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Sample records for soil vegetation model

  1. A nonlinear coupled soil moisture-vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shikuo; Liu, Shida; Fu, Zuntao; Sun, Lan

    2005-06-01

    Based on the physical analysis that the soil moisture and vegetation depend mainly on the precipitation and evaporation as well as the growth, decay and consumption of vegetation a nonlinear dynamic coupled system of soil moisture-vegetation is established. Using this model, the stabilities of the steady states of vegetation are analyzed. This paper focuses on the research of the vegetation catastrophe point which represents the transition between aridness and wetness to a great extent. It is shown that the catastrophe point of steady states of vegetation depends mainly on the rainfall P and saturation value v0, which is selected to balance the growth and decay of vegetation. In addition, when the consumption of vegetation remains constant, the analytic solution of the vegetation equation is obtained.

  2. Vegetation Dynamics And Soil Moisture: Consequences For Hydrologic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardiola-Claramonte, M.; Troch, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    Current global population growth and economical development accelerates land cover conversion in many parts of the world. Introducing non-native species and woody species encroachment, with different water demands, can affect the partitioning of hydrological fluxes. The impacts on the hydrologic cycle at local to regional scales are poorly understood. The present study investigates the hydrologic implications of land use conversion from native vegetation to rubber. We first compare the vegetation dynamics of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), a non- native specie in Southeast Asia, to the other main vegetation types in the study area. The experimental catchment, Nam Ken (69km 2), is located in the Xishuangbanna Prefecture (21 °N, 100 °E), in the south of Yunnan province in South China. From 2005 to 2006, we collected continuous records of 2 m deep soil moisture profiles in four different land covers (tea, secondary forest, grassland and rubber), and measured surface radiation in tea and rubber canopies. Our observations show that root water uptake by rubber during the dry season is controlled by the change of day-length, whereas water demand of the native vegetation starts with the arrival of the first monsoon rainfall. The different root water uptake dynamics of rubber result in distinct depletion of deeper layer soil moisture. Traditional evapotranspiration and soil moisture models are unable to simulate this specific behavior, thus a different conceptual model is needed to predict hydrologic changes due to land use conversion in the area.

  3. Hillslope soils and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundson, Ronald; Heimsath, Arjun; Owen, Justine; Yoo, Kyungsoo; Dietrich, William E.

    2015-04-01

    Assessing how vegetation controls hillslope soil processes is a challenging problem, as few abiotic landscapes exist as observational controls. Here we identify five avenues to examine how actively eroding hillslope soils and processes would differ without vegetation, and we explore some potential feedbacks that may result in landscape resilience on vegetated hillslopes. The various approaches suggest that a plant-free world would be characterized by largely soil-free hillslopes, that plants may control the maximum thickness of soils on slopes, that vegetated landforms erode at rates about one order of magnitude faster than plant-free outcrops in comparable settings, and that vegetated hillslope soils generally maintain long residence times such that both N and P sufficiency for ecosystems is the norm. We conclude that quantitatively parameterizing biota within process-based hillslope models needs to be a priority in order to project how human activity may further impact the soil mantle.

  4. Modeling radium and radon transport through soil and vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozak, J.A.; Reeves, H.W.; Lewis, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    A one-dimensional flow and transport model was developed to describe the movement of two fluid phases, gas and water, within a porous medium and the transport of 226Ra and 222Rn within and between these two phases. Included in this model is the vegetative uptake of water and aqueous 226Ra and 222Rn that can be extracted from the soil via the transpiration stream. The mathematical model is formulated through a set of phase balance equations and a set of species balance equations. Mass exchange, sink terms and the dependence of physical properties upon phase composition couple the two sets of equations. Numerical solution of each set, with iteration between the sets, is carried out leading to a set-iterative compositional model. The Petrov-Galerkin finite element approach is used to allow for upstream weighting if required for a given simulation. Mass lumping improves solution convergence and stability behavior. The resulting numerical model was applied to four problems and was found to produce accurate, mass conservative solutions when compared to published experimental and numerical results and theoretical column experiments. Preliminary results suggest that the model can be used as an investigative tool to determine the feasibility of phytoremediating radium and radon-contaminated soil. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Modelling the effects of vegetation and soil moisture onto biogenic nitrogen oxide emissions from Sahelian soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delon, Claire; Mougin, Eric; Grippa, Manuela; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Serça, Dominique; Kergoat, Laurent; Hiernaux, Pierre; Diawara, Mamadou

    2013-04-01

    Natural (biogenic) emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO) from soils are strongly dependent on soil moisture, particularly in Sahelian regions where the soil moisture is very low at the end of the dry season (around 2% in top soil 0-20 cm). When the first rains fall at the beginning of the wet season, soil moisture increases sharply, until reaching a threshold value above which the microbial population can develop, and the microbial activity generating nitrogen within the soil is reactivated. NO emissions to the atmosphere result from the microbial decomposition of organic matter, and present important peaks at the beginning of the wet season. In Sahelian soils, the organic matter decomposition is very efficient at the onset of the wet season because part of the litter has been buried during the dry season by livestock trampling, and is rapidly decomposed when soil moisture is sufficient. The goal of the work presented here is to simulate NO emissions from soils thanks to a parameterization based on a neural network development, coupled to a vegetation model (STEP) and a litter decomposition model (GENDEC), at the Agoufou site (15.1°N, 1.7°W, Gourma, Mali, super site of the AMMA-CATCH observatory). The resulting coupled model (STEP-GENDEC) includes vegetation growth in a dynamic way, and the quantity of nitrogen brought to the soil either as litter and straws or as livestock excretions. Livestock contributes to the N flux either directly trough excretion deposition (faeces and urine) or indirectly through grazing uptake, conversion of standing straw to litter, fragmentation and burying of litter by trampling. A small part of this N available in the soil is released to the atmosphere in the form of different N compounds such as NO. Knowing the quantity of N available in the soil, NO emissions to the atmosphere are calculated for the years 2006-2007-2008, and compared to the few existing measurements. These results show that Sahelian soils emit non negligible quantities of NO to the atmosphere, compared to anthropogenic NO emissions (fires) at the continental scale, and that the processes of these emissions are original due to the specificity of the climate (short wet season, sandy soils, hot temperatures). However, too few studies have been dedicated to N emissions in these arid environments, and many questions remain on their underlying processes.

  6. Assessment of the impacts of dynamic soil properties and vegetation cover on soil erosion using distributed hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi, T.; Kiely, G.; Albertson, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The challenges in soil erosion modeling are mainly attributed to the heterogeneity of the soil properties and the complex interactions between vegetation cover and soil erosion processes. Current process-based soil erosion models apply empirical adjustment factors to account for the influences of vegetation cover and land managements. Most of soil erosion models assume that the temporal changes of soil properties are negligible over temporal scale ranging from several days to decades. Physically meaningful model representations of soil erosion processes require deep understanding of the mechanisms through which vegetation cover influences the soil particles detachment and transport, as well as the temporal-spatial changes of soil properties. In this study, the dynamic changes of soil properties in soil erosion modeling were investigated, through a distributed soil erosion model (GEOTOP-erosion). Specifically, spatially distributed and dynamical soil variables are introduced into the soil erosion model. Soil particles associated with different grain sizes experience different transport processes. Soil textures and organic matter (OM) contents are updated daily according to the feedbacks on erosion and deposition processes. Other related soil properties are derived by the updated soil textures and OM contents. The influences of vegetation cover are represented by four major mechanisms: (1) modifying net rainfall and raindrop energy by canopy interception, (2) reducing runoff generation by transpiration, (3) retarding overland flow by increasing surface roughness, and (4) increasing soil cohesion by root system. The simulations of this soil erosion model show appropriate interactions between vegetation cover and soil erosion processes. The erosion process could also be dynamically adjusted by the evolution of soil properties. An experimental catchment in Ireland was selected to test the soil erosion model. The simulation results show a good agreement between estimated and observed soil loss in complex land surface conditions. The simulations incorporated dynamic soil properties demonstrate more accurate soil erosion simulation. The coupled model could be extended to more broad applications, such as evaluation of anthropogenic activities, estimation of influences of soil disturbances and long term soil evolution.

  7. Soil detachment by overland flow under different vegetation restoration models in the loess plateau of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use change has significant effects on soil properties and vegetation cover and thus probably affects soil detachment by overland flow. Few studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of restoration models on the soil detachment process in the Loess Plateau in the past decade during which a Gr...

  8. Modeling the Effect of Vegetation on Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y. P.; Inguva, R.; Crosson, W. L.; Coleman, T. L.; Laymon, C.; Fahsi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of vegetation on passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture is studied. The radiative transfer modeling work of Njoku and Kong is applied to a stratified medium of which the upper layer is treated as a layer of vegetation. An effective dielectric constant for this vegetation layer is computed using estimates of the dielectric constant of individual components of the vegetation layer. The horizontally-polarized brightness temperature is then computed as a function of the incidence angle. Model predictions are used to compare with the data obtained in the Huntsville '96, remote sensing of soil moisture experiment, and with predictions obtained using a correction procedure of Jackson and Schmugge.

  9. Measuring and modelling water related soil-vegetation feedbacks in a fallow plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, N.; Cassiani, G.; Deiana, R.; Vignoli, G.; Boaga, J.

    2013-08-01

    Land fallowing is one possible response to shortage of water for irrigation. Leaving the soil unseeded implies a change of the soil functioning that has an impact on the water cycle. The development of a soil crust in the open spaces between the patterns of grass weed affects the soil properties and the field scale water balance. The objectives of this study are to test the potential of integrated non invasive geophysical methods and ground-image analysis and to quantify the effect of the soil vegetation interaction on the water balance of a fallow land at the local and plot scale. We measured repeatedly in space and time local soil saturation and vegetation cover over two small plots located in southern Sardinia, Italy, during a controlled irrigation experiment. One plot was left unseeded and the other was cultivated. The comparative analysis of ERT maps of soil moisture evidenced a considerably different hydrologic response to irrigation of the two plots. Local measurements of soil saturation and vegetation cover were repeated in space to evidence a positive feedback between weed growth and infiltration at the fallow plot. A simple bucket model captured the different soil moisture dynamics at the two plots during the infiltration experiment and was used to estimate the impact of the soil vegetation feedback on the yearly water balance at the fallow site.

  10. Measuring and modeling water-related soil-vegetation feedbacks in a fallow plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, N.; Cassiani, G.; Deiana, R.; Vignoli, G.; Boaga, J.

    2014-03-01

    Land fallowing is one possible response to shortage of water for irrigation. Leaving the soil unseeded implies a change of the soil functioning that has an impact on the water cycle. The development of a soil crust in the open spaces between the patterns of grass weed affects the soil properties and the field-scale water balance. The objectives of this study are to test the potential of integrated non-invasive geophysical methods and ground-image analysis and to quantify the effect of the soil-vegetation interaction on the water balance of fallow land at the local- and plot scale. We measured repeatedly in space and time local soil saturation and vegetation cover over two small plots located in southern Sardinia, Italy, during a controlled irrigation experiment. One plot was left unseeded and the other was cultivated. The comparative analysis of ERT maps of soil moisture evidenced a considerably different hydrologic response to irrigation of the two plots. Local measurements of soil saturation and vegetation cover were repeated in space to evidence a positive feedback between weed growth and infiltration at the fallow plot. A simple bucket model captured the different soil moisture dynamics at the two plots during the infiltration experiment and was used to estimate the impact of the soil vegetation feedback on the yearly water balance at the fallow site.

  11. Modeling the effects of vegetation on methane oxidation and emissions through soil landfill final covers across different climates.

    PubMed

    Abichou, Tarek; Kormi, Tarek; Yuan, Lei; Johnson, Terry; Francisco, Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Plant roots are reported to enhance the aeration of soil by creating secondary macropores which improve the diffusion of oxygen into soil as well as the supply of methane to bacteria. Therefore, methane oxidation can be improved considerably by the soil structuring processes of vegetation, along with the increase of organic biomass in the soil associated with plant roots. This study consisted of using a numerical model that combines flow of water and heat with gas transport and oxidation in soils, to simulate methane emission and oxidation through simulated vegetated and non-vegetated landfill covers under different climatic conditions. Different simulations were performed using different methane loading flux (5-200 g m(-2) d(-1)) as the bottom boundary. The lowest modeled surface emissions were always obtained with vegetated soil covers for all simulated climates. The largest differences in simulated surface emissions between the vegetated and non-vegetated scenarios occur during the growing season. Higher average yearly percent oxidation was obtained in simulations with vegetated soil covers as compared to non-vegetated scenario. The modeled effects of vegetation on methane surface emissions and percent oxidation were attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) increase in methane oxidation associated with the change of the physical properties of the upper vegetative layer and (2) increase in organic matter associated with vegetated soil layers. Finally, correlations between percent oxidation and methane loading into simulated vegetated and non-vegetated covers were proposed to allow decision makers to compare vegetated versus non-vegetated soil landfill covers. These results were obtained using a modeling study with several simplifying assumptions that do not capture the complexities of vegetated soils under field conditions. PMID:25475118

  12. Measuring and Modelling water related soil - vegetation feedbacks in a fallow plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, Nadia; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Vignoli, Giulio; Boaga, Jacopo

    2013-04-01

    Land fallowing is one possible response to shortage of water for irrigation. Leaving the soil unseeded implies a change of the soil functioning that has an impact on the water cycle. The development of a soil crust in the open spaces between the patterns of grass weed affects the soil properties and the field scale water balance. The objective of this study was to test the potential of integrated non invasive geophysics and ground-image analysis and to quantify the effect of the soil vegetation interaction on the water balance of a fallow land at the local and plot scale. We measured repeatedly in space and time local soil saturation and vegetation cover over two small plots located in southern Sardinia, Italy, during an infiltration experiment. One plot was left unseeded and the other was cultivated. The comparative analysis of the experimental data evidenced a positive feedback between weed growth and infiltration at the fallow plot. A simple bucket model captured the different soil moisture dynamics at the two plots during the infiltration experiment and was used to estimate the impact of the soil vegetation feedback on the yearly water balance at the site.

  13. Modeling carbon dynamics in vegetation and soil under the impact of soil erosion and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuguang; Bliss, Norman; Sundquist, Eric; Huntington, Thomas G.

    2003-06-01

    Soil erosion and deposition may play important roles in balancing the global atmospheric carbon budget through their impacts on the net exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Few models and studies have been designed to assess these impacts. In this study, we developed a general ecosystem model, Erosion-Deposition-Carbon-Model (EDCM), to dynamically simulate the influences of rainfall-induced soil erosion and deposition on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in soil profiles. EDCM was applied to several landscape positions in the Nelson Farm watershed in Mississippi, including ridge top (without erosion or deposition), eroding hillslopes, and depositional sites that had been converted from native forests to croplands in 1870. Erosion reduced the SOC storage at the eroding sites and deposition increased the SOC storage at the depositional areas compared with the site without erosion or deposition. Results indicated that soils were consistently carbon sources to the atmosphere at all landscape positions from 1870 to 1950, with lowest source strength at the eroding sites (13 to 24 gC m-2 yr-1), intermediate at the ridge top (34 gC m-2 yr-1), and highest at the depositional sites (42 to 49 gC m-2 yr-1). During this period, erosion reduced carbon emissions via dynamically replacing surface soil with subsurface soil that had lower SOC contents (quantity change) and higher passive SOC fractions (quality change). Soils at all landscape positions became carbon sinks from 1950 to 1997 due to changes in management practices (e.g., intensification of fertilization and crop genetic improvement). The sink strengths were highest at the eroding sites (42 to 44 gC m-2 yr-1), intermediate at the ridge top (35 gC m-2 yr-1), and lowest at the depositional sites (26 to 29 gC m-2 yr-1). During this period, erosion enhanced carbon uptake at the eroding sites by continuously taking away a fraction of SOC that can be replenished with enhanced plant residue input. Overall, soil erosion and deposition reduced CO2 emissions from the soil into the atmosphere by exposing low carbon-bearing soil at eroding sites and by burying SOC at depositional sites. The results suggest that failing to account for the impact of soil erosion and deposition may potentially contribute to an overestimation of both the total historical carbon released from soils owing to land use change and the contemporary carbon sequestration rates at the eroding sites.

  14. Modeling carbon dynamics in vegetation and soil under the impact of soil erosion and deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, S.; Bliss, N.; Sundquist, E.; Huntington, T.G.

    2003-01-01

    Soil erosion and deposition may play important roles in balancing the global atmospheric carbon budget through their impacts on the net exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere. Few models and studies have been designed to assess these impacts. In this study, we developed a general ecosystem model, Erosion-Deposition-Carbon-Model (EDCM), to dynamically simulate the influences of rainfall-induced soil erosion and deposition on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in soil profiles. EDCM was applied to several landscape positions in the Nelson Farm watershed in Mississippi, including ridge top (without erosion or deposition), eroding hillslopes, and depositional sites that had been converted from native forests to croplands in 1870. Erosion reduced the SOC storage at the eroding sites and deposition increased the SOC storage at the depositional areas compared with the site without erosion or deposition. Results indicated that soils were consistently carbon sources to the atmosphere at all landscape positions from 1870 to 1950, with lowest source strength at the eroding sites (13 to 24 gC m-2 yr-1), intermediate at the ridge top (34 gC m-2 yr-1), and highest at the depositional sites (42 to 49 gC m-2 yr-1). During this period, erosion reduced carbon emissions via dynamically replacing surface soil with subsurface soil that had lower SOC contents (quantity change) and higher passive SOC fractions (quality change). Soils at all landscape positions became carbon sinks from 1950 to 1997 due to changes in management practices (e.g., intensification of fertilization and crop genetic improvement). The sink strengths were highest at the eroding sites (42 to 44 gC m-2 yr-1 , intermediate at the ridge top (35 gC m-2 yr-1), and lowest at the depositional sites (26 to 29 gC m-2 yr-1). During this period, erosion enhanced carbon uptake at the eroding sites by continuously taking away a fraction of SOC that can be replenished with enhanced plant residue input. Overall, soil erosion and deposition reduced CO2 emissions from the soil into the atmosphere by exposing low carbon-bearing soil at eroding sites and by burying SOC at depositional sites. The results suggest that failing to account for the impact of soil erosion and deposition may potentially contribute to an overestimation of both the total historical carbon released from soils owing to land use change and the contemporary carbon sequestration rates at the eroding sites.

  15. Modeling Vegetation as a Dynamic COMPONENT in Soil-Vegetation TRANSFER Schemes and Hydrological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Vivek

    2002-05-01

    Vegetation affects the climate by modifying the energy, momentum, and hydrologic balance of the land surface. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) schemes explicitly consider the role of vegetation in affecting water and energy balance by taking into account its physiological properties, in particular, leaf area index (LAI) and stomatal conductance. These two physiological properties are also the basis of evapotranspiration parameterizations in physically based hydrological models. However, most current SVAT schemes and hydrological models do not parameterize vegetation as a dynamic component. The seasonal evolution of LAI is prescribed, and monthly LAI values are kept constant year after year. The effect of CO2 on the structure and physiological properties of vegetation is also neglected, which is likely to be important in transient climate simulations with increasing CO2 concentration and for hydrological models that are used to study climate change impact. The net carbon uptake by vegetation, which is the difference between photosynthesis and respiration, is allocated to leaves, stems, and roots. Carbon allocation to leaves determines their biomass and LAI. The timing of bud burst, leaf senescence, and leaf abscission (i.e., the phenology) determines the length of the growing season. Together, photosynthesis, respiration, allocation, and phenology, which are all strongly dependent on environmental conditions, make vegetation a dynamic component. This paper (1) familiarizes the reader with the basic physical processes associated with the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere using simple nonbiogeochemical terminology, (2) summarizes the range of parameterizations used to model these processes in the current generation of process-based vegetation and plant growth models and discusses their suitability for inclusion in SVAT schemes and hydrological models, and (3) illustrates the manner in which the coupling of vegetation models and SVAT schemes/hydrological models may be accomplished.

  16. Developing risk models of Cryptosporidium transport in soils from vegetated, tilted soilbox experiments.

    PubMed

    Harter, Thomas; Atwill, Edward R; Hou, Lingling; Karle, Betsy M; Tate, Kenneth W

    2008-01-01

    Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum through macroporous soils is poorly understood yet critical for assessing the risk of groundwater contamination. We developed a conceptual model of the physics of flow and transport in packed, tilted, and vegetated soilboxes during and immediately after a simulated rainfall event and applied it to 54 experiments implemented with different soils, slopes, and rainfall rates. Using a parsimonious inverse modeling procedure, we show that a significant amount of subsurface outflow from the soilboxes is due to macropore flow. The effective hydraulic properties of the macropore space were obtained by calibration of a simple two-domain flow and transport model that accounts for coupled flow in the matrix and in the macropores of the soils. Using linear mixed-effects analysis, macropore hydraulic properties and oocyst attenuation were shown to be associated with soil bulk density and rainfall rate. Macropore flow was shown to be responsible for bromide and C. parvum transport through the soil into the underlying pore space observed during the 4-h experiments. We confirmed this finding by conducting a pair of saturated soil column studies under homogeneously repacked conditions with no macropores in which no C. parvum transport was observed in the effluent. The linear mixed-effects and logistic regression models developed from the soilbox experiments provide a basis for estimating macropore hydraulic properties and the risk of C. parvum transport through shallow soils from bulk density, precipitation, and total shallow subsurface flow rate. The risk assessment is consistent with the reported occurrence of oocysts in springs or groundwater from fractured or karstic rocks protected only by shallow overlying soils. PMID:18178898

  17. Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) and Sediment Discharge Validation in a small, Pacific Northwestern Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggett, B. W.; Stubblefield, A. P.; Dhakal, A. S.; Sullivan, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Distributed Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) and its sediment production prediction capabilities are evaluated in a small, gaged, timber-production watershed in northwestern California. McReady Creek drains a 5 km2 basin dominated by coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). Forest soils are fine grained and poorly consolidated marine sediments approximately 40 kya. Stream and sediment discharge data collected by Humboldt State University and Humboldt Redwoods Company (HRC) from 2003 to present were used to calibrate and validate DHSVM. Model parameters like forest stand (over- and understory height, fractional coverage, monthly LAI, etc) and soil characteristics (porosity, bulk density, field capacity, etc) were measured via in-field investigations or gathered by HRC through timber cruising activities. All data was gridded to 10 meters for the analysis. Forest stand data was manipulated throughout the model run to reflect the operational nature of the watershed. Modeled stream discharge will be evaluated against observed discharge on an event by event basis, as well as against weekly and monthly totals. Modeled sediment discharge will be evaluated on a similar basis, including total annual sediment discharge. Sources of potential incoherence between modeled and observed data may be road density (6.7 km / km2) and road/stream connectivity or the presence of legacy forest practices that still produce sediment within the basin. Further work will involve field investigations that will clarify road/stream connectivity and legacy sediment production zones.

  18. Smart plants, smart models? On adaptive responses in vegetation-soil systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Teuling, Ryan; van Dam, Nicole; de Rooij, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological models that will be able to cope with future precipitation and evapotranspiration regimes need a solid base describing the essence of the processes involved [1]. The essence of emerging patterns at large scales often originates from micro-behaviour in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. A complicating factor in capturing this behaviour is the constant interaction between vegetation and geology in which water plays a key role. The resilience of the coupled vegetation-soil system critically depends on its sensitivity to environmental changes. To assess root water uptake by plants in a changing soil environment, a direct indication of the amount of energy required by plants to take up water can be obtained by measuring the soil water potential in the vicinity of roots with polymer tensiometers [2]. In a lysimeter experiment with various levels of imposed water stress the polymer tensiometer data suggest maize roots regulate their root water uptake on the derivative of the soil water retention curve, rather than the amount of moisture alone. As a result of environmental changes vegetation may wither and die, or these changes may instead trigger gene adaptation. Constant exposure to environmental stresses, biotic or abiotic, influences plant physiology, gene adaptations, and flexibility in gene adaptation [3-7]. To investigate a possible relation between plant genotype, the plant stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the soil water potential, a proof of principle experiment was set up with Solanum Dulcamare plants. The results showed a significant difference in ABA response between genotypes from a dry and a wet environment, and this response was also reflected in the root water uptake. Adaptive responses may have consequences for the way species are currently being treated in models (single plant to global scale). In particular, model parameters that control root water uptake and plant transpiration are generally assumed to be a property of the plant functional type. Assigning plant functional types does not allow for local plant adaptation to be reflected in the model parameters, nor does it allow for correlations that might exist between root parameters and soil type. [1] Seibert, J. 2000. Multi-criteria calibration of a conceptual runoff model using a genetic algorithm. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 4(2): 215-224. [2] Van der Ploeg, M.J., H.P.A. Gooren, G. Bakker, C.W. Hoogendam, C. Huiskes, L.K. Koopal, H. Kruidhof and G.H. de Rooij. 2010. Polymer tensiometers with ceramic cones: performance in drying soils and comparison with water-filled tensiometers and time domain reflectometry. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 14: 1787-1799, doi: 10.5194/hess-14-1787-2010. [3] McClintock B. The significance of responses of the genome to challenge. Science 1984; 226: 792-801 [4] Ries G, Heller W, Puchta H, Sandermann H, Seldlitz HK, Hohn B. Elevated UV-B radiation reduces genome stability in plants. Nature 2000; 406: 98-101 [5] Lucht JM, Mauch-Mani B, Steiner H-Y, Metraux J-P, Ryals, J, Hohn B. Pathogen stress increases somatic recombination frequency in Arabidopsis. Nature Genet. 2002; 30: 311-314 [6] Kovalchuk I, Kovalchuk O, Kalck V., Boyko V, Filkowski J, Heinlein M, Hohn B. Pathogen-induced systemic plant signal triggers DNA rearrangements. Nature 2003; 423: 760-762 [7] Cullis C A. Mechanisms and control of rapid genomic changes in flax. Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 2005; 95: 201-206

  19. A climate sensitive model of carbon transfer through atmosphere, vegetation and soil in managed forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loustau, D.; Moreaux, V.; Bosc, A.; Trichet, P.; Kumari, J.; Rabemanantsoa, T.; Balesdent, J.; Jolivet, C.; Medlyn, B. E.; Cavaignac, S.; Nguyen-The, N.

    2012-12-01

    For predicting the future of the forest carbon cycle in forest ecosystems, it is necessary to account for both the climate and management impacts. Climate effects are significant not only at a short time scale but also at the temporal horizon of a forest life cycle e.g. through shift in atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature and precipitation regimes induced by the enhanced greenhouse effect. Intensification of forest management concerns an increasing fraction of temperate and tropical forests and untouched forests represents only one third of the present forest area. Predicting tools are therefore needed to project climate and management impacts over the forest life cycle and understand the consequence of management on the forest ecosystem carbon cycle. This communication summarizes the structure, main components and properties of a carbon transfer model that describes the processes controlling the carbon cycle of managed forest ecosystems. The model, GO+, links three main components, (i) a module describing the vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges in 3D, (ii) a plant growth module and a (iii) soil carbon dynamics module in a consistent carbon scheme of transfer from atmosphere back into the atmosphere. It was calibrated and evaluated using observed data collected on coniferous and broadleaved forest stands. The model predicts the soil, water and energy balance of entire rotations of managed stands from the plantation to the final cut and according to a range of management alternatives. It accounts for the main soil and vegetation management operations such as soil preparation, understorey removal, thinnings and clearcutting. Including the available knowledge on the climatic sensitivity of biophysical and biogeochemical processes involved in atmospheric exchanges and carbon cycle of forest ecosystems, GO+ can produce long-term backward or forward simulations of forest carbon and water cycles under a range of climate and management scenarios. This model applications to the prediction and analysis of climate scenarios impacts on southwestern European forests underlines the role of management alternatives, precipitation regime, CO2 concentration and atmospheric humidity .Frequency of soil preparation operations and understorey management play a major role in controlling the net carbon flux into the atmosphere at the juvenile stage ( 0 to 10 y-old) whereas climate and rotation duration control the functioning of adult phase. The model predicts that a drier and warmer climate will reduce the forest productivity and deplete soil and carbon stocks in managed forest from Southwestern Europe within decades, such effects being amplified for most intensive management alternatives. This work was part of the European research project GHG-Europe (EU contract No. 244122) and the French national project FAST co-funded by the Ecology, Agriculture and Forestry Ministries and the Region Aquitaine.

  20. Mapping crop evapotranspiration by integrating vegetation indices into a soil water balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consoli, Simona; Vanella, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    The approach combines the basal crop coefficient (Kcb) derived from vegetation indices (VIs) with the daily soil water balance, as proposed in the FAO-56 paper, to estimate daily crop evapotranspiration (ETc) rates of orange trees. The reliability of the approach to detect water stress was also assessed. VIs were simultaneously retrieved from WorldView-2 imagery and hyper-spectral data collected in the field for comparison. ETc estimated were analysed at the light of independent measurements of the same fluxes by an eddy covariance (EC) system located in the study area. The soil water depletion in the root zone of the crop simulated by the model was also validated by using an in situ soil water monitoring. Average overestimate of daily ETc of 6% was obtained from the proposed approach with respect to EC measurements, evidencing a quite satisfactory agreement between data. The model also detected several periods of light stress for the crop under study, corresponding to an increase of the root zone water deficit matching quite well the in situ soil water monitoring. The overall outcomes of this study showed that the FAO-56 approach with remote sensing-derived basal crop coefficient can have the potential to be applied for estimating crop water requirements and enhancing water management strategies in agricultural contexts.

  1. Effects of ionic strength, particle size, flow rate, and vegetation type on colloid transport through a dense vegetation saturated soil system: Experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Congrong; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Gao, Bin; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2013-08-01

    Colloids are widely distributed in agricultural runoff, especially from croplands with manure applications. Dense vegetation has been suggested to be effective to reduce surface runoff contaminants, including colloidal particles. In this work, small scale laboratory experiments were used to determine the influence of physical and chemical factors (i.e. solution ionic strength, particle size, surface flow rate, and vegetation type) on the surface transport and removal of colloids in a dense vegetation system without drainage. Conservative tracer studies of bromide were conducted as a control to quantify the deposition of colloids onto grass surfaces and the mass exchange of colloids between the overland flow and soil underneath under various experimental conditions. The deposition of colloids enhanced with increases in solution ionic strength and particle size, and with decreases in flow rate. We also found vegetation type played an important role on colloid transport with more deposition onto Ryegrass than onto Bahia grass under the same experimental conditions. A mathematical model combining overland flow, convection-dispersion equations and exchange layer theory was developed to simulate the transport of colloids in overland flow through the dense vegetation. Simulations of the model fitted the experimental data well and helped to understand the effect of ionic strength, particle size, flow rate, and vegetation type on colloid transport and removal in dense vegetation. Although additional investigations are still needed, findings from this study can inform the installation and maintenance of dense vegetation systems, such as vegetative filter strips, to reduce the loading of colloids in surface runoff.

  2. Soil erosion modelled with USLE and PESERA using QuickBird derived vegetation parameters in an alpine catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meusburger, K.; Konz, N.; Schaub, M.; Alewell, C.

    2010-06-01

    The focus of soil erosion research in the Alps has been in two categories: (i) on-site measurements, which are rather small scale point measurements on selected plots often constrained to irrigation experiments or (ii) off-site quantification of sediment delivery at the outlet of the catchment. Results of both categories pointed towards the importance of an intact vegetation cover to prevent soil loss. With the recent availability of high-resolution satellites such as IKONOS and QuickBird options for detecting and monitoring vegetation parameters in heterogeneous terrain have increased. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of QuickBird derived vegetation parameters in soil erosion models for alpine sites by comparison to Cesium-137 (Cs-137) derived soil erosion estimates. The study site (67 km 2) is located in the Central Swiss Alps (Urseren Valley) and is characterised by scarce forest cover and strong anthropogenic influences due to grassland farming for centuries. A fractional vegetation cover (FVC) map for grassland and detailed land-cover maps are available from linear spectral unmixing and supervised classification of QuickBird imagery. The maps were introduced to the Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA) model as well as to the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Regarding the latter model, the FVC was indirectly incorporated by adapting the C factor. Both models show an increase in absolute soil erosion values when FVC is considered. In contrast to USLE and the Cs-137 soil erosion rates, PESERA estimates are low. For the USLE model also the spatial patterns improved and showed "hotspots" of high erosion of up to 16 t ha -1 a -1. In conclusion field measurements of Cs-137 confirmed the improvement of soil erosion estimates using the satellite-derived vegetation data.

  3. Prediction of Mass Wasting, Erosion, and Sediment Transport With the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doten, C. O.; Lanini, J. S.; Bowling, L. C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2004-12-01

    Erosion and sediment transport in a temperate forested watershed are predicted with a new sediment module linked to the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM). The DHSVM sediment module represents the main sources of sediment generation in forested environments: mass wasting, hillslope erosion and road surface erosion. It produces failures based on a factor-of-safety analysis with the infinite slope model through use of stochastically generated soil and vegetation parameters. Failed material is routed downslope with a rule-based scheme that determines sediment delivery to streams. Sediment from hillslopes and road surfaces is also transported to the channel network. Basin sediment yield is predicted with a simple channel sediment routing scheme. The model was applied to the Rainy Creek catchment, a tributary of the Wenatchee River which drains the east slopes of the Cascade Mountains, and Hard and Ware Creeks on the west slopes of the Cascades. In these initial applications, the model produced plausible sediment yield and ratios of landsliding and surface erosion , when compared to published rates for similar catchments in the Pacific Northwest. We have also used the model to examine the implications of fires and logging road removal on sediment generation in the Rainy Creek catchment. Generally, in absolute value, the predicted changes (increased sediment generation) following fires, which are primarily associated with increased slope failures, are much larger than the modest changes (reductions in sediment yield) associated with road obliteration, although the small sensitivity to forest road obliteration may be due in part to the relatively low road density in the Rainy Creek catchment, and to mechanisms, such as culvert failure, that are not represented in the model.

  4. The influence of soil type, vegetation cover and soil moisture on spin up behaviour of a land surface model in a monsoonal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Anwesha; Mandal, Manabottam

    2015-04-01

    Model spin-up is the process through which the model is adequately equilibrated to ensure balance between the mass fields and velocity fields. In this study, an offline one dimensional Noah land surface model is integrated recursively for three years to assess its spin-up behavior at different sites over the Indian Monsoon domain. Several numerical experiments are performed to investigate the impact of soil category, vegetation cover, initial soil moisture and subsequent dry or wet condition on model spin-up. These include simulations with the dominant soil and vegetation covers of this region, different initial soil moisture content (observed soil moisture; dry soil; moderately wet soil; saturated soil), simulations initialized at different rain conditions (no rain; infrequent rain; continuous rain) and different seasons (Winter, Spring, Summer/Pre-Monsoon, Monsoon and Autumn). It is seen that the spin-up behavior of the model depends on the soil type and vegetation cover with soil characteristics having the larger influence. Over India, the model has the longest spin-up in the case of simulations with loamy soil covered with mixed-shrub. It is noted that the model has a significantly longer spin-up when initialized with very low initial soil moisture content than with higher soil moisture content. It is also seen that in general, simulations initialized just before a continuous rainfall event have the least spin-up time. This observation is reinforced by the results from the simulations initialized in different seasons. It is seen that for monsoonal region, the model spin-up time is least for simulations initialized just before the Monsoon. Model initialized during the Monsoon rain episodes has a longer spin-up than that initialized in any other season. Furthermore, it is seen that the model has a shorter spin-up if it reaches the equilibrium state predominantly via drying process and could be as low as two months under quasi-equilibrium condition depending on the time of initialization.

  5. Levels of tritium in soils and vegetation near Canadian nuclear facilities releasing tritium to the atmosphere: implications for environmental models.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P A; Kwamena, N-O A; Ilin, M; Wilk, M; Clark, I D

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT]plant) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT]soil) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT]plant/[OBT]soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative. PMID:25461522

  6. [Advance in researches on vegetation cover and management factor in the soil erosion prediction model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Jianping; Liu, Baoyuan

    2002-08-01

    Vegetation cover and land management are the main limiting factors of soil erosion, and quantitative evaluation on the effect of different vegetation on soil erosion is essential to land use and soil conservation planning. The vegetation cover and management factor (C) in the universal soil loss equation (USLE) is an index to evaluate this effect, which has been studied deeply and used widely. However, the C factor study is insufficient in China. In order to strengthen the research of C factor, this paper reviewed the developing progress of C factor, and compared the methods of estimating C value in different USLE versions. The relative studies in China were also summarized from the aspects of vegetation canopy coverage, soil surface cover, and root density. Three problems in C factor study were pointed out. The authors suggested that cropland C factor research should be furthered, and its methodology should be unified in China to represent reliable C values for soil loss prediction and conservation planning. PMID:12418270

  7. Radar for Measuring Soil Moisture Under Vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam, Mahta; Moller, Delwyn; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    A two-frequency, polarimetric, spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system has been proposed for measuring the moisture content of soil as a function of depth, even in the presence of overlying vegetation. These measurements are needed because data on soil moisture under vegetation canopies are not available now and are necessary for completing mathematical models of global energy and water balance with major implications for global variations in weather and climate.

  8. Soil Moisture and Vegetation Controls on Surface Energy Balance Using the Maximum Entropy Production Model of Evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Parolari, A.; Huang, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to formulate and test plant water stress parameterizations for the recently proposed maximum entropy production (MEP) model of evapotranspiration (ET) over vegetated surfaces. . The MEP model of ET is a parsimonious alternative to existing land surface parameterizations of surface energy fluxes from net radiation, temperature, humidity, and a small number of parameters. The MEP model was previously tested for vegetated surfaces under well-watered and dry, dormant conditions, when the surface energy balance is relatively insensitive to plant physiological activity. Under water stressed conditions, however, the plant water stress response strongly affects the surface energy balance. This effect occurs through plant physiological adjustments that reduce ET to maintain leaf turgor pressure as soil moisture is depleted during drought. To improve MEP model of ET predictions under water stress conditions, the model was modified to incorporate this plant-mediated feedback between soil moisture and ET. We compare MEP model predictions to observations under a range of field conditions, including bare soil, grassland, and forest. The results indicate a water stress function that combines the soil water potential in the surface soil layer with the atmospheric humidity successfully reproduces observed ET decreases during drought. In addition to its utility as a modeling tool, the calibrated water stress functions also provide a means to infer ecosystem influence on the land surface state. Challenges associated with sampling model input data (i.e., net radiation, surface temperature, and surface humidity) are also discussed.

  9. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

    2014-06-01

    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  10. Thermal remote sensing of surface soil water content with partial vegetation cover for incorporation into climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Gillies, R.R.; Carlson, T.N.

    1995-04-01

    This study outlines a method for the estimation of regional patterns of surface moisture availability (M(sub 0)) and fractional vegetation (Fr) in the presence of spatially variable vegetation cover. The method requires relating variations in satellite-derived (NOAA, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)) surface radiant temperature to a vegetation index (computed from satellite visible and near-infrared data) while coupling this association to an inverse modeling scheme. More than merely furnishing surface soil moisture values, the method constitues a new conceptual and practical approach for combining thermal infrared and vegetation index measurements for incorporating the derived values of M(sub 0) into hydrologic and atmospheric prediction models. Application of the technique is demonstrated for a region in and around the city of Newcastle upon Tyne situated in the northeast of England. A regional estimate of M(sub 0) is derived and is probabbly good for fractional vegetation cover up to 80% before errors in the estimated soil water content become unacceptably large. Moreover, a normalization scheme is suggested from which a nomogram, `universal triangle,` is constructed and is seen to fit the observed data well. The universal triangle also simplifies the inclusion of remotely derived M(sub 0) in hydrology and meteorological models and is perhaps a practicable step toward integrating derived data from satellite measurements in weather forecasting.

  11. Thermal remote sensing of surface soil water content with partial vegetation cover for incorporation into climate models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Robert R.; Carlson, Toby N.

    1995-01-01

    This study outlines a method for the estimation of regional patterns of surface moisture availability (M(sub 0)) and fractional vegetation (Fr) in the presence of spatially variable vegetation cover. The method requires relating variations in satellite-derived (NOAA, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)) surface radiant temperature to a vegetation index (computed from satellite visible and near-infrared data) while coupling this association to an inverse modeling scheme. More than merely furnishing surface soil moisture values, the method constitues a new conceptual and practical approach for combining thermal infrared and vegetation index measurements for incorporating the derived values of M(sub 0) into hydrologic and atmospheric prediction models. Application of the technique is demonstrated for a region in and around the city of Newcastle upon Tyne situated in the northeast of England. A regional estimate of M(sub 0) is derived and is probabbly good for fractional vegetation cover up to 80% before errors in the estimated soil water content become unacceptably large. Moreover, a normalization scheme is suggested from which a nomogram, `universal triangle,' is constructed and is seen to fit the observed data well. The universal triangle also simplifies the inclusion of remotely derived M(sub 0) in hydrology and meteorological models and is perhaps a practicable step toward integrating derived data from satellite measurements in weather forecasting.

  12. Spatiotemporal analysis of urban environment based on the vegetation-impervious surface-soil model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huadong; Huang, Qingni; Li, Xinwu; Sun, Zhongchang; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    This study explores a spatiotemporal comparative analysis of urban agglomeration, comparing the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) of Canada and the city of Tianjin in China. The vegetation-impervious surface-soil (V-I-S) model is used to quantify the ecological composition of urban/peri-urban environments with multitemporal Landsat images (3 stages, 18 scenes) and LULC data from 1985 to 2005. The support vector machine algorithm and several knowledge-based methods are applied to get the V-I-S component fractions at high accuracies. The statistical results show that the urban expansion in the GTHA occurred mainly between 1985 and 1999, and only two districts revealed increasing trends for impervious surfaces for the period from 1999 to 2005. In contrast, Tianjin has been experiencing rapid urban sprawl at all stages and this has been accelerating since 1999. The urban growth patterns in the GTHA evolved from a monocentric and dispersed pattern to a polycentric and aggregated pattern, while in Tianjin it changed from monocentric to polycentric. Central Tianjin has become more centralized, while most other municipal areas have developed dispersed patterns. The GTHA also has a higher level of greenery and a more balanced ecological environment than Tianjin. These differences in the two areas may play an important role in urban planning and decision-making in developing countries.

  13. Representing the effects of alpine grassland vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics by ecosystem models applied to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yi, S.; Li, N.; Xiang, B.; Wang, X.; Ye, B.; McGuire, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Soil surface temperature is a critical boundary condition for the simulation of soil temperature by environmental models. It is influenced by atmospheric and soil conditions and by vegetation cover. In sophisticated land surface models, it is simulated iteratively by solving surface energy budget equations. In ecosystem, permafrost, and hydrology models, the consideration of soil surface temperature is generally simple. In this study, we developed a methodology for representing the effects of vegetation cover and atmospheric factors on the estimation of soil surface temperature for alpine grassland ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Our approach integrated measurements from meteorological stations with simulations from a sophisticated land surface model to develop an equation set for estimating soil surface temperature. After implementing this equation set into an ecosystem model and evaluating the performance of the ecosystem model in simulating soil temperature at different depths in the soil profile, we applied the model to simulate interactions among vegetation cover, freeze-thaw cycles, and soil erosion to demonstrate potential applications made possible through the implementation of the methodology developed in this study. Results showed that (1) to properly estimate daily soil surface temperature, algorithms should use air temperature, downward solar radiation, and vegetation cover as independent variables; (2) the equation set developed in this study performed better than soil surface temperature algorithms used in other models; and (3) the ecosystem model performed well in simulating soil temperature throughout the soil profile using the equation set developed in this study. Our application of the model indicates that the representation in ecosystem models of the effects of vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics has the potential to substantially improve our understanding of the vulnerability of alpine grassland ecosystems to changes in climate and grazing regimes.

  14. Sensitivity analysis of a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model parameterised for a British floodplain meadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P. J.; Verhoef, A.; Van der Tol, C.; Macdonald, D.

