-vegetation system and retrieval of component temperatures from directional remote sensing measurements by inverting this model is evaluated in this paper using observations by a thermal camera. The thermal camera was used to obtain multi-angular TIR (Thermal Infra-Red) images over vegetable and orchard canopies. A whole thermal camera image was treated as a pixel of a satellite image to evaluate the model with the two-component system, i.e. soil and vegetation. The evaluation included two parts: evaluation of the linear mixing model and evaluation of the inversion of the model to retrieve component temperatures. For evaluation of the linear mixing model, the RMSE is 0.2 K between the observed and modelled brightness temperatures, which indicates that the linear mixing model works well under most conditions. For evaluation of the model inversion, the RMSE between the model retrieved and the observed vegetation temperatures is 1.6K, correspondingly, the RMSE between the observed and retrieved soil temperatures is 2.0K. According to the evaluation of the sensitivity of retrieved component temperatures on fractional cover, the linear mixing model gives more accurate retrieval accuracies for both soil and vegetation temperatures under intermediate fractional cover conditions.

Yang, Jinxin; Jia, Li; Cui, Yaokui; Zhou, Jie; Menenti, Massimo

2014-03-01

13

Spatial variability models of soil respiration from some vegetation types in Maritime Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil respiration is an important part of the terrestrial carbon cycling and is influenced by several aspects, such as type and distribution of vegetation. In this work we evaluated the spatial variability of the soil respiration (or soil CO2 emission) in three sites located in Maritime Antarctica at Admiralty Bay, King George Island under contrasting vegetation, representative of this region: (I) a mixed Deschampsia/Mosses field, (II) a moss carpet of Sanionia uncinata and (III) a grass field of Deschampsia Antarctica. Soil respiration was measured in a 60-point regularly spaced grid previously installed at each site. The grid size was 3 x 1.5 meter with a minimum distance of 0.5 m between grid points in March 2009 during the morning at site I and afternoon at sites II and III. The spatial variability was analyzed by using descriptive statistics and the adjustment of the semivariogram models to the soil respiration and soil temperature data. The model adjusted to the semivariogram was used in order to generate the so-called kriging map by interpolation techniques, estimating the studied property at non-sampled places. Higher mean emission was observed in the Deschampsia field (4.13 µmol m-2 s-1), but the highest variability was detected in the mixed vegetation site I. The overall results indicate that soil temperature is not directly related to the spatial pattern of the soil respiration in the studied sites. The degree of spatial dependence was moderate for emission in all studied sites. Temperature values presented degree of spatial dependence classified as strong for sites I and III and moderate in site II. CO2 emission ranges were 1.29, 2.23 and 2.79 m for sites I - II - III, respectively. Higher range values observed in site II and III suggest higher emission homogeneity. In mixed vegetation at site I, points under Deschampsia Antarctica had an overall higher mean respiration (1.49 µmol m-2 s-1) compared with remaining points under mosses tuffs (1.32 µmol m-2 s-1). Kriging maps of soil CO2 emission and soil temperature indicate a more continuity of isolines for emission maps from sites II and III. This can also be observed in soil temperature maps, suggesting that vegetation cover may also control the continuity or discontinuity of both properties in space. Therefore distribution of soil respiration and soil temperature did not appear to be related to soil type, but more associated to the vegetation type and distribution at each site.

La Scala, Newton, Jr.; Mendonça, Eduardo S.; Rodrigo Panosso, Alan; Dimas, Felipe N.; Schaefer, Carlos Eduardo G.

2010-05-01

14

Measuring and Modelling water related soil - vegetation feedbacks in a fallow plot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land fallowing is one possible response to shortage of water for irrigation. Leaving the soil unseeded implies a change of the soil functioning that has an impact on the water cycle. The development of a soil crust in the open spaces between the patterns of grass weed affects the soil properties and the field scale water balance. The objective of this study was to test the potential of integrated non invasive geophysics and ground-image analysis and to quantify the effect of the soil vegetation interaction on the water balance of a fallow land at the local and plot scale. We measured repeatedly in space and time local soil saturation and vegetation cover over two small plots located in southern Sardinia, Italy, during an infiltration experiment. One plot was left unseeded and the other was cultivated. The comparative analysis of the experimental data evidenced a positive feedback between weed growth and infiltration at the fallow plot. A simple bucket model captured the different soil moisture dynamics at the two plots during the infiltration experiment and was used to estimate the impact of the soil vegetation feedback on the yearly water balance at the site.

Ursino, Nadia; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Vignoli, Giulio; Boaga, Jacopo

2013-04-01

15

Numerical modelling of snow and frozen soil processes for a multi-layer atmosphere-soil-vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snowcover plays an important role in Earth's climate system because of its high albedo, low thermal conductivity, roughness length, and ability to store water. A sophisticated process-based snow model is useful for representing the complex snow physics. In the present study, an existing multi-layer atmosphere-SOiL-VEGetation model (SOLVEG) developed by the authors was modified to simulate snow and frozen soil processes. The schemes of a multi-layer snow structure for heat and liquid water transports in snow and freeze-thaw processes of soil moisture were incorporated into the model. In the snow scheme, the liquid water transfer in snow was modeled based on the processes of both capillary rise and gravitational drainage in order to accurately simulate water movement in unsaturated snow. The performance of the modified model was tested at the pre-alpine grassland site in TERestrial ENvironmental Observatories (TERENO) networks in Germany. The modified model overall reproduced the temporal changes in observations of surface energy fluxes, albedo, snow depth and surface temperature, and soil temperature and moisture. The measured increases of soil water content due to infiltration of melted snow to the soil were simulated by the modified model. The observed large negative sensible and positive latent heat fluxes associated with the typical south foehn, a warm and dry downslope wind of the Alps, were also reproduced in the simulation.

Katata, Genki; Mauder, Matthias

2014-05-01

16

A dynamic soil water threshold for vegetation water stress derived from stomatal conductance models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many terrestrial ecosystems, vegetation experiences limitation by different resources at different times. These resources include, among others, light, nutrients, and water. Frequently, however, leaf-level modeling frameworks that unite these limitations rely on empirical functions to scale stomatal conductance as a function of water stress. These functions use prescribed values of soil water content to mark the transition between water-stressed

Ryan E. Emanuel; Paolo D'Odorico; Howard E. Epstein

2007-01-01

17

Advances in modelling the coevolving soils, landforms and vegetation in semiarid regions: a multidisciplinary approach.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiarid landscapes exhibit highly nonlinear interactions between coevolving physical and biological processes. Coevolution in these systems leads to the emergence of remarkable soil, landform and vegetation patterns. Growing concern over ecosystem resilience to climate and land use perturbations that could result in irreversible degradation imposes a pressing need for research, aiming at elucidating the processes, feedbacks, and dynamics leading to these coevolving patterns. This is particularly important since degradation in drylands has been frequently linked to feedback effects between soils, biota and erosion processes. In many dryland regions, feedbacks are responsible for the emergence of areas with low infiltration in unvegetated soil patches (due to surface crusting) and high infiltration rates in the vegetated soil patches (due to improved soil aggregation and macroporosity). This variable infiltration field gives rise to runoff-runon redistribution which determines areas of soil erosion and deposition. We have combined a coupled landform-soil-vegetation model with remote sensing and field data to capture these feedbacks and improve our knowledge of these coevolving biotic-abiotic processes. We discuss and present results showing that the dynamics of the individual processes and their response to climatic and anthropic disturbances cannot be fully understood or predicted if nonlinear feedbacks and coevolution are not considered. Implications for management and restoration efforts are illustrated using data and observations from agricultural sites in central Australia and reclaimed mining sites in Spain.

Saco, Patricia M.; Moreno-de las Heras, Mariano; Willgoose, Garry R.

2014-05-01

18

A Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for upscaled soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer modeling to evaluate satellite-based soil moisture measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) based algorithm was developed to derive upscaled land surface parameters for a soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model using time series data of satellite-measured atmospheric forcings (e.g., precipitation), and land surface states (e.g., soil moisture and vegetation). This study focuses especially on the evaluation of soil moisture measurements of the Aqua satellite based Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer

N. N. Das; B. P. Mohanty; E. G. Njoku

2008-01-01

19

Development and validation of a dynamical atmosphere-vegetation-soil HTO transport and OBT formation model.  

PubMed

A numerical model simulating transport of tritiated water (HTO) in atmosphere-soil-vegetation system, and, accumulation of organically bound tritium (OBT) in vegetative leaves was developed. Characteristic of the model is, for calculating tritium transport, it incorporates a dynamical atmosphere-soil-vegetation model (SOLVEG-II) that calculates transport of heat and water, and, exchange of CO(2). The processes included for calculating tissue free water tritium (TFWT) in leaves are HTO exchange between canopy air and leaf cellular water, root uptake of aqueous HTO in soil, photosynthetic assimilation of TFWT into OBT, and, TFWT formation from OBT through respiration. Tritium fluxes at the last two processes are input to a carbohydrate compartment model in leaves that calculates OBT translocation from leaves and allocation in them, by using photosynthesis and respiration rate in leaves. The developed model was then validated through a simulation of an existing experiment of acute exposure of grape plants to atmospheric HTO. Calculated TFWT concentration in leaves increased soon after the start of HTO exposure, reaching to equilibrium with the atmospheric HTO within a few hours, and then rapidly decreased after the end of the exposure. Calculated non-exchangeable OBT amount in leaves linearly increased during the exposure, and after the exposure, rapidly decreased in daytime, and, moderately nighttime. These variations in the calculated TFWT concentrations and OBT amounts, each mainly controlled by HTO exchange between canopy air and leaf cellular water and by carbohydrates translocation from leaves, fairly agreed with the observations within average errors of a factor of two. PMID:21665337

Ota, Masakazu; Nagai, Haruyasu

2011-09-01

20

Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) and Sediment Discharge Validation in a small, Pacific Northwestern Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Distributed Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) and its sediment production prediction capabilities are evaluated in a small, gaged, timber-production watershed in northwestern California. McReady Creek drains a 5 km2 basin dominated by coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). Forest soils are fine grained and poorly consolidated marine sediments approximately 40 kya. Stream and sediment discharge data collected by Humboldt State University and Humboldt Redwoods Company (HRC) from 2003 to present were used to calibrate and validate DHSVM. Model parameters like forest stand (over- and understory height, fractional coverage, monthly LAI, etc) and soil characteristics (porosity, bulk density, field capacity, etc) were measured via in-field investigations or gathered by HRC through timber cruising activities. All data was gridded to 10 meters for the analysis. Forest stand data was manipulated throughout the model run to reflect the operational nature of the watershed. Modeled stream discharge will be evaluated against observed discharge on an event by event basis, as well as against weekly and monthly totals. Modeled sediment discharge will be evaluated on a similar basis, including total annual sediment discharge. Sources of potential incoherence between modeled and observed data may be road density (6.7 km / km2) and road/stream connectivity or the presence of legacy forest practices that still produce sediment within the basin. Further work will involve field investigations that will clarify road/stream connectivity and legacy sediment production zones.

Huggett, B. W.; Stubblefield, A. P.; Dhakal, A. S.; Sullivan, K.

2009-12-01

21

A climate sensitive model of carbon transfer through atmosphere, vegetation and soil in managed forest ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For predicting the future of the forest carbon cycle in forest ecosystems, it is necessary to account for both the climate and management impacts. Climate effects are significant not only at a short time scale but also at the temporal horizon of a forest life cycle e.g. through shift in atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature and precipitation regimes induced by the enhanced greenhouse effect. Intensification of forest management concerns an increasing fraction of temperate and tropical forests and untouched forests represents only one third of the present forest area. Predicting tools are therefore needed to project climate and management impacts over the forest life cycle and understand the consequence of management on the forest ecosystem carbon cycle. This communication summarizes the structure, main components and properties of a carbon transfer model that describes the processes controlling the carbon cycle of managed forest ecosystems. The model, GO+, links three main components, (i) a module describing the vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges in 3D, (ii) a plant growth module and a (iii) soil carbon dynamics module in a consistent carbon scheme of transfer from atmosphere back into the atmosphere. It was calibrated and evaluated using observed data collected on coniferous and broadleaved forest stands. The model predicts the soil, water and energy balance of entire rotations of managed stands from the plantation to the final cut and according to a range of management alternatives. It accounts for the main soil and vegetation management operations such as soil preparation, understorey removal, thinnings and clearcutting. Including the available knowledge on the climatic sensitivity of biophysical and biogeochemical processes involved in atmospheric exchanges and carbon cycle of forest ecosystems, GO+ can produce long-term backward or forward simulations of forest carbon and water cycles under a range of climate and management scenarios. This model applications to the prediction and analysis of climate scenarios impacts on southwestern European forests underlines the role of management alternatives, precipitation regime, CO2 concentration and atmospheric humidity .Frequency of soil preparation operations and understorey management play a major role in controlling the net carbon flux into the atmosphere at the juvenile stage ( 0 to 10 y-old) whereas climate and rotation duration control the functioning of adult phase. The model predicts that a drier and warmer climate will reduce the forest productivity and deplete soil and carbon stocks in managed forest from Southwestern Europe within decades, such effects being amplified for most intensive management alternatives. This work was part of the European research project GHG-Europe (EU contract No. 244122) and the French national project FAST co-funded by the Ecology, Agriculture and Forestry Ministries and the Region Aquitaine.

Loustau, D.; Moreaux, V.; Bosc, A.; Trichet, P.; Kumari, J.; Rabemanantsoa, T.; Balesdent, J.; Jolivet, C.; Medlyn, B. E.; Cavaignac, S.; Nguyen-The, N.

2012-12-01

22

Effects of ionic strength, particle size, flow rate, and vegetation type on colloid transport through a dense vegetation saturated soil system: Experiments and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colloids are widely distributed in agricultural runoff, especially from croplands with manure applications. Dense vegetation has been suggested to be effective to reduce surface runoff contaminants, including colloidal particles. In this work, small scale laboratory experiments were used to determine the influence of physical and chemical factors (i.e. solution ionic strength, particle size, surface flow rate, and vegetation type) on the surface transport and removal of colloids in a dense vegetation system without drainage. Conservative tracer studies of bromide were conducted as a control to quantify the deposition of colloids onto grass surfaces and the mass exchange of colloids between the overland flow and soil underneath under various experimental conditions. The deposition of colloids enhanced with increases in solution ionic strength and particle size, and with decreases in flow rate. We also found vegetation type played an important role on colloid transport with more deposition onto Ryegrass than onto Bahia grass under the same experimental conditions. A mathematical model combining overland flow, convection-dispersion equations and exchange layer theory was developed to simulate the transport of colloids in overland flow through the dense vegetation. Simulations of the model fitted the experimental data well and helped to understand the effect of ionic strength, particle size, flow rate, and vegetation type on colloid transport and removal in dense vegetation. Although additional investigations are still needed, findings from this study can inform the installation and maintenance of dense vegetation systems, such as vegetative filter strips, to reduce the loading of colloids in surface runoff.

Yu, Congrong; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Gao, Bin; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

2013-08-01

23

Validation and comparison of two soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models for tropical Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to compare and validate two soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) schemes: TERRA-ML and the Community Land Model (CLM). Both SVAT schemes are run in standalone mode (decoupled from an atmospheric model) and forced with meteorological in-situ measurements obtained at several tropical African sites. Model performance is quantified by comparing simulated sensible and latent heat fluxes with eddy-covariance measurements. Our analysis indicates that the Community Land Model corresponds more closely to the micrometeorological observations, reflecting the advantages of the higher model complexity and physical realism. Deficiencies in TERRA-ML are addressed and its performance is improved: (1) adjusting input data (root depth) to region-specific values (tropical evergreen forest) resolves dry-season underestimation of evapotranspiration; (2) adjusting the leaf area index and albedo (depending on hard-coded model constants) resolves overestimations of both latent and sensible heat fluxes; and (3) an unrealistic flux partitioning caused by overestimated superficial water contents is reduced by adjusting the hydraulic conductivity parameterization. CLM is by default more versatile in its global application on different vegetation types and climates. On the other hand, with its lower degree of complexity, TERRA-ML is much less computationally demanding, which leads to faster calculation times in a coupled climate simulation.

Akkermans, T.; Lauwaet, D.; Demuzere, M.; Vogel, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Ardö, J.; Caquet, B.; de Grandcourt, A.; Merbold, L.; Kutsch, W.; van Lipzig, N.

2012-06-01

24

Vegetation and soil characteristics data in the COSMO-CLM and WRF regional climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper investigates the vegetation and soil characteristics time invariant boundary data of two regional climate models CCLM (COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling - COSMO in CLimate Mode) and WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model). The available choice of the data is presented and the interchangeability from CCLM point of view is investigated. In several runs of the CCLM with ERA40 and NCEP boundary forcings the question how the selected invariant boundary influences actual CCLM simulations is addressed. The considered model domain is the MED-CORDEX (Mediterranean COordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) area. Despite of incompatibilities in the land use and soil texture category definitions a principal suitability of all investigated data sets was found. Variations in the modeling results introduced by the specific choice of time invariant boundary reach up 1.1 K in the area monthly mean temperature and up to 18% in the area mean precipitation. In total they are in range of the variations which result from the choice of reanalysis data. Thus, addition efforts in improvement of the time invariant boundary data applied in SVAT models associated with regional climate models can help to reduce the uncertainty in the modeling results.

Smiatek, Gerhard

2014-05-01

25

Radar for Measuring Soil Moisture Under Vegetation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-frequency, polarimetric, spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system has been proposed for measuring the moisture content of soil as a function of depth, even in the presence of overlying vegetation. These measurements are needed because data on soil moisture under vegetation canopies are not available now and are necessary for completing mathematical models of global energy and water balance with major implications for global variations in weather and climate.

Moghaddam, Mahta; Moller, Delwyn; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

2004-01-01

26

Vegetation and soil respiration: Correlations and controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil respiration rates vary significantly among major plant biomes, suggesting that vegetation type influences the rate of soil respiration. However, correlations among climatic factors, vegetation distributions, and soil respiration rates make cause-effect arguments difficult. Vegetation may affect soil respiration by influencing soil microclimate and structure, the quantity of detritus supplied to the soil, the quality of that detritus, and the

James W. Raich; Aydin Tufekciogul

2000-01-01

27

Evaluating the Influence of Various Vegetation and Soil Types on Water and Energy Balances in Northern Wisconsin Using a Dynamic Biosphere Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in vegetation composition and soil types across large landscapes significantly influence coupled energy-water-carbon cycles at the watershed scale. Past efforts to quantify northern Wisconsin's energy and water balances using atmospheric, groundwater and other landscape models have used only one land cover type. The next step is to account for the heterogeneity that is found in both soil and vegetation

J. A. Vano; J. A. Foley; C. J. Kucharik; M. T. Coe

2004-01-01

28

Impact of improved atmospheric forcing data and soil-vegetation parameters in terrestrial hydrologic modeling over West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent studies have shown the importance of land surface-atmosphere coupling in the monsoon system of the West Africa. The African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) has provided an opportunity to investigate model deficiencies in land surface processes by providing high-resolution datasets. In participation with the AMMA Land Surface Model Intercomparison Project (ALMIP2), a global land surface model, the Minimal Advanced Treatments of Surface Interaction and Runoff (MATSIRO), is regionalized for conducting a high space-time resolution experiment (0.05°, 30 minutes). Multi-year offline simulations using improved rainfall datasets derived from local rain gauges and radar-based products are compared with relative coarse resolution satellite precipitation products, such as Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; 0.25°, 3 hourly) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP; 0.1°, hourly) to better understand the effect of precipitation on simulated hydrological responses. Sensitivity experiments are also conducted by incorporating more refined distributions of soil-vegetation parameters accounting for natural grid variability to identify how soil properties and interannual vegetation variability are significantly related to water and energy balances in West Africa. Further examination of individual soil parameter and vegetation type is also performed to identify their proper specification in land surface parameterization schemes. Simulations of surface fluxes, soil temperature and soil moisture in dry months and wet months are verified separately by using observations from the AMMA-CATCH observing system as well as several satellite-based products. In general, this study demonstrates that improved forcing and representation of soil-vegetation parameters can improve land surface model simulations from seasonal to interannual time scale.

HE, X.; Kim, H.; Yeh, P. J.; Oki, T.

2012-12-01

29

Floodplain restoration leads to wetter and more diverse soil water regimes and vegetation types: Insight from an integrated hydroecological model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture availability in the root zone is one of the most important factors affecting plant species composition by creating stress on vegetation both when it is lacking (water stress) and when it is excessive (oxygen stress). Plant species have individual tolerance ranges along a gradient of available soil moisture that can be described as a hydrological niche. Combining a hydrological model and a habitat niche model can provide spatially-extensive predictions of vegetation composition, which would be useful for land management decision-making under changing environmental conditions. Floodplain ecosystem restoration provides an example of the utility of such a predictive tool as a site is hydrologically altered to create a wetter environment. We developed an integrated hydroecological model that links a quasi-3D, variably-saturated, groundwater flow model that simulates soil moisture with several plant habitat niche models. The focus of this research is a floodplain in southwestern Wisconsin where post-settlement alluvium was removed with the expectation of increasing regionally-threatened wetland plant species. Hydrological niche models were created based on simultaneous observations of vegetation composition and surface effective saturation. These models were then used to predict probability of presence for two dominant plant species (Carex vulpinoidea and Elymus canadensis) and composite wetland indicator score based on simulated surface effective saturation across the study site. The model predicts the site to be more wetland-species dominant overall following restoration. However, the soil moisture regime and vegetation types are slightly drier following restoration in zones where a silt-clay confining layer is present that inhibits vertical groundwater flow from a basal gravel aquifer to the near-surface soil zone. This differential response to restoration leads to a mosaic of soil water regimes across the site, which is reflected in a wider distribution of vegetation types. Therefore, the management goal of increasing wetland plant species occurrence is shown to co-occur with an increase in the site-scale diversity of plant community types. This result reveals the unique ability of the presented modeling framework to predict vegetation composition and aid land managers that are faced with difficult management decisions in a complex and uncertain future.

Booth, E. G.; Loheide, S. P.

2011-12-01

30

Thermal remote sensing of surface soil water content with partial vegetation cover for incorporation into climate models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study outlines a method for the estimation of regional patterns of surface moisture availability (M(sub 0)) and fractional vegetation (Fr) in the presence of spatially variable vegetation cover. The method requires relating variations in satellite-derived (NOAA, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)) surface radiant temperature to a vegetation index (computed from satellite visible and near-infrared data) while coupling this association to an inverse modeling scheme. More than merely furnishing surface soil moisture values, the method constitues a new conceptual and practical approach for combining thermal infrared and vegetation index measurements for incorporating the derived values of M(sub 0) into hydrologic and atmospheric prediction models. Application of the technique is demonstrated for a region in and around the city of Newcastle upon Tyne situated in the northeast of England. A regional estimate of M(sub 0) is derived and is probabbly good for fractional vegetation cover up to 80% before errors in the estimated soil water content become unacceptably large. Moreover, a normalization scheme is suggested from which a nomogram, `universal triangle,' is constructed and is seen to fit the observed data well. The universal triangle also simplifies the inclusion of remotely derived M(sub 0) in hydrology and meteorological models and is perhaps a practicable step toward integrating derived data from satellite measurements in weather forecasting.

Gillies, Robert R.; Carlson, Toby N.

1995-01-01

31

Hydroecological model predictions indicate wetter and more diverse soil water regimes and vegetation types following floodplain restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transitions between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems represent zones where soil moisture is a dominant factor influencing vegetation composition. Niche models based on hydrological and vegetation observations can be powerful tools for guiding management of these zones, especially when they are linked with physically based hydrological models. Floodplain restoration represents a unique opportunity to utilize such a predictive vegetation tool when a site's hydrology is altered to create a wetter environment. A variably saturated groundwater flow model was developed and used to simulate the soil moisture regime across a floodplain in Wisconsin where post-settlement alluvium was removed with the intent of increasing regionally threatened wetland plant species. Hydrological niche models based on simultaneous observations of vegetation composition and surface effective saturation were used to predict probability of presence for two plant species (Carex vulpinoidea (fox sedge) and Elymus canadensis(Canada wildrye)) and wetland indicator score (a composite indicator of relative frequency of species in five habitat categories) based on simulated surface effective saturation. The vegetation predictions following restoration are more wetland-species dominant overall. However, zones of the study site where a confining layer is present that decouples groundwater from the near-surface soil zone tend to be drier following restoration due to restricted upward groundwater flow and less soil water storage above the confining layer. As reflected by an increase in the interquartile range in the predicted wetland indicator score, this restoration technique may increase the site-scale spatial diversity of plant community types while simultaneously accomplishing the goal of increasing wetland plant species occurrence.

Booth, Eric G.; Loheide, Steven P., II

2012-06-01

32

Anthropogenic soil erosion over the Holocene: Application of a new dynamic soils module for global vegetation models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the course of the Holocene, anthropogenic activities have transformed the surface of the Earth. In no way has human impact been more important or longer lasting than the transformation of soils, where erosion and sediment transport over the past 10,000 years have led to irreversible changes in landscapes. Soil erosion also affected global carbon and nutrient cycles, and could have amplified or attenuated ongoing changes in the Earth's climate. To quantify the role of anthropogenically induced soil development and erosion in the Earth system, we developed a new module of global soil dynamics: soil formation, erosion, and sediment transport, that is suitable for global application at 0.5° resolution. We incorporated this soil module into the LPJ-DGVM and performed a series of simulations to quantify the spatial and temporal pattern of global soil change over the Holocene. The soil formation module models bedrock-to-soil conversion rates as exponentially decreasing with soil depth. Parameters for soil formation in different geological units were extracted from a review of existing literature. Our global soil erosion formulation is based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), but importantly accounts for sediment deposition and the net export of sediment out of a relatively large and geomorphologically heterogeneous gridcell. Our new module was developed by running the detailed soil erosion-deposition model WaTEM/SEDEM at 3 arc-second resolution to derive generalized topographical scaling relations that accurately represent hillslope length, slope gradient and sediment delivery ratio. We show that, at large spatial scale, sediment delivery ratio and the area affected by sediment deposition can be easily estimated from topographical parameters such as mean LS factor and wetness index. We include the feedback between soil formation and soil erosion by adjusting the soil erosion rates for soil depth and stoniness. The results of our Holocene-long simulations indicate that millennia of human impact, mainly deforestation and cultivation, led to exhaustion of soil resources in many parts of the world. In particular, the eastern and southern Mediterranean, the northern Andes, and southern China were strongly affected by anthropogenic soil erosion. Some areas experienced declining rates of soil loss already in the early first millennium CE because of total removal of the soil column. Cumulative carbon emissions to the atmosphere over the Holocene as a result of anthropogenic soil erosion could have approached 200 Pg. Remote sensing-based global maps of topography, soils, and bedrock geology that have recently become available are a valuable resource that will improve our ability to model soil dynamics for the past and future.

Kaplan, J. O.; Vanwalleghem, T.

2012-04-01

33

Mediterranean Analogs of California Soil Vegetation Types.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analogies have been established between Soil-Vegetation types in Italy and Greece to those in California on the basis of field observations. Consistent changes in soil and vegetation properties were observed as sequences with elevation change on typical r...

P. J. Zinke

1965-01-01

34

Spatiotemporal analysis of urban environment based on the vegetation-impervious surface-soil model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores a spatiotemporal comparative analysis of urban agglomeration, comparing the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) of Canada and the city of Tianjin in China. The vegetation-impervious surface-soil (V-I-S) model is used to quantify the ecological composition of urban/peri-urban environments with multitemporal Landsat images (3 stages, 18 scenes) and LULC data from 1985 to 2005. The support vector machine algorithm and several knowledge-based methods are applied to get the V-I-S component fractions at high accuracies. The statistical results show that the urban expansion in the GTHA occurred mainly between 1985 and 1999, and only two districts revealed increasing trends for impervious surfaces for the period from 1999 to 2005. In contrast, Tianjin has been experiencing rapid urban sprawl at all stages and this has been accelerating since 1999. The urban growth patterns in the GTHA evolved from a monocentric and dispersed pattern to a polycentric and aggregated pattern, while in Tianjin it changed from monocentric to polycentric. Central Tianjin has become more centralized, while most other municipal areas have developed dispersed patterns. The GTHA also has a higher level of greenery and a more balanced ecological environment than Tianjin. These differences in the two areas may play an important role in urban planning and decision-making in developing countries.

Guo, Huadong; Huang, Qingni; Li, Xinwu; Sun, Zhongchang; Zhang, Ying

2014-01-01

35

Development of a fully-distributed daily hydrologic feedback model addressing vegetation, land cover, and soil water dynamics (VELAS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple hydrologic feedback model has been developed to simulate daily responses of hydrologic processes including interception, runoff, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and recharge under various conditions of vegetation, land cover, and soil in a fully-distributed manner. The daily soil water balance is a key element to link surface and subsurface models as it calculates infiltration and groundwater recharge by considering a time delay routing through a vadose zone down to the groundwater table. MODFLOW is adopted to simulate groundwater flow and interaction with surface water components as well. The model also can easily be localized by simple modification of soil and crop properties. The actual application of the model for a watershed in the Geum River Basin in Korea showed reliable hydrologic feedbacks between the surface and subsurface hydrologic systems.

Park, Changhui; Lee, Jejung; Koo, Min-Ho

2013-06-01

36

Comparison of four models to determine surface soil moisture from C-band radar imagery in a sparsely vegetated semiarid landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four approaches for deriving estimates of near-surface soil moisture from radar imagery in a semiarid, sparsely vegetated rangeland were evaluated against in situ measurements of soil moisture. The approaches were based on empirical, physical, semiempirical, and image difference techniques. The empirical approach involved simple linear regression of radar backscatter on soil moisture, while the integral equation method (IEM) model was

D. P. Thoma; M. S. Moran; R. Bryant; M. Rahman; C. D. Holifield-Collins; S. Skirvin; E. E. Sano; K. Slocum

2006-01-01

37

Vegetation Response to Rainfall and Soil Moisture Variability in Botswana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the results of a study of the relationships between rainfall, soil moisture, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Botswana. Soil moisture values were calculated via a surface hydrologic model. Spatial and temporal r...

T. J. Farrar

1991-01-01

38

Sensitivity analysis of a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model parameterised for a British floodplain meadow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rationale: Floodplain meadows are highly species-rich grassland ecosystems, unique in that their vegetation and soil structures have been shaped and maintained by ~1,000 yrs of traditional, low-intensity agricultural management. Widespread development on floodplains over the last two centuries has left few remaining examples of these once commonplace ecosystems and they are afforded high conservation value by British and European agencies. Increased incidences and severity of summer drought and winter flooding in Britain in recent years have placed floodplain plant communities under stress through altered soil moisture regimes. There is a clear need for improved management strategies if the last remaining British floodplain meadows are to be conserved under changing climates. Aim: As part of the Floodplain Underground Sensors Experiment (FUSE, a 3-year project funded by the Natural Environment Research Council) we aim to understand the environmental controls over soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfers (SVAT) of water, CO2 and energy at Yarnton Mead, a floodplain meadow in southern England. An existing model, SCOPE (Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes; van der Tol et al., 2009), uses remotely-sensed infrared radiance spectra to predict heat and water transfers between a vegetation canopy and the atmosphere. We intend to expand SCOPE by developing a more realistic, physically-based representation of water, gas and energy transfers between soil and vegetation. This improved understanding will eventually take the form of a new submodel within SCOPE, allowing more rigorous estimation of soil-canopy-atmosphere exchanges for the site using predominantly remotely-sensed data. In this context a number of existing SVAT models will be tested and compared to ensure that only reliable and robust underground model components will be coupled to SCOPE. Approach: For this study, we parameterised an existing and widely-used SVAT model (CoupModel; Jansson, 2011) for our study site and analysed the model's sensitivity to a comprehensive set of soil/plant biophysical processes and parameter values. Findings: The sensitivity analysis indicates those processes and parameters most important to soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfers at the site. We use the outcomes of the sensitivity analysis to indicate directly the desired structure of the new SCOPE submodel. In addition, existing soil-moisture, soil matric-potential and meteorological data for the site indicate that evapotranspiration is heavily water-limited during summer months, although soil moisture and soil matric-potential data alone provide very little explanation of the ratio of potential to actual evapotranspiration. A mechanistic representation of stomatal resistance and its response to short-term changes in meteorological conditions - independent of soil moisture status - will also likely improve SCOPE's predictions of heat and water transfers. Ultimately our work will contribute to improved understanding and management of floodplain meadows in Britain and elsewhere.

Morris, P. J.; Verhoef, A.; Van der Tol, C.; Macdonald, D.

2011-12-01

39

Representing the effects of alpine grassland vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics by ecosystem models applied to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

surface temperature is a critical boundary condition for the simulation of soil temperature by environmental models. It is influenced by atmospheric and soil conditions and by vegetation cover. In sophisticated land surface models, it is simulated iteratively by solving surface energy budget equations. In ecosystem, permafrost, and hydrology models, the consideration of soil surface temperature is generally simple. In this study, we developed a methodology for representing the effects of vegetation cover and atmospheric factors on the estimation of soil surface temperature for alpine grassland ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Our approach integrated measurements from meteorological stations with simulations from a sophisticated land surface model to develop an equation set for estimating soil surface temperature. After implementing this equation set into an ecosystem model and evaluating the performance of the ecosystem model in simulating soil temperature at different depths in the soil profile, we applied the model to simulate interactions among vegetation cover, freeze-thaw cycles, and soil erosion to demonstrate potential applications made possible through the implementation of the methodology developed in this study. Results showed that (1) to properly estimate daily soil surface temperature, algorithms should use air temperature, downward solar radiation, and vegetation cover as independent variables; (2) the equation set developed in this study performed better than soil surface temperature algorithms used in other models; and (3) the ecosystem model performed well in simulating soil temperature throughout the soil profile using the equation set developed in this study. Our application of the model indicates that the representation in ecosystem models of the effects of vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics has the potential to substantially improve our understanding of the vulnerability of alpine grassland ecosystems to changes in climate and grazing regimes.

Yi, S.; Li, N.; Xiang, B.; Wang, X.; Ye, B.; McGuire, A. D.

2013-07-01

40

Climate-Soil-Vegetation Control on Groundwater Table Dynamics and its Feedbacks in a Climate Model  

SciTech Connect

Among the three dynamically linked branches of the water cycle, including atmospheric, surface, and subsurface water, groundwater is the largest reservoir and an active component of the hydrologic system. Because of the inherent slow response time, groundwater may be particularly relevant for long time-scale processes such as multi-years or decadal droughts. This study uses regional climate simulations with and without surface water – groundwater interactions for the conterminous U.S. to assess the influence of climate, soil, and vegetation on groundwater table dynamics, and its potential feedbacks to regional climate. Analysis shows that precipitation has a dominant influence on the spatial and temporal variations of groundwater table depth (GWT). The simulated GWT is found to decrease sharply with increasing precipitation. Our simulation also shows some distinct spatial variations that are related to soil porosity and hydraulic conductivity. Vegetation properties such as minimum stomatal resistance, and root depth and fraction are also found to play an important role in controlling the groundwater table. Comparing two simulations with and without groundwater table dynamics, we find that groundwater table dynamics mainly influences the partitioning of soil water between the surface (0 – 0.5 m) and subsurface (0.5 – 5 m) rather than total soil moisture. In most areas, groundwater table dynamics increases surface soil moisture at the expense of the subsurface, except in regions with very shallow groundwater table. The change in soil water partitioning between the surface and subsurface is found to strongly correlate with the partitioning of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. The evaporative fraction (EF) is generally higher during summer when groundwater table dynamics is included. This is accompanied by increased cloudiness, reduced diurnal temperature range, cooler surface temperature, and increased cloud top height. Although both convective and non-convective precipitation are enhanced, the higher EF changes the partitioning to favor more non-convective precipitation, but this result could be sensitive to the convective parameterization used. Compared to simulations without groundwater table dynamics, the dry bias in the summer precipitation is slightly reduced over the central and eastern U.S. Groundwater table dynamics can provide important feedbacks to atmospheric processes, and these feedbacks are stronger in regions with deeper groundwater table, because the interactions between surface and subsurface are weak when the groundwater table is deep. This increases the sensitivity of surface soil moisture to precipitation anomalies, and therefore enhances land surface feedbacks to the atmosphere through changes in soil moisture and evaporative fraction. By altering the groundwater table depth, land use change and groundwater withdrawal can alter land surface response and feedback to the climate system.

Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Qian, Yun; Liang, Xu

2010-01-29

41

A comparison of simulation models for predicting soil water dynamics in bare and vegetated lysimeters  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of simulation models used to predict soil water storage dynamics at the Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) weighing lysimeters. The objectives of this research is to develop the capability to predict soil water storage dynamics with plants in support of water infiltration control studies for the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program. It is important to gain confidence in one`s ability to simulate soil water dynamics over long time periods to assess the barrier`s ability to prevent drainage. Two models were compared for their ability to simulate soil water storage dynamics with and without plants in weighing lysimeters, the soil water infiltration and movement (SWIM) and the simulation of production and utilization of rangelands (SPUR-91) models. These models adequately simulated soil water storage dynamics for the weighing lysimeters. The range of root mean square error values for the two models was 7.0 to 19.8. This compares well with the range reported by Fayer et al. (1992) for the bare soil data sets of 8.1 to 22.1. Future research will test the predictive capability of these models for longer term lysimeter data sets and for historical data sets collected in various plant community types.

Link, S.O.; Kickert, R.N.; Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

1993-06-01

42

Impact of Hillslope-Scale Organization of Topography, Soil Moisture, Soil Temperature, and Vegetation on Modeling Surface Microwave Radiation Emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave radiometry will emerge as an important tool for global remote sensing of near-surface soil moisture in the coming decade. In this modeling study, we find that hillslope-scale topography (tens of meters) influences microwave brightness temperatures in a way that produces bias at coarser scales (kilometers). The physics underlying soil moisture remote sensing suggests that the effects of topography on

Alejandro N. Flores; Valeriy Y. Ivanov; Dara Entekhabi; Rafael L. Bras

2009-01-01

43

Application of Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model in Pang Khum Experimental Watershed, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model (DHSVM) uses a digital elevation model (DEM) and accounts for topographic effects on soil moisture, groundwater, and surface water redistribution in a complex terrain. In this study, DHSVM is used to simulate soil moisture, net radiation and stream flow in a 1-km2 tropical mountainous watershed in Pang Khum, Chang Mai, Thailand. Pang Khum Experimental Watershed (PKEW) has two meteorological stations, four soil moisture stations, and one stream flow station at basin outlet. Meteorological measurements are used as forcing data for DHSVM. The grid resolution for this simulation is 50 m. Initial soil and vegetation parameter settings based on field measurements and literature review are adjusted through model calibration. The model is run for a six month warm-up period, followed by a calibration period of approximately one year. Validation is done for two periods totaling 18 months. At the forested site, net radiation is reasonably well simulated, although underestimated in the dry season, and overestimated in the wet season. At the agricultural site, net radiation is consistently overestimated. Soil moisture is well simulated at the forest site. In the simulation, the water table rises into the soil zone during the wet season, saturating all three soil layers at the agricultural site; measured values remained at unsaturated levels. Baseflow is significantly underestimated in calibration and validation periods. Difficulty in simulating streamflow may be caused by road-related effects in the basin. Our prior field work has shown that the road significantly alters runoff in PKEW. The principal mechanism of road-induced effects is Horton Overland Flow (HOF) generated on the road surface. In its present form DHSVM can account for interception of subsurface flow by roads, but not HOF generated on the road. We do not think subsurface flow interception is important in PKEW, and have therefore not implemented the road in our simulation. In future applications, we hope to include road effects, including HOF generation. As far as we know, this is the first application of DHSVM in a tropical location. Also, we apply the model over a very small watershed using a smaller grid-cell size than prior applications. Overall, we find the model to perform reasonably well despite being applied in a region and at a scale that contrast strongly with those in which it was developed. >http://webdata.soc.hawaii.edu/climate/Roads1/Roads.html

Cuo, L.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Ziegler, A. D.; Sutherland, R. A.; Nullet, M. A.; Larkin, E. D.; Vana, T. T.

2001-12-01

44

Process-based modeling of vegetation dynamics, snow, evapotranspiration and soil moisture patterns in an alpine catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain regions are particularly sensitive to climate change and at the same time they represent a key water resource not only locally but as well for lowland areas. Because of the complexity of mountain landscapes and the high climatic variability at a local scale, detailed quantification of key water budget components as snow cover, soil moisture and groundwater recharge is required. Therefore, there is a strong need to improve the capability of hydrological models to identify patterns in complex terrain (i.e. when variability of spatial characteristics counts), and to quantify changes of the water cycle components explicitly, considering interactions and feedbacks with climate and vegetation. Process-based hydrological models represent promising tools for addressing those needs. However, even if their inherent complexity sometimes limits their applicability for operational purpose, they offer great potential in terms of tools to test hypotheses, which can be verified in the field. GEOtop is a hydrological model that calculates the energy and mass exchanges between soil, vegetation, and atmosphere, accounting for land cover, water redistribution, snow processes, glacier mass budget and the effects of complex terrain and thus is one of the few models that was built with this complexity in mind. Recently, it has also been coupled with a dynamic vegetation model in order to simulate alpine grassland ecosystems. In this contribution, we want to present an application of the GEOtop model in simulating above ground biomass (Bag) production, evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture (SM) and snow water equivalent (SWE) patterns for a catchment of about 100 km2, located in the Venosta/Vinschgau valley in the European Alps. Despite the Alps are one of the 'water towers of Europe', water scarcity issues can affect the region where the model is applied, and an intensive hydrological and ecological monitoring activity with ground observations and remote-sensing products has been established in the last five years. Simulations results showed that, along south-facing slopes, ET and Bag did not decrease with elevation, as it happens along north facing slopes, but showed a maximum at an intermediate elevation around ca. 1500 m a.s.l., because of the contrasting trends of a shorter vegetation season at higher elevations and water stress at lower elevations. Therefore, results suggest that in this region south-facing pastures and woodlands below the elevation band of 1000 - 1500 m a.s.l. are the locations exposed to more frequent water stress conditions. Future climate change will likely worsen drought frequency. This contribution highlights that the collected data set permits a multi-scale and multi-process evaluation of the model. Plot scale observations of evapotranspiration, soil moisture and snow cover, combined with remote sensing observations of snow and soil moisture help to discriminate between uncertainties in input data (i.e. snow/rainfall partitioning) and model parameterization. Moreover, we want to show with practical examples how, when dealing with coupled process-based eco-hydrological models is essential considering the physical consistency between different processes as modeled in GEOtop. For example, accounting the role of subsurface water lateral distribution on surface soil moisture; considering both water and energy budget constrains; introducing the control of snow cover on vegetation phenology. This introduces additional constraints in model parameterization that allow a better understanding of some processes dynamics, and can lead to a more coherent and accurate estimation of the catchment hydrological behavior than the one, which is possible with simpler models.

Bertoldi, Giacomo; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Engel, Michael; Niedrist, Georg; Brenner, Johannes G.; Endrizzi, Stefano; Dall'Amico, Matteo; Cordano, Emanuele; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Rigon, Riccardo

2014-05-01

45

Preliminary assessment of soil moisture over vegetation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling of surface energy fluxes was combined with in-situ measurement of surface parameters, specifically the surface sensible heat flux and the substrate soil moisture. A vegetation component was incorporated in the atmospheric/substrate model and subsequently showed that fluxes over vegetation can be very much different than those over bare soil for a given surface-air temperature difference. The temperature signatures measured by a satellite or airborne radiometer should be interpreted in conjunction with surface measurements of modeled parameters. Paradoxically, analyses of the large-scale distribution of soil moisture availability shows that there is a very high correlation between antecedent precipitation and inferred surface moisture availability, even when no specific vegetation parameterization is used in the boundary layer model. Preparatory work was begun in streamlining the present boundary layer model, developing better algorithms for relating surface temperatures to substrate moisture, preparing for participation in the French HAPEX experiment, and analyzing aircraft microwave and radiometric surface temperature data for the 1983 French Beauce experiments.

Carlson, T. N.

1986-01-01

46

Vegetative soil covers for hazardous waste landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow land burial has been the preferred method for disposing of municipal and hazardous wastes in the United States because it is the simplest, cheapest, and most cost-effective method of disposal. Arid and semiarid regions of the western United States have received considerable attention over the past two decades in reference to hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste disposal. Disposal is based upon the premise that low mean annual precipitation, high evapotranspiration, and low or negligible recharge, favor waste isolation from the environment for long periods of time. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that containment of municipal and hazardous wastes in arid and semiarid environments can be accomplished effectively without traditional, synthetic materials and complex, multi-layer systems. This research demonstrates that closure covers utilizing natural soils and native vegetation i.e., vegetative soil covers, will meet the technical equivalency criteria prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for hazardous waste landfills. Vegetative soil cover design combines layers of natural soil, native plant species, and climatic conditions to form a sustainable, functioning ecosystem that maintains the natural water balance. In this study, percolation through a natural analogue and an engineered cover is simulated using the one-dimensional, numerical code UNSAT-H. UNSAT-H is a Richards' equation-based model that simulates soil water infiltration, unsaturated flow, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, and deep percolation. This study incorporates conservative, site-specific soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters. Historical meteorological data from 1919 to 1996 are used to simulate percolation through the natural analogue and an engineered cover, with and without vegetation. This study indicates that a 1 m (3 ft) cover is the minimum design thickness necessary to meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-prescribed technical equivalency criteria of 31.5 mm/year and 1 x 10-7 cm/second for net annual percolation and average flux, respectively. Increasing cover thickness to 1.2 m (4 ft) or 1.5 m (5 ft) results in limited additional improvement in cover performance. Under historical climatic conditions, net annual percolation and average flux through a 1 m (3 ft) cover is directed upward at 0.28 mm/year and 9.03 x 10-10 cm/second, respectively, for a soil cover with vegetation.

Peace, Jerry L.

47

Intermediately complex models for the hydrological interactions in the atmosphere-vegetation-soil system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the hydrological interactions in the atmosphere-evegetation-soil system by using the bucket model and several new simplified intermediately complex models. The results of mathematical analysis and numerical simulations show that these models, despite their simplicity, can very clearly reveal the essential features of the rather complex hydrological system of atmosphere-ecosystem-soil. For given atmospheric variables, these models clearly demonstrate multiple timescales, the "red shift" of response spectra, multi-equilibria and limit cycles, bifurcation, abrupt change, self-organization, recovery, "desertification", and chaos. Most of these agree with observations. Especially, the weakening of "shading effect" of living canopy and the wilted biomass might be a major mechanism leading to the desertification in a relatively short period due to overgrazing, and the desertification in a relatively long period or in climate of change might be due to both Charney's mechanism and the shading effect. These ideas could be validated with further numerical simulations. In the paper, some methods for improving the estimation of timescales in the soil water evolution responding to the forcing are also proposed.

Zeng, X. D.; Wang, A. H.; Zeng, Q. C.; Dickinson, R. E.; Zeng, X. B.; Shen, S. S. P.

2006-01-01

48

A novel and simple model of the uptake of organic chemicals by vegetation from air and soil.  

PubMed

A novel and simple three-compartment fugacity model has been developed to predict the kinetics and equilibria of the uptake of organic chemicals in herbaceous agricultural plants at various times, including the time of harvest using only readily available input data. The chemical concentration in each of the three plant compartments leaf, stem which includes fruits and seeds, and root) is expressed as a function of both time and chemical concentrations in soil and air. The model was developed using the fugacity concept; however, the final expressions are presented in terms of concentrations in soil and air, equilibrium partition coefficients and a set of transport and transformation half-lives. An illustrative application of the model is presented which describes the uptake of bromacil by a soybean plant under hydroponic conditions. The model, which is believed to give acceptably accurate prediction of the distribution of chemicals among plant tissues, air and soil, may be used for the assessment of exposure to, and risk from contaminants consumed either directly from vegetation or indirectly in natural and agricultural food chains. PMID:9297787

Hung, H; Mackay, D

1997-09-01

49

Estimation of vegetation parameter for modeling soil erosion using linear Spectral Mixture Analysis of Landsat ETM data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil conservation planning often requires estimates of soil erosion at a catchment or regional scale. Predictive models such as Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its subsequent Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) are useful tools to generate the quantitative estimates necessary for designing sound conservation measures. However, large-scale soil erosion model-factor parameterization and quantification is difficult due to the

Alejandro M. de Asis; Kenji Omasa

2007-01-01

50

Modelling the links between vegetation and landforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation is the most important intermediate through which climate and land use modify geomorphological processes and landforms. In this paper we explore three types of model which attempt to simulate the links to uncultivated vegetation, all sharing a common basis in hydrology. The first simulates the relationship between climate, vegetation and erosion rates for a fixed topography and soil cover.