    2011-12-01

    Rationale: Floodplain meadows are highly species-rich grassland ecosystems, unique in that their vegetation and soil structures have been shaped and maintained by ~1,000 yrs of traditional, low-intensity agricultural management. Widespread development on floodplains over the last two centuries has left few remaining examples of these once commonplace ecosystems and they are afforded high conservation value by British and European agencies. Increased incidences and severity of summer drought and winter flooding in Britain in recent years have placed floodplain plant communities under stress through altered soil moisture regimes. There is a clear need for improved management strategies if the last remaining British floodplain meadows are to be conserved under changing climates. Aim: As part of the Floodplain Underground Sensors Experiment (FUSE, a 3-year project funded by the Natural Environment Research Council) we aim to understand the environmental controls over soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfers (SVAT) of water, CO2 and energy at Yarnton Mead, a floodplain meadow in southern England. An existing model, SCOPE (Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes; van der Tol et al., 2009), uses remotely-sensed infrared radiance spectra to predict heat and water transfers between a vegetation canopy and the atmosphere. We intend to expand SCOPE by developing a more realistic, physically-based representation of water, gas and energy transfers between soil and vegetation. This improved understanding will eventually take the form of a new submodel within SCOPE, allowing more rigorous estimation of soil-canopy-atmosphere exchanges for the site using predominantly remotely-sensed data. In this context a number of existing SVAT models will be tested and compared to ensure that only reliable and robust underground model components will be coupled to SCOPE. Approach: For this study, we parameterised an existing and widely-used SVAT model (CoupModel; Jansson, 2011) for our study site and analysed the model's sensitivity to a comprehensive set of soil/plant biophysical processes and parameter values. Findings: The sensitivity analysis indicates those processes and parameters most important to soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfers at the site. We use the outcomes of the sensitivity analysis to indicate directly the desired structure of the new SCOPE submodel. In addition, existing soil-moisture, soil matric-potential and meteorological data for the site indicate that evapotranspiration is heavily water-limited during summer months, although soil moisture and soil matric-potential data alone provide very little explanation of the ratio of potential to actual evapotranspiration. A mechanistic representation of stomatal resistance and its response to short-term changes in meteorological conditions - independent of soil moisture status - will also likely improve SCOPE's predictions of heat and water transfers. Ultimately our work will contribute to improved understanding and management of floodplain meadows in Britain and elsewhere.

  15. A comparison of simulation models for predicting soil water dynamics in bare and vegetated lysimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Kickert, R.N.; Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes the results of simulation models used to predict soil water storage dynamics at the Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) weighing lysimeters. The objectives of this research is to develop the capability to predict soil water storage dynamics with plants in support of water infiltration control studies for the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program. It is important to gain confidence in one`s ability to simulate soil water dynamics over long time periods to assess the barrier`s ability to prevent drainage. Two models were compared for their ability to simulate soil water storage dynamics with and without plants in weighing lysimeters, the soil water infiltration and movement (SWIM) and the simulation of production and utilization of rangelands (SPUR-91) models. These models adequately simulated soil water storage dynamics for the weighing lysimeters. The range of root mean square error values for the two models was 7.0 to 19.8. This compares well with the range reported by Fayer et al. (1992) for the bare soil data sets of 8.1 to 22.1. Future research will test the predictive capability of these models for longer term lysimeter data sets and for historical data sets collected in various plant community types.

  16. Climate-Soil-Vegetation Control on Groundwater Table Dynamics and its Feedbacks in a Climate Model

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Qian, Yun; Liang, Xu

    2010-01-29

    Among the three dynamically linked branches of the water cycle, including atmospheric, surface, and subsurface water, groundwater is the largest reservoir and an active component of the hydrologic system. Because of the inherent slow response time, groundwater may be particularly relevant for long time-scale processes such as multi-years or decadal droughts. This study uses regional climate simulations with and without surface water – groundwater interactions for the conterminous U.S. to assess the influence of climate, soil, and vegetation on groundwater table dynamics, and its potential feedbacks to regional climate. Analysis shows that precipitation has a dominant influence on the spatial and temporal variations of groundwater table depth (GWT). The simulated GWT is found to decrease sharply with increasing precipitation. Our simulation also shows some distinct spatial variations that are related to soil porosity and hydraulic conductivity. Vegetation properties such as minimum stomatal resistance, and root depth and fraction are also found to play an important role in controlling the groundwater table. Comparing two simulations with and without groundwater table dynamics, we find that groundwater table dynamics mainly influences the partitioning of soil water between the surface (0 – 0.5 m) and subsurface (0.5 – 5 m) rather than total soil moisture. In most areas, groundwater table dynamics increases surface soil moisture at the expense of the subsurface, except in regions with very shallow groundwater table. The change in soil water partitioning between the surface and subsurface is found to strongly correlate with the partitioning of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. The evaporative fraction (EF) is generally higher during summer when groundwater table dynamics is included. This is accompanied by increased cloudiness, reduced diurnal temperature range, cooler surface temperature, and increased cloud top height. Although both convective and non-convective precipitation are enhanced, the higher EF changes the partitioning to favor more non-convective precipitation, but this result could be sensitive to the convective parameterization used. Compared to simulations without groundwater table dynamics, the dry bias in the summer precipitation is slightly reduced over the central and eastern U.S. Groundwater table dynamics can provide important feedbacks to atmospheric processes, and these feedbacks are stronger in regions with deeper groundwater table, because the interactions between surface and subsurface are weak when the groundwater table is deep. This increases the sensitivity of surface soil moisture to precipitation anomalies, and therefore enhances land surface feedbacks to the atmosphere through changes in soil moisture and evaporative fraction. By altering the groundwater table depth, land use change and groundwater withdrawal can alter land surface response and feedback to the climate system.

  17. Representing the effects of alpine grassland vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics by ecosystem models applied to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S.; Li, N.; Xiang, B.; Wang, X.; Ye, B.; McGuire, A. D.

    2013-07-01

    surface temperature is a critical boundary condition for the simulation of soil temperature by environmental models. It is influenced by atmospheric and soil conditions and by vegetation cover. In sophisticated land surface models, it is simulated iteratively by solving surface energy budget equations. In ecosystem, permafrost, and hydrology models, the consideration of soil surface temperature is generally simple. In this study, we developed a methodology for representing the effects of vegetation cover and atmospheric factors on the estimation of soil surface temperature for alpine grassland ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Our approach integrated measurements from meteorological stations with simulations from a sophisticated land surface model to develop an equation set for estimating soil surface temperature. After implementing this equation set into an ecosystem model and evaluating the performance of the ecosystem model in simulating soil temperature at different depths in the soil profile, we applied the model to simulate interactions among vegetation cover, freeze-thaw cycles, and soil erosion to demonstrate potential applications made possible through the implementation of the methodology developed in this study. Results showed that (1) to properly estimate daily soil surface temperature, algorithms should use air temperature, downward solar radiation, and vegetation cover as independent variables; (2) the equation set developed in this study performed better than soil surface temperature algorithms used in other models; and (3) the ecosystem model performed well in simulating soil temperature throughout the soil profile using the equation set developed in this study. Our application of the model indicates that the representation in ecosystem models of the effects of vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics has the potential to substantially improve our understanding of the vulnerability of alpine grassland ecosystems to changes in climate and grazing regimes.

  18. How to upscale the coupling between hydrology and vegetation at the hillslope scale with an equivalent soil-vegetation column model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maquin, Mathilde; Mugler, Claude; Mouche, Emmanuel; Ducharne, Agnès

    2014-05-01

    Three-dimensional watershed models coupled with land surface models have demonstrated the control of soil moisture over land energy fluxes, as evaporation and transpiration (Maxwell and Kollet, Nature Geoscience, 2008; Condon et al., Advances in Water Resources, 2013). However, due to computational costs, these fully integrated watershed models cannot be used at larger scales. Upscaling hydrological models can be an alternative to take into account the impact of groundwater hydrology on land energy fluxes at various scales. In this purpose, we propose a two-step upscaling methodology aiming to replace a hillslope model by an equivalent vertical soil column model suitable for land surface modelling. The hillslope reference model is based on a two-dimensional aquifer model (resolution of Richards' equation) combined with a representation of vegetation and climate forcing as boundary condition. In this system, two main hydrological processes corresponding to different time scales have to be distinguished: the vertical water transfer from roots to the atmosphere through the vegetation, and the longitudinal flow of the aquifer to the stream. In an upscaling approach, two options can be considered: one may accurately model the aquifer longitudinal flow but with a degraded model of vertical transfer, or inversely give a preferential treatment to the vertical flow. As the exchanges between soil, vegetation and atmosphere are strongly dependent on the vertical profile of water (through the distribution of roots), the second option appears to be more adapted to our objective which is the assessment of hillslope hydrology on land surface fluxes. In the first step of our upscaling methodology, the two-dimensional reference hillslope is modelled as a set of one-dimensional independent vertical soil vegetation columns. In each of them, Richards' equation is solved in the vertical direction, the representation of roots and climate forcing remaining unchanged. Moreover, a sink term is added to Richards' equation at the bottom of the column to model groundwater discharge to streams. Contrary to what has already been proposed (Liang et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 1994; Yeh and Eltahir, Journal of Climate, 2005; Niu et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 2007), this sink term is deduced from Darcy's law and Van Genuchten's relationships. Through the approximation of a linear groundwater table profile in two dimensions, a differential equation of the water table depth at a fixed distance from the river has been determined. It depends on topographic and soil parameters, and on the distance between the stream and the modelled column. Different types of soil and climate forcing (especially precipitations) have been tested in the above framework. Comparisons between the 2D reference model and a few 1D columns show good agreement in water table depth and evapotranspiration fluxes. This justifies using an equivalent column to replace the set of independent columns, with respect to evapotranspiration fluxes.

  19. Multi-year assessment of soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) modeling uncertainties over a Mediterranean agricultural site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J.-C.; Lafont, S.; Martin, E.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Bertrand, N.; Desfonds, V.; Renard, D.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation productivity and water balance of Mediterranean regions will be particularly affected by climate and land-use changes. In order to analyze and predict these changes through land surface models, a critical step is to quantify the uncertainties associated with these models (processes, parameters) and their implementation over a long period of time. Besides, uncertainties attached to the data used to force these models (atmospheric forcing, vegetation and soil characteristics, crop management practices...) which are generally available at coarse spatial resolution (>1-10 km) and for a limited number of plant functional types, need to be evaluated. This paper aims at assessing the uncertainties in water (evapotranspiration) and energy fluxes estimated from a Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) model over a Mediterranean agricultural site. While similar past studies focused on particular crop types and limited period of time, the originality of this paper consists in implementing the SVAT model and assessing its uncertainties over a long period of time (10 years), encompassing several cycles of distinct crops (wheat, sorghum, sunflower, peas). The impacts on the SVAT simulations of the following sources of uncertainties are characterized: - Uncertainties in atmospheric forcing are assessed comparing simulations forced with local meteorological measurements and simulations forced with re-analysis atmospheric dataset (SAFRAN database). - Uncertainties in key surface characteristics (soil, vegetation, crop management practises) are tested comparing simulations feeded with standard values from global database (e.g. ECOCLIMAP) and simulations based on in situ or site-calibrated values. - Uncertainties dues to the implementation of the SVAT model over a long period of time are analyzed with regards to crop rotation. The SVAT model being analyzed in this paper is ISBA in its a-gs version which simulates the photosynthesis and its coupling with the stomata conductance, as well as the time course of the plant biomass and the Leaf Area Index (LAI). The experiment was conducted at the INRA-Avignon (France) crop site (ICOS associated site), for which 10 years of energy and water eddy fluxes, soil moisture profiles, vegetation measurements, agricultural practises are available for distinct crop types. The uncertainties in evapotranspiration and energy flux estimates are quantified from both 10-year trend analysis and selected daily cycles spanning a range of atmospheric conditions and phenological stages. While the net radiation flux is correctly simulated, the cumulated latent heat flux is under-estimated. Daily plots indicate i) an overestimation of evapotranspiration over bare soil probably due to an overestimation of the soil water reservoir available for evaporation and ii) an under-estimation of transpiration for developed canopy. Uncertainties attached to the re-analysis atmospheric data show little influence on the cumulated values of evapotranspiration. Better performances are reached using in situ soil depths and site-calibrated photosynthesis parameters compared to the simulations based on the ECOCLIMAP standard values. Finally, this paper highlights the impact of the temporal succession of vegetation cover and bare soil on the simulation of soil moisture and evapotranspiration over a long period of time. Thus, solutions to account for crop rotation in the implementation of SVAT models are discussed.

  20. Application of Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model in Pang Khum Experimental Watershed, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuo, L.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Ziegler, A. D.; Sutherland, R. A.; Nullet, M. A.; Larkin, E. D.; Vana, T. T.

    2001-12-01

    Distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model (DHSVM) uses a digital elevation model (DEM) and accounts for topographic effects on soil moisture, groundwater, and surface water redistribution in a complex terrain. In this study, DHSVM is used to simulate soil moisture, net radiation and stream flow in a 1-km2 tropical mountainous watershed in Pang Khum, Chang Mai, Thailand. Pang Khum Experimental Watershed (PKEW) has two meteorological stations, four soil moisture stations, and one stream flow station at basin outlet. Meteorological measurements are used as forcing data for DHSVM. The grid resolution for this simulation is 50 m. Initial soil and vegetation parameter settings based on field measurements and literature review are adjusted through model calibration. The model is run for a six month warm-up period, followed by a calibration period of approximately one year. Validation is done for two periods totaling 18 months. At the forested site, net radiation is reasonably well simulated, although underestimated in the dry season, and overestimated in the wet season. At the agricultural site, net radiation is consistently overestimated. Soil moisture is well simulated at the forest site. In the simulation, the water table rises into the soil zone during the wet season, saturating all three soil layers at the agricultural site; measured values remained at unsaturated levels. Baseflow is significantly underestimated in calibration and validation periods. Difficulty in simulating streamflow may be caused by road-related effects in the basin. Our prior field work has shown that the road significantly alters runoff in PKEW. The principal mechanism of road-induced effects is Horton Overland Flow (HOF) generated on the road surface. In its present form DHSVM can account for interception of subsurface flow by roads, but not HOF generated on the road. We do not think subsurface flow interception is important in PKEW, and have therefore not implemented the road in our simulation. In future applications, we hope to include road effects, including HOF generation. As far as we know, this is the first application of DHSVM in a tropical location. Also, we apply the model over a very small watershed using a smaller grid-cell size than prior applications. Overall, we find the model to perform reasonably well despite being applied in a region and at a scale that contrast strongly with those in which it was developed. >http://webdata.soc.hawaii.edu/climate/Roads1/Roads.html

  1. Process-based modeling of vegetation dynamics, snow, evapotranspiration and soil moisture patterns in an alpine catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Engel, Michael; Niedrist, Georg; Brenner, Johannes G.; Endrizzi, Stefano; Dall'Amico, Matteo; Cordano, Emanuele; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Rigon, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    Mountain regions are particularly sensitive to climate change and at the same time they represent a key water resource not only locally but as well for lowland areas. Because of the complexity of mountain landscapes and the high climatic variability at a local scale, detailed quantification of key water budget components as snow cover, soil moisture and groundwater recharge is required. Therefore, there is a strong need to improve the capability of hydrological models to identify patterns in complex terrain (i.e. when variability of spatial characteristics counts), and to quantify changes of the water cycle components explicitly, considering interactions and feedbacks with climate and vegetation. Process-based hydrological models represent promising tools for addressing those needs. However, even if their inherent complexity sometimes limits their applicability for operational purpose, they offer great potential in terms of tools to test hypotheses, which can be verified in the field. GEOtop is a hydrological model that calculates the energy and mass exchanges between soil, vegetation, and atmosphere, accounting for land cover, water redistribution, snow processes, glacier mass budget and the effects of complex terrain and thus is one of the few models that was built with this complexity in mind. Recently, it has also been coupled with a dynamic vegetation model in order to simulate alpine grassland ecosystems. In this contribution, we want to present an application of the GEOtop model in simulating above ground biomass (Bag) production, evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture (SM) and snow water equivalent (SWE) patterns for a catchment of about 100 km2, located in the Venosta/Vinschgau valley in the European Alps. Despite the Alps are one of the 'water towers of Europe', water scarcity issues can affect the region where the model is applied, and an intensive hydrological and ecological monitoring activity with ground observations and remote-sensing products has been established in the last five years. Simulations results showed that, along south-facing slopes, ET and Bag did not decrease with elevation, as it happens along north facing slopes, but showed a maximum at an intermediate elevation around ca. 1500 m a.s.l., because of the contrasting trends of a shorter vegetation season at higher elevations and water stress at lower elevations. Therefore, results suggest that in this region south-facing pastures and woodlands below the elevation band of 1000 - 1500 m a.s.l. are the locations exposed to more frequent water stress conditions. Future climate change will likely worsen drought frequency. This contribution highlights that the collected data set permits a multi-scale and multi-process evaluation of the model. Plot scale observations of evapotranspiration, soil moisture and snow cover, combined with remote sensing observations of snow and soil moisture help to discriminate between uncertainties in input data (i.e. snow/rainfall partitioning) and model parameterization. Moreover, we want to show with practical examples how, when dealing with coupled process-based eco-hydrological models is essential considering the physical consistency between different processes as modeled in GEOtop. For example, accounting the role of subsurface water lateral distribution on surface soil moisture; considering both water and energy budget constrains; introducing the control of snow cover on vegetation phenology. This introduces additional constraints in model parameterization that allow a better understanding of some processes dynamics, and can lead to a more coherent and accurate estimation of the catchment hydrological behavior than the one, which is possible with simpler models.

  2. Use of dynamic soil-vegetation models to assess impacts of nitrogen deposition on plant species composition: an overview.

    PubMed

    De Vries, W; Wamelink, G W W; Van Dobben, H; Kros, J; Reinds, G J; Mol-Dijkstra, J P; Smart, S M; Evans, C D; Rowe, E C; Belyazid, S; Sverdrup, H U; Van Hinsberg, A; Posch, M; Hettelingh, J-P; Spranger, T; Bobbink, R

    2010-01-01

    Field observations and experimental data of effects of nitrogen (N) deposition on plant species diversity have been used to derive empirical critical N loads for various ecosystems. The great advantage of such an approach is the inclusion of field evidence, but there are also restrictions, such as the absence of explicit criteria regarding significant effects on the vegetation, and the impossibility to predict future impacts when N deposition changes. Model approaches can account for this. In this paper, we review the possibilities of static and dynamic multispecies models in combination with dynamic soil-vegetation models to (1) predict plant species composition as a function of atmospheric N deposition and (2) calculate critical N loads in relation to a prescribed protection level of the species composition. The similarities between the models are presented, but also several important differences, including the use of different indicators for N and acidity and the prediction of individual plant species vs. plant communities. A summary of the strengths and weaknesses of the various models, including their validation status, is given. Furthermore, examples are given of critical load calculations with the model chains and their comparison with empirical critical N loads. We show that linked biogeochemistry-biodiversity models for N have potential for applications to support European policy to reduce N input, but the definition of damage thresholds for terrestrial biodiversity represents a major challenge. There is also a clear need for further testing and validation of the models against long-term monitoring or long-term experimental data sets and against large-scale survey data. This requires a focused data collection in Europe, combing vegetation descriptions with variables affecting the species diversity, such as soil acidity, nutrient status and water availability. Finally, there is a need for adaptation and upscaling of the models beyond the regions for which dose-response relationships have been parameterized, to make them generally applicable. PMID:20349830

  3. Parametrizing soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models with non-destructive and high resolution stable isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothfuss, Youri; Vereecken, Harry; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    For nearly 50 years, stable isotopologues of water (1H2H16O and 1H218O) have been used in a wide range of water research disciplines to identify the origin and to quantify proportions of water pools involved in processes of the terrestrial water cycle. In soils between rain events, the combined action of convective capillary rise of water depleted in 1H2H16O and 1H218O with back-diffusion of water enriched in 1H2H16O and 1H218O from the evaporation site (i.e., soil surface or evaporation front) downwards leads to the formation of - typically exponential - soil water stable isotopologue profiles. The first steady state and isothermal analytical solutions of these isotopologues profiles were proposed in the late 60ies. They were later extended to unsteady state and non-isothermal conditions. These analytical formulations link the shape of the isotopologue profiles to soil evaporation flux and regime, and to the soil physical properties associated with both diffusive and convective water transport (such as tortuosity length and dispersivity). More recently, the movement of 1H2H16O and 1H218O was implemented in physically-based numerical soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) models (e.g., TOUGHREACT, SiSPAT-Isotope, Soil-Litter iso, Hydrus 1D). In these fully coupled models, the output of the heat transfer module, i.e., the temperature profile, is fed into the isotope module. Isotope and water transport are therefore inter-dependent as opposed to analytical solutions. In addition to thermodynamic (equilibrium) isotope effects, which are only temperature-dependent, kinetic isotope effects during soil evaporation greatly affect the stable isotopic composition of soil water and evaporation and can be highly variable. Thus, a better understanding of the implications of these kinetic effects in addition to the well characterized equilibrium effects as well as their implementation in SVAT models are required for improving the use of 1H2H16O and 1H218O as tracers of soil water processes. An important challenge is to provide models with non-destructive and high resolution isotope data, both in space and time (e.g., using microporous tubing or membrane-based available setups). Moreover, parallel to field studies effort should be made to design specific experiments under controlled conditions, allowing for testing the underlying hypotheses of the above mentioned isotope-enabled SVAT models. Using isotope data obtained from these controlled experiments will improve the characterization of evaporation processes within the soil profile and ameliorate the parametrization of the respective isotope modules.

  4. Examination of evaporative fraction diurnal behaviour using a soil-vegetation model coupled with a mixed-layer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhomme, J.-P.; Elguero, E.

    In many experimental conditions, the evaporative fraction, defined as the ratio between evaporation and available energy, has been found stable during daylight hours. This constancy is investigated over fully covering vegetation by means of a land surface scheme coupled with a mixed-layer model, which accounts for entrainment of overlying air. The evaporation rate follows the Penman-Monteith equation and the surface resistance is given by a Jarvis type parameterization involving solar radiation, saturation deficit and leaf water potential. The diurnal course of the evaporative fraction is examined, together with the influence of environmental factors (soil water availability, solar radiation input, wind velocity, saturation deficit above the well-mixed layer). In conditions of fair weather, the curves representing the diurnal course of the evaporative fraction have a typical concave-up shape. Around midday (solar time) these curves appear as relatively constant, but always lower that the daytime mean value. Evaporative fraction decreases when soil water decreases or when solar energy increases. An increment of saturation deficit above the mixed-layer provokes only a slight increase of evaporative fraction, and wind velocity has almost no effect. The possibility of estimation daytime evaporation from daytime available energy multiplied by the evaporative fraction at a single time of the day is also investigated. It appears that it is possible to obtain fairly good estimates of daytime evaporation by choosing adequately the time of the measurement of the evaporative fraction. The central hours of the day, and preferably about 3 hr before or after noon, are the most appropriate to provide good estimates. The estimation appears also to be much better when soil water availability (or evaporation) is high than when it is low.

  5. Preliminary assessment of soil moisture over vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, T. N.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling of surface energy fluxes was combined with in-situ measurement of surface parameters, specifically the surface sensible heat flux and the substrate soil moisture. A vegetation component was incorporated in the atmospheric/substrate model and subsequently showed that fluxes over vegetation can be very much different than those over bare soil for a given surface-air temperature difference. The temperature signatures measured by a satellite or airborne radiometer should be interpreted in conjunction with surface measurements of modeled parameters. Paradoxically, analyses of the large-scale distribution of soil moisture availability shows that there is a very high correlation between antecedent precipitation and inferred surface moisture availability, even when no specific vegetation parameterization is used in the boundary layer model. Preparatory work was begun in streamlining the present boundary layer model, developing better algorithms for relating surface temperatures to substrate moisture, preparing for participation in the French HAPEX experiment, and analyzing aircraft microwave and radiometric surface temperature data for the 1983 French Beauce experiments.

  6. Thallium contamination of soils/vegetation as affected by sphalerite weathering: a model rhizospheric experiment.

    PubMed

    Vaněk, Aleš; Grösslová, Zuzana; Mihaljevič, Martin; Ettler, Vojtěch; Chrastný, Vladislav; Komárek, Michael; Tejnecký, Václav; Drábek, Ondřej; Penížek, Vít; Galušková, Ivana; Vaněčková, Barbora; Pavlů, Lenka; Ash, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The environmental stability of Tl-rich sphalerite in two contrasting soils was studied. Rhizospheric conditions were simulated to assess the risk associated with sulfide microparticles entering agricultural (top)soils. The data presented here clearly demonstrate a significant effect of 500 μM citric acid, a model rhizospheric solution, on ZnS alteration followed by enhanced Tl and Zn release. The relative ZnS mass loss after 28 days of citrate incubation reached 0.05 and 0.03 wt.% in Cambisol and Leptosol samples respectively, and was up to 4 times higher, compared to H2O treatments. Incongruent (i.e., substantially increased) mobilization of Tl from ZnS was observed during the incubation time. Generally higher (long-term) stability of ZnS with lower Tl release is predicted for soils enriched in carbonates. Furthermore, the important role of silicates (mainly illite) in the stabilization of mobilized Tl, linked with structural (inter)layer Tl-K exchange, is suggested. Thallium was highly bioavailable, as indicated by its uptake by white mustard; maximum Tl amounts were detected in biomass grown on the acidic Cambisol. Despite the fact that sulfides are thought as relatively stable phases in soil environments, enhanced sulfide dissolution and Tl/trace element release (and bioaccumulation) can be assumed in rhizosphere systems. PMID:25265594

  7. A method to downscale soil moisture to fine resolutions using topographic, vegetation, and soil data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranney, Kayla J.; Niemann, Jeffrey D.; Lehman, Brandon M.; Green, Timothy R.; Jones, Andrew S.

    2015-02-01

    Soil moisture can be estimated over large regions with spatial resolutions greater than 500 m, but many applications require finer resolutions (10-100 m). Several methods use topographic data to downscale, but vegetation and soil patterns can also be important. In this paper, a downscaling model that uses fine-resolution topographic, vegetation, and soil data is presented. The method is tested at the Cache la Poudre catchment where detailed vegetation and soil data were collected. Additional testing is performed at the Tarrawarra and Nerrigundah catchments where limited soil data are available. Downscaled soil moisture patterns at Cache la Poudre improve when vegetation and soil data are used, and model performance is similar to an EOF method. Using interpolated soil data at Tarrawarra and Nerrigundah decreases model performance and results in worse performance than an EOF method, suggesting that soil data needs greater spatial detail and accuracy to be useful for downscaling.

  8. Calibration and Uncertainty Analysis of Water and Solute Transport Models Within Vegetated Soils Using a Detailed Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B.; Wheater, H.; Butler, A.

    2006-12-01

    Appropriate models predicting the fate and transport of water and dissolved chemicals in vegetated soils are required for a wide range of applications. Substantial uncertainty is present due to measurement errors, parametric uncertainty, and structural issues related to model conceptualisation. Due to the costs and intrusiveness of subsurface measurements there are limited datasets available to interrogate models against. Furthermore, the models are typically computationally intensive, making it difficult to fully explore parametric and other uncertainty spaces. Hence there are two pressing needs which must be met to improve the utility of models: more data and constraints are needed to quantify the interactions between different uncertainties and their overall impact on the reliability and robustness of model outputs, and efficient methodologies to explore sensitivities and uncertainties are also called for. This paper presents a combined analysis of a particularly detailed dataset and models of water and solute movement, using both simple random search and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Data was collected from an outdoor vegetated lysimeter facility over a duration of close to a year, with soil matric potential, moisture content and temperature at 10 cm depth intervals, along with rainfall and other meteorological variables, logged in four instrumented lysimeters at a time interval of 0.01 days. Three radionuclides (Na-22, Cl-36 and Cs-137) were supplied through the base of the lysimeters using an automated water table control system. Periodic soil cores and plant cuttings provided information on their migration and uptake. The integrity of the experimental data is examined, with uncertainty associated with outputs discussed and quantified. To interpret the data, a Richards' equation model coupled to a dynamic plant water model is linked to an advection-dispersion model with additional process representations of sorption, radioactive decay and root uptake. Structural uncertainty, parameterisation issues, and perturbation effects due to erroneous inputs are discussed. It is shown that although parameters are difficult to constrain in a univariate sense, consideration of model structure allows constraints on parametric interactions and hence a significant reduction of the parametric space that must be sampled. The efficiency of Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques is demonstrated. However, despite the unusually comprehensive experimental dataset, major issues of uncertainty remain, of which data issues are a dominant component.

  9. Solar radiation signature manifested on the spatial patterns of modeled soil moisture, vegetation, and topography using an ecohydro-geomorphic landscape evolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetemen, O.; Flores Cervantes, J. H.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2013-12-01

    The role of solar radiation on ecohydrologic fluxes, vegetation dynamics, species composition, and landscape morphology have long been documented in field studies. However a numerical model framework to integrate a range of ecohydrologic and geomorphic processes to explore the integrated ecohydro-geomorphic landscape response have been missing. In this study, our aim is to realistically represent flood generation and solar-radiation-driven echydrologic dynamics in a landscape evolution model (LEM) to investigate how ecohydrologic differences caused by differential irradiance on opposing hillslopes manifest themselves on the organization of modeled topography, soil moisture and plant biomass. We use the CHILD LEM equipped with a spatially-distributed solar-radiation component, leading to spatial patterns of soil moisture; a vegetation dynamics component that explicitly tracks above- and below-ground biomass; and a runoff component that allows for runoff-runon processes along the landscape flow paths. Ecohydrological component has been verified using a detailed data gathered from Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico, and Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in southern Arizona. LEM scenarios were designed to compare the outcomes of spatially distributed versus spatially uniform solar radiation forced with a constant climate and variable uplift. Modeled spatial patterns of soil moisture confirm empirical observations at the landscape scale and other hydrologic modeling studies. The spatial variability in soil moisture is controlled by aspect prior to the wet season (North American Monsoon, NAM), and by the hydraulic connectivity of the flow network during NAM. Aspect and network connectivity signatures are also manifested on plant biomass with typically denser vegetation cover on north-facing slopes than south facing slopes. Over the long-term, CHILD gives slightly steeper and less dissected north-facing slopes more dissected south facing slopes and an overall asymmetry in the modeled morphology of valleys. The model simulations show how subtle differences in biomass and soil moisture dynamics at annual scale lead to distinct geomorphic differences at both hillslope and catchment scales.

  10. MANAGING VEGETATION DYNAMICS: SOIL-GEOMORPHIC MAPS, STATE-AND-TRANSITION MODELS, AND REMOTE SENSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation mapping via remote sensing tools is a useful and cost-effective approach for understanding current land use and species habitat patterns, but has limited utility in predicting the future state of vegetation. We describe an approach that couples data-supported, conceptual state-and-transi...

  11. Green vegetation, nonphotosynthetic vegetation, and soils in AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. A.; Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of distinguishing between green vegetation, nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV, such as dry grass, leaf litter, and woody material), and soils in imaging-spectrometer data is addressed by analyzing an image taken by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (California) on September 20, 1989, using spectral mixture analysis. Over 98 percent of the spectral variation could be explained by linear mixtures of three endmembers, green vegetation, shade, and soil. NPV, which could not be distinguished from soil when included as an endmember, was discriminated by residual spectra that contained cellulose and lignin absorptions. Distinct communities of green vegetation were distinguished by (1) nonlinear mixing effect caused by transmission and scattering by green leaves, (2) variations in a derived canopy-shade spectrum, and (3) the fraction of NPV.

  12. Application of the Distributed Soil Hydrology Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to the case of forest landcover change and alpine development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Peral, A.

    2012-12-01

    Forest cover in the North East is changing due to both natural disturbances and anthropogenic influences. These changes in forest cover are likely to affect watershed hydrology, including precipitation interception, infiltration and stream flow. Understanding the interaction between forest cover and hydrologic processes is important as forests provide critical ecosystem services to the region. Our research focuses on alpine development in high-elevation, forested watersheds, in particular how the size, spatial arrangement, and orientation of ski runs and base village development influence runoff production. Our study area includes a forested control watershed and a watershed managed as an alpine ski area in northwestern Vermont. Empirical results from these watersheds show substantial differences (10-31%) in annual water yield between the watersheds over the 11-year period of record (2000-2011). This water yield differential is correlated with maximum seasonal snow depth (R2 = .47), with larger differences occurring in years with abundant winter snowpack. Field infiltration measurements show a significant difference between ski trail and forested soils (t=2.65, p<.05) with the average infiltration measured on ski trails nearly an order of magnitude slower. We suggest that enhanced routing of water from the compact soils found on ski trails and differences in watershed storage are responsible for the observed difference in runoff. Using the Distributed Soil Hydrology Vegetation Model (DHSVM), we developed model simulations for snow accumulation, melt and streamflow in both watersheds. Preliminary model runs show high model skill in simulating observed hourly flows (NE = .77). Model simulations support the hypothesis that slower infiltration results in an enhanced routing of runoff. This unique water transport mechanism should be integrated into future alpine development designs in order to moderate environmental impacts. Next steps will involve testing alternative alpine development scenarios and the effects of variable winter climate conditions on streamflow dynamics.

  13. A study of soil moisture variability and vegetation greenness dynamics in a mountainous rangeland watershed using direct measurements, remote sensing, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Kala Nidhi

    Soil moisture content (theta, m3 m-3) and vegetation greenness in a semi-arid mountainous rangeland watershed were evaluated using field measurements, remotely sensed data, a hydrologic model, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Field research was carried out in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW, 234 km2) located on the northern flanks of the Owyhee mountains about 80 km (50 miles) southwest of Boise, Idaho, USA. This research was divided into three objectives: (1) to characterize the spatial dependence and temporal stability of theta in smaller sub-catchments, (2) to investigate the relationship between plant available soil water (PASW) and greenness of rangeland vegetation, and (3) to evaluate the effect of terrain, soil, and climate parameters on the spatial variability of theta and other water balance parameters using a simulation model and GIS. Geostatistical analysis of theta measurements taken at small sub-catchments (0.13 and 0.26 km2) within the RCEW at a depth of 0--30 cm indicated that there was a spatial correlation in theta for about 200 m. Spatial variability was associated with the season and orientation of the sub-catchments. A parametric approach of temporal stability analysis indicated that about five to six sampling locations are adequate to capture the catchment average theta for these small sub-catchments. Soil water content and the vegetative greenness dynamics at the scale of RCEW were evaluated using field theta measurements, remote sensing data, and modeling. Vegetation indices (VI) derived from satellite images provided spatially distributed patterns on the growth and productivity of vegetation. The SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) was compared with the PASW derived from field theta measurements and with ERHYM (Ekalaka Rangeland Hydrology and Yield Model) generated outputs of transpiration (T) and potential evapotranspiration (PET). The ERHYM-simulated theta were compared with the field measured theta. They were found to be in good agreement with an R2 of 0.71. The deterministic source variables such as precipitation, aspect, slope, soil depth, soil type, and vegetation for the model-simulated theta, T/PET, and actual PASW were evaluated using GIS overlay analysis. Spatial variability of model-predicted theta, T/PET, and actual PASW increased with areal extent. Overall, the characterization of spatial variability of theta at small sub-catchments and watershed scale by evaluation of field measurements, remotely sensed data, and simulation models is a unique approach. Integration of remote sensing, modeling, and field measurements appears to be a viable means of studying theta changes and vegetation greenness patterns in rangeland areas. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. Retrieving pace in vegetation growth using precipitation and soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohoulande Djebou, D. C.; Singh, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    The complexity of interactions between the biophysical components of the watershed increases the challenge of understanding water budget. Hence, the perspicacity of the continuum soil-vegetation-atmosphere's functionality still remains crucial for science. This study targeted the Texas Gulf watershed and evaluated the behavior of vegetation covers by coupling precipitation and soil moisture patterns. Growing season's Normalized Differential Vegetation Index NDVI for deciduous forest and grassland were used over a 23 year period as well as precipitation and soil moisture data. The role of time scales on vegetation dynamics analysis was appraised using both entropy rescaling and correlation analysis. This resulted in that soil moisture at 5 cm and 25cm are potentially more efficient to use for vegetation dynamics monitoring at finer time scale compared to precipitation. Albeit soil moisture at 5 cm and 25 cm series are highly correlated (R2>0.64), it appeared that 5 cm soil moisture series can better explain the variability of vegetation growth. A logarithmic transformation of soil moisture and precipitation data increased correlation with NDVI for the different time scales considered. Based on a monthly time scale we came out with a relationship between vegetation index and the couple soil moisture and precipitation [NDVI=a*Log(% soil moisture)+b*Log(Precipitation)+c] with R2>0.25 for each vegetation type. Further, we proposed to assess vegetation green-up using logistic regression model and transinformation entropy using the couple soil moisture and precipitation as independent variables and vegetation growth metrics (NDVI, NDVI ratio, NDVI slope) as the dependent variable. The study is still ongoing and the results will surely contribute to the knowledge in large scale vegetation monitoring. Keywords: Precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation growth, entropy Time scale, Logarithmic transformation and correlation between soil moisture and NDVI, precipitation and NDVI. The analysis is performed by combining both scenes 7 and 8 data. Schematic illustration of the two dimension transinformation entropy approach. T(P,SM;VI) stand for the transinformation contained in the couple soil moisture (SM)/precipitation (P) and explaining vegetation growth (VI).

  15. Managing soil under vegetable production to improve soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the years, soil quality has eroded as soil organic matter has declined on farms across North Carolina. This study is assessing the effects of tillage practice, winter cover cropping and compost use on changes in soil function and improvement in soil quality under vegetable production. The field...

  16. Modeling vegetation rooting strategies on a hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivandran, G.; Bras, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The manner in which water and energy is partitioned and redistributed along a hillslope is the result of complex coupled ecohydrological interactions between the climatic, soils, topography and vegetation operating over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Distributed process based modeling creates a framework through which the interaction of vegetation with the subtle differences in the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil moisture that arise under localized abiotic conditions along a hillslope can be simulated and examined. One deficiency in the current dynamic vegetation models is the one sided manner in which vegetation responds to soil moisture dynamics. Above ground, vegetation is given the freedom to dynamically evolve through alterations in fractional vegetation cover and/or canopy height and density; however below ground rooting profiles are simplistically represented and often held constant in time and space. The need to better represent the belowground role of vegetation through dynamic rooting strategies is fundamental in capturing the magnitude and timing of water and energy fluxes between the atmosphere and land surface. In order to allow vegetation to adapt to gradients in soil moisture a dynamic rooting scheme was incorporated into tRIBS+VEGGIE (a physically based distributed ecohydrological model). The dynamic rooting scheme allows vegetation the freedom to adapt their rooting depth and distribution in response abiotic conditions in a way that more closely mimics observed plant behavior. The incorporation of this belowground plasticity results in vegetation employing a suite of rooting strategies based on soil texture, climatic conditions and location on the hillslope.

  17. Modeling Spatial Patterns of Soil Respiration in Maize Fields from Vegetation and Soil Property Factors with the Use of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ni; Wang, Li; Guo, Yiqiang; Hao, Pengyu; Niu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    To examine the method for estimating the spatial patterns of soil respiration (Rs) in agricultural ecosystems using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS), Rs rates were measured at 53 sites during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China. Through Pearson's correlation analysis, leaf area index (LAI), canopy chlorophyll content, aboveground biomass, soil organic carbon (SOC) content, and soil total nitrogen content were selected as the factors that affected spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize. The use of a structural equation modeling approach revealed that only LAI and SOC content directly affected Rs. Meanwhile, other factors indirectly affected Rs through LAI and SOC content. When three greenness vegetation indices were extracted from an optical image of an environmental and disaster mitigation satellite in China, enhanced vegetation index (EVI) showed the best correlation with LAI and was thus used as a proxy for LAI to estimate Rs at the regional scale. The spatial distribution of SOC content was obtained by extrapolating the SOC content at the plot scale based on the kriging interpolation method in GIS. When data were pooled for 38 plots, a first-order exponential analysis indicated that approximately 73% of the spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize can be explained by EVI and SOC content. Further test analysis based on independent data from 15 plots showed that the simple exponential model had acceptable accuracy in estimating the spatial patterns of Rs in maize fields on the basis of remotely sensed EVI and GIS-interpolated SOC content, with R2 of 0.69 and root-mean-square error of 0.51 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1. The conclusions from this study provide valuable information for estimates of Rs during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China. PMID:25157827

  18. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Kubelka-Munk model, a regression model, and a combination of these models were used to extract plant, soil, and shadow reflectance components of vegetated surfaces. The combination model was superior to the others; it explained 86% of the variation in band 5 reflectance of corn and sorghum, and 90% of the variation in band 6 reflectance of cotton. A fractional shadow term substantially increased the proportion of the digital count sum of squares explained when plant parameters alone explained 85% or less of the variation. Overall recognition of 94 agricultural fields using simultaneously acquired aircraft and spacecraft MSS data was 61.8 and 62.8%, respectively; recognition of vegetable fields larger than 10 acres and taller than 25 cm, rose to 88.9 and 100% for aircraft and spacecraft, respectively. Agriculture and rangeland, were well discriminated for the entire county but level 2 categories of vegetables, citrus, and idle cropland, except for citrus, were not.

  19. Using the landscape evolution modelling framework Landlab to quantify how soils, climate, and vegetation are linked in semi-arid landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelb, L.; Flores, A. N.; Yager, E.; Pierce, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Soils are the interface between the lithosphere and the atmosphere. The presence and thickness of a soil mantle is locally a function of the rate of parent material weathering and the net transport of soil downslope, which are both heavily controlled by the type and density of vegetation present. In semiarid landscapes, water is often both a limiting material to the growth of vegetation as well as additional control on weathering and erosion of soil. The goal of our study is to promote fundamental understanding of the sensitivity of soil thickness to changes in precipitation in these water-limited environments. To accomplish this, we have quantified denudation rates in a semi-arid ecosystem through field work and used these data to inform a variety of climate change simulations in a landscape evolution model. Our denudation rates were sampled from areas with varying elevation, slope, and aspect, all variables that engender differences in the vegetation of sagebrush steppe ecosystems. The data were collected using a sediment flux measurement technique where a GPS with sub-centimeter accuracy was used to periodically resample the movement of rebar that was installed in the regolith. Within sagebrush steppe ecosystems, wildfires were historically common before the presence of humans. Contemporarily, after a disturbance invasive species are able to establish themselves more quickly than native plants can, and so fires have a much different effect on our landscapes than they did in the past. With Landlab, an open-source, community framework that supports the rapid development of integrated landscape development models, we have modeled the effect of this shift on landscape evolution. Our model is able to react to shifts in climate by changing the vegetation present and the recurrence interval of fires. We can, therefore, use the model to quantify the linkages between climate, local soil evolution, and landscape evolution under plausible alternative futures of climate.

  20. Integrating models to simulate emergent behaviour: effects of organic matter on soil hydraulics in the ICZ-1D soil-vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valstar, Johan; Rowe, Ed; Konstantina, Moirogiorgou; Giannakis, Giorgos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    Soil develops as a result of interacting processes, many of which have been described in more or less detailed models. A key challenge in developing predictive models of soil function is to integrate processes that operate across a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Many soil functions could be classified as "emergent", since they result from the interaction of subsystems. For example, soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics are commonly considered in relation to carbon storage, but can have profound effects on soil hydraulic properties that are conventionally considered to be static. Carbon fixed by plants enters the soil as litterfall, root turnover or via mycorrhizae. Plants need water and nutrients to grow, and an expanding root system provides access to a larger volume of soil for uptake of water and nutrients. Roots also provide organic exudates, such as oxalate, which increase nutrient availability. Carbon inputs are transformed at various rates into soil biota, CO2, and more persistent forms of organic matter. The SOM is partly taken up into soil aggregates of variable sizes, which slows down degradation. Water availability is an important factor as both plant growth and SOM degradation can be limited by shortage of water. Water flow is the main driver for transport of nutrients and other solutes. The flow of water in turn is influenced by the presence of SOM as this influences soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity. Towards the top of the unsaturated zone, bioturbation by the soil fauna transports both solid material and solutes. Weathering rates of minerals determine the availability of many nutrients and are in turn dependent on parameters such as pH, water content, CO2 pressure and oxalate concentration. Chemical reactions between solutes, dissolution and precipitation, and exchange on adsorption sites further influence solute concentrations. Within the FP7 SoilTrEC project, we developed a model that incorporates all of these processes, to explore the complex interactions involved in soil development and change. We were unable to identify appropriately-detailed existing models for plant productivity and for the dynamics of soil aggregation and porosity, and so developed the PROSUM and CAST models, respectively, to simulate these subsystems. Moreover, we applied the BRNS generator to obtain a chemical equilibrium model. These were combined with HYDRUS-1D (water and solute transport), a weathering model (derived from the SAFE model) and a simple bioturbation model. The model includes several feedbacks, such as the effect of soil organic matter on water retention and hydraulic conductivity. We encountered several important challenges when building the integrated model. First, a mechanism was developed that initiates the execution of a single time step for an individual sub-model and accounts for the relevant mass transfers between sub-models. This allows for different and sometimes variable time step duration in the submodels. Secondly, we removed duplicated processes and identified and included relevant solute production terms that had been neglected. The model is being tested against datasets obtained from several Soil Critical Zone Observatories in Europe. This contribution focuses on the design strategy for the model.