Mike Kirkby

1995-01-01

51

Green vegetation, nonphotosynthetic vegetation, and soils in AVIRIS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of distinguishing between green vegetation, nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV, such as dry grass, leaf litter, and woody material), and soils in imaging-spectrometer data is addressed by analyzing an image taken by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (California) on September 20, 1989, using spectral mixture analysis. Over 98 percent of the spectral variation could be explained by linear mixtures of three endmembers, green vegetation, shade, and soil. NPV, which could not be distinguished from soil when included as an endmember, was discriminated by residual spectra that contained cellulose and lignin absorptions. Distinct communities of green vegetation were distinguished by (1) nonlinear mixing effect caused by transmission and scattering by green leaves, (2) variations in a derived canopy-shade spectrum, and (3) the fraction of NPV.

Roberts, D. A.; Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

1993-01-01

52

Retrieving pace in vegetation growth using precipitation and soil moisture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of interactions between the biophysical components of the watershed increases the challenge of understanding water budget. Hence, the perspicacity of the continuum soil-vegetation-atmosphere's functionality still remains crucial for science. This study targeted the Texas Gulf watershed and evaluated the behavior of vegetation covers by coupling precipitation and soil moisture patterns. Growing season's Normalized Differential Vegetation Index NDVI for deciduous forest and grassland were used over a 23 year period as well as precipitation and soil moisture data. The role of time scales on vegetation dynamics analysis was appraised using both entropy rescaling and correlation analysis. This resulted in that soil moisture at 5 cm and 25cm are potentially more efficient to use for vegetation dynamics monitoring at finer time scale compared to precipitation. Albeit soil moisture at 5 cm and 25 cm series are highly correlated (R2>0.64), it appeared that 5 cm soil moisture series can better explain the variability of vegetation growth. A logarithmic transformation of soil moisture and precipitation data increased correlation with NDVI for the different time scales considered. Based on a monthly time scale we came out with a relationship between vegetation index and the couple soil moisture and precipitation [NDVI=a*Log(% soil moisture)+b*Log(Precipitation)+c] with R2>0.25 for each vegetation type. Further, we proposed to assess vegetation green-up using logistic regression model and transinformation entropy using the couple soil moisture and precipitation as independent variables and vegetation growth metrics (NDVI, NDVI ratio, NDVI slope) as the dependent variable. The study is still ongoing and the results will surely contribute to the knowledge in large scale vegetation monitoring. Keywords: Precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation growth, entropy Time scale, Logarithmic transformation and correlation between soil moisture and NDVI, precipitation and NDVI. The analysis is performed by combining both scenes 7 and 8 data. Schematic illustration of the two dimension transinformation entropy approach. T(P,SM;VI) stand for the transinformation contained in the couple soil moisture (SM)/precipitation (P) and explaining vegetation growth (VI).

Sohoulande Djebou, D. C.; Singh, V. P.

2013-12-01

53

Application of the Distributed Soil Hydrology Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to the case of forest landcover change and alpine development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest cover in the North East is changing due to both natural disturbances and anthropogenic influences. These changes in forest cover are likely to affect watershed hydrology, including precipitation interception, infiltration and stream flow. Understanding the interaction between forest cover and hydrologic processes is important as forests provide critical ecosystem services to the region. Our research focuses on alpine development in high-elevation, forested watersheds, in particular how the size, spatial arrangement, and orientation of ski runs and base village development influence runoff production. Our study area includes a forested control watershed and a watershed managed as an alpine ski area in northwestern Vermont. Empirical results from these watersheds show substantial differences (10-31%) in annual water yield between the watersheds over the 11-year period of record (2000-2011). This water yield differential is correlated with maximum seasonal snow depth (R2 = .47), with larger differences occurring in years with abundant winter snowpack. Field infiltration measurements show a significant difference between ski trail and forested soils (t=2.65, p<.05) with the average infiltration measured on ski trails nearly an order of magnitude slower. We suggest that enhanced routing of water from the compact soils found on ski trails and differences in watershed storage are responsible for the observed difference in runoff. Using the Distributed Soil Hydrology Vegetation Model (DHSVM), we developed model simulations for snow accumulation, melt and streamflow in both watersheds. Preliminary model runs show high model skill in simulating observed hourly flows (NE = .77). Model simulations support the hypothesis that slower infiltration results in an enhanced routing of runoff. This unique water transport mechanism should be integrated into future alpine development designs in order to moderate environmental impacts. Next steps will involve testing alternative alpine development scenarios and the effects of variable winter climate conditions on streamflow dynamics.

Del Peral, A.

2012-12-01

54

Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The Kubelka-Munk model, a regression model, and a combination of these models were used to extract plant, soil, and shadow reflectance components of vegetated surfaces. The combination model was superior to the others; it explained 86% of the variation in band 5 reflectance of corn and sorghum, and 90% of the variation in band 6 reflectance of cotton. A fractional shadow term substantially increased the proportion of the digital count sum of squares explained when plant parameters alone explained 85% or less of the variation. Overall recognition of 94 agricultural fields using simultaneously acquired aircraft and spacecraft MSS data was 61.8 and 62.8%, respectively; recognition of vegetable fields larger than 10 acres and taller than 25 cm, rose to 88.9 and 100% for aircraft and spacecraft, respectively. Agriculture and rangeland, were well discriminated for the entire county but level 2 categories of vegetables, citrus, and idle cropland, except for citrus, were not.

Wiegand, C. L. (principal investigator)

1974-01-01

55

Influence of vegetation on acoustic properties of soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible influences of vegetation on acoustically relevant soil parameters, such as porosity and soil structure, were considered. In situ measurements of sound interference patterns were performed in seven plant communities by means of an inclined track method. Normal acoustical specific impedances were calculated with a plane wave outdoor sound propagation model. The impedances found generally showed a real part constant

L. A. M. Heijden; V. Claessen; N. Cock

1983-01-01

56

Exploring a VIS (vegetation-impervious surface-soil) model for urban ecosystem analysis through remote sensing: comparative anatomy for cities†  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing interest in urban systems as ecological entities calls for some standards in parameterizing biophysical composition of urban environments. A vegetation-impervious surface-soil ( V-I-S) model is presented as a possible basis for standardization. The V-I-S model may serve as a foundation for characterizing urban\\/near-urban environments universally, and for comparison of urban morphology within and between cities. Inasmuch as the model

M. K. RIDD

1995-01-01

57

Uptake of Organic Contaminants from Soil into Vegetables and Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contaminants may enter vegetables and fruits by several pathways: by uptake with soil pore water, by diffusion from soil or\\u000a air, by deposition of soil or airborne particles, or by direct application. The contaminant-specific and plant-specific properties\\u000a that determine the importance of these pathways are described in this chapter. A variety of models have been developed, specific\\u000a for crop types

Stefan Trapp; Charlotte N. Legind

58

Integrating models to simulate emergent behaviour: effects of organic matter on soil hydraulics in the ICZ-1D soil-vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil develops as a result of interacting processes, many of which have been described in more or less detailed models. A key challenge in developing predictive models of soil function is to integrate processes that operate across a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Many soil functions could be classified as "emergent", since they result from the interaction of subsystems. For example, soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics are commonly considered in relation to carbon storage, but can have profound effects on soil hydraulic properties that are conventionally considered to be static. Carbon fixed by plants enters the soil as litterfall, root turnover or via mycorrhizae. Plants need water and nutrients to grow, and an expanding root system provides access to a larger volume of soil for uptake of water and nutrients. Roots also provide organic exudates, such as oxalate, which increase nutrient availability. Carbon inputs are transformed at various rates into soil biota, CO2, and more persistent forms of organic matter. The SOM is partly taken up into soil aggregates of variable sizes, which slows down degradation. Water availability is an important factor as both plant growth and SOM degradation can be limited by shortage of water. Water flow is the main driver for transport of nutrients and other solutes. The flow of water in turn is influenced by the presence of SOM as this influences soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity. Towards the top of the unsaturated zone, bioturbation by the soil fauna transports both solid material and solutes. Weathering rates of minerals determine the availability of many nutrients and are in turn dependent on parameters such as pH, water content, CO2 pressure and oxalate concentration. Chemical reactions between solutes, dissolution and precipitation, and exchange on adsorption sites further influence solute concentrations. Within the FP7 SoilTrEC project, we developed a model that incorporates all of these processes, to explore the complex interactions involved in soil development and change. We were unable to identify appropriately-detailed existing models for plant productivity and for the dynamics of soil aggregation and porosity, and so developed the PROSUM and CAST models, respectively, to simulate these subsystems. Moreover, we applied the BRNS generator to obtain a chemical equilibrium model. These were combined with HYDRUS-1D (water and solute transport), a weathering model (derived from the SAFE model) and a simple bioturbation model. The model includes several feedbacks, such as the effect of soil organic matter on water retention and hydraulic conductivity. We encountered several important challenges when building the integrated model. First, a mechanism was developed that initiates the execution of a single time step for an individual sub-model and accounts for the relevant mass transfers between sub-models. This allows for different and sometimes variable time step duration in the submodels. Secondly, we removed duplicated processes and identified and included relevant solute production terms that had been neglected. The model is being tested against datasets obtained from several Soil Critical Zone Observatories in Europe. This contribution focuses on the design strategy for the model.

Valstar, Johan; Rowe, Ed; Konstantina, Moirogiorgou; Giannakis, Giorgos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

2014-05-01

59

Soil moisture-vegetation-precipitation feedback over North America: Its sensitivity to soil moisture climatology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our previous studies examined how vegetation feedback at the seasonal time scale influenced the impact of soil moisture anomalies (SMAs) on subsequent summer precipitation with a modified version of the coupled Community Atmosphere Model-Community Land Model 3 that includes a predictive phenology scheme. Here we investigate the climatology sensitivity of soil moisture-vegetation-precipitation feedback using the same model as the baseline model (BASE) and its derivative with modifications to the model runoff parameterization as the experiment model (EXP), in which we eliminate the subsurface lateral drainage to reduce the known dry biases of BASE. With vegetation feedback ignored, precipitation is more sensitive to wet SMAs than dry SMAs in BASE; opposite to BASE, the wetter mean soil moisture in EXP leads to higher sensitivity of precipitation to dry SMAs than to wet SMAs. However, in both BASE and EXP, the impact of dry SMAs on subsequent precipitation persists longer than the impact of wet SMAs. With vegetation feedback included, EXP shows a positive feedback between vegetation and precipitation following both dry and wet SMAs in summer, while BASE shows a positive feedback following wet SMAs only, with no clear signal following dry SMAs due to dry soil biases. In BASE, the magnitude of precipitation changes due to vegetation feedback is comparable to that due to soil moisture feedback when more realistic SMAs are applied. In addition, a major difference is found in spring when the vegetation impact on subsequent precipitation is negative and significant in BASE, but not significant in EXP.

Kim, Yeonjoo; Wang, Guiling

2012-09-01

60

Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) and Sediment Discharge in a Small, Timber Production Watershed, Humboldt County, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment impacts to streams and rivers, either as suspended sediment concentration (SSC), or as aggradation, are well documented in the Pacific Northwest. Fishery stocks, estuarine, infrastructural and wildland resources can be negatively impacted. The causes and reasons for sedimentation of river resources are varied and diverse: tectonic setting - the relative rapid uplift of the study region produces a dominant erosional process of landsliding and mass wasting; regolithic setting - the relatively recent uplift of marine sediments has produced local formations of poorly and moderately consolidated soils, and lithic melanges that are naturally susceptible to erosion; climatic/geographic setting - coastal locations are subject to seasonal delivery of a relatively high average annual precipitation serving to transport available sediment; and finally, management setting - the activities that serve to make sediment available for transport to the river channel, forest road building and harvesting activities associated with timber production, agriculture, gravel mining, and fire management. The reduction of sediment loading can be accomplished through restoration activities like forest road decommissioning or riparian area revegetation. The need to prioritize restoration efforts is confounded by a lack of hydrographic and sediment discharge data, the complex terrain, and the inability to predict the effects of these activities on a dynamic scale. The Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) has been developed to model watersheds using spatially explicit geographical data coupled with physically based hydrologic equations. DHSVM simulates watershed processes across a grid on a cell-by-cell manner. The most recent development within the DHSVM includes a mass wasting / sediment production and channel routing module which allows prediction of total sediment loading in a forest basin. We are applying DHSVM to the McReady sub-basin of Freshwater Creek, Humboldt County, California, utilizing site specific precipitation, hydrographic, and sediment data. Hydrographic and sediment discharge data from 2002 to present are used to train and validate the model. A detailed sediment source inventory from both the road and stream courses further informs the model process and parameterization of sediment production and mobilization within the watershed. The availability of continuous discharge and sediment loading via turbidity threshold stations (TTS) allows validation of the model's performance on multiple levels: average annual, monthly, or weekly sediment loading, and on an event by event basis. Effective validation permits the use of the model to understand the effects of future management strategies, i.e. timber harvest, road construction or decommissioning on a site-specific basis, and to model landscape effects of wildfire and climate change scenarios on watershed functions.

Stubblefield, A.; Huggett, B.; Sullivan, K.; Dhakal, A.

2008-12-01

61

The soil water balance in a mosaic of clumped vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal distribution of soil moisture influences the plant growth and the distribution of terrestrial vegetation. This effect is more evident in arid and semiarid ecosystems where the interaction between individuals and the water limited conditions play a fundamental role, providing environmental conditions which drive a variety of non-linear ecohydrological response functions (such as transpiration, photosynthesis, leakage). In this context, modeling vegetation patterns at multiple spatial aggregation scales is important to understand how different vegetation structures can modify the soil water distribution and the exchanged fluxes between soil and atmosphere. In the present paper, the effect of different spatial vegetation patterns, under different climatic scenarios, is investigated in a patchy vegetation mosaic generated by a random process of individual tree canopies and their accompanying root system. Vegetation pattern are generated using the mathematical framework proposed by Caylor et al. (2006) characterized by a three dimensional stochastic vegetation structure, based on the density, dispersion, size distribution, and allometry of individuals within a landscape. A Poisson distribution is applied to generate different distribution of individuals paying particular attention on the role of clumping on water distribution dynamics. The soil water balance is evaluated using the analytical expression proposed by Laio et al. (2001) to explore the influence of climate and vegetation patterns on soil water balance steady-state components (such as the average rates of evaporation, the root water uptake and leakage) and on the stress-weighted plant water uptake. Results of numerical simulations show that clumping may be beneficial for water use efficiency at the landscape scale. References Caylor, Kelly K., P. D'Odorico and I. Rodriguez Iturbe: On the ecohydrology of structurally heterogeneous semiarid landscape. Water Resour. Res., 28, W07424, 2006. Laio, F., A. Porporato, L., Ridolfi and I. Rodriguez Iturbe: Plants in water controlled ecosystems: Active role in hydrological processes and response to water stress, II. Probabilistic soil moisture dynamics, Adv. Water Resour., 24(7), 707-723,2001.

Pizzolla, Teresa; Manfreda, Salvatore; Caylor, Kelly; Gioia, Andrea; Iacobellis, Vito

2014-05-01

62

Bowen ratio measurements above various vegetation covers and its comparison with actual evapotranspiration estimated by SoilClim model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle of Bowen ratio is one of the available techniques for measurements of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) as one of essential water balance fractions. The main aims of submitted study were: (i) to compare the water balance of selected crops, (ii) to compare outputs of SoilClim model with observed parameters (including ETa on Bowen ratio basis). The measurements were conducted at two experimental stations in the Czech Republic (Polkovice 49°23´ (N), 17°17´ (E), 205 m a.s.l.; Domanínek 49°32´ (N), 16°15´ (E), 544 m a.s.l.) during the years 2009 and 2010. Together with Bowen ratio the global solar radiation, radiation balance, soil heat flux, volumetric soil moisture and temperature within selected depths, precipitation and wind speed were measured. The measurements were conducted simultaneously above various covers within the same soil conditions: spring barley vs. winter wheat, spring barley vs. winter rape; grass vs. poplars; harvested field after tillage vs. harvested field after cereals without any tillage. The observed parameters from different covers were compared with SoilClim estimates. SoilClim model is modular software for water balance and soil temperature modelling and finally could be used for soil Hydric and Thermic regimes (according to USDA classification) identification. The core of SoilClim is based on modified FAO Penman-Monteith methodology. Submitted study proved the applicability of SoilClim model for ETa, soil moisture within two defined layers and soil temperature (in 0.5 m depth) estimates for various crops, covers, selected soil types and climatic conditions. Acknowledgement: We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (no. 521/09/P479) and the project NAZV QI91C054. The study was also supported by Research plan No. MSM6215648905 "Biological and technological aspects of sustainability of controlled ecosystems and their adaptability to climate change".

Hlavinka, P.; Trnka, M.; Fischer, M.; Kucera, J.; Mozny, M.; Zalud, Z.

2010-09-01

63

Soil-Vegetation Maps of California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bulletin provides an explanation of the map symbols and other information common to all 7 1/2 minute quadrangles prepared by the State Cooperative Soil-Vegetation Survey. The bulletin is designed to accompany each map in the series. A group of six ta...

W. L. Colwell

1974-01-01

64

Evaluating the Influence of Various Vegetation and Soil Types on Water and Energy Balances in Northern Wisconsin Using a Dynamic Biosphere Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in vegetation composition and soil types across large landscapes significantly influence coupled energy-water-carbon cycles at the watershed scale. Past efforts to quantify northern Wisconsin's energy and water balances using atmospheric, groundwater and other landscape models have used only one land cover type. The next step is to account for the heterogeneity that is found in both soil and vegetation across the region. Therefore, mechanistic models that account for land cover changes more completely are important to investigating this landscape. This study uses a process-based terrestrial model, Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), to compare evapotranspiration, sensible heat, soil moisture, surface runoff, and drainage over various land covers including grasslands, shrublands, coniferous and deciduous forests, as well as soil types ranging from sand to clay. The temporal sensitivities of land cover are evaluated from 1951-2000, comparing long-term averages, innerannual variability and seasonal cycles with attention given to wet and dry years and extreme precipitation events. Results show 1) when compared to observations at the 447-m WLEF-TV flux tower, the model successfully simulates variation in monthly latent and sensible heat flux and 2) hydrological sensitivities of water and energy budgets components vary depending on timescales; evapotranspiration, for instance, is less variable than drainage seasonally, but has a greater sensitivity to land cover change over the long-term.

Vano, J. A.; Foley, J. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Coe, M. T.

2004-12-01

65

Spatial pattern formation of coastal vegetation in response to external gradients and positive feedbacks affecting soil porewater salinity: A model study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal vegetation of South Florida typically comprises salinity-tolerant mangroves bordering salinity-intolerant hardwood hammocks and fresh water marshes. Two primary ecological factors appear to influence the maintenance of mangrove/hammock ecotones against changes that might occur due to disturbances. One of these is a gradient in one or more environmental factors. The other is the action of positive feedback mechanisms, in which each vegetation community influences its local environment to favor itself, reinforcing the boundary between communities. The relative contributions of these two factors, however, can be hard to discern. A spatially explicit individual-based model of vegetation, coupled with a model of soil hydrology and salinity dynamics is presented here to simulate mangrove/hammock ecotones in the coastal margin habitats of South Florida. The model simulation results indicate that an environmental gradient of salinity, caused by tidal flux, is the key factor separating vegetation communities, while positive feedback involving the different interaction of each vegetation type with the vadose zone salinity increases the sharpness of boundaries, and maintains the ecological resilience of mangrove/hammock ecotones against small disturbances. Investigation of effects of precipitation on positive feedback indicates that the dry season, with its low precipitation, is the period of strongest positive feedback. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

Jiang, J.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Smith, III, T. J.; Teh, S. Y.; Koh, H. -L.

2012-01-01

66

Regime shifts in models of dryland vegetation.  

PubMed

Drylands are pattern-forming systems showing self-organized vegetation patchiness, multiplicity of stable states and fronts separating domains of alternative stable states. Pattern dynamics, induced by droughts or disturbances, can result in desertification shifts from patterned vegetation to bare soil. Pattern formation theory suggests various scenarios for such dynamics: an abrupt global shift involving a fast collapse to bare soil, a gradual global shift involving the expansion and coalescence of bare-soil domains and an incipient shift to a hybrid state consisting of stationary bare-soil domains in an otherwise periodic pattern. Using models of dryland vegetation, we address the question of which of these scenarios can be realized. We found that the models can be split into two groups: models that exhibit multiplicity of periodic-pattern and bare-soil states, and models that exhibit, in addition, multiplicity of hybrid states. Furthermore, in all models, we could not identify parameter regimes in which bare-soil domains expand into vegetated domains. The significance of these findings is that, while models belonging to the first group can only exhibit abrupt shifts, models belonging to the second group can also exhibit gradual and incipient shifts. A discussion of open problems concludes the paper. PMID:24471267

Zelnik, Yuval R; Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Bel, Golan; Meron, Ehud

2013-12-13

67

Soil Respiration Responses to Variation in Temperature Treatment and Vegetation Type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex linkages exist between terrestrial vegetation, soil moisture, soil organic matter (SOM), local climate, and soil microorganisms. Thus, large-scale changes in vegetation, such as the woody plant encroachment observed in many historically semiarid and arid grasslands worldwide, could potentially alter the flux of carbon from soil reserves to the atmosphere. Mathematical models that attempt to project the long-term impact of vegetative shifts on soil fluxes largely rely on assumptions such as first-order donor control rather than incorporate the biological aspects of soil respiration such as microbial activity. To examine the impact of vegetation type on soil physicochemical properties and soil microbial respiration and provide experimental data to refine existing predictive models, we compared soil (ground basalt from northern Arizona) in mesocosms established with no vegetation, velvet mesquites (Prosopis velutina; woody shrub), or sideoats gramas (Bouteloua curtipendula; grass) for 2 years, The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was examined by incubating soil (0-10 and 10-30 cm depth fractions) from each vegetation treatment at 10, 20, 30, and 40 °C for 24 hours. Vegetated soils contained more SOM (~0.1% for mesquite and grass mesocosms) than non-vegetated soils (~0.02%). Respiration rates were generally highest from grass-established soils, intermediate from mesquite-established soils, and lowest from non-vegetated soils. Respiration rates of samples incubated without the addition of substrate peaked at approximately 30 °C, whereas respiration rates of samples incubated with dextrose were highest at 40 °C. Further, the respiration assays suggest that while respiration rates are overall higher in grass-established soils, mesquite-established soils are more temperature sensitive which may have significant implications in the context of global warming and current fire management practices.

Liu, S.; Pavao-zuckerman, M.

2013-12-01

68

FASST Vegetation Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The one-dimensional dynamic state of the ground model FASST (Fast All-season Soil Strength) is a state of the ground model developed by Frankenstein and Koenig (2004) as part of the Army's Battlespace Terrain Reasoning and Awareness (BTRA) research progra...

S. Frankenstein G. Koenig

2004-01-01

69

Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The ability to read the 24-channel MSS CCT tapes, select specified agricultural land use areas from the CCT, and perform multivariate statistical and pattern recognition analyses has been demonstrated. The 5 optimum channels chosen for classifying an agricultural scene were, in the order of their selection the far red visible, short reflective IR, visible blue, thermal infrared, and ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, respectively. Although chosen by a training set containing only vegetal categories, the optimum 4 channels discriminated pavement, water, bare soil, and building roofs, as well as the vegetal categories. Among the vegetal categories, sugar cane and cotton had distinctive signatures that distinguished them from grass and citrus. Acreages estimated spectrally by the computer for the test scene were acceptably close to acreages estimated from aerial photographs for cotton, sugar cane, and water. Many nonfarmable land resolution elements representing drainage ditch, field road, and highway right-of-way as well as farm headquarters area fell into the grass, bare soil plus weeds, and citrus categories and lessened the accuracy of the farmable acreage estimates in these categories. The expertise developed using the 24-channel data will be applied to the ERTS-1 data.

Wiegand, C. L. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

70

Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Iron deficient and normal grain sorghum plants were sufficiently different spectrally in ERTS-1 band 5 CCT data to detect chlorotic sorghum areas 2.8 acres (1.1 hectares) or larger in size in computer printouts of the MSS data. The ratio of band 5 to band 7 or band 7 minus band 5 relates to vegetation ground cover conditions and helps to select training samples representative of differing vegetation maturity or vigor classes and to estimate ground cover or green vegetation density in the absence of ground information. The four plant parameters; leaf area index, plant population, plant cover, and plant height explained 87 to 93% of the variability in band 6 digital counts and from 59 to 90% of the variation in bands 4 and 5. A ground area 2244 acres in size was classified on a pixel by pixel basis using simultaneously acquired aircraft support and ERTS-1 data. Overall recognition for vegetables, immature crops and mixed shrubs, and bare soil categories was 64.5% for aircraft and 59.6% for spacecraft data, respectively. Overall recognition results on a per field basis were 61.8% for aircraft and 62.8% for ERTS-1 data.

Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Gerbermann, A. H. (principal investigators)

1974-01-01

71

Modeling aeolian erosion in presence of vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiarid landscapes are characterized by vegetated surfaces. Understanding the impact of vegetation on aeolian soil erosion is important for reducing soil erosion or limiting crop damage through abrasion or burial. In the present study, a saltation model fully coupled with a large-eddy simulation airflow model is extended to vegetated landscapes. From this model, the sensitivity of sand erosion to different arrangements and type of plants (shrub versus tree) representative of semiarid landscapes is investigated and the wind erosion reduction induced by plants is quantified. We show that saltation processes over vegetated surfaces have a limited impact on the mean wind statistics, the momentum extracted from the flow by saltating particles being negligible compared to that extracted by plants. Simulated sand erosion patterns resulting from plant distribution, i.e., accumulation and erosion areas, appear qualitatively consistent with previous observations. It is shown that sand erosion reduction depends not only on vegetation cover but also on plant morphology and plant distribution relative to the mean wind direction. A simple shear stress partitioning approach applied in shrub cases gives similar trends of sand erosion reduction as the present model following wind direction and vegetation cover. However, the magnitude of the reduction appears significantly different from one approach to another. Although shrubs trap saltating particles, trees appear more efficient than shrubs to reduce sand erosion. This is explained by the large-scale sheltering effect of trees compared to the local shrub one.

Dupont, S.; Bergametti, G.; Simoëns, S.

2014-02-01

72

Coevolution of hydraulic, soil and vegetation processes in estuarine wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuarine wetlands of south eastern Australia, typically display a vegetation zonation with a sequence mudflats - mangrove forest - saltmarsh plains from the seaward margin and up the topographic gradient. Estuarine wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, providing unique habitats for fish and many terrestrial species. They also have a carbon sequestration capacity that surpasess terrestrial forest. Estuarine wetlands respond to sea-level rise by vertical accretion and horizontal landward migration, in order to maintain their position in the tidal frame. In situations in which buffer areas for landward migration are not available, saltmarsh can be lost due to mangrove encroachment. As a result of mangrove invasion associated in part with raising estuary water levels and urbanisation, coastal saltmarsh in parts of south-eastern Australia has been declared an endangered ecological community. Predicting estuarine wetlands response to sea-level rise requires modelling the coevolving dynamics of water flow, soil and vegetation. This paper presents preliminary results of our recently developed numerical model for wetland dynamics in wetlands of the Hunter estuary of NSW. The model simulates continuous tidal inflow into the wetland, and accounts for the effect of varying vegetation types on flow resistance. Coevolution effects appear as vegetation types are updated based on their preference to prevailing hydrodynamic conditions. The model also considers that accretion values vary with vegetation type. Simulations are driven using local information collected over several years, which includes estuary water levels, accretion rates, soil carbon content, flow resistance and vegetation preference to hydraulic conditions. Model results predict further saltmarsh loss under current conditions of moderate increase of estuary water levels.

Trivisonno, Franco; Rodriguez, Jose F.; Riccardi, Gerardo; Saco, Patricia; Stenta, Hernan

2014-05-01

73

[Impact of moss soil crust on vegetation indexes interpretation].  

PubMed

Vegetation indexes were the most common and the most important parameters to characterizing large-scale terrestrial ecosystems. It is vital to get precise vegetation indexes for running land surface process models and computation of NPP change, moisture and heat fluxes over surface. Biological soil crusts (BSC) are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid, polar and sub-polar regions. The spectral characteristics of dry and wet BSCs were quite different, which could produce much higher vegetation indexes value for the wet BSC than for the dry BSC as reported. But no research was reported about whether the BSC would impact on regional vegetation indexes and how much dry and wet BSC had impact on regional vegetation indexes. In the present paper, the most common vegetation index NDVI were used to analyze how the moss soil crusts (MSC) dry and wet changes affect regional NDVI values. It was showed that 100% coverage of the wet MSC have a much higher NDVI value (0.657) than the dry MSC NDVI value (0.320), with increased 0.337. Dry and wet MSC NDVI value reached significant difference between the levels of 0.000. In the study area, MSC, which had the average coverage of 12.25%, would have a great contribution to the composition of vegetation index. Linear mixed model was employed to analyze how the NDVI would change in regional scale as wet MSC become dry MSC inversion. The impact of wet moss crust than the dry moss crust in the study area can make the regional NDVI increasing by 0.04 (14.3%). Due to the MSC existence and rainfall variation in arid and semi-arid zones, it was bound to result in NDVI change instability in a short time in the region. For the wet MSC's spectral reflectance curve is similar to those of the higher plants, misinterpretation of the vegetation dynamics could be more severe due to the "maximum value composite" (MVC) technique used to compose the global vegetation maps in the study of vegetation dynamics. The researches would be useful for detecting and mapping MSC from remote sensing imagery. It also is to the advantage to employing vegetation index wisely. PMID:21595239

Fang, Shi-bo; Zhang, Xin-shi

2011-03-01

74

Treatment of soil, vegetation and snow in land surface models: a test of the Biosphere?Atmosphere Transfer Scheme with the HAPEX-MOBILHY, ABRACOS and Russian data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various components of the land surface, their individual hydrological processes and the process-oriented models are reviewed in this paper, with the focus on their application in global climate models (GCMs). The Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) is examined regarding its performance for three different surfaces (crop, forest and grass), with available data from HAPEX-MOBILHY, ABRACOS and Russian data sets. The simulations of the key land surface prognostic variables, such as soil moisture and snow cover, are examined in detail because such validation has been lacking. Using the HAPEX-MOBILHY data, the impact of errors in the forcing variables on the uncertainties in the partitioning of total run-off and evapotranspiration is investigated, and the influence of the periodic forcing on soil moisture simulations is examined. Furthermore, an alternative empirically based approach for the soil evaporation efficiency is tested. The current framework of BATS soil hydrology, vegetation and snow schemes adequately reproduces observed soil moisture profiles for the three surfaces considered, and captures the seasonal evolution of snow mass. The simulations can be enhanced when site-specific information on surface parameters is available. Because of the realism of the overall framework of BATS, its inclusion in a GCM [the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model (CCM)] leads to reasonably realistic simulations of surface hydroclimatological variables. Further improving surface hydrology in global climate models is dependent on thorough tests of the available models using the available data, on the collection of long-term, seasonal, high-quality data, both at point and on larger spatial scales, and on the effective representation of the surface types on GCM scales.

Yang, Zong-Liang; Dickinson, Robert E.; Shuttleworth, W. James; Shaikh, Muhammad

1998-12-01

75

Modeling Vegetable Oil Viscosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils have become more attractive recently because of their environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. Vegetable oils do not contain any sulfur, aromatic hydrocarbons, metals, or crude oil residues. Short-term engine tests indicate good potential for vegetable oil fuels. Long-term endurance tests may show serious problems in injector coking, ring sticking, gum formation,

M. Balat

2008-01-01

76

Analysis of co-evolving soil depths, vegetation patterns, and connectivity on drylands.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arid and semiarid landscapes cover more than 30% of the Earth's surface. Vegetation in these areas is usually patchy due limited resource availability. This self-organized patchiness results from the nonlinear feedbacks between water redistribution, soils, landforms, and biota. These complex interactions make the understanding and prediction of landscape responses to climate and land use change highly challenging. Though several models have been recently developed and used to understand these feedbacks and the emergence of vegetation patterns in drylands, these models do not explicitly incorporate feedbacks with coevolving soil depths. Here we analyse feedback effects resulting from co-evolving soil depths, which play a key role in the redistribution of surface runoff and therefore on the patterns of vegetation and landscape connectivity. We present modelling results using a coupled landform evolution-dynamic vegetation model, which includes a soil depth evolution module accounts and for soil production and sediment erosion and deposition processes. We analyse the co-evolution of soil depths and vegetation patterns for varying soil erodibilities, slopes and plant functional types. We find that for deeper soils, facilitation effects of vegetation gives rise to the formation of regular patterns, and slope and soil erodibility are the key factors for recovery after disturbance. Disturbances in areas with high slope and/or soil erodibility lead to an increase in connectivity and a degraded state. In contrast, we find that for shallow soils, the facilitation effect of vegetation becomes less important and vegetation patterns are more irregular. In this case, soil depth becomes the key factor prescribing surface connectivity and for the recovery of the system after disturbance. These results have critical implications for effective management and restoration efforts, and for understanding the effects of changes in climate and land use.

Saco, Patricia; Willgoose, Garry

2014-05-01

77

Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Disaggregation radar data and relationship between soil moisture, vegetation and surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture is an important variable in weather and climate. The passive microwave sensors have provided soil moisture of various spatial resolutions and are available for all-weather conditions, including AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer- Earth Observing System), AMSR2 (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2) and SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity). However, the spatial resolution of passive microwave soil moisture product is restricted at tens of kilometers level and needs to be improved. Toward this issue, the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) is set to be launched in October 2014 will be the first mission to provide L-band radar/radiometer soil moisture retrievals at three resolutions. In this paper we present two distinct methods to obtain higher spatial resolution soil moisture. The first one is use of active radar data to downscale soil moisture obtained by passive radiometers. The SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) was taken place and provided Passive/Active L-band Sensor (PALS) observations of two along-track resolutions (650 m and 1590 m), as well as ground soil moisture measurements. Consequently the PALS data can be used for disaggregating coarse resolution passive soil moisture retrievals. Based on a change detection theory, the relationships between change in radar backscatter and change in soil moisture at both coarse and fine resolutions are examined and used for calculating high spatial resolution soil moisture from AMSR-E and SMOS. Using SMAPVEX12 ground measurements validates the disaggregation results. The second method is use of the relationship between vegetation and surface temperature to downscale soil moisture obtained from passive radiometers. The physical relationships amongst soil moisture, land surface temperature and vegetation index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI), the historic soil moisture data of recent 30 years at 1/8 degree NLDAS (North America Land Data Assimilation Systems) scale were studied and modeled by using the long term records of land surface model and remote sensing products, NLDAS, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer). This modeled relationship was then applied to the 1 km MODIS land surface temperature for disaggregating the microwave soil moisture estimates AMSR-E and SMOS in Oklahoma. Two sets of in-situ measurements Oklahoma Mesonet and Little Washita watershed Micronet were used for validating the disaggregated soil moisture.

Lakshmi, Venkat; Fang, Bin

2014-05-01

78

Response of spectral vegetation indices to soil moisture in grasslands and shrublands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The relationships between satellite-derived vegetation indices (VIs) and soil moisture are complicated because of the time lag of the vegetation response to soil moisture. In this study, we used a distributed lag regression model to evaluate the lag responses of VIs to soil moisture for grasslands and shrublands at Soil Climate Analysis Network sites in the central and western United States. We examined the relationships between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived VIs and soil moisture measurements. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) showed significant lag responses to soil moisture. The lag length varies from 8 to 56 days for NDVI and from 16 to 56 days for NDWI. However, the lag response of NDVI and NDWI to soil moisture varied among the sites. Our study suggests that the lag effect needs to be taken into consideration when the VIs are used to estimate soil moisture. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Zhang, L.; Ji, L.; Wylie, B. K.

2011-01-01

79

Assessing the effect of vegetation in the estimation of soil properties with field VNIR radiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroradiometric soil surveys (field radiometry) are a valuable technique for soil classification and properties estimation. Field radiometry combines -in a relatively easy-to-use procedure- a fast, accurate and non-destructive sampling method. A wide range of soil properties have been quantitatively estimated with field or laboratory radiometry. In addition, field radiometry is a basic stage in remote sensing studies. It allows the up-scaling process of soil, vegetation or water parameters from the ground level to the airborne or spaceborne sensors level. Field radiometry plays a crucial role in training and validation stages of quantitative remote sensing. A complex problem in remote sensing appears when several components are mixed within a pixel and the resulting pixel's spectrum is a combination of the individual components. This work assess the effect of vegetation in soil properties estimation with linear regression models. Field spectra were taken from soil-vegetation mixtures under natural illumination with a portable spectroradiometer in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral range. Soil and vegetation samples for each radiometric sampling point were taken and analyzed in laboratory. Soil moisture content and soil organic carbon measured by the LOI (Loss-On-Ignition) method (Konen et al. 2002) were used in this approach. A derivative analysis of field spectra was used to determine the position and magnitude of absorption bands according to the method employed by Melendez-Pastor et al. (2008). Pearson correlations between soil parameters and each spectral band were computed and correlograms for the first and second derivate were obtained. Maximum (approximates to +1) and minimum (approximates to -1) Pearson correlations were used to normalize correlograms between 0 to 1. High relatively correlated bands (with values ranging from 0 to 0.1 or from 0-9 to 1 for the normalized correlograms) were identified and used as explicative variables in the regression models. In addition, vegetation water content and the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation index) computed from field spectra also were used as explicative variables. Four combinations of explicative variables were used to predict soil variables: 1) high correlated bands, 2) high correlated bands and a soil parameter (LOI is used to predict soil moisture and vice versa), 3) high correlated bands and vegetation parameters, and 4) high correlated bands with soil and vegetation parameters. Models were developed for LOI and soil moisture with the first and second derivate. Medium to high correlation coefficients (R) were obtained in all regression models. R values ranged from 0.7 for the first approach (just high correlated bands) to 0.9 for the prediction of soil moisture with high correlated bands of the second derivate with vegetation parameters. Regression models with the second derivative achieved better model's adjustments and were almost equal for all combinations of explicative variables. A small improvement was observed for first derivate regression models using soil and vegetation explicative variables. Vegetation moisture was the most important parameter for the improvement of soil properties estimation. The combined used of soil and vegetation parameters for quantitative remote sensing of soil parameters allows accuracy improvements and a better knowledge of land cover mixtures. Regression models with the second derivate spectral peaks are less sensitive to changes in the vegetation coverage and thus retrieves better soil parameters estimations. References Konen, M., P. Jacobs, C. Lee Burras, B. Talaga, J. Mason. (2002) Equations for predicting soil organic carbon using loss-on-ignition for north central U.S. soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66:1878-1881. Melendez-Pastor, I., J. Navarro-Pedreño, I. Gómez, M. Koch. (2008). Identifying optimal spectral bands to assess soil properties with VNIR radiometry in semi-arid soils. Geoderma, 147: 126-132.

Melendez-Pastor, I.; Córdoba-Sola, P.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Gómez, I.; Koch, M.

2009-04-01

80

Soil evaporation from sparse natural vegetation estimated from Sherwood numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

For various purposes and applications it is convenient to have a simple technique available that produces reliable estimates about the contribution of the soil sensible and latent heat of a crop canopy or natural vegetation to the total fluxes. This is especially of importance in the case of a sparse vegetation where the bare soil is the major component.Under low

Adrie F. G. Jacobs; Anne Verhoef

1997-01-01

81

An Overview of the Use of the SimSphere Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) Model for the Study of Land-Atmosphere Interactions  

PubMed Central

Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) models consist of deterministic mathematical representations of the physical processes involved between the land surface and the atmosphere and of their interactions, at time-steps acceptable for the study of land surface processes. The present article provides a comprehensive and systematic review of one such SVAT model suitable for use in mesoscale or boundary layer studies, originally developed by [1]. This model, which has evolved significantly both architecturally and functionally since its foundation, has been widely applied in over thirty interdisciplinary science investigations, and it is currently used as a learning resource for students in a number of educational institutes globally. The present review is also regarded as very timely, since a variation of a method using this specific SVAT model along with satellite observations is currently being considered in a scheme being developed for the operational retrieval of soil surface moisture by the US National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), in a series of satellites that are due to be launched from 2016 onwards.

Petropoulos, George; Carlson, Toby N.; Wooster, Martin J.

2009-01-01

82

Using Distributed Snow Data to Evaluate and Improve the Performance of the Distributed Soil Hydrology Vegetation Model (DHSVM): a test case from the northeastern U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal validation of physically-based hydrologic models using distributed field measurements has been increasingly recognized as an important approach for testing model performance and improving model skill. We are evaluating the performance of the Distributed Soil Hydrology Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to model snowmelt and runoff in mountainous watersheds in the northeastern U.S. Our test cases include a forested control watershed and a watershed managed as an alpine ski area. Empirical results from these watersheds show substantial differences in annual water yield between the watersheds that are highly correlated to annual snowpack magnitude. An underlying objective of our research is to explore the effects of ski area development, in particular the size, spatial arrangement and orientation of ski runs and base village development on runoff production. In this application, we use distributed snow pack measurements to validate distributed model simulations of snow accumulation and melt. We also explore the use of an automated model calibration approach, utilizing our distributed snow measurements, to improve model skill. Future work will make use of these exploratory simulations as we attempt to model the effects of ski area development under different design scenarios and climate conditions.

del Peral, A.; Wemple, B.

2011-12-01

83

Derivation of soil moisture retrieval uncertainties associated to the simplification of the dynamic vegetation signal.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite-based microwave remote sensing has proven to provide reliable soil moisture observations on a global scale over the last decades. In microwave remote sensing of soil moisture the satellite signal holds information on both soil moisture and vegetation. Separating these components from each other is not straightforward. In the last years the importance of a robust and reliable vegetation parameterization within the soil moisture retrieval algorithms has become evident. In the TU-Wien soil moisture retrieval algorithm, developed by the Vienna University of Technology, the backscatter observations are corrected for vegetation effects by way of the slope and curvature. The slope and curvature are derivates of noisy backscatter measurements in relation to incidence angle and hence have a high level of noise. Therefore, they are averaged over several years resulting in a fixed seasonal vegetation correction, where no inter-annual variability is present in the characterisation of vegetation. This study assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the fixed seasonal vegetation correction in the TU-Wien soil moisture retrieval algorithm. The Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD) retrieved from AMSR-E passive microwave observations with the VUA-NASA retrieval algorithm is analysed to identify regions with high inter-annual variability in vegetation. For these regions the effect of a fixed seasonal correction on the soil moisture retrieval is investigated. First, the TU-Wien soil moisture products before and after the application of the vegetation correction, the TU-Wien normalised backscatter and TU-Wien soil moisture respectively, are compared to modelled soil moisture from ECMWFs ERA-Interim. With this analysis regions where the vegetation correction decreases the quality of the TU-Wien soil moisture product with regard to modeled soil moisture can be identified. Secondly, the vegetation correction within the TU-Wien retrieval algorithm is replaced by the VOD to simulate an inter-annually dynamic vegetation correction. The VOD is like the slope and curvature an indicator of vegetation water content. This new soil moisture product based on VOD is then also compared to modeled soil moisture from ERA-Interim. Results show that in areas of high inter-annual variability, like the Sahel, the TU-Wien vegetation correction is suboptimal and decreases the quality of the TU-Wien soil moisture product when compared to ERA-Interim. Spearman R with ERA-Interim soil moisture can decrease with as much as 0.4 after applying the vegetation correction. Using the VOD in these regions increases the quality of the TU-Wien soil moisture product. This study demonstrates that a fixed seasonal vegetation correction is not able to account for high inter-annual vegetation variability and leads to an inaccurate soil moisture signal, emphasizing the need for a dynamic vegetation correction.

Vreugdenhil, Mariette; Dorigo, Wouter; de Jeu, Richard; Hahn, Sebastian; Salinas, Jose Luis; Wagner, Wolfgang

2014-05-01

84

Effects of vegetation structure on biomass accumulation in a Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM v1.0)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A myriad of interactions exist between vegetation and local climate for arid and semi-arid regions. Vegetation function, structure and individual behavior have large impacts on carbon-water-energy balances, which consequently influence local climate variability that, in turn, feeds back to the vegetation. In this study, a conceptual vegetation structure scheme is formulated and tested in the new Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM) to explore the importance of vegetation structure and vegetation adaptation to water stress on equilibrium biomass states. Surface energy, water and carbon fluxes are simulated for a range of vegetation structures across a precipitation gradient in West Africa and optimal vegetation structures that maximize biomass for each precipitation regime are determined. Two different strategies of vegetation adaptation to water stress are included. Under dry conditions vegetation tries to maximize the water use efficiency and leaf area index as it tries to maximize carbon gain. However, a negative feedback mechanism in the vegetation-soil water system is found as the vegetation also tries to minimize its cover to optimize the surrounding bare ground area from which water can be extracted, thereby forming patches of vertical vegetation. Under larger precipitation, a positive feedback mechanism is found in which vegetation tries to maximize its cover as it then can reduce water loss from bare soil while having maximum carbon gain due to a large leaf area index. The competition between vegetation and bare soil determines a transition between a "survival" state to a "growing" state.

Yin, Z.; Dekker, S. C.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Dijkstra, H. A.

2014-05-01

85

Linking carbon-water- and nitrogen fluxes at forest ecosystems throughout Europe with a coupled soil-vegetation process model "LandscapeDNDC"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest ecosystems in Europe play a key role in the emission reduction commitment agreed in the Kyoto Protocol for mitigating climatic change. Forest ecological functioning and potential services (such as carbon sequestration) are a matter of debate for policy decision makers resulting from the need of identifying affordable strategies for forest management and exploitation against climate change. Forest ecosystem functioning and the linkages governing carbon-, water- and nitrogen fluxes at site scale was evaluated for three dominant tree species (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica) grown on 10 different sites across Europe. We did answer in particular the following questions: a) is LandscapeDNDC able to represent NEE, GPP, TER and ET fluxes for dominant forest types in Europe at different sites with only a species specific parameterization? b) What is the relation between carbon input into the ecosystem and on the emission of carbon and nitrogen from the forest soil? Furthermore we analyzed the interaction between carbon-, nitrogen-, and water cycle, in particular the dependence of gaseous fluxes on water and litter availability. LandscapeDNDC is a process based model that integrates modules for carbon, nitrogen and water cycling within terrestrial ecosystems (i.e. forest) on the site and regional scale. Biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere processes in forest ecosystems are linked by daily time step integration of the microclimate, water cycle, soil biogeochemistry and tree physiology and dimensional growth modules which balances all three aforementioned cycles. All processes and state variables are considered in a vertically structured one dimensional vertical column that reaches from rooting depth (more than 1 m depth) to the uppermost canopy layer. LandscapeDNDC was tested against long term (about 10 years) field data. The capability of the applied model for reproducing daily derived GPP and TER was accompanied by a high statistical precision (r2), accuracy (r2eff) and agreement (RMSPEn) while for reproducing daily NEE and ET as well as soil moisture was accompanied by a good statistical precision and agreement. In addition, beside C fixation also simulated C allocation into different vegetation compartments agreed well with measured data on biomass development and vegetation structure. Also soil respiration and N2O emissions agreed well with field observations. Soil respiration was driven by GPP and the rates of N2O fluxes depended on soil ecosystem properties and were influenced by litter C/N inputs and weather conditions. In conclusion by use of general tree species parameterizations LandscapeDNDC was capable to simulate and capture impacts of a multitude of environmental drivers on forest ecosystem C-, N-, water dynamics, as well as linking above - and belowground processes across various sites in Europe. Nevertheless, the quality of measured data (e.g. spatial representation, time resolution) as well as the existing description of ecosystem processes in the model should be considered when evaluating the capability of process based models to be used for evaluation of biogeochemical ecosystem functioning.

Molina Herrera, Saul; Grote, Rüdiger; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

2013-04-01

86

Mediterranean shrub vegetation: soil protection vs. water availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil Erosion and Land Degradation are closely related to the changes in the vegetation cover (Zhao et al., 2013). Although other factors such as rainfall intensiy or slope (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) the plant covers is the main factor that controls the soil erosion (Haregeweyn, 2013). Plant cover is the main factor of soil erosion processes as the vegetation control the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1998a; Kargar Chigani et al., 2012). Vegetation cover acts in a complex way in influencing on the one hand on runoff and soil loss and on the other hand on the amount and the way that rainfall reaches the soil surface. In arid and semiarid regions, where erosion is one of the main degradation processes and water is a scant resource, a minimum percentage of vegetation coverage is necessary to protect the soil from erosion, but without compromising the availability of water (Belmonte Serrato and Romero Diaz, 1998). This is mainly controlled by the vegetation distribution (Cerdà, 1997a; Cammeraat et al., 2010; Kakembo et al., 2012). Land abandonment is common in Mediterranean region under extensive land use (Cerdà, 1997b; García-Ruiz, 2010). Abandoned lands typically have a rolling landscape with steep slopes, and are dominated by herbaceous communities that grow on pasture land interspersed by shrubs. Land abandonment use to trigger an increase in soil erosion, but the vegetation recovery reduces the impact of the vegetation. The goal of this work is to assess the effects of different Mediterranean shrub species (Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Medicago strasseri, Colutea arborescens L., Retama sphaerocarpa, L., Pistacia Lentiscus L. and Quercus coccifera L.) on soil protection (runoff and soil losses) and on rainfall reaching soil surface (rainfall partitioning fluxes). To characterize the effects of shrub vegetation and to evaluate their effects on soil protection, two field experiments were carried out. The presence of shrub vegetation reduced runoff by at least 45% and soil loss by at least 59% in relation to an abandoned and degraded soil (bare soil) (Garcia-Estringana et al., 2010a). D. pentaphyllum, M. strasseri and C. arborescens were more effective in reducing runoff and soil loss (at least 83% and 97% respectively) than R. sphaerocarpa (45% and 59% respectively). Pisctacia Lentiscus L reduced the soil losses in 87% and the runoff rates (68%) meanwhile Quercus coccifera L reached a larger reduction (95% and 88 %) in comparison to herbicide treated agriculture soil. So, all shrub species protected the soil, but not in the same way. In relation to rainfall reaching the soil surface, great differences were observed among species, with interception losses varying between 10% for R. sphaerocarpa to greater than 36% for D. pentaphyllum and M. strasseri, and with stemflow percentages changing between less than 11% for D. pentaphyllum and M. strasseri and 20% for R. sphaerocarpa (Garcia-Estringana et al., 2010b). Rainfall interception on Pistacia Lentiscus and Quercus coccifera were 24% and 34% respectively for the two years of measurements. The integration of the effects of Mediterranean shrub vegetation on soil protection and rainfall partitioning fluxes facilitates understanding the effects of changes in vegetation type on soil and water resources. From this perspective, the interesting protective effect of D. pentpahyllum and M. strasseri, reducing intensely runoff and soil loss contrasts with the dangerous reduction in rainfall reaching the soil surface. Soil protection is essential in semiarid and arid environments, but a proper assessment of the effects on water availability is critical because of water is a scant resource in these kinds of environments. Pistacia Lentiscus and Quercus coccifera shown both a high capacity to intercept rainfall, increase infiltration and reduce the soil losses. We suggest to apply similar research programs into recently fire affected land as the role of vegetation after the fire is very dynamic (Cerdà 1998b). Acknowledgements The research projects 07 M/0077/1998, 07 M/0023/

García Estringana, Pablo; Nieves Alonso-Blázquez, M.; Alegre, Alegre; Cerdà, Artemi

2014-05-01

87

Soil and vegetation parameter uncertainty on future terrestrial carbon sinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the role of the terrestrial carbon cycle in a changing climate at the centennial scale using an intermediate complexity Earth system climate model that includes the effects of dynamic vegetation and the global carbon cycle. We present a series of ensemble simulations to evaluate the sensitivity of simulated terrestrial carbon sinks to three key model parameters: (a) The temperature dependence of soil carbon decomposition, (b) the upper temperature limits on the rate of photosynthesis, and (c) the nitrogen limitation of the maximum rate of carboxylation of Rubisco. We integrated the model in fully coupled mode for a 1200-year spin-up period, followed by a 300-year transient simulation starting at year 1800. Ensemble simulations were conducted varying each parameter individually and in combination with other variables. The results of the transient simulations show that terrestrial carbon uptake is very sensitive to the choice of model parameters. Changes in net primary productivity were most sensitive to the upper temperature limit on the rate of photosynthesis, which also had a dominant effect on overall land carbon trends; this is consistent with previous research that has shown the importance of climatic suppression of photosynthesis as a driver of carbon-climate feedbacks. Soil carbon generally decreased with increasing temperature, though the magnitude of this trend depends on both the net primary productivity changes and the temperature dependence of soil carbon decomposition. Vegetation carbon increased in some simulations, but this was not consistent across all configurations of model parameters. Comparing to global carbon budget observations, we identify the subset of model parameters which are consistent with observed carbon sinks; this serves to narrow considerably the future model projections of terrestrial carbon sink changes in comparison with the full model ensemble.

Kothavala, Z.; Felzer, B. S.

2013-12-01

88

Vegetation and Soils Information Contained in Transformed Thematic Mapper Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) Tasseled Cap data transformation method for reorienting TM data such that vegetation and soils information can be more easily extracted, displayed, and understood is outlined. The transformation applied as to any temperate...

E. P. Crist R. Laurin R. C. Cicone

1986-01-01

89

Soil Seed Bank and Standing Vegetation of Abandoned Croplands on Chinese Loess Plateau: Implications for Restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation succession depends on the availability of suitable propagules in the soils, and an understanding of soil seed banks is important for effective vegetation restoration of abandoned croplands. Aims of this study were to identify characteristics of soil seed bank, relationship with standing vegetation, and potential significance of soil seed bank for vegetation restoration in abandoned croplands on the hilly-gullied

Wen-Juan Bai; Jonathan Mitchley; Ju-Ying Jiao

2010-01-01

90

Remote measurement of soil moisture over vegetation using infrared temperature measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Better methods for remote sensing of surface evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and fractional vegetation cover were developed. The objectives were to: (1) further develop a model of water movement through the soil/plant/atmosphere system; (2) use this model, in conjunction with measurements of infrared surface temperature and vegetation fraction; (3) determine the magnitude of radiometric temperature response to water stress in vegetation; (4) show at what point one can detect that sensitivity to water stress; and (5) determine the practical limits of the methods. A hydrological model that can be used to calculate soil water content versus depth given conventional meteorological records and observations of vegetation cover was developed. An outline of the results of these initiatives is presented.

Carlson, Toby N.

1991-01-01

91

Modeling soil erosion in burnt areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires can cause significant changes to hydrological and soil erosion processes, through the destruction of vegetation cover and changes to soil properties. Modeling soil erosion in burnt areas is still a challenge, since most erosion models are built for agricultural fields and usually present a poor performance when applied to burnt areas. An important fact behind the poor performance is

J. P. Nunes; M. C. Malvar; D. C. S. Vieira; R. S. V. Ferreira; J. J. Keizer

2009-01-01

92

Soil moisture and vegetation controls on evapotranspiration in a heterogeneous Mediterranean ecosystem on Sardinia, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micrometeorological measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) can be difficult to interpret and use for validating model calculations in the presence of land cover heterogeneity. Land surface fluxes, soil moisture ($\\\\theta$), and surface temperatures (Ts) data were collected by an eddy correlation-based tower located at the Orroli (Sardinia) experimental field (covered by woody vegetation, grass, and bare soil) from April 2003 to

Matteo Detto; Nicola Montaldo; John D. Albertson; Marco Mancini; Gaby Katul

2006-01-01

93

Carbon Dynamics in Vegetation and Soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goals of CD-08 team in Phase I were to quantify the contributions of different components of the carbon cycle to overall ecosystem carbon balance in Amazonian tropical forests and to undertake process studies at a number of sites along the eastern LBA transect to understand how and why these fluxes vary with site, season, and year. We divided this work into a number of specific tasks: (1) determining the average rate (and variability) of tree growth over the past 3 decades; (2) determining age demographics of tree populations, using radiocarbon to determine tree age; (3) assessing the rate of production and decomposition of dead wood debris; (4) determining turnover rates for organic matter in soils and the mean age of C respired from soil using radiocarbon measurements; and (5) comparing our results with models and constructing models to predict the potential of tropical forests to function as sources or sinks of C. This report summarizes the considerable progress made towards our original goals, which have led to increased understanding of the potential for central Amazon forests to act as sources or sinks of carbon with altered productivity. The overall picture of tropical forest C dynamics emerging from our Phase I studies suggests that the fraction of gross primary production allocated to growth in these forests is only 25-30%, as opposed to the 50% assumed by many ecosystem models. Consequent slow tree growth rates mean greater mean tree age for a given diameter, as reflected in our measurements and models of tree age. Radiocarbon measurements in leaf and root litter suggest that carbon stays in living tree biomass for several years up to a decade before being added to soils, where decomposition is rapid. The time lags predicted from 14C, when coupled with climate variation on similar time scales, can lead to significant interannual variation in net ecosystem C exchange.

Trumbore, Susan; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Camargo, Plinio; Martinelli, Luiz; Santos, Joaquim

2005-01-01

94

Soil, water, and vegetation conditions in south Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The best wavelengths in the 0.4 to 2.5 micron interval were determined for detecting lead toxicity and ozone damage, distinguishing succulent from woody species, and detecting silverleaf sunflower. A perpendicular vegetation index, a measure of the distance from the soil background line, in MSS 5 and MSS 7 data space, of pixels containing vegetation was developed and tested as an indicator of vegetation development and crop vigor. A table lookup procedure was devised that permits rapid identification of soil background and green biomass or phenological development in LANDSAT scenes without the need for training data.

Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H. (principal investigators)

1977-01-01

95

Improved Prediction of Quasi-Global Vegetation Conditions Using Remotely-Sensed Surface Soil Moisture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The added value of satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals for agricultural drought monitoring is assessed by calculating the lagged rank correlation between remotely-sensed vegetation indices (VI) and soil moisture estimates obtained both before and after the assimilation of surface soil moisture retrievals derived from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) into a soil water balance model. Higher soil moisture/VI lag correlations imply an enhanced ability to predict future vegetation conditions using estimates of current soil moisture. Results demonstrate that the assimilation of AMSR-E surface soil moisture retrievals substantially improve the performance of a global drought monitoring system - particularly in sparsely-instrumented areas of the world where high-quality rainfall observations are unavailable.

Bolten, John; Crow, Wade

2012-01-01

96

Electromagnetic wave scattering from vegetation (Potato) and vegetation covered soil moisture for remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the country with limited resources, where the nutrition level of the population has to be maintained under inhospitable situation, the potato has a special value as food. Therefore efforts should be made for improvement and spreading the cultivation of this important crop. It demands an effective program that may provide information about potato growing areas and the growth conditions. Remote sensing has been acknowledged to be a valuable source of spatially comprehensive and temporally repeatable information of crop covered soil moisture, crop growth climatic information etc, which is useful and necessary for agriculture purposes. For this purpose, microwave remote sensing has evolved as an important tool. Since microwave are able to penetrate more deeply into vegetation and underneath ground surface. It is also preferred to the optical frequency band because microwave can work in all type of weather and have a wide signal dynamic range compared optical wavelengths. However interpretation of microwave scattering from agricultural crops requires an understanding the interaction among microwave, vegetative material and the soil. In order to develop useful forward and inverse models for retrieving the vegetation characteristic, it is necessary to know in detail the dielectric properties and plant structure of the vegetation over the range of expected growing conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model based on microwave interaction with potato crop along with examination of biomass of potato crop with the varying underlying soil moisture is studied. For this purpose, X-band (9.5GHz) scatterometer is used for studying the interaction of microwave with potato crop biomass and underlying soil moisture at various sensor parameters (i.e. angular variation and polarization, HH- and VV-). Although there may be a lot of crop parameters (i.e. crop height, leaf area index, etc) which also gives their effect on microwave. All this parameters are interlinked in the crop. So, this study is focused on biomass, which is one of the main parameter of crop and related with dielectric. Scattering coefficient at X-band showed strong sensitivity to different growth cycle of potato. The soil effect on scattering coefficient was prominent at steeper incidence angle (less than 40 degree) where as potato plant effects are more dominant at higher incidence angle (more than 40 degree). The microwave response of potato is polarization dependent and is more prominent for VV-Pol than HH-Pol at every stages of growth of potato and this strong polarization dependence can play a strong role for crop discrimination. The dependency of scattering coefficient on biomass is statistically checked by the linear regression analysis and results of regression analysis confirm the experimental results i.e., scattering coefficient increases as the biomass increases in the potato crop. The best angle to observe and retrieve the biomass by scattering coefficient is 55 degree and 60 degree incidence angles for HH-Pol and VV-Pol respectively. The regression results also revealed that scattering coefficient is positively correlated with soil moisture for both like pols. This result follows many earlier findings. The best incidence angle to compute the potato covered soil moisture from scattering coefficient is 35 degree and 30 degree for HH- and VV-Pol respectively. The HH- pol has edge over VV-pol for observing the potato the covered soil moisture. This approach provides a new direction to understand the potato scattering at X-band for remote sensing.

Singh, Keshev

97

Microwave Backscatter Dependence on Surface Roughness, Soil Moisture, and Soil Texture: Part II-Vegetation-Covered Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of an experimental investigation to determine the relationship between radar backscatter coefficient ¿° and soil moisture for vegetation-covered soil. These results extend a previous report which showed the experimental relationship between ¿° and soil moisture for bare soil [1]. It is shown that the highest correlation between ¿° and soil moisture is 0.92 for the combined response

Fawwaz Ulaby; Gerald Bradley; Myron Dobson

1979-01-01

98

VEGETATIVE RESTORATION OF WESTERN-MONTANE FOREST SOILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understory aids in the restoration of physical, chemical, and biological soil parameters after forest disturbance. Understory establishment must be timely to reduce erosion and maintain forest processes; understory must occur in significant amounts over time to ameliorate disturbance effects, and it must meet management objectives. The goal of vegetative restoration offorest soils is to restore produc­ tivity potential to predisturbance

Richard Everett; Darlene Zabowski; Phillip McColley

99

Modeling Feedbacks Between Water and Vegetation in the Climate System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Not only is water essential for life on earth, but life itself affects the global hydrologic cycle and consequently the climate of the planet. Whether the global feedbacks between life and the hydrologic cycle tend to stabilize the climate system about some equilibrium level is difficult to assess. We use a global climate model to examine how the presence of vegetation can affect the hydrologic cycle in a particular region. A control for the present climate is compared with a model experiment in which the Sahara Desert is replaced by vegetation in the form of trees and shrubs common to the Sahel region. A second model experiment is designed to identify the separate roles of two different effects of vegetation, namely the modified albedo and the presence of roots that can extract moisture from deeper soil layers. The results show that the presence of vegetation leads to increases in precipitation and soil moisture in western Sahara. In eastern Sahara, the changes are less clear. The increase in soil moisture is greater when the desert albedo is replaced by the vegetation albedo than when both the vegetation albedo and roots are added. The effect of roots is to withdraw water from deeper layers during the dry season. One implication of this study is that the insertion of vegetation into the Sahara modifies the hydrologic cycle so that the vegetation is more likely to persist than initially.

Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

100

Scaling dimensions in spectroscopy of soil and vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper revises and clarifies definitions of the term scale and scaling conversions for imaging spectroscopy of soil and vegetation. We demonstrate a new four-dimensional scale concept that includes not only spatial but also the spectral, directional and temporal components. Three scaling remote sensing techniques are reviewed: (1) radiative transfer, (2) spectral (un)mixing, and (3) data fusion. Relevant case studies are given in the context of their up- and/or down-scaling abilities over the soil/vegetation surfaces and a multi-source approach is proposed for their integration. Radiative transfer (RT) models are described to show their capacity for spatial, spectral up-scaling, and directional down-scaling within a heterogeneous environment. Spectral information and spectral derivatives, like vegetation indices (e.g. TCARI/OSAVI), can be scaled and even tested by their means. Radiative transfer of an experimental Norway spruce ( Picea abies (L.) Karst.) research plot in the Czech Republic was simulated by the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model to prove relevance of the correct object optical properties scaled up to image data at two different spatial resolutions. Interconnection of the successive modelling levels in vegetation is shown. A future development in measurement and simulation of the leaf directional spectral properties is discussed. We describe linear and/or non-linear spectral mixing techniques and unmixing methods that demonstrate spatial down-scaling. Relevance of proper selection or acquisition of the spectral endmembers using spectral libraries, field measurements, and pure pixels of the hyperspectral image is highlighted. An extensive list of advanced unmixing techniques, a particular example of unmixing a reflective optics system imaging spectrometer (ROSIS) image from Spain, and examples of other mixture applications give insight into the present status of scaling capabilities. Simultaneous spatial and temporal down-scaling by means of a data fusion technique is described. A demonstrative example is given for the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data from Brazil. Corresponding spectral bands of both sensors were fused via a pyramidal wavelet transform in Fourier space. New spectral and temporal information of the resultant image can be used for thematic classification or qualitative mapping. All three described scaling techniques can be integrated as the relevant methodological steps within a complex multi-source approach. We present this concept of combining numerous optical remote sensing data and methods to generate inputs for ecosystem process models.

Malenovský, Zbyn?k; Bartholomeus, Harm M.; Acerbi-Junior, Fausto W.; Schopfer, Jürg T.; Painter, Thomas H.; Epema, Gerrit F.; Bregt, Arnold K.

2007-05-01

101

Coupling the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer Scheme ORCHIDEE to the agronomy model STICS to study the influence of croplands on the European carbon and water budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is still accounted for in a very simplistic way in the land-surface models which are coupled to climate models, while the area it occupies will significantly increase in the next century according to future scenarios. In order to improve the representation of croplands in a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model named ORCHIDEE (which can be coupled to the IPSL1 climate

Nathalie de NOBLET-DUCOUDRÉa; Philippe Ciais; Nicolas Viovy; Nadine Brisson; Bernard Seguin; Alain Perrier

2004-01-01

102

A multi-frequency radiometric measurement of soil moisture content over bare and vegetated fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment on soil moisture remote sensing was conducted during July to September 1981 on bare, grass, and alfalfa fields at frequencies of 0.6, 1.4, 5.0, and 10.6 GHz with radiometers mounted on mobile towers. The results confirm the frequency dependence of sensitivity reduction due to the presence of vegetation cover. For the type of vegetated fields reported here, the vegetation effect is appreciable even at 0.6 GHz. Measurements over bare soil show that when the soil is wet, the measured brightness temperature is lowest at 5.0 GHz and highest at 0.6 GHz, a result contrary to the expectation based on the estimated dielectric permittivity of soil-water mixtures and the current radiative transfer model in that frequency range.

Wang, J. R.; Schmugge, T. J.; Gould, W. I.; Glazar, W. S.; Fuchs, J. E.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

1982-01-01

103

A Vegetated Urban Canopy Model for Meteorological and Environmental Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An urban canopy model is developed for use in mesoscale meteorological and environmental modelling. The urban geometry is\\u000a composed of simple homogeneous buildings characterized by the canyon aspect ratio (h\\/w) as well as the canyon vegetation characterized by the leaf aspect ratio (?\\u000a l\\u000a ) and leaf area density profile. Five energy exchanging surfaces (roof, wall, road, leaf, soil) are

Sang-Hyun Lee; Soon-Ung Park

2008-01-01

104

Changes in soil properties across a chronosequence of vegetation restoration on the Loess Plateau of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil fertility is important for vegetation growth and productivity. The relationship between vegetation and soil fertility is important for both scientific and practical reasons. However, the effects of soil fertility on vegetation development and succession are poorly documented on the Loess Plateau. In this study, we compared soil properties of the Yanhe Watershed in northern Shaanxi across five different land

Feng Jiao; Zhong-Ming Wen; Shao-Shan An

2011-01-01

105

Soil erosion-vegetation interactions in Mediterranean-dry reclaimed mining slopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining reclamation in Mediterranean-dry environments represents a complex task. Reclaimed mining slopes are particularly vulnerable to the effects of accelerated soil erosion processes, especially when these processes lead to the formation of rill networks. On the other hand, encouraging early vegetation establishment is perceived as indispensable to reduce the risk of degradation in these man-made ecosystems. This study shows a synthesis of soil erosion-vegetation research conducted in reclaimed mining slopes at El Moral field site (Teruel coalfield, central-east Spain). Our results highlight the role of rill erosion processes in the development of reclaimed ecosystems. Runoff routing is conditioned by the development of rill networks, maximizing the loss of water resources at the slope scale by surface runoff and altering the spatial distribution of soil moisture. As a result, the availability of water resources for plant growth is drastically reduced, affecting vegetation development. Conversely, vegetation exerts a strong effect on soil erosion: erosion rates rapidly decrease with vegetation cover and no significant rill erosion is usually observed after a particular cover threshold is reached. These interactive two-way vegetation-soil erosion relationships are further studied using a novel modeling approach that focuses on stability analysis of water-limited reclaimed slopes. Our framework reproduces two main groups of trends along the temporal evolution of reclaimed slopes: successful trends, characterized by widespread vegetation development and the effective control of rill erosion processes; and gullying trends, characterized by the progressive loss of vegetation and a sharp logistic increase in erosion rates. This stability-analysis also facilitates the determination of threshold values for both vegetation cover and rill erosion that drive the long-term reclamation results, assisting the identification of critical situations that require specific human interventions to ensure the long-term sustainability of the restored ecosystems.

Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Merino-Martín, Luis; Espigares, Tíscar; Nicolau, José M.

2014-05-01

106

Soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation within hillslope vegetation restoration sites in Jinshajing hot-dry river valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil seed bank plays an important role in the composition of different plant communities, especially in their conservation. Although soil seed bank, aboveground vegetation and their relationship have been the subject of much recent attention, little is known about the size and species composition of the soil seed bank and about the aboveground vegetation in the semiarid hillslope grasslands. There

Hui Luo; Keqin Wang

2006-01-01

107

Application of the ORCHIDEE global vegetation model to evaluate biomass and soil carbon stocks of Qinghai-Tibetan grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cold grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau form a globally significant biome, which represents 6% of the world's grasslands and 44% of China's grasslands. Yet little is known about carbon cycling in this biome. In this study, we calibrated and applied a process-based ecosystem model called Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) to estimate the C fluxes and

Kun Tan; Philippe Ciais; Shilong Piao; Xiaopu Wu; Yanhong Tang; Nicolas Vuichard; Shuang Liang; Jingyun Fang

2010-01-01

108

Mapping Vegetation, Soils, and Geology in Semiarid Shrublands Using Spectral Matching and Mixture Modeling of SWIR AVIRIS Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral matching and linear mixture modeling techniques have been applied to synthetic imagery and AVIRIS SWIR imagery of a semiarid rangeland in order to determine their effectiveness as mapping tools, the synergism between the two methods, and their advantages, and limitations for rangeland resource exploitation and management. Spectral matching of pure library spectra was found to be an effective method

Nick A. Drake; Steve Mackin; Jeff J. Settle

1999-01-01

109

Development of a ground hydrology model suitable for global climate modeling using soil morphology and vegetation cover, and an evaluation of remotely sensed information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long-term purpose was to contribute to scientific understanding of the role of the planet's land surfaces in modulating the flows of energy and matter which influence the climate, and to quantify and monitor human-induced changes to the land environment that may affect global climate. Highlights of the effort include the following: production of geo-coded, digitized World Soil Data file for use with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model; contribution to the development of a numerical physically-based model of ground hydrology; and assessment of the utility of remote sensing for providing data on hydrologically significant land surface variables.

Zobler, L.; Lewis, R.

1988-01-01

110

Role of vegetation cover on soil water balance in two Mediterranean areas: semiarid and dry at southeastern of Spain.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is a limited resource in the semiarid areas, which affects both, the population services, the economic growth, like the natural ecosystems stability. In this context, an accurate knowledge of soil water balance and role of the vegetation cover contribute to improve the management of resources water and forest. These studies are increasingly important, if we consider the latest Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In this paper the main objectives were focused on:(1)To determine the soil water balance on two different climatic conditions, semiarid and dry climate and(2) Assess the effect of vegetation (structure and cover) on soil water balance under the studied climatic conditions. For this purpose we used HYDROBAL ecohydrological model, which calculates at a daily resolution the water flows through of the vegetation canopy, estimates daily soil moisture and predicts deep drainage from the unsaturated soil layer into the aquifer. In order to achieve these objectives, we have selected two sites in the south-eastern of Spain, on soils calcareous and different climatic conditions. Ventós site in a semiarid Mediterranean area and Confrides site in a dry Mediterranean area, with 303 and 611 mm of annual precipitation respectively. Both sites, the predominant vegetation are afforestations with Pinus halepensis on dry grasslands with some patches of thorn shrublands and dwarf scrubs; but it show difference on trees density, cover and height of pines.Soil water balance was determined in each site using HYDROBAL ecohydrological model on one hydrological year (October 2012 and September 2013).Model inputs include climatic variables (daily rainfall and temperature), as well as soil and vegetation characteristics (soil field capacity, soil wilting point, initial soil water content and vegetation cover index). Model outputs are interception, net rainfall, runoff, soil water reserves, actual evapotranspiration, direct percolation, and deep percolation (or aquifer recharge). In the last decade, HYDROBAL model has been used successfully in semiarid conditions, to assess the soil water balance on different vegetation cover types, and the effect of different land-use scenarios on water resources and aquifer recharge. Results highlight the role of vegetation cover type and volume of annual rainfall on the soil water balance. Both sites present similar percentage of vegetation cover(>80%), however in Ventós site (semiarid area), a lower pine cover (44%) and lower volume of annual rainfall produced differences in the soil water balance. In Confrides site (dry area), in spite of show the twice of annual rainfall, a higher pine cover (78%) reduced the net precipitation and consequently affected the soil water balance. An understanding the role of vegetation cover on soil water balance is a very useful tool to implement an optimal management of forest and water resources.

Manrique, Àngela; Ruiz, Samantha; Chirino, Esteban; Bellot, Juan

2014-05-01

111

Interpretation of the relationship between skin temperature and vegetation fraction: Effect of subpixel soil temperature variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both land surface\\/skin temperature and vegetation indices data provided routinely and globally by NASA MODIS sensors at 1?km grid resolution represent an important piece of information assimilated into various environmental applications\\/models. Previous studies based on these and similar remotely data sets and on two?component pixel representation (accounting for pixel?aggregated vegetation and bare soil temperatures only) have shown a rather strong

Georgy V. Mostovoy; Valentine Anantharaj; Roger L. King; Marina G. Filippova

2008-01-01

112

An Intercomparison of Vegetation Products from Satellite-based Observations used for Soil Moisture Retrievals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation and its water content affect active and passive microwave soil moisture retrievals and need to be taken into account in such retrieval methodologies. This study compares the vegetation parameterisation that is used in the TU-Wien soil moisture retrieval algorithm to other vegetation products, such as the Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD), Net Primary Production (NPP) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). When only considering the retrieval algorithm for active microwaves, which was developed by the TU-Wien, the effect of vegetation on the backscattering coefficient is described by the so-called slope [1]. The slope is the first derivative of the backscattering coefficient in relation to the incidence angle. Soil surface backscatter normally decreases quite rapidly with the incidence angle over bare or sparsely vegetated soils, whereas the contribution of dense vegetation is fairly uniform over a large range of incidence angles. Consequently, the slope becomes less steep with increasing vegetation. Because the slope is a derivate of noisy backscatter measurements, it is characterised by an even higher level of noise. Therefore, it is averaged over several years assuming that the state of the vegetation doesn't change inter-annually. The slope is compared to three dynamic vegetation products over Australia, the VOD, NPP and LAI. The VOD was retrieved from AMSR-E passive microwave data using the VUA-NASA retrieval algorithm and provides information on vegetation with a global coverage of approximately every two days [2]. LAI is defined as half the developed area of photosynthetically active elements of the vegetation per unit horizontal ground area. In this study LAI is used from the Geoland2 products derived from SPOT Vegetation*. The NPP is the net rate at which plants build up carbon through photosynthesis and is a model-based estimate from the BiosEquil model [3, 4]. Results show that VOD and slope correspond reasonably well over vegetated areas, whereas in arid areas, where the microwave signals mostly stem from the soil surface and deeper soil layers, they are negatively correlated. A second comparison of monthly values of both vegetation parameters to modelled NPP data shows that particularly over dry areas the VOD corresponds better to the NPP, with r=0.79 for VOD-NPP and r=-0.09 for slope-NPP. 1. Wagner, W., et al., A Study of Vegetation Cover Effects on ERS Scatterometer Data. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 1999. 37(2): p. 938-948. 2. Owe, M., R. de Jeu, and J. Walker, A methodology for surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth retrieval using the microwave polarization difference index. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, 2001. 39(8): p. 1643-1654. 3. Raupach, M.R., et al., Balances of Water, Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Australian Landscapes: (1) Project Description and Results, 2001, Sustainable Minerals Institute, CSIRO Land and Water. 4. Raupach, M.R., et al., Balances of Water, Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosporus in Australian Landscapes: (2) Model Formulation and Testing, 2001, Sustainable Minerals Institute, CSIRO Land and Water. * These products are the joint property of INRA, CNES and VITO under copyright of Geoland2. They are generated from the SPOT VEGETATION data under copyright CNES and distribution by VITO.

Vreugdenhil, Mariette; de Jeu, Richard; Wagner, Wolfgang; Dorigo, Wouter; Hahn, Sebastian; Bloeschl, Guenter

2013-04-01

113

Sigma Mesa: Background elemental concentrations in soil and vegetation, 1979  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, soil and vegetation samples were collected on Sigma Mesa to provide background data before construction on the mesa. Elemental data are presented for soil, grass, juniper, pinon pine, and oak. None of the data looks out of the ordinary. The purpose of the sampling program was to acquire, before any disturbance, a set of data to be used as background for future impact analysis. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Gladney, E.S.; Brooks, G.H. Jr.

1990-10-01

114

Modeling of the interactions between forest vegetation, disturbances, and sediment yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controls of forest vegetation, wildfires, and harvest vegetation disturbances on the frequency and magnitude of sediment delivery from a small watershed (?3.9 km2) in the Idaho batholith are investigated through numerical modeling. The model simulates soil development based on continuous bedrock weathering and the divergence of diffusive sediment transport on hillslopes. Soil removal is due to episodic gully erosion,

Erkan Istanbulluoglu; David G. Tarboton; Robert T. Pack; Charles H. Luce

2004-01-01

115

Dynamic Model for the Effects of Soil P and Fertilizer P on Crop Growth, P Uptake and Soil P in Arable Cropping: Experimental Test of the Model for Field Vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper (Greenwood et al. Annals of Botany88: 279–291, 2001), we described a mechanistic model that calculates the effects of extractable soil P and fertilizer P on daily increments in dry matter yield and P uptake of field crops. This paper describes the calibration of that model for six different species and subsequent tests of the calibrated model

D. J. Greenwood; D. A. Stone; T. V. Karpinets

2001-01-01

116

The effects of vegetation on restoration of physical stability of a severely degraded soil in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetative restoration may increase stability of degraded soil through enrichment of soil organic carbon (SOC). It is not clear whether hydrophobic fractions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) function, although soil water repellency is generally linked to soil stability. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of vegetative restoration and hydrophobic DOC fractions on soil hydrological and mechanical

Shuihong Yao; Jiangtao Qin; Xinhua Peng; Bin Zhang

2009-01-01

117

[Investigation of polarization characteristics of soil surface with low vegetation cover and different soil moisture].  

PubMed

Compared with the spectral detection method, polarization detection could obtain more information of the target. For example, the polarization detection could be applied to interpret the refractive index and the surface roughness of the object, or retrieve the soil moisture, etc. Polarization detection provides a new approach to quantitative retrieval of soil moisture, and this is very important in agriculture, hydrology, meteorology and ecology. The polarization characteristics of soil surface with low vegetation cover,which is a example of mixed pixel in remote sensing, were researched with experiments, and the relationship between the polarization characteristics and soil moisture was also explored. The results showed that the polarization characteristics of soil surface with low vegetation cover are mainly determined by the area of bare soil, and are strongly relevant with the soil moisture. For the results of experiments in this paper, the IDOLP of soil surface with low vegetation cover increased with increasing soil moisture when the viewing angle of instrument was between 20 degree and 60 degree, while the incident angle of light source was fixed at 40 degree. This paper offered a new method to retrieve moisture content of soil with low vegetation cover. PMID:21284189

Zhang, Qiao; Sun, Xiao-bing; Hong, Jin

2010-11-01

118

Interactions Between Wind Erosion, Vegetation Structure, and Soil Stability in Groundwater Dependent Plant Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desertification is a human induced global phenomenon causing a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem productivity. Semi-arid grasslands are vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts (i.e., groundwater pumping and surface water diversion) that decrease vegetation cover and increase bare soil area leading to a greater probability of soil erosion, potentially enhancing feedback processes associated with desertification. To enhance our understanding of interactions between anthropogenic, physical, and biological factors causing desertification, this study used a combination of modeling and field observations to examine the relationship between chronic groundwater pumping and vegetation cover change and its effects on soil erosion and stability. The work was conducted in Owens Valley California, where a long history of groundwater pumping and surface water diversion has lead to documented vegetation changes. The work examined hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical factors across thirteen sites in Owens Valley. We analyzed soil stability, vegetation and gap size, soil organic carbon, and we also installed Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) catchers to calculate mass transport of aeolian sediment across sites. Mass transport calculations were used to validate a new wind erosion model that represents the effect of porous vegetation on surface windshear velocity. Results across two field seasons show that the model can be used to predict mass transport, and areas with increased groundwater pumping show a greater susceptibility to erosion. Sediment collected in BSNE catchers was positively correlated with site gap size. Additionally, areas with larger gap sizes have a greater threshold shear velocity and soil stability, yet mass transport was greater at these sites than at sites with smaller gap sizes. Although modeling is complicated by spatial variation in multiple model parameters (e.g., gap size, threshold shear velocity in gaps), our results support the hypothesis that soils with high organic matter are being eroded following the loss of vegetation cover due to groundwater decline leaving behind bare soil surfaces with less fertility hampering vegetation reestablishment. Desertification in this system is apparently easily initiated through groundwater decline due to the high friability of these meadow soils.

Vest, K. R.; Elmore, A. J.; Okin, G. S.

2009-12-01

119

Reflectance of Vegetation, Soil, and Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Reflectance of crop residues, that are important in reducing wind and water erosion, was more often different from bare soil in band 4 than in bands 5, 6, or 7. The plant parameters leaf area in...

C. L. Wiegand

1974-01-01

120

Simulation of the catchment evapotranspiration based on different soil-vegetation parameterization schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation and soil are important carriers in water cycle, therefore, soil-vegetation parameterization is importation in catchment hydrological simulation. In this study, the soil-vegetation parameterization schemes in a distributed physically-based hydrological model (GBHM) and the water-energy balance model is discussed to predict actual evapotranspiration in the Luan River basin. Comparison between the physically-based hydrological model and the latter lumped conceptual model can help us understand the dominant control factors on catchment evapotranspiration at different time scales. From the analysis through comparison, it is shown that both simulations of these two models give very close values of annual evapotranspiration and the same complementary relationship between actual and potential evapotranspiration can be found at the annual time scale. The catchment annual evapotranspiration is controlled mainly by the annual precipitation and potential evaporation. While the impact of variability of soil water and vegetation become more important at a smaller time scale. It is also known that the relationship between potential and actual evapotranspiration shows a highly nonlinear relationship at the annual and catchment scale, but can be simplified to a linear relationship at hourly temporal and hillslope scales.

Shao, Weiwei; Yang, Dawen; Xu, Xiangyu; Wang, Jianhua

2010-05-01

121

Infiltration and Transport of Bromide and Cryptosporidium parvum in Vegetated, Tilted Soil Box Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we develop a conceptual model of the physics of flow and transport in packed, tilted, and vegetated soil boxes during and immediately after simulated rainfall events and apply it to 54 experiments implemented for three different soils at three different slopes and two different rainfall rates. Using an inverse modeling procedure, we show that a significant amount of the subsurface outflow from the soil boxes is due to macropore flow. The effective hydraulic properties of the macropore space were obtained by calibration of a simple two-domain flow and transport model that accounts for coupled flow in the matrix and in the macropores of the soils. While the macropore hydraulic properties are highly variable, linear mixed effects ( LME) modeling showed significant association with soil bulk density and with the rainfall rate. Macropore flow is shown to be responsible for both, tracer (bromide) and C. parvum transport through the soil into the underlying pore space observed during the 4 hours experiments. Over a 20 cm thick soil horizon, the soil attenuation rate for C. parvum due to straining in the soil matrix and due to filtration to the macropore surfaces is 0.6 (half an order of magnitude). The LME and logistic regression models developed from the soil box experiments provide a basis for estimating macropore hydraulic properties and the risk of C. parvum transport through shallow soils from bulk density, precipitation, and total subsurface flow rate information.

Harter, T.; Atwill, E. R.; Hou, L.; Carle, B. M.

2005-12-01

122

Relationship Between Vegetation Restoration and Soil Microbial Characteristics in Degraded Karst Regions: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of vegetation restoration on degraded karst regions has been a research focus of soil science and ecology for the last decade. In an attempt to preferably interpret the soil microbiological characteristic variation associated with vegetation restoration and further to explore the role of soil microbiology in vegetation restoration mechanism of degraded karst regions, we measured microbial biomass C

Yuan WEI; Li-Fei YU; Jin-Chi ZHANG; Yuan-Chun YU; D. L. DEANGELIS

2011-01-01

123

Sulfamethazine Sorption to Soil: Vegetative Management, pH, and Dissolved Organic Matter Effects.  

PubMed

Elucidating veterinary antibiotic interactions with soil is important for assessing and mitigating possible environmental hazards. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of vegetative management, soil properties, and >1000 Da dissolved organic matter (DOM) on sulfamethazine (SMZ) behavior in soil. Sorption experiments were performed over a range of SMZ concentrations (2.5-50 ?mol L) using samples from three soils (Armstrong, Huntington, and Menfro), each planted to one of three vegetation treatments: agroforestry buffers strips (ABS), grass buffer strips (GBS), and row crops (RC). Our results show that SMZ sorption isotherms are well fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model (log = 0.44-0.93; Freundlich nonlinearity parameter = 0.59-0.79). Further investigation of solid-to-solution distribution coefficients () demonstrated that vegetative management significantly ( < 0.05) influences SMZ sorption (ABS > GBS > RC). Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that organic carbon (OC) content, pH, and initial SMZ concentration were important properties controlling SMZ sorption. Study of the two most contrasting soils in our sample set revealed that increasing solution pH (pH 6.0-7.5) reduced SMZ sorption to the Armstrong GBS soil, but little pH effect was observed for the Huntington GBS soil containing 50% kaolinite in the clay fraction. The presence of DOM (150 mg L OC) had little significant effect on the Freundlich nonlinearity parameter; however, DOM slightly reduced SMZ values overall. Our results support the use of vegetative buffers to mitigate veterinary antibiotic loss from agroecosystems, provide guidance for properly managing vegetative buffer strips to increase SMZ sorption, and enhance understanding of SMZ sorption to soil. PMID:23673946

Chu, Bei; Goyne, Keith W; Anderson, Stephen H; Lin, Chung-Ho; Lerch, Robert N

2013-01-01

124

Modelling the Congo basin ecosystems with a dynamic vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scarcity of field observations in some parts of the world makes difficult a deep understanding of some ecosystems such as humid tropical forests in Central Africa. Therefore, modelling tools are interesting alternatives to study those regions even if the lack of data often prevents sharp calibration and validation of the model projections. Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) are process-based models that simulate shifts in potential vegetation and its associated biogeochemical and hydrological cycles in response to climate. Initially run at the global scale, DVMs can be run at any spatial scale provided that climate and soil data are available. In the framework of the BIOSERF project ("Sustainability of tropical forest biodiversity and services under climate and human pressure"), we use and adapt the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model (Dury et al., iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 4:82-99, 2011) to study the Congo basin vegetation dynamics. The field campaigns have notably allowed the refinement of the vegetation representation from plant functional types (PFTs) to individual species through the collection of parameters such as the specific leaf area or the leaf C:N ratio of common tropical tree species and the location of their present-day occurrences from literature and available database. Here, we test the model ability to reproduce the present spatial and temporal variations of carbon stocks (e.g. biomass, soil carbon) and fluxes (e.g. gross and net primary productivities (GPP and NPP), net ecosystem production (NEP)) as well as the observed distribution of the studied species over the Congo basin. In the lack of abundant and long-term measurements, we compare model results with time series of remote sensing products (e.g. vegetation leaf area index (LAI), GPP and NPP). Several sensitivity tests are presented: we assess consecutively the impacts of the level at which the vegetation is simulated (PFTs or species), the spatial resolution and the initial land cover (potential or human-induced). First, we show simulations over the whole Congo basin at a 0.5° spatial resolution. Then, we present high-resolution simulations (1 km) carried out over different areas of the Congo basin, notably the DRC part of the WWF Lake Tele - Lake Tumba Landscape. Studied in the BIOSERF project, this area is characterized by a forest-savannah mosaic but also by swamp and flooded forest. In addition, forward transient projections of the model driven with the outputs of about thirty global climate models (GCMs) from the new Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) will permit to outline the likely response of carbon pools to changing climate over the Congo basin during the 21th century.

Dury, Marie; Hambuckers, Alain; Trolliet, Franck; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Haineaux, Damien; Fontaine, Corentin M.; Fayolle, Adeline; François, Louis

2014-05-01

125

Soil Moisture and Vegetation Water Content Retrieval Using QuikSCAT data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future water resources are a critical societal impact of climate change and hydrological cycles. Current climate models uncertainties result in disagreement on whether there will be more or less water. On a global scale, there are important gaps in knowledge of where water is stored, where it is going, and how fast it is moving. Soil moisture and vegetation water content are key environmental variables on evaporation and transpiration at the land-atmosphere boundary. Radar remote sensing helps to improve our estimate of water resources globally and temporally. SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) and SWOT (Surface Water Ocean Topography) are the two future NASA missions to monitor water resources and their variation spatially and temporally. Li et al. (Li. Et al. 2010) developed a physically based six-channel algorithm, which uses dual-polarization Windsat passive microwave data to retrieve soil moisture and vegetation water content. We use the retrieved soil moisture and vegetation water content using Windsat descending pass (around 6AM), and also simultaneous collocated QuikSCAT dual-polarization backscattered power to estimate different parameters of the land. The backscattered power can be written as ?pi = fbare ?grp(smi,m) + (1-fbare){ Ap ( 1-exp(-Bp Wi) ) + Cp Wi? exp(-Bp Wi) } where ?pi is the ith QuikSCAT backscatter power with polarization p, fbare is the bare surface fraction, m is soil rms. slope, ?grp is the ground backscattered power with polarization p, and smi and Wi are the retrieved soil moisture and vegetation water content using Windsat data. Ap, Cp, and Bp are the backscattering contributions from vegetation volume, canopy ground interaction, and attenuation of the canopy with polarization p, respectively. We assume all parameters remain constant for each month of different years compared to soil moisture and vegetation water content. Therefore for each point, we have 10 unknowns for HH and VV polarizations. We collect all observations of simultaneous QuikSCAT and retrieved smi and Wi for each location during the summer season and retrieve all those 10 parameters. We show how the retrieved global bare surface fraction compares well with the existing maps. These parameters are then used to estimate the soil moisture and vegetation water content for summer days of a different year using QuikSCAT backscattered power and formula above. Although QuikSCAT satellite is designed to capture sea-winds, it also collects data over land globally almost every day. Therefore, we can generate a global map of soil moisture and vegetation water content daily. We compare the retrieved values with Li et al.'s retrieval values.

Oveisgharan, S.; Haddad, Z. S.; Turk, J.; Li, L.; Rodriguez, E.

2013-05-01

126

Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no author-identified significant results in this report. This report deals with the selection of the best channels from the 24-channel aircraft data to represent crop and soil conditions. A three-step procedure has been developed that involves using univariate statistics and an F-ratio test to indicate the best 14 channels. From the 14, the 10 best channels are selected by a multivariate stochastic process. The third step involves the pattern recognition procedures developed in the data analysis plan. Indications are that the procedures in use are satsifactory and will extract the desired information from the data.

Wiegand, C. L. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

127

Canopy reflectance modelling of semiarid vegetation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three different types of remote sensing algorithms for estimating vegetation amount and other land surface biophysical parameters were tested for semiarid environments. These included statistical linear models, the Li-Strahler geometric-optical canopy model, and linear spectral mixture analysis. The two study areas were the National Science Foundation's Jornada Long Term Ecological Research site near Las Cruces, NM, in the northern Chihuahuan desert, and the HAPEX-Sahel site near Niamey, Niger, in West Africa, comprising semiarid rangeland and subtropical crop land. The statistical approach (simple and multiple regression) resulted in high correlations between SPOT satellite spectral reflectance and shrub and grass cover, although these correlations varied with the spatial scale of aggregation of the measurements. The Li-Strahler model produced estimated of shrub size and density for both study sites with large standard errors. In the Jornada, the estimates were accurate enough to be useful for characterizing structural differences among three shrub strata. In Niger, the range of shrub cover and size in short-fallow shrublands is so low that the necessity of spatially distributed estimation of shrub size and density is questionable. Spectral mixture analysis of multiscale, multitemporal, multispectral radiometer data and imagery for Niger showed a positive relationship between fractions of spectral endmembers and surface parameters of interest including soil cover, vegetation cover, and leaf area index.

Franklin, Janet

1994-01-01

128

Soil moisture and evapotranspiration of wetlands vegetation habitats retrieved from satellite images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research has been carried out in Biebrza Ramsar Convention test site situated in the N-E part of Poland. Data from optical and microwave satellite images have been analysed and compared to the detailed soil-vegetation ground truth measurements conducted during the satellite overpasses. Satellite data applied for the study include: ENVISAT.ASAR, ENVISAT.MERIS, ALOS.PALSAR, ALOS.AVNIR-2, ALOS.PRISM, TERRA.ASTER, and NOAA.AVHRR. Optical images have been used for classification of wetlands vegetation habitats and vegetation surface roughness expressed by LAI. Also, heat fluxes have been calculated using NOAA.AVHRR data and meteorological data. Microwave images have been used for the assessment of soil moisture. For each of the classified wetlands vegetation habitats the relationship between soil moisture and backscattering coefficient has been examined, and the best combination of microwave variables (wave length, incidence angle, polarization) has been used for mapping and monitoring of soil moisture. The results of this study give possibility to improve models of water cycle over wetlands ecosystems by adding information about soil moisture and surface heat fluxes derived from satellite images. Such information is very essential for better protection of the European sensitive wetland ecosystems. ENVISAT and ALOS images have been obtained from ESA for AO ID 122 and AOALO.3742 projects.

Dabrowska-Zielinska, K.; Budzynska, M.; Kowalik, W.; Turlej, K.