  1. Creation and destruction of soil moisture variability by vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guswa, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    Vegetation canopies introduce spatial variability into soil moisture by localizing and concentrating throughfall and stemflow. In the soil, the self-limiting process of plant uptake acts to undo this variability and homogenize soil moisture. Root compensation (increased uptake from wetter regions) and hydraulic redistribution (movement of water from wetter to drier soils via plant roots) enhance this homogenization process. This work investigates the interplay between these processes that create and destroy soil moisture variability via a stochastic modeling framework for both wet and dry climates. Precipitation events arrive as a Poisson process in time, and spatial patterns of throughfall are taken to be temporally persistent. Plant uptake is represented with an electric circuit analog that captures the effects of root compensation as well as hydraulic redistribution. Effects of vegetation on soil-moisture variability and partitioning of hydrologic fluxes are depend on the magnitude of heterogeneity introduced via throughfall, the strength of root processes, and other climate, plant, and soil characteristics.

  2. Vegetation management with fire modifies peatland soil thermal regime.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lee E; Palmer, Sheila M; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Holden, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    Vegetation removal with fire can alter the thermal regime of the land surface, leading to significant changes in biogeochemistry (e.g. carbon cycling) and soil hydrology. In the UK, large expanses of carbon-rich upland environments are managed to encourage increased abundance of red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica) by rotational burning of shrub vegetation. To date, though, there has not been any consideration of whether prescribed vegetation burning on peatlands modifies the thermal regime of the soil mass in the years after fire. In this study thermal regime was monitored across 12 burned peatland soil plots over an 18-month period, with the aim of (i) quantifying thermal dynamics between burned plots of different ages (from <2 to 15 + years post burning), and (ii) developing statistical models to determine the magnitude of thermal change caused by vegetation management. Compared to plots burned 15 + years previously, plots recently burned (<2-4 years) showed higher mean, maximum and range of soil temperatures, and lower minima. Statistical models (generalised least square regression) were developed to predict daily mean and maximum soil temperature in plots burned 15 + years prior to the study. These models were then applied to predict temperatures of plots burned 2, 4 and 7 years previously, with significant deviations from predicted temperatures illustrating the magnitude of burn management effects. Temperatures measured in soil plots burned <2 years previously showed significant statistical disturbances from model predictions, reaching +6.2 °C for daily mean temperatures and +19.6 °C for daily maxima. Soil temperatures in plots burnt 7 years previously were most similar to plots burned 15 + years ago indicating the potential for soil temperatures to recover as vegetation regrows. Our findings that prescribed peatland vegetation burning alters soil thermal regime should provide an impetus for further research to understand the consequences of thermal regime change for carbon processing and release, and hydrological processes, in these peatlands. PMID:25728915

  3. Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) and Sediment Discharge in a Small, Timber Production Watershed, Humboldt County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubblefield, A.; Huggett, B.; Sullivan, K.; Dhakal, A.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment impacts to streams and rivers, either as suspended sediment concentration (SSC), or as aggradation, are well documented in the Pacific Northwest. Fishery stocks, estuarine, infrastructural and wildland resources can be negatively impacted. The causes and reasons for sedimentation of river resources are varied and diverse: tectonic setting - the relative rapid uplift of the study region produces a dominant erosional process of landsliding and mass wasting; regolithic setting - the relatively recent uplift of marine sediments has produced local formations of poorly and moderately consolidated soils, and lithic melanges that are naturally susceptible to erosion; climatic/geographic setting - coastal locations are subject to seasonal delivery of a relatively high average annual precipitation serving to transport available sediment; and finally, management setting - the activities that serve to make sediment available for transport to the river channel, forest road building and harvesting activities associated with timber production, agriculture, gravel mining, and fire management. The reduction of sediment loading can be accomplished through restoration activities like forest road decommissioning or riparian area revegetation. The need to prioritize restoration efforts is confounded by a lack of hydrographic and sediment discharge data, the complex terrain, and the inability to predict the effects of these activities on a dynamic scale. The Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) has been developed to model watersheds using spatially explicit geographical data coupled with physically based hydrologic equations. DHSVM simulates watershed processes across a grid on a cell-by-cell manner. The most recent development within the DHSVM includes a mass wasting / sediment production and channel routing module which allows prediction of total sediment loading in a forest basin. We are applying DHSVM to the McReady sub-basin of Freshwater Creek, Humboldt County, California, utilizing site specific precipitation, hydrographic, and sediment data. Hydrographic and sediment discharge data from 2002 to present are used to train and validate the model. A detailed sediment source inventory from both the road and stream courses further informs the model process and parameterization of sediment production and mobilization within the watershed. The availability of continuous discharge and sediment loading via turbidity threshold stations (TTS) allows validation of the model's performance on multiple levels: average annual, monthly, or weekly sediment loading, and on an event by event basis. Effective validation permits the use of the model to understand the effects of future management strategies, i.e. timber harvest, road construction or decommissioning on a site-specific basis, and to model landscape effects of wildfire and climate change scenarios on watershed functions.

  4. Bowen ratio measurements above various vegetation covers and its comparison with actual evapotranspiration estimated by SoilClim model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, P.; Trnka, M.; Fischer, M.; Kucera, J.; Mozny, M.; Zalud, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The principle of Bowen ratio is one of the available techniques for measurements of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) as one of essential water balance fractions. The main aims of submitted study were: (i) to compare the water balance of selected crops, (ii) to compare outputs of SoilClim model with observed parameters (including ETa on Bowen ratio basis). The measurements were conducted at two experimental stations in the Czech Republic (Polkovice 49°23´ (N), 17°17´ (E), 205 m a.s.l.; Domanínek 49°32´ (N), 16°15´ (E), 544 m a.s.l.) during the years 2009 and 2010. Together with Bowen ratio the global solar radiation, radiation balance, soil heat flux, volumetric soil moisture and temperature within selected depths, precipitation and wind speed were measured. The measurements were conducted simultaneously above various covers within the same soil conditions: spring barley vs. winter wheat, spring barley vs. winter rape; grass vs. poplars; harvested field after tillage vs. harvested field after cereals without any tillage. The observed parameters from different covers were compared with SoilClim estimates. SoilClim model is modular software for water balance and soil temperature modelling and finally could be used for soil Hydric and Thermic regimes (according to USDA classification) identification. The core of SoilClim is based on modified FAO Penman-Monteith methodology. Submitted study proved the applicability of SoilClim model for ETa, soil moisture within two defined layers and soil temperature (in 0.5 m depth) estimates for various crops, covers, selected soil types and climatic conditions. Acknowledgement: We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (no. 521/09/P479) and the project NAZV QI91C054. The study was also supported by Research plan No. MSM6215648905 "Biological and technological aspects of sustainability of controlled ecosystems and their adaptability to climate change".

  5. Soil Water Dynamics in a Clumped Vegetation Pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfreda, S.; Pizzolla, T.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the general principles behind the self-organization of vegetation may help to predict some of the consequences of environmental change for both ecosystem services and water resources. The accurate representation of landscape structure is necessary to estimate the flows exchanged between the earth's surface and atmosphere. Here, we adopted a physically based model to describe the spatial dynamics of vegetation taking into account soil physical characteristics and plant physiology. This approach is used at the landscape scale in order investigate the impact of spatial organization of vegetation on soil moisture distribution, evapotranspiration rate, root system uptake, vegetation stress, net primary productivity, etc. The proposed model is adopted in a patchy vegetation mosaic based on a spatial random process of individual tree canopies and their accompanying root systems. The spatial distribution of vegetation is not modeled like a homogeneous process of canopies, but like aggregated tree distribution, typically observed in savannas. To this end, we used a mathematical framework for describing vegetation structure based on the density, dispersion, and size distribution of individuals within a landscape. In particular, we posed particular attention to the role of clumping on the landscape dynamics analyzing different configurations of climatic parameters, soil types and plant types. The analyses show how the clumping structure may be beneficial for water use efficiency at the landscape scale.

  6. Impact of vegetation on metal transport in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.; Wang, X.

    1995-12-31

    Reclamation and stabilization of sites contaminated with heavy metals often include covering the contaminated material with clean soil and establishing vegetation. This Procedure reduces wind erosion and runoff, but the impact of vegetation on the vertical transport of the metals is not known. In preliminary greenhouse experiments, the presence of plants accelerated the leaching of Zn from contaminated soil, possibly the result of preferential flow through root channels, complexation of the metal with soluble organic compounds, or facilitated transport of the metals adsorbed onto colloids. Through the use of a geochemical model, we were able to show that some organic compounds typically found in the soil near plant roots have the potential to mobilize metals. Batch equilibrations and small leaching experiments verified these results. Patterns of leaching of metals from columns planted with different grass species correspond with seasonal growth habits and further suggest that vegetation can have a significant impact on metal mobility in contaminated soil.

  7. The study of soils and vegetation transformation due fire disturbances in remote areas through scenario modelling of observed hydrological response to fire impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterova, Natalia; Semenova, Olga; Lebedeva, Luidmila

    2015-04-01

    Large territories of Siberia and Russian Far East are the subject to frequent forest fires. Often there is no information available about fire impact except its timing, areal distribution and qualitative characteristics of fire severity. Observed changes of hydrological response in burnt watersheds can be considered as indirect evidence of soil and vegetation transformation due to fire impact. In our study we used MODIS Fire products to detect spatial distribution of fires in Transbaikal and Far East regions of Russia in 2000 - 2012 period. Small and middle-size watersheds (with area up to 10000 km2) affected by extensive (burn area not less than 20 %) fires were chosen. We analyzed available hydrological data (measured discharges in watersheds outlets) for chosen basins. In several cases apparent hydrological response to fire was detected. To investigate main factors causing the change of hydrologic regime after fire several scenarios of soil and vegetation transformation were developed for each watershed under consideration. Corresponding sets of hydrological model parameters describing those transformations were elaborated based on data analysis and post-fire landscape changes as derived from a literature review. We implied different factors such as removal of organic layer, albedo changes, intensification of soil thaw (in presence of permafrost and seasonal soil freezing), reduction of infiltration rate and evapotranspiration, increase of upper subsurface flow fraction in summer flood events following the fire and others. We applied Hydrograph model (Russia) to conduct simulation experiments aiming to reveal which landscape changes scenarios were more plausible. The advantages of chosen hydrological model for this study are 1) that it takes into consideration thermal processes in soils which in case of permafrost and seasonal soil freezing presence can play leading role in runoff formation and 2) that observable vegetation and soil properties are used as its parameters allowing minimal resort to calibration. The model can use dynamic set of parameters performing preassigned abrupt and/or gradual changes of landscape characteristics. Interestingly, based on modelling results it can be concluded that depending on dominant landscape different aspects of soil and vegetation cover changes may influence runoff formation in contrasting way. The results of the study will be reported.

  8. The soil water balance in a mosaic of clumped vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzolla, Teresa; Manfreda, Salvatore; Caylor, Kelly; Gioia, Andrea; Iacobellis, Vito

    2014-05-01

    The spatio-temporal distribution of soil moisture influences the plant growth and the distribution of terrestrial vegetation. This effect is more evident in arid and semiarid ecosystems where the interaction between individuals and the water limited conditions play a fundamental role, providing environmental conditions which drive a variety of non-linear ecohydrological response functions (such as transpiration, photosynthesis, leakage). In this context, modeling vegetation patterns at multiple spatial aggregation scales is important to understand how different vegetation structures can modify the soil water distribution and the exchanged fluxes between soil and atmosphere. In the present paper, the effect of different spatial vegetation patterns, under different climatic scenarios, is investigated in a patchy vegetation mosaic generated by a random process of individual tree canopies and their accompanying root system. Vegetation pattern are generated using the mathematical framework proposed by Caylor et al. (2006) characterized by a three dimensional stochastic vegetation structure, based on the density, dispersion, size distribution, and allometry of individuals within a landscape. A Poisson distribution is applied to generate different distribution of individuals paying particular attention on the role of clumping on water distribution dynamics. The soil water balance is evaluated using the analytical expression proposed by Laio et al. (2001) to explore the influence of climate and vegetation patterns on soil water balance steady-state components (such as the average rates of evaporation, the root water uptake and leakage) and on the stress-weighted plant water uptake. Results of numerical simulations show that clumping may be beneficial for water use efficiency at the landscape scale. References Caylor, Kelly K., P. D'Odorico and I. Rodriguez Iturbe: On the ecohydrology of structurally heterogeneous semiarid landscape. Water Resour. Res., 28, W07424, 2006. Laio, F., A. Porporato, L., Ridolfi and I. Rodriguez Iturbe: Plants in water controlled ecosystems: Active role in hydrological processes and response to water stress, II. Probabilistic soil moisture dynamics, Adv. Water Resour., 24(7), 707-723,2001.

  9. Spatial pattern formation of coastal vegetation in response to external gradients and positive feedbacks affecting soil porewater salinity: A model study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, J.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Smith, T. J., III; Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal vegetation of South Florida typically comprises salinity-tolerant mangroves bordering salinity-intolerant hardwood hammocks and fresh water marshes. Two primary ecological factors appear to influence the maintenance of mangrove/hammock ecotones against changes that might occur due to disturbances. One of these is a gradient in one or more environmental factors. The other is the action of positive feedback mechanisms, in which each vegetation community influences its local environment to favor itself, reinforcing the boundary between communities. The relative contributions of these two factors, however, can be hard to discern. A spatially explicit individual-based model of vegetation, coupled with a model of soil hydrology and salinity dynamics is presented here to simulate mangrove/hammock ecotones in the coastal margin habitats of South Florida. The model simulation results indicate that an environmental gradient of salinity, caused by tidal flux, is the key factor separating vegetation communities, while positive feedback involving the different interaction of each vegetation type with the vadose zone salinity increases the sharpness of boundaries, and maintains the ecological resilience of mangrove/hammock ecotones against small disturbances. Investigation of effects of precipitation on positive feedback indicates that the dry season, with its low precipitation, is the period of strongest positive feedback. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  10. Calculations of radar backscattering coefficient of vegetation-covered soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, T.; Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A model for simulating the measured backscattering coefficient of vegetation-covered soil surfaces includes both coherent and incoherent components of the backscattered radar pulses from a rough sil surface. The effect of vegetation canopy scattering is also incorporated into the model by making the radar pulse subject to two-way attenuation and volume scattering when it passes through the vegetation layer. Model results agree well with the measured angular distributions of the radar backscattering coefficient for HH polarization at the 1.6 GHz and 4.75 GHz frequencies over grass-covered fields. It was found that the coherent scattering component is very important at angles near nadir, while the vegetation volume scattering is dominant at incident angles 30 degrees.

  11. Mediterranean shrub vegetation: soil protection vs. water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Estringana, Pablo; Nieves Alonso-Blázquez, M.; Alegre, Alegre; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Soil Erosion and Land Degradation are closely related to the changes in the vegetation cover (Zhao et al., 2013). Although other factors such as rainfall intensiy or slope (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) the plant covers is the main factor that controls the soil erosion (Haregeweyn, 2013). Plant cover is the main factor of soil erosion processes as the vegetation control the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1998a; Kargar Chigani et al., 2012). Vegetation cover acts in a complex way in influencing on the one hand on runoff and soil loss and on the other hand on the amount and the way that rainfall reaches the soil surface. In arid and semiarid regions, where erosion is one of the main degradation processes and water is a scant resource, a minimum percentage of vegetation coverage is necessary to protect the soil from erosion, but without compromising the availability of water (Belmonte Serrato and Romero Diaz, 1998). This is mainly controlled by the vegetation distribution (Cerdà, 1997a; Cammeraat et al., 2010; Kakembo et al., 2012). Land abandonment is common in Mediterranean region under extensive land use (Cerdà, 1997b; García-Ruiz, 2010). Abandoned lands typically have a rolling landscape with steep slopes, and are dominated by herbaceous communities that grow on pasture land interspersed by shrubs. Land abandonment use to trigger an increase in soil erosion, but the vegetation recovery reduces the impact of the vegetation. The goal of this work is to assess the effects of different Mediterranean shrub species (Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Medicago strasseri, Colutea arborescens L., Retama sphaerocarpa, L., Pistacia Lentiscus L. and Quercus coccifera L.) on soil protection (runoff and soil losses) and on rainfall reaching soil surface (rainfall partitioning fluxes). To characterize the effects of shrub vegetation and to evaluate their effects on soil protection, two field experiments were carried out. The presence of shrub vegetation reduced runoff by at least 45% and soil loss by at least 59% in relation to an abandoned and degraded soil (bare soil) (Garcia-Estringana et al., 2010a). D. pentaphyllum, M. strasseri and C. arborescens were more effective in reducing runoff and soil loss (at least 83% and 97% respectively) than R. sphaerocarpa (45% and 59% respectively). Pisctacia Lentiscus L reduced the soil losses in 87% and the runoff rates (68%) meanwhile Quercus coccifera L reached a larger reduction (95% and 88 %) in comparison to herbicide treated agriculture soil. So, all shrub species protected the soil, but not in the same way. In relation to rainfall reaching the soil surface, great differences were observed among species, with interception losses varying between 10% for R. sphaerocarpa to greater than 36% for D. pentaphyllum and M. strasseri, and with stemflow percentages changing between less than 11% for D. pentaphyllum and M. strasseri and 20% for R. sphaerocarpa (Garcia-Estringana et al., 2010b). Rainfall interception on Pistacia Lentiscus and Quercus coccifera were 24% and 34% respectively for the two years of measurements. The integration of the effects of Mediterranean shrub vegetation on soil protection and rainfall partitioning fluxes facilitates understanding the effects of changes in vegetation type on soil and water resources. From this perspective, the interesting protective effect of D. pentpahyllum and M. strasseri, reducing intensely runoff and soil loss contrasts with the dangerous reduction in rainfall reaching the soil surface. Soil protection is essential in semiarid and arid environments, but a proper assessment of the effects on water availability is critical because of water is a scant resource in these kinds of environments. Pistacia Lentiscus and Quercus coccifera shown both a high capacity to intercept rainfall, increase infiltration and reduce the soil losses. We suggest to apply similar research programs into recently fire affected land as the role of vegetation after the fire is very dynamic (Cerdà 1998b). Acknowledgements The research projects 07 M/0077/1998, 07 M/0023/2000 and RTA01-078-C2- 2, GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References Belmonte Serrato, F., Romero Díaz, A., López Bermúdez, F., Hernández Laguna, E. 1999. Óptimo de cobertura vegetal en relación a las pérdidas de suelo por erosión hídrica y las pérdidas de lluvia por interceptación. Papeles de Geografía 30, 5-15. Cammeraat, E., Cerdà, A., Imeson, A.C. 2010. Ecohydrological adaptation of soils following land abandonment in a semiarid environment. Ecohydrology, 3: 421-430. 10.1002/eco.161 Cerdà, A. 1997a. The effect of patchy distribution of Stipa tenacissima L. on runoff and erosion. Journal of Arid Environments, 36, 37-51. Cerdà, A. 1998. The influence of aspect and vegetation on seasonal changes in erosion under rainfall simulation on a clay soil in Spain. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 78, 321-330. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A.1997b. Soil erosion after land abandonment in a semiarid environment of Southeastern Spain. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, 11, 163-176. Garcia-Estringana, P., Alonso-Blázquez, N., Alegre, J. 2010b. Water storage capacity, stemflow and water funneling in Mediterranean shrubs. Journal of Hydrology 389, 363-372. Garcia-Estringana, P., Alonso-Blázquez, N., Marques, M.J., Bienes, R., Alegre, J. 2010a. Direct and indirect effects of Mediterranean vegetation on runoff and soil loss. European Journal of Soil Science 61, 174-185. García-Ruiz, J.M. 2010. The effects of land uses on soil erosion in Spain: a review. Catena 81, 1-11. Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Verstraeten, G., Govers, G., de Vente, J., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., and Moeyersons, J. 2013. Assessing the performance of a spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM in Northern Ethiopia. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 188- 204. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1121 Kakembo, V., Ndlela, S., and Cammeraat, E. 2012. Trends in vegetation patchiness loss and implications for landscape function: the case of Pteronia incana invasion in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Land Degradation & Development, 23: 548- 556. DOI 10.1002/ldr.2175 Kargar Chigani, H., Khajeddin, S. J. and Karimzadeh, H. R. 2012. Soil relationships of three arid land plant species and their use in rehabilitating degraded sites. Land Degradation & Development, 23: 92- 101. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1057 Zhao, G., Mu, X., Wen, Z., Wang, F., and Gao, P. 2013. Soil erosion, conservation, and Eco-environment changes in the Loess Plateau of China. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 499- 510. DOI 10.1002/ldr.2246 Ziadat, F. M., and Taimeh, A. Y. 2013. Effect of rainfall intensity, slope and land use and antecedent soil moisture on soil erosion in an arid environment. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 582- 590. DOI 10.1002/ldr.2239

  12. Soil Respiration Responses to Variation in Temperature Treatment and Vegetation Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Pavao-zuckerman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Complex linkages exist between terrestrial vegetation, soil moisture, soil organic matter (SOM), local climate, and soil microorganisms. Thus, large-scale changes in vegetation, such as the woody plant encroachment observed in many historically semiarid and arid grasslands worldwide, could potentially alter the flux of carbon from soil reserves to the atmosphere. Mathematical models that attempt to project the long-term impact of vegetative shifts on soil fluxes largely rely on assumptions such as first-order donor control rather than incorporate the biological aspects of soil respiration such as microbial activity. To examine the impact of vegetation type on soil physicochemical properties and soil microbial respiration and provide experimental data to refine existing predictive models, we compared soil (ground basalt from northern Arizona) in mesocosms established with no vegetation, velvet mesquites (Prosopis velutina; woody shrub), or sideoats gramas (Bouteloua curtipendula; grass) for 2 years, The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was examined by incubating soil (0-10 and 10-30 cm depth fractions) from each vegetation treatment at 10, 20, 30, and 40 °C for 24 hours. Vegetated soils contained more SOM (~0.1% for mesquite and grass mesocosms) than non-vegetated soils (~0.02%). Respiration rates were generally highest from grass-established soils, intermediate from mesquite-established soils, and lowest from non-vegetated soils. Respiration rates of samples incubated without the addition of substrate peaked at approximately 30 °C, whereas respiration rates of samples incubated with dextrose were highest at 40 °C. Further, the respiration assays suggest that while respiration rates are overall higher in grass-established soils, mesquite-established soils are more temperature sensitive which may have significant implications in the context of global warming and current fire management practices.

  13. Evaluation of land surface model simulations of evapotranspiration over a 12-year crop succession: impact of soil hydraulic and vegetation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J. C.; Martin, E.; Lafont, S.; Moulin, S.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Buis, S.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Renard, D.

    2015-07-01

    Evapotranspiration has been recognized as one of the most uncertain terms in the surface water balance simulated by land surface models. In this study, the SURFEX/ISBA-A-gs (Interaction Sol-Biosphere-Atmosphere) simulations of evapotranspiration are assessed at the field scale over a 12-year Mediterranean crop succession. The model is evaluated in its standard implementation which relies on the use of the ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil properties. The originality of this work consists in explicitly representing the succession of crop cycles and inter-crop bare soil periods in the simulations and assessing its impact on the dynamics of simulated and measured evapotranspiration over a long period of time. The analysis focuses on key parameters which drive the simulation of ET, namely the rooting depth, the soil moisture at saturation, the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at wilting point. A sensitivity analysis is first conducted to quantify the relative contribution of each parameter on ET simulation over 12 years. The impact of the estimation method used to retrieve the soil parameters (pedotransfer function, laboratory and field methods) on ET is then analysed. The benefit of representing the variations in time of the rooting depth and wilting point is evaluated. Finally, the propagation of uncertainties in the soil parameters on ET simulations is quantified through a Monte Carlo analysis and compared with the uncertainties triggered by the mesophyll conductance which is a key above-ground driver of the stomatal conductance. This work shows that evapotranspiration mainly results from the soil evaporation when it is continuously simulated over a Mediterranean crop succession. This results in a high sensitivity of simulated evapotranspiration to uncertainties in the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at saturation, both of which drive the simulation of soil evaporation. Field capacity was proved to be the most influencing parameter on the simulation of evapotranspiration over the crop succession. The evapotranspiration simulated with the standard surface and soil parameters of the model is largely underestimated. The deficit in cumulative evapotranspiration amounts to 24 % over 12 years. The bias in daily daytime evapotranspiration is -0.24 mm day-1. The ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil moisture at saturation and at wilting point are overestimated, which explains most of the evapotranspiration underestimation. The use of field capacity values retrieved from laboratory methods leads to inaccurate simulation of ET due to the lack of representativeness of the soil structure variability at the field scale. The most accurate simulation is achieved with the average values of the soil properties derived from the analysis of field measurements of soil moisture vertical profiles over each crop cycle. The representation of the variations in time of the wilting point and the maximum rooting depth over the crop succession has little impact on the simulation performances. Finally, we show that the uncertainties in the soil parameters can generate substantial uncertainties in ET simulated over 12 years (the 95 % confidence interval represents 23 % of cumulative ET over 12 years). Uncertainties in the mesophyll conductance have lower impact on ET. Measurement random errors explain a large part of the scattering between simulations and measurements at half-hourly timescale. The deficits in simulated ET reported in this work are probably larger due to likely underestimation of ET by eddy-covariance measurements. Other possible model shortcomings include the lack of representation of soil vertical heterogeneity and root profile along with inaccurate energy balance partitioning between the soil and the vegetation at low leaf area index.

  14. Modelling of vegetation volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, J. J.; Papas, C. H.; Engheta, N.; Elachi, C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose is to describe work that is being done to find theoretical models to describe radar backscatter from vegetation layers. The geometry of the problem is shown. The information that one would like to find through the application of the results of these models would include: the thickness of the layer; the absorption in the layer (i.e., density, moisture content, and biomass); the geometry of the scatterers (i.e., shape and orientation); how much of the received power is due to volume scattering only; and a way to enhance the ratio of scattering that has some interaction with the ground surface. The proposed ways to find this information are discussed.

  15. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The ability to read the 24-channel MSS CCT tapes, select specified agricultural land use areas from the CCT, and perform multivariate statistical and pattern recognition analyses has been demonstrated. The 5 optimum channels chosen for classifying an agricultural scene were, in the order of their selection the far red visible, short reflective IR, visible blue, thermal infrared, and ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, respectively. Although chosen by a training set containing only vegetal categories, the optimum 4 channels discriminated pavement, water, bare soil, and building roofs, as well as the vegetal categories. Among the vegetal categories, sugar cane and cotton had distinctive signatures that distinguished them from grass and citrus. Acreages estimated spectrally by the computer for the test scene were acceptably close to acreages estimated from aerial photographs for cotton, sugar cane, and water. Many nonfarmable land resolution elements representing drainage ditch, field road, and highway right-of-way as well as farm headquarters area fell into the grass, bare soil plus weeds, and citrus categories and lessened the accuracy of the farmable acreage estimates in these categories. The expertise developed using the 24-channel data will be applied to the ERTS-1 data.

  16. Ecological optimality in water-limited natural soil-vegetation systems. I - Theory and hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    The solution space of an approximate statistical-dynamic model of the average annual water balance is explored with respect to the hydrologic parameters of both soil and vegetation. Within the accuracy of this model it is shown that water-limited natural vegetation systems are in stable equilibrium with their climatic and pedologic environments when the canopy density and species act to minimize average water demand stress. Theory shows a climatic limit to this equilibrium above which it is hypothesized that ecological pressure is toward maximization of biomass productivity. It is further hypothesized that natural soil-vegetation systems will develop gradually and synergistically, through vegetation-induced changes in soil structure, toward a set of hydraulic soil properties for which the minimum stress canopy density of a given species is maximum in a given climate. Using these hypotheses, only the soil effective porosity need be known to determine the optimum soil and vegetation parameters in a given climate.

  17. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Gerbermann, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Iron deficient and normal grain sorghum plants were sufficiently different spectrally in ERTS-1 band 5 CCT data to detect chlorotic sorghum areas 2.8 acres (1.1 hectares) or larger in size in computer printouts of the MSS data. The ratio of band 5 to band 7 or band 7 minus band 5 relates to vegetation ground cover conditions and helps to select training samples representative of differing vegetation maturity or vigor classes and to estimate ground cover or green vegetation density in the absence of ground information. The four plant parameters; leaf area index, plant population, plant cover, and plant height explained 87 to 93% of the variability in band 6 digital counts and from 59 to 90% of the variation in bands 4 and 5. A ground area 2244 acres in size was classified on a pixel by pixel basis using simultaneously acquired aircraft support and ERTS-1 data. Overall recognition for vegetables, immature crops and mixed shrubs, and bare soil categories was 64.5% for aircraft and 59.6% for spacecraft data, respectively. Overall recognition results on a per field basis were 61.8% for aircraft and 62.8% for ERTS-1 data.

  18. Online vegetation parameter estimation using passive microwave observations for soil moisture estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation affects the ability to estimate soil moisture from passive microwave observations by attenuating the surface soil moisture signal. To use radiobrightness observations in land data assimilation a vegetation opacity parameter is required as input to a radiative transfer model, which maps su...

  19. Soil Moisture Estimation under Vegetation Applying Polarimetric Decomposition Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagdhuber, T.; Schön, H.; Hajnsek, I.; Papathanassiou, K. P.

    2009-04-01

    Polarimetric decomposition techniques and inversion algorithms are developed and applied on the OPAQUE data set acquired in spring 2007 to investigate their potential and limitations for soil moisture estimation. A three component model-based decomposition is used together with an eigenvalue decomposition in a combined approach to invert for soil moisture over bare and vegetated soils at L-band. The applied approach indicates a feasible capability to invert soil moisture after decomposing volume and ground scattering components over agricultural land surfaces. But there are still deficiencies in modeling the volume disturbance. The results show a root mean square error below 8.5vol.-% for the winter crop fields (winter wheat, winter triticale and winter barley) and below 11.5Vol-% for the summer crop field (summer barley) whereas all fields have a distinct volume layer of 55-85cm height.

  20. Soil water availability as controlling factor for actual evapotranspiration in urban soil-vegetation-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Simon; Reisdorff, Christoph; Gröngröft, Alexander; Jensen, Kai; Eschenbach, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The City of Hamburg is characterized by a large number of greens, parks and roadside trees: 600.000 trees cover about 14% of the city area, and moreover, 245.000 roadside trees can be found here. Urban vegetation is generally known to positively contribute to the urban micro-climate via cooling by evapotranspiration (ET). The water for ET is predominantly stored in the urban soils. Hence, the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is - beside atmospheric drivers - determined by soil water availability at the soil surface and in the rooting zones of the respective vegetation. The overall aim of this study is to characterize soil water availability as a regulative factor for ETa in urban soil-vegetation systems. The specific questions addressed are: i) What is the spatio-temporal variation in soil water availability at the study sites? ii) Which soil depths are predominantly used for water uptake by the vegetation forms investigated? and iii) Which are the threshold values of soil water tension and soil water content (Θ), respectively, that limit ETa under dry conditions on both grass-dominated and tree-dominated sites? Three study areas were established in the urban region of Hamburg, Germany. We selected areas featuring both single tree stands and grass-dominated sites, both representing typical vegetation forms in Hamburg. The areas are characterized by relatively dry soil conditions. However, they differ in regard to soil water availability. At each area we selected one site dominated by Common Oak (Quercus ruber L.) with ages from 40 to 120 years, and paired each oak tree site with a neighboring grass-dominated site. All field measurements were performed during the years 2013 and 2014. At each site, we continuously measured soil water tension and Θ up to 160 cm depth, and xylem sap flux of each of three oak trees per site in a 15 min-resolution. Furthermore, we measured soil hydraulic properties as pF-curve, saturated and unsaturated conductivity at all sites. Automated weather stations for the continuous measurement of all relevant climatic factors were established at all grass-dominated sites. Based on the field data, soil water balances were simulated for all sites with the HYDRUS model. Potential ET for the grass-dominated sites was calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation. Results regarding the spatio-temporal variability of available soil water of the study sites will be shown and discussed in this contribution. Moreover, correlations between soil water availability and ETa will be presented.

  1. Estimation of arsenic in agricultural soils using hyperspectral vegetation indices of rice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tiezhu; Liu, Huizeng; Chen, Yiyun; Wang, Junjie; Wu, Guofeng

    2016-05-01

    This study systematically analyzed the performance of multivariate hyperspectral vegetation indices of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in estimating the arsenic content in agricultural soils. Field canopy reflectance spectra was obtained in the jointing-booting growth stage of rice. Newly developed and published multivariate vegetation indices were initially calculated to estimate soil arsenic content. The well-performing vegetation indices were then selected using successive projections algorithm (SPA), and the SPA selected vegetation indices were adopted to calibrate a multiple linear regression model for estimating soil arsenic content. Results showed that a three-band vegetation index (R716-R568)/(R552-R568) performed best in the newly developed vegetation indices in estimating soil arsenic content. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and red edge position (REP) performed well in the published vegetation indices. Moreover, the linear combination of two vegetation indices ((R716-R568)/(R552-R568) and REP) selected using SPA improved the estimation of soil arsenic content. These results indicated that the newly developed three-band vegetation index (R716-R568)/(R552-R568) might be recommended as an indicator for estimating soil arsenic content in the study area. PRI and REP could be used as universal vegetation indices for monitoring soil arsenic contamination. PMID:26844405

  2. Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Disaggregation radar data and relationship between soil moisture, vegetation and surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, Venkat; Fang, Bin

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is an important variable in weather and climate. The passive microwave sensors have provided soil moisture of various spatial resolutions and are available for all-weather conditions, including AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer- Earth Observing System), AMSR2 (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2) and SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity). However, the spatial resolution of passive microwave soil moisture product is restricted at tens of kilometers level and needs to be improved. Toward this issue, the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) is set to be launched in October 2014 will be the first mission to provide L-band radar/radiometer soil moisture retrievals at three resolutions. In this paper we present two distinct methods to obtain higher spatial resolution soil moisture. The first one is use of active radar data to downscale soil moisture obtained by passive radiometers. The SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) was taken place and provided Passive/Active L-band Sensor (PALS) observations of two along-track resolutions (650 m and 1590 m), as well as ground soil moisture measurements. Consequently the PALS data can be used for disaggregating coarse resolution passive soil moisture retrievals. Based on a change detection theory, the relationships between change in radar backscatter and change in soil moisture at both coarse and fine resolutions are examined and used for calculating high spatial resolution soil moisture from AMSR-E and SMOS. Using SMAPVEX12 ground measurements validates the disaggregation results. The second method is use of the relationship between vegetation and surface temperature to downscale soil moisture obtained from passive radiometers. The physical relationships amongst soil moisture, land surface temperature and vegetation index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI), the historic soil moisture data of recent 30 years at 1/8 degree NLDAS (North America Land Data Assimilation Systems) scale were studied and modeled by using the long term records of land surface model and remote sensing products, NLDAS, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer). This modeled relationship was then applied to the 1 km MODIS land surface temperature for disaggregating the microwave soil moisture estimates AMSR-E and SMOS in Oklahoma. Two sets of in-situ measurements Oklahoma Mesonet and Little Washita watershed Micronet were used for validating the disaggregated soil moisture.

  3. A new approach to predict soil temperature under vegetated surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Dolschak, Klaus; Gartner, Karl; Berger, Torsten W.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the setup and the application of an empirical model, based on Newton’s law of cooling, capable to predict daily mean soil temperature (Tsoil) under vegetated surfaces, is described. The only input variable, necessary to run the model, is a time series of daily mean air temperature. The simulator employs 9 empirical parameters, which were estimated by inverse modeling. The model, which primarily addresses forested sites, incorporates the effect of snow cover and soil freezing on soil temperature. The model was applied to several temperate forest sites, managing the split between Central Europe (Austria) and the United States (Harvard Forest, Massachusetts; Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire), aiming to cover a broad range of site characteristics. Investigated stands differ fundamentally in stand composition, elevation, exposition, annual mean temperature, precipitation regime, as well as in the duration of winter snow cover. At last, to explore the limits of the formulation, the simulator was applied to non-forest sites (Illinois), where soil temperature was recorded under short cut grass. The model was parameterized, specifically to site and measurement depth. After calibration of the model, an evaluation was performed, using ~50 % of the available data. In each case, the simulator was capable to deliver a feasible prediction of soil temperature in the validation time interval. To evaluate the practical suitability of the simulator, the minimum amount of soil temperature point measurements, necessary to yield expedient model performance was determined. In the investigated case 13–20 point observations, uniformly distributed within an 11-year timeframe, have been proven sufficient to yield sound model performance (root mean square error <0.9 °C, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency >0.97). This makes the model suitable for the application on sites, where the information on soil temperature is discontinuous or scarce. PMID:26870835

  4. Using Distributed Snow Data to Evaluate and Improve the Performance of the Distributed Soil Hydrology Vegetation Model (DHSVM): a test case from the northeastern U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Peral, A.; Wemple, B.

    2011-12-01

    Internal validation of physically-based hydrologic models using distributed field measurements has been increasingly recognized as an important approach for testing model performance and improving model skill. We are evaluating the performance of the Distributed Soil Hydrology Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to model snowmelt and runoff in mountainous watersheds in the northeastern U.S. Our test cases include a forested control watershed and a watershed managed as an alpine ski area. Empirical results from these watersheds show substantial differences in annual water yield between the watersheds that are highly correlated to annual snowpack magnitude. An underlying objective of our research is to explore the effects of ski area development, in particular the size, spatial arrangement and orientation of ski runs and base village development on runoff production. In this application, we use distributed snow pack measurements to validate distributed model simulations of snow accumulation and melt. We also explore the use of an automated model calibration approach, utilizing our distributed snow measurements, to improve model skill. Future work will make use of these exploratory simulations as we attempt to model the effects of ski area development under different design scenarios and climate conditions.

  5. Response of spectral vegetation indices to soil moisture in grasslands and shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, L.; Ji, L.; Wylie, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between satellite-derived vegetation indices (VIs) and soil moisture are complicated because of the time lag of the vegetation response to soil moisture. In this study, we used a distributed lag regression model to evaluate the lag responses of VIs to soil moisture for grasslands and shrublands at Soil Climate Analysis Network sites in the central and western United States. We examined the relationships between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived VIs and soil moisture measurements. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) showed significant lag responses to soil moisture. The lag length varies from 8 to 56 days for NDVI and from 16 to 56 days for NDWI. However, the lag response of NDVI and NDWI to soil moisture varied among the sites. Our study suggests that the lag effect needs to be taken into consideration when the VIs are used to estimate soil moisture. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  6. Improved prediction of quasi-global vegetation conditions using remotely-sensed surface soil moisture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The additive value of satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals for agricultural drought monitoring is assessed by calculating the lagged rank correlation between remotely-sensed vegetation indices (VI) and model-based soil moisture obtained before and after the assimilation of surface soil m...

  7. Dual frequency microwave radiometer measurements of soil moisture for bare and vegetated rough surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    Controlled ground-based passive microwave radiometric measurements on soil moisture were conducted to determine the effects of terrain surface roughness and vegetation on microwave emission. Theoretical predictions were compared with the experimental results and with some recent airborne radiometric measurements. The relationship of soil moisture to the permittivity for the soil was obtained in the laboratory. A dual frequency radiometer, 1.41356 GHz and 10.69 GHz, took measurements at angles between 0 and 50 degrees from an altitude of about fifty feet. Distinct surface roughnesses were studied. With the roughness undisturbed, oats were later planted and vegetated and bare field measurements were compared. The 1.4 GHz radiometer was less affected than the 10.6 GHz radiometer, which under vegetated conditions was incapable of detecting soil moisture. The bare surface theoretical model was inadequate, although the vegetation model appeared to be valid. Moisture parameters to correlate apparent temperature with soil moisture were compared.

  8. Linking carbon-water- and nitrogen fluxes at forest ecosystems throughout Europe with a coupled soil-vegetation process model "LandscapeDNDC"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina Herrera, Saul; Grote, Rüdiger; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Forest ecosystems in Europe play a key role in the emission reduction commitment agreed in the Kyoto Protocol for mitigating climatic change. Forest ecological functioning and potential services (such as carbon sequestration) are a matter of debate for policy decision makers resulting from the need of identifying affordable strategies for forest management and exploitation against climate change. Forest ecosystem functioning and the linkages governing carbon-, water- and nitrogen fluxes at site scale was evaluated for three dominant tree species (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica) grown on 10 different sites across Europe. We did answer in particular the following questions: a) is LandscapeDNDC able to represent NEE, GPP, TER and ET fluxes for dominant forest types in Europe at different sites with only a species specific parameterization? b) What is the relation between carbon input into the ecosystem and on the emission of carbon and nitrogen from the forest soil? Furthermore we analyzed the interaction between carbon-, nitrogen-, and water cycle, in particular the dependence of gaseous fluxes on water and litter availability. LandscapeDNDC is a process based model that integrates modules for carbon, nitrogen and water cycling within terrestrial ecosystems (i.e. forest) on the site and regional scale. Biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere processes in forest ecosystems are linked by daily time step integration of the microclimate, water cycle, soil biogeochemistry and tree physiology and dimensional growth modules which balances all three aforementioned cycles. All processes and state variables are considered in a vertically structured one dimensional vertical column that reaches from rooting depth (more than 1 m depth) to the uppermost canopy layer. LandscapeDNDC was tested against long term (about 10 years) field data. The capability of the applied model for reproducing daily derived GPP and TER was accompanied by a high statistical precision (r2), accuracy (r2eff) and agreement (RMSPEn) while for reproducing daily NEE and ET as well as soil moisture was accompanied by a good statistical precision and agreement. In addition, beside C fixation also simulated C allocation into different vegetation compartments agreed well with measured data on biomass development and vegetation structure. Also soil respiration and N2O emissions agreed well with field observations. Soil respiration was driven by GPP and the rates of N2O fluxes depended on soil ecosystem properties and were influenced by litter C/N inputs and weather conditions. In conclusion by use of general tree species parameterizations LandscapeDNDC was capable to simulate and capture impacts of a multitude of environmental drivers on forest ecosystem C-, N-, water dynamics, as well as linking above - and belowground processes across various sites in Europe. Nevertheless, the quality of measured data (e.g. spatial representation, time resolution) as well as the existing description of ecosystem processes in the model should be considered when evaluating the capability of process based models to be used for evaluation of biogeochemical ecosystem functioning.

  9. A land data assimilation system for simultaneous simulation of soil moisture and vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Yohei; Koike, Toshio; Walker, Jeffrey P.

    2015-06-01

    Despite the importance of the coupling between vegetation dynamics and root-zone soil moisture in land-atmosphere interactions, there is no land data assimilation system (LDAS) that currently addresses this issue, limiting the capacity to positively impact weather and seasonal forecasting. We develop a new LDAS that can improve the skill of an ecohydrological model to simulate simultaneously surface soil moisture, root-zone soil moisture, and vegetation dynamics by assimilating passive microwave observations that are sensitive to both surface soil moisture and terrestrial biomass. This LDAS first calibrates both hydrological and ecological parameters of a land surface model, which explicitly simulates vegetation growth and senescence. Then, it adjusts the model states of soil moisture and leaf area index (LAI) sequentially using a genetic particle filter. We can adjust the subsurface soil moisture, which is not observed directly by satellites, because we simulate the interactions between vegetation dynamics and subsurface water dynamics. From a point-scale evaluation, we succeed in improving the performance of our land surface model and generate ensembles of the model state whose distribution reflects the combined information in the land surface model and satellite observations. We show that the adjustment of the subsurface soil moisture significantly improves the capacity to simulate vegetation dynamics in seasonal forecast timescales. This LDAS can contribute to the generation of ensemble initial conditions of surface and subsurface soil moisture and LAI for a probabilistic framework of weather and seasonal forecasting.