2010-08-01

129

Vegetation loss alters soil nitrogen dynamics in an Arctic salt marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Plant and microbial nitrogen (N) dynamics were examined in soils of an Arctic salt marsh beneath goose-grazed swards and in degraded soils. The degraded soils are the outcome of intensive destructive foraging by geese, which results in vegetation loss and near-irreversible changes in soil properties. The objective of the study was to determine whether vegetation loss led to

KATE M. BUCKERIDGE; ROBERT L. JEFFERIES

2007-01-01

130

Vegetation Affects the Relative Abundances of Dominant Soil Bacterial Taxa and Soil Respiration Rates in an Upland Grassland Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-derived organic matter inputs are thought to be a key driver of soil bacterial community composition and associated\\u000a soil processes. We sought to investigate the role of acid grassland vegetation on soil bacterial community structure by assessing\\u000a bacterial diversity in combination with other soil variables in temporally and spatially distinct samples taken from a field-based\\u000a plant removal experiment. Removal of

Bruce C. Thomson; Nick Ostle; Niall McNamara; Mark J. Bailey; Andrew S. Whiteley; Robert I. Griffiths

2010-01-01

131

Estimating photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and bare soil fractions using Landsat and MODIS data: Effects of site heterogeneity, soil properties and land cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation fractional cover is a key indicator for land management monitoring, both in pastoral and agricultural settings. Maintaining adequate vegetation cover protects the soil from the effects of water and wind erosion and also ensures that carbon is returned to soil through decomposition. Monitoring vegetation fractional cover across large areas and continuously in time needs good remote sensing techniques underpinned by high quality ground data to calibrate and validate algorithms. In this study we used Landsat and MODIS reflectance data together with field measurements from 1476 observations across Australia to produce estimates of vegetation fractional cover using a linear unmixing technique. Specifically, we aimed at separating fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare soil (B). We used Landsat reflectance averaged over a 3x3 pixel window representing the area actually measured on the ground and also a 'degraded' Landsat reflectance 40x40 pixel window to simulate the effect of a coarser sensor. Using these two Landsat reflectances we quantified the heterogeneity of each site. We used data from two MODIS-derived reflectance products: the Nadir BRDF-Adjusted surface Reflectance product (MCD43A4) and the MODIS 8-day surface reflectance (MOD09A1). We derived endmembers from the data and estimated fractional cover using a linear unmixing technique. Log transforms and band interaction terms were added to account for non-linearities in the spectral mixing. For each reflectance source we investigated if the residuals were correlated with site heterogeneity, soil colour, soil moisture and land cover type. As expected, the best model was obtained when Landsat data for a small region around each site was used. We obtained root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.134, 0.175 and 0.153 for PV, NPV and B respectively. When we degraded the Landsat data to an area of ~1 km2 around each site the model performance decreased to RMSE of 0.142, 0.181 and 0.166 for PV, NPV and B. Using MODIS reflectance data (from the MCD43A4 and MOD09A1 products) we obtained similar results as when using the 'degraded' Landsat reflectance, with no significant differences between them. Model performance decreased (i.e. RMSE increased) with site heterogeneity when coarse resolution reflectance data was used. We did not find any evidence of soil colour or moisture influence on model performance. We speculate that the unmixing models may be insensitive to soil colour and/or that the soil moisture in the top few millimetres of soil, which influence reflectance in optical sensors, is decoupled from the soil moisture in the top layer (i.e. a few cm) as measured by passive microwave sensors or estimated by models. The models tended to overestimate PV in cropping areas, possibly due to a strong red/ near infrared signal in homogeneous crops which do not have a high green cover. This study sets the basis for an operational Landsat/ MODIS combined product which would benefit users with varying requirements of spatial, temporal resolution and latency and could potentially be applied to other regions in the world.

Guerschman, J. P.; Scarth, P.; McVicar, T.; Malthus, T. J.; Stewart, J.; Rickards, J.; Trevithick, R.; Renzullo, L. J.

2013-12-01

132

Assessment of regional biomass-soil relationships using vegetation indexes  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on data from the NOAA-10 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) collected over the midwestern United States for the 1987 and 1988 growing seasons. A Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) transformation was performed using the two optical bands of the sensor (0.58-0.68 {mu}m and 0.72-1.10 {mu}m). The NDVI is related to the amount of active photosynthetic biomass present on the ground. Samples of NDVI values over 45 fields representing 8 soil associations throughout the State of Indiana were collected to assess the effect of soil conditions and acquisition data on the spectral response of the vegetation, as shown by the NDVI's.

Lozano-Garcia, D.F.; Fernandez, R.N.; Johannsen, C.J. (Lab. of Applications of Remote Sensing, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (US))

1991-03-01

133

[Effects of vegetation restoration on soil carbon and nitrogen cycles: a review].  

PubMed

Vegetation rehabilitation is one of the main means in managing soil and water loss, being able to effectively promote the development of eroded soil, improve the soil fertility level, enhance the soil microbial activities, and in further, affect the soil carbon and nitrogen cycles. Therefore, vegetation rehabilitation plays definite roles in the accumulation of soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools and the mitigation of greenhouse gases emission from soil. This paper summarized the effects of vegetation rehabilitation on the soil carbon and nitrogen cycles and the synergetic effects between soil quality and vegetation rehabilitation, and put forward the further research directions, which could provide the reference for the evaluation of the roles of vegetation rehabilitation in response to global climate change, and the practical guidance for the improvement of soil fertility and the recovery and sustainable development of degraded ecosystems. PMID:24697086

Weng, Bo-Qi; Zheng, Xiang-Zhou; Ding, Hong; Wang, Huang-Ping

2013-12-01

134

The influence of biological soil crusts on successional vegetation patterns in a revegetated desert area in the Tengger Desert, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an important cover in arid desert landscapes, and have a profound effect on the soil water redistribution, plant growth and vegetation succession. Although a large number of studies have focused on the single-process of BSCs experimentally, relatively few studies have examined the eco-hydrological mechanisms of BSCs influence on successional vegetation patterns in revegetated desert areas. In this study, based on the long term monitoring and focused research on sand-binding vegetation in the Shapotou region (southeastern edge of the Tengger Desert, China) since the 1950s, the characteristics of plant community and BSCs at different successional stages, and the soil water dynamics were investigated. Then a simplified mathematical model describing the coupled dynamics of soil moisture and vegetation in drylands was developed. And finally the role of BSCs on soil water dynamics and vegetation patterns were discussed. Results have showed that BSCs was closely associated with the vegetation succession, such as in the Caragana korshinskii community, moss crusts were the dominate species and in the Artemisia ordosica community, algae crusts were the dominate species. BSCs had a significant effect on soil water infiltration and it was one of the main driving forces to vegetation pattern formations, as algae crusts would induced the tiger bush stripes and moss crusts would lead to the leopard bush spots in arid ecosystems.

Lei, Huang; Zhi-shan, Zhang; Xin-rong, Li

2014-05-01

135

Development of the IAP Dynamic Global Vegetation Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IAP Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (IAP-DGVM) has been developed to simulate the distribution and structure of global vegetation within the framework of Earth System Models. It incorporates our group's recent developments of major model components such as the shrub sub-model, establishment and competition parameterization schemes, and a process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity. The model has 12 plant functional types, including seven tree, two shrub, and three grass types, plus bare soil. Different PFTs are allowed to coexist within a grid cell, and their state variables are updated by various governing equations describing vegetation processes from fine-scale biogeophysics and biogeochemistry, to individual and population dynamics, to large-scale biogeography. Environmental disturbance due to fire not only affects regional vegetation competition, but also influences atmospheric chemistry and aerosol emissions. Simulations under observed atmospheric conditions showed that the model can correctly reproduce the global distribution of trees, shrubs, grasses, and bare soil. The simulated global dominant vegetation types reproduce the transition from forest to grassland (savanna) in the tropical region, and from forest to shrubland in the boreal region, but overestimate the region of temperate forest.

Zeng, Xiaodong; Li, Fang; Song, Xiang

2014-05-01

136

Using high-resolution radar images to determine vegetation cover for soil erosion assessments.  

PubMed

Healthy soils are crucial for human well-being. Because soils are threatened worldwide, politicians recognize the need for soil protection. For example, the European Commission has launched the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, which requests the European member states to identify high risk areas for soil degradation. Most states use the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to assess soil erosion risk at the national scale. The USLE includes different factors, one of them is the vegetation cover and management factor (C factor). Modern satellite-based radar sensors now provide highly accurate vegetation cover data, enabling opportunities to improve the accuracy of the C factor. The presented study proves the suitability for C factor determination based on a multi-temporal classification of high-resolution radar images. Further USLE factors were derived from existing data sources (meteorological data, soil maps, digital elevation model) to conduct an USLE-based soil erosion assessment. The resulting map illustrates a qualitative assessment for soil erosion risk within a plot of about 7*12 km in an agricultural region in Poland that is very susceptible to soil erosion processes. A high erosion risk of more than 10 tonnes per ha and year was assessed to occur on 13.6% (646 ha) of the agricultural areas within the investigated plot. Further 7.8% (372 ha) of agricultural land is threaten by a medium risk of 5-10 tonnes per ha and year. Such a spatial information about areas of high or medium soil erosion risk are crucial for the development of strategies for the protection of soils. PMID:23624425

Bargiel, D; Herrmann, S; Jadczyszyn, J

2013-07-30

137

Does intertidal vegetation indicate specific soil and hydrologic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six distinct plant zones were identified within a mesohaline tidal marsh in the Cape Fear Estuary, North Carolina. USA. All\\u000a six vegetative zones were found within an 18-cm portion of the 1.35-m tidal range. Aerial photographs show that these six\\u000a zones have existed within the marsh for the past 20 years. A monotypicJuncus roemerianus stand occupied soils with the highest

Courtney T. Hackney; Susan Brady; Lynn Stemmy; Marta Boris; Charles Dennis; Tom Hancock; Mike O’Bryon; Crystal Tilton; Eric Barbee

1996-01-01

138

Correlation scaling properties between soil moisture and vegetation indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution and crop phenology are largely associated with climate, terrain characteristics and human activity. Remote sensing data provide the opportunity to monitor crop dynamics and its changes. The images of earth surface obtained by satellites with a high resolution give huge information on these being the main characteristic of these images a high local variability in their digital values. Traditional segmentation techniques for image analysis are many times non useful when such complexity is found in the images. The images of Guadalajara (Central Spain), which correspond to an area of 250x250 km, have been studied. Normalized difference of vegetation index (NDVI) and soil humidity (NDSI) values which had been extracted with a resolution of 512x512 pixels for this area at March and June of 2006 were analyzed using multifractal analysis (MFA). The MFA gives a new representation of two images at different times, which allows the analysis of the vegetation scenario using different parameters from the multifractal spectrum. The scaling properties of the correlation between soil humidity and vegetation index at two different moments are discussed and compared. This approach could be a powerful way to monitor various dynamic parameters of the vegetation in Central Spain.

Alonso, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Benito, R. M.; Zuñiga, I.

2009-04-01

139

River basin soil-vegetation condition assessment applying mathematic simulation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meticulous attention paid nowadays to the problem of vegetation cover productivity changes is connected also to climate global transformation. At the same time ecosystems anthropogenic transformation, basically connected to the changes of land use structure and human impact on soil fertility, is developing to a great extent independently from climatic processes and can seriously influence vegetation cover productivity not only at the local and regional levels but also globally. Analysis results of land use structure and soil cover condition influence on river basin ecosystems productive potential is presented in the research. The analysis is carried out applying integrated characteristics of ecosystems functioning, space images processing results and mathematic simulation methods. The possibility of making permanent functional simulator defining connection between macroparameters of "phytocenosis-soil" system condition on the basis of basin approach is shown. Ecosystems of river catchment basins of various degrees located in European part of Russia were chosen as research objects. For the integrated assessment of ecosystems soil and vegetation conditions the following characteristics have been applied: 1. Soil-productional potential, characterizing the ability of natural and natural-anthropogenic ecosystem in certain soil-bioclimatic conditions for long term reproduction. This indicator allows for specific phytomass characteristics and ecosystem produce, humus content in soil and bioclimatic parameters. 2. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has been applied as an efficient, remotely defined, monitoring indicator characterizing spatio-temporal unsteadiness of soil-productional potential. To design mathematic simulator functional simulation methods and principles on the basis of regression, correlation and factor analysis have been applied in the research. Coefficients values defining in the designed static model of phytoproductivity distribution has been executed applying non-linear approximation by the smallest squares method with the help of software in Mathcad environment. Mathematic simulation resulted in defining possible permanent conditions of "phytocenosis-soil" system in coordinates of phytomass, phytoproductivity, humus percentage in soil. It has been demonstrated that phytocenosis productivity is determined not only by vegetation photosynthetic activity but by forest and meadow phytocenosis area ratio as well. Local maximums attached to certain phytomass areas and humus content in soil have been determined at basin phytoproductivity distribution diagram. One of such areas lies within specific phytomass values of B = 133,56 t/hectare and humus content of 2,29 % and the most stable "phytocenosis - soil" system condition corresponds to it. Efficient correlation of natural forest and meadow phytocenosis for the Klyazma river has been defined, at which the most stable permanent condition is achieved and it ranks 7:1. It corresponds to the Klyazma basin location in south taiga zone and it is proved by intensive forest over growing of the abandoned agricultural lands.

Mishchenko, Natalia; Trifonova, Tatiana; Shirkin, Leonid

2013-04-01

140

Environmental sensor networks for vegetation, animal and soil sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental sensor networks (ESNs) provide new opportunities for improving our understanding of the environment. In contrast to remote sensing technologies where measurements are made from large distances (e.g. satellite imagery, aerial photography, airborne radiometric surveys), ESNs focus on measurements that are made in close proximity to the target environmental phenomenon. Sensors can be used to collect a much larger number of measurements, which are quantitative and repeatable. They can also be deployed in locations that may otherwise be difficult to visit regularly. Sensors that are commonly used in the environmental sciences include ground-based multispectral vegetation sensors, soil moisture sensors, GPS tracking and bioacoustics for tracking movement in wild and domesticated animals. Sensors may also be coupled with wireless networks to more effectively capture, synthesise and transmit data to decision-makers. The climate and weather monitoring domains provide useful examples of how ESNs can provide real-time monitoring of environmental change (e.g. temperature, rainfall, sea-surface temperature) to many users. The objective of this review is to examine state-of-the-art use of ESNs for three environmental monitoring domains: (a) terrestrial vegetation, (b) animal movement and diversity, and (c) soil. Climate and aquatic monitoring sensor applications are so extensive that they are beyond the scope of this review. In each of the three application domains (vegetation, animals and soils) we review the technologies, the attributes that they sense and briefly examine the technical limitations. We conclude with a discussion of future directions.

Zerger, A.; Viscarra Rossel, R. A.; Swain, D. L.; Wark, T.; Handcock, R. N.; Doerr, V. A. J.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; Doerr, E. D.; Gibbons, P. G.; Lobsey, C.

2010-10-01

141

Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil

Zongqiang GONG; Peijun LI; B. M. Wilke; Kassem Alef

2008-01-01

142

A microwave scattering model for layered vegetation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microwave scattering model was developed for layered vegetation based on an iterative solution of the radiative transfer equation up to the second order to account for multiple scattering within the canopy and between the ground and the canopy. The model is designed to operate over a wide frequency range for both deciduous and coniferous forest and to account for the branch size distribution, leaf orientation distribution, and branch orientation distribution for each size. The canopy is modeled as a two-layered medium above a rough interface. The upper layer is the crown containing leaves, stems, and branches. The lower layer is the trunk region modeled as randomly positioned cylinders with a preferred orientation distribution above an irregular soil surface. Comparisons of this model with measurements from deciduous and coniferous forests show good agreements at several frequencies for both like and cross polarizations. Major features of the model needed to realize the agreement include allowance for: (1) branch size distribution, (2) second-order effects, and (3) tree component models valid over a wide range of frequencies.

Karam, Mostafa A.; Fung, Adrian K.; Lang, Roger H.; Chauhan, Narinder S.

1992-01-01

143

Influence of thermodynamic soil and vegetation parameterizations on the simulation of soil temperature states and surface fluxes by the Noah LSm over a Tibetan plateau site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the ability of the Noah Land Surface model (LSm) to simulate temperature states in the soil profile and surface fluxes measured during a 7-day dry period at a micrometeorological station on the Tibetan Plateau. Adjustments in soil and vegetation parameterizations required to ameliorate the Noah simulation on these two aspects are presented, which include: (1)

R. van der Velde; Z. Su; M. Ek; M. Rodell; Y. Ma

2009-01-01

144

Effects of varying soil moisture contents and vegetation canopies on microwave emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of NASA airborne passive microwave scans of bare and vegetated fields for comparison with ground truth tests are discussed and a model for atmospheric scattering of radiation by vegetation is detailed. On-board radiometers obtained data at 21, 2.8, and 1.67 cm during three passes over each of 46 fields, 28 of which were bare and the others having wheat or alfalfa. Ground-based sampling included moisture in five layers down to 15 cm in addition to soil temperature. The relationships among the brightness temperature and soil moisture, as well as the surface roughness and the vegetation canopy were examined. A model was developed for the dielectric coefficient and volume scattering for a vegetation medium. L- to C-band data were found useful for retrieving soil information directly. A surface moisture content of 5-35% yielded an emissivity of 0.9-0.7. The data agreed well with a combined multilayer radiative transfer model with simple roughness correction.

Burke, H.-H. K.; Schmugge, T. J.

1982-01-01

145

ENHANCEMENT OF METHANE OXIDATION IN COVER SOIL OF TROPICAL LANDFILL BY VEGETATION AND LEACHATE IRRIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of vegetation and leachate irrigation on methanotrophic activity in cover soil of landfill was investigated. Leachate was applied to maintain moisture content for microbial activity while being treated when irrigated on topsoil. Laboratory-scale experiment was conducted to examine the effect of leachate loading on methane oxidation in non-vegetated and vegetated cover soil (with S. virginicus, a tropical grass).

Sayan Tudsri

146

Estimating Sahelian and East African soil moisture using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall gauge networks in Sub-Saharan Africa are inadequate for assessing Sahelian agricultural drought, hence satellite-based estimates of precipitation and vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) provide the main source of information for early warning systems. While it is common practice to translate precipitation into estimates of soil moisture, it is difficult to quantitatively compare precipitation and soil moisture estimates with variations in NDVI. In the context of agricultural drought early warning, this study quantitatively compares rainfall, soil moisture and NDVI using a simple statistical model to translate NDVI values into estimates of soil moisture. The model was calibrated using in-situ soil moisture observations from southwest Niger, and then used to estimate root zone soil moisture across the African Sahel from 2001-2012. We then used these NDVI-soil moisture estimates (NSM) to quantify agricultural drought, and compared our results with a precipitation-based estimate of soil moisture (the Antecedent Precipitation Index, API), calibrated to the same in-situ soil moisture observations. We also used in-situ soil moisture observations in Mali and Kenya to assess performance in other water-limited locations in sub Saharan Africa. The separate estimates of soil moisture were highly correlated across the semi-arid, West and Central African Sahel, where annual rainfall exhibits a uni-modal regime. We also found that seasonal API and NDVI-soil moisture showed high rank correlation with a crop water balance model, capturing known agricultural drought years in Niger, indicating that this new estimate of soil moisture can contribute to operational drought monitoring. In-situ soil moisture observations from Kenya highlighted how the rainfall-driven API needs to be recalibrated in locations with multiple rainy seasons (e.g., Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia). Our soil moisture estimates from NDVI, on the other hand, performed well in Niger, Mali and Kenya. This suggests that the NDVI-soil moisture relationship may be more robust across rainfall regimes than the API because the relationship between NDVI and plant available water is less reliant on local characteristics (e.g., infiltration, runoff, evaporation) than the relationship between rainfall and soil moisture.

McNally, A.; Funk, C.; Husak, G. J.; Michaelsen, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Demarty, J.; Pellarin, T.; Young, T. P.; Caylor, K. K.; Riginos, C.; Veblen, K. E.

2013-06-01

147

Soil-vegetation-atmosphere processes: Simulation and field measurement for deforested sites in northern Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent efforts to predict the climatic impacts of tropical deforestation an extreme scenario of impoverished grassland has been used to represent the future deforested landscape. Currently, deforested areas of the tropics are composed of a mosaic of crops, bare soil, grassland, and secondary vegetation of various ages. The dominant feature of deforested land is often secondary vegetation. Parameter values for important forest replacement land covers, including secondary vegetation, have been shown to differ from those of forest much less than that assumed in general circulation model (GCM) deforestation experiments. For this study, the biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) is run in uncoupled mode using measured input data in place of GCM forcing and using the same parameter settings employed in recent deforestation experiments. Model output is compared with measurements taken over seven different deforested land surfaces in northern Thailand. Comparisons reveal that the simulation of deforested land overestimates reflected shortwave radiation, the diurnal range of surface temperature for secondary vegetation, surface soil moisture loss during periods without rain, and surface soil moisture increase at the start of a rainy period and underestimates net radiation, the diurnal range of surface temperature on recently used land surfaces, and root zone soil moisture increase at the start of a rainy period at most sites. Most deforested land surfaces, especially intermediate and advanced secondary vegetation, are more similar, in terms of land surface-atmosphere interaction, to the model simulation of forest than of deforested land as depicted in GCM experiments. These comparisons suggest that modelers aspiring to make realistic simulations of deforestation should adopt parameter settings representative of the diverse range of forest replacement land covers, instead of again using the grassland scenario.

Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Tran, Liem T.; Ziegler, Alan D.; Menard, Trae P.; Nullet, Michael A.

1996-11-01

148

An evaluation of hyperspectral vegetation indices for detecting soil salinity in sugarcane fields using EO-1 Hyperion Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane is the major agricultural crops in the Khuzestan province, in the southwest of Iran. But soil salinity is a major problem affecting the sugarcane yield, and therefore, monitoring and assessment of soil salinity is necessary. This research was carried out to investigate the performance of several hyperspectral vegetation indices to assess salinity stress in sugarcane fields and to determine the suitable indicators and statistical models for detecting various soil salinity levels. For this purpose one Hyperion image was acquired on Sept 2, 2010 and soil salinity was measured in 108 points 5 to 15 days from this date. 60 Samples were used for modeling and 48 samples were used for validation. Values of the soil salinity were linked with the corresponding pixel at the satellite imagery and 16 (hyperspectral) spectral indices were calculated. Then, the potential of these indices for estimating the soil salinity were analyzed and results show that soil salinity can well be estimated by vegetation indices derived from Hyperion data. Indices that are based on the chlorophyll and water absorption bands have medium to high relationship with soil salinity, while indices that only use visible bands or combination of visible and NIR bands don't perform well. From the investigated indices the Optimized Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI) has the strongest relationship (R2 = 0.69) with soil salinity, because this index minimizes the variations in reflectance characteristics of soil background.

Hamzeh, S.; Naseri, A. A.; Alavi Panah, S. K.; Bartholomeus, H.; Mojaradi, B.; Clevers, J.; Behzad, M.

2012-04-01

149

Evaluating the dependence of vegetation on climate in an improved dynamic global vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability of an improved Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) in reproducing the impact of climate on the terrestrial ecosystem is evaluated. The new model incorporates the Community Land Model-DGVM (CLM3.0-DGVM) with a submodel for temperate and boreal shrubs, as well as other revisions such as the “two-leaf” scheme for photosynthesis and the definition of fractional coverage of plant functional types (PFTs). Results show that the revised model may correctly reproduce the global distribution of temperate and boreal shrubs, and improves the model performance with more realistic distribution of different vegetation types. The revised model also correctly reproduces the zonal distributions of vegetation types. In reproducing the dependence of the vegetation distribution on climate conditions, the model shows that the dominant regions for trees, grasses, shrubs, and bare soil are clearly separated by a climate index derived from mean annual precipitation and temperature, in good agreement with the CLM4 surface data. The dominant plant functional type mapping to a two dimensional parameter space of mean annual temperature and precipitation also qualitatively agrees with the results from observations and theoretical ecology studies.

Zeng, Xiaodong

2010-09-01

150

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in UK soils and the influence of soil, vegetation type and seasonality.  

PubMed

Given the lack of studies which measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) over long periods, especially in non-forest habitat, the aim of this study was to expand the existing datasets with data of mainly non-forest sites that were representative of the major soil and habitat types in the UK. A further aim was to predict DOC concentrations from a number of biotic and abiotic explanatory variables such as rainfall, temperature, vegetation type and soil type in a multivariate way. Pore water was sampled using Rhizon or Prenart samplers at two to three week intervals for 1 year. DOC, pH, organic carbon, carbon/nitrogen (C:N) ratios of soils and slope were measured and data on vegetation, soil type, temperature and precipitation were obtained. The majority of the variation in DOC concentrations between the UK sites could be explained by simple empirical models that included annual precipitation, and soil C:N ratio with precipitation being negatively related to DOC concentrations and C:N ratio being positively related to DOC concentrations. Our study adds significantly to the data reporting DOC concentrations in soils, especially in grasslands, heathlands and moorlands. Broad climatic and site factors have been identified as key factors influencing DOC concentrations. PMID:22542300

van den Berg, Leon J L; Shotbolt, Laura; Ashmore, Mike R

2012-06-15

151

Soil Bacterial Community Shift Correlated with Change from Forest to Pasture Vegetation in a Tropical Soil  

PubMed Central

The change in vegetative cover of a Hawaiian soil from forest to pasture led to significant changes in the composition of the soil bacterial community. DNAs were extracted from both soil habitats and compared for the abundance of guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) content, by analysis of abundance of phylotypes of small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) amplified from fractions with 63 and 35% G+C contents, and by phylogenetic analysis of the dominant rDNA clones in the 63% G+C content fraction. All three methods showed differences between the forest and pasture habitats, providing evidence that vegetation had a strong influence on microbial community composition at three levels of taxon resolution. The forest soil DNA had a peak in G+C content of 61%, while the DNA of the pasture soil had a peak in G+C content of 67%. None of the dominant phylotypes found in the forest soil were detected in the pasture soil. For the 63% G+C fraction SSU rDNA sequence analysis of the three most dominant members revealed that their phyla changed from Fibrobacter and Syntrophomonas assemblages in the forest soil to Burkholderia and Rhizobium–Agrobacterium assemblages in the pasture soil.

Nusslein, Klaus; Tiedje, James M.

1999-01-01

152

The effects of soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation on L-band emission and backscatter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements performed with SIR-B at 1.28 GHz and an airborne multiple-beam push-broom radiometer at 1.4 GHz over agricultural fields near Fresno, California are examined. A theoretical model (Kirchhoff approximation) was used to assess the effects of surface roughness and vegetation (alfalfa and lettuce) with respect to the responses of microwave emission and backscatter to soil-moisture variations. It is found that the surface roughness plays a dominant role compared to the vegetation cover in the microwave backscatter.

Wang, James R.; Shiue, J. C.; Engman, Edwin T.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Mo, Tsan

1987-01-01

153

A dynamic global vegetation model for studies of the coupled atmosphere-biosphere system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a new dynamic global vegetation model designed as an extension of an existing surface-vegetation-atmosphere transfer scheme which is included in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. The new dynamic global vegetation model simulates the principal processes of the continental biosphere influencing the global carbon cycle (photosynthesis, autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration of plants and in soils, fire, etc.)

G. Krinner; Nicolas Viovy; Nathalie de Noblet-Ducoudré; Jérôme Ogée; Jan Polcher; Pierre Friedlingstein; Philippe Ciais; Stephen Sitch; I. Colin Prentice

2005-01-01

154

Estimating soil moisture and the relationship with crop yield using surface temperature and vegetation index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture availability affects rainfed crop yield. Therefore, the development of methods for pre-harvest yield prediction is essential for the food security. A study was carried out to estimate regional crop yield using the Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI). Triangular scatters from land surface temperature (LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) space from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) were utilized to obtain TVDI and to estimate soil moisture availability. Then soybean and wheat crops yield was estimated on four agro-climatic zones of Argentine Pampas. TVDI showed a strong correlation with soil moisture measurements, with R2 values ranged from 0.61 to 0.83 and also it was in agreement with spatial pattern of soil moisture. Moreover, results showed that TVDI data can be used effectively to predict crop yield on the Argentine Pampas. Depending on the agro-climatic zone, R2 values ranged from 0.68 to 0.79 for soybean crop and 0.76 to 0.81 for wheat. The RMSE values were 366 and 380 kg ha-1 for soybean and they varied between 300 and 550 kg ha-1 in the case of wheat crop. When expressed as percentages of actual yield, the RMSE values ranged from 12% to 13% for soybean and 14% to 22% for wheat. The bias values indicated that the obtained models underestimated soybean and wheat yield. Accurate crop grain yield forecast using the developed regression models was achieved one to three months before harvest. In many cases the results were better than others obtained using only a vegetation index, showing the aptitude of surface temperature and vegetation index combination to reflect the crop water condition. Finally, the analysis of a wide range of soil moisture availability allowed us to develop a generalized model of crop yield and dryness index relationship which could be applicable in other regions and crops at regional scale.

Holzman, M. E.; Rivas, R.; Piccolo, M. C.

2014-05-01

155

Use of LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The estimation of the spatially variable surface moisture and heat fluxes of natural, semivegetated landscapes is difficult due to the highly random nature of the vegetation (e.g., plant species, density, and stress) and the soil (e.g., moisture content, and soil hydraulic conductivity). The solution to that problem lies, in part, in the use of satellite remotely sensed data, and in the preparation of those data in terms of the physical properties of the plant and soil. The work was focused on the development and testing of a stochastic geometric canopy-soil reflectance model, which can be applied to the physically-based interpretation of LANDSAT images. The model conceptualizes the landscape as a stochastic surface with bulk plant and soil reflective properties. The model is particularly suited for regional scale investigations where the quantification of the bulk landscape properties, such as fractional vegetation cover, is important on a pixel by pixel basis. A summary of the theoretical analysis and the preliminary testing of the model with actual aerial radiometric data is provided.

Eagleson, Peter S.; Jasinski, Michael F.

1988-01-01

156

Radar response to vegetation. [soil moisture mapping via microwave backscattering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active microwave measurements of vegetation backscatter were conducted to determine the utility of radar in mapping soil moisture through vegetation and mapping crop types. Using a truck-mounted boom, spectral response data were obtained for four crop types (corn, milo, soybeans, and alfalfa) over the 4-8 GHz frequency band, at incidence angles of 0 to 70 degrees in 10-degree steps, and for all four linear polarization combinations. Based on a total of 125 data sets covering a wide range of soil moisture, content, system design criteria are proposed for each of the aforementioned objectives. Quantitative soil moisture determination was best achieved at the lower frequency end of the 4-8 GHz band using HH polarized waves in the 5- to 15-degree incidence angle range. A combination of low and high frequency measurements are suggested for classifying crop types. For crop discrimination, a dual-frequency dual-polarization (VV and cross) system operating at incidence angles above 40 degrees is suggested.

Ulaby, F. T.

1975-01-01

157

Climate, vegetation, and soil controls on hydraulic redistribution in shallow tree roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic redistribution defined as the translocation of soil moisture by plant root systems in response to water potential gradients is a phenomenon widely documented in different climate, vegetation, and soil conditions. Past research has largely focused on hydraulic redistribution in deep tree roots with access to groundwater and/or winter rainfall, while the case of relatively shallow (i.e., ?1-2 m deep) tree roots has remained poorly investigated. In fact, it is not clear how hydraulic redistribution in shallow root zones is affected by climate, vegetation, and soil properties. In this study, we developed a model to investigate the climate, vegetation, and soil controls on the net direction and magnitude of hydraulic redistribution in shallow tree root systems at the growing season to yearly timescale. We used the model to evaluate the effect of hydraulic redistribution on the water stress of trees and grasses. We found that hydraulic lift increases with decreasing rainfall frequency, depth of the rooting zone, root density in the deep soil and tree leaf area index; at the same time for a given rainfall frequency, hydraulic lift increases with increasing average rainstorm depth and soil hydraulic conductivity. We propose that water drainage into deeper soil layers can lead to the emergence of vertical water potential gradients sufficient to explain the occurrence of hydraulic lift in shallow tree roots without invoking the presence of a shallow water table or winter precipitation. We also found that hydraulic descent reduces the water stress of trees and hydraulic lift reduces the water stress of grass with important implications on tree-grass interactions.

Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo

2014-04-01

158

Linking variability in soil solution dissolved organic carbon to climate, soil type, and vegetation type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

transport of carbon plays an important role in linking the carbon cycles of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. There is, however, a lack of information on the factors controlling one of the main C sources of this lateral flux, i.e., the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil solution across large spatial scales and under different soil, vegetation, and climate conditions. We compiled a database on DOC in soil solution down to 80 cm and analyzed it with the aim, first, to quantify the differences in DOC concentrations among terrestrial ecosystems, climate zones, soil, and vegetation types at global scale and second, to identify potential determinants of the site-to-site variability of DOC concentration in soil solution across European broadleaved and coniferous forests. We found that DOC concentrations were 75% lower in mineral than in organic soil, and temperate sites showed higher DOC concentrations than boreal and tropical sites. The majority of the variation (R2 = 0.67-0.99) in DOC concentrations in mineral European forest soils correlates with NH4+, C/N, Al, and Fe as the most important predictors. Overall, our results show that the magnitude (23% lower in broadleaved than in coniferous forests) and the controlling factors of DOC in soil solution differ between forest types, with site productivity being more important in broadleaved forests and water balance in coniferous stands.

Camino-Serrano, Marta; Gielen, Bert; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Ciais, Philippe; Vicca, Sara; Guenet, Bertrand; Vos, Bruno De; Cools, Nathalie; Ahrens, Bernhard; Altaf Arain, M.; Borken, Werner; Clarke, Nicholas; Clarkson, Beverley; Cummins, Thomas; Don, Axel; Pannatier, Elisabeth Graf; Laudon, Hjalmar; Moore, Tim; Nieminen, Tiina M.; Nilsson, Mats B.; Peichl, Matthias; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Siemens, Jan; Janssens, Ivan

2014-05-01

159

Vegetation modeled as a water cloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the microwave dielectric constant of dry vegetative matter is much smaller (by an order of magnitude or more) than the dielectric constant of water, and because a vegetation canopy is usually composed of more than 99% air by volume, it is proposed that the canopy can be modeled as a water cloud whose droplets are held in place by

E. P. W. Attema; Fawwaz T. Ulaby

1978-01-01

160

SRTM vegetation removal and hydrodynamic modeling accuracy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrodynamic modeling of large remote forested floodplains, such as the Amazon, is hindered by the vegetation signal contained within Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) such as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Not removing the vegetation signal causes DEMs to be overelevated preventing the correct simulation of overbank inundation. Previous efforts to remove this vegetation signal have either not accounted for its spatial variability or relied upon single assumed error values. As a possible solution, a systematic approach to removing the vegetation signal which accounts for spatial variability using recently published estimates of global vegetation heights is proposed. The proposed approach is applied to a well-studied reach of the Amazon floodplain where previous hydrodynamic model applications were affected by the SRTM vegetation signal. Greatest improvements to hydrodynamic model accuracy were obtained by subtracting 50-60% of the vegetation height from the SRTM. The vegetation signal removal procedure improved the RMSE (Root-Mean-Square Error) accuracy of the hydrodynamic model than when using the original SRTM in three ways: (1) seasonal floodplain water elevation predictions against TOPEX/Poseidon observations improved from 6.61 to 1.84 m; (2) high water inundation extent prediction accuracy improved from 0.52 to 0.07 against a JERS (Japanese Earth Resources Satellite) observation; (3) low water inundation extent accuracy against a JERS observation improved from 0.22 to 0.12. The simple data requirements of this vegetation removal method enable it to be applied to any remote floodplain for which hydrodynamic model accuracy is hindered by vegetation present in the DEM.

Baugh, Calum A.; Bates, Paul D.; Schumann, Guy; Trigg, Mark A.

2013-09-01

161

Soil Water Balance and Vegetation Dynamics in two Contrasting Water-limited Mediterranean Ecosystems on Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water limited conditions strongly impacts soil and vegetation dynamics in Mediterranean regions, which are commonly heterogeneous ecosystems, characterized by inter-annual rainfall variability, topography variability and contrasting plant functional types (PFTs) competing for water use. Mediterranean regions are characterized by two main ecosystems, grassland and woodland, which for both natural and anthropogenic causes can grow in soils with different characteristics, highly impacting water resources. Water resources and forestal planning need a deep understanding of the dynamics between PFTs, soil and atmosphere and their impacts on water and CO2 distributions of these two main ecosystems. The first step is the monitoring of land surface fluxes, soil moisture, and vegetation dynamics of the two contrasting ecosystems. Moreover, due to the large percentage of soils with low depth (< 50 cm), and due to the quick hydrologic answer to atmospheric forcing in these soils, there is also the need to understand the impact of the soil depth in the vegetation dynamics, and make measurements in these types of soils. Sardinia island is a very interesting and representative region of Mediterranean ecosystems. It is low urbanized, and is not irrigated, except some plan areas close to the main cities where main agricultural activities are concentrated. The case study sites are within the Flumendosa river basin on Sardinia. Two sites, both in the Flumendosa river and with similar height a.s.l., are investigated. The distance between the sites is around 4 km but the first is a typically grass site located on an alluvial plan valley with a soil depth more than 2m, while the second site is a patchy mixture of Mediterranean vegetation types Oaks, creepers of the wild olive trees and C3 herbaceous species and the soil thickness varies from 15-40 cm, bounded from below by a rocky layer of basalt, partially fractured. In both sites land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by eddy correlation technique based micrometeorological towers. Soil moisture profiles were also continuously estimated using water content reflectometers and gravimetric method, and periodically leaf area index PFTs are estimated during the Spring-Summer 2005. The following objectives are addressed:1) pointing out the dynamics of land surface fluxes, soil moisture, CO2 and vegetation cover for two contrasting water-limited ecosystems; 2) assess the impact of the soil depth and type on the CO2 and water balance dynamics. For reaching the objectives an ecohydrologic model is also successfully used and applied to the case studies. It couples a vegetation dynamic model, which computes the change in biomass over time for the PFTs, and a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) land surface model.

Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.; Corona, R.

2011-12-01

162

Investigation of residual fluoroquinolones in a soil-vegetable system in an intensive vegetable cultivation area in Northern China.  

PubMed

One of the largest vegetable cultivation field sites in Northeast China was selected to investigate the occurrence and distribution pattern of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in the soil-vegetable system. A total of 100 surface soil samples and 68 vegetable samples were collected from this study area. The antibiotic concentration was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results indicated the presence of FQs in all soil samples. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) had the highest mean concentration, at 104.4 ?g · kg(-1) in the soil, a level that represents a relatively high risk to the environment and to human health. However, in the vegetable samples, norfloxacin (NOR) was significantly higher than CIP and enrofloxacin (ENR), ranging from 18.2 to 658.3 ?g · kg(-1). The transfer ability of NOR in soil-vegetables is greater than that of CIP and ENR. Moreover, we found that the solanaceous fruits had a higher antibiotic accumulation ability than the leafy vegetables. Taken together, these data indicate that greater attention should be paid to the region in which vegetables with higher accumulation ability are grown. PMID:24041599

Li, Xue-Wen; Xie, Yun-Feng; Li, Cang-Lin; Zhao, Hui-Nan; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Ning; Wang, Jin-Feng

2014-01-15

163

Vegetation stress from soil moisture and chlorophyll fluorescence: synergy between SMAP and FLEX approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation stress detection continues being a focal objective for remote sensing techniques. It has implications not only for practical applications such as irrigation optimization or precision agriculture, but also for global climate models, providing data to better link water and carbon exchanges between the surface and the atmospheric and improved parameterization of the role of terrestrial vegetation in the coupling of water and carbon cycles. Traditional approaches to map vegetation stress using remote sensing techniques have been based on measurements of soil moisture status, canopy (radiometric) temperature and, to a lesser extent, canopy water content, but new techniques such as the dynamics of vegetation fluorescence emission, are also now available. Within the context of the preparatory activities for the SMAP and FLEX missions, a number of initiatives have been put in place to combine modelling activities and field experiments in order to look for alternative and more efficient ways of detecting vegetation stress, with emphasis on synergistic remote sensing approaches. The potential of solar-induced vegetation fluorescence as an early indicator of stress has been widely demonstrated, for different type of stress conditions: light amount (excess illumination) and conditions (direct/diffuse), temperature extremes (low and high), soil water availability (soil moisture), soil nutrients (nitrogen), atmospheric water vapour and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The effects caused by different stress conditions are sometimes difficult to be decoupled, also because different causes are often combined, but in general they then to change the overall fluorescence emission (modulating amplitude) or changing the relative contributions of photosystems PSI and PSII or the relative fluorescence re-absorption effects caused by modifications in the structure of pigment bed responsible for light absorption, in particular for acclimation for persistent stress conditions. While soil moisture deficit is often the reason for the stress, the capability for an early detection of short-time stress conditions is one of the main advantages of vegetation fluorescence. The combined usage of active and passive techniques is also discussed. In the case of soil moisture, combination of active (radar) and passive (L-band radiometry) approaches are used, while in the case of fluorescence active (laser induced) and passive (solar induced) techniques are used as well. Experience from active techniques in laboratory and field conditions helps the operational usage of passive techniques which are readily applicable to satellite observations. Vegetation fluorescence dynamics, particularly over boreal forest, is characterized by an abrupt change in fluorescence levels in coincidence with the activation and deactivation of the photosynthetic machinery at start/end of growing season, which is also related to freeze/thaw state of soil conditions. The interest of looking at such transitions both on the side of photosynthetic activity (combined fluorescence and temperature measurements) and freeze/thaw conditions (L-band radiometry) can provide an unprecedented description of the soil and vegetation interactions and dynamical feedbacks in the energy and chemical exchanges with the atmosphere. A review of methods and results will be discussed in this paper, including suggestions for synergistic approaches to be exploited in future research priorities in vegetation stress detection.

Moreno, Jose; Moran, Susan

2014-05-01

164

Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture content over bare and vegetated fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote measurements of soil moisture contents over bare fields and fields covered with orchard grass, corn, and soybean were made during October 1979 with 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz microwave radiometers mounted on a truck. Ground truth of soil moisture content, ambient air and soil temperatures was acquired concurrently with the radiometric measurements. The biomass of the vegetation was sampled about once a week. The measured brightness temperatures over bare fields were compared with those of radiative transfer model calculations using as inputs the acquired soil moisture and temperature data with appropriate values of dielectric constants for soil-water mixtures. Good agreement was found between the calculated and the measured results over 10°-70° incident angles. The presence of vegetation was found to reduce the sensitivity of soil moisture sensing. At 1.4 GHz the sensitivity reduction ranged from ˜20% for 10-cm tall grassland to over 60% for the dense soybean field. At 5 GHz the corresponding reduction in sensitivity ranged from ˜70% to ˜90%.

Wang, J. R.; Shiue, J. C.; McMurtrey, J. E., III

1980-10-01

165

Studying the Relationship Between Vegetation and PhysicoChemical Properties of Soil, Case Study: Tabas Region, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the relationship between vegetation and physico-chemical properties of soil of the margins of Tabas Kavir (salty desert), vegetation and soil components were surveyed. Regarding to the soil and vegetation distribution and land use in this region, four distinct areas were selected and classified covering all factors. Then, based on different vegetation cover percentage, the minimum plots

2006-01-01

166

Interactions between soil moisture and Atmospheric Boundary Layer at the Brazilian savana-type vegetation Cerrado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before the large people influx and development of the central part of Brazil in the sixties, due to new capital Brasília, Cerrado, a typical Brazilian savanna-type vegetation, used to occupy about 2 million km2, going all the way from the Amazon tropical forest, in the north of the country, to the edges of what used to be of the Atlantic forest in the southeast. Today, somewhat 50% of this area has given place to agriculture, pasture and managed forests. It is forecasted that, at the current rate of this vegetation displacement, Cerrado will be gone by 2030. Understanding how Cerrado interacts with the atmosphere and how this interaction will be modified with this land-use change is a crucial step towards improving predictions of future climate-change scenarios. Cerrado is a vegetation adapted to a climate characterized by two very distinct seasons, a wet season (Nov-Mar) and dry season (May-Ago), with April and October being transitions between seasons. Typically, based on measurements in a weather station located in Brasilia, 75% of precipitation happens in the wet-season months and only 5% during dry-season. Under these circumstances, it is clear that the vegetation will have to cope with long periods of water stress. In this work we studied using numerical simulations, the interactions between soil-moisture, responsible for the water stress, with the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). The numerical model comprises of a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere model where the biophysical processes are represented with a big-leaf approach. Soil water is estimated with a simple logistic model and with water-stress effects on stomatal conductance are parameterized from local measurements of simultaneous latent-heat fluxes and soil moisture. ABL evolution is calculate with a slab model that considers independently surface and entrainment fluxes of sensible- and latent- heat. Temperature tropospheric lapse-rate is taken from soundings at local airport. Simulations of 30-day dry down from saturation to complete water stress were performed and is analyzed as far how ABL respond to soil moisture changes. This provides informations about ABL behavior on the transition states. Future studies will look on how this behavior will change with the new vegetation covers.

Pinheiro, L. R.; Siqueira, M. B.

2013-05-01

167

A Methodology for Surface Soil Moisture and Vegetation Optical Depth Retrieval Using the Microwave Polarization Difference Index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for retrieving surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth from satellite microwave radiometer data is presented. The procedure is tested with historical 6.6 GHz brightness temperature observations from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer over several test sites in Illinois. Results using only nighttime data are presented at this time, due to the greater stability of nighttime surface temperature estimation. The methodology uses a radiative transfer model to solve for surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth simultaneously using a non-linear iterative optimization procedure. It assumes known constant values for the scattering albedo and roughness. Surface temperature is derived by a procedure using high frequency vertically polarized brightness temperatures. The methodology does not require any field observations of soil moisture or canopy biophysical properties for calibration purposes and is totally independent of wavelength. Results compare well with field observations of soil moisture and satellite-derived vegetation index data from optical sensors.

Owe, Manfred; deJeu, Richard; Walker, Jeffrey; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

168

Modeling of soil water content and soil temperature at selected U.S. and central European stations using SoilClim model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the presented study the SoilClim model was tested through various climatic and soil conditions. SoilClim model enables to estimate reference and actual evapotranspiration from defined vegetation cover and consequently the soil water content within two defined layers (named as Moisture control section I and II) could be deduced. The soil temperature in 0.5 m depth is also estimated (on

P. Hlavinka; M. Trnka; J. Balek; Z. Zalud; M. Hayes; M. Svoboda; J. Eitzinger

2009-01-01

169

Vegetation and soils field research data base: Experiment summaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding of the relationships between the optical, spectral characteristics and important biological-physical parameters of earth-surface features can best be obtained by carefully controlled studies over fields and plots where complete data describing the condition of targets are attainable and where frequent, timely spectral measurement can be obtained. Development of a vegetation and soils field research data base was initiated in 1972 at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing and expanded in the fall of 1974 by NASA as part of LACIE. Since then, over 250,000 truck-mounted and helicopter-borne spectrometer/multiband radiometer observations have been obtained of more than 50 soil series and 20 species of crops, grasses, and trees. These data are supplemented by an extensive set of biophysical and meteorological data acquired during each mission. The field research data form one of the most complete and best-documented data sets acquired for agricultural remote sensing research. Thus, they are well-suited to serve as a data base for research to: (1) quantiatively determine the relationships of spectral and biophysical characteristics of vegetation, (2) define future sensor systems, and (3) develop advanced data analysis techniques.

Biehl, L. L.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Bauer, M. E.

1984-01-01

170

Separating vegetation and soil temperature using airborne multiangular remote sensing image data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in land process research. Many research efforts have been devoted to increase the accuracy of LST retrieval from remote sensing. However, because natural land surface is non-isothermal, component temperature is also required in applications such as evapo-transpiration (ET) modeling. This paper proposes a new algorithm to separately retrieve vegetation temperature and soil background temperature from multiangular thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data. The algorithm is based on the localized correlation between the visible/near-infrared (VNIR) bands and the TIR band. This method was tested on the airborne image data acquired during the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) campaign. Preliminary validation indicates that the remote sensing-retrieved results can reflect the spatial and temporal trend of component temperatures. The accuracy is within three degrees while the difference between vegetation and soil temperature can be as large as twenty degrees.

Liu, Qiang; Yan, Chunyan; Xiao, Qing; Yan, Guangjian; Fang, Li

2012-07-01

171

Effects of vegetation structure on biomass accumulation in a coupled water-carbon-energy balance model in West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A myriad of interactions exist between vegetation and local climate for arid and semi-arid regions. Vegetation function, structure and individual behavior have enormous impacts on carbon-water-energy balances, which consequently influence local climate variability that, in turn, feeds back to the vegetation. In this study, a conceptual vegetation structure scheme is formulated and tested in a new carbon-water-energy coupled model to explore the importance of vegetation structure on equilibrium biomass states. Two different strategies of vegetation adaptation to water stress are included. Surface energy, water and carbon fluxes are simulated for a range of vegetation structures across a precipitation gradient in West Africa and optimal vegetation structures that maximize biomass for each precipitation regime are determined. Under dry conditions vegetation tries to maximize the Water Use Efficiency and Leaf Area Index as it tries to maximize carbon gain. However, as the vegetation can also engineer its environment by extracting water from the surrounding bare soil (thereby forming patches of vertical vegetation) it can also minimize its vegetation cover. With increasing precipitation, the vegetation tries to maximize its cover as it then can reduce water loss from bare soil while having maximum carbon gain due to a large Leaf Area Index. The competition between vegetation and bare soil determines a transition between a 'survival' regime to a 'growing' regime. The new modeling framework is useful to represent the effects of dynamic vegetation structure in coupled land-atmosphere feedback models.

Yin, Zun; Dekker, Stefan; van den Hurk, Bart; Dijkstra, Henk

2013-04-01

172

Mechanisms influencing surface soil CO2 efflux in respect to elevation and vegetation gradients in a complex watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographically complex watersheds exert spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of soil water due to horizontal flows. The redistribution of soil water has profound effects on biogeochemical cycles. Of keen interest is the impact this lateral redistribution has on carbon cycling and surface soil carbon efflux. We are currently employing a plot based study across an elevation gradient (950-1150 m) in the Weimer Run watershed located near Davis, West Virginia to evaluate carbon and water cycling dynamics. At each of three different elevation levels (high, middle, low) are three sites. At each site are three 4 m2 plots, each underneath a different vegetation cover type (open, closed tree canopy, shrub canopy), for a total of 27 plots across all elevations. At each plot, surface CO2 efflux, soil temperature, PAR, air temperature and volumetric soil water content at 0-12 cm are measured weekly during the growing season. Measurements of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and soil nutrient concentrations (NH4+, NO3-) have also been conducted for each plot. Each plot also has gas wells at both 5 and 20 cm to measure CO2 concentrations below the soil surface. Data collected from June through October, 2010, indicate a stronger control on soil CO2 efflux exerted by vegetation cover type than by elevation gradient. The impact of vegetation cover type on soil CO2 efflux increases with elevation. Based on data collected weekly from June through October, 2010, there is no significant relationship between surface soil CO2 efflux and the three elevation levels within our gradient (p = 0.47). However, a significant statistical relationship between surface soil CO2 efflux and vegetation type (p = < 0.001) exists, regardless of seasonality. Soil moisture shows an expected decline with increasing elevation. Soil temperatures across vegetation types are nearly identical. Nutrient availability appears to be strongly correlated with vegetation type, but uncorrelated with elevation level. The heterogeneity of a watershed can greatly influence biogeochemical cycles. Quantifying the impact that vegetation cover, elevation and micrometeorological controls exert on soil CO2 efflux is vital for accurate model inputs and carbon budgets.
* All values in columns represent means for respective treatments for June - October 2010. +/- indicate standard deviation.

Atkins, J. W.; Epstein, H. E.; Welsch, D. L.

2011-12-01

173

The aggregate description of semi-arid vegetation with precipitation-generated soil moisture heterogeneity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological measurements in the Walnut Gulch catchment in Arizona were used to synthesize a distributed, hourly-average time series of data across a 26.9 by 12.5 km area with a grid resolution of 480 m for a continuous 18-month period which included two seasons of monsoonal rainfall. Coupled surface-atmosphere model runs established the acceptability (for modelling purposes) of assuming uniformity in all meteorological variables other than rainfall. Rainfall was interpolated onto the grid from an array of 82 recording rain gauges. These meteorological data were used as forcing variables for an equivalent array of stand-alone Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) models to describe the evolution of soil moisture and surface energy fluxes in response to the prevalent, heterogeneous pattern of convective precipitation. The calculated area-average behaviour was compared with that given by a single aggregate BATS simulation forced with area-average meteorological data. Heterogeneous rainfall gives rise to significant but partly compensating differences in the transpiration and the intercepted rainfall components of total evaporation during rain storms. However, the calculated area-average surface energy fluxes given by the two simulations in rain-free conditions with strong heterogeneity in soil moisture were always close to identical, a result which is independent of whether default or site-specific vegetation and soil parameters were used. Because the spatial variability in soil moisture throughout the catchment has the same order of magnitude as the amount of rain falling in a typical convective storm (commonly 10% of the vegetation's root zone saturation) in a semi-arid environment, non-linearity in the relationship between transpiration and the soil moisture available to the vegetation has limited influence on area-average surface fluxes.

White, C. B.; Houser, P. R.; Arain, A. M.; Yang, Z.-L.; Syed, K.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

174

The Aggregate Description of Semi-Arid Vegetation with Precipitation-Generated Soil Moisture Heterogeneity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteorological measurements in the Walnut Gulch catchment in Arizona were used to synthesize a distributed, hourly-average time series of data across a 26.9 by 12.5 km area with a grid resolution of 480 m for a continuous 18-month period which included two seasons of monsoonal rainfall. Coupled surface-atmosphere model runs established the acceptability (for modelling purposes) of assuming uniformity in all meteorological variables other than rainfall. Rainfall was interpolated onto the grid from an array of 82 recording rain gauges. These meteorological data were used as forcing variables for an equivalent array of stand-alone Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) models to describe the evolution of soil moisture and surface energy fluxes in response to the prevalent, heterogeneous pattern of convective precipitation. The calculated area-average behaviour was compared with that given by a single aggregate BATS simulation forced with area-average meteorological data. Heterogeneous rainfall gives rise to significant but partly compensating differences in the transpiration and the intercepted rainfall components of total evaporation during rain storms. However, the calculated area-average surface energy fluxes given by the two simulations in rain-free conditions with strong heterogeneity in soil moisture were always close to identical, a result which is independent of whether default or site-specific vegetation and soil parameters were used. Because the spatial variability in soil moisture throughout the catchment has the same order of magnitude as the amount of rain failing in a typical convective storm (commonly 10% of the vegetation's root zone saturation) in a semi-arid environment, non-linearitv in the relationship between transpiration and the soil moisture available to the vegetation has limited influence on area-average surface fluxes.

White, Cary B.; Houser, Paul R.; Arain, Altaf M.; Yang, Zong-Liang; Syed, Kamran; Shuttleworth, W. James

1997-01-01

175

Vegetation controls on soil water dynamics and runoff production in a headwater catchment in the Ore Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial variability of soil hydraulic parameters and soil structures dominate surface runoff production as well as soil water dynamics at the hillslope and headwater scale. These seem to be common grounds in soil physics and was our credo when we instrumented a small headwater (10 km2) of the Weiáeritz with six rain gauges, a meteorological station, shallow piezometers and two STDR clusters to investigate soil moisture control on runoff and surface runoff production. Both TDR clusters consist of 35 individual TDR sensors of 60 cm depth covering an extend of 15m by 15m. Cluster 1 one is located at a grassland site, cluster 2 is located in a nearby forested area. The soil at the grassland site is a clayey loam with a high content of organic matter, a very large porosity of 0.63 in the top 20 cm and a soil hydraulic conductivity of on average around 4 * 10-5 m/s. Soil at the forested site is similar with an even higher infiltrability and higher organic content of the top soil. Both soils exhibit a high gravel content and rather high spatial variability of soil properties. Despite of this large heterogeneity of soil parameters, we found that vegetation exerts crucial control on average soil moisture dynamics, its spatial variability and most interesting on the development of the spatial covariance structure of the soil moisture patterns. Correlation length at the grassland site was rather short but increased with increasing average wetness. So did the nugget to sill ratio of the variogram. At the forested site correlation length did not vary with average wetness and was constantly 50% of the maximum probe distance. We therefore conclude that the correlation structure at the forested site is dominated by the pattern of through-fall and interception and therefore vegetation. During a modelling exercise we found that despite of the large heterogeneity of the soils a homogeneous soil setup allowed a good reproduction of observed soil moisture dynamics at the hourly scale for a period of more than 3 months. At both sites simulations were most sensitive to small changes of key plant parameters. Especially root depth, leaf area index and plant coverage and their evolution during the vegetation phase were of prime importance for a good model performance. Surprisingly, evapo-transpiration and thus vegetation determines near surface soil moisture dynamics and therefore surface runoff production at this headwater catchment. Consequently, survey of key plant parameters such as leaf area index, plant coverage and their evolution during the vegetation phase is of prime importance for model predictions of soil moisture dynamics and surface runoff production in this headwater. Many process-orientated model studies put their major efforts into assessment of soil parameters and treat vegetation as something static that can be characterized by a few constant parameters. Model studies ? including some of our own ? often just devote a single statement such as ?vegetation was short grass and parameters were taken from the literature? to characterize vegetation in their model structure. This story shows that sometimes even grown up process hydrologists don?t see the wood for the trees.

Zehe, E.; Graeff, T.; Schlaeger, S.; Morgner, M.; Bauer, A.

2009-04-01

176

PIXE, 252Cf-PDMS and radiochemistry applied for soil and vegetable analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to identify the elements present in vegetables and soils using PIXE (particle induced X-rays emission) and 252Cf-PDMS ( 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry) techniques in order to estimate the possible influence of soil and agricultural techniques in the metal absorption by the vegetables. In this work, metal concentrations were evaluated in soil and vegetable samples from several regions, where different agricultural techniques were employed. Si, Zr, Ce, Th, Sc and Pb identified in the soil samples were not biologically available. Ga, Ge, As and Br identified in the tubercles indicate that spray pesticide used on the vegetable leaves was absorbed by them. 232Th and 238U present in the soil were not absorbed by the vegetables. The airborne particles from anthropogenic sources (as CF n, VC n) were absorbed by the vegetables. Compounds from mineral sources present in soil as V +, VCO 3, HPO 4, Cr +, CrOH +, Mn +, FeH +, Fe(OH) n and in the bioorganic compounds as N +, Ca(CN)n+ and C nH + were identified in vegetables. The metal absorption by the vegetables is not dependent of the metal concentration in soil. Different tubercles cultivated in the same soil show similar metal absorption. The exogenous contributions such as the elements present in water irrigation, pesticides, fertilizers and airborne particles deposited on leaves can be absorbed by vegetables. The absorption by the roots depends on the chemical compound of the elements. The use of pesticide sprays and air pollution can cause more contamination in the vegetables than in soil. The use of this methodology allows the identification of possible sources of metals in soils and in vegetables and the metal speciation.

Dias da Cunha, K.; Cazicava, J.; Coelho, M. J.; Barros Leite, C. V.

2006-01-01

177

MAGE, a dynamic model of alkaline grassland ecosystems with variable soil characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An area-based process model for alkaline grassland ecosystem, MAGE, was developed to address the problems associated with the soil alkalization\\/dealkalization processes coupled with surface vegetation on Songnen Plain, northeast China. The model gave special consideration to the variation of soil characteristics such as water retentivity and hydraulic conductivity as functions of surface vegetation. Soil within 1 m depth was divided

Qiong Gao; Xiusheng Yang; Rui Yun; Chunping Li

1996-01-01

178

Feasibility of using LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research activities conducted from February 1, 1985 to July 31, 1985 and preliminary conclusions regarding research objectives are summarized. The objective is to determine the feasibility of using LANDSAT data to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils. The general approach is to apply the climatic-climax hypothesis (Ealgeson, 1982) to natural water-limited vegetation systems using canopy cover estimated from LANDSAT data. Natural water-limited systems typically consist of inhomogeneous vegetation canopies interspersed with bare soils. The ground resolution associated with one pixel from LANDSAT MSS (or TM) data is generally greater than the scale of the plant canopy or canopy clusters. Thus a method for resolving percent canopy cover at a subpixel level must be established before the Eagleson hypothesis can be tested. Two formulations are proposed which extend existing methods of analyzing mixed pixels to naturally vegetated landscapes. The first method involves use of the normalized vegetation index. The second approach is a physical model based on radiative transfer principles. Both methods are to be analyzed for their feasibility on selected sites.

Eagleson, P. S.

1985-01-01

179

Snow cover dynamics, soil moisture variability and vegetation ecology in high mountain catchments of central Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of water balance on vegetation was investigated by measurements of snow cover dynamics and soil moisture variability within small high mountain catchments of central Norway. The challenge of this study is to explain vegetation patterns by means of a functional ecosystem analysis as a basis for regionalization approaches. Results of a process-oriented analysis of factors determining vegetation were

Jörg Löffler

2005-01-01

180

Vegetation and soil recovery in wilderness campsites closed to visitor use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recreational use of wilderness results in impacts to vegetation and soil in trails and campsites. Traditionally, campsite impact studies have compared campsites receiving various levels of use with unused control areas. Field studies in Sequoia National Park, California, indicate that the degree of impact to vegetation and soils also varies within campsites. The central areas of campsites, where trampling is

Thomas J. Stohlgren; David J. Parsons

1986-01-01

181

Soil-Vegetation Relationships in Hoz-e-Soltan Region of Qom Province, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to find the effective soil variables on the distribution of vegetation types in Hoz-e-Soltan region. Study area was located in the saline region of Qom province. After delimitation the study area and determining plant types, sampling of soil and vegetation were done by randomized - systematic method. The area of quadrants was identified according

2003-01-01

182

Farmer participatory research to minimize soil erosion on steepland vegetable systems in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil erosion coupled with productivity decline is considered a major constraint to sustainable vegetable production in Southeast Asian steeplands, yet soil conservation technologies acceptable to vegetable growers have not been developed. Effectiveness of high-value contour hedgerows species [(Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.), pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.), lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Wats.),

D. D Poudel; D. J Midmore; L. T West

2000-01-01

183

DETECTING SUBSURFACE SOIL DISTURBANCE USING HYPERSPECTRAL FIRST DERIVATIVE BAND RATIOS OF ASSOCIATED VEGETATION STRESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies conducted under controlled laboratory and controlled field conditions have demonstrated the ability of hyperspectral techniques to detect vegetation stress associated with elevated levels of soil gas and associated soil oxygen depletion. This paper investigates the capability and transferability of these hyperspectral techniques, in particular the Smith et al. (2004) 725:702 nm ratio, to identify vegetation stress features associated

D. C. White; M. Williams; S. L. Barr

184

An update on remote measurement of soil moisture over vegetation using infrared temperature measurements: A FIFE perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using model development, image analysis and micrometeorological measurements, the object is to push beyond the present limitations of using the infrared temperature method for remotely determining surface energy fluxes and soil moisture over vegetation. Model development consists of three aspects: (1) a more complex vegetation formulation which is more flexible and realistic; (2) a method for modeling the fluxes over patchy vegetation cover; and (3) a method for inferring a two-layer soil vertical moisture gradient from analyses of horizontal variations in surface temperatures. HAPEX and FIFE satellite data will be used along with aircraft thermal infrared and solar images as input for the models. To test the models, moisture availability and bulk canopy resistances will be calculated from data collected locally at the Rock Springs experimental field site and, eventually, from the FIFE project.

Carlson, Toby N.

1988-01-01

185

Evaluation of soil and vegetation response to drought using SMOS soil moisture satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture plays an important role in determining the likelihood of droughts and floods that may affect an area. Knowledge of soil moisture distribution as a function of time and space is highly relevant for hydrological, ecological and agricultural applications, especially in water-limited or drought-prone regions. However, measuring soil moisture is challenging because of its high variability; point-scale in-situ measurements are scarce being remote sensing the only practical means to obtain regional- and global-scale soil moisture estimates. The ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) is the first satellite mission ever designed to measuring the Earth's surface soil moisture at near daily time scales with levels of accuracy previously not attained. Since its launch in November 2009, significant efforts have been dedicated to validate and fine-tune the retrieval algorithms so that SMOS-derived soil moisture estimates meet the standards required for a wide variety of applications. In this line, the SMOS Barcelona Expert Center (BEC) is distributing daily, monthly, and annual temporal averages of 0.25-deg global soil moisture maps, which have proved useful for assessing drought and water-stress conditions. In addition, a downscaling algorithm has been developed to combine SMOS and NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data into fine-scale (< 1km) soil moisture estimates, which permits extending the applicability of the data to regional and local studies. Fine-scale soil moisture maps are currently limited to the Iberian Peninsula but the algorithm is dynamic and can be transported to any region. Soil moisture maps are generated in a near real-time fashion at BEC facilities and are used by Barcelona's fire prevention services to detect extremely dry soil and vegetation conditions posing a risk of fire. Recently, they have been used to explain drought-induced tree mortality episodes and forest decline in the Catalonia region. These soil moisture products can also be a useful tool to monitor the effectiveness of land restoration management practices. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using SMOS soil moisture maps for monitoring drought and water-stress conditions. In previous research, SMOS-derived Soil Moisture Anomalies (SSMA), calculated in a ten-day basis, were shown to be in close relationship with well-known drought indices (the Standardized Precipitation Index and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index). In this work, SSMA have been calculated for the period 2010-2013 in representative arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid areas across global land biomes. The SSMA reflect the cumulative precipitation anomalies and is known to provide 'memory' in the climate and hydrological system; the water retained in the soil after a rainfall event is temporally more persistent than the rainfall event itself, and has a greater persistence during periods of low precipitation. Besides, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from MODIS is used as an indicator of vegetation activity and growth. The NDVI time series are expected to reflect the changes in surface vegetation density and status induced by water-deficit conditions. Understanding the relationships between SSMA and NDVI concurrent time series should provide new insight about the sensitivity of land biomes to drought.

Piles, Maria; Sánchez, Nilda; Vall-llossera, Mercè; Ballabrera, Joaquim; Martínez, Justino; Martínez-Fernández, José; Camps, Adriano; Font, Jordi

2014-05-01

186

Vegetation Influences on Long-Term Carbon Stabilization in Soils: a Coast Redwood-Prairie Comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex interactions and feedbacks among soil, biota, climate, and parent material determine the long-term pathways and mechanisms of carbon persistence in soils. While it is well known that litter chemistry influences litter decay on annual-decadal timescales, its impact on long-term SOM storage is still under debate. We tested the role of the substrate available to decomposers in determining decomposition and sequestration of carbon by comparing two contrasting ecosystems representing end-members in terms of tissue lifespan and litter recalcitrance, an old-growth redwood forest and an adjacent tree-less prairie, at one site with identical climate, topography, and parent material. Solid-state CP MAS 13C NMR was applied to investigate the chemical structure of vegetation tissues (aboveground and belowground), and of soil fractions (particulate organic carbon free in the soil matrix and particulate organic carbon located inside soil aggregates, or free and occluded light fraction (LF), respectively) at different depths. In addition, the carbon stability of these soil density fractions was estimated based on radiocarbon modeling. Preliminary NMR results showed strong differences between redwood and prairie tissues, and between litters and surface soil fractions. On average, redwood litter contained more aromatic carbon (C and O substituted aryl C), more lipids (alkyl C) and fewer carbohydrates (O-alkyl C) than prairie litter. Under both vegetation types we found that the chemical structure changed consistently from litter to free LF, and from free LF to occluded LF. The alkyl C signal intensity increased, while the O-alkyl C fraction decreased, but more strongly at the redwood forest. The proportion of aromatic functional groups in the total organic matter (aromaticity) was always higher in the soil fractions compared with the original litters. Redwood soil fractions aromaticity was 0.32 (+80% from litter), while prairie soil fractions aromaticity varied from 0.17 (free LF) to 0.23 (occluded LF)(+40 and +90% from litter, respectively). The proportion of carbon in carbonyl groups (alkyl/O-alkyl ratio), an estimate of the degree of decomposition, increased from the free LF to the occluded LF at both ecosystems (0.30 to 0.75 in the redwood forest, 0.24 to 0.68 in the prairie, respectively). In summary, the similar decomposition stage of the redwood and prairie SOM and the higher aromaticity of the free LF in the redwood soil compared to the original litter suggest the preservation of recalcitrant redwood constituents but only in the free soil matrix. Further investigations at deeper soil depths are underway.

Mambelli, S.; Burton, S. D.; McFarlane, K. J.; Torn, M. S.; Dawson, T. E.

2010-12-01

187

Use of LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work focuses on the characterization of natural, spatially variable, semivegetated landscapes using a linear, stochastic, canopy-soil reflectance model. A first application of the model was the investigation of the effects of subpixel and regional variability of scenes on the shape and structure of red-infrared scattergrams. Additionally, the model was used to investigate the inverse problem, the estimation of subpixel vegetation cover, given only the scattergrams of simulated satellite scale multispectral scenes. The major aspects of that work, including recent field investigations, are summarized.

Eagleson, Peter S.; Jasinski, Michael F.

1988-01-01

188

Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water. [in Hidalgo County, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A study was conducted in a 340-acre (139 hectares) field of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) to determine if multispectral data from ERTS-1 could be used to detect differences in chlorophyll concentration between iron-deficient (chlorotic) and apparently normal (green) grain sorghum. Chlorotic sorghum areas 2.8 acres (1.1 hectares) or larger in size were identified on a computer printout of band 5 data which contains the chlorophyll absorption band at the 0.65 micron wavelength. ERTS resolution is sufficient for practical applications in detecting iron-deficient sorghum in otherwise uniform fields. The first classification map of the study county has been produced. Vegetation (crops), rangeland, bare soil, water, and an undefined (all other) category occupied 15.2, 45.0, 19.1, 0.02, and 20.6% of the land area, respectively.

Wiegand, C. L. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

189

Influence of variation of soil spatial heterogeneity on vegetation restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous hypotheses and conceptional models dealing with the grassland desertification or degradation processes recognize\\u000a that the invasion of shrubs in grasslands is the most striking feature of the variation of vegetation patterns in the grassland\\u000a degradation or desertification processes in arid and semiarid regions. This is because the invasion of shrubs in grasslands\\u000a increases the heterogeneity of the temporal and

Xinrong Li

2005-01-01

190

Inverse modeling of soil characteristics from surface soil moisture observations: potential and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land surface models (LSM) are widely used as scientific and operational tools to simulate mass and energy fluxes within the soil vegetation atmosphere continuum for numerous applications in meteorology, hydrology or for geobiochemistry studies. A reliable parameterization of these models is important to improve the simulation skills. Soil moisture is a key variable, linking the water and energy fluxes at

A. Loew; W. Mauser

2008-01-01

191

Greenland soil bacteria & biogeochemistry: a vegetation cover proxy for climate warming effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate warming in the high Arctic is expected to increase plant biomass, deepen thaw, and stimulate decomposition of soil organic matter. However, it remains unclear how warming, plant growth, and microbial processing will interact to drive Arctic carbon and nutrient cycling. For example, greater plant growth should increase carbon storage in the ecosystem; however, increasing plant C inputs and thawing permafrost carbon should stimulate microbial biomass, potentially causing soil respiration to outpace storage. Alternatively, greater plant cover may lower soil temperature through shading, potentially curtailing the predicted increase in microbial activity. To evaluate microbial responses to climate warming in the high Arctic, we characterized the soil bacterial community and related soil biogeochemical properties, including pH, temperature, moisture, bulk density, extractable nutrient pools, extractable organic carbon and nitrogen, and total microbial biomass along a vegetation cover gradient in northwest Greenland. Vegetation cover was classified using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and vegetation cover classes were used as a proxy for changes associated with warming. We found that soil moisture increased and soil temperature decreased significantly with vegetation cover; moisture and temperature were higher in organic than in mineral horizons. Extractable nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-) and extractable organic C and N generally increased with vegetation cover and are higher in organic than in mineral horizons within a given vegetation class, with the exception of NO3-, which was comparable between horizons. Despite increases in available carbon and nutrients, microbial biomass carbon in both horizons ultimately decreased with vegetation cover, as did microbial biomass nitrogen in the mineral horizon. Moreover, the relative proportion of microbial biomass carbon to extractable organic carbon decreased with vegetation cover, indicating that decomposers in more vegetated soils do not readily use available carbon. Our results suggest that despite an increase in available substrate in high vegetation cover soils, the insulating properties of vegetation ultimately limit decomposer activity. We hypothesize that as plant cover in the high Arctic increases with climate warming, nutrient mineralization - initially heightened by higher temperatures - will ultimately be curtailed by the insulating properties of vegetation, leading to decreased nutrient availability to plants and a decline in plant cover until soils warm and dry to reach conditions more optimal for microbial processing. Following oscillations between higher and lower vegetation cover, soils may ultimately return to a 'baseline' moderate vegetation cover.

Dowdy, K. L.; Sistla, S.; Buckeridge, K. M.; Schimel, J.; Schaeffer, S. M.

2013-12-01

192

Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even\\u000a at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL\\u000a project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of\\u000a intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia.

C. E. G. R. Schaefer; B. A. F. de Mendonça; H. Oliveira; J. L. Lani; L. M. Costa; E. I. Fernandes Filho

2008-01-01

193

A systems approach for analyzing vegetative and soil degradation in Arnigad micro-watershed of Indian Himalayan region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the vegetative and soil degradation, measured as biomass and soil loss, for Arnigad micro-watershed located\\u000a in Indian Himalayan state of Uttarakhand, in systems framework by using dynamic linear programming bio-economic model. The\\u000a focus is at investigating the effects of alternate policy regimes, i.e., introduction of improved energy sources for cooking\\u000a along with substitution of existing local livestock

Mohit Gera; Prem L. Sankhayan; Ole Hofstad

2010-01-01

194

Evaluating models of climate and forest vegetation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding how the biosphere may respond to increasing trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere requires models that contain vegetation responses to regional climate. Most of the processes ecologists study in forests, including trophic interactions, nutrient cycling, and disturbance regimes, and vital components of the world economy, such as forest products and agriculture, will be influenced in potentially unexpected ways by changing climate. These vegetation changes affect climate in the following ways: changing C, N, and S pools; trace gases; albedo; and water balance. The complexity of the indirect interactions among variables that depend on climate, together with the range of different space/time scales that best describe these processes, make the problems of modeling and prediction enormously difficult. These problems of predicting vegetation response to climate warming and potential ways of testing model predictions are the subjects of this chapter.

Clark, James S.

1992-01-01

195

Comparison of deep soil moisture in two re-vegetation watersheds in semi-arid regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture stored below rainfall infiltration depth is a reliable water resource for plant growth in semi-arid ecosystems. Along with the large-scale ecological restoration in Chinese Loess Plateau, identifying the ecohydrological response to human-introduced vegetation restoration has become an important issue in current research. In this study, soil moisture data in depth of 0-5 m was obtained by field observation and geostatistical method in two neighboring re-vegetation watersheds. Profile characteristics and spatial pattern of soil moisture was compared between different land use types, transects, and watersheds. The results showed that: (1) Introduced vegetation drastically decreased deep soil moisture when compared with farmland and native grassland. No significant differences in deep soil moisture were found between different introduced vegetation types. (2) An analysis of differences in soil moisture for different land use patterns indicated that land use had significant influence on deep soil moisture spatial variability. Land use structure determined the soil moisture condition and its spatial variation. (3) Vegetation restoration with introduced plants diminished the spatial heterogeneity of deep soil moisture on watershed scale. The improvement of land use management was suggested to improve the water management and maintain the sustainability of vegetation restoration.

Yang, Lei; Chen, Liding; Wei, Wei; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Handan

2014-05-01

196

Influence of vegetation changes on soil organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a heath region at Hjelm Hede in Denmark oak trees are invading a Calluna/Empetrum vegetation. In less than a century the oak invasion has caused considerable changes in the soil: what was once an O-horizon under Calluna has changed to an A-horizon under oak; the Calluna E-horizon has lost its distinct appearance; and the sharp boundary between E and Bh has been obliterated. The directly visible changes are associated with a rise in pH of about one unit in the top horizon under the oaks, an increasing content of organic matter in the E-horizon, a decreasing content of organic matter in the Bh-horizon, and a fall in the C/N ratio. In order to estimate the total microbiological activity, cotton strips were placed in the upper soil horizons. The loss in tensile strength during two summer months was 10-15% under Calluna, but more than 50% under oaks. Initial attempts to find differences in the type and content of organic matter showed that the most abundant low-molecular organic acids extracted from the Of-horizons were 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (protocatechuic acid), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid (vanillic acid). The extraction was done in 0.1 M sodium pyrophosphate at pH 10.2. The organic compounds were determined by HPLC. The 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid was relatively the most important compound under the Calluna heath, whereas 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid was most important under oaks. Extractions were performed on water samples from field lysimeter experiments to determine whether the substituted benzoic acids in the soil water arose under transport. These extractions exposed a ppm concentration of 2,4-dichlorobenzoic acid, a compound believed to originate from microbial decomposition of lysimeter material.

Nørnberg, Per

197

Effects of vegetation on radon transport processes in soil  

SciTech Connect

A large component of radon entry cannot be explained by pressure differences between the soil and inside the structures. The persistence of this radon entry even when the house is pressurized by 1 Pa indicates that it must be due to molecular diffusion. The radon entry rate as measured by accumulators below ground level (soil + concrete) is roughly 2 times greater than that measured above ground level (concrete alone). The soil permeability is about 10{sup {minus}12} m{sup 2} and does not change dramatically with depth down to 2 m. The diffusion component of radon entry is reduced by about 30% when the floor wall joint is sealed. The Rn3D model is operating on our computer system and is being modified to accommodate the geometrical configurations of the underground test structure.

Borak, T.B.

1991-01-01

198

Evapotranspiration of soil water movement in small area vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Greece, crops are frequently cultivated in small isolated areas in close proximity to roads and bare soils and therefore evapotranspiration is affected by local advection. Under these circumstances, oasis effect conditions are present and evapotranspiration is higher than what is expected. In this paper, the evapotranspiration and soil water dynamics of a cotton crop cultivated in small areas under the oasis effect is studied. To this end, two isolated free-drainage lysimeters cultivated with cotton in the year 2007 were used. Soil moisture of the soil profile of both the lysimeters was monitored with two capacitance water content probes. The soil water balance method was used to estimate crop evapotranspiration and corresponding crop coefficients in one of the two lysimeters. These coefficients were 75% larger than the FAO-56 crop coefficients at the mid-season stage. The FAO-56 and the derived crop coefficients were used for the simulation of the water dynamics in the second lysimeter by the SWBACROS model. The derived crop coefficients for these conditions produced much better results than the FAO-56 crop coefficients. The results were improved when crop coefficient value equal to 2.5 was used for the mid-season stage.

Paraskevas, C.; Georgiou, P.; Ilias, A.; Panoras, A.; Babajimopoulos, C.

2013-12-01

199

The role of vegetation and soil properties on the spatio-temporal variability of the surface soil moisture in a maize-cropped field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture dynamics are affected by complex interactions among several factors. Understanding the relative importance of these factors is still an important challenge in the study of water fluxes and solute transport in unsaturated media. In this study, the spatio-temporal variability of surface soil moisture was investigated in a 10 ha flat cropped field located in northern Italy. Soil moisture was measured on a regular 50 × 50 m grid on seven dates during the growing season. For each measurement campaign, the spatial variability of the soil moisture was compared with the spatial variability of the soil texture and crop properties. In particular, to better understand the role of the vegetation, the spatio-temporal variability of two different parameters - leaf area index and crop height - was monitored on eight dates at different crop development stages. Statistical and geostatistical analysis was then applied to explore the interactions between these variables. In agreement with other studies, the results show that the soil moisture variability changes according to the average value within the field, with the standard deviation reaching a maximum value under intermediate mean soil moisture conditions and the coefficient of variation decreasing exponentially with increasing mean soil moisture. The controls of soil moisture variability change according to the average soil moisture within the field. Under wet conditions, the spatial distribution of the soil moisture reflects the variability of the soil texture. Under dry conditions, the spatial distribution of the soil moisture is affected mostly by the spatial variability of the vegetation. The interaction between these two factors is more important under intermediate soil moisture conditions. These results confirm the importance of considering the average soil moisture conditions within a field when investigating the controls affecting the spatial variability of soil moisture. This study highlights the importance of considering the spatio-temporal variability of the vegetation in investigating soil moisture dynamics, especially under intermediate and dry soil moisture conditions. The results of this study have important implications in different hydrological applications, such as for sampling design, ranking stability application, indirect measurements of soil properties and model parameterisation.

Baroni, G.; Ortuani, B.; Facchi, A.; Gandolfi, C.

2013-05-01

200

Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Modeling Output Online  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The ability to predict the distribution of submersed aquatic vegetation in the Upper Mississippi River on the basis of physical or chemical variables is useful to resource managers. Wildlife managers have a keen interest in advanced estimates of food quantity such as American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana) population status to give out more informed advisories to hunters before the fall hunting season. Predictions for distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation beds can potentially increase hunter observance of voluntary avoidance zones where foraging birds are left alone to feed undisturbed. In years when submersed aquatic vegetation is predicted to be scarce in important wildlife habitats, managers can get the message out to hunters well before the hunting season (Jim Nissen, Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge, La Crosse District Manager, La Crosse, Wisconsin, personal communication). We developed a statistical model to predict the probability of occurrence of submersed aquatic vegetation in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River on the basis of a few hydrological, physical, and geomorphic variables. Our model takes into consideration flow velocity, wind fetch, bathymetry, growing-season daily water level, and light extinction coefficient in the river (fig. 1) and calculates the probability of submersed aquatic vegetation existence in Pool 8 in individual 5- x 5-m grid cells. The model was calibrated using the data collected in 1998 (516 sites), 1999 (595 sites), and 2000 (649 sites) using a stratified random sampling protocol (Yin and others, 2000b). To validate the model, we chose the data from the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) transect sampling in backwater areas (Rogers and Owens 1995; Yin and others, 2000a) and ran the model for each 5- x 5-m grid cell in every growing season from 1991 to 2001. We tallied all the cells and came up with an annual average percent frequency of submersed aquatic vegetation occurrence and compared the results with actual LTRMP survey data (fig. 2). Both a paired Student's test (P = 0.4620) and a Wilcoxon's two-sample test (P = 0.4738) did not contradict our null hypothesis that the model prediction and the sampling data are statistically the same. We have not found an effective statistical test to compare model-predicted spatial pattern with aerial photography geographic information, but we are satisfied with the model's outcome on the basis of visual inspection (fig. 3). A unique feature about this model is that a prediction can be made by the end of June each year; therefore, providing wildlife managers an assessment of current year vegetation growth condition 3 to 4 months ahead of the arrival of migrating waterfowl that feed on submersed aquatic vegetation. We are working with the LTRMP partnership to create a mechanism so that model predictions (fig. 4) can be updated annually and the results posted on the LTRMP Web site. Our model underestimated the prevalence of vegetation from 2001 to 2004. We speculate that the summer water level reduction conducted in 2001 and 2002 triggered vegetation responses that are outside the model's domain. Future enhancement of the model will incorporate the summer water level drawdown effects as well as the effects of growth conditions in previous years.

Yin, Yao; Rogala, Jim; Sullivan, John; Rohweder, Jason

2005-01-01

201

Relationship between polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in vegetation and soil on residential properties.  

PubMed

The University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study was undertaken to address concerns that the industrial discharge of dioxin-like compounds in the Midland, Michigan, USA area had resulted in the contamination of soil and vegetation in the Tittabawassee River floodplain and downwind of the incinerator in the City of Midland. The study included the analysis of 597 vegetation samples, predominantly grass and weeds, from residential properties selected through a multistage probabilistic sample design in the Midland area, and in Jackson and Calhoun Counties (Michigan), as a background comparison, for 29 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The mean toxic equivalent (TEQ) of the house perimeter vegetation samples ranged from 4.2 to 377 pg/g. The ratio of TEQs (vegetation to soil) was about 0.3, with a maximum of 3.5. Based on a calculation of the similarity of the congener patterns between the soil and the vegetation, it appeared that the source of the contamination on the vegetation was the surrounding soil. This conclusion was supported by linear regression analysis, which showed that the largest contributor to the R(2) for the outcome variable of log(10) of the vegetation concentration was log(10) of the surrounding soil concentration. Models of vegetation contamination usually focus on atmospheric deposition and partitioning. The results obtained here suggest that the deposition of soil particles onto vegetation is a significant route of contamination for residential herbage. Thus, the inclusion of deposition of soil particles onto vegetation is critical to the accurate modeling of contamination residential herbage in communities impacted by historic industrial discharges of persistent organic compounds. PMID:20963797

Demond, Avery; Towey, Timothy; Adriaens, Peter; Zhong, Xiaobo; Knutson, Kristine; Chen, Qixuan; Hong, Biling; Gillespie, Brenda; Franzblau, Alfred; Garabrant, David; Lepkowski, James; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha

2010-12-01

202

Modeling Vegetation Amount Using Bandwise Regression and Ecological Site Descriptions as an Alternative to Vegetation Indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological site descriptions (ESDs) based on soil maps, Landsat 7 ETM+ band values, and vegetation index data from 12 scenes were used as predictive variables in linear regression estimates of total biomass using field data from five Montana ranches. Bandwise regression explained the most variability (53%) when ESDs were not included, followed by tasseled cap components (51%), the soil adjusted

Catherine Lee Maynard; Rick L. Lawrence; Gerald A. Nielsen; Gordon Decker

2006-01-01

203

Quantifying the influence of deep soil moisture on ecosystem albedo: The role of vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

changes in precipitation dynamics continue to alter the water availability in dryland ecosystems, understanding the feedbacks between the vegetation and the hydrologic cycle and their influence on the climate system is critically important. We designed a field campaign to examine the influence of two-layer soil moisture control on bare and canopy albedo dynamics in a semiarid shrubland ecosystem. We conducted this campaign during 2011 and 2012 within the tower footprint of the Santa Rita Creosote Ameriflux site. Albedo field measurements fell into one of four Cases within a two-layer soil moisture framework based on permutations of whether the shallow and deep soil layers were wet or dry. Using these Cases, we identified differences in how shallow and deep soil moisture influence canopy and bare albedo. Then, by varying the number of canopy and bare patches within a gridded framework, we explore the influence of vegetation and soil moisture on ecosystem albedo. Our results highlight the importance of deep soil moisture in land surface-atmosphere interactions through its influence on aboveground vegetation characteristics. For instance, we show how green-up of the vegetation is triggered by deep soil moisture, and link deep soil moisture to a decrease in canopy albedo. Understanding relationships between vegetation and deep soil moisture will provide important insights into feedbacks between the hydrologic cycle and the climate system.

Sanchez-Mejia, Zulia Mayari; Papuga, Shirley Anne; Swetish, Jessica Blaine; van Leeuwen, Willem Jan Dirk; Szutu, Daphne; Hartfield, Kyle

2014-05-01

204

Thermal vegetation canopy model studies  

SciTech Connect

An iterative-type thermal model applicable to forest canopies was tested with data from two diverse forest types. The model framework consists of a system of steady-state energy budget equations describing the interactions of short- and long-wave radiation within three horizontally infinite canopy layers. A state-space formulation of the energy dynamics within the canopy is used which permits a factorization of canopy geometrical parameters from canopy optical and thermal coefficients as well as environmental driving variables. Two sets of data characterizing a coniferous (Douglas-fir) and deciduous (oak-hickory) canopy were collected to evaluate the thermal model. The results show that the model approximates measured mean canopy temperatures to within 2/sup 0/C for relatively clear weather conditions and deviates by a maximum of 3/sup 0/C for very hazy or foggy conditions.

Smith, J.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins); Ranson, K.J.; Nguyen, D.; Balick, L.; Link, L.E.; Fritschen, L.; Hutchison, B.

1981-01-01

205

Impact of vegetation change on the mobility of uranium- and thorium-series nuclides in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of land cover change on chemical mobility and soil response was investigated using short- and long-lived nuclides from the U- and Th series. Indeed, the matching of these nuclides half-live to the pedogenic processes rates make these nuclides especially suitable to investigate either time or mechanism of transfers within a soil-water-plant system. This study was carried out from the experimental Breuil-Chenue site (Morvan mountains, France). The native forest (150 year-old) was partially clear-felled and replaced in 1976 by mono-specific plantations distributed in different stands. Following this cover-change, some mineralogical changes in the acid brown soil were recognized (Mareschal, 2008). Three soil sections were sampled under the native forest and the replanted oak and Douglas spruce stands respectively. The (238U), (234U), (230Th), (226Ra), (232Th) and (228Ra) activities were analysed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and gamma spectrometry. Significant differences in U, Th, and Ra activities were observed between the soils located under the native forest or the replanted-trees stands, mostly dominated by a large uranium mobilization from the replanted soils. Moreover, all the investigated U and Th-series activity ratios show a contrasted trend between the shallowest horizons (0-50cm) and the deepest one (below 50cm), demonstrating the chemical effect of the vegetation change on the shallow soil layers. Using a continuous open-system leaching model, the coupled radioactive disequilibria measured in the different soil layers permit to quantify the rate of the radionuclides mobilities. Reference: Mareschal, L., 2008. Effet des substitutions d'essences forestières sur l'évolution des sols et de leur minéralogie : bilan après 28 ans dans le site expérimental de Breuil (Morvan) Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy-I.

Gontier, A.; Rihs, S.; Turpault, M.-P.; Chabaux, F.

2012-04-01

206

Coupling a distributed hydrological model with a vegetated slope stability model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation significantly influences the hydrological and mechanical properties which are relevant for the stability of shallow soils along sloping surfaces. In view of the complexity of soil plant hydrological interactions, the quantification of root mechanical reinforcement remains a challenge. In this paper we couple root reinforcement models with a quasi-dynamic wetness index (QDI), which is specifically designed for estimating the local wetness conditions by accounting for the character of the upslope topography and the time of the lateral soil moisture distribution. The overall modelling strategy can be effectively employed for assessing the relative hazard of shallow landslides accounting for vegetation patterns and dominant forest management practices. The methodology is applied to an area located in Northern Tuscany to assess the effect of root degradation after tree logging on the spatial occurrence of shallow landslides during extreme rainfall events.

Preti, F.; Dani, A.; Chirico, G. B.

2012-04-01

207

Investigation of Soil Properties effects on Establishment of Vegetation Types (Case Study: Sabzdasht, Bafgh)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research was conducted to investigate the relationships between soil (Organic Matter, potassium, phosphorous, sodium, Fine gravel, soil texture, EC, Lime, Gypsum, Nitrogen) and environmental (Elevation, Slope) factors with distribution of vegetation types in rangelands of Sabzdasht, located in Bafgh, Yazd province at 2012. For this purpose, four vegetation types were selected as follows: Artemisia sieberi; Artemisia sieberi, Stipa barbata, Eurotia ceratoides; Dorema ammoniacum, Artemisia sieberi, Eurotia ceratoides; and Hammada salicornica.Minimal area was determined using nested plots. Afterward, vegetation factors were measured and five soil profiles were dug randomly in minimal area. In each profile, data for depths of 0-10 and 10-80 cm were recorded. Principal Component Analysis was applied to analyze the data. Results showed that soil texture, potassium, phosphorous, EC and lime had the most impact on variation and distribution of vegetation types. Keywords: Environmental Factors, Principal Component Analysis, Minimal Area, Bafgh, Yazd

Sadeghi Nia, Majid; jafari, Mohammad; Zahedi Amiri, Ghavomoldin; Baghestani Maybodi, Naser; Tavili, Ali

2013-04-01

208

Dual Frequency Microwave Radiometer Measurements of Soil Moisture for Bare and Vegetated Rough Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Controlled ground-based passive microwave radiometric measurements on soil moisture were conducted to determine the effects of terrain surface roughness and vegetation on microwave emission. Theoretical predictions were compared with the experimental resu...

S. L. Lee

1974-01-01

209

Microwave Dielectric Properties of Soil and Vegetation and Their Estimation From Spaceborne Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is largely tutorial in nature and provides an overview of the microwave dielectric properties of certain natural terrestrial media (soils and vegetation) and recent results in estimating these properties remotely from airborne and orbital synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

Dobson, M. Craig; McDonald, Kyle C.

1996-01-01

210

Concentrations of Radionuclides and Trace Elements in Soils and Vegetation Around the DARHT Facility during 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of soil, sediment, and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation were collected at four locations around the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). All samples were analyzed for conce...

P. R. Fresquez

2004-01-01

211

Soil-Vegetation Correlations in Prairie Potholes of Beadle and Deuel Counties, South Dakota,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a national study, vegetation associated with known hydric and nonhydric soils was sampled in selected prairie potholes and adjacent upland areas in Beadle and Deuel Counties in South Dakota. Weighted averages and unweighted averages were calcul...

D. E. Hubbard J. B. Millar D. D. Malo K. F. Higgins

1988-01-01

212

Remote sensing of vegetation and soil using microwave ellipsometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described of determining vegetation height and water content of vegetation from the intensity and state of elliptical polarization of a reflected train of microwaves. The method comprises the steps of reflecting a circularly polarized train of microwaves from vegetation at a predetermined angle of incidence and detecting the reflected train of microwaves. The ratio of the intensities of the electric field vector components is determined, the phase difference of the components is measured, and the refractive index and thickness of the layer of vegetation are computed from a formula. The refractive index is given essentially by the water content of the vegetation.

Auer, S. O.; Schutt, J. B. (inventors)

1977-01-01

213

Characteristic of soil hydro-physical properties and water dynamics under different vegetation restoration types  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining the observation of the soil profile at field and the chemical and physical analysis in laboratory, a study on\\u000a the hydro-physical properties of soil in six different vegetation types and the dynamics of water content after rain was conducted\\u000a in Wanchanggou, Guangyuan City to find out the vegetation types with effective water-conservation functions in order to serve\\u000a the

Ma Zelong; Gong Yuanbo; Hu Tingxing

2006-01-01

214

The role of vegetation and soil in the biogeochemical cycling of mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the role plants play in regulating atmospheric Hg exchange with vegetated landscapes at an individual plant, and at ecosystem level. Investigation of ecosystem level measurements showed that large mesocosms could not be used for directly quantifying Hg flux from low-Hg containing substrates without a reliable system blank. Designs that minimize the mesocosm (volume)/(area of interest) ratio are recommended (Chapter 2). Smaller scale plant and soil Hg fluxes quantified using dynamic flux chambers were used to determine the air-surface Hg exchange from tallgrass prairie ecosystem housed in mesocosms (Chapter 3). Plant foliage was found to be a sink for atmospheric Hg, with uptake influenced by plant functional type and age. Emissions of Hg from vegetated and litter-covered soil were lower than fluxes from adjacent bare soil and the difference between the two was seasonally dependent and greatest when canopy coverage was greatest. Thus, an index of plant canopy development (canopy greenness) was used to model Hg flux from vegetated soil. Mass balance for the ecosystem housed in mesocosms showed that the tallgrass prairie was a net sink of atmospheric Hg, annually transferring 7.4 mug Hg m-2 to soil pool. Relative importance of stomatal versus non-stomatal routes of the foliar Hg exchange was assessed (Chapter 4). The non-stomatal route was shown to be an important way of Hg uptake into plant tissue in low humidity air, although details of uptake are not understood. The final objective addressed in this dissertation was to model Hg exchange from three biomes with background Hg concentrations using Geographic Information System (GIS) framework, and evaluate their importance in the regional and global Hg exchange (Chapter 5). Without taking into account foliar Hg uptake from the air, Hg emissions from desert, grassland and deciduous forest in the continental US were roughly estimated to be 5-7 tones per year. Plant canopy assimilation of air Hg (17 tones year-1) balanced the emissions, and the modeled domain was a net sink of atmospheric Hg, annually removing 10-12 tons Hg from the atmosphere.