  10. Comparisons of measured stream flow with drainage and runoff simulated by a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transport model parameterized with GLOBE student data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkonian, Jeffrey; Riha, Susan J.; Robin, Jessica; Levine, Elissa

    2007-02-01

    SummaryPredicting runoff and drainage from landscapes and correlating these with stream flow can be a powerful watershed management tool. We examined the feasibility of using runoff and drainage output of a simple soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVAT) model as a predictor of monthly and daily changes in measured stream flow. Six watersheds in the eastern US were analyzed, located from approximately 35°N to 43°N. They ranged in area from 23 to 2463 km 2 and were 35-65% forested. The SVAT model was parameterized with weather, soils and phenological data largely obtained from a secondary school in each watershed that is participating in the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program. This program is a United States government science education effort promoting scientific inquiry in grades K-12 by providing protocols for collecting environmental data. Monthly measured stream flow and simulated runoff + drainage over a one year period were normalized to the largest value in that period and were compared using linear regression. Simulated monthly runoff + drainage explained between 37% and 76% of the variability in monthly stream flow. Changes in daily simulated runoff + drainage and measured stream flow depended on the simulated volumetric soil water content ( θv). At low θv, large precipitation events (>20 mm) did not result in increased daily simulated runoff + drainage or measured stream flow. At high or saturating θv, large precipitation events resulted in increased daily simulated runoff + drainage followed by increased measured stream flow within two days.

  11. Modeling biophysical exchanges and micro-meteorology in soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuums: Results from a two-story boreal aspen forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Lianhong

    In this study, a multilayer canopy process model for the exchanges of radiative energy, sensible heat, water vapor and CO2 between vegetation and the atmosphere is developed. The model is designed to be applied to both one-story and two-story canopies. It first predicts profiles of temperature, water vapor and CO2 partial pressures in plant canopies. Then from these predicted profiles, exchanges of sensible heat, water vapor and CO2 in each layer of the canopy are computed. Finally, canopy level fluxes are obtained by integrating these exchanges over the canopy. The model was tested comprehensively against measurements from a two-story boreal aspen forest in the southern study area of the boreal ecosystem-atmosphere study (BOREAS) project. Major findings obtained in this dissertation study can be summarized as follows: (1) The model can make accurate predictions for fluxes of radiative energy, sensible heat, water vapor and CO2 over this two-story forest, and profiles and diurnal patterns of air temperature, water vapor partial pressure and CO2 concentration within and just above the canopy. (2) Energy and mass exchanges in this boreal forest was largely controlled by the above story even through its LAI was smaller than that of the understory. However, to model energy and mass exchanges, it is not sufficient to consider leaves only, and contributions from other elements of the ecosystem can not be neglected in general. In particular, respiration of stems and soil is a significant part of the carbon budget for this forest and must be included in the study of ecosystem productivity. (3) Ecosystem elements can have significantly different roles in determining canopy sensible heat fluxes than in determining canopy evapotranspiration or CO2 assimilation. For example, the understory had a much bigger role in contributing to the fluxes of H2O and CO2 than in contributing to the sensible heat flux. In addition, their roles may change from nighttime to daytime. (4) The results showed that scalar transfers in this boreal forest can be described by the revised localized near-field theory, and problems of soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfers can be solved through a system of non-linear equations.

  12. Soil microbial properties under different vegetation types on Mountain Han.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Qu, Laiye; Ma, Keming; Yuan, Xiu

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of broadleaf and conifer vegetation on soil microbial communities in a distinct vertical distribution belt in Northeast China. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths from four vegetation types at different altitudes, which were characterized by poplar (Populus davidiana) (1250-1300 m), poplar (P. davidiana) mixed with birch (Betula platyphylla) (1370-1550 m), birch (B. platyphylla) (1550-1720 m), and larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii) (1840-1890 m). Microbial biomass and community structure were determined using the fumigation-extraction method and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, and soil fungal community level physiological profiles (CLPP) were characterized using Biolog FF Microplates. It was found that soil properties, especially soil organic carbon and water content, contributed significantly to the variations in soil microbes. With increasing soil depth, the soil microbial biomass, fungal biomass, and fungal catabolic ability diminished; however, the ratio of fungi to bacteria increased. The fungal ratio was higher under larch forests compared to that under poplar, birch, and their mixed forests, although the soil microbial biomass was lower. The direct contribution of vegetation types to the soil microbial community variation was 12%. If the indirect contribution through soil organic carbon was included, variations in the vegetation type had substantial influences on soil microbial composition and diversity. PMID:23737003

  13. Sensitivity of convective precipitation forecasts to soil moisture and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collow, Thomas William

    Land surface properties play a major role in convective precipitation events through impacting the amount of surface evaporation which results in changes to near surface temperature and humidity. This study examines the effects of using soil moisture data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity Satellite (SMOS) on short term weather forecasts using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). SMOS soil moisture data were compared to in-situ observations and it was found that although they captured the spatial variation in soil moisture, the actual measurements had a dry bias of roughly 0.10 m3/m 3. Large differences existed between the in-situ observations, even for probes only a few meters apart. Observations from different sensors within a SMOS footprint differed from each other by a larger amount than they differed from the SMOS retrieval. Removing the mean and normalizing the data brought the in-situ observations into better agreement with each other and with SMOS but they still contained substantial differences. WRF sensitivity experiments demonstrated that changes to initial values of soil moisture resulted in no significant changes in precipitation. However, more of an impact was seen when the vegetation was changed, with barren vegetation yielding a substantial decrease in precipitation. Adding soil moisture resulted in significant changes to 2 m temperature and dewpoint relative to the control runs for each vegetation type. However, it was found that convective available potential energy and moist static energy change little, as the temperature and humidity impacts on these variables cancel each other out, which explain the limited precipitation response. SMOS data resulted in no significant changes in precipitation forecasts but had some impacts on temperature and humidity forecasts. However, because these results were not seen in all cases, no definitive conclusions about the usefulness of SMOS for high resolution numerical modeling can be made at this time. These results provide major implications for future satellite missions such as Soil Moisture Active Passive showing that experiments using true data assimilation methods which give only partial weight to satellite data may also not provide significant improvements to weather forecasts.

  14. Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 32: Patterns in Soil-Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollet, S. J.; Simmer, C.; Masbou, M.; Boessenkool, K.; Crewell, S.; Diekkruger, B.; Huber, K.; Klitzsch, N.; Koyama, C. N.; Vereecken, H.

    2011-12-01

    The soil, vegetation and the lower atmosphere (SVA) are key compartments of the Earth, where almost all activities of mankind take place. This region is characterized by extremely complex patterns, structures and processes that act at different temporal and spatial scales. While the exchange of energy, water and carbon is continuous between the different compartments, the pertinent fluxes are strongly heterogeneous and variable in space and time. The overarching TR32 paradigm is that the characterisation of structures and patterns will lead to a deeper qualitative and quantitative understanding of the SVA system, and ultimately to better predictions of the SVA state. The TR32 combines research groups in the field of soil and plant science, remote sensing, hydrology, meteorology and mathematics located at the Universities of Aachen, Bonn, Braunschweig and Cologne and the Research Centre Juelich study the soil-vegetation atmosphere system under the novel holistic paradigm of patterns. To understand the mechanisms leading to spatial and temporal patterns in energy and matter fluxes of the SVA system we link experiments and theory via model-observation integration. Focusing our research on the Rur Catchment (Germany), patterns are monitored since 2006 continuously using existing and novel geophysical and remote sensing techniques from the local to the catchment scale based on ground penetrating radar methods, induced polarization, radiomagnetotellurics, electrical resistivity tomography, boundary layer scintillometry, lidar techniques, microwave radiometry, and precipitation radars with polarization diversity. Modeling approaches involve high resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP; 400m) and hydrological models (few meters). Example work from the first phase includes the transfer of laboratory methods to the field; the measurements of patterns of soil-carbon, evapotranspiration and respiration measured in the field; catchment-scale modeling of exchange processes and the setup of an atmospheric boundary layer monitoring network. In the second phase (2011-2014), the focus is on the integration of models from the groundwater to the atmosphere for both the m- and km-scale and the extension of the experimental monitoring in respect to vegetation. The general coupled modeling concept is based on the atmospheric model COSMO, the land surface model CLM and the hydrological model ParFlow. In order to bridge the scale gaps in measurements and modelling an LES model will be validated via a dedicated field campaign.

  15. Soil Temperature and Moisture Change and the Impacts on Vegetation over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuo, L.; Bohn, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost soil covers 25% of the area in the Northern Hemisphere, it is especially important on the Tibetan Plateau, with almost 75% the Tibetan Plateau land covered by the permafrost. Continuous, isolated and discontinuous permafrost soil and seasonally frozen soil coexist on the plateau. Changes in frozen soil are likely to have impact on ecosystems, hydrology and infrastructure. In this study, we use both modeling approach to study the historical changes in soil temperature and moisture over the past 50 years. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model was modified and used to simulate the soil temperature and moisture on the plateau. Observed soil temperature and moisture down to 7 m were used to evaluate the VIC model. The evaluated model is then used to study the historical change of the frozen soil. The effects of the frozen soil change on the vegetation growth in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau are examined by using empirical relationships between soil temperature/moisture and biomass.

  16. The tri-soil experiment: do plants discriminate among vegetation soil types?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested if rooting mass and root nutrient uptake of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) or creeping wildrye (Leymus triticoides) were influenced by vegetation soil type. Three soil types (A horizons), similar in gross physical and chemical properties, were freshly-collected. The soils varied in the veget...

  17. Remote sensing of vegetation and soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J. B.; Auer, S. O.

    1977-01-01

    Microwave ellipsometry apparatus reflects circularly polarized train of microwaves from vegetation at predetermined angle of incidence to determine ratio of intensities of electric field components and their phase differences. Refractive index given by water content of vegetation and thickness of vegetation layer are computed from formula based on Maxwell's equations.

  18. Estimation of Soil Moisture for Vegetated Surfaces Using Multi-Temporal L-Band SAR Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jian-Cheng; Sun, G.; Hsu, A.; Wang, J.; ONeill, P.; Ranson, J.; Engman, E. T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the technique to estimate ground surface and vegetation scattering components, based on the backscattering model and the radar decomposition theory, under configuration of multi-temporal L-band polarimetric SAR measurement. This technique can be used to estimate soil moisture of vegetated surface.

  19. Carbon Dynamics in Vegetation and Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumbore, Susan; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Camargo, Plinio; Martinelli, Luiz; Santos, Joaquim

    2005-01-01

    The overall goals of CD-08 team in Phase I were to quantify the contributions of different components of the carbon cycle to overall ecosystem carbon balance in Amazonian tropical forests and to undertake process studies at a number of sites along the eastern LBA transect to understand how and why these fluxes vary with site, season, and year. We divided this work into a number of specific tasks: (1) determining the average rate (and variability) of tree growth over the past 3 decades; (2) determining age demographics of tree populations, using radiocarbon to determine tree age; (3) assessing the rate of production and decomposition of dead wood debris; (4) determining turnover rates for organic matter in soils and the mean age of C respired from soil using radiocarbon measurements; and (5) comparing our results with models and constructing models to predict the potential of tropical forests to function as sources or sinks of C. This report summarizes the considerable progress made towards our original goals, which have led to increased understanding of the potential for central Amazon forests to act as sources or sinks of carbon with altered productivity. The overall picture of tropical forest C dynamics emerging from our Phase I studies suggests that the fraction of gross primary production allocated to growth in these forests is only 25-30%, as opposed to the 50% assumed by many ecosystem models. Consequent slow tree growth rates mean greater mean tree age for a given diameter, as reflected in our measurements and models of tree age. Radiocarbon measurements in leaf and root litter suggest that carbon stays in living tree biomass for several years up to a decade before being added to soils, where decomposition is rapid. The time lags predicted from 14C, when coupled with climate variation on similar time scales, can lead to significant interannual variation in net ecosystem C exchange.

  20. Methodology for building soil based vegetation productivity equations: A statistical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Burley, J.B.

    1996-12-31

    Reclamation specialists have been interested in developing predictive equations to assess reclamation efforts in reconstructing soils to support vegetation growth. One predictive effort is associated with a statistical approach examining somewhat large data sets containing plant growth yields and soil variables. While the results from such procedures have been reported for the last seven years, a description of the methodology has not been described since 1987. This paper describes this statistical vegetation productivity model building process.

  1. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in environmental soil and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Hong, Semie; Kim, Kyungjin; Yoon, Sejoung; Park, Woo-Yoon; Sim, Seobo; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2014-10-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes cryptosporidial enteritis. Numerous outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been reported worldwide. Cryptosporidium is transmitted to hosts via consumption of contaminated water and food but also by direct contact with contaminated soil or infected hosts. The present study investigated farm soil collected from 34 locations along the western Korean peninsula and 24 vegetables purchased from local grocery markets in Seoul. The soil and vegetable samples were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to estimate the risk of infection. Eleven of 34 locations (32.4%) and 3 of 24 vegetable samples (12.5%) were contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum, as confirmed by TaqI enzyme digestion of qPCR products and DNA sequencing. It is suggested that Cryptosporidium infection can be mediated via farm soil and vegetables. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce contamination of this organism in view of public health. PMID:25368489

  2. The Effect of Vegetation on Soil Moisture Retrievals from GPS Signal-to-Noise Ratio Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, C. C.; Small, E. E.; Larson, K. M.; Zavorotny, V.

    2012-12-01

    GPS-Interferometric Reflectometry (GPS-IR) is a method of environmental monitoring that relates changes in ground-reflected (multipath) GPS signals to changes in surface soil moisture and vegetative state for an area of approximately 1000 m2 surrounding a GPS antenna. GPS-IR operates as a bi-static radar: L2C frequency signals transmitted by GPS satellites and subsequent reflections (multipath) are measured by antennas at permanent GPS stations. Changes in multipath signals are seen in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) interferograms, which are recorded by the GPS receiver. Results from previous field studies have shown that shallow soil moisture can be estimated from SNR phase for bare soil conditions or when vegetation is sparse. Vegetation surrounding a GPS antenna affects the phase shift, amplitude, and frequency/apparent reflector height of SNR oscillations. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify the vegetation conditions, for example vegetation height or water content, that preclude retrieval of soil moisture estimates using GPS-IR. We use both field data and an electrodynamic model that simulates SNR interferograms for variable soil and vegetation conditions to: 1. Determine how changes in vegetation height, biomass, and water content affect GPS phase, amplitude, and apparent reflector height and 2. Quantify the amount of vegetation that obscures the soil moisture signal in SNR data. We report results for rangeland and agricultural sites. At the rangeland sites, vegetation water content only varies between 0 and 0.6 kg/m2. Both observed and simulated SNR data from these sites show that apparent reflector height is nearly constant. Therefore, SNR interferograms are strongly affected by permittivity at the soil surface, and thus soil moisture can be retrieved. Even though reflector height does not change, SNR phase shift and amplitude are affected by fluctuations in rangeland vegetation and must be accounted for in soil moisture retrievals. At several agricultural sites, apparent reflector height decreases as vegetation grows, although the primary reflector is not an indicator of vegetation canopy height. SNR data is significantly affected by reflections within the vegetation canopy when the canopy permittivity is high, which is the result of a combination of both vegetation water content and canopy height. Under these conditions, estimates of SNR phase shift and amplitude have larger errors; thus, soil moisture retrieval may not be possible using phase shift or amplitude alone.

  3. SOIL AND VEGETATIVE COVERS FOR LEAD (PB) MINE WASTE PILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conduct vegetation studies that evaluate a variety of seed mixtures and surface amendments (soil, compost, biosolids, yard waste and fertilizers). US Bureau of Reclamation with experts formerly with US Bureau of Mines to contribute to Vegetation Plan for Big River NTCR EE/CA

  4. Effects of vegetation types on soil moisture estimation from the normalized land surface temperature versus vegetation index space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dianjun; Zhou, Guoqing

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) is a key variable that has been widely used in many environmental studies. Land surface temperature versus vegetation index (LST-VI) space becomes a common way to estimate SM in optical remote sensing applications. Normalized LST-VI space is established by the normalized LST and VI to obtain the comparable SM in Zhang et al. (Validation of a practical normalized soil moisture model with in situ measurements in humid and semiarid regions [J]. International Journal of Remote Sensing, DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2015.1055610). The boundary conditions in the study were set to limit the point A (the driest bare soil) and B (the wettest bare soil) for surface energy closure. However, no limitation was installed for point D (the full vegetation cover). In this paper, many vegetation types are simulated by the land surface model - Noah LSM 3.2 to analyze the effects on soil moisture estimation, such as crop, grass and mixed forest. The locations of point D are changed with vegetation types. The normalized LST of point D for forest is much lower than crop and grass. The location of point D is basically unchanged for crop and grass.

  5. Measurement of soil hydraulic conductivity in relation with vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Cheng, Qinbo

    2010-05-01

    Hydraulic conductivity is a key parameter which influences hydrological processes of infiltration, surface and subsurface runoff. Vegetation alters surface characteristics (e.g., surface roughness, litter absorption) or subsurface characteristics (e.g. hydraulic conductivity). Field infiltration experiment of a single ring permeameter is widely used for measuring soil hydraulic conductivity. Measurement equipment is a simple single-ring falling head permeameter which consists of a hollow cylinder that is simply inserted into the top soil. An optimization method on the basis of objective of minimum error between the measured and simulated water depths in the single-ring is developed for determination of the soil hydraulic parameters. Using the single ring permeameter, we measured saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ks) of the red loam soil with and without vegetation covers on five hillslopes at Taoyuan Agro-Ecology Experimental Station, Hunan Province of China. For the measurement plots without vegetation roots, Ks value of the soil at 25cm depth is much smaller than that of surface soil (1.52×10-4 vs. 1.10×10-5 m/s). For the measurement plots with vegetation cover, plant roots significantly increase Ks of the lower layer soil but this increase is not significant for the shallow soil. Moreover, influences of vegetation root on Ks depend on vegetation species and ages. Ks value of the Camellia is about three times larger than that of seeding of Camphor (2.62×10-4 vs. 9.82×10-5 m/s). Ks value of the matured Camellia is 2.72×10-4 m/s while Ks value of the young Camellia is only 2.17×10-4 m/s. Key words: single ring permeameter; soil hydraulic conductivity; vegetation

  6. A Coupled Vegetation-Crust Model for Patchy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinast, Shai; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Meron, Ehud

    2016-03-01

    A new model for patchy landscapes in drylands is introduced. The model captures the dynamics of biogenic soil crusts and their mutual interactions with vegetation growth. The model is used to identify spatially uniform and spatially periodic solutions that represent different vegetation-crust states, and map them along the rainfall gradient. The results are consistent extensions of the vegetation states found in earlier models. A significant difference between the current and earlier models of patchy landscapes is found in the bistability range of vegetated and unvegetated states; the incorporation of crust dynamics shifts the onset of vegetation patterns to a higher precipitation value and increases the biomass amplitude. These results can shed new light on the involvement of biogenic crusts in desertification processes that involve vegetation loss.

  7. Simulating the interannual variability of the {13}C isotope signature of the atmospheric {CO2} concentration with an integrated soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer and carbon cycle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaduk, J. D.; Still, C. J.; Suits, N.; Field, C. B.; Berry, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    Interannual variations of the global mean atmospheric concentrations of {12}CO2 and {13}CO2 largely reflect climate induced year-to-year imbalances of the carbon fluxes from the different global carbon reservoirs and, thus, their climate sensitivity. We employ the apparent interannual variation of the global terrestrial carbon fluxes as inferred from inversion studies of the atmospheric {CO2} concentration to evaluate simulations with the integrated soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer and carbon cycle model SCS. The model, driven by satellite observations and meteorology, is designed to be employed as a land surface parameterization within an atmospheric general circulation model. In addition it simulates complete cycling of {12}C and {13}C through the terrestrial biosphere using ecophysiological approaches. For the simulations on a global 1x1 degree grid reported here, the model was forced with NDVI data from satellite observations and ECMWF reanalysis data for the time period 1983-1993. We discuss the climate sensitivities of the various modeled carbon transfers and identify the most important fluxes on the interannual time scale. Furthermore we examine the isotope fluxes, the climate induced changes in {13}C discrimination of {C3} photosynthesis and the variability of the isotopic signature from resulting from carbon cycling in ecosystems dominated by {C3} or {C4} plants. Inversion approaches to the determination of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks depend partially on assumptions about the isotope signature of the fluxes. We use our results to evaluate the sensitivity of those inversion based estimates of the terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks on the isotopic signatures of the fluxes.

  8. Remote measurement of soil moisture over vegetation using infrared temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Toby N.

    1991-01-01

    Better methods for remote sensing of surface evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and fractional vegetation cover were developed. The objectives were to: (1) further develop a model of water movement through the soil/plant/atmosphere system; (2) use this model, in conjunction with measurements of infrared surface temperature and vegetation fraction; (3) determine the magnitude of radiometric temperature response to water stress in vegetation; (4) show at what point one can detect that sensitivity to water stress; and (5) determine the practical limits of the methods. A hydrological model that can be used to calculate soil water content versus depth given conventional meteorological records and observations of vegetation cover was developed. An outline of the results of these initiatives is presented.

  9. Relative skills of soil moisture and vegetation optical depth retrievals for agricultural drought monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture condition is an important indicator for agricultural drought monitoring. Through the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), vegetation optical depth (VOD) as well as surface soil moisture (SM) can be retrieved simultaneously from brightness temperature observations from the Advanced Mi...

  10. Electromagnetic wave scattering from vegetation (Potato) and vegetation covered soil moisture for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Keshev

    In the country with limited resources, where the nutrition level of the population has to be maintained under inhospitable situation, the potato has a special value as food. Therefore efforts should be made for improvement and spreading the cultivation of this important crop. It demands an effective program that may provide information about potato growing areas and the growth conditions. Remote sensing has been acknowledged to be a valuable source of spatially comprehensive and temporally repeatable information of crop covered soil moisture, crop growth climatic information etc, which is useful and necessary for agriculture purposes. For this purpose, microwave remote sensing has evolved as an important tool. Since microwave are able to penetrate more deeply into vegetation and underneath ground surface. It is also preferred to the optical frequency band because microwave can work in all type of weather and have a wide signal dynamic range compared optical wavelengths. However interpretation of microwave scattering from agricultural crops requires an understanding the interaction among microwave, vegetative material and the soil. In order to develop useful forward and inverse models for retrieving the vegetation characteristic, it is necessary to know in detail the dielectric properties and plant structure of the vegetation over the range of expected growing conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model based on microwave interaction with potato crop along with examination of biomass of potato crop with the varying underlying soil moisture is studied. For this purpose, X-band (9.5GHz) scatterometer is used for studying the interaction of microwave with potato crop biomass and underlying soil moisture at various sensor parameters (i.e. angular variation and polarization, HH- and VV-). Although there may be a lot of crop parameters (i.e. crop height, leaf area index, etc) which also gives their effect on microwave. All this parameters are interlinked in the crop. So, this study is focused on biomass, which is one of the main parameter of crop and related with dielectric. Scattering coefficient at X-band showed strong sensitivity to different growth cycle of potato. The soil effect on scattering coefficient was prominent at steeper incidence angle (less than 40 degree) where as potato plant effects are more dominant at higher incidence angle (more than 40 degree). The microwave response of potato is polarization dependent and is more prominent for VV-Pol than HH-Pol at every stages of growth of potato and this strong polarization dependence can play a strong role for crop discrimination. The dependency of scattering coefficient on biomass is statistically checked by the linear regression analysis and results of regression analysis confirm the experimental results i.e., scattering coefficient increases as the biomass increases in the potato crop. The best angle to observe and retrieve the biomass by scattering coefficient is 55 degree and 60 degree incidence angles for HH-Pol and VV-Pol respectively. The regression results also revealed that scattering coefficient is positively correlated with soil moisture for both like pols. This result follows many earlier findings. The best incidence angle to compute the potato covered soil moisture from scattering coefficient is 35 degree and 30 degree for HH- and VV-Pol respectively. The HH- pol has edge over VV-pol for observing the potato the covered soil moisture. This approach provides a new direction to understand the potato scattering at X-band for remote sensing.

  11. Soil, water, and vegetation conditions in south Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The best wavelengths in the 0.4 to 2.5 micron interval were determined for detecting lead toxicity and ozone damage, distinguishing succulent from woody species, and detecting silverleaf sunflower. A perpendicular vegetation index, a measure of the distance from the soil background line, in MSS 5 and MSS 7 data space, of pixels containing vegetation was developed and tested as an indicator of vegetation development and crop vigor. A table lookup procedure was devised that permits rapid identification of soil background and green biomass or phenological development in LANDSAT scenes without the need for training data.

  12. Improved Prediction of Quasi-Global Vegetation Conditions Using Remotely-Sensed Surface Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John; Crow, Wade

    2012-01-01

    The added value of satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals for agricultural drought monitoring is assessed by calculating the lagged rank correlation between remotely-sensed vegetation indices (VI) and soil moisture estimates obtained both before and after the assimilation of surface soil moisture retrievals derived from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) into a soil water balance model. Higher soil moisture/VI lag correlations imply an enhanced ability to predict future vegetation conditions using estimates of current soil moisture. Results demonstrate that the assimilation of AMSR-E surface soil moisture retrievals substantially improve the performance of a global drought monitoring system - particularly in sparsely-instrumented areas of the world where high-quality rainfall observations are unavailable.

  13. Predicting Vegetation Patterning across Climate, Soil, and Topographic Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsson, C.; Hanan, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation communities in water-limited systems sometimes form periodic patterns, e.g. banded, spotted and labyrinthine distributions of woody and herbaceous plants. Pattern formation is commonly linked to competition and facilitation among plants, and variation in runoff and infiltration capacity in the landscape. Based on previous studies, we expect that climate, soil type, and slope to a large degree influence the type of vegetation pattern found at a specific site. We have analyzed to what extent vegetation patterns on the African continent can be predicted based on available climatic, topographic, and soil data. Our focus is not restricted to periodic patterns in drylands, but encompasses a range of tropical ecosystems from arid to humid. Vegetation patterns observed in remote sensing data can be informative regarding the underlying ecological processes that shape the landscape, not only in strikingly periodic vegetation but also in savannas with randomly located or dispersed vegetation. We use high-resolution multispectral and panchromatic remote sensing data classified into woody, herbaceous, and bare ground components. From these images we extract spatial statistical metrics that define type and degree of vegetation patterning. We then relate variables from climate, soil and topographic datasets to the observed patterns in order to determine how well we can predict vegetation patterning and which climatic and edaphic variables are most informative. We discuss the results and the possible sources of uncertainty in the relationships.

  14. Soil permeability as a function of vegetation type and soil water content

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.C.; Fraley, L. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Soil permeability is important for estimating the rate of mass transport of {sup 222}Rn through soils and into basements. We measured permeability and soil water content on a set of nine plots consisting of three plots vegetated with common barley (Hordeum vulgare), three plots vegetated with Russian thistle (Salsola kali), and three bare plots. Soil moisture was consistently highest on the bare plots and lowest on the Russian thistle plots. Plots with vegetation had lower soil water content during the growing season. Permeability was consistently higher on Russian thistle plots. ANOVA showed that both soil water content and presence of Russian thistle had a significant impact on permeability but that presence of barley did not. The effect of vegetation and moisture on permeability may have significant effects on {sup 222}Rn transport in soils. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Modeling Feedbacks Between Water and Vegetation in the Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Not only is water essential for life on earth, but life itself affects the global hydrologic cycle and consequently the climate of the planet. Whether the global feedbacks between life and the hydrologic cycle tend to stabilize the climate system about some equilibrium level is difficult to assess. We use a global climate model to examine how the presence of vegetation can affect the hydrologic cycle in a particular region. A control for the present climate is compared with a model experiment in which the Sahara Desert is replaced by vegetation in the form of trees and shrubs common to the Sahel region. A second model experiment is designed to identify the separate roles of two different effects of vegetation, namely the modified albedo and the presence of roots that can extract moisture from deeper soil layers. The results show that the presence of vegetation leads to increases in precipitation and soil moisture in western Sahara. In eastern Sahara, the changes are less clear. The increase in soil moisture is greater when the desert albedo is replaced by the vegetation albedo than when both the vegetation albedo and roots are added. The effect of roots is to withdraw water from deeper layers during the dry season. One implication of this study is that the insertion of vegetation into the Sahara modifies the hydrologic cycle so that the vegetation is more likely to persist than initially.

  16. Scaling dimensions in spectroscopy of soil and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malenovský, Zbyněk; Bartholomeus, Harm M.; Acerbi-Junior, Fausto W.; Schopfer, Jürg T.; Painter, Thomas H.; Epema, Gerrit F.; Bregt, Arnold K.

    2007-05-01

    The paper revises and clarifies definitions of the term scale and scaling conversions for imaging spectroscopy of soil and vegetation. We demonstrate a new four-dimensional scale concept that includes not only spatial but also the spectral, directional and temporal components. Three scaling remote sensing techniques are reviewed: (1) radiative transfer, (2) spectral (un)mixing, and (3) data fusion. Relevant case studies are given in the context of their up- and/or down-scaling abilities over the soil/vegetation surfaces and a multi-source approach is proposed for their integration. Radiative transfer (RT) models are described to show their capacity for spatial, spectral up-scaling, and directional down-scaling within a heterogeneous environment. Spectral information and spectral derivatives, like vegetation indices (e.g. TCARI/OSAVI), can be scaled and even tested by their means. Radiative transfer of an experimental Norway spruce ( Picea abies (L.) Karst.) research plot in the Czech Republic was simulated by the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model to prove relevance of the correct object optical properties scaled up to image data at two different spatial resolutions. Interconnection of the successive modelling levels in vegetation is shown. A future development in measurement and simulation of the leaf directional spectral properties is discussed. We describe linear and/or non-linear spectral mixing techniques and unmixing methods that demonstrate spatial down-scaling. Relevance of proper selection or acquisition of the spectral endmembers using spectral libraries, field measurements, and pure pixels of the hyperspectral image is highlighted. An extensive list of advanced unmixing techniques, a particular example of unmixing a reflective optics system imaging spectrometer (ROSIS) image from Spain, and examples of other mixture applications give insight into the present status of scaling capabilities. Simultaneous spatial and temporal down-scaling by means of a data fusion technique is described. A demonstrative example is given for the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data from Brazil. Corresponding spectral bands of both sensors were fused via a pyramidal wavelet transform in Fourier space. New spectral and temporal information of the resultant image can be used for thematic classification or qualitative mapping. All three described scaling techniques can be integrated as the relevant methodological steps within a complex multi-source approach. We present this concept of combining numerous optical remote sensing data and methods to generate inputs for ecosystem process models.

  17. Development of a ground hydrology model suitable for global climate modeling using soil morphology and vegetation cover, and an evaluation of remotely sensed information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobler, L.; Lewis, R.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term purpose was to contribute to scientific understanding of the role of the planet's land surfaces in modulating the flows of energy and matter which influence the climate, and to quantify and monitor human-induced changes to the land environment that may affect global climate. Highlights of the effort include the following: production of geo-coded, digitized World Soil Data file for use with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model; contribution to the development of a numerical physically-based model of ground hydrology; and assessment of the utility of remote sensing for providing data on hydrologically significant land surface variables.

  18. Coupling vegetation organization patterns to soil resource heterogeneity in a central Kenyan dryland using geophysical imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Trenton E.; King, Elizabeth G.; Caylor, Kelly K.; Robinson, David A.

    2011-07-01

    In dryland ecosystems, understanding the effects of heterogeneity in soil moisture and geophysical properties on vegetation structure and dynamics poses a suite of challenging research questions. Heterogeneity in soil depth can affect resource availability and the subsequent organization of woody vegetation, while spatiotemporal variation in soil moisture can reveal important ecohydrological feedbacks that govern the outcome of anthropogenic activities on the organization of dryland vegetation. In this research we investigate two cases of soil resource heterogeneity that affect the organization of dryland vegetation patterns by expanding previous electromagnetic induction (EMI) imaging techniques. In the first case we examine the influence of soil depth as a control on soil resource availability on hillslopes in tree-grass systems in central Kenya. Our results indicate that woody vegetation clumping occurs where soil depth changes, and the deeper rooted Acacia tortilis occurs on deep soils while the drought tolerant Acacia etbaica occurs on shallow soils. In the second case we examine daily patch-interpatch scale moisture dynamics following two different-sized rain events in a degraded landscape. With the aid of a numerical subsurface flow model, EMI, and soil moisture data, we have identified a possible positive feedback mechanism ("soil moisture halo effect") that we believe may have contributed to the proliferation and two-phase pattern formation of a native succulent Sansevieria volkensii in degraded ecosystems of Kenya. By determining how different plants respond to, and modify, the soil environment, we can better understand resource capture and dynamics, which in the longterm will help to develop management strategies.

  19. Vegetation Types Alter Soil Respiration and Its Temperature Sensitivity at the Field Scale in an Estuary Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Luo, Yiqi; Rafique, Rashad; Yu, Junbao; Mikle, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation type plays an important role in regulating the temporal and spatial variation of soil respiration. Therefore, vegetation patchiness may cause high uncertainties in the estimates of soil respiration for scaling field measurements to ecosystem level. Few studies provide insights regarding the influence of vegetation types on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity in an estuary wetland. In order to enhance the understanding of this issue, we focused on the growing season and investigated how the soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity are affected by the different vegetation (Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil) in the Yellow River Estuary. During the growing season, there were significant linear relationships between soil respiration rates and shoot and root biomass, respectively. On the diurnal timescale, daytime soil respiration was more dependent on net photosynthesis. A positive correlation between soil respiration and net photosynthesis at the Phragmites australis site was found. There were exponential correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, and the fitted Q10 values varied among different vegetation types (1.81, 2.15 and 3.43 for Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil sites, respectively). During the growing season, the mean soil respiration was consistently higher at the Phragmites australis site (1.11 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1), followed by the Suaeda salsa site (0.77 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1) and the bare soil site (0.41 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1). The mean monthly soil respiration was positively correlated with shoot and root biomass, total C, and total N among the three vegetation patches. Our results suggest that vegetation patchiness at a field scale might have a large impact on ecosystem-scale soil respiration. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the differences in vegetation types when using models to evaluate soil respiration in an estuary wetland. PMID:24608636

  20. Simulation of Dynamic Soil Crusting Processes and Vegetative Feedbacks in Semi-Arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivandran, G.; Bras, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    Many soils, especially those in arid and semi-arid regions, develop compacted surface layers with hydrologic properties different to those of the underlying layers. These layers, referred to as soil crusts when dry and soil seals when wet, may be only a few millimeters thick but can have a significant impact by altering the partitioning of rainfall, increasing surface runoff and reducing infiltration. This reduces the quantity of water entering the root zone, limiting the amount of water available for primary productivity, while increasing erosion and negatively impacting seedling establishment and growth. Vegetation significantly alters soil hydraulic properties in the immediate vicinity of a vegetation patch. Root action has been shown to create macropores, increasing infiltration capacity around the base of vegetation. Shading protects the soil from evaporation and the formation of soil seals/crusts. Experiments have confirmed large variations in infiltration rates in below canopy and bare soil patches. It is believed that a positive feedback may occur between seals/crusts and vegetation patches resulting in systems that exhibit ‘islands of fertility’. The bare soil patches act to increase the micro-catchment area of the vegetation patch, thereby collecting moisture from a far greater area than the immediate footprint of its rooting system. Vegetation then alters the soil conditions directly beneath it, allowing for increased infiltration of this extra moisture. A coupled, dynamic vegetation and hydrologic model, tRIBS+VEGGIE, was used to explore the role of dynamic soil properties on hydrologic and energy fluxes. Rather than assigning the hydraulic properties of the surface soils a priori, soil seals/crusts were allowed to develop in the model depending on vegetation cover, soil type and rainfall intensity. The effects of plant shading and root action on infiltration in the immediate vicinity of vegetation patches were also included. These changes introduced both spatial and temporal heterogeneity into soil hydraulic properties and allowed for simulation of plant-soil feedbacks. The semi-arid Lucky Hills basin in the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in Arizona was used as a case study to investigate the role of dynamic soil properties, which occur at patch scales, on the larger basin scale hydrologic and energy fluxes (sensible and latent heats, net radiation and rainfall partitioning). The model was used to test the contribution of dynamic soil properties to the establishment of a positive feedback between vegetation and soils that leads to the ‘islands of fertility’ that have been observed in many semi-arid systems. The model was also used to investigate the role that plant-soil interactions play in providing both stability to the larger system during periods of consistent climate forcing and some resilience to disturbance during climate perturbations.

  1. Tracking chlordane compositional and chiral profiles in soil and vegetation.

    PubMed

    White, Jason C; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia; Eitzer, Brian D; Lannucci-Berger, William

    2002-05-01

    The cycling of chlordane and other persistent organic pollutants through the environment must be comprehensively elucidated to assess adequately the human health risks posed from such contaminants. In this study the compositional and chiral profiles of weathered chlordane residues in the soil and vegetative compartments were investigated in order to provide details of the fate and transport of this persistent pesticide. Zucchini was planted in a greenhouse in three bays containing chlordane-contaminated soil. At harvest the vegetation and soil were extracted and analyzed for chlordane content using chiral gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry. Both achiral and chiral chlordane components were quantified. The chlordane concentration in the rhizosphere (soil attached to roots) was significantly less than that in the bulk soil. However, the enantiomeric ratio of the chiral components and overall component ratios had changed little in the rhizosphere relative to the bulk soil. Significant levels of chlordane were detected in the vegetation, the amount varying in different plant tissues from a maximum in roots to a minimum in fruit. In addition to the chlordane concentration gradient in plant tissues, significant shifts in compositional profile, as indicated by the component ratios, and in chiral profile, as indicated by the enantiomeric ratio, of the contaminant were observed in the plant tissues. The data indicate that abiotic processes dominate the transport of the chlordane components through the soil to the plant. This is the first report of the effect of rapid biotic processes within the plant compartment on chlordane compositional and chiral profiles. PMID:12047075

  2. Ecohydrologic coevolution in drylands: relative roles of vegetation, soil depth and runoff connectivity on ecosystem shifts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saco, P. M.; Moreno de las Heras, M.; Willgoose, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Degradation in drylands is often triggered by shifts induced by feedbacks between coevolving hydrology, vegetation, soils and geomorphic processes. These feedbacks affect the redistribution of surface runoff and therefore the emergent patterns of vegetation and landscape connectivity. Existing theories explaining ecohydrology shifts in semiarid areas with patchy vegetation focus on biomass-water interactions but do not explicitly account for feedbacks with evolving landform and soil depths. Here we study the observed ecohydrologic response of patchy semiarid areas in Australia and Spain, analysing interactions between PFTs traits and landform processes. We further use a mechanistic modelling framework to investigate the role of coevolving soil depths on the stability and resilience of these systems. We find that areas with deeper soils tend to display more regular vegetation patterns and their resilience and recovery after an initial disturbance are strongly affected by plant facilitation strategies. However for ecosystems in steep areas, feedback effects with landforms become stronger, and sudden changes in connectivity can easily lead to degradation. In contrast, we show that for shallow soils, plant facilitation effects become less important and vegetation patterns are irregular. In this case, soil depth becomes the key factor prescribing surface connectivity and recovery of the system after disturbance. These results have critical implications for effective management and restoration efforts, and for understanding the effects of changes in climate and land use.

  3. Antibiotic uptake by vegetable crops from manure-applied soils.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Hee; Gupta, Satish; Rosen, Carl; Fritz, Vincent; Singh, Ashok; Chander, Yogesh; Murray, Helene; Rohwer, Charlie

    2013-10-23

    This study quantified the uptake of five antibiotics (chlortetracycline, monensin, sulfamethazine, tylosin, and virginiamycin) by 11 vegetable crops in two different soils that were fertilized with raw versus composted turkey and hog manures or inorganic fertilizer. Almost all vegetables showed some uptake of antibiotics from manure treatments. However, statistical testing showed that except for a few isolated treatments the concentrations of all antibiotics in vegetable tissues were generally less than the limits of quantification. Further testing of the significant treatments showed that antibiotic concentrations in vegetables from many of these treatments were not significantly different than the corresponding concentrations from the fertilizer treatment (matrix effect). All five antibiotic concentrations in the studied vegetables were <10 μg kg(-1). On the basis of the standards for maximum residue levels in animal tissues and suggested maximum daily intake based on body weight, this concentration would not pose any health risk unless one is allergic to that particular antibiotic. PMID:24106840

  4. Assessment of regional biomass-soil relationships using vegetation indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozano-Garcia, D. Fabian; Fernandez, R. Norberto; Johannsen, Chris J.

    1991-01-01

    The development of photosynthetic active biomass in different ecological conditions, as indicated by normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVIs) is compared by performing a stratified sampling (based on soil assocations) on data acquired over Indiana. Data from the NOAA-10 AVHRR were collected for the 1987 and 1988 growing seasons. An NDVI transformation was performed using the two optical bands of the sensor (0.58-0.68 microns and 0.72-1.10 microns). The NDVI is related to the amount of active photosynthetic biomass present on the ground. Samples of NDVI values over 45 fields representing eight soil associations throughout Indiana were collected to assess the effect of soil conditions and acquisition date on the spectral response of the vegetation, as shown by the NDVIs. Statistical analysis of results indicate that land-cover types (forest, forest/pasture, and crops), soil texture, and soil water-holding capacity have an important effect on vegetation biomass changes as measured by AVHRR data. Acquisition dates should be selected with condideration of the phenological stages of vegetation. Sampling of AVHRR data over extended areas should be stratified according to physiographic units rather than man-made boundaries. This will provide more homogeneous samples for statistical analysis.

  5. Soil erosion-vegetation interactions in Mediterranean-dry reclaimed mining slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Merino-Martín, Luis; Espigares, Tíscar; Nicolau, José M.

    2014-05-01

    Mining reclamation in Mediterranean-dry environments represents a complex task. Reclaimed mining slopes are particularly vulnerable to the effects of accelerated soil erosion processes, especially when these processes lead to the formation of rill networks. On the other hand, encouraging early vegetation establishment is perceived as indispensable to reduce the risk of degradation in these man-made ecosystems. This study shows a synthesis of soil erosion-vegetation research conducted in reclaimed mining slopes at El Moral field site (Teruel coalfield, central-east Spain). Our results highlight the role of rill erosion processes in the development of reclaimed ecosystems. Runoff routing is conditioned by the development of rill networks, maximizing the loss of water resources at the slope scale by surface runoff and altering the spatial distribution of soil moisture. As a result, the availability of water resources for plant growth is drastically reduced, affecting vegetation development. Conversely, vegetation exerts a strong effect on soil erosion: erosion rates rapidly decrease with vegetation cover and no significant rill erosion is usually observed after a particular cover threshold is reached. These interactive two-way vegetation-soil erosion relationships are further studied using a novel modeling approach that focuses on stability analysis of water-limited reclaimed slopes. Our framework reproduces two main groups of trends along the temporal evolution of reclaimed slopes: successful trends, characterized by widespread vegetation development and the effective control of rill erosion processes; and gullying trends, characterized by the progressive loss of vegetation and a sharp logistic increase in erosion rates. This stability-analysis also facilitates the determination of threshold values for both vegetation cover and rill erosion that drive the long-term reclamation results, assisting the identification of critical situations that require specific human interventions to ensure the long-term sustainability of the restored ecosystems.

  6. Quaternary soil salinity events and Australian vegetation history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, G. M.

    A late Quaternary history of Australian soil salinization is produced by comparing Chenopodiaceae and Casuarina pollen curves. Although salinity development varied between sites, its occurrence was generally associated with arid phases and when high rainfall or high sea level caused regionally high groundwater tables. Soil salinization contributed to the shift from Casuarina- to Eucalyptus-dominance of interglacial sclerophyll vegetation. The deposition of saline sediments deflated from the Murray Basin seems more likely than Aboriginal burning to have caused the decline of Casuarina at Lake George. Soil salinization probably resulted in other vegetation changes and must be taken into account in environmental reconstructions. The renewed increase in soil salinity caused by European land-use practices and an associated decline in Casuarina are evident in the pollen records of many sites.

  7. Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Downscaling Using Vegetation and Surface Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, B.; Lakshmi, V.

    2012-12-01

    Soil moisture satellite estimates are available from a variety of passive microwave satellite missions, but their resolution is frequently too large for use by land managers and action agencies. In this article, a soil moisture downscaling algorithm based on look-up curves between daily temperature change and daily average soil moisture is presented and developed to bridge the scale. The algorithm was derived from 1/8o spatial resolution North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2) surface temperature and soil moisture data, and also used 5 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and 1km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as look-up dataset for different vegetation and surface temperature conditions. The differences between 1km MODIS temperature downscaled soil moisture values and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E) soil moisture values were used to modify AMSR-E soil moistures. The 1km downscaled soil moisture maps display greater details on the spatial pattern of soil moisture distribution. Two sets of ground-based measurements, the Oklahoma Mesonet and the Little Washita Micronet were used to validate the algorithm. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the 1km downscaled soil moisture versus Oklahoma Mesonet observations for clear days ranges from 0.119~0.168, whereas the RMSE of 1km downscaled soil moisture versus the Little Washita Watershed observations ranges from 0.022~0.077. The results demonstrate that the 1 km downscaled soil moisture has better agreement with watershed in situ data compared to the other sources of soil moisture.

  8. Vegetation on the Soil Infiltration System Treating Livestock Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Shinji; Fujikawa, Yoko; Fukui, Masami; Hamasaki, Tastuhide; Sugahara, Masataka

    In the overland flow wastewater treatments and the constructed wetlands, the purification by soil infiltration units is enhanced using vegetation. However, wetland plants (i.e. cattail (Typha latifolia)) and trees, rather than agronomic crops, have been used in conventional systems. We carried out laboratory-scale soil infiltration experiments using two forage crops, tall fescue (Festuca araundinacea) and white clover (Trifolium repens) while using livestock wastewater for irrigation. The purpose of the study was to clarify the amount of accumulation of available phosphorus and exchangeable cations in the soil and its effect on the plant growth. The application of livestock wastewater increased available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium and sodium in the upper soil. The soil sodification, examined based on exchangeable sodium ratio and plant growth, was not very significant after 10 months of livestock wastewater application. Growing forage crops on the soil infiltration system may be a promising technology to improve crop production and treatment efficacy.

  9. Estimation of effective hydrologic properties of soils from observations of vegetation density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tellers, T. E.; Eagleson, P. S.

    1980-01-01

    A one-dimensional model of the annual water balance is reviewed. Improvements are made in the method of calculating the bare soil component of evaporation, and in the way surface retention is handled. A natural selection hypothesis, which specifies the equilibrium vegetation density for a given, water limited, climate soil system, is verified through comparisons with observed data. Comparison of CDF's of annual basin yield derived using these soil properties with observed CDF's provides verification of the soil-selection procedure. This method of parameterization of the land surface is useful with global circulation models, enabling them to account for both the nonlinearity in the relationship between soil moisture flux and soil moisture concentration, and the variability of soil properties from place to place over the Earth's surface.

  10. Modeling the interaction between plant canopies and the planetary boundary layer using a new 1D multi-layer soil- vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) scheme combined with a non-local turbulence closure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetzer, Kenneth H.

    A new one-dimensional (1D) soil-vegetation-atmospheric transport (SVAT) scheme is coupled to a nonlocal turbulence closure model in order to simulate the interactions between a forested canopy and the planetary boundary layer. The SVAT consists of mechanistic models for both physiological (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and soil/root and bole respiration) and micrometeorological (radiative transfer and surface energy exchanges) processes. The turbulence closure model is a first-order, nonlocal turbulence closure called transilient turbulence theory (Stull, 1993; Inclan et al., 1995) which includes the effects of form drag, wake turbulence, and interference to vertical mixing by the plant elements. The submodel that accounts for radiative transfer inside the forest has been taken from Norman (1979) and Baldocchi (1989). It includes the effect of varying mean leaf inclination angle with height and it also accounts for leaf clumping The photosynthesis submodel is taken from Nikolov and others (1995). It accounts for both differences between shaded and sunlit leaves and the variation of photosynthetic capacity with height. The model was tested with data obtained from a deciduous forest in Pennsylvania. The results show reasonable agreement with the observations. They also demonstrate the model's ability to simulate phenomena that is characteristic of tall canopies like forests, including counter gradient-fluxes and local wind speed maxima in the trunk space.

  11. Uptake of 137Cs by Leafy Vegetables and Grains from Calcareous Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W; Hamilton, T; Conrado, C; Kehl, S

    2004-04-19

    Cesium-137 was deposited on Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll in 1954 as a result of nuclear testing and has been transported and cycled in the ecosystem ever since. Atoll soils are of marine origin and are almost pure CaCO{sub 3} with high concentrations of organic matter in the top 40 cm. Data from previous experiments with mature fruit trees show very high transfer factors (TF's), [Bq g{sup -1} plant/ Bq g{sup -1} soil, both in dry weight] into fruits from atoll calcareous soil. These TF's are much higher than reported for continental, silica-based soils. In this report TF's for 5 types of leafy vegetable crops and 2 types of grain crops are provided for use in predictive dose assessments and for comparison with other data from other investigators working with other types of soil in the IAEA CRP ''The Classification of Soil Systems on the Basis of Transfer Factors of Radionuclides from Soil to Reference Plants''. Transfer factors for plants grown on calcareous soil are again very high relative to clay-containing soils and range from 23 to 39 for grain crops and 21 to 113 for leafy vegetables. Results from these experiments, in this unique, high pH, high organic content, low potassium (K) soil, provide a boundary condition for models relating soil properties to TF.

  12. An Intercomparison of Vegetation Products from Satellite-based Observations used for Soil Moisture Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreugdenhil, Mariette; de Jeu, Richard; Wagner, Wolfgang; Dorigo, Wouter; Hahn, Sebastian; Bloeschl, Guenter

    2013-04-01

    Vegetation and its water content affect active and passive microwave soil moisture retrievals and need to be taken into account in such retrieval methodologies. This study compares the vegetation parameterisation that is used in the TU-Wien soil moisture retrieval algorithm to other vegetation products, such as the Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD), Net Primary Production (NPP) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). When only considering the retrieval algorithm for active microwaves, which was developed by the TU-Wien, the effect of vegetation on the backscattering coefficient is described by the so-called slope [1]. The slope is the first derivative of the backscattering coefficient in relation to the incidence angle. Soil surface backscatter normally decreases quite rapidly with the incidence angle over bare or sparsely vegetated soils, whereas the contribution of dense vegetation is fairly uniform over a large range of incidence angles. Consequently, the slope becomes less steep with increasing vegetation. Because the slope is a derivate of noisy backscatter measurements, it is characterised by an even higher level of noise. Therefore, it is averaged over several years assuming that the state of the vegetation doesn't change inter-annually. The slope is compared to three dynamic vegetation products over Australia, the VOD, NPP and LAI. The VOD was retrieved from AMSR-E passive microwave data using the VUA-NASA retrieval algorithm and provides information on vegetation with a global coverage of approximately every two days [2]. LAI is defined as half the developed area of photosynthetically active elements of the vegetation per unit horizontal ground area. In this study LAI is used from the Geoland2 products derived from SPOT Vegetation*. The NPP is the net rate at which plants build up carbon through photosynthesis and is a model-based estimate from the BiosEquil model [3, 4]. Results show that VOD and slope correspond reasonably well over vegetated areas, whereas in arid areas, where the microwave signals mostly stem from the soil surface and deeper soil layers, they are negatively correlated. A second comparison of monthly values of both vegetation parameters to modelled NPP data shows that particularly over dry areas the VOD corresponds better to the NPP, with r=0.79 for VOD-NPP and r=-0.09 for slope-NPP. 1. Wagner, W., et al., A Study of Vegetation Cover Effects on ERS Scatterometer Data. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 1999. 37(2): p. 938-948. 2. Owe, M., R. de Jeu, and J. Walker, A methodology for surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth retrieval using the microwave polarization difference index. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, 2001. 39(8): p. 1643-1654. 3. Raupach, M.R., et al., Balances of Water, Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Australian Landscapes: (1) Project Description and Results, 2001, Sustainable Minerals Institute, CSIRO Land and Water. 4. Raupach, M.R., et al., Balances of Water, Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosporus in Australian Landscapes: (2) Model Formulation and Testing, 2001, Sustainable Minerals Institute, CSIRO Land and Water. * These products are the joint property of INRA, CNES and VITO under copyright of Geoland2. They are generated from the SPOT VEGETATION data under copyright CNES and distribution by VITO.

  13. Aminopyralid soil residues affect rotational vegetable crops in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the sensitivity of bell pepper, eggplant, tomato, muskmelon, and watermelon to aminopyralid soil residues. Aminopyralid was applied at six rates ranging from 0.0014 kg ae ha 1 to 0.0448 kg ae ha 1, and vegetable crops were planted in the treated areas. ...

  14. Sulfamethazine sorption to vegetative filter strip and row crop soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary antibiotic (VA) presence in the environment, often associated with land application of manure, has generated significant interest in VA fate and transport in soil. However, few studies have focused on land management practices, such as vegetative filter strips, that might mitigate VA loss...

  15. Modelling the Congo basin ecosystems with a dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dury, Marie; Hambuckers, Alain; Trolliet, Franck; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Haineaux, Damien; Fontaine, Corentin M.; Fayolle, Adeline; François, Louis

    2014-05-01

    The scarcity of field observations in some parts of the world makes difficult a deep understanding of some ecosystems such as humid tropical forests in Central Africa. Therefore, modelling tools are interesting alternatives to study those regions even if the lack of data often prevents sharp calibration and validation of the model projections. Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) are process-based models that simulate shifts in potential vegetation and its associated biogeochemical and hydrological cycles in response to climate. Initially run at the global scale, DVMs can be run at any spatial scale provided that climate and soil data are available. In the framework of the BIOSERF project ("Sustainability of tropical forest biodiversity and services under climate and human pressure"), we use and adapt the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model (Dury et al., iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 4:82-99, 2011) to study the Congo basin vegetation dynamics. The field campaigns have notably allowed the refinement of the vegetation representation from plant functional types (PFTs) to individual species through the collection of parameters such as the specific leaf area or the leaf C:N ratio of common tropical tree species and the location of their present-day occurrences from literature and available database. Here, we test the model ability to reproduce the present spatial and temporal variations of carbon stocks (e.g. biomass, soil carbon) and fluxes (e.g. gross and net primary productivities (GPP and NPP), net ecosystem production (NEP)) as well as the observed distribution of the studied species over the Congo basin. In the lack of abundant and long-term measurements, we compare model results with time series of remote sensing products (e.g. vegetation leaf area index (LAI), GPP and NPP). Several sensitivity tests are presented: we assess consecutively the impacts of the level at which the vegetation is simulated (PFTs or species), the spatial resolution and the initial land cover (potential or human-induced). First, we show simulations over the whole Congo basin at a 0.5° spatial resolution. Then, we present high-resolution simulations (1 km) carried out over different areas of the Congo basin, notably the DRC part of the WWF Lake Tele - Lake Tumba Landscape. Studied in the BIOSERF project, this area is characterized by a forest-savannah mosaic but also by swamp and flooded forest. In addition, forward transient projections of the model driven with the outputs of about thirty global climate models (GCMs) from the new Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) will permit to outline the likely response of carbon pools to changing climate over the Congo basin during the 21th century.

  16. [Investigation of polarization characteristics of soil surface with low vegetation cover and different soil moisture].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Sun, Xiao-bing; Hong, Jin

    2010-11-01

    Compared with the spectral detection method, polarization detection could obtain more information of the target. For example, the polarization detection could be applied to interpret the refractive index and the surface roughness of the object, or retrieve the soil moisture, etc. Polarization detection provides a new approach to quantitative retrieval of soil moisture, and this is very important in agriculture, hydrology, meteorology and ecology. The polarization characteristics of soil surface with low vegetation cover,which is a example of mixed pixel in remote sensing, were researched with experiments, and the relationship between the polarization characteristics and soil moisture was also explored. The results showed that the polarization characteristics of soil surface with low vegetation cover are mainly determined by the area of bare soil, and are strongly relevant with the soil moisture. For the results of experiments in this paper, the IDOLP of soil surface with low vegetation cover increased with increasing soil moisture when the viewing angle of instrument was between 20 degree and 60 degree, while the incident angle of light source was fixed at 40 degree. This paper offered a new method to retrieve moisture content of soil with low vegetation cover. PMID:21284189

  17. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator); Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Torline, R. J.; Gautreaux, M. R.; Everitt, J. H.; Guellar, J. A.; Rodriguez, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Bands 4, 5, and 7 and 5, 6, and 7 were best for distinguishing among crop and soil categories in ERTS-1 SCENES 1182-16322 (1-21-73) and 1308-16323 (5-21-73) respectively. Chlorotic sorghum areas 2.8 acres or larger in size were identified on a computer printout of band 5 data. Reflectance of crop residues was more often different from bare soil in band 4 than in bands 5, 6, and 7. Simultaneously acquired aircraft and spacecraft MSS data indicated that spacecraft surveys are as reliable as aircraft surveys. ERTS-1 data were successfully used to estimate acreage of citrus, cotton, and sorghum as well as idle crop land.

  18. Evolution of hydrological pathways in engineered hillslopes due to soil and vegetation development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appels, Willemijn M.; Ireson, Andrew M.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Barbour, S. Lee

    2015-04-01

    The structure and hydraulic properties of soils and bedrock within a hillslope combined with the timing and rates of water availability control the partitioning of precipitation into vertical and lateral flowpaths. In natural hillslope sites, heterogeneity in both soil texture and structure are the result of long-term landscape evolution processes and consequently can be assumed to be static relative to the timescale of rainfall-runoff processes. However; engineered hillslopes, constructed commonly as reclamation covers overlying mine waste, have been observed to undergo rapid changes in hydraulic properties over relatively short timescales (i.e. 3-5 years) as a result of weathering (e.g. freeze-thaw and wet-dry cycles) and vegetation growth (e.g. increasing rooting depth and density). Rainfall-runoff responses on such hillslopes would therefore not only be expected to reflect seasonal dynamics, but also the evolution of the system from a relatively homogeneous initial condition to a system with increasing heterogeneity of soil texture and structure. We present results of a combined field and modeling study of three prototype soil covers on a saline-sodic shale overburden dump at the Syncrude Canada Ltd. Mildred Lake mine, north of Fort McMurray, Canada. Since their construction in 1999, soil properties, hydrological response to atmospheric and vegetative demands, and vegetation properties have been extensively monitored. The three covers have undergone substantial evolution due to freeze-thaw processes and aggrading vegetation. In this work, we quantify hydrological processes in the reclamation covers, focusing on inter- and intra-annual patterns. To this purpose we analyzed the long-term hydrometric data with field sampling of the distribution of salts and the stable isotopes of water within soil water and subsurface flow in the base of the cover. We use a 2D Hydrus model to explore the co-evolution of soil and vegetation and quantify its effect on flow partitioning and salt movement from the overburden into the soil.

  19. Investigation of soil influences in AVHRR red and near-infrared vegetation index imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huete, A. R.; Tucker, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of soil optical properties on vegetation index imagery are analyzed with ground-based spectral measurements and both simulated and actual AVHRR data from the NOAA satellites. Soil effects on vegetation indices were divided into primary variations associated with the brightness of bare soils, secondary variations attributed to 'color' differences among bare soils, and soil-vegetation spectral mixing. Primary variations were attributed to shifts in the soil line owing to atmosphere or soil composition. Secondary soil variance was responsible for the Saharan desert 'artefact' areas of increased vegetation index response in AVHRR imagery.

  20. Analyzing Groundwater-Vegetation Interactions using a Dynamic Agroecosystem Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soylu, M. E.; Kucharik, C. J.; Loheide, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater is a crucial source of water for vegetation, especially in arid and semiarid environments in many regions around the world and its availability controls the distribution and the physiology of plant species. However, the impact of groundwater on vegetation is not completely understood mainly due to the limited ability of current models to simulate groundwater and vegetation interactions. Existing land surface models (LSM) simulate water and energy fluxes among soil-vegetation-atmosphere systems in a process-based way, but lack a detailed simulation of soil water movement in the unsaturated zone, particularly when groundwater is present. Furthermore, there are only a few available LSM and/or process based vegetation models that can simulate agroecosystems, which are as important to understand as natural ecosystems considering they occupy approximately 40% of the global land surface. On the other hand, current physically-based, variably-saturated soil water flux models are able to accurately simulate water movement in the unsaturated zone. However, they often lack a detailed plant physiology component making it difficult to understand plant responses to both variations in energy fluxes and upward capillary fluxes in shallow groundwater environments. To connect these two different model types, the objectives of this study are (1) to incorporate an advanced dynamic agroecosystem model (Agro-IBIS) and a variably saturated soil water flow model (Hydrus-1D) into a single framework that is capable of simulating groundwater and plant/crop system interactions in a fully, physically-based fashion, and (2) to apply this model using observed climate records to better understand the responses of managed and natural ecosystems to varied water table depths under inter-annual climate forcing conditions. The model results show that as the water table becomes shallower, (1) soil temperature decreases due to the moisture content driven effects on the thermal diffusivity of the soil, and (2) specific humidity at the leaf level increases due to increased rates of evaporation. These changes alter plant productivity as well as phenology depending on seasonal weather and depth to groundwater. We conclude that integrating the Hydrus-1D algorithms within Agro-IBIS improves our understanding of how groundwater and different plant species interact dynamically. Although current models are already capable of simulating groundwater - vegetation relations to some degree, more sophisticated and advanced models like we used here are necessary to describe the important aspects of this relationship such as effects of soil temperature, anoxia, and vegetation growth.

  1. Infiltration and Transport of Bromide and Cryptosporidium parvum in Vegetated, Tilted Soil Box Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Atwill, E. R.; Hou, L.; Carle, B. M.

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we develop a conceptual model of the physics of flow and transport in packed, tilted, and vegetated soil boxes during and immediately after simulated rainfall events and apply it to 54 experiments implemented for three different soils at three different slopes and two different rainfall rates. Using an inverse modeling procedure, we show that a significant amount of the subsurface outflow from the soil boxes is due to macropore flow. The effective hydraulic properties of the macropore space were obtained by calibration of a simple two-domain flow and transport model that accounts for coupled flow in the matrix and in the macropores of the soils. While the macropore hydraulic properties are highly variable, linear mixed effects ( LME) modeling showed significant association with soil bulk density and with the rainfall rate. Macropore flow is shown to be responsible for both, tracer (bromide) and C. parvum transport through the soil into the underlying pore space observed during the 4 hours experiments. Over a 20 cm thick soil horizon, the soil attenuation rate for C. parvum due to straining in the soil matrix and due to filtration to the macropore surfaces is 0.6 (half an order of magnitude). The LME and logistic regression models developed from the soil box experiments provide a basis for estimating macropore hydraulic properties and the risk of C. parvum transport through shallow soils from bulk density, precipitation, and total subsurface flow rate information.

  2. Interactions Between Wind Erosion, Vegetation Structure, and Soil Stability in Groundwater Dependent Plant Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vest, K. R.; Elmore, A. J.; Okin, G. S.

    2009-12-01

    Desertification is a human induced global phenomenon causing a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem productivity. Semi-arid grasslands are vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts (i.e., groundwater pumping and surface water diversion) that decrease vegetation cover and increase bare soil area leading to a greater probability of soil erosion, potentially enhancing feedback processes associated with desertification. To enhance our understanding of interactions between anthropogenic, physical, and biological factors causing desertification, this study used a combination of modeling and field observations to examine the relationship between chronic groundwater pumping and vegetation cover change and its effects on soil erosion and stability. The work was conducted in Owens Valley California, where a long history of groundwater pumping and surface water diversion has lead to documented vegetation changes. The work examined hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical factors across thirteen sites in Owens Valley. We analyzed soil stability, vegetation and gap size, soil organic carbon, and we also installed Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) catchers to calculate mass transport of aeolian sediment across sites. Mass transport calculations were used to validate a new wind erosion model that represents the effect of porous vegetation on surface windshear velocity. Results across two field seasons show that the model can be used to predict mass transport, and areas with increased groundwater pumping show a greater susceptibility to erosion. Sediment collected in BSNE catchers was positively correlated with site gap size. Additionally, areas with larger gap sizes have a greater threshold shear velocity and soil stability, yet mass transport was greater at these sites than at sites with smaller gap sizes. Although modeling is complicated by spatial variation in multiple model parameters (e.g., gap size, threshold shear velocity in gaps), our results support the hypothesis that soils with high organic matter are being eroded following the loss of vegetation cover due to groundwater decline leaving behind bare soil surfaces with less fertility hampering vegetation reestablishment. Desertification in this system is apparently easily initiated through groundwater decline due to the high friability of these meadow soils.

  3. Canopy reflectance modelling of semiarid vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Janet

    1994-01-01

    Three different types of remote sensing algorithms for estimating vegetation amount and other land surface biophysical parameters were tested for semiarid environments. These included statistical linear models, the Li-Strahler geometric-optical canopy model, and linear spectral mixture analysis. The two study areas were the National Science Foundation's Jornada Long Term Ecological Research site near Las Cruces, NM, in the northern Chihuahuan desert, and the HAPEX-Sahel site near Niamey, Niger, in West Africa, comprising semiarid rangeland and subtropical crop land. The statistical approach (simple and multiple regression) resulted in high correlations between SPOT satellite spectral reflectance and shrub and grass cover, although these correlations varied with the spatial scale of aggregation of the measurements. The Li-Strahler model produced estimated of shrub size and density for both study sites with large standard errors. In the Jornada, the estimates were accurate enough to be useful for characterizing structural differences among three shrub strata. In Niger, the range of shrub cover and size in short-fallow shrublands is so low that the necessity of spatially distributed estimation of shrub size and density is questionable. Spectral mixture analysis of multiscale, multitemporal, multispectral radiometer data and imagery for Niger showed a positive relationship between fractions of spectral endmembers and surface parameters of interest including soil cover, vegetation cover, and leaf area index.

  4. On the dynamics of soil moisture, vegetation, and erosion: Implications of climate variability and change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Bras, Rafael L.

    2006-06-01

    We couple a shear-stress-dependent fluvial erosion and sediment transport rule with stochastic models of ecohydrological soil moisture and vegetation dynamics. Rainfall is simulated by the Poisson rectangular pulses rainfall model with three parameters: mean rainfall intensity, duration, and interstorm period. These parameters are related to mean annual precipitation on the basis of published data. The model is used to investigate the sensitivity of grass cover and erosion potential to drought length, changes in storm frequency under fixed mean seasonal rainfall, and variations in mean annual precipitation. Three fundamental factors, amount of precipitation, storm frequency, and soil type, are predicted to control the system response. Variation in storm frequency is predicted to have a significant influence on sediment transport capacity because of its influence on vegetation dynamics. Our results predict soil loss potential to be more sensitive to a reduction in storm frequency (under fixed mean annual precipitation) in humid ecosystems than in arid and semiarid regions. The well-known dependence between mean annual sediment yields and precipitation (e.g., Langbein and Schumm, 1958) is reproduced by the model. Numerical experiments using different soil types underscore the importance of soil texture in controlling the magnitude and shape of such dependence. Coupling abiotic and biotic Earth surface processes under random climatic forcing is the salient aspect of our approach, opening new avenues for research in the emerging field of complex climate-soil-vegetation-landscape dynamics.

  5. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. This report deals with the selection of the best channels from the 24-channel aircraft data to represent crop and soil conditions. A three-step procedure has been developed that involves using univariate statistics and an F-ratio test to indicate the best 14 channels. From the 14, the 10 best channels are selected by a multivariate stochastic process. The third step involves the pattern recognition procedures developed in the data analysis plan. Indications are that the procedures in use are satsifactory and will extract the desired information from the data.

  6. Modeling E. Coli Retention in Vegetated Filter Strips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetated filter strips (VFS) have become important for water quality improvement. Locations to place VFS can be selected with Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a comprehensive watershed-scale water quality model. However, the VFS efficiency cannot be estimated with SWAT because the VFS factors, ...

  7. Extraction of soil and vegetation parameters from high resolution bi-directional reflectance spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huete, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    High spectral resolution reflectance spectra were collected over a semi-desert grassland at both dry and wet season periods. Spectral reflectance measurements were made from several viewing angles at both low and high solar zenith angles. A mixture model was used to separate and extract green vegetation from dry/dead vegetation and soil. The extracted vegetation signal varied greatly with view and sun angle variations such that off-nadir viewing and illuminating angles resulted in the highest vegetation loadings. These variations were normalized with cosine functions for both sun and view angle. These results offer a methodology for standardizing multi-temporal and multi-angular satellite measurements of vegetation activity.

  8. Benchmarking LSM root-zone soil mositure predictions using satellite-based vegetation indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of modern land surface models (LSMs) to agricultural drought monitoring is based on the premise that anomalies in LSM root-zone soil moisture estimates can accurately anticipate the subsequent impact of drought on vegetation productivity and health. In addition, the water and energy ...

  9. A method to downscale soil moisture to fine-resolutions using topographic, vegetation, and soil data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture can be estimated over large regions with spatial resolutions greater than 500 m, but many applications require finer resolutions (10 – 100 m grid cells). Several methods use topographic data to downscale, but vegetation and soil patterns can also be important. In this paper, a downsc...

  10. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A ratio of MSS channels 5 and 7 (5/7) and 5 to 6 (5/6) signals resulted in a correct recognition of 86.9% of the members of representative crop and soil conditions, compared with recognitions of 60.0, 64.1, 74.1, and 81.4% for channels 4, 5, 6, and 7 taken individually. Based on this result a satellite channel ratio procedure has been developed that enhances line printer gray maps for more efficient experimental test site location in the CCT data. Because independent estimates are not available to judge acreage estmates derived from ERTS-1 data against, except for a few crops, an interpenetrating sample constituting 3.5% of the county is ground truthed periodically. The crop of land uses and their acreages, respectively, as estimated from the interpenetrating samples, are: cotton, 129, 714; sorghum, 182,783; mixed citrus, 53,954; oranges, 16,929; grapefruit, 13,863; rangeland, 137,845; and, improved pastures, 57.169.

  11. Modeling vegetation controls on fluvial morphological trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Walter; Siviglia, Annunziato; Tettamanti, Stefano; Toffolon, Marco; Vetsch, David; Francalanci, Simona

    2014-10-01

    The role of riparian vegetation in shaping river morphology is widely recognized. The interaction between vegetation growth and riverbed evolution is characterized by complex nonlinear feedbacks, which hinder direct estimates of the role of key elements on the morphological evolutionary trajectories of gravel bed rivers. Adopting a simple theoretical framework, we develop a numerical model which couples hydromorphodynamics with biomass dynamics. We perform a sensitivity analysis considering several parameters as flood intensity, type of vegetation, and groundwater level. We find that the inclusion of vegetation determines a threshold behavior, identifying two possible equilibrium configurations: unvegetated versus vegetated bars. Stable vegetation patterns can establish only under specific conditions, which depend on the different environmental and species-related characteristics. From a management point of view, model results show that relatively small changes in water availability or species composition may determine a sudden shift between dynamic unvegetated conditions to more stable, vegetated rivers.

  12. Plant functional diversity enhances associations of soil fungal diversity with vegetation and soil in the restoration of semiarid sandy grassland.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xiaoan; Wang, Shaokun; Lv, Peng; Zhou, Xin; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhang, Tonghui; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The trait-based approach shows that plant functional diversity strongly affects ecosystem properties. However, few empirical studies show the relationship between soil fungal diversity and plant functional diversity in natural ecosystems. We investigated soil fungal diversity along a restoration gradient of sandy grassland (mobile dune, semifixed dune, fixed dune, and grassland) in Horqin Sand Land, northern China, using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 18S rRNA and gene sequencing. We also examined associations of soil fungal diversity with plant functional diversity reflected by the dominant species' traits in community (community-weighted mean, CWM) and the dispersion of functional trait values (FD is). We further used the structure equation model (SEM) to evaluate how plant richness, biomass, functional diversity, and soil properties affect soil fungal diversity in sandy grassland restoration. Soil fungal richness in mobile dune and semifixed dune was markedly lower than those of fixed dune and grassland (P < 0.05). Soil fungal richness was positively associated with plant richness, biomass, CWM plant height, and soil gradient aggregated from the principal component analysis, but SEM results showed that plant richness and CWM plant height determined by soil properties were the main factors exerting direct effects. Soil gradient increased fungal richness through indirect effect on vegetation rather than direct effect. The negative indirect effect of FDis on soil fungal richness was through its effect on plant biomass. Our final SEM model based on plant functional diversity explained nearly 70% variances of soil fungal richness. Strong association of soil fungal richness with the dominant species in the community supported the mass ratio hypothesis. Our results clearly highlight the role of plant functional diversity in enhancing associations of soil fungal diversity with community structure and soil properties in sandy grassland ecosystems. PMID:26811795

  13. A microwave scattering model for layered vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Fung, Adrian K.; Lang, Roger H.; Chauhan, Narinder S.

    1992-01-01

    A microwave scattering model was developed for layered vegetation based on an iterative solution of the radiative transfer equation up to the second order to account for multiple scattering within the canopy and between the ground and the canopy. The model is designed to operate over a wide frequency range for both deciduous and coniferous forest and to account for the branch size distribution, leaf orientation distribution, and branch orientation distribution for each size. The canopy is modeled as a two-layered medium above a rough interface. The upper layer is the crown containing leaves, stems, and branches. The lower layer is the trunk region modeled as randomly positioned cylinders with a preferred orientation distribution above an irregular soil surface. Comparisons of this model with measurements from deciduous and coniferous forests show good agreements at several frequencies for both like and cross polarizations. Major features of the model needed to realize the agreement include allowance for: (1) branch size distribution, (2) second-order effects, and (3) tree component models valid over a wide range of frequencies.

  14. Vegetation establishment on soil-amended weathered fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Semalulu, O.; Barnhisel, R.I.; Witt, S.

    1998-12-31

    A field study was conducted with the following objectives in mind: (1) to study the effect of soil addition to weathered fly ash on the establishment and survival of different grasses and legumes, (2) to identify suitable grasses and/or legume species for vegetation of fly ash, (3) to study the fertilizer N and P requirements for successful vegetation establishment on fly ash and ash-soil mixtures, (4) to examine the nutrient composition of the plant species tested, and (5) to study the plant availability of P from fly ash and ash-soil mixtures. Three rooting media were used: weathered fly ash, and 33% or 50% soil blended with the ash. Four experiments were established on each of these media to evaluate warm season grasses in pure stands, warm season grasses inter-seeded with legumes, cool season grasses, and cool season grasses inter-seeded with legumes. Soil used in this study was more acidic than the fly ash. Only the results from characterization of the rooting media, ground cover, and yield will be presented here.

  15. Fungal communities in soils along a vegetative ecotone.

    PubMed

    Karst, Justine; Piculell, Bridget; Brigham, Christy; Booth, Michael; Hoeksema, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the community composition and diversity of soil fungi along a sharp vegetative ecotone between coastal sage scrub (CSS) and nonnative annual grassland habitat at two sites in coastal California. USA- We pooled soil samples across 29 m transects on either side of the ecotone at each of the two sites, and. using clone libraries of fungal ribosomal DNA, we identified 280 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from a total 40 g soil. We combined information from partial LSU and ITS sequences and found that the majority of OTUs belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota. Within the Ascomycota. a quarter of OTUs were Sordariomycetes. 17% were Leotiomycet.es, 16% were Dothideomycetes and the remaining OTUs were distributed among the classes Eurotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Orbiliomycetes and Arthoniomycetes. Within the Basidiomycota. all OTUs but one belonged to the subphylum Agaricomycotina. We also sampled plant communities at the same sites to offer a point of comparison for patterns in richness of fungal communities. Fungal communities had higher alpha and beta diversity than plant communities; fungal communities were approximately 20 times as rich as plant communities and the majority of OTUs were found in single soil samples. Soils harbored a unique mycoflora that did not reveal vegetative boundaries or site differences. High alpha and beta diversity and possible sampling artifacts necessitate extensive sampling to reveal differentiation in these fungal communities. PMID:22802393

  16. Assessment of regional biomass-soil relationships using vegetation indexes

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano-Garcia, D.F.; Fernandez, R.N.; Johannsen, C.J. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on data from the NOAA-10 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) collected over the midwestern United States for the 1987 and 1988 growing seasons. A Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) transformation was performed using the two optical bands of the sensor (0.58-0.68 {mu}m and 0.72-1.10 {mu}m). The NDVI is related to the amount of active photosynthetic biomass present on the ground. Samples of NDVI values over 45 fields representing 8 soil associations throughout the State of Indiana were collected to assess the effect of soil conditions and acquisition data on the spectral response of the vegetation, as shown by the NDVI's.

  17. Estimating photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and bare soil fractions using Landsat and MODIS data: Effects of site heterogeneity, soil properties and land cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerschman, J. P.; Scarth, P.; McVicar, T.; Malthus, T. J.; Stewart, J.; Rickards, J.; Trevithick, R.; Renzullo, L. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation fractional cover is a key indicator for land management monitoring, both in pastoral and agricultural settings. Maintaining adequate vegetation cover protects the soil from the effects of water and wind erosion and also ensures that carbon is returned to soil through decomposition. Monitoring vegetation fractional cover across large areas and continuously in time needs good remote sensing techniques underpinned by high quality ground data to calibrate and validate algorithms. In this study we used Landsat and MODIS reflectance data together with field measurements from 1476 observations across Australia to produce estimates of vegetation fractional cover using a linear unmixing technique. Specifically, we aimed at separating fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare soil (B). We used Landsat reflectance averaged over a 3x3 pixel window representing the area actually measured on the ground and also a 'degraded' Landsat reflectance 40x40 pixel window to simulate the effect of a coarser sensor. Using these two Landsat reflectances we quantified the heterogeneity of each site. We used data from two MODIS-derived reflectance products: the Nadir BRDF-Adjusted surface Reflectance product (MCD43A4) and the MODIS 8-day surface reflectance (MOD09A1). We derived endmembers from the data and estimated fractional cover using a linear unmixing technique. Log transforms and band interaction terms were added to account for non-linearities in the spectral mixing. For each reflectance source we investigated if the residuals were correlated with site heterogeneity, soil colour, soil moisture and land cover type. As expected, the best model was obtained when Landsat data for a small region around each site was used. We obtained root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.134, 0.175 and 0.153 for PV, NPV and B respectively. When we degraded the Landsat data to an area of ~1 km2 around each site the model performance decreased to RMSE of 0.142, 0.181 and 0.166 for PV, NPV and B. Using MODIS reflectance data (from the MCD43A4 and MOD09A1 products) we obtained similar results as when using the 'degraded' Landsat reflectance, with no significant differences between them. Model performance decreased (i.e. RMSE increased) with site heterogeneity when coarse resolution reflectance data was used. We did not find any evidence of soil colour or moisture influence on model performance. We speculate that the unmixing models may be insensitive to soil colour and/or that the soil moisture in the top few millimetres of soil, which influence reflectance in optical sensors, is decoupled from the soil moisture in the top layer (i.e. a few cm) as measured by passive microwave sensors or estimated by models. The models tended to overestimate PV in cropping areas, possibly due to a strong red/ near infrared signal in homogeneous crops which do not have a high green cover. This study sets the basis for an operational Landsat/ MODIS combined product which would benefit users with varying requirements of spatial, temporal resolution and latency and could potentially be applied to other regions in the world.

  18. The Role of Vegetation Dynamics on the Soil Water Balance in Water-Limited Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, N.; Rondena, R.; Albertson, J. D.; Mancini, M.

    2003-12-01

    The structure and function of the vegetation regulates the exchange of mass, energy and momentum across the biosphere-atmosphere interface. Vegetation dynamics are usually neglected, other than seasonal phenology, in land surface models (LSMs). However, changes in vegetation densities, influencing the partitioning of incoming solar energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes, can result in long-term changes in both local and global climates (e.g., precipitation and temperature), which in turn will feedback to affect the vegetation growth. In semi-arid regions, this may result in persistent drought and desertification, with substantial impacts on the human populations of these regions through reduction in agricultural productivity and reduction in quantity and quality of water supply. With an objective of finding a simple vegetation model able to accurately simulate the leaf area index (LAI) dynamics, vegetation models of different level of complexity (e.g., including or not the modeling of the root biomass or the modeling of the dead biomass) are developed and compared. The vegetation dynamics models are coupled to a LSM, with the vegetation models providing the green biomass and the LAI evolution through time, and the LSM using this information in the computation of the land surface fluxes and updating the soil water content in the root-zone. We explore the models on a case study of a water limited grass field in California. Results show that a simple vegetation model that simulates the living aboveground green biomass (i.e., with low parameterization and computational efforts) is able to accurately simulate the LAI. Results also highlight the importance of including the plant growth model in the LSM when studying the climate-soil-vegetation interactions and the impact of watershed management practices on the scarce water resources over moderate to long time scales. The inclusion of the vegetation model in the LSM is demonstrated to be essential for assessing the impact of climate change (e.g., decrease of precipitation and increase of air temperature) on the water budget of a water limited region.

  19. Environmental sensor networks for vegetation, animal and soil sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerger, A.; Viscarra Rossel, R. A.; Swain, D. L.; Wark, T.; Handcock, R. N.; Doerr, V. A. J.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; Doerr, E. D.; Gibbons, P. G.; Lobsey, C.

    2010-10-01

    Environmental sensor networks (ESNs) provide new opportunities for improving our understanding of the environment. In contrast to remote sensing technologies where measurements are made from large distances (e.g. satellite imagery, aerial photography, airborne radiometric surveys), ESNs focus on measurements that are made in close proximity to the target environmental phenomenon. Sensors can be used to collect a much larger number of measurements, which are quantitative and repeatable. They can also be deployed in locations that may otherwise be difficult to visit regularly. Sensors that are commonly used in the environmental sciences include ground-based multispectral vegetation sensors, soil moisture sensors, GPS tracking and bioacoustics for tracking movement in wild and domesticated animals. Sensors may also be coupled with wireless networks to more effectively capture, synthesise and transmit data to decision-makers. The climate and weather monitoring domains provide useful examples of how ESNs can provide real-time monitoring of environmental change (e.g. temperature, rainfall, sea-surface temperature) to many users. The objective of this review is to examine state-of-the-art use of ESNs for three environmental monitoring domains: (a) terrestrial vegetation, (b) animal movement and diversity, and (c) soil. Climate and aquatic monitoring sensor applications are so extensive that they are beyond the scope of this review. In each of the three application domains (vegetation, animals and soils) we review the technologies, the attributes that they sense and briefly examine the technical limitations. We conclude with a discussion of future directions.

  20. A comparison of soil properties under four vegetation units from six metalliferous hills in Katanga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Donato; Gregory, Mahy; Michel, Ngongo; Gilles, Colinet

    2013-04-01

    In Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo), numerous metalliferous hills are distributed along what is called the copperhill belt from Kolwezi to Lubumbashi. Very specific vegetation developed on these hills within the miombo forest in response to very specific soil conditions, among which the copper content. Previous studies have already shown the existence of gradients of copper from the mineralized rocks outcropping at the top of the hills to the foot slopes on colluviums. After a characterization of the vertical variability of soil properties in pits distributed along the main slopes, we investigated the soil-vegetation relationships in six hills located between the towns of Tenke and Fungurume. Observation 1-square meter plots were installed in four vegetation units and sixty of them were selected according to their relative importance on the six hills. The soil from the top 10cm was sampled and analyzed for pH, Total Organic Carbon, available P, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Co and Mn and soluble Cu and Co. Analysis of variance was performed in order to assess whether the effects of the "Hill" and of the "Vegetation Unit" were significant to explain soil chemical variability. Additionally, short transects were sampled at the boundaries from adjacent vegetation units in order to evaluate the gradual or rough nature of change in soil properties under these units. The results indicate that the six hills can not be considered as different for pH and available nutrients, excepted K, nor for the available Cu and Mn. Only TOC and Co contents were differing, mainly from one hill compared to the other five. The vegetation effect is significant for almost every studied soil characteristics, to the exception of Ca and Mn. Soluble Cu and Co significantly correlate to available Cu and Co, respectively. The pH variations however explain local departures from linear regression. The ANOVA models take into account 30 to 60% of the variations of soil properties. The study of the boundaries indicate that most changes of vegetation types may be related to abrupt changes in soil properties. These changes do not only occur along the slope as a result of malachite deposition by erosion but the surface processes seem to be predominant in the context of the hills.

  1. Using high-resolution radar images to determine vegetation cover for soil erosion assessments.

    PubMed

    Bargiel, D; Herrmann, S; Jadczyszyn, J

    2013-07-30

    Healthy soils are crucial for human well-being. Because soils are threatened worldwide, politicians recognize the need for soil protection. For example, the European Commission has launched the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, which requests the European member states to identify high risk areas for soil degradation. Most states use the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to assess soil erosion risk at the national scale. The USLE includes different factors, one of them is the vegetation cover and management factor (C factor). Modern satellite-based radar sensors now provide highly accurate vegetation cover data, enabling opportunities to improve the accuracy of the C factor. The presented study proves the suitability for C factor determination based on a multi-temporal classification of high-resolution radar images. Further USLE factors were derived from existing data sources (meteorological data, soil maps, digital elevation model) to conduct an USLE-based soil erosion assessment. The resulting map illustrates a qualitative assessment for soil erosion risk within a plot of about 7*12 km in an agricultural region in Poland that is very susceptible to soil erosion processes. A high erosion risk of more than 10 tonnes per ha and year was assessed to occur on 13.6% (646 ha) of the agricultural areas within the investigated plot. Further 7.8% (372 ha) of agricultural land is threaten by a medium risk of 5-10 tonnes per ha and year. Such a spatial information about areas of high or medium soil erosion risk are crucial for the development of strategies for the protection of soils. PMID:23624425

  2. [Effects of vegetation restoration on soil carbon and nitrogen cycles: a review].

    PubMed

    Weng, Bo-Qi; Zheng, Xiang-Zhou; Ding, Hong; Wang, Huang-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation rehabilitation is one of the main means in managing soil and water loss, being able to effectively promote the development of eroded soil, improve the soil fertility level, enhance the soil microbial activities, and in further, affect the soil carbon and nitrogen cycles. Therefore, vegetation rehabilitation plays definite roles in the accumulation of soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools and the mitigation of greenhouse gases emission from soil. This paper summarized the effects of vegetation rehabilitation on the soil carbon and nitrogen cycles and the synergetic effects between soil quality and vegetation rehabilitation, and put forward the further research directions, which could provide the reference for the evaluation of the roles of vegetation rehabilitation in response to global climate change, and the practical guidance for the improvement of soil fertility and the recovery and sustainable development of degraded ecosystems. PMID:24697086

  3. Soil moisture modeling review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildreth, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    A determination of the state of the art in soil moisture transport modeling based on physical or physiological principles was made. It was found that soil moisture models based on physical principles have been under development for more than 10 years. However, these models were shown to represent infiltration and redistribution of soil moisture quite well. Evapotranspiration has not been as adequately incorporated into the models.

  4. Decadal predictability of soil water, vegetation, and wildfire frequency over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamoto, Yoshimitsu; Timmermann, Axel; Stevenson, Samantha; DiNezio, Pedro; Langford, Sally

    2015-10-01

    The potential decadal predictability of land hydrological and biogeochemical variables in North America is examined using a 900-year-long pre-industrial control simulation, conducted with the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) version 1.0.3. The leading modes of simulated North American precipitation and soil water storage are characterized essentially by qualitatively similar meridional seesaw patterns associated with the activity of the westerly jet. Whereas the corresponding precipitation variability can be described as a white noise stochastic process, power spectra of vertically integrated soil water exhibit significant redness on timescales of years to decades, since the predictability of soil water storage arises mostly from the integration of precipitation variability. As a result, damped persistence hindcasts following a 1st order Markov process are skillful with lead times of up to several years. This potential multi-year skill estimate is consistent with ensemble hindcasts conducted with the CESM for various initial conditions. Our control simulation further suggests that decadal variations in soil water storage also affect vegetation and wildfire occurrences. The long-term potential predictability of soil water variations in combination with the slow regrowth of vegetation after major disruptions leads to enhanced predictability on decadal timescales for vegetation, terrestrial carbon stock, and fire frequency, in particular in the Southern United States (US)/Mexico region. By contrast, the prediction skill of fire frequency in the Northern US is limited to 1 year. Our results demonstrate that skillful decadal predictions of soil water storage, carbon stock, and fire frequency are feasible with proper initialization of soil conditions. Although the potential predictability in our idealized modeling framework would overestimate the real predictability of the coupled climate-land-vegetation system, the decadal climate prediction may become beneficial for water resource management, forestry, and agriculture.

  5. Evaluation of MODIS NDVI and NDWI for vegetation drought monitoring using Oklahoma Mesonet soil moisture data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yingxin; Hunt, Eric; Wardlow, Brian; Basara, Jeffrey B.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Verdin, James P.

    2008-11-01

    The evaluation of the relationship between satellite-derived vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index and normalized difference water index) and soil moisture improves our understanding of how these indices respond to soil moisture fluctuations. Soil moisture deficits are ultimately tied to drought stress on plants. The diverse terrain and climate of Oklahoma, the extensive soil moisture network of the Oklahoma Mesonet, and satellite-derived indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provided an opportunity to study correlations between soil moisture and vegetation indices over the 2002-2006 growing seasons. Results showed that the correlation between both indices and the fractional water index (FWI) was highly dependent on land cover heterogeneity and soil type. Sites surrounded by relatively homogeneous vegetation cover with silt loam soils had the highest correlation between the FWI and both vegetation-related indices (r~0.73), while sites with heterogeneous vegetation cover and loam soils had the lowest correlation (r~0.22).