Stamenkovic, Jelena

215

Analysis of soil organic carbon and vegetation cover trends along the Botswana Kalahari Transect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of trends in soil organic carbon (SOC) and vegetation cover along savanna ecosystem moisture gradients is critical to the understanding of ecosystem functioning and global change. Field results from 57 sites along the Botswana Kalahari Transect (BKT) showed general increases in both SOC and vegetation cover components along the temperature\\/moisture gradient. However, details in both SOC and woody cover

Susan Ringrose; Wilma Matheson; Cornelis Vanderpost

1998-01-01

216

Historical perspectives on some vegetation and soil changes in semi-arid New South Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of settlement of the semi-arid rangelands of western New South Wales is reviewed with respect to changes in the vegetation and soil which occurred under a regime of european land management. Simple dynamics of the vegetation response to grazing are illustrated and primary archival data is explored to verify the status of traditional wisdom about three examples of

P. B. Mitchell

1991-01-01

217

A THERMODYNAMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF VEGETATION AND SOIL FEEDBACKS IN THE CLIMATE SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial vegetation affects soil and surface properties over land, and thereby modulates the ex- change fluxes of energy, water and carbon between the land surface and the overlying atmosphere. When compared to a bare surface, green forest canopies absorb more solar radiation, are aerody- namically rougher, and have a higher ability to transpire water. Below the ground, vegetation can reach

Axel Kleidon

218

The need of data harmonization to derive robust empirical relationships between soil conditions and vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question: Is it possible to improve the general applicability and significance of empirical relationships between abiotic condi - tions and vegetation by harmonization of temporal data? Location: The Netherlands. Methods: Three datasets of vegetation, recorded after periods with different meteorological conditions, were used to analyze relationships between soil moisture regime (expressed by the mean spring groundwater level - MSLt calculated

Jan-Philip M. Witte; Rien Aerts

219

Desert vegetation patterns at the northern foot of Tianshan Mountains: The role of soil conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation patterns along environmental gradients in the typical temperate desert from the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains to the southern edge of Dungaree Basin were quantitatively investigated. The results implied that the soil mechanical composition in the study area affects the vegetation distribution remarkably. With concern to the preference to fine grain, the order is Tamarix ramosissima community>Reaumuria soongorica community>Haloxylon

Lihong Xu; Hongyan Liu; Xinzheng Chu; Kai Su

2006-01-01

220

Chemical evaluation of vegetables grown with conventional or organic soil amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garden vegetables were grown with “organic”; or “commercial”; fertilizer amendments to the soil. Plot preparation and other general cultural practices were identical. Tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, lettuce, onions and peas were planted, and leaf tissue and edible produce were harvested. N, P, K, Ca and Mg and content of ascorbic acid were determined in some of the produce. Certain vegetables were

L. V. Svec; C. A. Thoroughgood; Hyo Chung S. Mok

1976-01-01

221

Toxic effects of heavy metals and their accumulation in vegetables grown in a saline soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of heavy metals on biomass, chlorophyll, and antioxidative enzyme activities of eight vegetables grown in a saline soil. The heavy metal accumulation in vegetables was also investigated. Results show that biomass and chlorophyll content of crops decreased with the increase of heavy metal concentration while peroxidase activity increased at low

QuSheng Li; ShaSha Cai; CeHui Mo; Bei Chu; LiHua Peng; FangBing Yang

2010-01-01

222

Variability of soil microbial respiration under different vegetation succession stages in Jiuduansha wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil microbial respiration (SMR) and physicochemical characteristics of Jiuduansha wetland at the Yangtze Estuary were analyzed in order to clarify the variability of SMR under different vegetation succession stages and its influencing factors. The results indicated that SMR of different vegetation succession stages are significantly various (P < 0.05). The SMR of the Spartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora) zone (0.43

Yushu Tang; Lei Wang; Jianwei Jia; Yanli Li; Wenquan Zhang; Hongli Wang; Xiaohua Fu; Yiquan Le

2011-01-01

223

An Idealized Model of Plant and Soil Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following wildfire events the landscape commonly becomes denuded of vegetation cover, resulting in systems prone to soil loss and degradation. In this context soil dynamics are an intricate process balanced between pedogenesis, which is a relatively slow process and erosion which depends on many inert (e.g. soil texture, slope, precipitation and wind) and biological factors such as vegetation properties, grazing intensity, and human disturbance. We develop a simple homogenous, spatially implicit, theoretical model of the global dynamics of the interactions between vegetation and soil using a system of two nonlinear differential equations describing this interdependence, assuming a double feedback between them - plants control erosion and soil availability facilitates plants growth: ( ) dV- -K-- dt = rV K - 1+ aS - V (1) dS-= ? - ?Se-cT dt (2) where V and S represent vegetation cover and soil availability, respectively. Vegetation growth is similar to the classical logistic model with a growth rate of r(yr1), however, the "carrying capacity" (K) is dependent on soil availability (a1 is the amount of soil where V is reduced by half). Soil influxes at a constant rate ?(mm×yr1) and is eroded at a constant rateg? (yr-1), while vegetation abates this process modeled as a decreasing exponent as the effectiveness of vegetation in reducing soil erosion (c). Parameter values were chosen from a variable range found in the literature: r=0.01 yr1, K=75%, a1=1, ?=1 mm×yr1, ?=0.1 yr1, c=0.08. Complex properties emerge from this model. At certain parameter values (cK?4) the model predicts one of two steady states - full recovery of vegetation cover or a degraded barren system. However, at certain boundary conditions (cK>4 and ?1 ? ?/? ? ?2, see Article for terms of ?1 and ?2) bistability may be observed. We also show that erosion seems to be the determining factor in this system, and we identify the threshold values from which beyond the systems become unstable. The model predicts that certain ecosystems will be highly stable in one of two states, while others might be bistable transitioning between these two states through perturbations. This is an indicator of hysteresis, possibly indicating the ability of the system to shift leading to sudden and dramatic changes; formalizing the conceptual model shown by Davenport et al. (1998) and others. Following the establishment of these interrelationships, the role of repeated disturbances, such as wildfires, was assessed with numerical analysis in determining the long term dynamics of coupled soil-vegetation systems.

Burg, David; Malkinson, Dan; Wittenberg, Lea

2014-05-01

224

improved vegetation phenology in the JULES land-surface model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sietse Los, Steven Hancock, Peter North, Jose Gomez-Dans Introduction: Land-surface properties such as albedo, soil moisture and vegetation biophysical parameters affect water, energy and carbon fluxes from the land to the atmosphere an this can alter weather patterns. Here we use globally consistent satellite observations to improve modelling of the vegetation seasonal cycle in the JULES land-surface model (LSM) to better represent these fluxes. JULES model: The JULES LSM is the land surface component of the suite of UK MetOffice general circulation models. JULES is used both in operational weather forecasting and for simulations of future climate. Within JULES, seasonal changes in surface albedo are controlled by snow (not covered here) and vegetation dynamics (phenology). Vegetation phenology is controlled by temperature and water availability, with timings and rates set by a number of trigger thresholds and leaf growth/death rates. Satellite data: The ability of JULES to represent vegetation, in terms of its seasonal cycle as well as the interannual variation, was tested on normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI = (near-infrared - red) / (near-infrared + red)) data. JULES uses a 1D radiative transfer model to predict hemispheric surface albedo for a given leaf area whilst satellites measure reflectance from a single view direction and this may not match the hemispheric albedo. To test this, JULES predictions were compared to the FLIGHT (a 3D radiative transfer model) simulations for different view directions. This revealed that either NDVI profiles need to be normalised to allow a direct comparison (as done here) or else the JULES 1D model must be replaced by a full 3D radiative transfer model, which is computationally expensive. Experiments: The original phenology module in JULES was optimised against NDVI observations using a Monte-Carlo Markov chain method. This optimisation was unsuccessful; and we therefore concluded that the JULES phenology cannot recreate observed NDVI and should be replaced by a different phenology model. The majority of previous studies that evaluated the JULES phenology verified only growing season start and end dates rather than the full seasonal shape, which is is a much simpler test. The original JULES phenology and can give the correct annual carbon fluxes, however it does not guarantee that the model is correct within the year; it does not correctly represent seasonal changes in albedo and therefore the model cannot be used in real-time data assimilation. An alternative phenology model, BETHY (Knorr et al 2010) was evaluated that can reproduce the rapid green-up and gradual drying out of vegetation was. The BETHY subroutines were put into JULES and were optimised against remotely sensed NDVI, and this led to a much more realistic seasonal vegetation cycle and seasonal variation in reflectance. The effect of the new vegetation seasonal cycle on surface temperature and carbon and water fluxes was evaluated; noting that any change to model processes is likely to upset any empirically tuned parameters. Thus recalibration is needed for accurate predictions, even though the model is now more realistic. References: Knorr, W. et al, 2010. J. Geophys. Res., 115, G04017.

Los, S. O.

2013-12-01

225

Direct leaf wetness measurements and its numerical analysis using a multi-layer atmosphere-soil-vegetation model at a grassland site in pre-alpine region in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wetness of plant leaf surfaces (leaf wetness) is important in meteorological, agricultural, and environmental studies including plant disease management and the deposition process of atmospheric trace gases and particles. Although many models have been developed to predict leaf wetness, wetness data directly measured at the leaf surface for model validations are still limited. In the present study, the leaf wetness was monitored using seven electrical sensors directly clipped to living leaf surfaces of thin and broad-leaved grasses. The measurements were carried out at the pre-alpine grassland site in TERestrial ENvironmental Observatories (TERENO) networks in Germany from September 20 to November 8, 2013. Numerical simulations of a multi-layer atmosphere-SOiL-VEGetation model (SOLVEG) developed by the authors were carried out for analyzing the data. For numerical simulations, the additional routine meteorological data of wind speed, air temperature and humidity, radiation, rainfall, long-wave radiative surface temperature, surface fluxes, ceilometer backscatter, and canopy or snow depth were used. The model reproduced well the observed leaf wetness, net radiation, momentum and heat, water vapor, and CO2 fluxes, surface temperature, and soil temperature and moisture. In rain-free days, a typical diurnal cycle as a decrease and increase during the day- and night-time, respectively, was observed in leaf wetness data. The high wetness level was always monitored under rain, fog, and snowcover conditions. Leaf wetness was also often high in the early morning due to thawing of leaf surface water frozen during a cold night. In general, leaf wetness was well correlated with relative humidity (RH) in condensation process, while it rather depended on wind speed in evaporation process. The comparisons in RH-wetness relations between leaf characteristics showed that broad-leaved grasses tended to be wetter than thin grasses.

Katata, Genki; Held, Andreas; Mauder, Matthias

2014-05-01

226

Changes in regional boreal climate due to historic and future structural vegetation changes and variations in soil moisture memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amplified warming at high latitudes over the past decades already has led to, and will continue to lead to, changes in the boreal and arctic part of the climate system. Climate change induced alterations include structural shifts in high latitude ecosystems such as boreal forest expansion towards higher latitudes and altitudes, and shrub-ecosystems replacing tundra in large areas of the arctic. These shifts affect surface physical qualities such as albedo, roughness length, and soil properties. Shifts in vegetation species may also lead to alterations in soil- and boundary layer moisture. Resultant changes in land surface properties and processes provide important feedbacks to regional climate by changes in radiation, and water and energy fluxes. Structural vegetation changes that appear on local scale may through these feedback mechanisms also propagate to affect large scale climatic features. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with the Noah Land surface model is used in a series of experiments in order to investigate the influence of observed and anticipated structural changes in the boreal ecosystem on changes in the land-atmosphere feedbacks. MODIS land surface data are used together with observational data and dynamical vegetation model output from the CMIP5 database, to simulate the influence of historical and future structural vegetation changes over the Northern European Boreal domain. In a series of three experiments the MODIS dataset is manually altered in order to reflect observed and anticipated changes in Boreal forest geography on summer water and energy fluxes at the surface, including Bowen ratio changes. As results are highly sensitive to soil moisture variations, experiments are conducted under wet and dry soil moisture regimes, to take into account uncertainties in future soil state projections and to estimate sensitivity to soil moisture memory in surface flux estimates.

Rydsaa, Johanne H.; Stordal, Frode; Tallaksen, Lena M.

2014-05-01

227

Field-derived spectra of salinized soils and vegetation as indicators of irrigation-induced soil salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinization is a major cause of soil degradation in the Murray–Darling Basin of Australia. The objective of this research is to evaluate the utility of field-derived spectra of saline soils and related vegetation for characterizing and mapping the spatial distribution of irrigation-induced soil salinization. A FieldSpec FR hand-held spectrometer was used to measure the spectra of a range of salinized

R. l. Dehaan; G. r. Taylor

2002-01-01

228

Modeling hydrology and sediment transport in vegetative filter strips  

SciTech Connect

Sediment and sediment bounded pollutants carried by runoff from non-point sources is a major pollutant of water bodies. Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are bands of planted or indigenous vegetation used to control runoff and sediment outflow from disturbed areas. This work presents and validates a research model to study the hydrology and sediment movement in VFS. This was accomplished in four steps. The numerical solution of the overland flow kinematic wave equations is subject to numerical problems when a rapid change in parameters is encountered (kinematic shock). An improved finite element method, i.e. a Petrov-Galerkin (PG) formulation, is presented. The formulation depends on four parameters. The PG method decreased the mean sum of square error by about 65%. The finite element overland flow solution is modified and linked to the Green-Ampt infiltration equation to form a VFS-specific hydrology model. An analysis of the effect of different filter properties (soil type, slope, surface roughness, buffer length) on the major hydrological out-puts (runoff volume, velocity and peak flow rate) is made. Optimal filter performance (i.e. reduction in runoff volume, velocity and peak flow rate) is found for soils with high infiltration capacity, dense grass cover and small slopes. A sediment transport/filtration submodel (based on the University of Kentucky model) is added to the hydrology submodel. The interaction between submodels and a natural event application case to illustrate the capability of the model and its various outputs is presented in detail. An analysis of sensitivity and a field validation are performed. The most sensitive parameters are soil initial water content, vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity, particle class and grass spacing. The model predictions were compared with a set of natural events from an experimental site in the North Carolina Piedmont. In general the model performs well.

Munoz-Carpena, R.

1993-12-31

229

Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties and vegetation–soil relationships following vegetation restoration of mobile dunes in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative methods were used to examine soil properties and their spatial heterogeneity in a 0-year fenced mobile dune (MD0),\\u000a an 11-year fenced mobile dune (MD11) and a 20-year fenced mobile dune (MD20) in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China. The objective\\u000a of the study was to assess the effect of vegetation restoration on heterogeneity of soil properties in sand dunes and

Xiaoan Zuo; Xueyong Zhao; Halin Zhao; Tonghui Zhang; Yirui Guo; Yuqiang Li; Yingxin Huang

2009-01-01

230

Role of vegetation in modulating rainfall interception and soil water flux in ecosystems under transition from grassland to woodland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation exerts strong control on the hydrological budget by shielding the soil from rainfall through interception and modulating water transmission in the soil by altering soil properties and rooting zone water extraction. Therefore, a change in vegetation alters the water cycle by a combination of a passive, rainfall redistribution mechanism controlled by the physical dimensions of vegetation and active, water extracting processes resulting from physiological attributes of different plants. As a result, the role of vegetation on the water cycle is likely to change where vegetation is under transition such as in the southern Great Plains of USA due to woody plant encroachment. However, it remains largely unknown how this physiognomic transformation from herbaceous cover to woody canopy alters rainfall influx, soil water transmission and efflux from the soil profile and consequently alters historic patterns of runoff and groundwater recharge. This knowledge is critical for both water resource and ecosystem management. We conducted a comprehensive, 5-year study involving direct quantification of throughfall and stemflow for grassland and encroached juniper woodland (Juniperus virginiana), water efflux through transpiration using an improved Granier thermal dissipation method (trees) and ET chamber (grassland), soil moisture storage and dynamics (capacitance probe) and streamflow (small catchment). We calibrated a prevailing hydrological model (SWAT) based on observed data to simulate potential change in runoff and recharge for the Cimarron River basin (study site located within this basin) under various phases of grassland to woodland transition. Our results show that juniper encroachment reduces throughfall reaching the soil surface compared with grassland under moderate grazing. The evergreen junipers transpired water year-round including fall and winter when the warm season grasses were senescent. As a result, soil water content and soil water storage on the encroached catchment were generally lower than on the grassland catchment, especially proceeding the seasons of peak rainfall in spring and fall. Frequency and magnitude of streamflow events was observed to be substantially reduced in the encroached catchment. Model simulation suggests that conversion of all existing grassland to juniper in the Cimarron River basin will increase overall water efflux through evapotranspiration sufficient to substantially reduce water yield for streamflow. Rapid transformation of mesic grasslands to a woodland state with juniper encroachment, if not confined, has the potential to reduce soil water, streamflow and flow duration of ephemeral streams. Slowing the expansion of woody encroachment into grasslands might be considered as a land-based strategy to sustain or even augment streamflow and groundwater recharge to meet the increase in water demand under increasing climate variability and population growth in the southern Great Plains of USA

Zou, Chris; Will, Rodney; Stebler, Elaine; Qiao, Lei

2014-05-01

231

The effect of land cover\\/vegetation on soil water dynamic in the hilly area of the loess plateau, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe soil and water loss has lead to widespread land degradation in China's loess plateau. During the past decades, a great deal of effort was made on vegetation restoration to reduce soil and water loss in the loess plateau. However, due to water shortage the efficiency of vegetation restoration was not as satisfactory as expected. As part of a vegetation

Liding Chen; Zhilin Huang; Jie Gong; Bojie Fu; Yilong Huang

2007-01-01

232

Spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture and its effect on vegetation in a desertified aeolian riparian ecotone on the Tibetan Plateau, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummarySoil moisture content is one of the limiting factors for natural vegetation succession in alpine river valleys on the Tibetan Plateau. However, its spatio-temporal variability and effect on artificial vegetation restoration has rarely been reported. In this paper, we conducted a case study to examine the spatio-temporal variability and vertical characteristics of soil moisture by setting up a 100 × 120 m experimental plot on aeolian sandy land in a riparian ecotone and analyzing the result data using a geo-statistical approach. The soil moisture contents at different depths all showed strong temporal variability, with the mean soil moisture ranging from 4% to 6% in spring, from 6% to 14% in summer and from 9% to 12% in autumn. The Gaussian semi-variogram model was the best fitted theoretical model for the spatial structure of soil moisture contents in different seasons, and soil moisture at the field scale showed strong spatial dependence. The spatial patterns of soil moisture all demonstrated strong similarity between depths with the strongest between 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depths in autumn. The soil moisture content over the upper 60 cm was the key factor that restricted the seed germination and seedling growth, and it affected vegetation coverage and density. The precipitation, variations of river water level, elevation as well as landform types were the main factors determining the variations of soil moisture content in different seasons. The results have important implications for the ongoing vegetation restoration in the study area.

Li, Haidong; Shen, Weishou; Zou, Changxin; Jiang, Jiang; Fu, Lina; She, Guanghui

2013-02-01

233

Multi-discipline resource inventory of soils, vegetation and geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Computer classification of natural vegetation, in the vicinity of Big Summit Prairie, Crook County, Oregon was carried out using MSS digital data. Impure training sets, representing eleven vegetation types plus water, were selected from within the area to be classified. Close correlations were visually observed between vegetation types mapped from the large scale photographs and the computer classification of the ERTS data (Frame 1021-18151, 13 August 1972).

Simonson, G. H. (principal investigator); Paine, D. P.; Lawrence, R. D.; Norgren, J. A.; Pyott, W. Y.; Herzog, J. H.; Murray, R. J.; Rogers, R.

1973-01-01

234

Can contrast in soil permeability between soil and vegetation lead to sufficient lateral redistribution of rainfall to sustain life in arid ecosystems?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lateral redistribution of water plays an important role in the hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological functioning of patchy arid ecosystems. For instance, it is broadly accepted that the maintenance of vegetation in patchy arid systems is supported by lateral subsidies of rainfall from bare sites to vegetated ones. However, the relative importance of above ground and below ground (via root uptake) water redistribution processes remains unresolved, particularly on flat sites. This research addressed the hypothesis that a combination of contrasts in infiltration capacity with efficient overland flow mechanisms can generate sufficient subsidies of water from bare sites to satisfy water demand in vegetated patches. The shallow water equations for overland flow were modified to account for the effects of a bare soil - vegetation transition. The resulting model was solved numerically using several different assumptions about infiltration behavior and water redistribution drawn from existing ecohydrological models of arid ecosystems. The results from these assumptions were compared to the solution of the `full' coupled shallow water equations. The results indicated that the permeability contrast could lead to significant water redistribution from bare to vegetated sites (20-60% of rainfall in sites with 50% vegetation cover). However, this redistribution is unlikely to be sufficient to completely sustain biomass in vegetation patches, suggesting that below-ground processes probably operate in conjunction with this surface redistribution. Intriguingly, the results also suggest that the organization of vegetation patches could be related to a hydraulic length scale L which governs the region over which infiltration dynamics are perturbed from a one dimensional case due to lateral redistribution. The L scales with storm intensity and duration. This mechanism suggests the possibility of alternative dynamics of vegetation loss and ecosystem degradation in drylands from those typically predicted by continuous reaction-diffusion models of water redistribution.

Thompson, S. E.; Konings, A.; Katul, G. G.

2011-12-01

235

A multi-frequency radiometric measurement of soil moisture content over bare and vegetated fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A USDA Beltsville Agricultural Research Center site was used for an experiment in which soil moisture remote sensing over bare, grass, and alfalfa fields was conducted over a three-month period using 0.6 GHz, 1.4 GHz, and 10.6 GHz Dicke-type microwave radiometers mounted on mobile towers. Ground truth soil moisture content and ambient air and sil temperatures were obtained concurrently with the radiometric measurements. Biomass of the vegetation cover was sampled about once a week. Soil density for each of the three fields was measured several times during the course of the experiment. Results of the radiometric masurements confirm the frequency dependence of moisture sensing sensitivity reduction reported earlier. Observations over the bare, wet field show that the measured brightness temperature is lowest at 5.0 GHz and highest of 0.6 GHz frequency, a result contrary to expectation based on the estimated dielectric permittivity of soil water mixtures and current radiative transfer model in that frequency range.

Wang, J. R.; Schmugge, T. J.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Gould, W. I.; Glazar, W. S.; Fuchs, J. E. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

236

Soil Reflectance Modeling With A Global Spectral Library: Refinement of The Price Soil Reflectance Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling soil reflectance is important to describe the soil-vegetation radiation field and to retrieve canopy characteristics from remote sensing data. The Price soil reflectance model has been widely used in canopy reflectance modeling thanks to its simplicity and effectiveness. In order to improve the model generality and applicability, this study refines the Price soil reflectance model using a global spectral library and further proposes a novel soil reflectance model. The global soil spectral library was combined from six datasets, containing 6,971 soil samples around the world, with a 10nm interval from 450 to 2350 nm. A recalibrated Price model (CPM) was developed using the same algorithm used by standard Price model (SPM) to obtain globally representative fitting functions. Moreover, a new matrix decomposition method (MDM) was developed to decrease the reflectance simulation errors by considering the spectra curve shapes. Three tune parameters are sufficient to model global soil spectra using MDM, which achieves the highest accuracy with an absolute error less than 0.02 and relative error less than 5%. CPM and SPM have larger simulation errors, for which the RMSE/RRMSE are 0.029/7.5% and 0.068/16.8%, respectively. For both SPM and CPM, relatively large error variations are shown over wavelengths, because only three selected bands are used in the models. MDM exhibits a relatively stable performance in the whole spectral domain. Moreover, MDM reconstructs very well the general shapes of the five types of soil reflectance curves, and thus leads to a lower misclassification rate. Overall, both CPM and MDM outperform SPM and have a potential for global soil reflectance modeling. Density scatter plots between the measured reflectances in the global soil spectral library and the simulated reflectances using SPM (a), CPM (b) and MDM (c). Comparison of measured and simulated reflectances for five typical curves.

Jiang, C.; Fang, H.

2012-12-01

237

A distributed hydrology-vegetation model for complex terrain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A distributed hydrology-vegetation model is described that includes canopy interception, evaporation, transpiration, and snow accumulation and melt, as well as runoff generation via the saturation excess mechanisms. Digital elevation data are used to model topographic controls on incoming solar radiation, air temperature, precipitation, and downslope water movement. Canopy evapotranspiration is represented via a two-layer Penman-Monteith formulation that incorporates local net solar radiation, surface meteorology, soil characteristics and moisture status, and species-dependent leaf area index and stomatal resistance. Snow accumulation and ablation are modeled using an energy balance approach that includes the effects of local topography and vegetation cover. Saturated subsurface flow is modeled using a quasi three-dimensional routing scheme. The model was applied at a 180-m scale to the Middle Fork Flathead River basin in northwestern Montana. This 2900-km2, snowmelt-dominated watershed ranges in elevation from 900 to over 3000 m. The model was calibrated using 2 years of recorded precipitation and streamflow. The model was verified against 2 additional years of runoff and against advanced very high resolution radiometer based spatial snow cover data at the 1-km2 scale. Simulated discharge showed acceptable agreement with observations. The simulated areal patterns of snow cover were in general agreement with the remote sensing observations, but were lagged slightly in time.

Wigmosta, Mark S.; Vail, Lance W.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

1994-06-01

238

Contamination of soil and vegetation near a zinc smelter by zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal oxide fumes escaping from two zinc smelters in Palmerton, Pa., have highly contaminated soil and vegetation with zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead. Within 1 km of the smelters, 135,000 parts per million (ppm) zinc, 1750 ppm cadmium, 2000 ppm copper, and 2000 ppm lead have been measured in the Oâ horizon. Approximately 90% of metals deposited on the soil

Marilyn J. Buchauer

1973-01-01

239

Indicators of Production Sustainability in Intercropped Vegetable Farming on Montmorillonitic Soils in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies were carried out to ascertain the sustainability of intercropped versus sole crop vegetable cultivation in black montmorillonitic clay soil (Typic Haplustert), on the basis of response on indices of sustainability such as growth attributes, yield, quality, net return analysis, crop nutrient uptake, soil fertility changes, land equivalent ratio (LER) and sustainability value index (SVI). The combination of cabbage

Lily Varghese

2000-01-01

240

Effects of Vegetation Cover on the Microwave Radiometric Sensitivity to Soil Moisture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction in sensitivity of the microwave brightness temperature to soil moisture content due to vegetation cover is analyzed using airborne observations made at 1.4 and 5 GHz. The data were acquired during six flights in 1978 over a test site near Colby, Kansas. The test site consisted of bare soil, wheat stubble, and fully mature corn fields. The results

Fawwaz T. Ulaby; Mohammad Razani; Myron C. Dobson

1983-01-01

241

Effect of vegetation on soil moisture sensing observed from orbiting microwave radiometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microwave radiometric measurements made by the Skylab 1.4 GHz radiometer and by the 6.6 GHz and 10.7 GHz channels of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer were analyzed to study the large-area soil moisture variations of land surfaces. Two regions in Texas, one with sparse and the other with dense vegetation covers, were selected for the study. The results gave a confirmation of the vegetation effect observed by ground-level microwave radiometers. Based on the statistics of the satellite data, it was possible to estimate surface soil moisture in about five different levels from dry to wet conditions with a 1.4 GHz radiometer, provided that the biomass of the vegetation cover could be independently measured. At frequencies greater than about 6.6 GHz, the radiometric measurements showed little sensitivity to moisture variation for vegetation-covered soils. The effects of polarization in microwave emission were studied also.

Wang, J. R.

1985-01-01

242

Meteorologische Abhandlungen Neue Folge Serie a Monographien. Band 6, Heft 4: Modellierung der Waermefluesse AM Erdboden Mit Beruecksichtigung von Vegetation (Meteorological Data, New Series a Monographs. Volume 6, No. 4: Modelization of Heat Fluxes at Earth Ground with Consideration of Vegetation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 1-dimensional SVAT-model (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer Model) is presented. It is composed of three coupled submodels: a multilayer soil model, a vegetation model, and a multilayer model of the planetary boundary layer. The complete model can als...

K. Bluemel

1992-01-01

243

[Difference of several major nutrients accumulation in vegetable and cereal crop soils].  

PubMed

Investigation and determination of several major nutrients in different types of vegetable and cereal crop soils were carried out in the Guanzhong Plain in Shaanxi Province. The results showed that organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulated more in the 0-200 cm profile of vegetable soils than in that of cereal crop soils. However, the accumulation degrees were different with different nutrient forms. The total amount of nitrate-N in the soil profile of plastic greenhouse and usual vegetable field was 1520.9 kg.hm-2 and 1358.8 kg.hm-2, being 5.2 and 4.5 times higher than that in the cereal crop fields respectively. The total amount of available-P was respectively 978.1 kg.hm-2 and 503.3 kg.hm-2 in the two vegetable soils, and 136.2 kg.hm-2 in cereal crop soils, and the former two were 6.2 and 2.7 times higher than the latter. For other nutrients, organic matter in cereal crop soil was 249.4 Mg.hm-2, and that in plastic greenhouse and usual vegetable soil was 280.5 Mg.hm-2 and 269.3 Mg.hm-2, respectively, which were only 12.5% and 8.0% higher than that in cereal crop soils. The total-N in plastic greenhouse and usual vegetable soils was 37.5 Mg.hm-2 and 32.7 Mg.hm-2, which was 36.2% and 18.6% higher than that (27.5 Mg.hm-2) in cereal crop soils, respectively. The ammonium-N was 211.5 kg.hm-2 and 197.8 kg.hm-2, which was 29.6% and 21.2% higher than that (163.2 kg.hm-2) in cereal crop soils. The available-K was 6567.8 kg.hm-2 and 5523.6 kg.hm-2, which was 30.6% and 9.8% higher than that (5029.7 kg.hm-2) in cereal crop soils. Furthermore, serious nutrient leaching occurred in vegetable soil profiles due to over-fertilization and irrigation. PMID:12561168

Wang, Zhaohui; Zong, Zhiqiang; Li, Shengxiu

2002-09-01

244

Changes in soil properties and vegetation following exclosure and grazing in degraded Alxa desert steppe of Inner Mongolia, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock grazing is recognized as one of the main causes of vegetation and soil degradation and desertification in arid and semiarid northern China. In this paper, soil properties and plant characteristics in a typical degraded area in desert steppe of Alxa were studied. The study focused on the effects of grazing on soil properties and vegetation changes under three management

Shifang Pei; Hua Fu; Changgui Wan

2008-01-01

245

Carbon in the Vegetation and Soils of Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

•The total amount of carbon held by vegetation in Great Britain is estimated to be 114 Mtonnes. •Woodlands and forests hold 80% of the G.B. total although they occupy only about 11% of the rural land area. Broadleaf species hold about 50% of the carbon in woodlands and forests. •A map of carbon in the vegetation of Great Britain at

R. Milne; T. A. Brown

1997-01-01

246

Comparisons among a new soil index and other two- and four-dimensional vegetation indices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2-D difference vegetation index (DVI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI), and the 4-D green vegetation index (GVI) are compared in LANDSAT MSS data from grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench) fields for the years 1973 to 1977. PVI and DVI were more closely related to LAI than was GVI. A new 2-D soil line index (SLI), the vector distance from the soil line origin to the point of intersection of PVI with the soil line, is defined and compared with the 4-D soil brightness index, SBI. SLI (based on MSS and MSS7) and SL16 (based on MSS 5 and MSS 6) were smaller in magnitude than SBI but contained similar information about the soil background. These findings indicate that vegetation and soil indices calculated from the single visible and reflective infrared band sensor systems, such as the AVHRR of the TIROS-N polar orbiting series of satellites, will be meaningful for synoptic monitoring of renewable vegetation.

Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

247

Comparisons among a new soil index and other two- and four-dimensional vegetation indices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2-D difference vegetation index (DVI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI), and the 4-D green vegetation index (GVI) are compared in Landsat MSS data from grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench) fields for the years 1973 to 1977. PVI and DVI were more closely related to LAI than was GVI. A new 2-D soil line index (SLI), the vector distance from the soil line origin to the point of intersection of PVI with the soil line, is defined and compared with the 4-D soil brightness index, SBI. SLI (based on MSS and MSS7) and SL16 (based on MSS5 and MSS6) were smaller in magnitude than SBI but contained similar information about the soil background. These findings indicate that vegetation and soil indices calculated from the single visible and reflective infrared band sensor systems, such as the AVHRR of the TIROS-N polar orbiting series of satellites, will be meaningful for synoptic monitoring of renewable vegetation. Previously announced in STAR as N83-14567

Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J.

1982-01-01

248

A Broad Approach to Abrupt Boundaries: Looking Beyond the Boundary at Soil Attributes within and Across Tropical Vegetation Types  

PubMed Central

Most research on boundaries between vegetation types emphasizes the contrasts and similarities between conditions on either side of a boundary, but does not compare boundary to non-boundary vegetation. That is, most previous studies lack suitable controls, and may therefore overlook underlying aspects of landscape variability at a regional scale and underestimate the effects that the vegetation itself has on the soil. We compared 25 soil chemistry variables in rainforest, sclerophyll vegetation and across rainforest-sclerophyll boundaries in north-eastern Queensland, Australia. Like previous studies, we did find some contrasts in soil chemistry across vegetation boundaries. However we did not find greater variation in chemical parameters across boundary transects than in transects set in either rainforest or woodland. We also found that soil on both sides of the boundary is more similar to “rainforest soil” than to “woodland soil”. Transects in wet sclerophyll forests with increasing degrees of rainforest invasion showed that as rainforest invades wet sclerophyll forest, the soil beneath wet sclerophyll forest becomes increasingly similar to rainforest soil. Our results have implications for understanding regional vegetation dynamics. Considering soil-vegetation feedbacks and the differences between soil at boundaries and in non-boundary sites may hold clues to some of the processes that occur across and between vegetation types in a wide range of ecosystems. Finally, we suggest that including appropriate controls should become standard practice for studies of vegetation boundaries and edge effects worldwide.

Warman, Laura; Bradford, Matt G.; Moles, Angela T.

2013-01-01

249

Cadmium Accumulation in Vegetable Plantation Land Soils under Protected Cultivation: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in vegetable plantation land soils under a greenhouse was investigated in Shouguang County, Shandong Province, China. A total of 128 soil samples were collected from different agricultural fields. Soil samples were digested with the mixture of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric acid (HNO3), and Cd content in the digested solution was detected with inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry

2009-01-01

250

Effect of Vegetation Patterns on SAR derived Surface Soil Moisture Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture can be regarded as one of the important life sustaining entities on our planet. Among its various functions, the first is probably to enable the growth of vegetation on the land surface. Apart from this, water stored in soils plays many other important roles in the global water (and energy) cycle. In the past decades, radar imaging has proven its potential to quantitatively estimate the near surface water content of soils at high spatial resolutions. The use of active microwave data to measure surface soil moisture requires the consideration of several factors like e.g. soil texture, surface roughness, and vegetation. Among these factors, the presence of a vegetation cover is perhaps the major impediment to accurate quantitative retrievals of soil moisture. On the one hand, the vegetation has a disturbing effect on the radar reflectivity and thus causes errors in the soil moisture retrieval which is generally based on theoretical or experimental relationships between the dielectric properties of the soil surface and the radar backscattering coefficient. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of vegetation with e.g. different crop types with different transpiration coefficients and different phenological development, etc, can cause large variations in the plant water consumption and thus has a significant impact on the soil moisture patterns. We have developed methods to estimate the amount of biomass for different crop types and the underlying surface soil water content directly from polarimetric L-band SAR images. While the horizontally-transmit horizontally-receive co-polarization (hh) is most sensitive towards the dielectric soil properties, the horizontally-transmit vertically-receive cross-polarization (hv) is much more sensitive towards the backscattering from the vegetation canopy. In addition the polarimetric observables entropy (H), alpha angle (?), and the total reflected power (span), all of which are highly affected by the canopy conditions, are used to derive biomass information independently from the soil moisture retrieval. Nevertheless, the canopy still has an attenuation effect on the co-polarized backscattering, but this can be corrected by using the vegetation information obtained from the other SAR observables. For constant permittivity states of the soil surface the canopy can have a disturbing effect of up to 6dB. This is the same order of magnitude of dynamic range as observed for soil moisture values ranging from 10 - 40 Vol.-% over bare surfaces. The present study is focused on the Rur catchment (Germany) where the effect of different vegetation patterns on the spatial distribution of near-surface soil water content is investigated by comparison between ALOS PALSAR derived biomass and soil moisture maps. The findings show that the impact of vegetation on the near-surface moisture contents may vary considerably. For wet and intermediate soil conditions where enough water is available for transpiration it was observed that the near-surface moisture content tends to be higher on vegetated fields. This may be explained by the fact that the canopy hampers evaporations due to lack of air movement while the plants uptake water from deeper soil layers. However if the water supply is low the plant water consumption can also lead to accelerated drying of the soil surface. This was especially observed for cereal crops.

Koyama, C. N.; Schneider, K.

2012-12-01

251

Boron isotopes in soils: investigation of horizon reactivity and vegetation cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigating the soil/plant coupling requires the development of specific approaches being unambiguously sensitive to mineral- and biology-derived reactions. Boron presents chemical properties that, a priori, well meet the conditions for tracing bio-geochemical reactions. In particular, it is present in moderate to high concentrations in minerals; it is very sensitive to water/rock interactions during which it is partitioned between solid and liquid phases and undergoes a great isotopic fractionation and, finally, it is an essential nutrient for plants. Here, we present an extensive study on B isotopes in two distinct soil/tree systems from the well-characterized Strengbach basin (http://ohge.u-strasbg.fr/indexuk.html). Both bulk soil samples and granulometric fractions were analyzed. Soil solutions (down to 60 cm depth) were monitored every 6 weeks over two years (2005-2006). Tree samples (spruce needles and beech leaves) punctually sampled during this period. A Mass budget based on B concentration and hydrology model clearly first indicates that trees largely control the distribution of B in soil uppermost layers by yearly mobilizing 4 times more B than it is drained by soil solutions below 60 cm depth. B isotopes in soil solution depth profile highlight the presence of a highly reactive layer a 10 cm depth, which is interpreted as resulting from seasonal chemical oscillations caused by the biology and hydrology cycles. Isotopic budget indicates that this layer is not at steady state and accumulates B over years. The increasing contribution with depth of the weathering-derived B flux is clearly observable by a shift of the ?11B values towards low values. At the soil scale, mass and isotopic budgets help distinguishing both the B fluxes related to the mineral weathering reactions and the vegetation cycling and even show a strong correlation between them. Detailed analyses of granulometric fractions permit the determination of the B-carrier phases in these two soils and help understanding the long-term B geochemical cycle in forest soils. This approach evidences the transfer of B from the coarse (primary) fractions at greater depth to the finest (secondary) fractions in uppermost layers. Investigation of B isotopes in the bulk soil samples shows opposite weathering regime with respect to the soil type. The brown acidic (dystrochrept) soil developed on an hydrothermally altered granite and under spruce trees shows a dominant dissolving behavior with little precipitation of secondary phases whereas the ochreous podzolic (Haplorthod) soil developed on the less hydrothermally altered granite and under beech trees shows an increasing contribution on the B isotopic signature of secondary minerals with decreasing depth. These observations bring conceptual basics on the use of B isotopes in investigating bio-geochemical reactions and further help to quantify the mass budget of the dissolution/precipitation reactions in forest soils as well as to identify with more details the soil layers being presently the most reactive.

Cividini, D.; Lemarchand, D.; Chabaux, F. J.; Turpault, M.; Viville, D.; Stille, P.; Pierret, M.

2009-12-01

252

Soil and vegetation response to soil compaction and forest floor removal after aspen harvesting. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Reduced soil porosity and organic matter removal have been identified as common factors associated with loss of forest productivity (Powers et al. 1990). In both agriculture and forestry, management activities can modify soil porosity and organic matter with resultant impacts on vegetative growth. As part of a nationwide long-term soil productivity (LTSP) study soil porosity and organic matter are being experimentally manipulated on large plots to determine the impacts of such manipulations on growth and species diversity for a wide range of forest types.

Alban, D.H.; Host, G.E.; Elioff, J.D.; Shadis, D.

1994-01-01

253

Integrated field lysimetry and porewater sampling for evaluation of chemical mobility in soils and established vegetation.  

PubMed

Potentially toxic chemicals are routinely applied to land to meet growing demands on waste management and food production, but the fate of these chemicals is often not well understood. Here we demonstrate an integrated field lysimetry and porewater sampling method for evaluating the mobility of chemicals applied to soils and established vegetation. Lysimeters, open columns made of metal or plastic, are driven into bareground or vegetated soils. Porewater samplers, which are commercially available and use vacuum to collect percolating soil water, are installed at predetermined depths within the lysimeters. At prearranged times following chemical application to experimental plots, porewater is collected, and lysimeters, containing soil and vegetation, are exhumed. By analyzing chemical concentrations in the lysimeter soil, vegetation, and porewater, downward leaching rates, soil retention capacities, and plant uptake for the chemical of interest may be quantified. Because field lysimetry and porewater sampling are conducted under natural environmental conditions and with minimal soil disturbance, derived results project real-case scenarios and provide valuable information for chemical management. As chemicals are increasingly applied to land worldwide, the described techniques may be utilized to determine whether applied chemicals pose adverse effects to human health or the environment. PMID:25045915

Matteson, Audrey R; Mahoney, Denis J; Gannon, Travis W; Polizzotto, Matthew L

2014-01-01

254

Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

2010-01-01

255

Soil moisture profile variability in land-vegetation- atmosphere continuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil moisture is of critical importance to the physical processes governing energy and water exchanges at the land-air boundary. With respect to the exchange of water mass, soil moisture controls the response of the land surface to atmospheric forcing and determines the partitioning of precipitation into infiltration and runoff. Meanwhile, the soil acts as a reservoir for the storage of

Wanru Wu

2000-01-01

256

Soil moisture inferences from thermal infrared measurements of vegetation temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal infrared measurements of wheat (Triticum durum) canopy temperatures were used in a crop water stress index to infer root zone soil moisture. Results indicated that one time plant temperature measurement cannot produce precise estimates of root zone soil moisture due to complicating plant factors. Plant temperature measurements do yield useful qualitative information concerning soil moisture and plant condition.

Jackson, R. D. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

257

Characterising Vegetation Canopies by means of optical data and Microwave Scattering models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main strengths of active microwave remote sensing, in relation to frequency, is its capacity to penetrate vegetation canopies, and reach the ground surface, so that information about the vegetation and hydrological properties of the surface can be drawn. All this infor-mation is gathered in the so called backscattering coefficient (? 0 ), and in a vegetated medium, this coefficient reveals important information on the vegetation water content, geometry and/or structure of the canopy elements, above ground biomass, and soil roughness and moisture. In the scope of microwave frequencies, modeling the backscattering coefficient of vegetated terrain, involves taking into account scattering models that simulate the soil surface contribution by means of its physical variables, and the vegetation layer, through the knowledge of its biophys-ical properties. Soil surface scattering models require describing parameters of roughness, like soil profile height displacement standard deviation and correlation length, and moisture, which determines sur-face reflective properties. The knowledge of these parameters, allows to establishing surface scattering models with different validity ranges. Some frequently used models are divided into theoretical and empirical models. The vegetation canopy is usually regarded as a homogeneous, or random layer, at a certain height above terrain surface, and it is used to compute the attenuation through this layer. This requires a geometric generalization of the vegetation layer and its constituents, specifying additionally its electromagnetic properties. The main simulation models are based on Radiative Transfer theory, which allows for different approaches and simplifications. In this sense, somo of these models, can be efficiently adapted to any vegetated medium, and the constituents can by approximated by more general variables like Leaf Area Index (LAI), or Water total Content (WTC) of Vegetation. Moreover, in the microwave region, it is also possible to relate radar measurements to the above ground biomass. Several studies have shown that the assessment of this variable is also closely related to the operating radar system frequency. In turn, the already mentioned LAI, can be estimated from indirect methods based on Gap Fraction mathematical theory. For measuring this biophysical variable, and some other associated variables, there are a certain number of recently developed instruments, like digital hemispherical photography, which is a very promising technology, due to its suitability and quality of the derived results. These studies have provided a basis to set up a methodology to model the backscattering coef-ficient of vegetation canopies. In this work, it is investigated, which kind of physical variables can be derived by optical sensors and integrated or assimilated by these scattering models. For this particular purpose, soil roughness and moisture filed measurements have been used to sim-ulate the soil surface effect of the canopy. Additionally, by means of hemispherical photographs of the vegetation cover and gap fraction procedures, biophysical variables, like effective and true Leaf Area Indices have been estimated for the same locations of the previous variables. In order to characterize the vegetation canopy, first, a biomass scattering model has been assessed. This model is independent of surface parameters, however it takes into account all polarimetric states of the backscattering coefficient. As second approximation, two models based on Ra-diative Transfer theory have been applied and analyzed. For this purpose, a generalized two layer geometry made up of homogeneous layers of soil and vegetation has been considered for the canopy. All these simulations have been assessed with radar measurements acquired by the full polarimetric radar system on board RADARSAT 2 satellite. All data values, were properly calibrated in order to derive the corresponding polarimetric backscattering coefficients. Keywords: active remote sensing, polarimetric radar, synthetic aperture radar,

Molina, Iñigo; Gonzalez, Constancio; Ormeño, Santiago; Morillo, Carmen; Garcia-Melendez, Eduardo

258

Groundwater decline, vegetation change, and surface soil stability in a semi-arid environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater resources provide water to human populations within arid and semi-arid environments globally. In many regions, shallow groundwater has been overexploited, breaking a poorly understood link between above- and belowground processes in ecosystems dominated by groundwater dependent vegetation. Of particular importance are connections between groundwater and vegetation cover, soil resources, and surface soil stability. Although groundwater is thought to increase the risk of dust emissions from non- vegetated playas (a process that characterizes many of the dustiest places on earth) little is known regarding dust emissions from terrain covered by groundwater dependent vegetation. In a multi-year study of these effects in Owens Valley California, we are integrating field measurements of plant community composition, soil stability, and groundwater depth with remotely sensed measurements of vegetation cover with the goal of elucidating the processes behind ecosystem change in a groundwater dependent ecosystem. We have identified a strong non-linear response between vegetation cover from remote sensing and groundwater decline. This response includes a threshold in groundwater depth, which separates groundwater and precipitation driven vegetation dynamics. At sites where groundwater went below this threshold, a shift towards dominance by more deeply rooted shrub vegetation and unstable surface soils is qualitatively evident. Quantitative evidence from fallout radionuclide concentrations suggests that surface soil stability is lower in regions of groundwater decline, but there is significant within-site variability. Although fine sediments might be winnowed away, groundwater affected sites appear to be characterized by a reorganization of sediments from the inter-canopy zone, where more shallowly rooted grasses were once dominant, to the canopy zones surrounding deeper-rooted shrubs. Therefore, our preliminary finding is that the resource island desertification hypothesis holds for groundwater dependent plant communities subjected to groundwater pumping. Continued study of the processes behind these changes is extremely relevant to groundwater management.

Elmore, A. J.; Kaste, J. M.; Vest, K. R.

2008-12-01

259

An Evaluation of Soil Moisture and Vegetation Estimation Using Passive\\/Active Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in remote sensing technology and their applications to hydrology and land surface modeling have progressed over the last decade. The abundance of available aircraft\\/satellite-based platforms, in addition to extensive validation studies, has led to robust retrieval algorithms of geophysical parameters (i.e., vegetation and soil moisture) supporting global change monitoring efforts. The newly launched Aqua satellite will allow global coverage

J. D. Bolten; V. Lakshmi; A. J. Gasiewski; E. G. Njoku; T. J. Jackson

2002-01-01

260

Soil and water components of banded vegetation patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banded landscapes are comprised of alternating bands of vegetation and bare ground aligned along the contours in arid and semi-arid regions (50–750 mm rainfall), on very gentle and uniform slopes (0.2–2%). Vegetated bands can be perpendicular to the direction of the dominant wind, or more frequently of the slope. Under given climatic conditions, slope gradient is the controlling factor of

C Valentin; J. M d'Herbès; J Poesen

1999-01-01

261

Influence of vegetation spatial heterogeneity on soil enzyme activity in burned Mediterranean areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly considered resilient to wildfires. However, depending on fire severity and recurrence, post-fire climatic conditions and plant community type, the recovery rate of the vegetation can greatly vary. Often, the post-fire vegetation cover remains low and sparsely distributed many years after the wildfire, which could have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning. In this work, we studied the influence of vegetation patchiness on soil enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, ?-glucosidase and urease), at the patch and landscape scales, in degraded dry Mediterranean shrublands affected by wildfires. At the patch scale, we assessed the variation in soil enzyme between bare soils and vegetation patches. At the landscape scale, we studied the relationships between soil enzyme activity and various landscape metrics (total patch cover, average interpatch length, average patch width, and patch density). The study was conducted in 19 sites in the Valencia Region (eastern Spain), which had been affected by large wildfires in 1991. Site selection aimed at capturing a wide range of the variability of post-fire plant recovery rates in Mediterranean areas. The activities of the three enzymes were significantly higher in soils under the vegetation canopies than in adjacent bare areas, which we attributed to the effect of plants on the soil amount of both enzyme substrates and enzymes. The differences between bare and plant microsites were larger in the case of the acid phosphatase and less marked for urease. The activity of acid phosphatase was also higher under patches of resprouter species than under patches of seeder species, probably due to the faster post-fire recovery and older age of resprouter patches in fire-prone ecosystems. Soil enzyme activities of ?-glucosidase and urease in both bare soils and vegetation patches showed no relationships with any of the landscape metrics analysed. However, the activity of acid phosphatase increased linearly with the total cover of vegetation patches, which is consistent with the strong effect of plant patches on the activity of this enzyme. According to our results, variations in the cover and composition of vegetation patches may have profound impacts on the soil enzyme activity and associated nutrient cycling processes in burned Mediterranean areas, particularly in the case of phosphorus. Keywords: wildfires, landscape metrics, Mediterranean shrublands, soil enzyme activity, resprouter species.