  6. The influence of biological soil crusts on successional vegetation patterns in a revegetated desert area in the Tengger Desert, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huang; Zhi-shan, Zhang; Xin-rong, Li

    2014-05-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an important cover in arid desert landscapes, and have a profound effect on the soil water redistribution, plant growth and vegetation succession. Although a large number of studies have focused on the single-process of BSCs experimentally, relatively few studies have examined the eco-hydrological mechanisms of BSCs influence on successional vegetation patterns in revegetated desert areas. In this study, based on the long term monitoring and focused research on sand-binding vegetation in the Shapotou region (southeastern edge of the Tengger Desert, China) since the 1950s, the characteristics of plant community and BSCs at different successional stages, and the soil water dynamics were investigated. Then a simplified mathematical model describing the coupled dynamics of soil moisture and vegetation in drylands was developed. And finally the role of BSCs on soil water dynamics and vegetation patterns were discussed. Results have showed that BSCs was closely associated with the vegetation succession, such as in the Caragana korshinskii community, moss crusts were the dominate species and in the Artemisia ordosica community, algae crusts were the dominate species. BSCs had a significant effect on soil water infiltration and it was one of the main driving forces to vegetation pattern formations, as algae crusts would induced the tiger bush stripes and moss crusts would lead to the leopard bush spots in arid ecosystems.

  7. Modeling the effects of vegetation on heavy metals containment

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.; Erickson, L.E.; Govindaraju, R.; Kalita, P.; Pierzynski, G.

    1997-12-31

    Soil and water contamination of lead, cadmium, and zinc are of concern in Southeast Kansas, where mining activities occurred until the middle of this century. Sediment erosion from the remnant piles of chat, an aftermath of the mining activity, is responsible for the increasing metal-contaminant concentrations in nearby farmland. Vegetation is being examined as a means of controlling the further spread of the metals. One current program used in watershed modeling, the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Model, or AGNPS, is examined to determine the role that vegetation plays in controlling metal contamination from an 800-acre watershed, containing such chat piles, near Galena, Kansas.

  8. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2) to 5.3 g m(-2) with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1) to 652 mg kg(-1). The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1)). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2) and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1) to 106.8 mg kg(-1) respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R(2) = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1)) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

  9. Soil TPH Concentration Estimation Using Vegetation Indices in an Oil Polluted Area of Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m−2 to 5.3 g m−2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg−1 to 652 mg kg−1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg−1). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg−1 to 106.8 mg kg−1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg−1) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

  10. Transfer of Cadmium from Soil to Vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huihua; Chen, Junjian; Zhu, Li; Yang, Guoyi; Li, Dingqiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd) concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg−1) compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg−1). 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg−1). The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (), and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils. PMID:25247431

  11. Surface modeling of soil antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen-Jiao; Yue, Tian-Xiang; Du, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zong; Li, Xue-Wen

    2016-02-01

    Large numbers of livestock and poultry feces are continuously applied into soils in intensive vegetable cultivation areas, and then some veterinary antibiotics are persistent existed in soils and cause health risk. For the spatial heterogeneity of antibiotic residues, developing a suitable technique to interpolate soil antibiotic residues is still a challenge. In this study, we developed an effective interpolator, high accuracy surface modeling (HASM) combined vegetable types, to predict the spatial patterns of soil antibiotics, using 100 surface soil samples collected from an intensive vegetable cultivation area located in east of China, and the fluoroquinolones (FQs), including ciprofloxacin (CFX), enrofloxacin (EFX) and norfloxacin (NFX), were analyzed as the target antibiotics. The results show that vegetable type is an effective factor to be combined to improve the interpolator performance. HASM achieves less mean absolute errors (MAEs) and root mean square errors (RMSEs) for total FQs (NFX+CFX+EFX), NFX, CFX and EFX than kriging with external drift (KED), stratified kriging (StK), ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighting (IDW). The MAE of HASM for FQs is 55.1μg/kg, and the MAEs of KED, StK, OK and IDW are 99.0μg/kg, 102.8μg/kg, 106.3μg/kg and 108.7μg/kg, respectively. Further, RMSE simulated by HASM for FQs (CFX, EFX and NFX) are 106.2μg/kg (88.6μg/kg, 20.4μg/kg and 39.2μg/kg), and less 30% (27%, 22% and 36%), 33% (27%, 27% and 43%), 38% (34%, 23% and 41%) and 42% (32%, 35% and 51%) than the ones by KED, StK, OK and IDW, respectively. HASM also provides better maps with more details and more consistent maximum and minimum values of soil antibiotics compared with the measured data. The better performance can be concluded that HASM takes the vegetable type information as global approximate information, and takes local sampling data as its optimum control constraints. PMID:26613514

  12. Environmental behavior of technetium in soil and vegetation: implications for radiological impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1982-04-01

    Significant radiological exposures have been estimated for hypothetical atmospheric releases of Tc-99 from gaseous diffusion facilities when vegetation-to-soil concentration ratios representative of laboratory experiments are substituted for generic default values assumed in current regulatory models. To test the relevancy of these laboratory ratios, field investigations were conducted to obtain measurements of the vegetation-to-soil concentration ratio for Tc-99 in samples collected near operating gaseous diffusion facilities and to observe the dynamic behavior of technetium in soil and vegetation following a single application of a sprayed solution of /sup 95m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/ Comparison of observed field concentration ratios and calculated steady-state concentration ratios with ratios obtained from previous laboratory experiments indicates that concentration ratios obtained from field data are one to two orders of magnitude less than those obtained from the laboratory. Furthermore, a substantial accumulation of technetium in soil and vegetation may not occur over long periods of time, since concentrations of technetium in both environmental media were observed to decrease with time subsequent to initial application of /sup 95m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/.

  13. Effects of varying soil moisture contents and vegetation canopies on microwave emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, H.-H. K.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Results of NASA airborne passive microwave scans of bare and vegetated fields for comparison with ground truth tests are discussed and a model for atmospheric scattering of radiation by vegetation is detailed. On-board radiometers obtained data at 21, 2.8, and 1.67 cm during three passes over each of 46 fields, 28 of which were bare and the others having wheat or alfalfa. Ground-based sampling included moisture in five layers down to 15 cm in addition to soil temperature. The relationships among the brightness temperature and soil moisture, as well as the surface roughness and the vegetation canopy were examined. A model was developed for the dielectric coefficient and volume scattering for a vegetation medium. L- to C-band data were found useful for retrieving soil information directly. A surface moisture content of 5-35% yielded an emissivity of 0.9-0.7. The data agreed well with a combined multilayer radiative transfer model with simple roughness correction.

  14. Derivation of soil thresholds for lead applying species sensitivity distribution: A case study for root vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ding, Changfeng; Ma, Yibing; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2016-02-13

    The combination of food quality standard and soil-plant transfer models can be used to derive critical limits of heavy metals for agricultural soils. In this paper, a robust methodology is presented, taking the variations of plant species and cultivars and soil properties into account to derive soil thresholds for lead (Pb) applying species sensitivity distribution (SSD). Three species of root vegetables (four cultivars each for radish, carrot, and potato) were selected to investigate their sensitivity differences for accumulating Pb through greenhouse experiment. Empirical soil-plant transfer model was developed from carrot New Kuroda grown in twenty-one soils covering a wide variation in physicochemical properties and was used to normalize the bioaccumulation data of non-model cultivars. The relationship was then validated to be reliable and would not cause over-protection using data from field experimental sites and published independent studies. The added hazardous concentration for protecting 95% of the cultivars not exceeding the food quality standard (HC5add) were then calculated from the Burr Type III function fitted SSD curves. The derived soil Pb thresholds based on the added risk approach (total soil concentration subtracting the natural background part) were presented as continuous or scenario criteria depending on the combination of soil pH and CEC. PMID:26513560

  15. Flow resistance models for flexible submerged vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. A. M. E.

    2007-09-01

    SummaryThis paper investigates the variation of hydraulic roughness parameters with flow depth for submerged flexible vegetation. In an experimental study flexible grass canopies are used to examine the impact of stem height, grass type and degree of submergence on the flow resistance properties. Results reveal that Manning's n roughness coefficient increases with decreasing flow depth reaching an asymptotic constant at lower levels of vegetation submergence. Data suggest that the value of the constant is dependent on the vegetation height and the vegetation properties. Currently the n- UR method underpredicts the Manning's n and the data from this study extends the USDA method for lower bed slopes and for smaller UR values. The vegetal drag-Reynolds number model is extended for submerged flexible grass linings of differing heights and types. Similar values of the vegetative characteristic number k are evaluated as from previous studies yet for contrasting vegetation types. The vegetal drag coefficient value was found to be strongly correlated to the vegetation height, and follows a power law relationship. The exponent value was found to be independent of the vegetation characteristics.

  16. Soil-vegetation-climate interactions in arid landscapes: Effects of the North American monsoon on grass recruitment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a daily time step, multi-layer simulation model of soil water dynamics to integrate effects of soils, vegetation, and climate on the recruitment of Bouteloua eriopoda (black grama), the historically dominant grass in the Chihuahuan Desert. We simulated landscapes at the Jornada ARS-LTER site...

  17. Soil phosphorus landscape models for precision soil conservation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinseok; Grunwald, Sabine; Vasques, Gustavo M

    2015-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) enrichment in soils has been documented in the Santa Fe River watershed (SFRW, 3585 km) in north-central Florida. Yet the environmental factors that control P distribution in soils across the landscape, with potential contribution to water quality impairment, are not well understood. The main goal of this study was to develop soil-landscape P models to support a "precision soil conservation" approach combining fine-scale (i.e., site-specific) and coarse-scale (i.e., watershed-extent) assessment of soil P. The specific objectives were to: (i) identify those environmental properties that impart the most control on the spatial distribution of soil Mehlich-1 extracted P (MP) in the SFRW; (ii) model the spatial patterns of soil MP using geostatistical methods; and (iii) assess model quality using independent validation samples. Soil MP data at 137 sites were fused with spatially explicit environmental covariates to develop soil MP prediction models using univariate (lognormal kriging, LNK) and multivariate methods (regression kriging, RK, and cokriging, CK). Incorporation of exhaustive environmental data into multivariate models (RK and CK) improved the prediction of soil MP in the SFRW compared with the univariate model (LNK), which relies solely on soil measurements. Among all tested environmental covariates, land use and vegetation related properties (topsoil) and geologic data (subsoil) showed the largest predictive power to build inferential models for soil MP. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of spatially explicit interactions between soil P and other environmental variables, facilitating improved land resource management while minimizing adverse risks to the environment. PMID:26024255

  18. SRTM vegetation removal and hydrodynamic modeling accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baugh, Calum A.; Bates, Paul D.; Schumann, Guy; Trigg, Mark A.

    2013-09-01

    Hydrodynamic modeling of large remote forested floodplains, such as the Amazon, is hindered by the vegetation signal contained within Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) such as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Not removing the vegetation signal causes DEMs to be overelevated preventing the correct simulation of overbank inundation. Previous efforts to remove this vegetation signal have either not accounted for its spatial variability or relied upon single assumed error values. As a possible solution, a systematic approach to removing the vegetation signal which accounts for spatial variability using recently published estimates of global vegetation heights is proposed. The proposed approach is applied to a well-studied reach of the Amazon floodplain where previous hydrodynamic model applications were affected by the SRTM vegetation signal. Greatest improvements to hydrodynamic model accuracy were obtained by subtracting 50-60% of the vegetation height from the SRTM. The vegetation signal removal procedure improved the RMSE (Root-Mean-Square Error) accuracy of the hydrodynamic model than when using the original SRTM in three ways: (1) seasonal floodplain water elevation predictions against TOPEX/Poseidon observations improved from 6.61 to 1.84 m; (2) high water inundation extent prediction accuracy improved from 0.52 to 0.07 against a JERS (Japanese Earth Resources Satellite) observation; (3) low water inundation extent accuracy against a JERS observation improved from 0.22 to 0.12. The simple data requirements of this vegetation removal method enable it to be applied to any remote floodplain for which hydrodynamic model accuracy is hindered by vegetation present in the DEM.

  19. Soil moisture status estimation over Three Gorges area with Landsat TM data based on temperature vegetation dryness index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lina; Niu, Ruiqing; Li, Jiong; Dong, Yanfang

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture is the important indicator of climate, hydrology, ecology, agriculture and other parameters of the land surface and atmospheric interface. Soil moisture plays an important role on the water and energy exchange at the land surface/atmosphere interface. Remote sensing can provide information on large area quickly and easily, so it is significant to do research on how to monitor soil moisture by remote sensing. This paper presents a method to assess soil moisture status using Landsat TM data over Three Gorges area in China based on TVDI. The potential of Temperature- Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) from Landsat TM data in assessing soil moisture was investigated in this region. After retrieving land surface temperature and vegetation index a TVDI model based on the features of Ts-NDVI space is established. And finally, soil moisture status is estimated according to TVDI. It shows that TVDI has the advantages of stability and high accuracy to estimating the soil moisture status.

  20. Radar response to vegetation. [soil moisture mapping via microwave backscattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    Active microwave measurements of vegetation backscatter were conducted to determine the utility of radar in mapping soil moisture through vegetation and mapping crop types. Using a truck-mounted boom, spectral response data were obtained for four crop types (corn, milo, soybeans, and alfalfa) over the 4-8 GHz frequency band, at incidence angles of 0 to 70 degrees in 10-degree steps, and for all four linear polarization combinations. Based on a total of 125 data sets covering a wide range of soil moisture, content, system design criteria are proposed for each of the aforementioned objectives. Quantitative soil moisture determination was best achieved at the lower frequency end of the 4-8 GHz band using HH polarized waves in the 5- to 15-degree incidence angle range. A combination of low and high frequency measurements are suggested for classifying crop types. For crop discrimination, a dual-frequency dual-polarization (VV and cross) system operating at incidence angles above 40 degrees is suggested.

  1. The Dependence of Peat Soil Hydraulic Conductivity on Dominant Vegetation Type in Mountain Fens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, A. C.; Ronayne, M. J.; Cooper, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The peat soil within fen wetlands provides water storage that can substantially influence the hydrology of mountain watersheds. In this study, we investigated the relationship between hydraulic conductivity and vegetation type for fens occurring in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA. Vegetation in RMNP fens can be dominated by woody plants and shrubs, such as willows; by mosses; or by herbaceous plants such as sedges. Fens dominated by each vegetation type were selected for study. Six fens were investigated, all of which are in the Colorado River watershed on the west side of RMNP. For each site, soil hydraulic conductivity was measured at multiple locations using a single-ring infiltrometer. As a result of the shallow water table in these fens (the water table was always within 10 cm of the surface), horizontal hydraulic gradients were produced during the field tests. The measured infiltration rates were analyzed using the numerical model HYDRUS. In order to determine the hydraulic conductivity, a parameter estimation problem was solved using HYDRUS as the forward simulator. Horizontal flow was explicitly accounted for in the model. This approach produced more accurate estimates of hydraulic conductivity than would be obtained using an analytical solution that assumes strictly vertical flow. Significant differences in hydraulic properties between fens appear to result at least in part from the effects of different dominant vegetation types on peat soil formation.

  2. Decadal Potential Predictability of Soil Water, Vegetation, and Wildfire Frequency over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamoto, Y.; Timmermann, A.; Stevenson, S. L.; Di Nezio, P. N.; Langford, S.

    2014-12-01

    The potential decadal predictability of land hydrological and biogeochemical variables in North America is examined using a 900-year-long pre-industrial control simulation, conducted with the NCAR Community EarthSystem Model (CESM). The leading modes of simulated North American precipitation and soil water storage are characterized by qualitatively similar meridional seesaw patterns associated with the downstream activity of the westerly jet. Whereas the corresponding precipitation variability can be described as a white noise stochastic process, power spectra of vertically integrated soil water exhibit significant redness on timescales of years to decades since the predictability of soil water storage arises mostly from the integration of precipitation variability. As a result, our ensemble hindcasts conducted with the CESM for various initial conditions are skillful with lead times of up to several years due to the long-term memory of damped persistence. Our control simulation further suggests that decadal variations in soil water storage also affect vegetation and wildfire occurrences. Our results demonstrate that skillful decadal predictions of soil water storage, carbon stock, and fire frequency are feasible with proper initialization of soil conditions. Although the potential predictability in our idealized modeling framework would overestimate the real predictability of the coupled climate-land-vegetation system, the decadal climate prediction may become beneficial for water resource management, forestry, and agriculture.

  3. Use of LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, Peter S.; Jasinski, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    The estimation of the spatially variable surface moisture and heat fluxes of natural, semivegetated landscapes is difficult due to the highly random nature of the vegetation (e.g., plant species, density, and stress) and the soil (e.g., moisture content, and soil hydraulic conductivity). The solution to that problem lies, in part, in the use of satellite remotely sensed data, and in the preparation of those data in terms of the physical properties of the plant and soil. The work was focused on the development and testing of a stochastic geometric canopy-soil reflectance model, which can be applied to the physically-based interpretation of LANDSAT images. The model conceptualizes the landscape as a stochastic surface with bulk plant and soil reflective properties. The model is particularly suited for regional scale investigations where the quantification of the bulk landscape properties, such as fractional vegetation cover, is important on a pixel by pixel basis. A summary of the theoretical analysis and the preliminary testing of the model with actual aerial radiometric data is provided.

  4. Hyperspectral remote sensing of salt marsh vegetation, morphology and soil topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, Sonia; Marani, Marco; Marani, Alessandro

    The present paper deals with the relationship between vegetation patterns and salt marsh morphology in the Venice lagoon and with the use of remote sensing to infer salt marsh morphologic characteristics from vegetation mapping. Field measurements indicate that salt marsh vegetation species (halophytes) are reliable indicators of ground elevation and live within typical elevation ranges characterised by standard deviations of less than 5 cm. A model is then developed which uses vegetation as a morphological indicator of soil topography to estimate ground elevation from fractional cover values of each vegetation type. The use of data from an airborne remote hyperspectral sensor is presented as a means of discriminating between different salt marsh vegetation communities. Vegetation maps obtained from unmixing techniques have then been used to produce digital elevation maps (DEM) of salt marsh areas. The DEM based on halophytes cover estimates and extracted from high spatial and spectral resolution data allows a high estimation accuracy, with an error standard deviation of a few centimetres in the considered study area within the Venice lagoon. The accuracy and resolution attainable through this method are comparable and often superior to those obtained through state of the art laser altimetry.

  5. Vegetation, soil, and flooding relationships in a blackwater floodplain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Gartner, D.; Eisenbies, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Hydroperiod is considered the primary determinant of plant species distribution in temperate floodplain forests, but most studies have focused on alluvial (sediment-laden) river systems. Few studies have evaluated plant community relationships in blackwater river systems of the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of North America. In this study, we characterized the soils, hydroperiod, and vegetation communities and evaluated relationships between the physical and chemical environment and plant community structure on the floodplain of the Coosawhatchie River, a blackwater river in South Carolina, USA. The soils were similar to previous descriptions of blackwater floodplain soils but had greater soil N and P availability, substantially greater clay content, and lower soil silt content than was previously reported for other blackwater river floodplains. Results of a cluster analysis showed there were five forest communities on the site, and both short-term (4 years) and long-term (50 years) flooding records documented a flooding gradient: water tupelo community > swamp tupelo > laurel oak = overcup oak > mixed oak. The long-term hydrologic record showed that the floodplain has flooded less frequently from 1994 to present than in previous decades. Detrended correspondence analysis of environmental and relative basal area values showed that 27% of the variation in overstory community structure could be explained by the first two axes; however, fitting the species distributions to the DCA axes using Gaussian regression explained 67% of the variation. Axes were correlated with elevation (flooding intensity) and soil characteristics related to rooting volume and cation nutrient availability. Our study suggests that flooding is the major factor affecting community structure, but soil characteristics also may be factors in community structure in blackwater systems. ?? 2003, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  6. Spatio-temporal evaluation of resolution enhancement for passive microwave soil moisture and vegetation optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevaert, A. I.; Parinussa, R. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; de Jeu, R. A. M.

    2016-03-01

    Space-borne passive microwave radiometers are used to derive land surface parameters such as surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth (VOD). However, the value of such products in regional hydrology is limited by their coarse resolution. In this study, the land parameter retrieval model (LPRM) is used to derive enhanced resolution (∼10 km) soil moisture and VOD from advanced microwave scanning radiometer (AMSR-E) brightness temperatures sharpened by a modulation technique based on high-frequency observations. A precipitation mask based on brightness temperatures was applied to remove precipitation artefacts in the sharpened LPRM products. The spatial and temporal patterns in the resulting products are evaluated against field-measured and modeled soil moisture as well as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) over mainland Australia. Results show that resolution enhancement accurately sharpens the boundaries of different vegetation types, lakes and wetlands. Significant changes in temporal agreement between LPRM products and related datasets are limited to specific areas, such as lakes and coastal areas. Spatial correlations, on the other hand, increase over most of Australia. In addition, hydrological signals from irrigation and water bodies that were absent in the low-resolution soil moisture product become clearly visible after resolution enhancement. The increased information detail in the high-resolution LPRM products should benefit hydrological studies at regional scales.

  7. Discrete random media techniques for microwave modeling of vegetated terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Roger H.

    1991-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing models of vegetated terrain are investigated. The problem is to determine canopy characteristics such as biomass, canopy height, and the moisture of the underlying soil. The report describes a discrete scatter model which has been employed to model backscatter in the active (radar) case and to model brightness temperature in the passive (radiometric) case. The acquisition of ground truth data is discussed, as well as the comparison of theory and experiment. The overall conclusion of the work has been that the discrete scatter model in conjunction with efficient scatter algorithms and the distorted Born approximation is a most appropriate methodology to use for modeling purposes in the microwave region.

  8. Dieldrin uptake by vegetable crops grown in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Lucia; Pompi, Valter; Faraci, Alessandro; Conte, Elisa

    2009-06-01

    The aim of these trials was to study the distribution of dieldrin in soil and its translocation to roots and the aerial parts of vegetable crops grown in greenhouses and fields. The main objectives were to characterize dieldrin accumulation in plant tissues in relation to the levels of soil contamination; uptake capability among plants belonging to different species, varieties and cultivars. The presence of the contaminant was quantified by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results showed a translocation of residues in cucurbitaceous fruits and flowers confirming that zucchini, cucumber and melon are crops with high uptake capability. The maximum level of dieldrin residue at 0.01 mg/kg was found to be a threshold value to safeguard the quality production of cucurbits. Tomato, lettuce and celery were identified as substitute crops to grow in contaminated fields. PMID:20183049

  9. MICROBIAL POPULATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SOIL DEPTH, SOIL PHOSPHORUS, AND VEGETATION CHANGES DOWNWIND OF A CATTLE FEEDYARD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, the 30-year effect (1970 to 2000) of a 25,000-head beef cattle feedyard upon a downwind native shortgrass pasture was documented. Vegetation changes and a soil phosphorus (P) gradient with respect to distance from the feedyard were determined. The objective of this study was t...

  10. Soil water and vegetation management for cleanup of selenium contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    Over the past year scientists have initiatived a new effort aimed at developing a soil water and vegetation management plan for Kesterson Reservoir. The plan is intended to result in a gradual depletion of the inventory of soluble selenium at the Reservoir through a combination agriculturally oriented practices that enhance dissipation of selenium from near surface soils. Agriculturally oriented processes that will contribute to depletion include microbial volatilization from the soils, direct volatilization by living plants, decomposition and volatilization of selenium-bearing vegetation, harvest and removal of seleniferous vegetation, and leaching. The benefits of using this integrated approach are that (1) no single mechanism needs to be relied upon to detoxify the soils, (2) a stable plant community can be established during this period so that impacts to wildlife can be more easily evaluated and controlled, (3) cleanup and management of the site can be carried out in a cost-effective manner. The management plan is also intended to facilitate control over wildlife exposure to selenium contaminated biota by creating a well managed environment. The majority of research associated with this new effort is being carried out at a 200 m by 50 m test plot in Pond 7. A two-line irrigation system , providing local groundwater as an irrigation supply, has been installed. Through an intensive program of soil water sampling, soil gas sampling, vegetation sampling, groundwater monitoring, and soil moisture monitoring, the mass balance for selenium under irrigated conditions is being evaluated. These studies, in conjunction with supplementary laboratory experiments will provide the information needed to develop an optimal management plan for the site. 23 refs., 38 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Soil Heat Flow Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varas, E.; Nunez, C.; Meza, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    The Penman-Monteith method for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) has been recommended by FAO. This method requires measures of temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and heat flow in the soil. This last variable is rarely available. Soil heat flow is generally small compared to the net radiation, and many times is ignored in the energy balance. Nevertheless, the addition or subtraction of this amount in the energy balance equation should be considered for evapo-transpiration calculation. Penman-Monteith method suggests approximate estimates of soil heat flows as the difference between the maxima and minimum daily temperatures multiplied by a convenient coefficient. However, such approach ignores important variations in this parameter occurring during the day, and could influence the accuracy of the result. This work proposes to estimate soil heat flows by means of a mathematical model that includes the estimate of soil temperatures profiles and heat flows as a function of thermal properties of the soil, such as difussivity and conductivity coefficients. The model calculates soil heat flows in three stages. The first estimates hourly air temperature based on the average daily temperature and Fourier series coefficients. The obtained hourly air temperature constitutes an input variable for the second stage of the model. Surface soil temperature is assumed to be equal to air temperature. The second stage, applies heat transfer principles, using the thermal properties of the soil in order to obtain the soil temperature profile in a one meter depth soil stratum. Finally, the results of the second stage are used to calculate the hourly heat flow in the soil and compare this estimate with other methods and with measured values. Calculated hourly temperatures reproduced observed values closely. Correlation coefficients between observed and calculated values for the three summer months are 0.98, 0.96 and 0.97. Hourly soil heat fluxes are also closely estimated, showing clear diurnal variations. Correlation coefficient for the entire study period between observed and estimated values is 0.96.

  12. The Impact of Climate on Sulfur Isotopes in Soils and Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, S. A.; Amundson, R.

    2012-12-01

    Stable isotopes of sulfur (S) in soil can be used as tracers for sources and in-situ processes, and understanding what drives the variability of S isotope ratios in the coupled precipitation-soil-vegetation system can provide a basis for identifying regions with potential S limitations or high susceptibility to anthropogenic additions. Here we investigated the impact of climate on the isotopic composition of total S in soils and vegetation (reported as δ34S values) using a series of well-defined climosequences at several locations around the globe. This is the most comprehensive study to date of the geographical patterns of soil and plant S, with sites covering a mean annual precipitation (MAP) range of 1 to 4200 mm and a mean annual temperature (MAT) range of 2.5 to 25.5°C. Within this broad range of climates the following relationships were explored: (1) constant MAP, varying MAT; (2) constant MAT, varying MAP; (3) increasing MAP as MAT decreases; (4) decreasing MAP as MAT decreases. The impact of other soil forming factors (parent material, landscape age and topography) were also considered and distinguished from the effects of climate. Based on total S and S isotope analysis of archived and newly-collected soil, vegetation, and rainwater samples from a total of 13 sites with nearly 70 sub-sites around the world, we produced a model for predicting the behavior of soil and plant S isotopes with climate. Our results showed that location affected soil δ34S by affecting the chemistry of S inputs to soil (i.e. proximity to the ocean, industrial centers, volcanoes, or other major sources of S). In areas with similar S sources, however, δ34S of soil and vegetation was controlled by MAP, with MAT playing a secondary role. At the wet end of the rainfall spectrum (2000-4200 mm), surface soil δ34S was around 15-17‰, approaching the seawater sulfate value of 21‰. This reflects the proximity to the ocean and the high proportion of ocean-derived rain at those sites. In the moderate MAP range (50-1000 mm), δ34S values of the upper 10 cm of the soil generally increased from 2.5 to 6.9‰ with increasing MAP while plant δ34S values decreased from 7.5 to 1.8‰. At the dry end of the rainfall spectrum (MAP < 50 mm), surface soil δ34S increased again, approaching 7‰. S isotope fractionation during plant uptake was also MAP-dependent: at sites with MAP > 600 mm, the δ34S of surface soil was greater than that of plants, while the opposite behavior was observed at MAP <600 mm. Total soil S (which is mostly organic S) δ34S values generally increased with soil depth, with the most pronounced increase at the wettest sites (MAP 3500-4200 mm). This increase likely reflects microbial mineralization of soil organic S. In contrast, at the hyperarid sites (MAP <5 mm), where microbial reactions are severely limited, soil δ34S decreased with depth. Overall, our results show that soil and plant δ34S vary predictably with climate, when accounting for variations due to input chemistry and other soil forming factors.

  13. Productivity of wet soils: Biomass of cultivated and natural vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, C.A.

    1988-12-01

    Wet soils, soils which have agronomic limitations because of excess water, comprise 105 million acres of non-federal land in the conterminous United States. Wet soils which support hydrophytic plants are ''wetlands'', and are some of the most productive natural ecosystems in the world. When both above- and belowground productivity are considered, cattail (Typha latifolia) is the most productive temperate wetland species (26.4 Mg/ha/year). Both cattail and reed (Phragmites australis) have aboveground productivities of about 13 Mg/ha/year. Although average aboveground yields of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) are lower (9.5 Mg/ha/year), techniques for its establishment and cultivation are well-developed. Other herbaceous wetland species which show promise as biomass crops include sedge (Carex spp.), river bulrush (Scirpus fluviatilis) and prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata). About 40% of wet soils in the conterminous US are currently cultivated, and they produce one-quarter of the major US crops. Most of this land is artificially drained for crops such as corn, soybeans, and vegetables. US wetlands are drained for agriculture at the rate of 223,000 ha/yr. Paddies flooded with water are used to grow rice, cranberries, and wild rice. Forage and live sphagnum moss are products of undrained wetlands. A number of federal and state regulations apply to the draining or irrigation of wetlands, but most do not seriously restrict their use for agriculture. 320 refs., 36 tabs.

  14. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture content over bare and vegetated fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Shiue, J. C.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground truth of soil moisture content, and ambient air and soil temperatures were acquired concurrently with measurements of soil moisture in bare fields and fields covered with grass, corn, and soybeans obtained with 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz radiometers mounted on a truck. The biomass of the vegetation was sampled about once a week. The measured brightness temperatures over the bare fields were compared with those of radiative transfer model calculations using as inputs the acquired soil moisture and temperatures data with appropriate values of dielectric constants for soil-water mixtures. A good agreement was found between the calculated and measured results over 10 deg to 70 deg incident angles. The presence of vegetation reduced the sensitivity of soil moisture sensing. At 1.4 GHz the sensitivity reduction ranged from about 20% for 10 cm tall grassland cover to over 50 to 60% for the dense soybean field. At 5 GHz corresponding reduction in sensitivity ranged from approximately 70% to approximately 90%.

  15. Vegetation stress from soil moisture and chlorophyll fluorescence: synergy between SMAP and FLEX approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Jose; Moran, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Vegetation stress detection continues being a focal objective for remote sensing techniques. It has implications not only for practical applications such as irrigation optimization or precision agriculture, but also for global climate models, providing data to better link water and carbon exchanges between the surface and the atmospheric and improved parameterization of the role of terrestrial vegetation in the coupling of water and carbon cycles. Traditional approaches to map vegetation stress using remote sensing techniques have been based on measurements of soil moisture status, canopy (radiometric) temperature and, to a lesser extent, canopy water content, but new techniques such as the dynamics of vegetation fluorescence emission, are also now available. Within the context of the preparatory activities for the SMAP and FLEX missions, a number of initiatives have been put in place to combine modelling activities and field experiments in order to look for alternative and more efficient ways of detecting vegetation stress, with emphasis on synergistic remote sensing approaches. The potential of solar-induced vegetation fluorescence as an early indicator of stress has been widely demonstrated, for different type of stress conditions: light amount (excess illumination) and conditions (direct/diffuse), temperature extremes (low and high), soil water availability (soil moisture), soil nutrients (nitrogen), atmospheric water vapour and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The effects caused by different stress conditions are sometimes difficult to be decoupled, also because different causes are often combined, but in general they then to change the overall fluorescence emission (modulating amplitude) or changing the relative contributions of photosystems PSI and PSII or the relative fluorescence re-absorption effects caused by modifications in the structure of pigment bed responsible for light absorption, in particular for acclimation for persistent stress conditions. While soil moisture deficit is often the reason for the stress, the capability for an early detection of short-time stress conditions is one of the main advantages of vegetation fluorescence. The combined usage of active and passive techniques is also discussed. In the case of soil moisture, combination of active (radar) and passive (L-band radiometry) approaches are used, while in the case of fluorescence active (laser induced) and passive (solar induced) techniques are used as well. Experience from active techniques in laboratory and field conditions helps the operational usage of passive techniques which are readily applicable to satellite observations. Vegetation fluorescence dynamics, particularly over boreal forest, is characterized by an abrupt change in fluorescence levels in coincidence with the activation and deactivation of the photosynthetic machinery at start/end of growing season, which is also related to freeze/thaw state of soil conditions. The interest of looking at such transitions both on the side of photosynthetic activity (combined fluorescence and temperature measurements) and freeze/thaw conditions (L-band radiometry) can provide an unprecedented description of the soil and vegetation interactions and dynamical feedbacks in the energy and chemical exchanges with the atmosphere. A review of methods and results will be discussed in this paper, including suggestions for synergistic approaches to be exploited in future research priorities in vegetation stress detection.

  16. Bacterial and enchytraeid abundance accelerate soil carbon turnover along a lowland vegetation gradient in interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Turetsky, M.R.; Petersen, D.G.; McGuire, A.D.; Briones, M.J.I.; Churchill, A.C.; Doctor, D.H.; Pruett, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    Boreal wetlands are characterized by a mosaic of plant communities, including forests, shrublands, grasslands, and fens, which are structured largely by changes in topography and water table position. The soil associated with these plant communities contain quantitatively and qualitatively different forms of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrient availability that drive changes in biogeochemical cycling rates. Therefore different boreal plant communities likely contain different soil biotic communities which in turn affect rates of organic matter decomposition. We examined relationships between plant communities, microbial communities, enchytraeids, and soil C turnover in near-surface soils along a shallow topographic soil moisture and vegetation gradient in interior Alaska. We tested the hypothesis that as soil moisture increases along the gradient, surface soils would become increasingly dominated by bacteria and mesofauna and have more rapid rates of C turnover. We utilized bomb radiocarbon techniques to infer rates of C turnover and the 13C isotopic composition of SOM and respired CO2 to infer the degree of soil humification. Soil phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activities were generally higher in the rich fen compared with the forest and bog birch sites. Results indicated greater C fluxes and more rapid C turnover in the surface soils of the fen sites compared to the wetland forest and shrub sites. Quantitative PCR analyses of soil bacteria and archaea, combined with enchytraeid counts, indicated that surface soils from the lowland fen ecosystems had higher abundances of these microbial and mesofaunal groups. Fungal abundance was highly variable and not significantly different among sites. Microbial data was utilized in a food web model that confirmed that rapidly cycling systems are dominated by bacterial activity and enchytraeid grazing. However, our results also suggest that oxidative enzymes play an important role in the C mineralization process in saturated systems, which has been often ignored.

  17. Soil-geomorphic heterogeneity governs patchy vegetation dynamics at an arid ecotone.

    PubMed

    Bestelmeyer, Brandon T; Ward, Judy P; Havstad, Kris M

    2006-04-01

    Soil properties are well known to affect vegetation, but the role of soil heterogeneity in the patterning of vegetation dynamics is poorly documented. We asked whether the location of an ecotone separating grass-dominated and sparsely vegetated areas reflected only historical variation in degradation or was related to variation in inherent soil properties. We then asked whether changes in the cover and spatial organization of vegetated and bare patches assessed using repeat aerial photography reflected self-organizing dynamics unrelated to soil variation or the stable patterning of soil variation. We found that the present-day ecotone was related to a shift from more weakly to more strongly developed soils. Parts of the ecotone were stable over a 60-year period, but shifts between bare and vegetated states, as well as persistently vegetated and bare states, occurred largely in small (<40 m2) patches throughout the study area. The probability that patches were presently vegetated or bare, as well as the probability that vegetation persisted and/or established over the 60-year period, was negatively related to surface calcium carbonate and positively related to subsurface clay content. Thus, only a fraction of the landscape was susceptible to vegetation change, and the sparsely vegetated area probably featured a higher frequency of susceptible soil patches. Patch dynamics and self-organizing processes can be constrained by subtle (and often unrecognized) soil heterogeneity. PMID:16676540

  18. Soil Water Balance and Vegetation Dynamics in two Contrasting Water-limited Mediterranean Ecosystems on Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.; Corona, R.

    2011-12-01

    Water limited conditions strongly impacts soil and vegetation dynamics in Mediterranean regions, which are commonly heterogeneous ecosystems, characterized by inter-annual rainfall variability, topography variability and contrasting plant functional types (PFTs) competing for water use. Mediterranean regions are characterized by two main ecosystems, grassland and woodland, which for both natural and anthropogenic causes can grow in soils with different characteristics, highly impacting water resources. Water resources and forestal planning need a deep understanding of the dynamics between PFTs, soil and atmosphere and their impacts on water and CO2 distributions of these two main ecosystems. The first step is the monitoring of land surface fluxes, soil moisture, and vegetation dynamics of the two contrasting ecosystems. Moreover, due to the large percentage of soils with low depth (< 50 cm), and due to the quick hydrologic answer to atmospheric forcing in these soils, there is also the need to understand the impact of the soil depth in the vegetation dynamics, and make measurements in these types of soils. Sardinia island is a very interesting and representative region of Mediterranean ecosystems. It is low urbanized, and is not irrigated, except some plan areas close to the main cities where main agricultural activities are concentrated. The case study sites are within the Flumendosa river basin on Sardinia. Two sites, both in the Flumendosa river and with similar height a.s.l., are investigated. The distance between the sites is around 4 km but the first is a typically grass site located on an alluvial plan valley with a soil depth more than 2m, while the second site is a patchy mixture of Mediterranean vegetation types Oaks, creepers of the wild olive trees and C3 herbaceous species and the soil thickness varies from 15-40 cm, bounded from below by a rocky layer of basalt, partially fractured. In both sites land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by eddy correlation technique based micrometeorological towers. Soil moisture profiles were also continuously estimated using water content reflectometers and gravimetric method, and periodically leaf area index PFTs are estimated during the Spring-Summer 2005. The following objectives are addressed:1) pointing out the dynamics of land surface fluxes, soil moisture, CO2 and vegetation cover for two contrasting water-limited ecosystems; 2) assess the impact of the soil depth and type on the CO2 and water balance dynamics. For reaching the objectives an ecohydrologic model is also successfully used and applied to the case studies. It couples a vegetation dynamic model, which computes the change in biomass over time for the PFTs, and a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) land surface model.

  19. Vegetation and soils field research data base: Experiment summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biehl, L. L.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Bauer, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Understanding of the relationships between the optical, spectral characteristics and important biological-physical parameters of earth-surface features can best be obtained by carefully controlled studies over fields and plots where complete data describing the condition of targets are attainable and where frequent, timely spectral measurement can be obtained. Development of a vegetation and soils field research data base was initiated in 1972 at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing and expanded in the fall of 1974 by NASA as part of LACIE. Since then, over 250,000 truck-mounted and helicopter-borne spectrometer/multiband radiometer observations have been obtained of more than 50 soil series and 20 species of crops, grasses, and trees. These data are supplemented by an extensive set of biophysical and meteorological data acquired during each mission. The field research data form one of the most complete and best-documented data sets acquired for agricultural remote sensing research. Thus, they are well-suited to serve as a data base for research to: (1) quantiatively determine the relationships of spectral and biophysical characteristics of vegetation, (2) define future sensor systems, and (3) develop advanced data analysis techniques.

  20. Vegetation isoline equations with first- and second-order interaction terms for modeling a canopy-soil system of layers in the red and near-infrared reflectance space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Munenori; Obata, Kenta; Yoshioka, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    A previously proposed vegetation isoline equation suffers from errors if the soil background of a canopy layer is bright. These errors arise from the truncation of the second- and higher-order terms that represent photon interactions between the canopy and the soil. An isoline equation that includes a second-order interaction term is introduced. The equation was initially derived by explicitly including a second-order interaction term in both the red and near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra (symmetric approximation). We also examined an alternative model in which the interaction term was included only in the NIR band (asymmetric approximation). In this model, the derived isolines tend to shift upward (overcorrection effects). Numerical experiments revealed that the errors in the isoline obtained by the asymmetric approximation were reduced in magnitude to nearly one-fifth of the errors in the previously proposed method. Its accuracy was higher than that of the symmetric approximation, despite the fact that the asymmetric approximation included fewer terms than the symmetric approximation. The improved model accuracy resulted from the overcorrection effects, which compensated for the truncation error. With the simplicity and improved accuracy, the current isoline equations provide a good alternative to the previous approach.

  1. Modeling post-fire vegetation succession and its effect on permafrost vulnerability and carbon balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.; Johnstone, J. F.; Breen, A. L.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Mack, M. C.; Melvin, A. M.; Rupp, T. S.; Schuur, E. A.; Yuan, F.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfires are one of the main disturbances in high latitude ecosystems and have important consequences for the large stocks of carbon stored in permafrost soils. Fire affects carbon balance directly by burning vegetation and surface organic material and indirectly by influencing post-fire vegetation composition and soil thermal and hydrological regimes. Recent developments of ecosystem models allow a better representation of the effects of fire on organic soil dynamics and the soil environment, but there is a need to better integrate post-fire vegetation succession in these models. Post-fire vegetation regeneration is sensitive to fire consumption of soil organic layer horizons, where high severity burning promotes the establishment of deciduous broadleaf trees. In comparison to conifers, deciduous forests are less flammable, more productive, have higher nutrient turnover, and deeper permafrost. However, deciduous forests generally store less soil carbon than conifer forests. Therefore, the fire-induced shifts in vegetation composition have consequences for ecosystem carbon balance. In this study, we present the development of an ecosystem model that integrates post-fire succession with changes in the structure and function of organic soil horizons to better represent the relationship between fire severity and vegetation succession across the landscape. The model is then used to assess changes in the carbon balance at a 1km resolution, in response to changing fire regime across the landscape in Interior Alaska.

  2. Interactions between soil moisture and Atmospheric Boundary Layer at the Brazilian savana-type vegetation Cerrado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, L. R.; Siqueira, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Before the large people influx and development of the central part of Brazil in the sixties, due to new capital Brasília, Cerrado, a typical Brazilian savanna-type vegetation, used to occupy about 2 million km2, going all the way from the Amazon tropical forest, in the north of the country, to the edges of what used to be of the Atlantic forest in the southeast. Today, somewhat 50% of this area has given place to agriculture, pasture and managed forests. It is forecasted that, at the current rate of this vegetation displacement, Cerrado will be gone by 2030. Understanding how Cerrado interacts with the atmosphere and how this interaction will be modified with this land-use change is a crucial step towards improving predictions of future climate-change scenarios. Cerrado is a vegetation adapted to a climate characterized by two very distinct seasons, a wet season (Nov-Mar) and dry season (May-Ago), with April and October being transitions between seasons. Typically, based on measurements in a weather station located in Brasilia, 75% of precipitation happens in the wet-season months and only 5% during dry-season. Under these circumstances, it is clear that the vegetation will have to cope with long periods of water stress. In this work we studied using numerical simulations, the interactions between soil-moisture, responsible for the water stress, with the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). The numerical model comprises of a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere model where the biophysical processes are represented with a big-leaf approach. Soil water is estimated with a simple logistic model and with water-stress effects on stomatal conductance are parameterized from local measurements of simultaneous latent-heat fluxes and soil moisture. ABL evolution is calculate with a slab model that considers independently surface and entrainment fluxes of sensible- and latent- heat. Temperature tropospheric lapse-rate is taken from soundings at local airport. Simulations of 30-day dry down from saturation to complete water stress were performed and is analyzed as far how ABL respond to soil moisture changes. This provides informations about ABL behavior on the transition states. Future studies will look on how this behavior will change with the new vegetation covers.

  3. Directional infrared temperature and emissivity of vegetation: Measurements and models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. M.; Castello, S.; Balick, L. K.

    1994-01-01

    Directional thermal radiance from vegetation depends on many factors, including the architecture of the plant canopy, thermal irradiance, emissivity of the foliage and soil, view angle, slope, and the kinetic temperature distribution within the vegetation-soil system. A one dimensional model, which includes the influence of topography, indicates that thermal emissivity of vegetation canopies may remain constant with view angle, or emissivity may increase or decrease as view angle from nadir increases. Typically, variations of emissivity with view angle are less than 0.01. As view angle increases away from nadir, directional infrared canopy temperature usually decreases but may remain nearly constant or even increase. Variations in directional temperature with view angle may be 5C or more. Model predictions of directional emissivity are compared with field measurements in corn canopies and over a bare soil using a method that requires two infrared thermometers, one sensitive to the 8 to 14 micrometer wavelength band and a second to the 14 to 22 micrometer band. After correction for CO2 absorption by the atmosphere, a directional canopy emissivity can be obtained as a function of view angle in the 8 to 14 micrometer band to an accuracy of about 0.005. Modeled and measured canopy emissivities for corn varied slightly with view angle (0.990 at nadir and 0.982 at 75 deg view zenith angle) and did not appear to vary significantly with view angle for the bare soil. Canopy emissivity is generally nearer to unity than leaf emissivity may vary by 0.02 with wavelength even though leaf emissivity. High spectral resolution, canopy thermal emissivity may vary by 0.02 with wavelength even though leaf emissivity may vary by 0.07. The one dimensional model provides reasonably accurate predictions of infrared temperature and can be used to study the dependence of infrared temperature on various plant, soil, and environmental factors.

  4. Use of Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) in Passive Microwave Algorithms for Soil Moisture Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlandson, T. L.; Berg, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will provide a unique opportunity for the estimation of soil moisture by having simultaneous radar and radiometer measurements available. As with the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, the soil moisture algorithms will need to account for the contribution of vegetation to the brightness temperature. Global maps of vegetation volumetric water content (VWC) are difficult to obtain, and the SMOS mission has opted to estimate the optical depth of standing vegetation by using a relationship between the VWC and the leaf area index (LAI). LAI is estimated from optical remote sensing or through soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling. During the growing season, the VWC of agricultural crops can increase rapidly, and if cloud cover exists during an optical acquisition, the estimation of LAI may be delayed, resulting in an underestimation of the VWC and overestimation of the soil moisture. Alternatively, the radar vegetation index (RVI) has shown strong correlation and linear relationship with VWC for rice and soybeans. Using the SMAP radar to produce RVI values that are coincident to brightness temperature measurements may eliminate the need for LAI estimates. The SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) was a cal/val campaign for the SMAP mission held in Manitoba, Canada, during a 6-week period in June and July, 2012. During this campaign, soil moisture measurements were obtained for 55 fields with varying soil texture and vegetation cover. Vegetation was sampled from each field weekly to determine the VWC. Soil moisture measurements were taken coincident to overpasses by an aircraft carrying the Passive and Active L-band System (PALS) instrumentation. The aircraft flew flight lines at both high and low altitudes. The low altitude flight lines provided a footprint size approximately equivalent to the size of the SMAPVEX12 field sites. Of the 55 field sites, the low altitude flight lines provided measurements for 15 fields. One field was planted in corn; three were pasture; six were soybeans; three were wheat; and two were winter wheat. The average RVI for each field was determined for each PALS overpass, with sampled radar data confined to the field dimensions. A linear interpolation was conducted between measured values of VWC to estimate a daily VWC value. A linear regression was conducted between the average VWC and the RVI, for each vegetation type. A positive linear relationship was found for all crops, with the exception of pasture. The correlation between the RVI and VWC was strong for corn and pasture, but moderate for soybeans and winter wheat; however, the correlation for corn was not significant. The developed models were utilized to provide a calculated VWC which was inputted into a modified version of the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) to determine the error associated with using a calculated VWC from the RVI versus measured VWC data. The LPRM outputs for both scenarios were compared to the PALS radiometer measurements of brightness temperature.

  5. Trends in soil-vegetation dynamics in burned Mediterranean pine forests: the effects of soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenberg, L.; Malkinson, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fire can impact a variety of soil physical and chemical properties. These changes may result, given the fire severity and the local conditions, in decreased infiltration and increased runoff and erosion rates. Most of these changes are caused by complex interactions among eco-geomorphic processes which affect, in turn, the rehabilitation dynamics of the soil and the regeneration of the burnt vegetation. Following wildfire events in two forests growing on different soil types, we investigated runoff, erosion, nutrient export (specifically nitrogen and phosphorous) and vegetation recovery dynamics. The Biriya forest site, burned during the 2006 summer, is composed of two dominant lithological types: soft chalk and marl which are relatively impermeable. The rocks are usually overlain by relatively thick, up of to 80 cm, grayish-white Rendzina soil, which contains large amounts of dissolved carbonate. These carbonates serve as a limiting factor for vegetation growth. The planted forest in Biriya is comprised of monospecific stands of Pinus spp. and Cupressus spp. The Mt. Carmel area, which was last burned in the 2005 spring, represents a system of varied Mediterranean landscapes, differentiated by lithology, soils and vegetation. Lithology is mainly composed of limestone, dolomite, and chalk. The dominant soil is Brown Rendzina whilst in some locations Grey Rendzina and Terra Rossa can be found. The local vegetation is composed mainly of a complex of pine (Pinus halepensis), oak (Quercus calliprinos), Pistacia lentiscus and associations At each site several 3X3 m monitoring plots were established to collect runoff and sediment. In-plot vegetation changes were monitored by a sequence of aerial photographs captured using a 6 m pole-mounted camera. At the terra-rosa sites (Mt. Carmel) mean runoff coefficients were 2.18% during the first year after the fire and 1.6% in the second. Mean erosion rates also decreased, from 42 gr/m2 to 4 gr/m2. The recovering vegetation was dominated by shrub and resprouting trees, and vegetation cover values of 31.5% and 24% were found in the north and the south facing slopes, respectively. In the second study year vegetation cover reached 65% and 54%. In spite of similar precipitation distributions, different patterns were observed at the light rendzina sites of Biriya where both runoff and erosion rates remained high along the two-years study period. Mean runoff coefficients exceeded 10% on both slopes, during the first year and only a slight decrease was noted during the second one; erosion rates increased from 120 gr/m2 to 180 gr/m2. After the first rainy season only 5.7% of the plots were covered by herbaceous vegetation on both slopes. At the beginning of the second season vegetation cover remained low, and towards the end of it mean cover increased to 38.7% / 52% on the north and the facing slopes. Total P and total N were measured in the runoff water collected in the Biriya sampling plots. Results indicated that nutrient losses are well correlated with TSS concentrations. During the first season TP values (in runoff water) ranged from 2.2 - 142 mg/l, while TN concentration ranged from 2.5 - 2595 mg/l. During a high intensity rainstorm, TSS in the Biriya site exceeded a value of 1000 g/m2. Lower rates of revegetation as observed in the Biriya sites, and the consequent high runoff and sediment coefficients, and can be associated with several factors. Among them are the maturity of the planted pine forest and the fire-induced destruction seed bank, but also to local soil characteristics. Amplified runoff rates associated with high TSS, and N and P losses, might further contribute to the relatively slow revegetation rates and to the consequent delayed decrease in runoff and erosion.

  6. Sulfamethazine sorption to soil: vegetative management, pH, and dissolved organic matter effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elucidating veterinary antibiotic (VA) interactions with soil is important for assessing and mitigating possible environmental hazards. Objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of vegetative management, soil physical and chemical properties, and manure-derived dissolved organic matte...

  7. A Methodology for Surface Soil Moisture and Vegetation Optical Depth Retrieval Using the Microwave Polarization Difference Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, Manfred; deJeu, Richard; Walker, Jeffrey; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A methodology for retrieving surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth from satellite microwave radiometer data is presented. The procedure is tested with historical 6.6 GHz brightness temperature observations from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer over several test sites in Illinois. Results using only nighttime data are presented at this time, due to the greater stability of nighttime surface temperature estimation. The methodology uses a radiative transfer model to solve for surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth simultaneously using a non-linear iterative optimization procedure. It assumes known constant values for the scattering albedo and roughness. Surface temperature is derived by a procedure using high frequency vertically polarized brightness temperatures. The methodology does not require any field observations of soil moisture or canopy biophysical properties for calibration purposes and is totally independent of wavelength. Results compare well with field observations of soil moisture and satellite-derived vegetation index data from optical sensors.

  8. Microwave model prediction and verifications for vegetated terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    To understand the scattering properties of a deciduous and a coniferous type vegetation scattering models were developed assuming either a disc type leaf or a needle type leaf. The major effort is to calculate the corresponding scattering phase functions and then each of the functions is used in a radiative transfer formulation to compute the scattering intensity and consequently the scattering coefficient. The radiative transfer formulation takes into account the irregular ground surface by including the rough soil surface in the boundary condition. Thus, the scattering model accounts for volume scattering inside the vegetation layer, the surface scattering from the ground and the interaction between scattering from the soil surface and the vegetation volume. The contribution to backscattering by each of the three scattering mechanisms is illustrated along with the effects of each layer or surface parameter. The major difference between the two types of vegetation is that when the incident wavelength is comparable to the size of the leaf there is a peak appearing in the mid angular region of the backscattering curve for the disc type leaf whereas it is a dip in the same region for a needle type leaf.

  9. EVALUATION OF SOIL WATER RETENTION MODELS BASED ON BASIC SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algorithms to model soil water retention are needed to study the response of vegetation and hydrologic systems to climate change. he objective of this study was to evaluate some soil water retention models to identify minimum input data requirements. ix models that function with ...

  10. Modelling of backscatter from vegetation layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zyl, J. J.; Engheta, N.; Papas, C. H.; Elachi, C.; Zebker, H.

    1985-01-01

    A simple way to build up a library of models which may be used to distinguish between the different types of vegetation and ground surfaces by means of their backscatter properties is presented. The curve of constant power received by the antenna (Gamma sphere) is calculated for the given Stokes Scattering Operator, and model parameters are adopted of the most similar library model Gamma sphere. Results calculated for a single scattering model resembling coniferous trees are compared with the Gamma spheres of a model resembling tropical region trees. The polarization which would minimize the effect of either the ground surface or the vegetation layer can be calculated and used to analyze the backscatter from the ground surface/vegetation layer combination, and enhance the power received from the desired part of the combination.

  11. The Aggregate Description of Semi-Arid Vegetation with Precipitation-Generated Soil Moisture Heterogeneity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Cary B.; Houser, Paul R.; Arain, Altaf M.; Yang, Zong-Liang; Syed, Kamran; Shuttleworth, W. James

    1997-01-01

    Meteorological measurements in the Walnut Gulch catchment in Arizona were used to synthesize a distributed, hourly-average time series of data across a 26.9 by 12.5 km area with a grid resolution of 480 m for a continuous 18-month period which included two seasons of monsoonal rainfall. Coupled surface-atmosphere model runs established the acceptability (for modelling purposes) of assuming uniformity in all meteorological variables other than rainfall. Rainfall was interpolated onto the grid from an array of 82 recording rain gauges. These meteorological data were used as forcing variables for an equivalent array of stand-alone Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) models to describe the evolution of soil moisture and surface energy fluxes in response to the prevalent, heterogeneous pattern of convective precipitation. The calculated area-average behaviour was compared with that given by a single aggregate BATS simulation forced with area-average meteorological data. Heterogeneous rainfall gives rise to significant but partly compensating differences in the transpiration and the intercepted rainfall components of total evaporation during rain storms. However, the calculated area-average surface energy fluxes given by the two simulations in rain-free conditions with strong heterogeneity in soil moisture were always close to identical, a result which is independent of whether default or site-specific vegetation and soil parameters were used. Because the spatial variability in soil moisture throughout the catchment has the same order of magnitude as the amount of rain failing in a typical convective storm (commonly 10% of the vegetation's root zone saturation) in a semi-arid environment, non-linearitv in the relationship between transpiration and the soil moisture available to the vegetation has limited influence on area-average surface fluxes.

  12. Variability in apparent soil organic carbon turnover times across climate zones and vegetation classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomik, M.; Reichstein, M.; Schrumpf, M.; Beer, C.; Curiel Yuste, J.; Janssens, I.; Luyssaert, S.; Subke, J.; Trumbore, S.; Wutzler, T.; Fluxnet Lathuile: Www. Fluxdata. Org

    2011-12-01

    Our understanding about the climatic controls on the rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition is still limited and greatly debated, especially the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition. Some argue that SOC turnover time (TO) decreases exponentially with increasing temperatures, while others disagree. Based on a number of assumptions, we calculated the ratio between soil CO2 efflux and soil bulk carbon stocks, from which we obtained an estimate of apparent TO for bulk soils across a selection of forested sites around the globe. We used data collected from site-PIs and from recently-available databases of: soil chamber flux measurements (Global soil respiration database: code.google.com/p/srdb/), ecosystem carbon flux measurements (FLUXNET LaThuile dataset: www.fluxdata.org), and global soil carbon stock estimates (Harmonized world soil database: www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/LUC/External-World-soil-database/HTML/). We investigated across-site variability of these apparent TO values in relation to climate (i.e. site's mean annual temperature, MAT, and total annual precipitation, TAP) and vegetation classes (i.e. broadleaf deciduous, needle-leaf deciduous, broadleaf evergreen, and needle-leaf evergreen). We found that, when all data points were considered, TO decreased exponentially with increasing MAT and TAP, in accordance with past studies, although the relationship with TAP was not as strong as with MAT. The overall negative exponential relationship was maintained even when the data was analyzed under the combined effects of MAT and TAP and vegetation class. TO at sites with low annual precipitation and low mean annual temperatures were high (i.e. the rate of decomposition was low). However, we also found that this overall global exponential relationship was largely driven by the difference in TO between sites located in the boreal climate zone and sites located in the other climate zones considered (i.e. tropical, Mediterranean and temperate climate zones, combined). Furthermore, the range of computed TO values in the boreal zone was statistically higher compared to the rest of the climatic zones studied. We also found that accounting for foliage type improved the model fit. However, there was a strong correlation between climate and vegetation class. Results from this study add to our understanding of the spatial variability of SOM decomposition. The trends and relationships we obtained could help to constrain current models of global soil carbon dynamics.

  13. Constructing vegetation productivity equations by employing undisturbed soils data: An Oliver County, North Dakota case study

    SciTech Connect

    Burley, J.B.; Polakowski, K.J.; Fowler, G.

    1996-12-31

    Surface mine reclamation specialists have been searching for predictive methods to assess the capability of disturbed soils to support vegetation growth. We conducted a study to develop a vegetation productivity equation for reclaiming surface mines in Oliver County, North Dakota, thereby allowing investigators to quantitatively determine the plant growth potential of a reclaimed soil. The study examined the predictive modeling potential for both agronomic crops and woody plants, including: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), grass and legume mixtures, Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), Black Hills spruce (Picea glauca var. densata Bailey), Colorado spruce (Picea pungens Engelm.), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scope Engelm.), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides (Bart. ex Marsh.), Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.), Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens Lam), American plum (Prunus americans Marsh.), and chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.). An equation was developed which is highly significant (p<0.0001), explaining 81.08% of the variance (coefficient of multiple determination=0.8108), with all regressors significant (p{le}0.048, Type II Sums of Squares). The measurement of seven soil parameters are required to predict soil vegetation productivity: percent slope, available water holding capacity, percent rock fragments, topographic position, electrical conductivity, pH, and percent organic matter. While the equation was developed from data on undisturbed soils, the equation`s predictions were positively correlated (0.71424, p{le}0.0203) with a small data set (n=10) from reclaimed soils.

  14. Effects of vegetation structure on biomass accumulation in a coupled water-carbon-energy balance model in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zun; Dekker, Stefan; van den Hurk, Bart; Dijkstra, Henk

    2013-04-01

    A myriad of interactions exist between vegetation and local climate for arid and semi-arid regions. Vegetation function, structure and individual behavior have enormous impacts on carbon-water-energy balances, which consequently influence local climate variability that, in turn, feeds back to the vegetation. In this study, a conceptual vegetation structure scheme is formulated and tested in a new carbon-water-energy coupled model to explore the importance of vegetation structure on equilibrium biomass states. Two different strategies of vegetation adaptation to water stress are included. Surface energy, water and carbon fluxes are simulated for a range of vegetation structures across a precipitation gradient in West Africa and optimal vegetation structures that maximize biomass for each precipitation regime are determined. Under dry conditions vegetation tries to maximize the Water Use Efficiency and Leaf Area Index as it tries to maximize carbon gain. However, as the vegetation can also engineer its environment by extracting water from the surrounding bare soil (thereby forming patches of vertical vegetation) it can also minimize its vegetation cover. With increasing precipitation, the vegetation tries to maximize its cover as it then can reduce water loss from bare soil while having maximum carbon gain due to a large Leaf Area Index. The competition between vegetation and bare soil determines a transition between a 'survival' regime to a 'growing' regime. The new modeling framework is useful to represent the effects of dynamic vegetation structure in coupled land-atmosphere feedback models.

  15. Evaluation of soil and vegetation response to drought using SMOS soil moisture satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piles, Maria; Sánchez, Nilda; Vall-llossera, Mercè; Ballabrera, Joaquim; Martínez, Justino; Martínez-Fernández, José; Camps, Adriano; Font, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture plays an important role in determining the likelihood of droughts and floods that may affect an area. Knowledge of soil moisture distribution as a function of time and space is highly relevant for hydrological, ecological and agricultural applications, especially in water-limited or drought-prone regions. However, measuring soil moisture is challenging because of its high variability; point-scale in-situ measurements are scarce being remote sensing the only practical means to obtain regional- and global-scale soil moisture estimates. The ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) is the first satellite mission ever designed to measuring the Earth's surface soil moisture at near daily time scales with levels of accuracy previously not attained. Since its launch in November 2009, significant efforts have been dedicated to validate and fine-tune the retrieval algorithms so that SMOS-derived soil moisture estimates meet the standards required for a wide variety of applications. In this line, the SMOS Barcelona Expert Center (BEC) is distributing daily, monthly, and annual temporal averages of 0.25-deg global soil moisture maps, which have proved useful for assessing drought and water-stress conditions. In addition, a downscaling algorithm has been developed to combine SMOS and NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data into fine-scale (< 1km) soil moisture estimates, which permits extending the applicability of the data to regional and local studies. Fine-scale soil moisture maps are currently limited to the Iberian Peninsula but the algorithm is dynamic and can be transported to any region. Soil moisture maps are generated in a near real-time fashion at BEC facilities and are used by Barcelona's fire prevention services to detect extremely dry soil and vegetation conditions posing a risk of fire. Recently, they have been used to explain drought-induced tree mortality episodes and forest decline in the Catalonia region. These soil moisture products can also be a useful tool to monitor the effectiveness of land restoration management practices. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using SMOS soil moisture maps for monitoring drought and water-stress conditions. In previous research, SMOS-derived Soil Moisture Anomalies (SSMA), calculated in a ten-day basis, were shown to be in close relationship with well-known drought indices (the Standardized Precipitation Index and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index). In this work, SSMA have been calculated for the period 2010-2013 in representative arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid areas across global land biomes. The SSMA reflect the cumulative precipitation anomalies and is known to provide 'memory' in the climate and hydrological system; the water retained in the soil after a rainfall event is temporally more persistent than the rainfall event itself, and has a greater persistence during periods of low precipitation. Besides, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from MODIS is used as an indicator of vegetation activity and growth. The NDVI time series are expected to reflect the changes in surface vegetation density and status induced by water-deficit conditions. Understanding the relationships between SSMA and NDVI concurrent time series should provide new insight about the sensitivity of land biomes to drought.

  16. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Murray B.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Ferenz, Gretchen S.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M.; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. PMID:25163429

  17. Heavy metals bioconcentration from soil to vegetables and assessment of health risk caused by their ingestion.

    PubMed

    Garg, V K; Yadav, Poonam; Mor, Suman; Singh, Balvinder; Pulhani, Vandana

    2014-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the non-carcinogenic human health risk of heavy metals through the ingestion of locally grown and commonly used vegetables viz. Raphanus sativus (root vegetable), Daucus carota (root vegetable), Benincasa hispida (fruit vegetable) and Brassica campestris leaves (leafy vegetable) in a semi-urbanized area of Haryana state, India. Heavy metal quantification of soil and vegetable samples was done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Lead, cadmium and nickel concentration in vegetable samples varied in range of 0.12-6.54 mg kg(-1), 0.02-0.67 mg kg(-1) and <0.05-0.41 mg kg(-1), respectively. Cadmium and lead concentration in some vegetable samples exceeded maximum permissible limit given by World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization and Indian standards. Much higher concentrations of Pb (40-190.5 mg kg(-1)), Cd (0.56-9.85 mg kg(-1)) and Ni (3.21-45.87 mg kg(-1)) were reported in corresponding vegetable fields' soils. Correlation analysis revealed the formation of three primary clusters, i.e. Cu-Cd, Cd-Pb and Ni-Zn in vegetable fields' soils further supported by cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Bioconcentration factor revealed that heavy metals' uptake was more by leafy vegetable than root and fruit vegetables. Hazard index of all the vegetables was less than unity; thus, the ingestion of these vegetables is unlikely to pose health risks to the target population. PMID:24464601

  18. A new offline dust cycle model that includes dynamic vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, Sarah; Lunt, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Current offline dust cycle models are unable to predict variability in the extent of arid and semi-arid regions caused by the transient response of vegetation cover to the climate. As a consequence, it is not possible to test whether inter-annual variability in the dust loading is caused by vegetation changes or other processes. A new dust cycle model is presented which uses the Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamic global vegetation model (Sitch et al., 2003) to calculate time varying dust sources. Surface emissions are calculated by simulating the processes of saltation and sandblasting (Tegen et al., 2002). Dust particles are transported as independent tracers within the TOMCAT chemical transport (Chipperfield, 2006). Dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling and sub-cloud scavenging. To improve the performance of the model, threshold values for vegetation cover, soil moisture, snow depth and threshold friction velocity, used to determine surface emissions are tuned. The effectiveness of three sub-cloud scavenging schemes are also tested. The tuning experiments are evaluated against multiple measurement datasets. The tuned model is used to investigate whether changes in vegetation cover in the Sahel can explain the four-fold increase in dust concentrations measured at Barbados during the 1980s relative to the 1960s (Prospero and Nees, 1986). Results show there was an expansion of the Sahara in 1984 relative to 1966 resulting in a doubling of emissions from the Sahel. However, this alone is not enough to account for the high dust concentrations measured at Barbados. This finding adds strength to the hypothesis that human induced soil degradation in North Africa may be responsible for the increase in high dust concentrations at Barbados during the 1980s relative to the 1960s. Chipperfield, M. P. (2006). "New version of the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT off-line chemical transport model: Intercomparison of stratospheric tracer experiments." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 132(617): 1179-1203. Prospero, J. M. and R. T. Nees (1986). "Impact of the North African drought and El Nino on mineral dust in the Barbados trade winds." Nature 320(6064): 735-738. Sitch, S., B. Smith, et al. (2003). "Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model." Global Change Biology 9: 161-185. Tegen, I., S. P. Harrison, et al. (2002). "Impact of vegetation and preferential source areas on global dust aerosol: Results from a model study." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D21).

  19. Vegetation Influences on Long-Term Carbon Stabilization in Soils: a Coast Redwood-Prairie Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mambelli, S.; Burton, S. D.; McFarlane, K. J.; Torn, M. S.; Dawson, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    Complex interactions and feedbacks among soil, biota, climate, and parent material determine the long-term pathways and mechanisms of carbon persistence in soils. While it is well known that litter chemistry influences litter decay on annual-decadal timescales, its impact on long-term SOM storage is still under debate. We tested the role of the substrate available to decomposers in determining decomposition and sequestration of carbon by comparing two contrasting ecosystems representing end-members in terms of tissue lifespan and litter recalcitrance, an old-growth redwood forest and an adjacent tree-less prairie, at one site with identical climate, topography, and parent material. Solid-state CP MAS 13C NMR was applied to investigate the chemical structure of vegetation tissues (aboveground and belowground), and of soil fractions (particulate organic carbon free in the soil matrix and particulate organic carbon located inside soil aggregates, or free and occluded light fraction (LF), respectively) at different depths. In addition, the carbon stability of these soil density fractions was estimated based on radiocarbon modeling. Preliminary NMR results showed strong differences between redwood and prairie tissues, and between litters and surface soil fractions. On average, redwood litter contained more aromatic carbon (C and O substituted aryl C), more lipids (alkyl C) and fewer carbohydrates (O-alkyl C) than prairie litter. Under both vegetation types we found that the chemical structure changed consistently from litter to free LF, and from free LF to occluded LF. The alkyl C signal intensity increased, while the O-alkyl C fraction decreased, but more strongly at the redwood forest. The proportion of aromatic functional groups in the total organic matter (aromaticity) was always higher in the soil fractions compared with the original litters. Redwood soil fractions aromaticity was 0.32 (+80% from litter), while prairie soil fractions aromaticity varied from 0.17 (free LF) to 0.23 (occluded LF)(+40 and +90% from litter, respectively). The proportion of carbon in carbonyl groups (alkyl/O-alkyl ratio), an estimate of the degree of decomposition, increased from the free LF to the occluded LF at both ecosystems (0.30 to 0.75 in the redwood forest, 0.24 to 0.68 in the prairie, respectively). In summary, the similar decomposition stage of the redwood and prairie SOM and the higher aromaticity of the free LF in the redwood soil compared to the original litter suggest the preservation of recalcitrant redwood constituents but only in the free soil matrix. Further investigations at deeper soil depths are underway.

  20. Impacts of Scale and Heterogeneity in Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaife, T. L.

    2010-12-01

    Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are crucial components in coupled land-climate simulations for representing the feedbacks between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere. Accurate predictions of the impact of climate change depend on well-functioning DGVMs. Construction of such complex models necessitates the encoding of a large number of assumptions, both implicit and explicit. One particular assumption that is generally implicit in this class of models is the homogeneity of land cover within a grid cell. The spatial distribution of land cover, and in particular Plant Functional Types (PFTs), is often not considered. For some model processes this is equivalent to assuming that vegetation is homogeneous within the grid cell, which is typically in the order of 1 by 1 degree in size. This is clearly not the case for large areas of the surface of the Earth. A key process that will be impacted by this assumption is the net accumulation of soil carbon in a grid cell. Carbon enters soil in the form of litter from vegetation and is removed in the form of carbon dioxide respired by soil micro-organisms. Typically soil carbon in a DGVM grid cell is represented by a single horizontal box with a number of vertical layers. Each PFT drops litter into the same soil pool. Consequently the build-up of soil carbon under a grassland, for example, may be influenced by the presence of a deciduous forest in the same grid cell even though they may be physically separated by a significant distance. Clearly the model predictions, at least in terms of soil carbon and heterotrophic respiration, are scale dependent under these assumptions. Running the DGVM at a different resolution would potentially change the nature of PFTs contributing to a given area of soil. The other limit, which is not generally considered, would be to model each PFT with its own independent soil pool. However, this is also an unrealistic description of some areas of the land surface which may exist as a highly heterogeneous matrix. This paper introduces a simple index of heterogeneity that is generated from satellite derived land cover information (the GLC2000 data set) across the global land surface. Prior to transformation the data is mapped into notional PFTs. The resulting information can then be used examine the impacts of assumptions about heterogeneity. The resolution of the GLC2000 data is 1km and so there is an implicit assumption that this scale of data is sufficient to represent the heterogeneity of processes at the 1 by 1 degree scale. The Sheffield Dynamic Global Vegetation Model is used to predict global Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP, the net accumulation of carbon that is the balance between photosynthesis and respiration) under both limits: that the PFTs within a grid cell all share the same resources and that they are independent. The heterogeneity map is then used to recombine the model outputs by weighting the contribution of each scenario based on the local heterogeneity in vegetation cover. Results, presented for the global land surface, show regions in which the implicit assumptions of homogeneity and scaling have a large impact in model predictions in NEP.

  1. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water. [in Hidalgo County, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A study was conducted in a 340-acre (139 hectares) field of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) to determine if multispectral data from ERTS-1 could be used to detect differences in chlorophyll concentration between iron-deficient (chlorotic) and apparently normal (green) grain sorghum. Chlorotic sorghum areas 2.8 acres (1.1 hectares) or larger in size were identified on a computer printout of band 5 data which contains the chlorophyll absorption band at the 0.65 micron wavelength. ERTS resolution is sufficient for practical applications in detecting iron-deficient sorghum in otherwise uniform fields. The first classification map of the study county has been produced. Vegetation (crops), rangeland, bare soil, water, and an undefined (all other) category occupied 15.2, 45.0, 19.1, 0.02, and 20.6% of the land area, respectively.

  2. Feasibility of using LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    Research activities conducted from February 1, 1985 to July 31, 1985 and preliminary conclusions regarding research objectives are summarized. The objective is to determine the feasibility of using LANDSAT data to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils. The general approach is to apply the climatic-climax hypothesis (Ealgeson, 1982) to natural water-limited vegetation systems using canopy cover estimated from LANDSAT data. Natural water-limited systems typically consist of inhomogeneous vegetation canopies interspersed with bare soils. The ground resolution associated with one pixel from LANDSAT MSS (or TM) data is generally greater than the scale of the plant canopy or canopy clusters. Thus a method for resolving percent canopy cover at a subpixel level must be established before the Eagleson hypothesis can be tested. Two formulations are proposed which extend existing methods of analyzing mixed pixels to naturally vegetated landscapes. The first method involves use of the normalized vegetation index. The second approach is a physical model based on radiative transfer principles. Both methods are to be analyzed for their feasibility on selected sites.

  3. Use of LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, Peter S.; Jasinski, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    This work focuses on the characterization of natural, spatially variable, semivegetated landscapes using a linear, stochastic, canopy-soil reflectance model. A first application of the model was the investigation of the effects of subpixel and regional variability of scenes on the shape and structure of red-infrared scattergrams. Additionally, the model was used to investigate the inverse problem, the estimation of subpixel vegetation cover, given only the scattergrams of simulated satellite scale multispectral scenes. The major aspects of that work, including recent field investigations, are summarized.

  4. The contribution of vegetation cover and bare soil to pixel reflectance in an arid ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The heterogeneity of vegetation and soils in arid and semi-arid environments complicates the analysis of medium spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery. A single pixel may contain several different types of vegetation, as well as a sizeable proportion of bare soil. We have used linear mixture mod...

  5. Evaluating models of climate and forest vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, James S.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding how the biosphere may respond to increasing trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere requires models that contain vegetation responses to regional climate. Most of the processes ecologists study in forests, including trophic interactions, nutrient cycling, and disturbance regimes, and vital components of the world economy, such as forest products and agriculture, will be influenced in potentially unexpected ways by changing climate. These vegetation changes affect climate in the following ways: changing C, N, and S pools; trace gases; albedo; and water balance. The complexity of the indirect interactions among variables that depend on climate, together with the range of different space/time scales that best describe these processes, make the problems of modeling and prediction enormously difficult. These problems of predicting vegetation response to climate warming and potential ways of testing model predictions are the subjects of this chapter.

  6. Influence of planting patterns on fluoroquinolone residues in the soil of an intensive vegetable cultivation area in northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuewen; Xie, Yunfeng; Wang, Jinfeng; Christakos, George; Si, Jiliang; Zhao, Huinan; Ding, Yanqiang; Li, Jie

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the persistence of antibiotics in soil, especially in areas of vegetable cultivation. However, there are very few studies of the influence of planting regimes on the levels of antibiotic pollution. This work introduces geographical-detector models to investigate the relationship between planting patterns (vegetable planting model, manure type and quantity, planting age, greenhouse area, and topographic elevation) and residual fluoroquinolones (FQs) in soil in a pilot project in Shouguang County, Shandong Province (the largest vegetable-producing area in China). The results led to the following findings. 1. The vegetable planting model is the major determinant of the spatial stratification of FQ in the soil. For example, the "cucumber-cucumber" model (growing cucumbers after cucumbers) has a three-fold power of determinant compared to the "pepper-melon" model (growing melons after peppers). 2. Planting age (years with continuous vegetable cultivation) does not necessarily affect the spatial distribution of FQ owing to their relatively short degradation period. 3. Interactions between risk factors were more significant than the individual factors for FQ pollution. In particular, the interaction between the vegetable planting model and amount of manure resulted in the highest pollution level. The findings of the present study make it possible to introduce effective and practical measures to alleviate pollution of soils by FQ in the study area. Adjustment of the vegetable cultivation models and application of chicken manure (less than 6 kg/m(2) manure annually with a more dry than fresh manure) could be an effective and flexible approach to alleviate FQ pollution. PMID:23644280

  7. Vegetation study in support of the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM inc., Albuquerque, NM); Knight, Paul J. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM); Ashton, Thomas S. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-11-01

    A vegetation study was conducted in Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico in 2003 to assist in the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and Kirtland Air Force Base. The objective of the study was to obtain site-specific, vegetative input parameters for the one-dimensional code UNSAT-H and to identify suitable, diverse native plant species for use on vegetative soil covers that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance. The identification and selection of appropriate native plant species is critical to the proper design and long-term performance of vegetative soil covers. Major emphasis was placed on the acquisition of representative, site-specific vegetation data. Vegetative input parameters measured in the field during this study include root depth, root length density, and percent bare area. Site-specific leaf area index was not obtained in the area because there was no suitable platform to measure leaf area during the 2003 growing season due to severe drought that has persisted in New Mexico since 1999. Regional LAI data was obtained from two unique desert biomes in New Mexico, Sevilletta Wildlife Refuge and Jornada Research Station.

  8. An update on remote measurement of soil moisture over vegetation using infrared temperature measurements: A FIFE perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Toby N.

    1988-01-01

    Using model development, image analysis and micrometeorological measurements, the object is to push beyond the present limitations of using the infrared temperature method for remotely determining surface energy fluxes and soil moisture over vegetation. Model development consists of three aspects: (1) a more complex vegetation formulation which is more flexible and realistic; (2) a method for modeling the fluxes over patchy vegetation cover; and (3) a method for inferring a two-layer soil vertical moisture gradient from analyses of horizontal variations in surface temperatures. HAPEX and FIFE satellite data will be used along with aircraft thermal infrared and solar images as input for the models. To test the models, moisture availability and bulk canopy resistances will be calculated from data collected locally at the Rock Springs experimental field site and, eventually, from the FIFE project.

  9. Sensitivity of Three Vegetation Indices to Cimate and Soil moisture at a Tallgrass Prairie Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajgain, R.; Xiao, X.; Wagle, P.; Basara, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Climatic variability influence vegetation condition and growth, which are often characterized by satellite derived vegetation indices (VIs) such as normalized difference vegetation Index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation Index (EVI) and land surface water index (LSWI). A fourteen-year (2000 - 2013) of NDVI, EVI and LSWI data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were analyzed for assessing grassland vegetation dynamics to climatic variability ( i.e., drought) and soil moisture over the time series at the Marena site, Stillwater Oklahoma,USA. This is also the Marena, Oklahoma In-situ Sensor Testbed (MOISST) site in support of NASA SMAP mission. Change in magnitudes of VIs provided the dynamics of inter-annual variability of the grassland vegetation. The magnitude of VIs declined in dry years (2006 and 2012) .Variation in NDVI and EVI over years resulting from climatic variability was strongly correlated to cumulative seasonal rainfall (NDVI, r = 0.82, EVI, r = 0.77) and average seasonal soil volumetric water content up to 60 cm depth. The EVI declined more than did NDVI during the dry events of 2006 and 2012, indicating that the use of EVI in place of NDVI appears to increase the performance of ecosystem models under drought condition. Furthermore, LSWI was the most sensitive index to drought among the three VIs tested. The LSWI values were negative (LSWI < 0) even within the middle of plant growing season in dry years, showing its potential to track the hydrological status of the ecosystem. Duration of LSWI < 0 in summer was greater in dry years (2006= 53 & 2012= 34 days) compared to wet years (2007 & 2013= 0 days). The result also revealed that LSWI values quantitatively corresponded well with the drought severity categories identified by the United States Drought Monitoring (USDM). In conclusion, the number of days with LSWI < 0 during the plant growing season and LSWI-based drought severity classification scheme can provide useful information for an assessment of the drought impacts over grasslands.

  10. Soil wettability in forested catchments in South Africa; as measured by different methods and as affected by vegetation cover and soil characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D. F.

    2000-05-01

    Earlier studies in South Africa had shown that water repellency in the soils of timber plantations was associated with a greater risk of overland flow and soil erosion on mountain slopes. This paper reports on a follow-up study to determine how prevalent water repellent soils are in the forestry areas of South Africa, and to what extent this phenomenon is associated with specific vegetation types. Soils from a representative series of forestry sites around South Africa were sampled from beneath each genus or plantation type and the range of local vegetation types. These soils were dried at low oven temperatures and then subjected to a series of tests of soil wettability, namely, water drop penetration time, infiltration rate, critical surface tension and apparent advancing contact angle as determined by the equilibrium capillary rise test. Water repellency is common in dried soils from timber plantations. The dominant variation in repellency is explained by the different vegetation types: soils beneath eucalypts are most repellent, followed by those beneath wattle ( Acacia species), indigenous forest and pine. Soils beneath grassland and fynbos scrub were least likely to show repellency, perhaps because regular fires remove plant litter and thus the potential for hydrophobic substances to develop. Soil characteristics explained very little of the variation in repellency. Organic carbon content was weakly correlated with higher repellency, but organic carbon content and soil texture added little explanation to models that first accounted for variation in vegetation type and point of origin. These results are broadly the same regardless of which method of measuring repellency was used. However, the critical surface tension test was far superior to the others in terms of information gained, speed, efficiency and statistical utility of the resultant scores.

  11. Influence of some soil parameters on heavy metals accumulation by vegetables grown in agricultural soils of different soil orders.

    PubMed

    Golia, E E; Dimirkou, A; Mitsios, I K

    2008-07-01

    The main purpose of this research was to determine the levels of heavy metals in tomato, potato and lettuce, grown in agricultural soils of different soil orders (Alfisols, Endisols and Vertisols), located at Central Greece. Soil samples were analysed for available forms (after extraction with DTPA) and for total concentrations (after digestion with Aqua Regia) of metals. Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni were the common metals detected in the vegetables studied. Pb and Cd concentrations were low and in some cases not detectable. Significant correlations among metals concentrations and soil physicochemical parameters were obtained and discussed. The pH value and the percentage of clay content were found to determine the solubility of metals in the soil and their availability for uptake by plants. PMID:18431523

  12. Vegetation Dynamics and Soil Water Balance in a Water-limited Mediterranean Ecosystem on Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.; Mancini, M.

    2007-12-01

    Semi-arid regions, such as around the Mediterranean, suffer from broad desertification processes produced by both natural and human influences. Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly heterogeneous savanna-like ecosystems, with contrasting plant functional types (PFTs, e.g., grass and woody vegetation) competing for the water use. At the same time the structure and function of the vegetation regulates the exchange of mass, energy and momentum across the biosphere-atmosphere interface, influencing strongly the soil water budget. With the objective to investigate vegetation dynamics, soil water budget and land-surface fluxes interactions in a water-limited ecosystem, an extensive field campaign in a Mediterranean water-limited field is performed, and a parsimonious and robust vegetation dynamic model (VDM) is coupled to a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) LSM. The case study is in Orroli, situated in the mid-west of Sardegna within the Flumendosa river watershed. Sardinia is a region that suffers from water scarcity, and the Flumendosa basin plays a primary role in the water supply for much of southern Sardinia, including the island's biggest city, Cagliari. The site landscape is a mixture of Mediterranean patchy vegetation types: trees, including wild olives and cork oaks, different shrubs and herbaceous species. An extensive field campaign started in April 2003. More than three years of data are available. Interestingly, hydrometeorological conditions of the monitored years strongly differ, with dry and wet years in turn, and a wide range of hydrometeorological conditions can be analyzed. Land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by an eddy correlation technique based micrometeorological tower. Soil moisture profiles were also continuously estimated using water content reflectometers and gravimetric method, and periodically leaf area index (LAI) estimates of both plant types are made using the Accupar LP-80 by Decagon Devices Inc. Furthermore, two high spatial resolution (2.8 m) Quickbird satellite images were acquired in August of 2003 and March 2004 for defining the spatial organization of the main land cover types around the tower for two contrasting seasons of the year (Summer and Spring). A parsimonious ecohydrologic model is developed. The VDM computes the change in biomass over time as difference between the rate of production (e.g., photosynthesis) and the rate of destruction (e.g., respiration and senescence). VDM incorporates two PFTs using basic rules regarding competition for a limiting resource. The VDM is then coupled to a 3-component LSM, with the VDM providing the green biomass and the LAI evolution through time, and the LSM using this information in the computation of the land surface fluxes and updating the soil water content in the root-zone. The coupled VDM-LSM model is successfully tested for the case study, demonstrating high model performance for the wide range of eco-hydrologic conditions. The inclusion of the VDM in the LSM is demonstrated to be essential when studying the climate-soil-vegetation interactions of these water-limited ecosystems. Results demonstrate also that vegetation dynamics are strongly influenced by the inter-annual variability of atmospheric forcing, with grass leaf area index changing significantly each spring season according to seasonal rainfall amount.

  13. Roles of Climate, Vegetation and Soil in Regulating the Spatial Variations in Ecosystem Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in the Northern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Guirui; Ge, Jianping; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhu, Xianjin; Xu, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Climate, vegetation, and soil characteristics play important roles in regulating the spatial variation in carbon dioxide fluxes, but their relative influence is still uncertain. In this study, we compiled data from 241 eddy covariance flux sites in the Northern Hemisphere and used Classification and Regression Trees and Redundancy Analysis to assess how climate, vegetation, and soil affect the spatial variations in three carbon dioxide fluxes (annual gross primary production (AGPP), annual ecosystem respiration (ARE), and annual net ecosystem production (ANEP)). Our results showed that the spatial variations in AGPP, ARE, and ANEP were significantly related to the climate and vegetation factors (correlation coefficients, R = 0.22 to 0.69, P < 0.01) while they were not related to the soil factors (R = -0.11 to 0.14, P > 0.05) in the Northern Hemisphere. The climate and vegetation together explained 60 % and 58 % of the spatial variations in AGPP and ARE, respectively. Climate factors (mean annual temperature and precipitation) could account for 45 - 47 % of the spatial variations in AGPP and ARE, but the climate constraint on the vegetation index explained approximately 75 %. Our findings suggest that climate factors affect the spatial variations in AGPP and ARE mainly by regulating vegetation properties, while soil factors exert a minor effect. To more accurately assess global carbon balance and predict ecosystem responses to climate change, these discrepant roles of climate, vegetation, and soil are required to be fully considered in the future land surface models. Moreover, our results showed that climate and vegetation factors failed to capture the spatial variation in ANEP and suggest that to reveal the underlying mechanism for variation in ANEP, taking into account the effects of other factors (such as climate change and disturbances) is necessary. PMID:25928452

  14. Modeling Hydrologic and Vegetation Responses in Freshwater Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Low, Swee Yang; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2010-05-01

    Wetlands constitute 6 - 7 % of the Earth's land surface and provide various critical ecosystem services such as purifying the air and water, mitigating floods and droughts, and supporting wildlife habitats. Despite the importance of wetlands, they are under threat of degradation by human-induced land use changes and climate change. Even if the value of wetlands is recognized, they are often not managed properly or restored successfully due to an inadequate understanding of the ecosystems and their responses to management scenarios. A better understanding of the main components of wetlands, namely the interdependent hydrologic and vegetation systems, and the sensitivity of their responses to engineering works and climate change, is crucial for the preservation of wetlands. To assess these potential impacts, a model is developed in this study for characterizing the coupled dynamics between soil moisture and plant biomass in wetland habitats. The hydrology component of the model is based on the Richards' equation and simulates spatially-varying groundwater movement and provides information on soil moisture at different depths. The plant growth component of the model is described through an equation of the Lotka-Volterra type modified for plant growth dynamics and is adapted from published literature. The two components are coupled via transpiration and ecosystem carrying capacity for plants. Transpiration is modeled for both unsaturated and saturated zones, while the carrying capacity describes limiting oxygen and subsequent nutrient availability in the soil column as a function of water table depth. Vegetation is represented by two species characteristic of mudflat herbaceous plants ranging from facultative wetland to upland plants. The model is first evaluated using a simplified domain and the hydrological information available in the RG2 site of the Everglades wetlands region. The modeled water table fluctuations in general are comparable to field data collected on-site, indicating the potential of the model in capturing soil moisture dynamics. Further application of the model for impact assessments demonstrates that drainage of wetlands resulting in groundwater drawdown is expected to produce appreciable effects on vegetation biomass response. The model developed in this study simulates the coupled and spatially-varying groundwater movement and plant growth dynamics, which allows researchers to better understand and protect the integrated hydrologic and vegetation systems of wetlands worldwide.