Mayor, Á. G.; Goirán, S.; Bautista, S.

2009-04-01

262

Assessment and Mapping of Carbon Sequestration Opportunities in the Soils and Vegetation across the Landscapes of the British Isles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the main objectives of land management strategies and policies towards the sequestration of carbon (C) in terrestrial biosphere systems are: the protection of existing stores; the restoration of historically depleted stores resulting from anthropogenic activities; and the creation of new stores through increased C storage in areas that currently have little. It is therefore imperative that policies and management schemes to this effect are informed by considerations of evidence which expresses the potential capacities available, the feasibility of implementation, and the environmental gains that can be achieved over space and time. This study presents an assessment and mapping of the opportunities for sequestering C in terrestrial biosphere systems - mainly soil and vegetation - across the landscapes of the British Isles based on a combination of model predictions and spatial analyses. This involves a comparison of potentially undisturbed terrestrial C stocks - estimated from model outputs of Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) and Potential Vegetation (PV) distribution - and present day C stocks - determined from the integration of national dataset on soil C distribution and vegetation cover. The comparison establishes the 'physically' available potential across landscapes that can be harnessed for sequestration or protection purposes. This 'physically' available potential is then subjected to socio-economic constraints of land values, based on Agricultural Land Classification (ALC) to determine areas which present feasible opportunities for sequestration activities. These analyses were implemented on a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) platform which gives an output of the spatial distribution of sequestration potentials across landscapes.

Konadu, D. D.; Quinton, J.; Jarvis, A. J.

2012-12-01

263

Operational retrieval of LAI and solar fluxes in the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere system from satellite observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and evaluate results from the application of an inversion method conducted using both MODIS and MISR derived broadband visible and near-infrared surface albedo products available during a full seasonal cycle over a large European window. This inversion is based on optimal control theory and enables us to assimilate operational remote-sensing flux products into a state-of-the-art two-stream radiation transfer scheme, suitable for Global Climate Models. The occurrence of snow during the winter and spring seasons is based on the analysis of the MODIS snow-products, the assimilation of which by our package translates into an adaptation of the prior values characterizing the soil background conditions of the vegetation canopy. Comparison with in situ data has been done on the basis of data acquired at FLUXNET stations. Our results illustrate the capability of the inversion package to retrieve operationally the two-stream model parameters (such as the effective LAI and the albedo of the vegetation background) as well as to assess a meaningful partitioning of the solar fluxes between the soil, vegetation and atmosphere layers, along the year, for both sensors and over large geographical regions. Furthermore, this inversion package permits us monitoring and measuring the vegetation responses to different external conditions while delivering a full documentation of the uncertainties associated with the retrievals as a function of time. These uncertainties are essential ingredients for downstream applications involving the assimilation of these retrieved parameter values, such as LAI, in land surface process models.

Clerici, M.; Pinty, B.; Taberner, M.; Andreakis, I.; Lavergne, T.; Kaminski, T.

2009-04-01

264

Shortwave radiation interaction with highly patterned tundra vegetation and feedbacks to permafrost soil and atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tundra vegetation is an important mediator of carbon, water, and energy fluxes between the permafrost soil and the atmosphere. Vegetation types and their feedbacks in arctic landscapes might however be highly dynamic in space and time. As an example, our NE Siberian research site is dominated by thawing ponds, wet sedge and dwarf shrub patches at the scale of a few meters. Shrubs are predicted to increase in density and height under climate change scenarios, with a related increase in absorbed shortwave radiation by the canopy, resulting in a positive feedback to climate warming. This study examines how shortwave radiation reflected to the atmosphere and transmitted to the ground is altered by shrub density and height. We present results based on a combination of manipulated plots, in situ spectral radiation and plant structural measurements, and a sophisticated 3D radiative transfer model to quantify the influence of shrubs on the shortwave energy budget. We will discuss non-linear dynamics in shortwave radiation partitioning at the land surface, with special emphasis on seasonality. Our results are relevant to test 1D assumptions in climate models and for species competition modelling.

Schaepman-Strub, G.; Erb, A.; Gurm, K.; Budishchev, A.

2012-12-01

265

Selenium content of Belgian cultivated soils and its uptake by field crops and vegetables.  

PubMed

A series of 695 food crops were collected on 539 soils throughout Belgium. All samples were collected on commercial production fields, omitting private gardens. All crops were analyzed for their selenium (Se) concentration. The soils represent different soil types occurring in Belgium, with soil textures ranging from sand to silt loam, and including a few clay soils. They were analyzed for Se concentration, organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity and extractable sulphur (S) concentration. The Se concentrations in the soils were low (range 0.14-0.70 mg kg(-1) dw), but increasing soil Se concentrations were observed with increasing clay content. Stepwise multiple regressions were applied to determine relations between Se concentrations in crops and soil characteristics. Among field crops, wheat is the most important accumulator of selenium but the concentration remains rather low on the Belgian low Se-soils. Based on dry weight, leafy vegetables contain more Se than wheat. The soil is the most important source of Se and the element is transported with the water stream to the leaves, where it is accumulated. Vegetables rich in S, e.g. some Brassica and Allium species, have a higher capacity to accumulate Se as it can replace S in the proteins, although this accumulation is still limited at low soil Se concentrations. In loamy soils, weak correlations were found between the soil Se concentration and its concentration in wheat and potato. The uptake of Se increased with increasing pH. The Se concentrations in Belgian soils are far too low to generate a driving force on Se uptake. General climatic conditions such as temperature, air humidity and soil moisture are also important for the transfer of Se within the plant, and plant linked factors such as cultivar, growth stage and edible part are important as well, although their influence remains limited at low soil Se concentrations. PMID:24013513

De Temmerman, Ludwig; Waegeneers, Nadia; Thiry, Céline; Du Laing, Gijs; Tack, Filip; Ruttens, Ann

2014-01-15

266

Effects of vegetation cover on the microwave radiometric sensitivity to soil moisture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reduction in sensitivity of the microwave brightness temperature to soil moisture content due to vegetation cover is analyzed using airborne observations made at 1.4 and 5 GHz. The data were acquired during six flights in 1978 over a test site near Colby, Kansas. The test site consisted of bare soil, wheat stubble, and fully mature corn fields. The results for corn indicate that the radiometric sensitivity to soil moisture S decreases in magnitude with increasing frequency and with increasing angle of incidence (relative to nadir). The sensitivity reduction factor, defined in terms of the radiometric sensitivities for bare soil and canopy-covered conditions Y = 1 - Scan/Ss was found to be equal to 0.65 for normal incidence at 1.4 GHz, and increases to 0.89 at 5 GHz. These results confirm previous conclusions that the presence of vegetation cover may pose a serious problem for soil moisture detection with passive microwave sensors.

Ulaby, F. T.; Dobson, M. C.; Razani, M.

1983-01-01

267

[Relationships between typical vegetations, soil salinity, and groundwater depth in the Yellow River Delta of China].  

PubMed

Soil salinity and groundwater depth are the two important factors affecting the vegetation growth and distribution in the Yellow River Delta. Through field investigation and statistical analysis, this paper studied the relationships between the typical vegetations (Suaeda heteroptera-Tamarix chinensis, Robinia pseudoacacia, Phragmites australis, and cotton) , soil salinity, and groundwater depth in the Delta. In the study area, groundwater depth had significant effects on soil salinity, with the average influence coefficient being 0.327. When the groundwater depth was 0.5-1.5 m, soil salinization was most severe. The vegetation growth in the Delta was poorer, with the NDVI in 78% of the total area being less than 0.4. Groundwater depth and soil salinity had significant effects on the vegetation distribution. Soil salinity had significant effects on the NDVI of R. pseudoacacia, S. heteroptera-T. chinensis, P. australis, and cotton, while groundwater depth had significant effects on the NDVI of S. heteroptera - T. chinensis, but lesser effects on the NDVI of P. australis, cotton and R. pseudoacacia. PMID:24417097

Ma, Yu-Lei; Wang, De; Liu, Jun-Min; Wen, Xiao-Hu; Gao, Meng; Shao, Hong-Bo

2013-09-01

268

[Effects of artificial vegetation on the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture and salt in coastal saline land of Chongming Dongtan, Shanghai].  

PubMed

By the methods of classical statistics and geostatistics, this paper studied the spatial heterogeneity of surface soil (0-20 cm layer) moisture and salt contents under three kinds of artificial vegetation in coastal salt land in Chongming Dongtan of Shanghai. The soil moisture content in different plots was in order of Cynodon dactylon > Taxodium distichum > Nerium indicum, and the coefficient of variation was 13.9%, 13.4% and 12.9%, respectively. The soil electric conductivity was in the order of N. indicum > C. dactylon > T. distichum, and the coefficient of variation was 79.2%, 55.4% and 15. 9%, respectively. Both the soil moisture content and the salt content were in moderate variation. The theoretical models of variogram for the soil moisture and salt contents in different plots varied, among which, the soil electric conductivity fitted better, with R2 between 0.97 and 0.99. When the artificial vegetation varied from N. indicum to T. distichum and then to C. dactylon, the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture content changed from weak to strong, in which, the variability was random under N. indicum. When the vegetation varied from C. dactylon to T. distichum and to N. indicum, the spatial heterogeneity of soil electric conductivity changed from moderate to strong. Under different vegetations, the soil electric conductivity was mostly in positive correlation, whereas the soil moisture content was in negative correlation. The spatial pattern of soil moisture and salt contents under T. distichum was in striped distribution, that under C. dactylon was in large plaque and continuous distribution, whereas under N. indicum, the spatial pattern of soil moisture content was in small breaking plaque distribution, and that of soil salt content was in striped distribution. PMID:24380332

He, Bin; Cai, Yong-li; Ran, Wen-rui; Zhao, Xiao-lei

2013-08-01

269

Vegetation effects on soil water erosion rates and nutrient losses at Santa Catarina highlands, south Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water erosion involves three main processes: detachment, transport and deposition of soil particles. The main factors affecting water erosion are rainfall, soil, topography, soil management and land cover and use. Soil erosion potential is increased if the soil has no or very little vegetative cover of plants and/or crop residues, whereas plant and residue cover substantially decrease rates of soil erosion. Plant and residue cover protects the soil from raindrop impact and splash, tends to slow down the movement of surface runoff and allows excess surface water to infiltrate. Moreover, plant and residue cover improve soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Soils with improved structure have a greater resistance to erosion. By contrast, accelerated soil erosion is accentuated by deforestation, biomass burning, plowing and disking, cultivation of open-row crops, etc. The erosion-reducing effectiveness of plant and/or residue covers depends on the type, extent and quantity of cover. Vegetation and residue combinations that completely cover the soil are the most efficient in controlling soil. Partially incorporated residues and residual roots are also important, as these provide channels that allow surface water to move into the soil. The effectiveness of any crop, management system or protective cover also depends on how much protection is available at various periods during the year, relative to the amount of erosive rainfall that falls during these periods. Most of the erosion on annual row crop land can be reduced by leaving a residue cover greater after harvest and over the winter months, or by inter-seeding a forage crop. Soil erosion potential is also affected by tillage operations and tillage system. Conservation tillage reduces water erosion in relation to conventional tillage by increasing soil cover and soil surface roughness. Here, we review the effect of vegetation on soil erosion in the Santa Catarina highlands, south of Brazil, under subtropical climatic conditions. The area cropped under no tillage in Brazil has increased rapidly since 1990, especially in the southern region. This practice was first introduced in the 1970s as a strategy to control soil erosion and continuous declines in land productivity under conventional tillage systems. No tillage almost entirely keeps the previous crop residue on the surface. In the last 15 years soil and water losses by water erosion have been quantified for different soil tillage systems, diverse crop rotations and successive crop stages under simulated and natural rain conditions. Plot experiments showed that soil losses under no tillage systems with a vegetative cover were 98% lower when compared with conventionally tilled bare soil. Moreover water losses were 60% lower for these conditions. Conventional tillage (plowing + harrowing) in the presence of vegetative cover reduced soil losses and water losses by 80% and 50%, respectively, taken the uncultivated bare soil as a reference. The review includes the effect of vegetative cover on nutrient losses at the studied sites in the Santa Catarina highlands.

Bertol, I.; Barbosa, F. T.; Vidal Vázquez, E.; Paz Ferreiro, J.

2009-04-01

270

Ad Hoc Modeling of Root Zone Soil Water with Landsat Imagery and Terrain and Soils Data  

PubMed Central

Agricultural producers require knowledge of soil water at plant rooting depths, while many remote sensing studies have focused on surface soil water or mechanistic models that are not easily parameterized. We developed site-specific empirical models to predict spring soil water content for two Montana ranches. Calibration data sample sizes were based on the estimated variability of soil water and the desired level of precision for the soil water estimates. Models used Landsat imagery, a digital elevation model, and a soil survey as predictor variables. Our objectives were to see whether soil water could be predicted accurately with easily obtainable calibration data and predictor variables and to consider the relative influence of the three sources of predictor variables. Independent validation showed that multiple regression models predicted soil water with average error (RMSD) within 0.04 mass water content. This was similar to the accuracy expected based on a statistical power test based on our sample size (n = 41 and n = 50). Improved prediction precision could be achieved with additional calibration samples, and range managers can readily balance the desired level of precision with the amount of effort to collect calibration data. Spring soil water prediction effectively utilized a combination of land surface imagery, terrain data, and subsurface soil characterization data. Ranchers could use accurate spring soil water content predictions to set stocking rates. Such management can help ensure that water, soil, and vegetation resources are used conservatively in irrigated and non-irrigated rangeland systems.

Sankey, Joel B.; Lawrence, Rick L.; Wraith, Jon M.

2008-01-01

271

Water based microwave assisted extraction of thiamethoxam residues from vegetables and soil for determination by HPLC.  

PubMed

A microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method for determination of thiamethoxam residues in vegetable and soil samples was standardized. Insecticide spiked vegetable and soil samples were extracted by MAE using water as an extraction solvent, cleaned up by solid phase extraction and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography on photodiode array detector. The recoveries of the insecticide from various vegetable (tomato, radish, brinjal, okra, French been, sugarbeet) and soil (sandy loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay loam, loamy sand) samples at 0.1 and 0.5 ?g g(-1) spiking levels ranged from 79.8% to 86.2% and from 82.1% to 87.0%, respectively. The recoveries by MAE were comparable to those obtained by the conventional blender and shake-flask extraction techniques. The precision of the MAE method was demonstrated by relative standard deviations of <3% for the insecticide. PMID:22065124

Karmakar, Rajib; Singh, Shashi Bala; Kulshrestha, Gita

2012-02-01

272

Monitoring soil-vegetation interactions using non-invasive geophysical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of soil-vegetation-atmosphere interactions is of utmost importance in the solution of a number of hydrological questions and practical issues, including flood control, agricultural best practice, slope stability and impacts of climatic changes. Geophysical time-lapse monitoring can greatly contribute to the understanding of these interactions particularly for its capability to map in space and time the effects of vegetation on soil moisture content. In this work we present the results of two case studies showing the potential of hydro-geophysics in this context. The first example refers to the long term monitoring of the soil static and dynamic characteristics in an experimental site located in Sardinia (Italy). The main objective of this study is to understand the effects of soil - water - plants interactions on soil water balance. A combination of time-lapse electromagnetic induction (EMI) monitoring over wide areas and localized irrigation tests monitored by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and TDR soil moisture measurements is here used, in order to achieve quantitative field-scale estimates of moisture content from topsoil layer. Natural gamma-ray emission mapping, texture analysis and laboratory calibration of an electrical constitutive relationship on soil samples complete the dataset. We therefore observed that the growth of vegetation, with the associated below ground allocation of biomass, has a significant impact on the soil moisture dynamics. In particular vegetation extracts a large amount of water from the soil in the hot season, but it also reduces evaporation by shadowing the soil surface. In addition, vegetation enhances the soil wetting process as the root system facilitates water infiltration, thus creating a positive feedback system. The second example regards the time-lapse monitoring of soil moisture content in an apple orchard located in the Alpine region of Northern Italy (Trento). A three-dimensional cross-hole ERT setup was created using four small-scale boreholes and a 2D array of surface electrodes. The soil response to irrigation and evapo-transpiration evidences the location of tree roots, including the influence of irrigation patterns on the root growth, and their efficiency at removing soil moisture.

Perri, M.; Cassiani, G.; Boaga, J.; Rossi, M.; Vignoli, G.; Deiana, R.; Ursino, N.; Putti, M.; Majone, B.; Bellin, A.; Blaschek, M.; Duttmann, R.; Meyer, S.; Ludwig, R.; Soddu, A.; Dietrich, P.; Werban, U.

2012-12-01

273

Coincidence and spatial variability of geology, soils, and vegetation, Mill Run watershed, Virginia.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mill Run watershed is a structurally-controlled synclinal basin on the eastern limb of the Massanutten Mountain complex of NW Virginia. Bedrock contacts are obscured by coarse sandstone debris from exposures near basin divides. Colluvium blankets more than half the basin, masking geomorphic surfaces, affecting vegetation patterns, and contributing to the convexity of the alluvial, terrace, pediment and erosion surfaces. Vegetation is strongly interdependent with geomorphology, bedrock geology, and soils. - from Authors

Olson, C. G.; Hupp, C. R.

1986-01-01

274

Estimating the mechanical effects of riparian vegetation on stream bank stability using a fiber bundle model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has suggested that the roots of riparian vegetation dramatically increase the geomechanical stability (i.e., factor of safety) of stream banks. Past research has used a perpendicular root reinforcement model that assumes that all of the tensile strength of the roots is mobilized instantaneously at the moment of bank failure. In reality, as a soil-root matrix shears, the roots

Natasha Pollen; Andrew Simon

2005-01-01

275

Effect of freezing-thawing on nitrogen mineralization in vegetation soils of four landscape zones of Changbai Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Introduction\\u000a   We studied the effect of freezing-thawing on nitrogen (N) mineralization of four vegetation soils from typical vegetation\\u000a zones of Changbai Mountain with a laboratory incubation experiment. The soils were treated with two levels of soil water content,\\u000a representing the low and high soil water contents found during late autumn and early spring in Changbai Mountain, respectively,\\u000a and underwent

Wangming Zhou; Hua Chen; Li Zhou; Bernard J. Lewis; Yujing Ye; Jie Tian; Guowei Li; Limin Dai

276

Changes of Soil Microbiological Properties Caused by Land Use Changing From Rice–Wheat Rotation to Vegetable Cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was done recently in Jiaxing city of Zhejiang Province in the Yangtze River Delta to compare the differences of soil microbiological properties among paddy soils with different land use including continuous open-field vegetable cultivation (OFVC), plastic-greenhouse vegetable cultivation (PGVC) and traditional rice–wheat rotation (RWR). The soil types included are percolating, permeable and waterlogged paddy soils. The results indicate

X. G. Lin; R. Yin; H. Y. Zhang; J. F. Huang; R. R. Chen; Z. H. Cao

2004-01-01

277

The establishment of heathland vegetation on ex-arable land: the response of Calluna vulgaris to soil acidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UK Biodiversity Action Plan has identified the creation of lowland heathland as an important objective. Heathland restoration studies have identified soil pH, elevated soil nutrients and large weed seed banks as major problems in the restoration of heathland vegetation on ex-arable land. Heathland vegetation is usually found on nutrient-poor acidic soils. Creating acidic soil conditions on ex-arable sites thus

Clare S. Lawson; Martin A. Ford; Jonathan Mitchley; John M. Warren

2004-01-01

278

Relations between soil moisture and satellite vegetation indices in the U.S. Corn Belt  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Satellite-derived vegetation indices extracted over locations representative of midwestern U.S. cropland and forest for the period 1990-94 are analyzed to determine the sensitivity of the indices to neutron probe soil moisture measurements of the Illinois Climate Network (ICN). The deseasoned (i.e., departures from multiyear mean annual cycle) soil moisture measurements are shown to be weakly correlated with the deseasoned full resolution (1 km ?? 1 km) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and fractional vegetation cover (FVC) data over both land cover types. The association, measured by the Pearson-moment-correlation coefficient, is stronger over forest than over cropland during the growing season (April-September). The correlations improve successively when the NDVI and FVC pixel data are aggregated to 3 km ?? 3 km, 5 km ?? 5 km, and 7 km ?? 7 km areas. The improved correlations are partly explained by the reduction in satellite navigation errors as spatial aggregation occurs, as well as the apparent scale dependence of the NDVI-soil moisture association. Similarly, stronger relations are obtained with soil moisture data that are lagged by up to 8 weeks with respect to the vegetation indices, implying that soil moisture may be a useful predictor of warm season satellite-derived vegetation conditions. This study suggests that a "long-term" memory of several weeks is present in the near-surface hydrological characteristics, especially soil water content, of the Midwest Corn Belt. The memory is integrated into the satellite vegetation indices and may be us??eful for predicting crop yield estimates and surface temperature anomalies.

Adegoke, J. O.; Carleton, A. M.

2002-01-01

279

Physically-based parameterization of spatially variable soil and vegetation using satellite multispectral data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A stochastic-geometric landsurface reflectance model is formulated and tested for the parameterization of spatially variable vegetation and soil at subpixel scales using satellite multispectral images without ground truth. Landscapes are conceptualized as 3-D Lambertian reflecting surfaces consisting of plant canopies, represented by solid geometric figures, superposed on a flat soil background. A computer simulation program is developed to investigate image characteristics at various spatial aggregations representative of satellite observational scales, or pixels. The evolution of the shape and structure of the red-infrared space, or scattergram, of typical semivegetated scenes is investigated by sequentially introducing model variables into the simulation. The analytical moments of the total pixel reflectance, including the mean, variance, spatial covariance, and cross-spectral covariance, are derived in terms of the moments of the individual fractional cover and reflectance components. The moments are applied to the solution of the inverse problem: The estimation of subpixel landscape properties on a pixel-by-pixel basis, given only one multispectral image and limited assumptions on the structure of the landscape. The landsurface reflectance model and inversion technique are tested using actual aerial radiometric data collected over regularly spaced pecan trees, and using both aerial and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data obtained over discontinuous, randomly spaced conifer canopies in a natural forested watershed. Different amounts of solar backscattered diffuse radiation are assumed and the sensitivity of the estimated landsurface parameters to those amounts is examined.

Jasinski, Michael F.; Eagleson, Peter S.

1989-01-01

280

Biotic carbon feedbacks in a materially closed soil-vegetation-atmosphere system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude and direction of the coupled feedbacks between the biotic and abiotic components of the terrestrial carbon cycle is a major source of uncertainty in coupled climate-carbon-cycle models. Materially closed, energetically open biological systems continuously and simultaneously allow the two-way feedback loop between the biotic and abiotic components to take place, but so far have not been used to their full potential in ecological research, owing to the challenge of achieving sustainable model systems. We show that using materially closed soil-vegetation-atmosphere systems with pro rata carbon amounts for the main terrestrial carbon pools enables the establishment of conditions that balance plant carbon assimilation, and autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration fluxes over periods suitable to investigate short-term biotic carbon feedbacks. Using this approach, we tested an alternative way of assessing the impact of increased CO2 and temperature on biotic carbon feedbacks. The results show that without nutrient and water limitations, the short-term biotic responses could potentially buffer a temperature increase of 2.3°C without significant positive feedbacks to atmospheric CO2. We argue that such closed-system research represents an important test-bed platform for model validation and parameterization of plant and soil biotic responses to environmental changes.

Milcu, Alexandru; Lukac, Martin; Subke, Jens-Arne; Manning, Pete; Heinemeyer, Andreas; Wildman, Dennis; Anderson, Robert; Ineson, Phil

2012-04-01

281

Microbial properties of rhizosphere soils as affected by rotation, grafting, and soil sterilization in intensive vegetable production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased use of rotation, grafting, and soil sterilization has been documented to increase crop yield in intensive vegetable production systems in China. It is believed that these practices can promote changes in the rhizosphere that enhance early growth of plants. A 2-year greenhouse experiment on tomato double-cropping systems was conducted to investigate the effects of different agricultural treatments on

Yongqiang Tian; Xueyan Zhang; Jun Liu; Qing Chen; Lihong Gao

2009-01-01

282

Soil, crop and emission responses to seasonal-controlled traffic in organic vegetable farming on loam soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some organic arable and vegetable farms in the Netherlands use cm-precise guidance of machinery to restrict wheel traffic to fixed traffic lanes and to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimized soil structure in between the lanes. Contrary to controlled traffic farming (CTF) the traffic lanes are not yet used for harvesting and primary tillage. Therefore, the system is called a

G. D. Vermeulen; J. Mosquera

2009-01-01

283

[Spatial variation of soil moisture/salinity and the relationship with vegetation under natural conditions in Yancheng coastal wetland].  

PubMed

Taking the core part of Yancheng national nature reserve as the study area, according to soil sampling analysis of coastal wetlands in April and May 2011 land the 2011 ETM + remote sensing image, the spatial difference characteristic of coastal wetlands soil moisture and salinity, and the relationship with vegetation under natural conditions, were investigated with the model of correspondence analysis (CCA), linear regression simulation and geo-statistical method. The results showed: Firstly, the average level of the soil moisture was fluctuating between 36.820% and 46.333% , and the soil salinity was between 0.347% and 1.328% , in a more detailed sense, the Spartina swamp was the highest, followed by the mudflats swamp, the Suaeda salsa swamp, and the Reed marsh. Secondly, the spatial variation of soil moisture was consistent with that of the salinity, and the degree of variation in the east-west direction was greater than that in the north-south. The maximum soil moisture and salinity were found in the southwest Spartina swamp. The minimum was in the Reed swamp. The soil moisture and salinity were divided into 5 levels, from I to V. Level IV occupied the highest proportion, which were 36.156% and 28.531% , respectively. Finally, different landscape types with the combination of soil moisture and salinity showed a common feature that the moisture and salinity were from both high to low. The soil moisture value of Reed marshes was lower than 40.116% and the salinity value was lower than 0. 676% . The soil moisture value of Suaeda salsa marshes was between 38. 162% and 46. 403% and the salinity value was between 0.417% and 1.295%. The soil moisture value of Spartina swamp was higher than 43.214% and the salinity was higher than 1.090%. The soil moisture value of beach was higher than 43.214% and the salinity was higher than 0.677%. PMID:23668120

Zhang, Hua-Bing; Liu, Hong-Yu; Li, Yu-Feng; An, Jing; Xue, Xing-Yu; Hou, Ming-Hang

2013-02-01

284

[Sizes of soil macropores and related main affecting factors on a vegetated basalt slope].  

PubMed

The landslide on vegetated slopes caused by extreme weather has being increased steadily, and the preferential flow in soil macropores plays an important role in the landslide. By using water breakthrough curve and Poiseuille equation, this paper estimated the radius range, amount, and average volume of soil macropores on a vegetated basalt slope of Maka Mountain, Southwest China, and analyzed the distribution of the soil macropores and the main affecting factors. In the study area, the radius of soil macropores ranged from 0.3 to 1.8 mm, mainly between 0.5 and 1.2 mm. The large-radius macropores (1.4-1.8 mm) were lesser, while the small-radius macropores (< 1.4 mm) were more. With the development of soil profile, soil macropores were more in upper layers and lesser in deeper layers. The average volume of the macropores contributed 84.7% to the variance of steady effluent rate. Among the factors affecting the average volume of the large macropores, vegetations root mass had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.70, and soil organic matter content also had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.64. PMID:24483084

Guan, Qi; Xu, Ze-Min; Tian, Lin

2013-10-01

285

The concentrations, distribution and sources of PAHs in agricultural soils and vegetables from Shunde, Guangdong, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations, distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 30 agricultural\\u000a soil and 16 vegetable samples collected from subtropical Shunde area, an important manufacturing center in China. The total\\u000a PAHs ranged from 33.7 to 350 ?g\\/kg in soils, and 82 to 1,258 ?g\\/kg in vegetables. The most abundant individual PAHs are phenanthrene,\\u000a fluoranthene, chrysene, pyrene and benzo(b)fluoranthene

Yong Tao Li; Fang Bai Li; Jun Jian Chen; Guo Yi Yang; Hong Fu Wan; Tian Bin Zhang; Xiao Duo Zeng; Jian Ming Liu

2008-01-01

286

Vegetation and climate controls on potential CO2, DOC and DON production in northern latitude soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climatic change may influence decomposition dynamics in arctic and boreal ecosystems, affecting both atmospheric CO2 levels, and the flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to aquatic systems. In this study, we investigated landscape-scale controls on potential production of these compounds using a one-year laboratory incubation at two temperatures (10?? and 30??C). We measured the release of CO2, DOC and DON from tundra soils collected from a variety of vegetation types and climatic regimes: tussock tundra at four sites along a latitudinal gradient from the interior to the north slope of Alaska, and soils from additional vegetation types at two of those sites (upland spruce at Fairbanks, and wet sedge and shrub tundra at Toolik Lake in northern Alaska). Vegetation type strongly influenced carbon fluxes. The highest CO2 and DOC release at the high incubation temperature occurred in the soils of shrub tundra communities. Tussock tundra soils exhibited the next highest DOC fluxes followed by spruce and wet sedge tundra soils, respectively. Of the fluxes, CO2 showed the greatest sensitivity to incubation temperatures and vegetation type, followed by DOC. DON fluxes were less variable. Total CO2 and total DOC release were positively correlated, with DOC fluxes approximately 10% of total CO2 fluxes. The ratio of CO2 production to DOC release varied significantly across vegetation types with Tussock soils producing an average of four times as much CO2 per unit DOC released compared to Spruce soils from the Fairbanks site. Sites in this study released 80-370 mg CO2-C g soil C-1 and 5-46 mg DOC g soil C-1 at high temperatures. The magnitude of these fluxes indicates that arctic carbon pools contain a large proportion of labile carbon that could be easily decomposed given optimal conditions. The size of this labile pool ranged between 9 and 41% of soil carbon on a g soil C basis, with most variation related to vegetation type rather than climate.

Neff, J. C.; Hooper, D. U.

2002-01-01

287

Spectral Signatures Recorded By Various Satellites For Development of Soil - Vegetation Indices Influenced Water Balance of Biebrza Catchment.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation has been carried out for the wetlands in the Biebrza Basin, Poland, which is the best -preserved area of marches, and swamps in Central Europe. In the valley of the Biebrza River, flooded heavily every spring natural plant communities grow in several zones. The scientific investigation aimed at findings of changes in land use and spatial differences in soil moisture caused by the process of drying up some part of the area. For that purposes the synergy of data acquired for the same date, from the following satellites were used: Landsat ETM; SPOT VEGETATION; ERS-2.SAR, ERS-2.ATSR and NOAA/AVHRR. During satellite overpasses the ground measurements of soil moisture, LAI, wet and dry biomass, and spectral reflection were performed at the test site. The elaboration was done for the spatial resolution of 30 m and 1 km and for each of the vegetation class obtained from land use classification. On the basis of all considered spectral bands different soil- vegetation indices were calculated and verified using ground measurements. Also evapotranspiration values for different plant communities was calculated using thermal data and meteorological parameters. The best models based on different spectral bands for obtaining LAI and soil moisture was presented. The results of the project intend to find the method for proper water management as the area is drained and many of the ditches do not work properly what influences drying out some part of the area while in the other causes excessive soil moisture. Key words: backscatter, brightness temperature, albedo, NDVI, LAI, soil moisture

Dabrowska-Zielinska, K.; Gruszczynska, M.; Stankiewicz, W. Kowalik K.; Hoscilo, A.

288

Influence of Vegetations' Metabolites on the Composition and Functioning of Soil Microbial Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbiota is one of the major factors of soils fertility. It transforms organic substances in soil and, therefore, serves as the main component in the cycles of carbon and nitrogen. Microbial communities (MC) are characterized as highly diverse and extremely complex structures. This allows them to adapt to any affection and provide all the necessary biospheric functions. Hence, the study of their functional diversity and adaptivity of microbiota provides the key to the understanding of the ecosystems' functioning and their adaptivity to the human impact. The formation of MC at the initial stage is regulated by the fluxes of substrates and biologically active substances (BAS), which vary greatly in soils under different vegetations. These fluxes are presented by: low molecular weights organic substances (LMWOS), which can be directly included in metabolism of microbes; polymers, that can be decomposed to LMWOS by exoenzymes; and more complex compounds, having different "drug effects" (e.g. different types of phenolic acids) and regulating growth and enzymatic properties of microbiota. Therefore, the main hypothesis of the research was formulated as follows: penetration of different types of substrates and BAS into soil leads to the emergence of MC varying in enzymatic properties and structure. As a soil matrix we used the soil from the untreated variant of the lysimeter model experiment taking place in the faculty of Soil Science of the MSU for over the last 40 years. It was sieved with a 2mm sieves, humidified and incubated at 25C during one week. Subsequently, the samples were air-dried with occasional stirring for one more week. Thereafter, aliquots of the prepared soil were taken for the different experimental variants. The samples were rewetted with solutions of various substrates (glucose, cellulose, starch, etc.) and thoroughly mixed. The control variant was established with addition of deionised water. The samples were incubated at the 25C. During the incubation the rate of mineralisation of organic substances was assessed with CO2 measurements. In 5, 10 and 21 days of incubation the enzymatic properties of the formed MC were studied by the hydrolysis of fluorogenic substrates. The influence of BAS on enzymatic properties of MC were researched by addition of different concentrations of phenolic acids (e.g. salicylic, vanillic, benzoic, etc.) to the samples from various substrates treatments. The acute toxicity of BAS was studied with bacterial luminescent test. After the last measurement, the isolations of microorganisms on elective nutrient medias were made. The dominant microorganisms were collected to the library for further identification and physiological tests. MeOH-chloroform extraction of phospholipids were performed with the remaining samples. Finally, they were stored for subsequent FAME identifications. The obtained data prove that penetration of various substrates into the soil determines the formation of MC different in structure and properties. It was found, that EC50 of the most studied phenolic acids are similar to naturally occurring concentrations. This means that they can be the real drivers of forming endemical MC under various vegetations along with the plant-specific fluxes of nutrients.

Biryukov, Mikhail

2013-04-01

289

Agricultural use of soil, consequences in soil organic matter and hydraulic conductivity compared with natural vegetation in central Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When ecosystems are under pressure due to high temperatures and water scarcity, the use of land for agriculture can be a handicap for soil and water conservation. The interactions between plants and soils are site-specific. This study provides information about the influence of the preence vs. The absence of vegetation on soil in a semi-arid area of the sout-east of Madrid (Spain, in the Tagus River basin. In this area soil materials are developed over a calcareous-evaporitic lithology. Soils can be classified as Calcisols, having horizons of accumulation with powdered limestone and irregular nodules of calcium carbonate. They can be defined as Haplic Cambisols and Leptic Calcisols (WRB 2006-FAO). The area is mainly used for rainfed agriculture, olive groves, vineyards and cereals. There are some patches of bushes (Quercus sp.) and grasses (Stipa tenacissima L.) although only found on the top of the hills. This study analyses the differences found in soils having three different covers: Quercus coccifera, Stipa tenacissima and lack of vegetation. This last condition was found in the areas between cultivated olive trees. Soil organic matter, porosity and hydraulic conductivity are key properties of soil to understand its ability to adapt to climate or land use changes. In order to measure the influence of different soil covers, four replicates of soil were sampled in each condition at two soil depth, (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). Hydraulic conductivity was measured in each soil condition and replicate using a Mini-disk® infiltrometer. There were no differences between the two depths sampled. Similarly, there were no changes in electric conductivity (average 0.1±0.03 dS m-1); pH (8.7±0.2) or calcium carbonate content (43±20 %). Nevertheless, significant differences (p>0.001) were found in soil organic matter. The maximum was found in soils under Quercus (4.7±0.5 %), followed by Stipa (2.2±1.1 %). The soil without vegetation in the areas between olive trees had only 0.7±1.1 % soil organic matter; far from the usual limit advisable for cultivated soils. Soil porosity was also affected in cultivated soils, being 39±5% (total porosity), significantly less than those found under Stipa (46%) and Quercus (51%). Hydraulic conductivity presented a similar pattern to porosity, being higher in soils under Quercus, however further research is needed to clarify this result, as it can also be related to changes detected in soil texture. Sand content, which was different between soil conditions, is highly correlated to hydraulic conductivity. Changes in soil texture can be due to erosive processes that have to be studied to establish the causative relationships between these findings. Acknowledgements: Project CGL 2008-04296. Environmental Impact evaluation through the assessment of soil organic matter resilient forms in soils.

Vega, Verónica; Carral, Pilar; Alvarez, Ana Maria; Marques, Maria Jose

2014-05-01

290

Effects of airborne fluoride on soil and vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was initiated by the sudden uncontrolled release of airborne fluorides in 2005 into the environment from aluminium smelter factory that caused damage of vegetation. Samples of corn leaves and corn male flower heads with visible symptoms of fluoride intoxication had been collected in autumn 2005. Increased contents of total fluoride, which exceeded the maximum allowable content of fluorine

Alenka Koblar; Gašper Tav?ar; Maja Ponikvar-Svet

2011-01-01

291

Detection of stressed vegetation for mapping heavy metal polluted soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maatheide' in the northern part of Belgium is polluted with heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, …) due to several decades of historical non-ferrous industrial activities. In the 1970's the industrial activities ceased and the premises including highly polluted waste were spread over the industrial site. The heavy metal pollution causing vegetation stress introduces subtle changes in the reflectance spectrum

I. Reusen; L. Bertels; S. Debacker; P. Scheunders; S. Sterckx; Wouter Van den Broek

292

[Characteristics of soil mineralizable carbon pool in natural restoration process of Karst forest vegetation].  

PubMed

By the method of taking space instead of time, an incubation test was conducted to study the characteristics of soil mineralizable carbon pool during the natural restoration of Karst forest vegetation in Maolan Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province of Southwest China. It was observed that the contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC) and mineralizable carbon (MC) as well as the carbon mineralization rate decreased with increasing soil depth but increased with the process of vegetation restoration. The amount of cumulative released carbon and the carbon release rate increased with the process of restoration, but the release rate decreased with increasing incubation time. The soil MC/TOC increased with the restoration process but had less change with increasing soil depth, while the qCO2 decreased with increasing soil depth and through the process of restoration. The soil MC had a negative correlation with the existing litter amount (r = -0.796) but positive correlation with the mass loss rate of the litter decomposition (r = 0.924). Soil habitat changed from strong interference at early stages to relative stability at late stages, and soil carbon sequestration changed from small capacity and strong potential at early stages to large capacity and weak potential at late stages. PMID:23189694

Huang, Zong-Sheng; Yu, Li-Fei; Fu, Yu-Hong

2012-08-01

293

Effects of vegetation on soil moisture distribution and flux with implications for the global hydrologic cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent climate modeling experiments have identified the critical need for a better understanding of land surface - atmosphere interactions. An important issue in global climate modeling is to be able to relate land surface and atmospheric processes. In the past this link has been inadequately represented due to the lack of understanding of the interaction between the processes and also due to the large spatial variability of the hydrological and soil properties. A project was initiated at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in FY-90 under the Center's Directorate Discretionary Fund (CDDF) to study small-scale effects of vegetation on the distribution and fluxes of soil moisture. Installation of a large array of instruments was accomplished during that first year (FY-90). During this second year of the project, the instrumentation and data collection systems were improved and data has begun to be taken. Preliminary analysis of the data show that the equipment has been functioning properly. Some of the preliminary results that have recently been analyzed are given.

Macari, Emir Jose

1991-01-01

294

Effect of land-use practice on soil moisture variability for soils covered with dense forest vegetation of Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Little is known about the landuse management effect on soil moisture and soil pH distribution on a landscape covered with dense tropical forest vegetation. This study was conducted at three locations where the history of the landuse management is different. Soil moisture was measured using a 6-cm three-rod Time Domain Reflectometery (TDR) probe. Disturbed soil samples were taken from the top 5-cm at the up, mid, and foothill landscape position from the same spots where soil moisture was measured. The results showed that soil moisture varies with landscape position and depth at all three locations. Soil pH and moisture variability were found to be affected by the change in landuse management and landscape position. Soil moisture distribution usually expected to be relatively higher in the foothill (P3) area of these forests than the uphill (P1) position. However, our results indicated that in the Luquillo and Guanica site the surface soil moisture was significantly higher for P1 than P3 position. These suggest that the surface and subsurface drainage in these two sites may have been poor due to the nature of soil formation and type.

Tsegaye, T.; Coleman, T.; Senwo, Z.; Shaffer, D.; Zou, X.

1998-01-01

295

Effects of vegetation restoration on soil organic carbon sequestration at multiple scales in semi-arid Loess Plateau, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration by vegetation restoration is the theme of much current research. Since 1999, the program of “Grain for Green”has been implemented in the semi-arid Loess Plateau, China. Its scope represents the largest vegetation restoration activity in China. However, it is still unclear for the SOC sequestration effects of vegetation cover change or natural succession promoted by

Yafeng Wang; Bojie Fu; Yihe Lü; Liding Chen

2011-01-01

296

Trace gas emissions from soil of the central highlands of Mexico as affected by natural vegetation: a laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the central highlands of Mexico, mesquite ( Prosopis laevigata) and huisache ( Acacia schaffneri), N 2-fixing trees or shrubs, dominate the vegetation and are currently used in a reforestation program to prevent erosion. We investigated how natural vegetation or cultivation of soil affected oxidation of CH 4, and production of N 2O. Soil was sampled under the canopy of

M. V. Angoa Pérez; J. Gonzalez Castañeda; J. T. Frías-Hernández; O. Franco-Hernández; O. Van Cleemput; L. Dendooven; V. Olalde

2004-01-01

297

Reclamation of saline calcareous soils using vegetative bioremediation as a potential approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetative bioremediation of saline calcareous soil (EC1:1 11.01 dS m) was practised through growing fodder beet (Beta Beta vulgaris var. magnum) and millet (Panicum spp.) in soil columns. Beet was grown at a planting density of 4427 plants m, whereas millet was grown at two planting densities: 5202 (M1) and 8928 (M2) plants m. Some plants were irrigated with 233 ? S

Tarek G. Ammari; Said Al-Hiary; Mohammad Al-Dabbas

2012-01-01

298

Spatial variability of soil and vegetation characteristics in an urban park in Tel-Aviv  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mosaic-like spatial patterns, consisting of divers soil microenvironments, characterize the landscapes of many urban parks. These microenvironments may differ in their pedological, hydrological and floral characteristics, and they play important roles in urban ecogeomorphic system functioning. In and around a park covering 50 ha in Tel Aviv, Israel, soil properties and herbaceous vegetation were measured in eight types of microenvironments. Six microenvironments were within the park: area under Ceratonia siliqua (Cs-U), area under Ficus sycomorus (Fi-U), a rest area under F. sycomorus (Re-U), an open area with bare soil (Oa-S), an open area with biological crusts (Oa-C), and an open area with herbaceous vegetation (Oa-V). Outside the park were two control microenvironments, located, respectively, on a flat area (Co-P) and an inclined open area (Co-S). The soil was sampled from two depths (0-2 and 5-10 cm), during the peak of the growing season (March). For each soil sample, moisture content, organic matter content, CaCO3 content, texture, pH, electrical conductivity, and soluble ions contents were determined in 1:1 water extraction. In addition, prior to the soil sampling, vegetation cover, number of species, and species diversity of herbaceous vegetation were measured. The barbecue fires and visitors in each of the microenvironments were counted. Whereas the soil organic matter and vegetation in Fi-U differed from those in the control(Co-P, Co-S), those in Oa-V were similar to those in the control. Fi-U was characterized by higher values of soil moisture, organic matter, penetration depth, and vegetation cover than Cs-U. Open microenvironments within the park (Oa-S, Oa-C, Oa-V) showed lower values of soil penetration than the control microenvironments. In Oa-V unique types of plants such as Capsella bursa-pastoris and Anagallis arvensis, which did not appear in the control microenvironments, were found. This was true also for Fi-U, in which species like Oxalis pes-caprae were found. Significant differences in soil and vegetation properties were found between Re-U and the rest of microenvironments. Differences in levels of human activities, in addition to differences in vegetation types, increased the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties. The rest microenvironment (Re-U) exhibited degraded soil conditions and can be regarded as forming the fragile areas of the park. An urban park offers potential for presence and growth of natural vegetation and, therefore, also for preservation of biodiversity. Natural vegetation, in its role as a part of the urban park, enriches the landscape diversity and thereby may contribute to the enjoyment of the visitors in the park.

Sarah, Pariente; Zhevelev, Helena M.; Oz, Atar

2010-05-01

299

Reorganization of vegetation, hydrology and soil carbon after permafrost degradation across heterogeneous boreal landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of ecosystems across boreal landscapes, successional changes after disturbance and complicated permafrost histories, present enormous challenges for assessing how vegetation, water and soil carbon may respond to climate change in boreal regions. To address this complexity, we used a chronosequence approach to assess changes in vegetation composition, water storage and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks along successional gradients within four landscapes: (1) rocky uplands on ice-poor hillside colluvium, (2) silty uplands on extremely ice-rich loess, (3) gravelly-sandy lowlands on ice-poor eolian sand and (4) peaty-silty lowlands on thick ice-rich peat deposits over reworked lowland loess. In rocky uplands, after fire permafrost thawed rapidly due to low ice contents, soils became well drained and SOC stocks decreased slightly. In silty uplands, after fire permafrost persisted, soils remained saturated and SOC decreased slightly. In gravelly-sandy lowlands where permafrost persisted in drier forest soils, loss of deeper permafrost around lakes has allowed recent widespread drainage of lakes that has exposed limnic material with high SOC to aerobic decomposition. In peaty-silty lowlands, 2-4 m of thaw settlement led to fragmented drainage patterns in isolated thermokarst bogs and flooding of soils, and surface soils accumulated new bog peat. We were not able to detect SOC changes in deeper soils, however, due to high variability. Complicated soil stratigraphy revealed that permafrost has repeatedly aggraded and degraded in all landscapes during the Holocene, although in silty uplands only the upper permafrost was affected. Overall, permafrost thaw has led to the reorganization of vegetation, water storage and flow paths, and patterns of SOC accumulation. However, changes have occurred over different timescales among landscapes: over decades in rocky uplands and gravelly-sandy lowlands in response to fire and lake drainage, over decades to centuries in peaty-silty lowlands with a legacy of complicated Holocene changes, and over centuries in silty uplands where ice-rich soil and ecological recovery protect permafrost.

Torre Jorgenson, M.; Harden, Jennifer; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Wickland, Kim; Ewing, Stephanie; Manies, Kristen; Zhuang, Qianlai; Shur, Yuri; Striegl, Robert; Koch, Josh

2013-09-01

300

A lunar soil evolution model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comminution, agglutination, and replenishment processes in a lunar soil are modeled by a system of time-dependent linear differential equations. In the model, a soil is subdivided into coarse-particle, fine-particle, and agglutinate fractions. The relative mass abundance of each component in a mature soil is found to be proportional to rates for the reworking processes. Evolution of the grain-size distribution from a fresh ejecta blanket to a mature soil is described quantitatively in terms of the changing proportions of the three soil constituents. If size data are available for an immature soil and a mature soil of the same system, rates for the various processes can be calculated under certain simplifying assumptions.

Mendell, W. W.; Mckay, D. S.

1975-01-01

301

Soil, water, and vegetation conditions in South Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Reflectance measurements with a field spectroradiometer on nine dates (between December 9 and April 8) during the growing season of two wheat varieties, Milam and Penjamo, showed that the reflectance curves had the characteristic shape of vegetated surfaces by 4 weeks after the emergence. Green light (0.55 micron) reflectance was maximal and between water absorption bands (1.65 and 2.2 microns) reflectance was minimal when green vegetation development was greatest. Computer classification was accomplished for 81,000 hectare coastal rangeland area for October 13 and December 10, 1975, overpass dates. A hard freeze occurred between these two dates and many of the deciduous woody species defoliated so that more light penetrated to the herbaceous understory in December than in October.

Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H. (principal investigators)

1976-01-01

302

Variations in Soil Salinity and Riparian Vegetation Coverage as Indicators of Stress in an Arid Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil salinity and riparian vegetation coverages of an arid area in northern Mexico through time were investigated. The study area comprises a 10 km segment of the lower Rio Conchos and surrounding undeveloped, non-irrigated land. The amount of area affected by salinity and the type of salinity were determined using EC (electrical conductivity) in conjunction with satellite images and corroborated by field analysis. The soil salinity derived from the remote sensing data was tied to precipitation, greenness of vegetation and water level of a nearby reservoir. The most appropriate method to assess soil salinity was found to be the selective principal component (SPCA) technique of Chavez and Kwarteng while the techniques utilized to discriminate vigorously-growing vegetation were tasseled cap transformation and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). With this region undergoing a severe drought for the last ten years, the response of different parts of the ecosystem and changes in vegetation that so closely affect wildlife and other natural resources in this area can be better evaluated.

Gutierrez, M.; Mickus, K.; Johnson, E.

2003-12-01

303

Soil Moisture Data Assimilation in Soil Water Flow Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil water flow modeling has multiple applications. This modeling is based on simplifications stemming from both conceptual uncertainty and lack of detailed knowledge about parameters. Modern soil moisture sensors can provide detailed information about changes in soil water content in time and with depth. This information can be used for data assimilation in soil water flow modeling. The ensemble Kalman

Y. A. Pachepsky; A. Guber; D. Jacques; F. Pan; M. van Genuchten; R. E. Cady; T. J. Nicholson

2010-01-01

304

Effects of vegetation on radon transport processes in soil  

SciTech Connect

Radon concentrations in soil gas were measured on a weekly schedule. Samples were extracted through the tubes used for measuring pressure differentials at depths of 30, 100, 180 cm. From November to March, the concentrations increase with depth and are for the most part constant over time. The situation is similar from May through August. There is a pronounced increase in the soil radon concentration in early March. This is followed by a decrease to pre March levels at 30 cm. However, at 100 and 180 cm the radon concentrations remain elevated. Attempts were made to explain this data. The average soil moisture content measured with the neutron gauge are shown in Figure 2. Also shown is a history of precipitation events. The period from November to March was relatively dry. On March 6 there was a heavy rain deposited 3 cm of water. This was followed by a snow storm that contained over 5 cm of moisture. Precipitation events during the summer months did not seem to have a large effect on the moisture profile because these rainfall events are typical of short duration with a large amount of runoff. Other soil parameters and meteorological data were analyzed in order to determine their influence on soil radon concentrations.

Borak, T.B.

1991-02-01

305

Environmental controls on the 34S/32S ratios of soil and vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate and landscape age strongly affect most soil processes, however their impact on the terrestrial sulfur (S) cycle is poorly known. In this study, we examine how S isotope composition changes in soils and plants along gradients of climate (Tanzania, Hawaii, California, Great Plains) and age (California). As a model, we assume (as is the case for C and N) that soil S pools are largely at steady state, representing the balance between inputs and losses. The same assumption is made for isotopes: the ?34S value of soil S (in most cases dominantly in organic form) represents the value of inputs and the S isotope fractionation between the losses and the soil S it is derived from. While the geographic variation in the isotopic composition of atmospheric S inputs is not well known at this stage, conducting gradient analyses in confined areas (where S inputs should be constant), allows us to examine how forms of S loss vary with climate and time. For the African (Kilimanjaro) transect, as elevation increases, both mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT) decrease. Mean ?34S values increase with elevation up a value of 17.9‰ at 2545 m, and then decrease from 2990 m, to a minimum of 8.8‰ at 3900 m. The higher ?34S values at lower elevations, where the climate is wetter and warmer, indicate that the forms of S losses are relatively depleted in 34S , suggesting gaseous losses along with sulfate leaching. The Hawaiian transect mirrors that of Africa at comparable MAP and MAT conditions, suggesting both similar sources, but most importantly similar in-soil responses to temperature/moisture combinations. In contrast, the Great Plain soils, which are significantly drier and somewhat cooler than the Kilimanjaro and Hawaii soils, have ?34S values ranging from -3.3 to +3.8‰, likely as a result of a combination of more 34S-depleted atmospheric inputs and smaller losses of S-depleted sulfate given the drier climate. For the Sierra Nevada transect, MAP increases and MAT decreases with increasing elevation, while the average ?34S values of vegetation increases only slightly. For most tree samples, leaves are slightly more enriched in 34S than the stems, however no clear difference is seen between different plant types at the same site, or between plants and soil, indicating that there is little to no fractionation during plant uptake. On the Merced chronosequence, biomass ?34S values initially increase with age (5.8, 6.1, 6.3 and 6.7‰ for the 3 ky, 6 ky, 150 ky and 600 ky soils respectively) and then decrease on the most ancient terraces (6.0 and 5.3‰ for the 1 and 3 My soils respectively). At this stage, there appears to be similarities in the patterns of S isotopes and our previous work along these same transects on N isotopes (Amundson et al., 2003), indicating (as we hypothesized) a common response of these somewhat similar biological elements to climate. However, increasing our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these emerging patterns is the goal of our on-going work.

Balan, S. A.; Laleian, A.; Portier, E.; Amundson, R.

2010-12-01

306

Radiological Conditions at Bikini Atoll: Radionuclide Concentrations in Vegetation, Soil, Animals, Cistern Water, and Ground Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is intended as a resource document for the eventual cleanup of Bikini Atoll and contains a summary of the data for the concentrations of sup 137 Cs, sup 90 Sr, sup 239+240 Pu, and sup 241 Am in vegetation through 1987 and in soil through 1985 ...

C. L. Conrado M. L. Stuart W. L. Robison

1988-01-01

307

Leaf water relations of vegetable amaranth ( Amaranthus spp.) in response to soil drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amaranth is a promising vegetable crop species grown under semi-arid conditions. However, until now the water relations characteristics and the possible mechanisms that are responsible for its adaptation to drought stress have not been investigated in this species. This study was initiated to determine the effects of soil drying on leaf water relations and osmotic adjustment (OA) in four genotypes

F Liu; H Stützel

2002-01-01

308

FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE: ESTABLISHMENT OF VEGETATION ON PONDED AND SOIL-APPLIED WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of research to identify and evaluate forms of vegetation and methods of their establishment for reclaiming retired flue gas desulfurization sludge ponds. Also studied were the soil liming value of limestone scrubber sludge (LSS) and plant uptake and perco...

309

Rangeland Vegetation and Soil Response to Summer Patch Fires Under Continuous Grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescribed fire is used to reduce woody plant and cactus cover and restore degraded rangelands in the southern Great Plains, but little is known regarding the impact of summer fires. We evaluated the effects of summer fires applied as patch burns in continuously grazed rangeland in north Texas. Vegetation and soil responses were measured on patches burned within grazing units

W. Richard Teague; Sara E. Duke; J. Alan Waggoner; Steve L. Dowhower; Shannon A. Gerrard

2008-01-01

310

Contents and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in vegetable soils of Guangzhou, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated contents, distribution and possible sources of PAHs and organochlorine pesticides (Ops) in 43 surface and subsurface soils around the urban Guangzhou where variable kinds of vegetables are grown. The results indicate that the contents of PAHs (16 US EPA priority PAHs) range from 42 to 3077?g\\/kg and the pollution extent is classified as a moderate level in comparison

Laiguo Chen; Yong Ran; Baoshan Xing; Bixian Mai; Jianghua He; Xiuguo Wei; Jiamo Fu; Guoying Sheng

2005-01-01

311

Heavy metal contamination in water, soil, and vegetables of the industrial areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, Fe, and Ni have been estimated in soils and vegetables grown in and around an industrial\\u000a area of Bangladesh. The order of metal contents was found to be Fe > Cu > Zn > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd in contaminated irrigation\\u000a water, and a similar pattern Fe > Zn >

Jasim Uddin Ahmad

2010-01-01

312

Microbial Communities in Cerrado Soils under Native Vegetation Subjected to Prescribed Fires and Under Pasture  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of fire regimes and vegetation cover on the structure and dynamics of soil microbial communities, through phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Comparisons were made between native areas with different woody covers ("cerra...

313

Fate of a phenylpyrazole in vegetation and soil under tropical field conditions.  

PubMed

The fate of fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide, and its metabolites under tropical conditions was studied in soil and in vegetation after treatment for locust control. Two different plots were treated with a formulation of fipronil at doses of 5 and 10 g of active ingredient ha(-)(1), respectively. Vegetation and soil at depths of 0-5 and 5-20 cm were sampled for up to 2 months after treatment. After extraction and purification on fipronil immunoaffinity cartridges, residues were analyzed by gas chromatography using electron capture and mass detectors. In soil, a rapid initial decrease of fipronil was observed with a rapid formation of the sulfone and the photodegradate; the amide and the sulfide were not detected. In vegetation, a rapid initial decrease of fipronil was also observed with a rapid formation of mostly the sulfone; the photodegradate and the sulfide were also detected but at much lower concentrations. The metabolites resulting from the degradation of fipronil were similar in both soil and vegetation, but their relative concentrations were different. PMID:11312853

Fenet, H; Beltran, E; Gadji, B; Cooper, J F; Coste, C M

2001-03-01

314

Effects of a layer of vegetative ash layer on wettable and water repellent soil hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a wildfire, a layer of vegetative ash often covers the ground until it is dissolved or redistributed by wind and water erosion. Much of the existing literature suggests that the ash layer temporally reduces infiltration by clogging soil pores or by forming a surface crust (Mallik et al., 1984; Onda et al., 2008). However, an increasing number of field-based

Merche B. Bodí; Stefan H. Doerr; Artemi Cerdà; Jorge Mataix-Solera

2010-01-01

315

Beryllium7 in soils and vegetation along an arid precipitation gradient in Owens Valley, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium-7 is a potentially powerful tracer of atmospheric deposition and recent sediment transport, but the quantity and distribution of 7Be on arid landscapes have not been described. We measured 7Be in soil, vegetation, and dust in Owens Valley, California, and describe its distribution in aridisols and mollisols to evaluate its potential as a sediment tracer in desert environments. Beryllium-7 in

James M. Kaste; Andrew J. Elmore; Kimberly R. Vest; Gregory S. Okin

2011-01-01

316

Accumulation of cadmium and zinc in soil and vegetation from long-term application of wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of Cd and Zn in soils and vegetation irrigated with treated sewage effluents was examined at 3 locations in southern California. The Whittier Narrows site, a groundwater recharge test plot, received secondary effluent through intermittent flooding for approximately 14 years. Fountain Valley, a forested site, was flood irrigated with both primary and secondary effluents for 16 years. The

D. C. Hill; B. H. Olson; M. G. Rigby

1981-01-01

317

Heavy metals in industrial wastewater, soil and vegetables in Lohta village, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted at four major sites that were irrigated by either treated or untreated wastewater in the Lohta village of Varanasi, India, receiving the discharged water from DLW (Diesel Locomotive Works) sewage treatment plant. Samples of irrigation water, soil and the edible portion of various vegetables were collected monthly during the summer and winter seasons. Heavy metals

Prabhat Kumar Rai; B. D. Tripathi

2008-01-01

318

Modeling soil CO 2 emissions from ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new soil respiration model, describe a formal model testing procedure, and compare our model with five alternative models using an extensive data set of observed soil respiration. Gas flux data from rangeland soils that included a large number of measurements at low temperatures were used to model soil CO2 emissions as a function of soil temperature and

S. J. Del Grosso; W. J. Parton; A. R. Mosier; E. A. Holland; E. Pendall; D. S. Schimel; D. S. Ojima

2005-01-01

319

Relationships between soil microbial communities and soil carbon turnover along a vegetation and moisture gradient in interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal landscapes are characterized by a mosaic of uplands and lowlands, which differ in plant species composition, litter biochemistry, and biogeochemical cycling rates. Boreal ecosystems, from upland black spruce stands to lowland fens, are structured largely by water table position and contain quantitatively and qualitatively different forms of soil organic matter. Differences in carbon (C) availability among ecosystems likely translate to differences in the structure of soil microbial communities, which in turn could affect rates of organic matter decomposition and turnover. We examined relationships between microbial communities and soil C turnover in near-surface soils along a topographic soil moisture and vegetation gradient in interior Alaska. We tested the hypothesis that upland black spruce sites would be dominated by soil fungi and have slow rates of C turnover, whereas lowland ecosystems would be dominated by bacteria and mesofauna (enchytraeids) and have more rapid rates of C turnover. We utilized several isotopic measures of soil C turnover including bomb radiocarbon techniques, the ?15N of SOM, and the difference between ?13C of SOM, DOC, and respired CO2. All three measures indicated greater C turnover rates in the surface soils of the lowland fen sites compared to the more upland locations. Quantitative PCR analyses of soil bacteria and archaea, combined with enchytraed counts, confirmed that surface soils from the lowland fen ecosystems had the highest abundances of these functional groups. Fungal biomass was highly variable and tended to be more abundant in the upland forest sites. Soil enzymatic results were mixed: potential cellulase activities were higher in the more upland soils even though rates of microbial activity were generally lower. Oxidative enzyme activities were higher in fens, even though these ecosystems are saturated and partly anaerobic. Overall our data support soil food web theory which argues that rapidly cycling systems are bacterial dominated with mesofaunal grazing, whereas slowly cycling systems have characteristic higher fungal:bacterial ratios.

Waldrop, M. P.; Harden, J. W.; Turetsky, M. R.; Petersen, D. G.; McGuire, A. D.; Briones, M. J.; Churchill, A. C.; Doctor, D. H.; Pruett, L. E.

2010-12-01

320

Soil seed bank recovery occurs more rapidly than expected in semi-arid Mediterranean gypsum vegetation  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Seed banks are critical in arid ecosystems and ensure the persistence of species. Despite the importance of seed banks, knowledge about their formation and the extent to which a seed bank can recover after severe perturbation remains scarce. If undisturbed, soil seed banks reflect a long vegetation history; therefore, we would expect that new soil seed banks and those of undisturbed soils require long periods to become similar with respect to both density and composition. In contrast, if soil seed banks are only a short- to mid-term reservoir in which long-term accumulation constitutes only a tiny fraction, they will recover rapidly from the vegetation. To shed light on this question, we evaluated seed bank formation in a semi-arid gypsum community. Methods Soils from 300 plots were replaced with sterilized soil in an undisturbed semi-arid Mediterranean community. Seasonal changes in seed bank density and composition were monitored for 3 years by comparing paired sterilized and control soil samples at each plot. Key Results Differences in seed bank density between sterilized and control soil disappeared after 18 months. The composition of sterilized seed banks was correlated with that of the control plots from the first sampling date, and both were highly correlated with vegetation. Nearly 24 % of the seed bank density could be attributed to secondary dispersal. Most seeds died before emergence (66·41–71·33 %), whereas the rest either emerged (14·08–15·48 %) or persisted in the soil (14·59–18·11 %). Conclusions Seed banks can recover very rapidly even under the limiting and stressful conditions of semi-arid environments. This recovery is based mainly on the seed rain at small scales together with secondary dispersal from intact seed banks in the vicinity. These results emphasize the relevance of processes occurring on short spatial scales in determining community structure.

Olano, J. M.; Caballero, I.; Escudero, A.

2012-01-01

321

Contributions of Understory and/or Overstory Vegetations to Soil Microbial PLFA and Nematode Diversities in Eucalyptus Monocultures  

PubMed Central

Ecological interactions between aboveground and belowground biodiversity have received many attentions in the recent decades. Although soil biodiversity declined with the decrease of plant diversity, many previous studies found plant species identities were more important than plant diversity in controlling soil biodiversity. This study focused on the responses of soil biodiversity to the altering of plant functional groups, namely overstory and understory vegetations, rather than plant diversity gradient. We conducted an experiment by removing overstory and/or understory vegetation to compare their effects on soil microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and nematode diversities in eucalyptus monocultures. Our results indicated that both overstory and understory vegetations could affect soil microbial PLFA and nematode diversities, which manifested as the decrease in Shannon–Wiener diversity index (H?) and Pielou evenness index (J) and the increase in Simpson dominance index (?) after vegetation removal. Soil microclimate change explained part of variance of soil biodiversity indices. Both overstory and understory vegetations positively correlated with soil microbial PLFA and nematode diversities. In addition, the alteration of soil biodiversity might be due to a mixing effect of bottom-up control and soil microclimate change after vegetation removal in the studied plantations. Given the studied ecosystem is common in humid subtropical and tropical region of the world, our findings might have great potential to extrapolate to large scales and could be conducive to ecosystem management and service.

Liu, Zhanfeng; Zhou, Lixia; Fu, Shenglei

2014-01-01

322

Inter-sensor relationship of two-band spectral vegetation index based on soil isoline equation: derivation and numerical validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differences in spectral response function among sensors have known to be a source of bias error in derived data products such as spectral vegetation indices (VIs). Numerous studies have been conducted to identify such bias errors by comparing VI data acquired simultaneously by two different sensors. Those attempts clearly indicted two facts: 1) When one tries to model a relationship of two VIs from different sensors by a polynomial function, the coefficients of polynomial depends heavily on region to be studied: 2) Although increase of the degree of polynomial improves the translation accuracies, this improvement is very limited. Those facts imply that a better functional form than a simple polynomial may exist to model the VI relationships, and also that the coefficients of such a relationship can be written as a function of variables other than vegetation biophysical parameters. This study tries to address those issues by deriving an inter-sensor VI relationship analytically. The derivation has been performed based on a relationship of two reflectances at different wavelengths (bands), called soil isoline equation. The derived VI relationship becomes a form of rational function with the coefficients that depend purely on the soil reflectance spectra. The derived relationship has been demonstrated numerically by a radiative transfer model of canopy, PROSAIL. It is concluded that a rational function is a good candidate to model inter-sensor VI relationship. This study also shows the mechanism of how the coefficients of such a relationship could vary with the soil reflectance underneath the canopy.

Taniguchi, Kenta; Obata, Kenta; Matsuoka, Masayuki; Yoshioka, Hiroki

2013-09-01

323

Coupling a Canopy Reflectance Model with a Global Vegetation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assimilation of Earth Observation (EO) data into Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs) can either be via derived products (e.g., LAI or fAPAR) or through radiances. Successful assimilation generally requires that the distribution of errors in an observed variable is well known. Radiance measurements conform to this requirement more strongly than derived products which have undergone more complex processing and whose relation

Tristan Quaife; Philip Lewis; Mathias Disney; Mark Lomas; Ian Woodward; Ghislain Picard

2004-01-01

324

Investigations on Distribution of Copper in Soil, Vegetation and Soil Fauna of a Vineyard Ecosystem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigations were carried through to test the effects of different copper contents in soils on soil fauna. The experiments were carried out in vineyards. Soil copper contents were correlated with the contents in invertebrates as earthworms, spiders, bee...

R. Wittassek

1987-01-01

325

Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 32: Patterns in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVA) system is characterized by non-linear multi-scale exchange processes concerning mass, momentum and energy resulting in complex spatial and temporal patterns and structures. Under the TR32 framework, the characterisation of these structures and patterns will lead to a deeper qualitative and quantitative understanding of the SVA system, and ultimately to better predictions of the SVA state. TR32-research is based on three methodological pillars: Monitoring, Modelling and Data Assimilation. While focusing on the Rur Catchment (Germany), patterns are monitored since 2006 continuously using existing and novel geophysical and remote sensing techniques from the local to the catchment scale like ground penetrating radar, polarimetric precipitation and cloud radar imaging, spectrally induced polarization, radiomagnetotellurics, electrical resistivity tomography, boundary layer scintillometry, lidar techniques, cosmic-ray, and microwave radiometry. Model development centers around a coupled model platform TerrSysMP, which considers mutual fluxes from the groundwater to the atmosphere from the meter to the kilometer scale by combining the atmospheric model COSMO, the land surface model CLM, and the hydrological model ParFlow in a scale-consistent way using the external OASIS coupler. Another focus is a LES model coupled to a novel landsurface scheme, which has been developed for a better understanding of the propagation of patterns between landsurface and atmosphere and their mutual interactions. A range of projects focus on smaller scales processes e.g. down to individual roots, which are modelled at high resolution in order to develop suitable parametrisations for TerrSysMP. Other research foci of TR32 are the transfer of results and developed technology related to new soil analysis tools from the laboratory to the field, the quantification of patterns of soil-carbon, evapotranspiration and respiration in the field, and the setup and operation of the atmospheric boundary layer, cloud and precipitation monitoring site JOYCE (Jülich ObservatorY for Cloud Evolution). These modern and predominantly non-invasive measurement techniques are exploited in combination with advanced modelling systems by data assimilation to yield improved predictions of the transfers of water-, energy and CO2 by accounting for the patterns occurring at various scales. We will present selected results and remaining challenges for characterizing the intertwined patterns and structure at the catchment scale.

Simmer, C.; Diekkrueger, B.; Crewell, S.; Klitzsch, N.; Vereecken, H.; Boessenkool, K. P.; Kollet, S. J.; Hintz, M.; Schickling, A.; Masbou, M.

2013-12-01

326

Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 32: Patterns in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVA) system is characterized by non-linear multi-scale exchange processes concerning mass, momentum and energy resulting in complex spatial and temporal patterns and structures. Under the TR32 framework, the characterisation of these structures and patterns will lead to a deeper qualitative and quantitative understanding of the SVA system, and ultimately to better predictions of the SVA state. TR32-research is based on three methodological pillars: Monitoring, Modelling and Data Assimilation. While focusing on the Rur Catchment (Germany), patterns are monitored since 2006 continuously using existing and novel geophysical and remote sensing techniques from the local to the catchment scale like ground penetrating radar, polarimetric precipitation and cloud radar imaging, spectrally induced polarization, radiomagnetotellurics, electrical resistivity tomography, boundary layer scintillometry, lidar techniques, cosmic-ray, and microwave radiometry. Model development centers around a coupled model platform TerrSysMP, which considers mutual fluxes from the groundwater to the atmosphere from the meter to the kilometer scale by combining the atmospheric model COSMO, the land surface model CLM, and the hydrological model ParFlow in a scale-consistent way using the external OASIS coupler. Another focus is a LES model coupled to a novel landsurface scheme, which has been developed for a better understanding of the propagation of patterns between landsurface and atmosphere and their mutual interactions. A range of projects focus on smaller scales processes e.g. down to individual roots, which are modelled at high resolution in order to develop suitable parametrisations for TerrSysMP. Other research foci of TR32 are the transfer of results and developed technology related to new soil analysis tools from the laboratory to the field, the quantification of patterns of soil-carbon, evapotranspiration and respiration in the field, and the setup and operation of the atmospheric boundary layer, cloud and precipitation monitoring site JOYCE (Jülich ObservatorY for Cloud Evolution). These modern and predominantly non-invasive measurement techniques are exploited in combination with advanced modelling systems by data assimilation to yield improved predictions of the transfers of water-, energy and CO2 by accounting for the patterns occurring at various scales. We will present selected results and remaining challenges for characterizing the intertwined patterns and structure at the catchment scale.

Thiele-Eich, Insa; Simmer, Clemens; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Crewell, Susanne; Klitzsch, Norbert; Vereecken, Harry; Kollet, Stefan; Hintz, Michael

2014-05-01

327

Evaluation of microbial inoculation and vegetation to enhance the dissipation of atrazine and metolachlor in soil.  

PubMed

Four greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of native prairie grasses and two pesticide-degrading bacteria to remediate atrazine and metolachlor in soils from agricultural dealerships (Alpha site soil, northwest Iowa, USA; Bravo site soil, central Iowa, USA). The Alpha soil contained a low population of atrazine-degrading microorganisms relative to the Bravo soil. Each soil freshly treated with atrazine or metolachlor was aged for a short or long period of time, respectively. An atrazine-degrading bacterium, Agrobacterium radiobacter strain J14a; a metolachlor-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain UA5-40; and a mixture of three native prairie grasses-big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), yellow Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans [L.] Nash), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)-were added to the soils after the soils were aged for long periods of time. The soils aged for short periods of time were treated with J14a, the prairie grasses, or both after aging. The J14a and the grasses significantly reduced the concentration of atrazine in Alpha soil when the soil was aged for a short period of time. However, these treatments had no statistically significant effect when the soil was aged for a long period of time or on atrazine in Bravo soil. Inoculation with UA5-40 did not enhance metolachlor dissipation in either soil, but vegetation did increase metolachlor dissipation. Our results indicate that the dissipation of atrazine by J14a is affected by the presence of indigenous atrazine-mineralizing microorganisms and probably by the bioavailability of atrazine in the soil. PMID:16268144

Zhao, Shaohan; Arthur, Ellen L; Moorman, Thomas B; Coats, Joel R

2005-10-01

328

RULE-BASED VEGETATION FORMATION MODEL FOR CANADA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Canadian Climate-Vegetation Model (CCVM) is a rule-based equilibrium model developed for the purpose of predicting the response of formation-level vegetation to climate and climate change. he CCVM relies on climatic parameters with an inferred mechanistic relationship to the ...

329

Growing up green on serpentine soils: Biogeochemistry of serpentine vegetation in the Central Coast Range of California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Serpentine soils derived from the weathering of ultramafic rocks and their metamorphic derivatives (serpentinites) are chemically prohibitive for vegetative growth. Evaluating how serpentine vegetation is able to persist under these chemical conditions is difficult to ascertain due to the numerous factors (climate, relief, time, water availability, etc.) controlling and affecting plant growth. Here, the uptake, incorporation, and distribution of a wide variety of elements into the biomass of serpentine vegetation has been investigated relative to vegetation growing on an adjacent chert-derived soil. Soil pH, electrical conductivity, organic C, total N, soil extractable elements, total soil elemental compositions and plant digestions in conjunction with spider diagrams are utilized to determine the chemical relationships of these soil and plant systems. Plant available Mg and Ca in serpentine soils exceed values assessed in chert soils. Magnesium is nearly 3 times more abundant than Ca in the serpentine soils; however, the serpentine soils are not Ca deficient with Ca concentrations as high as 2235 mg kg-1. Calcium to Mg ratios (Ca:Mg) in both serpentine and chert vegetation are greater than one in both below and above ground tissues. Soil and plant chemistry analyses support that Ca is not a limiting factor for plant growth and that serpentine vegetation is actively moderating Mg uptake as well as tolerating elevated concentrations of bioavailable Mg. Additionally, results demonstrate that serpentine vegetation suppresses the uptake of Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn and Co into its biomass. The suppressed uptake of these metals mainly occurs in the plants' roots as evident by the comparatively lower metal concentrations present in above ground tissues (twigs, leaves and shoots). This research supports earlier studies that have suggested that ion uptake discrimination and ion suppression in the roots are major mechanisms for serpentine vegetation to tolerate the chemistry of serpentine soils. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

Oze, C.; Skinner, C.; Schroth, A. W.; Coleman, R. G.

2008-01-01

330

Laboratory and Airborne BRDF Analysis of Vegetation Leaves and Soil Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory-based Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) analysis of vegetation leaves, soil, and leaf litter samples is presented. The leaf litter and soil samples, numbered 1 and 2, were obtained from a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza: 25.0degS, 31.5degE). A third soil sample, number 3, was obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20degS, 15.93degE, alt. 1100 m). In addition, BRDF of local fresh and dry leaves from tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and acacia tree (Acacia greggii) were studied. It is shown how the BRDF depends on the incident and scatter angles, sample size (i.e. crushed versus whole leaf,) soil samples fraction size, sample status (i.e. fresh versus dry leaves), vegetation species (poplar versus acacia), and vegetation s biochemical composition. As a demonstration of the application of the results of this study, airborne BRDF measurements acquired with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the soil and leaf litter samples were obtained are compared to the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory and airborne measured BRDF is reported.

Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

2008-01-01

331

Pesticide residues in soils, sediments, and vegetables in the Red River Delta, northern Vietnam.  

PubMed

This study assessed pesticide residues in soils, sediments, and vegetables in the Xuan Khe and Hop Ly communes located along the Chau Giang River in the Red River Delta, northern Vietnam. Samples were collected from agricultural areas within and outside of embankments built to prevent flooding. In Xuan Khe, the soils outside of the embankment were more clayey with higher organic matter contents compared with the inside, due to selective deposition during river flooding. Many of the soils contained significant amounts of pesticides including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dicofol, isoprothiolane, and metalaxyl although their levels were below the maximum allowable concentration set by the Vietnamese government. The spectrum of DDT derivatives found suggested that the source of DDTs was not contaminated dicofol. Soils in Hop Ly resembled soils in Xuan Khe but were relatively sandy; one field showed appreciable contents of DDT derivatives. The ratios of (p,p(')-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene + p,p(')-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane)/ summation operatorDDT in the surface and subsurface soils in Hop Ly were 0.34 and 0.57, suggesting that the DDTs originated from recent application. Pesticide residues in soils were not likely to translocate into vegetable crops, except for metalaxyl. High concentrations of cypermethrins in kohlrabi leaves could be ascribed to foliar deposition. PMID:19757109

Nishina, Takuro; Kien, Chu Ngoc; Noi, Nguyen Van; Ngoc, Ha Minh; Kim, Chul-Sa; Tanaka, Sota; Iwasaki, K?z?

2010-10-01

332

Coevolution of topography, hydrology, soil development, and vegetation in sky islands of the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sky islands of the southwestern U.S. offer a unique opportunity to study the coevolution of landscape processes in areas of similar rock type and tectonic history but a wide range of climates. In this study we compile high-resolution, spatially-distributed data for the available energy to drive rock weathering and other landscape processes, i.e. the Effective Energy and Mass Transfer (EEMT) variable of Rasmussen and Tabor (2005), together with data for LiDAR-derived above-ground biomass, soil thickness, water storage potential, hillslope relief, and valley density in the Santa Catalina and Pinaleno Mountains, two predominantly granitic ranges in southern Arizona. Strong correlations exist among these variables such that warm, dry, low elevation portions of these areas are characterized by low biomass, thin soils, low water-storage potential, steep slopes, and high valley densities. Cooler, wetter, higher-elevation portions have systematically higher biomass, thicker soils, higher water-storage potential, gentler slopes, and lower valley densities. Moreover, all of these variables have a nonlinear dependence on climate/elevation. Slope gradient and aspect also exert an important control on these variables, with steep, south-facing hillslopes characterized by drier-than-average conditions for a given elevation and north-facing slopes associated with wetter-than-average conditions. We hypothesize that these correlations partly reflect coevolutionary positive-feedback mechanisms among these processes that amplify differences in rates set by climate, tectonics, and rock type. For example, thicker soils with higher water storage potential that form at higher elevations/north-facing slopes tend to have greater biomass, causing lower runoff ratios, lower rates of slopewash and fluvial erosion, and increased rates of colluvial transport, thereby promoting thicker soils, lower-gradient slopes, and lower valley densities. Thicker soils and higher water storage potentials, in turn, promote greater biomass in a positive feedback. To test this hypothesis, we developed a landscape evolution model that couples soil development, the partitioning of rainfall into runoff, infiltration, and evapotranspiration, vegetation growth, and geomorphic processes (colluvial and fluvial transport) over geologic time scales. Numerical experiments with this model can be run for a range of input data for climate, tectonics, and rock type. Across a climate gradient similar to that of the sky islands of the southwestern U.S., the model self-organizes into states similar to those observed in the Santa Catalina and Pinaleno ranges, i.e. higher biomass, thicker soils, higher water storage potential, lower relief, and lower valley density at higher elevations/north-facing slopes. The model exhibits similar nonlinear relationships among landscape variables across the elevation/climate gradient, lending support to the hypothesis that positive feedback mechanisms contribute to the observed nonlinearity.

Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.; Breshears, D. D.; Brooks, P. D.; Chorover, J.; Huxman, T. E.; Lohse, K. A.; Meixner, T.; McIntosh, J. C.; Kurc, S. A.; Schaap, M. G.; Swetnam, T.; Troch, P. A.; University Of Arizona Czo

2010-12-01

333

Insights into biogeochemical cycling from soil evolution model and long-term chronosequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the importance of soil processes for global biogeochemical cycles, our capability for predicting soil evolution over geological timescales is poorly constrained. We attempt to probe our understanding and predictive capability of this evolutionary process by developing a mechanistic soil evolution model, based on an existing model framework, and comparing the predictions with observations from soil chronosequences in Hawaii. Our soil evolution model includes the major processes of pedogenesis: mineral weathering, percolation of rainfall, leaching of solutes, surface erosion, bioturbation and vegetation interactions and can be applied to various bedrock compositions and climates. The specific properties the model simulates over timescales of tens to hundreds of thousand years are, soil depth, vertical profiles of elemental composition, soil solution pH and organic carbon distribution. We demonstrate with this model the significant role that vegetation plays in accelerating the rate of weathering and hence soil profile development. Comparisons with soils that have developed on Hawaiian basalts reveal a remarkably good agreement with Na, Ca and Mg profiles suggesting that the model captures well the key components of soil formation. Nevertheless, differences between modelled and observed K and P are substantial. The fact that these are important plant nutrients suggests that a process likely missing from our model is the active role of vegetation in selectively acquiring nutrients. This study therefore indirectly indicates the valuable role that vegetation can play in accelerating the weathering and thus release of these globally important nutrients into the biosphere.

Johnson, M. O.; Gloor, M.; Kirkby, M. J.; Lloyd, J.

2014-04-01

334

Canonical correlation analysis of soil nutrients, microorganisms and enzyme activities in vegetation restoration areas of degraded and eroded soils in northwestern Hunan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aid of canonical correlation analysis, the relations among soil nutrients, soil microorganisms, and soil enzyme activities\\u000a were studied in vegetation restoration areas of degraded and eroded soils in the Nverzhai watershed in northwestern Hunan.\\u000a The main results were as follows: the key factors in soil nutrients, microorganisms, and enzyme activities were N and P elements,\\u000a number of bacteria,

Lianghua Qi; Xudong Zhang; Zhenhua Peng; Jinxing Zhou

2009-01-01

335

Phthalic Acid Esters in Soils from Vegetable Greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China  

PubMed Central

Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (?16PAEs) ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of ?16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of ?16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US) in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs.

Chai, Chao; Cheng, Hongzhen; Ge, Wei; Ma, Dong; Shi, Yanxi

2014-01-01

336

Phthalic acid esters in soils from vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China.  

PubMed

Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (?16PAEs) ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of ?16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of ?16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US) in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs. PMID:24747982

Chai, Chao; Cheng, Hongzhen; Ge, Wei; Ma, Dong; Shi, Yanxi

2014-01-01

337

Comparison of Hymap/E-SAR data with models for optial reflectance and microwave scattering from vegetation canopies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of combined modelling of optical and radar signatures of cereal canopies. An optical model based on Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations of scattering behaviour in the vegetation canopy is used to simulate spectral reflectance, and a coherent microwave scattering model is used to simulate multi-frequency polarimetric microwave signatures. These use similar descriptions of the vegetation structure, and therefore provide a link between the two regimes. During the "SAR-Hyperspectral Airborne Campaign" (SHAC), conducted in the UK during summer 2000, datasets were acquired using the E-SAR and Hymap. Coincident with the E-SAR overflights, a ground measurement campaign was conducted, to characterise the moisture status of the vegetation, soil and the leaf area index (LAI), as well as more detailed measurements of the vegetation properties. We discuss the comparison between model simulations and the observed signatures, and highlight aspects of the link provided by the structural vegetation canopy model.

Saich, P.; Lewis, P.; Disney, M.; Thackrah, G.

2002-01-01

338

The Impact of Soil Reflectance on the Quantification of the Green Vegetation Fraction from NDVI  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The green vegetation fraction (Fg) is an important climate and hydrologic model parameter. A common method to calculate Fg is to create a simple linear mixing rnodeP between two NDVI endmembers: bare soil NDVI (NDVI(sub o)) and full vegetation NDVI (NDVI(sub infinity)). Usually it is assumed that NDVI(sub o), is close to zero (NDVI(sub o) approx.-0.05) and is generally chosen from the lowest observed NDVI values. However, the mean soil NDVI computed from 2906 samples is much larger (NDVI=0.2) and is highly variable (standard deviation=O. 1). We show that the underestimation of NDVI(sub o) yields overestimations of Fg. The largest errors occur in grassland and shrubland areas. Using parameters for NDVI(sub o) and NDVI(sub infinity) derived from global scenes yields overestimations of Fg ((Delta) Fg*) that are larger than 0.2 for the majority of U.S. land cover types when pixel NDVI values are 0.2soil reflectance.

Montandon, L. M.; Small, E. E.

2008-01-01

339

Modelling Vegetation Cover Dynamics of the Niger Floodplain in Mali, Westafrica, Using Multitemporal MERIS Full Resolution and TERRA -ASTER Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation aims at showing the potential of a combined use of multi-temporal data from two different sensors (MERIS and TERRA ASTER) for an analysis of vegetation cover changes in semi-arid environments. While MERIS data mainly provide information about the vegetation cover density, ASTER data were used to analyse soil properties -especially soil brightness and soil wetness. An algorithm is proposed that uses atmospherically corrected surface reflectance values from MERIS and ASTER measurements. These values are subsequently splitted into a signal component that is caused by the vegetation cover and the background component (triggered by soil properties) using a linear spectral unmixing approach. Vegetation cover then is described by Vegetation Indices (MGVI, NDVI / SAVI) that were calculated from the vegetation signal component. Finally, these vegetation parameter were classified for all multi-temporal MERIS data using the EM algorithm to derive the temporal behaviour of vegetation pattern at the Inland Delta. The algorithm provides, as results, a fractional vegetation cover, a vegetation density value and information on the soil type. A detailed mapping of the spatio-temporal vegetation cover patterns for the Niger Inland Delta during the period of 2002 -2005 is another outcome of this study in addition to an in-depth evaluation of the applicability of the used VIs for environments with sparse vegetation covers. Located in the western Sahel of Africa, (1330' N -17 N and 230' W -530' W), the Niger Inland Delta is one of the largest floodplains in the world. The geographic term "Niger Inland Delta" represents a vast, extremely flat area of around 40.000 km extend, which is annually inundated by water of the Niger -Bani riversystem. In contrast to its semi -arid surrounding, the delta's ecology can be described as a mosaic of permanent, periodical and episodically flooded areas. Their extend varies both in scale and time due to irregularities of amount as well as seasonal distribution of the annual rainfall in the catchment areas and the resulting water supply contributed by the river system. Due to the relatively good availability of (surface) water, the Niger Inland Ecosystem serves as stop-over for many migrating birds and other wildlife species as well as an eonomic base for farmers and pastoral people. As a consequence, the entire Niger Inland Delta has been declared as protected RAMSAR site in 2004. Interaction among pre-flood, flood and post-flood conditions strongly affect the patterns of landcover in and around the delta as vegetation cover is strongly correlated with the availability of surface water. The Inland Delta is dominantly covered by (irrigated) fields or grasslands during flood and post-flood periods (October to January), while most of the photosynthetically active vegetation withers during the rest of the year. This yields in highly vibrant vegetation cover, although the vegetation cover density remains low even during flood period for most of the Inland Delta. This study analyses the intra-annual dynamics as well as changes in vegetation cover between individual years by interpreting 17 MERIS full resolution data over the period from Aug. 2002 to June 2005. MERIS sensor provides measurements from 15 spectral bands within the VIS and NIR part of the EMS with 300 m spatial resolution. Thus allowing for analyses at a regional scale level with high sensitivity for the amount of green vegetation. Short time dynamics of vegetation are related to changes in vegetation cover density. These changes were modelled with Vegetation Indices (VI) as parameter. To overcome well known problems related with NDVIs dependence of illumination and viewing angle, background signal (soil brightness) and changes in humidity, the MGVI was used as indix to derive more sophisticated biophysical information in addition to the classical NDVI. Soil types influence the remotely sensed signal significantly due to the overall sparse vegetation cover. Information about soil brightness and wetness were derived from dat

Seiler, Ralf

340

Estimating soil water retention using soil component additivity model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water retention is a major soil hydraulic property that governs soil functioning in ecosystems and greatly affects soil management. Data on soil water retention are used in research and applications in hydrology, agronomy, meteorology, ecology, environmental protection, and many other soil-related fields. Soil organic matter content and composition affect both soil structure and adsorption properties; therefore water retention may be affected by changes in soil organic matter that occur because of both climate change and modifications of management practices. Thus, effects of organic matter on soil water retention should be understood and quantified. Measurement of soil water retention is relatively time-consuming, and become impractical when soil hydrologic estimates are needed for large areas. One approach to soil water retention estimation from readily available data is based on the hypothesis that soil water retention may be estimated as an additive function obtained by summing up water retention of pore subspaces associated with soil textural and/or structural components and organic matter. The additivity model and was tested with 550 soil samples from the international database UNSODA and 2667 soil samples from the European database HYPRES containing all textural soil classes after USDA soil texture classification. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) of the volumetric water content estimates for UNSODA vary from 0.021 m3m-3 for coarse sandy loam to 0.075 m3m-3 for sandy clay. Obtained RMSEs are at the lower end of the RMSE range for regression-based water retention estimates found in literature. Including retention estimates of organic matter significantly improved RMSEs. The attained accuracy warrants testing the 'additivity' model with additional soil data and improving this model to accommodate various types of soil structure. Keywords: soil water retention, soil components, additive model, soil texture, organic matter.

Zeiliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.; Semenov, V.

2009-04-01

341

Vegetation effects on airborne passive microwave response to soil moisture: A case study for the Rur catchment, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water content stored in the upper soil layer, is a key determinant of a large number of applications, including numerical weather prediction, flood forecasting, agricultural drought assessment, water resources management, greenhouse gas accounting and civil protection. Passive microwave sensors implemented on airborne and spaceborne platforms have been shown to provide useful retrievals of near-surface soil moisture variations at regional and global scales. Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR2) of the Forschungszentrum Jülich was flown in line with the F-SAR sensor from the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in the TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories) Rur site, Germany to prepare for the calibration and validation of the NASA Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) satellite mission. Brightness temperature observed by the PLMR2 was mapped at three different altitudes (1200m 1000m and 700m). The L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere (L-MEB) model was used to retrieve surface soil moisture (SSM) from the PLMR2 brightness temperature measurements. Leaf Area Index (LAI) was estimated from multispectral RapidEye imagery of the same day with 5m resolution. Different approaches were analyzed for transferring the LAI into vegetation opacity. Comparison of SSM to ground measurement at different test sites within the TERENO observatory shows that most of the captured soil moisture values are in good agreement with ground measurements.

Hasan, Sayeh; Montzka, Carsten; Bogena, Heye; Rüdiger, Chris; Ali, Muhammad; Verrecken, Harry

2013-04-01

342

Microbial biomass in a semi arid soil of the central highlands of Mexico cultivated with maize or under natural vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial biomass (MB) is the key factor in nutrient dynamics in soil, but no information exists how clearing of vegetation to cultivate maize in the central highlands of Mexico might affect it. Soil MB was measured with the chloroform fumigation incubation (CFI) and fumigation extraction (CFE) techniques and the substrate-induced respiration (SIR) method in soil sampled under or outside the

Basilio Gabriel Reyes-Reyes; Rocio Alcántara-Hernández; Viviana Rodríguez; Victor Olalde-Portugal; Luc Dendooven

2007-01-01

343

Field determination and QSPR prediction of equilibrium-status soil/vegetation partition coefficient of PCDD/Fs.  

PubMed

Characterizing pseudo equilibrium-status soil/vegetation partition coefficient KSV, the quotient of respective concentrations in soil and vegetation of a certain substance at remote background areas, is essential in ecological risk assessment, however few previous attempts have been made for field determination and developing validated and reproducible structure-based estimates. In this study, KSV was calculated based on measurements of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/F congeners in soil and moss (Dicranum angustum), and rouzi grass (Thylacospermum caespitosum) of two background sites, Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic and Zhangmu-Nyalam region of the Tibet Plateau, respectively. By both fugacity modeling and stepwise regression of field data, the air-water partition coefficient (KAW) and aqueous solubility (SW) were identified as the influential physicochemical properties. Furthermore, validated quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model was developed to extrapolate the KSV prediction to all 210 PCDD/F congeners. Molecular polarizability, molecular size and molecular energy demonstrated leading effects on KSV. PMID:24887127

Li, Li; Wang, Qiang; Qiu, Xinghua; Dong, Yian; Jia, Shenglan; Hu, Jianxin

2014-07-15

344

INTERCOMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE VEGETATION DATABASES FOR REGIONAL AIR QUALITY MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

Vegetation cover data are used to characterize several regional air quality modeling processes, including the calculation of heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes with the Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5) and the estimate of biogenic volatile organic compound and nitric oxide...

345

Uptake of explosives from contaminated soil by existing vegetation at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the uptake of explosives by existing vegetation growing in soils contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5-trinitro-3,5-triazine (RDX) in three areas at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (IAAP). To determine explosives uptake under natural environmental conditions, existing plant materials and soil from the root zone were sampled at different locations in each area, and plant materials were separated by species. Standard methods were used to determine the concentrations of explosives, their derivatives, and metabolites in the soil samples. Plant materials were also analyzed. The compound TNT was not detected in the aboveground portion of plants, and vegetation growing on TNT-contaminated soils is not considered a health hazard. However, soil and plant roots may contain TNT degradation products that may be toxic; hence, their consumption is not advised. The compound RDX was found in the tops and roots of plants growing on RDX-contaminated soils at all surveyed sites. Although RDX is not a listed carcinogen, several of its potentially present degradation products are carcinogens. Therefore, the consumption of any plant tissues growing on RDX-contaminated sites should be considered a potential health hazard.

Schneider, J.F.; Zellmer, S.D.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Rastorier, J.R.; Chen, D.; Banwart, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-02-01

346

Regional assessment of soil erosion using the distributed model SEMMED and remotely sensed data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil erosion model for Mediterranean regions (SEMMED) is presented and used to produce regional maps of simulated soil loss for two Mediterranean test sites: one in southern France and one in Sicily. The model demonstrates the integrated use of (1) multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images to account for vegetation properties, (2) a digital terrain model in a GIS

S. M. de Jong; M. L. Paracchini; F. Bertolo; S. Folving; J. Megier; A. P. J. de Roo

1999-01-01

347

Soil, Water, and Vegetation Conditions in South Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Reflectance differences between the dead leaves of six crops (corn, cotton, sorghum, sugar cane, citrus, and avocado) and the respective bare soils where the dead leaves were lying on the ground were determined from laboratory spectrophotometric measurements over the 0.5- to 2.5 micron wavelength interval. The largest differences were in the near infrared waveband 0.75- to 1.35 microns. Leaf area index was predicted from plant height, percent ground cover, and plant population for irrigated and nonirrigated grain sorghum fields for the 1975 growing season.

Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J. (principal investigators)

1976-01-01

348

Soil, water, and vegetation conditions in south Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Reflectance differences between the dead leaves of six crops (corn, cotton, sorghum, sugar cane, citrus, and avocado) and the respective bare soils where the dead leaves were lying on the ground were determined from laboratory spectrophotometric measurements over the 0.5- to 2.5 micron wavelength interval. The largest differences were in the near infrared waveband 0.75- to 1.35 microns. Leaf area index was predicted from plant height, percent ground cover, and plant population for irrigated and nonirrigated grain sorghum fields for the 1975 growing season.

Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J. (principal investigators)

1976-01-01

349

Carbon Stocks in the Seoul Forest Park: Quantification of Soil and Vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally agreed that mitigation of CO2 emissions is a big issue in our societies. The rapid growth in global population and urbanization have changed urban ecosystem. The urban became the center of the greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2. It is true that the changes in land cover affect the soil and vegetation in urban ecosystem; specifically the amount of carbon stocks is changed. Such an anthropogenic disturbance, in the face of climate change, has led to interest in quantifying and understanding carbon stocks. However many studies focus on natural forest and pasture ecosystems, furthermore the organic carbon stocks in urban park have been less quantified. In this study, we measure the soil and vegetation carbon stocks in the Seoul Forest Park. The study site is located in Seoul, Republic of Korea; its total area is 116ha. This study has two purposes. First, we measure soil and vegetation carbon stock in the urban park. Second, we compare soil carbon stocks between modified and conserved area in the Seoul Forest Park. This study can lead re-evaluation of urban green space.

Bae, J.; Ryu, Y.

2012-12-01