  15. Simple equation to approximate the bidirectional reflectance from vegetative canopies and bare soil surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthall, C. L.; Norman, J. M.; Blad, B. L.; Welles, J. M.; Campbell, G.

    1985-01-01

    A simple equation has been developed for describing the bidirectional reflectance of some vegetative canopies and bare soil surfaces. The equation describes directional reflectance as a function of zenith and azimuth view angles and solar azimuth angle. The equation works for simulated and field measured red and IR reflectance under clear sky conditions. Hemispherical reflectance can be calculated as a function of the simple equation coefficients by integrating the equation over the hemisphere of view angles. A single equation for estimating soil bidirectional reflectance was obtained using the relationships between solar zenith angles and the simple equation coefficients for medium and rough soil distributions. The equation has many useful applications such as providing a lower level boundary condition in complex plant canopy models and providing an additional tool for studying bidirectional effects on pointable sensors.

  16. Influence of vegetation, soil and antecedent soil moisture on the variability of surface runoff coefficients at the plot scale in the eastern alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chifflard, P.; Kohl, B.; Markart, G.; Kirnbauer, R.

    2009-04-01

    Modelling the runoff of a catchment in a high spatial resolution, you need to know the potential of a single plot to generate surface runoff. The portion of surface runoff is highly significant for storm runoff events, accordingly, it mainly forms the hydrograph. In this study, the influence of vegetation, soil features and antecedent soil moisture on generating surface runoff at the plot scale have been analysed. To achieve an appropriate fit of the plots, a plot sizes between 50 and 400 m were chosen. The rainfall intensities ranged between 10 mm/h and 100 mm/h. Based on 260 rain simulations with a transportable sprinkling instrumentation on representative plots in the eastern Alps (Austria, Italy, Germany), including investigations on land-use, vegetation cover and soil physical characteristics, various soil-vegetation complexes and their surface runoff processes have been be analysed. Additionally, we investigated flow paths, travel distance, infiltration hindrance, flow resistance and overland flow velocity. The soil water status was monitored by using TDR-probes, which had been installed in two profiles within the plot in different depths ranging from 5 cm to 40 cm. For every sprinkling experiment, a surface runoff coefficient was calculated as the ratio between total rainfall amount and surface runoff. With this substantial dataset, the regression analysis was used to examine the influence of the hydrological key factors as soil, vegetation and initial soil moisture condition on the distribution functions of the surface runoff coefficient. The first results show that the vegetation cover is very important for the surface runoff. If initial soils are covered by alpine or sub-alpine pioneering vegetation surface runoff can be found very scarce. If these initial soils are covered i.e. by subalpine nardus grasslands the surface runoff coefficients range from 0.1 up to 0.8. On the other hand it can be shown that soils with a high bulk density mainly generate very high surface runoff coefficients, independent of the antecedent soil moisture. Cambisols show a great variance of surface runoff coefficients. These results are the basis for the characterisation of different soil-vegetation complexes by their surface runoff coefficient and they also describe the potential surface runoff of a catchment.

  17. Large-scale assessment of soil erosion in Africa: satellites help to jointly account for dynamic rainfall and vegetation cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrieling, Anton; Hoedjes, Joost C. B.; van der Velde, Marijn

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to map and monitor soil erosion need to account for the erratic nature of the soil erosion process. Soil erosion by water occurs on sloped terrain when erosive rainfall and consequent surface runoff impact soils that are not well-protected by vegetation or other soil protective measures. Both rainfall erosivity and vegetation cover are highly variable through space and time. Due to data paucity and the relative ease of spatially overlaying geographical data layers into existing models like USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation), many studies and mapping efforts merely use average annual values for erosivity and vegetation cover as input. We first show that rainfall erosivity can be estimated from satellite precipitation data. We obtained average annual erosivity estimates from 15 yr of 3-hourly TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) data (1998-2012) using intensity-erosivity relationships. Our estimates showed a positive correlation (r = 0.84) with long-term annual erosivity values of 37 stations obtained from literature. Using these TMPA erosivity retrievals, we demonstrate the large interannual variability, with maximum annual erosivity often exceeding two to three times the mean value, especially in semi-arid areas. We then calculate erosivity at a 10-daily time-step and combine this with vegetation cover development for selected locations in Africa using NDVI - normalized difference vegetation index - time series from SPOT VEGETATION. Although we do not integrate the data at this point, the joint analysis of both variables stresses the need for joint accounting for erosivity and vegetation cover for large-scale erosion assessment and monitoring.

  18. A dynamical global vegetation model for studies of the coupled atmosphere-biosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krinner, G.; Viovy, N.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Ogée, J.; Friedlingstein, P.; Ciais, P.; Sitch, S.; Prentice, I. C.

    2003-04-01

    We present a new dynamical global vegetation model principally designed to be included in atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) or regional climate models. The model consists of a surface-vegetation-atmosphere transfer scheme coupled to a dynamical global vegetation model. It therefore simulates the principal processes of the continental biosphere influencing the global carbon cycle (photosynthesis, autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration of plants and in soils, fire,...) as well as latent, sensible and kinetic energy exchanges at the surface of soils and plants. As a dynamical vegetation model, it explicitly represents competitional processes such as light competition, gaps, establishment, etc. It can thus be used in transient simulations of climate change, but it can also be used with a prescribed vegetation distribution. The whole seasonal phenological cycle is calculated prognostically without any prescribed dates or use of satellite data. The model is designed for an easy use as biosphere module in an AGCM, and first simulations with this model coupled to the LMDz atmospheric general circulation model are under way. This coupled hydrological-vegetation model is validated in stand-alone experiments against local observations of, for example, vegetation types, carbon stocks and fluxes. Simulated vegetation distribution and leaf area index in a global simulation is evaluated against observations.

  19. A dynamical global vegetation model for studies of the coupled atmosphere-biosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krinner, G.; Viovy, N.; de Noblet-Ducoudre, N.; Friedlingstein, P.; Ciais, P.

    2002-12-01

    We present a new dynamical global vegetation model principally designed to be included in atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) or regional climate models. The model consists of a surface-vegetation-atmosphere transfer scheme coupled to a dynamical global vegetation model. It therefore simulates the principal processes of the continental biosphere influencing the global carbon cycle (photosynthesis, autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration of plants and in soils, fire, \\ldots) as well as latent, sensible and kinetic energy exchanges at the surface of soils and plants. As a dynamical vegetation model, it explicitly represents competitional processes such as light competition, gaps, establishment, etc. It can thus be used in transient simulations of climate change, but it can also be used with a prescribed vegetation distribution. The whole seasonal phenological cycle is calculated prognostically without any prescribed dates or use of satellite data. The model is designed for an easy use as biosphere module in an AGCM, and first simulations with this model coupled to the LMDz atmospheric general circulation model are under way. This coupled hydrological-vegetation model is validated in stand-alone experiments against local observations of, for example, vegetation types, carbon stocks and fluxes. Simulated vegetation distribution and leaf area index in a global simulation is evaluated against observations.

  20. Effects of Vegetation and of Heat and Vapor Fluxes from Soil on Snowpack Evolution and Radiobrightness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Y. C.; England, A. W.; DeRoo, R. D.; Weininger, Etai

    2006-01-01

    The radiobrightness of a snowpack is strongly linked to the snow moisture content profile, to the point that the only operational inversion algorithms require dry snow. Forward dynamic models do not include the effects of freezing and thawing of the soil beneath the snowpack and the effect of vegetation within the snow or above the snow. To get a more realistic description of the evolution of the snowpack, we reported an addition to the Snow-Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere- Transfer (SSVAT) model, wherein we coupled soil processes of the Land Surface Process (LSP) model with the snow model SNTHERM. In the near future we will be adding a radiobrightness prediction based on the modeled moisture, temperature and snow grain size profiles. The initial investigations with this SSVAT for a late winter and early spring snow pack indicate that soil processes warm the snowpack and the soil. Vapor diffusion needs to be considered whenever the ground is thawed. In the early spring, heat flow from the ground into a snow and a strong temperature gradient across the snow lead to thermal convection. The buried vegetation can be ignored for a late winter snow pack. The warmer surface snow temperature will affect radiobrightness since it is most sensitive to snow surface characteristics. Comparison to data shows that SSVAT provides a more realistic representation of the temperature and moisture profiles in the snowpack and its underlying soil than SNTHERM. The radiobrightness module will be optimized for the prediction of brightness when the snow is moist. The liquid water content of snow causes considerable absorption compared to dry snow, and so longer wavelengths are likely to be most revealing as to the state of a moist snowpack. For volumetric moisture contents below about 7% (the pendular regime), the water forms rings around the contact points between snow grains. Electrostatic modeling of these pendular rings shows that the absorption of these rings is significantly higher than a sphere of the same volume. The first implementation of the radiobrightness module will therefore be a simple radiative transfer model without scattering.

  1. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water. [Hidalgo County, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The majority of the rangelands of Hidalgo County, Texas are used in cow-calf operations. Continuous year-long grazing is practiced on about 60% of the acreage and some type of deferred system on the rest. Mechanical brush control is used more than chemical control. Ground surveys gave representative estimates for 15 vegetable crops produced in Hidalgo County. ERTS-1 data were used to estimate the acreage of citrus in the county. Combined Kubleka Munk and regression models, that included a term for shadow areas, gave a higher correlation of composite canopy reflectance with ground truth than either model alone.

  2. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion. PMID:26959043

  3. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion. PMID:26959043

  4. Linking Models and Data on Vegetation Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J.; Thomas, R.; Dubayah, R.; Moorcroft, P.; Shugart, H.

    2008-12-01

    Forested ecosystems consist of a dynamic mosaic of patches on the landscape at different stages of recovery from disturbances. Recent studies have addressed this heterogeneity by combining remotely sensed measurements of vegetation structure, and advanced ecological models that track the dynamics of vegetation structure, to produce accurate estimates of both carbon stocks and fluxes at a set of important study sites. Now future satellite missions such as DESDYNI hold the potential to provide key data on vegetation structure needed to reduce uncertainties in terrestrial carbon dynamics globally. Here, we developed and analyzed a set of models to quantify the effects of limited sampling and/or coarse resolution averaging of structure measurements on model predictions. Generally, both limited sampling and coarse resolution averaging caused model initialization error, and led to subsequent prediction uncertainty and error. In cases with representative sampling, sufficient resolution, and linear dynamics, errors in initialization tended to compensate at larger scales. However, with inadequate sampling, overly coarse resolution data, and non-linear dynamics, errors in initialization led to bias. This study provides a generalized framework for assessing the tradeoffs between the quantity and quality of data on vegetation structure, and the science from models which depend on it.

  5. Evaluation of Landsat Multispectral Scanner data for mapping vegetated soil landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, D. R.; Haas, Robert H.; Milford, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner data for Brazos County, Texas, were evaluated in terms of effectiveness for classifying soils on vegetated landscapes at three times during the year: a time of normally adequate soil water, a time of expected soil water deficit, and a time when soil water is normally being replenished. Six test sites were used to evaluate LARSYS supervised and unsupervised classification of vegetated soil landscapes. Open grassland soils were best separated in the fall during a period when soil moisture was being replenished after the summer period of soil water deficit. Woodland soils were separated by Landsat data in late spring when adequate moisture was available. However, a high degree of accuracy was not achieved using Landsat for separating soil map units. Accurate separation of soil mapping units on vegetated landscapes was not possible during late summer when soil water was deficient. Selected soil properties important to plant growth were separable on the test sites using June and October Landsat data. Particle size and soil moisture regime were separated at both dates. Soils with argillic horizons were separated from soils without argillic horizons.

  6. Evapotranspiration of soil water movement in small area vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraskevas, C.; Georgiou, P.; Ilias, A.; Panoras, A.; Babajimopoulos, C.

    2013-12-01

    In Greece, crops are frequently cultivated in small isolated areas in close proximity to roads and bare soils and therefore evapotranspiration is affected by local advection. Under these circumstances, oasis effect conditions are present and evapotranspiration is higher than what is expected. In this paper, the evapotranspiration and soil water dynamics of a cotton crop cultivated in small areas under the oasis effect is studied. To this end, two isolated free-drainage lysimeters cultivated with cotton in the year 2007 were used. Soil moisture of the soil profile of both the lysimeters was monitored with two capacitance water content probes. The soil water balance method was used to estimate crop evapotranspiration and corresponding crop coefficients in one of the two lysimeters. These coefficients were 75% larger than the FAO-56 crop coefficients at the mid-season stage. The FAO-56 and the derived crop coefficients were used for the simulation of the water dynamics in the second lysimeter by the SWBACROS model. The derived crop coefficients for these conditions produced much better results than the FAO-56 crop coefficients. The results were improved when crop coefficient value equal to 2.5 was used for the mid-season stage.

  7. Evaluation of Soil Moisture Estimation in Vegetated Areas Using Compact Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jian; Chen, Lin; Yin, Qiang; Li, Yang; Hong, Wen

    2010-12-01

    Within the framework of the DRAGON project, in this paper, we preliminarily analyze the soil moisture estimation performance in vegetated areas based on Water-Cloud model and Dubois model using compact polarimetry. We compare the inversion results of the compact polarimetry (CP) data to those of the dual polarimetric data (DP, HH and VV) and to the in-situ data. The comparison indicates that the retrieved parameters from original DP data are mainly in consistence with ground measured values, but the estimated parameters from the reconstructed data of CP are not quite consistent with the in-situ values, especially for the moisture.

  8. Greenland soil bacteria & biogeochemistry: a vegetation cover proxy for climate warming effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdy, K. L.; Sistla, S.; Buckeridge, K. M.; Schimel, J.; Schaeffer, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Climate warming in the high Arctic is expected to increase plant biomass, deepen thaw, and stimulate decomposition of soil organic matter. However, it remains unclear how warming, plant growth, and microbial processing will interact to drive Arctic carbon and nutrient cycling. For example, greater plant growth should increase carbon storage in the ecosystem; however, increasing plant C inputs and thawing permafrost carbon should stimulate microbial biomass, potentially causing soil respiration to outpace storage. Alternatively, greater plant cover may lower soil temperature through shading, potentially curtailing the predicted increase in microbial activity. To evaluate microbial responses to climate warming in the high Arctic, we characterized the soil bacterial community and related soil biogeochemical properties, including pH, temperature, moisture, bulk density, extractable nutrient pools, extractable organic carbon and nitrogen, and total microbial biomass along a vegetation cover gradient in northwest Greenland. Vegetation cover was classified using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and vegetation cover classes were used as a proxy for changes associated with warming. We found that soil moisture increased and soil temperature decreased significantly with vegetation cover; moisture and temperature were higher in organic than in mineral horizons. Extractable nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-) and extractable organic C and N generally increased with vegetation cover and are higher in organic than in mineral horizons within a given vegetation class, with the exception of NO3-, which was comparable between horizons. Despite increases in available carbon and nutrients, microbial biomass carbon in both horizons ultimately decreased with vegetation cover, as did microbial biomass nitrogen in the mineral horizon. Moreover, the relative proportion of microbial biomass carbon to extractable organic carbon decreased with vegetation cover, indicating that decomposers in more vegetated soils do not readily use available carbon. Our results suggest that despite an increase in available substrate in high vegetation cover soils, the insulating properties of vegetation ultimately limit decomposer activity. We hypothesize that as plant cover in the high Arctic increases with climate warming, nutrient mineralization - initially heightened by higher temperatures - will ultimately be curtailed by the insulating properties of vegetation, leading to decreased nutrient availability to plants and a decline in plant cover until soils warm and dry to reach conditions more optimal for microbial processing. Following oscillations between higher and lower vegetation cover, soils may ultimately return to a 'baseline' moderate vegetation cover.

  9. Radar backscattering measurement of bare soil and vegetation covered soil using X-band and full polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, B.; Kalita, M.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study is to measure backscattered power of bare soil and vegetation covered soil using X-band scatterometer system with full polarization and various angles during monsoon season and relate backscattered power to the density of vegetation over soil. The measurement was conducted at an experimental field located in the campus of Assam Engineering College, Guwahati, India. The soil sample consists of Silt and Clay in higher proportions as compared to Sand. The scatterometer system consists of dual-polarimetric square horn antennas, Power meter, Klystron, coaxial cables, isolator and waveguide detector. The polarization of the horn antennas as well as the look angle can be changed in the set-up. The backscattering coefficients were calculated by applying a radar equation for the measured values at incident angles between 30° and 60° for full polarization (HH, VV, HV, VH), respectively, and compared with vegetation cover over soil for each scatterometer measurement simultaneously. The VH polarization and 60° look angle are found to be the most suitable combination of configuration of an X-band scatterometer for distinguishing the land cover targets such as bare soil and vegetation covered soil. From the analysis of the results, polarimetric scatterometer data appear to be promising to distinguish the land cover types such as bare soil and soil completely covered by vegetation. The results of this study will help the scientists working in the field of active microwave remote sensing.

  10. Establishing an International Soil Modelling Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Soil is one of the most critical life-supporting compartments of the Biosphere. Soil provides numerous ecosystem services such as a habitat for biodiversity, water and nutrients, as well as producing food, feed, fiber and energy. To feed the rapidly growing world population in 2050, agricultural food production must be doubled using the same land resources footprint. At the same time, soil resources are threatened due to improper management and climate change. Soil is not only essential for establishing a sustainable bio-economy, but also plays a key role also in a broad range of societal challenges including 1) climate change mitigation and adaptation, 2) land use change 3) water resource protection, 4) biotechnology for human health, 5) biodiversity and ecological sustainability, and 6) combating desertification. Soils regulate and support water, mass and energy fluxes between the land surface, the vegetation, the atmosphere and the deep subsurface and control storage and release of organic matter affecting climate regulation and biogeochemical cycles. Despite the many important functions of soil, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain, regarding the role of soil biota and biodiversity on ecosystem services, the structure and dynamics of soil communities, the interplay between hydrologic and biotic processes, the quantification of soil biogeochemical processes and soil structural processes, the resilience and recovery of soils from stress, as well as the prediction of soil development and the evolution of soils in the landscape, to name a few. Soil models have long played an important role in quantifying and predicting soil processes and related ecosystem services. However, a new generation of soil models based on a whole systems approach comprising all physical, mechanical, chemical and biological processes is now required to address these critical knowledge gaps and thus contribute to the preservation of ecosystem services, improve our understanding of climate-change-feedback processes, bridge basic soil science research and management, and facilitate the communication between science and society . To meet these challenges an international community effort is required, similar to initiatives in systems biology, hydrology, and climate and crop research. We therefore propose to establish an international soil modelling consortium with the aims of 1) bringing together leading experts in modelling soil processes within all major soil disciplines, 2) addressing major scientific gaps in describing key processes and their long term impacts with respect to the different functions and ecosystem services provided by soil, 3) intercomparing soil model performance based on standardized and harmonized data sets, 4) identifying interactions with other relevant platforms related to common data formats, protocols and ontologies, 5) developing new approaches to inverse modelling, calibration, and validation of soil models, 6) integrating soil modelling expertise and state of the art knowledge on soil processes in climate, land surface, ecological, crop and contaminant models, and 7) linking process models with new observation, measurement and data evaluation technologies for mapping and characterizing soil properties across scales. Our consortium will bring together modelers and experimental soil scientists at the forefront of new technologies and approaches to characterize soils. By addressing these aims, the consortium will contribute to improve the role of soil modeling as a knowledge dissemination instrument in addressing key global issues and stimulate the development of translational research activities. This presentation will provide a compelling case for this much-needed effort, with a focus on tangible benefits to the scientific and food security communities.

  11. Sensitivity of the normalized difference vegetation index to subpixel canopy cover, soil albedo, and pixel scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical framework is provided for examining the physically based behavior of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in terms of the variability in bulk subpixel landscape components and with respect to variations in pixel scales, within the context of the stochastic-geometric canopy reflectance model. Analysis focuses on regional scale variability in horizontal plant density and soil background reflectance distribution. Modeling is generalized to different plant geometries and solar angles through the use of the nondimensional solar-geometric similarity parameter. Results demonstrate that, for Poisson-distributed plants and for one deterministic distribution, NDVI increases with increasing subpixel fractional canopy amount, decreasing soil background reflectance, and increasing shadows, at least within the limitations of the geometric reflectance model. The NDVI of a pecan orchard and a juniper landscape is presented and discussed.

  12. Comparison of deep soil moisture in two re-vegetation watersheds in semi-arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Liding; Wei, Wei; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Handan

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture stored below rainfall infiltration depth is a reliable water resource for plant growth in semi-arid ecosystems. Along with the large-scale ecological restoration in Chinese Loess Plateau, identifying the ecohydrological response to human-introduced vegetation restoration has become an important issue in current research. In this study, soil moisture data in depth of 0-5 m was obtained by field observation and geostatistical method in two neighboring re-vegetation watersheds. Profile characteristics and spatial pattern of soil moisture was compared between different land use types, transects, and watersheds. The results showed that: (1) Introduced vegetation drastically decreased deep soil moisture when compared with farmland and native grassland. No significant differences in deep soil moisture were found between different introduced vegetation types. (2) An analysis of differences in soil moisture for different land use patterns indicated that land use had significant influence on deep soil moisture spatial variability. Land use structure determined the soil moisture condition and its spatial variation. (3) Vegetation restoration with introduced plants diminished the spatial heterogeneity of deep soil moisture on watershed scale. The improvement of land use management was suggested to improve the water management and maintain the sustainability of vegetation restoration.

  13. Topographical and biophysical modeling of vegetation patterns at alpine treeline

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Availability and abundance of several important topo-climatic elements explains much of the variation in the patterns of vegetation along the treeline ecotone. Active geomorphic and biophysical disturbance regimes in alpine areas introduce additional variability on the treeline transition. The purpose of this research was to model the spatial patterns of vegetation communities along the treeline ecotone relative to topo-climatic and disturbances processes. Surrogates of several topographically controlled climatic elements (solar radiation potential, soil moisture potential, and wind/snow potential) were constructed from digital elevation models (DEMs) for a study area in east-central Glacier National Park, Montana. Vegetation communities in the study area were characterized through statistical classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper digital data, field calibration, and validation. Topographical empirical Models of Treeline (TEMTREEs) were constructed to examine the relative importance of factors which affected the treeline transition. TEMTREEs were also evaluated as predictive tools for extending the analysis through additional variables representing multi-scale processes. Empirical models were constructed for selected elevation zones (from 1600 to 2350 meters a.m.s.l.) at 150 meter intervals. The Kappa statistic was used to assess the predictive ability of the models. The results suggested that the elevation gradient accounted for much of the variation in the vegetation patterns at alpine treeline. Geomorphic disturbance patterns, characterized by mapping talus slopes, snow avalanche paths, and slope angles greater than 34 degrees, consistently explained significant variations in the vegetation patterns. This finding suggests that predictions of treeline responses to climatic change must account for potential changes in the frequency and magnitude of geomorphic process disturbances.

  14. Soil-vegetation correlations in the Connecticut River floodplain of Western Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veneman, Peter L.M.; Tiner, Ralph W.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a national study analyzing the relation between hydric soils and wetland vegetation, the vegetation associated with a series of known soils was sampled along the Connecticut River floodplain in Massachusetts. Weighted average and index average (presence/absence) values were calculated for vegetation using wetland ecological index values from the National List of Plant Species that Occur in Wetlands developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and procedures developed by T. R. Wentworth and G. P. Johnson at North Carolina State University. Good correspondence between soils and vegetation was recorded with two exceptions. Two typically nonhydric soils were determined to be hydric based on vegetation analyses. Examination of the groundwater hydrology of these two soils confirmed their hydric nature. The authors suggested that one of these soils may need to be redefined and they also suggested that the assigned index values for a few species of vegetation should be reexamined. However, in general the index average values of vegetation based on published wetland index values corresponded with the hydric and nonhydric nature of soils.

  15. Community structure analysis of soil ammonia oxidizers during vegetation restoration in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yueming; He, Xunyang; Liang, Shichu; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiangbi; Feng, Shuzheng; Su, Yirong

    2014-03-01

    Soil ammonia oxidizers play a critical role in nitrogen cycling and ecological restoration. The composition and structure of soil ammonia oxidizers and their impacting factors were studied in four typical ecosystem soils, tussock (T), shrub (S), secondary forest (SF), and primary forest (PF), during vegetation restoration in the Karst region of Southwest China. The composition and structure of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) communities were characterized by sequencing the amoA and arch-amoA genes, respectively. The diversity of soil ammonia oxidizers (except in S) and plant Shannon diversity index gradually increased with vegetation restoration, and the ammonia oxidizer communities differed significantly (p < 0.001). Amplicons of AOA from the Nitrososphaera cluster dominated all four ecosystem soils. AOB Nitrosospira cluster 3b only appeared in PF and SF soils, while Nitrosospira cluster 3a species were found in all soils. Changes in AOB paralleled the changes in soil ammonium content that occurred with vegetation restoration. Redundancy analysis showed that the distribution of dominant AOB species was linked to pH, soil urease activity, and soil C/N ratio, whereas the distribution of dominant AOA species was mainly influenced by litter nitrogen content and C/N ratio. These results suggested that the composition and structure of the AOB community were more sensitive to changes in vegetation and soil ammonium content, and may be an important indicator of nitrogen availability in Karst ecosystem soils. PMID:23897748

  16. Evaluation of MODIS NDVI and NDWI for vegetation drought monitoring using Oklahoma Mesonet soil moisture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, Y.; Hunt, E.; Wardlow, B.; Basara, J.B.; Brown, J.F.; Verdin, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of the relationship between satellite-derived vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index and normalized difference water index) and soil moisture improves our understanding of how these indices respond to soil moisture fluctuations. Soil moisture deficits are ultimately tied to drought stress on plants. The diverse terrain and climate of Oklahoma, the extensive soil moisture network of the Oklahoma Mesonet, and satellite-derived indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provided an opportunity to study correlations between soil moisture and vegetation indices over the 2002-2006 growing seasons. Results showed that the correlation between both indices and the fractional water index (FWI) was highly dependent on land cover heterogeneity and soil type. Sites surrounded by relatively homogeneous vegetation cover with silt loam soils had the highest correlation between the FWI and both vegetation-related indices (r???0.73), while sites with heterogeneous vegetation cover and loam soils had the lowest correlation (r???0.22). Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M; Soares, Pedro M M; Cancela, Javier J; Pinto, Joaquim G; Santos, João A

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate. PMID:25251495

  18. Integrated Analysis of Climate, Soil, Topography and Vegetative Growth in Iberian Viticultural Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cancela, Javier J.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Santos, João A.

    2015-04-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  19. Integrated Analysis of Climate, Soil, Topography and Vegetative Growth in Iberian Viticultural Regions

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cancela, Javier J.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Santos, João A.

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate. PMID:25251495

  20. The influence of variations of vegetation and soil moisture on surface weather and atmospheric circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of variations of vegetation and soil moisture on surface weather and atmospheric circulation is studied through the use of the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) and the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere interactions (COLA) GCM. Tests for the SiB sensitivity to the conversion of the forest to other short vegetation or bare soil were performed at Amazonian and Great Plains sites, and a North Wales spruce forest site respectively. The results show that deforestation has a significant influence on the local surface energy budget and surface weather. The influence is especially prominent at the Amazon and Great Plains sites, and larger in summer than in other seasons. The influence on the partitioning of surface incoming radiative energy is generally constrained by the local atmospheric boundary condition. The sensitivity of the COLA GCM to changes in initial soil wetness (ISW) is determined by repeating three 10-day model integrations with the same initial and boundary conditions as the control runs except the values of ISW, which are revised at 69 model grid points covering much of the continental U.S. It is found that the relations between the changes in the 5-day mean forecast surface air temperature/surface specific humidity and the changes in ISW depend upon vegetation type and the values of ISW, and can be approximated by regression equations. These relations are also confirmed with independent data. With the ISW revised based on these regression equations the surface forecasts of the revised runs are consistently improved. The spatial scale of the ISW anomaly determines the degree and range of the influence. The influence of a small regional ISW change is mainly confined to the local region and to low atmospheric levels. The influence on surface fluxes is strong and persists for more than one month, but the effects on precipitation are relatively weak, changeable, and complex, particularly when an interactive cloud scheme is used.

  1. Assembly Processes under Severe Abiotic Filtering: Adaptation Mechanisms of Weed Vegetation to the Gradient of Soil Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Nina; Böcker, Reinhard; Kostic-Kravljanac, Ljiljana; Nikolic, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Questions Effects of soil on vegetation patterns are commonly obscured by other environmental factors; clear and general relationships are difficult to find. How would community assembly processes be affected by a substantial change in soil characteristics when all other relevant factors are held constant? In particular, can we identify some functional adaptations which would underpin such soil-induced vegetation response? Location Eastern Serbia: fields partially damaged by long-term and large-scale fluvial deposition of sulphidic waste from a Cu mine; subcontinental/submediterranean climate. Methods We analysed the multivariate response of cereal weed assemblages (including biomass and foliar analyses) to a strong man-made soil gradient (from highly calcareous to highly acidic, nutrient-poor soils) over short distances (field scale). Results The soil gradient favoured a substitution of calcicoles by calcifuges, and an increase in abundance of pseudometallophytes, with preferences for Atlantic climate, broad geographical distribution, hemicryptophytic life form, adapted to low-nutrient and acidic soils, with lower concentrations of Ca, and very narrow range of Cu concentrations in leaves. The trends of abundance of the different ecological groups of indicator species along the soil gradient were systematically reflected in the maintenance of leaf P concentrations, and strong homeostasis in biomass N:P ratio. Conclusion Using annual weed vegetation at the field scale as a fairly simple model, we demonstrated links between gradients in soil properties (pH, nutrient availability) and floristic composition that are normally encountered over large geographic distances. We showed that leaf nutrient status, in particular the maintenance of leaf P concentrations and strong homeostasis of biomass N:P ratio, underpinned a clear functional response of vegetation to mineral stress. These findings can help to understand assembly processes leading to unusual, novel combinations of species which are typically observed as a consequence of strong environmental filtering, as for instance on sites affected by industrial activities. PMID:25474688

  2. Quantifying the influence of deep soil moisture on ecosystem albedo: The role of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Mejia, Zulia Mayari; Papuga, Shirley Anne; Swetish, Jessica Blaine; van Leeuwen, Willem Jan Dirk; Szutu, Daphne; Hartfield, Kyle

    2014-05-01

    As changes in precipitation dynamics continue to alter the water availability in dryland ecosystems, understanding the feedbacks between the vegetation and the hydrologic cycle and their influence on the climate system is critically important. We designed a field campaign to examine the influence of two-layer soil moisture control on bare and canopy albedo dynamics in a semiarid shrubland ecosystem. We conducted this campaign during 2011 and 2012 within the tower footprint of the Santa Rita Creosote Ameriflux site. Albedo field measurements fell into one of four Cases within a two-layer soil moisture framework based on permutations of whether the shallow and deep soil layers were wet or dry. Using these Cases, we identified differences in how shallow and deep soil moisture influence canopy and bare albedo. Then, by varying the number of canopy and bare patches within a gridded framework, we explore the influence of vegetation and soil moisture on ecosystem albedo. Our results highlight the importance of deep soil moisture in land surface-atmosphere interactions through its influence on aboveground vegetation characteristics. For instance, we show how green-up of the vegetation is triggered by deep soil moisture, and link deep soil moisture to a decrease in canopy albedo. Understanding relationships between vegetation and deep soil moisture will provide important insights into feedbacks between the hydrologic cycle and the climate system.

  3. Effects of soil moisture variations on deposition velocities above vegetation.

    SciTech Connect

    Wesely, M. L.; Song, J.; McMillen, R. T.; Meyers, T. P.; Environmental Research; Northern Illinois Univ.; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    2001-01-01

    The parameterized subgrid-scale surface flux (PASS) model provides a simplified means of using remote sensing data from satellites and limited surface meteorological information to estimate the influence of soil moisture on bulk canopy stomatal resistances to the uptake of gases over extended areas. PASS-generated estimates of bulk canopy stomatal resistance were used in a dry deposition module to compute gas deposition velocities with a horizontal resolution of 200 m for approximately 5000 km{sup 2} of agricultural crops and rangeland. Results were compared with measurements of O{sub 3} flux and concentrations made during April and May 1997 at two surface stations and from an aircraft. The trend in simulated O{sub 3} deposition velocity during soil moisture drydown over a period of a few days matched the trend observed at the two surface stations. For areas under the aircraft flight paths, the variability in simulated O{sub 3} deposition velocity was substantially smaller than the observed variability, while the averages over tens of kilometers were usually in agreement within 0.1 cm s{sup -1}. Model results indicated that soil moisture can have a major role in deposition of O{sub 3} and other substances strongly affected by canopy stomatal resistance.

  4. Impact of vegetation change on the mobility of uranium- and thorium-series nuclides in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontier, A.; Rihs, S.; Turpault, M.-P.; Chabaux, F.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of land cover change on chemical mobility and soil response was investigated using short- and long-lived nuclides from the U- and Th series. Indeed, the matching of these nuclides half-live to the pedogenic processes rates make these nuclides especially suitable to investigate either time or mechanism of transfers within a soil-water-plant system. This study was carried out from the experimental Breuil-Chenue site (Morvan mountains, France). The native forest (150 year-old) was partially clear-felled and replaced in 1976 by mono-specific plantations distributed in different stands. Following this cover-change, some mineralogical changes in the acid brown soil were recognized (Mareschal, 2008). Three soil sections were sampled under the native forest and the replanted oak and Douglas spruce stands respectively. The (238U), (234U), (230Th), (226Ra), (232Th) and (228Ra) activities were analysed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and gamma spectrometry. Significant differences in U, Th, and Ra activities were observed between the soils located under the native forest or the replanted-trees stands, mostly dominated by a large uranium mobilization from the replanted soils. Moreover, all the investigated U and Th-series activity ratios show a contrasted trend between the shallowest horizons (0-50cm) and the deepest one (below 50cm), demonstrating the chemical effect of the vegetation change on the shallow soil layers. Using a continuous open-system leaching model, the coupled radioactive disequilibria measured in the different soil layers permit to quantify the rate of the radionuclides mobilities. Reference: Mareschal, L., 2008. Effet des substitutions d'essences forestières sur l'évolution des sols et de leur minéralogie : bilan après 28 ans dans le site expérimental de Breuil (Morvan) Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy-I.

  5. Vegetation disturbance and erosion after fire: Interactions of severity, climate, topography, and soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, Daniel G.

    2010-05-01

    Fire has been used by humans as a tool for manipulating vegetation for millennia. These fires have profoundly affected the vegetation component of ecosystems but have also affected soil formation and erosional processes. The interactions of fire severity, climate, topography, and soil systems have produced a wide array of responses and degrees of erosion. Fire has been part of many ecosystems since the Carboniferous, but humans have taken fire frequency and impacts to a new level. One result has been a global increase in desertification and degradation of soils. Erosional of soils contributed to the decline of past civilizations and now raises a new specter due to climate change and burgeoning human populations. This paper examines the interactions of vegetation, fire regime, fire severity, climate, topography, parent material, and soil erosion on long-term soil sustainability in the 21st Century.

  6. Calculation set for design and optimization of vegetative soil covers Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James

    2005-02-01

    This study demonstrates that containment of municipal and hazardous waste in arid and semiarid environments can be accomplished effectively without traditional, synthetic materials and complex, multi-layer systems. This research demonstrates that closure covers combining layers of natural soil, native plant species, and climatic conditions to form a sustainable, functioning ecosystem will meet the technical equivalency criteria prescribed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this study, percolation through a natural analogue and an engineered cover is simulated using the one-dimensional, numerical code UNSAT-H. UNSAT-H is a Richards. equation-based model that simulates soil water infiltration, unsaturated flow, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, and deep percolation. This study incorporates conservative, site-specific soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters. Historical meteorological data are used to simulate percolation through the natural analogue and an engineered cover, with and without vegetation. This study indicates that a 3-foot (ft) cover in arid and semiarid environments is the minimum design thickness necessary to meet the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-prescribed technical equivalency criteria of 31.5 millimeters/year and 1 x 10{sup -7} centimeters/second for net annual percolation and average flux, respectively. Increasing cover thickness to 4 or 5 ft results in limited additional improvement in cover performance.

  7. Using GPS Interferometric Reflectometry to estimate soil moisture and vegetation water content fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, C. C.; Small, E. E.; Larson, K. M.; Braun, J. J.; Shreve, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    High-precision GPS receivers can be used to estimate fluctuations in near surface soil moisture, snow and vegetation water content. This approach, referred to as GPS-Interferometric Reflectometry (GPS-IR), relates precise changes in the geometry of reflected GPS signals to observe soil moisture and snow while simultaneously using signal attenuation and diffuse scattering to infer changes in vegetative state. Previous remote sensing research has shown that microwave signals (e.g., L-band) are optimal for measuring hydrologic variables, such as soil moisture, and because GPS satellites transmit similar signals, they can be useful for sensing water in the environment. In addition, standard GPS antenna configurations that are used in NSF's Plate Boundary Observatory network yield sensing footprints of ~1000 m2. Given this sensitivity, hundreds of GPS receivers that exist in the U.S. could be used to provide near-real time estimates of soil moisture and vegetation water content for satellite validation, drought monitoring and related studies. A significant obstacle to using L-band (or similar) signals for remote sensing is differentiating the effects of soil moisture and vegetation on the retrieval of hydrologic variables. This same challenge exists when using GPS-IR data. We have established nine research sites with identical GPS and hydrologic infrastructure to study this problem. These sites span a wide range of soil, vegetation, and climate types. In addition to daily GPS and hourly soil moisture data, we have collected weekly vegetation water content samples at all sites. Our data demonstrate that soil moisture fluctuations can be estimated from GPS-IR records when vegetation water content is low (< 2 kg m-2). We outline different approaches for separating the soil moisture and vegetation signals and quantifying errors in our retrieval algorithm.

  8. Direct leaf wetness measurements and its numerical analysis using a multi-layer atmosphere-soil-vegetation model at a grassland site in pre-alpine region in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katata, Genki; Held, Andreas; Mauder, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    The wetness of plant leaf surfaces (leaf wetness) is important in meteorological, agricultural, and environmental studies including plant disease management and the deposition process of atmospheric trace gases and particles. Although many models have been developed to predict leaf wetness, wetness data directly measured at the leaf surface for model validations are still limited. In the present study, the leaf wetness was monitored using seven electrical sensors directly clipped to living leaf surfaces of thin and broad-leaved grasses. The measurements were carried out at the pre-alpine grassland site in TERestrial ENvironmental Observatories (TERENO) networks in Germany from September 20 to November 8, 2013. Numerical simulations of a multi-layer atmosphere-SOiL-VEGetation model (SOLVEG) developed by the authors were carried out for analyzing the data. For numerical simulations, the additional routine meteorological data of wind speed, air temperature and humidity, radiation, rainfall, long-wave radiative surface temperature, surface fluxes, ceilometer backscatter, and canopy or snow depth were used. The model reproduced well the observed leaf wetness, net radiation, momentum and heat, water vapor, and CO2 fluxes, surface temperature, and soil temperature and moisture. In rain-free days, a typical diurnal cycle as a decrease and increase during the day- and night-time, respectively, was observed in leaf wetness data. The high wetness level was always monitored under rain, fog, and snowcover conditions. Leaf wetness was also often high in the early morning due to thawing of leaf surface water frozen during a cold night. In general, leaf wetness was well correlated with relative humidity (RH) in condensation process, while it rather depended on wind speed in evaporation process. The comparisons in RH-wetness relations between leaf characteristics showed that broad-leaved grasses tended to be wetter than thin grasses.

  9. Mercury in vegetation and soils at abandoned mercury mines in southwestern Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, E.A.; Gray, J.E.; Theodorakos, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    We chemically analysed vegetation (willow and alder) and soil samples collected at three abandoned mercury (Hg) mines and at background sites in southwestern Alaska and compared Hg concentrations, speciation and distribution. Total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were higher in vegetation and soil samples from all the mine sites compared to samples from the background sites, but there was no correlation between total-Hg concentrations in vegetation and total-Hg concentrations in soil or between total-Hg and MeHg concentrations. However, the percent MeHg of the total Hg was higher in samples from the background sites compared to samples from the mine sites and is higher in vegetation samples than in corresponding soil samples. The percent MeHg is an order of magnitude higher in the willow samples than in corresponding alder or soil samples. The percent of divalent Hg [Hg(II)] is highest in soil samples from the retort and background areas. The higher percent MeHg in vegetation and soil in samples from background sites may be explained by the higher proportions of reactive Hg species, such as Hg(II), at these sites compared to the surface mined and tailings areas where most of the Hg is in the elemental and cinnabar (HgS) forms. Dissolved gaseous Hg species are more readily accumulated in vegetation and are more readily methylated than solid phases like HgS and liquid Hg.

  10. Role of native and exotic woody vegetation in soil restoration in active gully systems (southern Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja Ramon, Pablo; Alvarado Moncayo, Dario; Vanacker, Veerle; Cisneros, Pedro; Molina, Armando; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Revegetation projects in degraded lands have the potential to recover essential soil functions. If vegetation restoration is combined with bioengineering techniques, such as the construction of retention dams in active gully systems, soil restoration could be enhanced. One important aspect of this process is the role of vegetation on restoration of soil chemical and physical properties. There is currently a lack of knowledge on the potential of soil restoration in active badland systems, as most studies have concentrated on the direct and visible effect of revegetation on erosion control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of revegetation and bioengineering works on the restoration of soil physical and chemical properties. The analyses are realized in a highly degraded area of 3 km2, located in the lower part of the Loreto catchment (Southern Ecuadorian Andes). First, the soil physical and/or chemical parameters that are most sensitive to track environmental change were evaluated. Second, the role of vegetation on soil restoration was quantified. . Soil samples were taken in sites with different vegetation cover, land use and physiographic position. The following physical and chemical parameters were measured: volumetric water content (θsat, θact), bulk density, pH, texture, organic matter, C and N content. Our first results do not show a clear relationship between volumetric water content at saturation (θsat), bulk density, or C content. The saturation water content does not vary significantly between different sites, or land use types. However, significant differences are found between sites at different stages of restoration; and this for most chemical and physical soil properties. Vegetation cover (%) appears to exert a strong control on the C content in the mineral soils. The highest C values are found in soils of forest plantations with Eucalyptus and Pinus species. These plantations are located in areas that were previously affected by active gullying. Our results show that the establishment of a protective vegetation cover is an important factor in soil restoration.

  11. Effects of changing channel morphology on vegetation, groundwater, and soil moisture regimes in groundwater dependent ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.

    2008-12-01

    Channel incision and excessive floodplain sedimentation are major causes of riparian degradation across the country. Though the causes and consequences of these processes vary significantly, the resulting morphology in both cases is steep streambanks and a stream that is less connected with the floodplain. A case study from semi-arid, wet meadows with snow-melt driven hydrology in the Sierra Nevada of CA will be compared with one from a riparian wet prairie in the humid environment of the Driftless Area of southern Wisconsin. In the mountain meadows, 80 years of logging and overgrazing led to more flashy runoff and downcutting of the stream. This led to drainage of groundwater from the meadow and a shift in vegetation composition from sedges and rushes to dryland grasses and sagebrush in this groundwater dependent ecosystem. In the Driftless Area of WI, the introduction of agricultural practices by European settlers in the 1830s resulted in severe erosion from the cropped areas in the uplands. This sediment was transported to the stream valleys where it was deposited on the floodplain, raising this surface relative to the streambed. As a result, the water table is at a greater depth from this elevated land surface. In this ecosystem, the vegetation has shifted from wet prairie and sedge meadow communities to grasses and lowland forests dominated by box elder trees. The geomorphic result at both sites was a channel bounded by tall banks with reduced hydrologic connectivity with the floodplain. In both cases, the slope of the water table towards the stream is greater than the topographic slope across the riparian zone and the greatest depth to the water table is found adjacent to the channel. Transects exhibit a decreasing trend in soil moisture with increasing variability toward the channel. Remotely sensed imagery shows trends of drier vegetation communities adjacent to channels and wetter vegetation communities toward the margin of the riparian zones. Coupled hydrologic and vegetation models describing the effects following channel incision or excessive floodplain sedimentation are consistent with water table, soil moisture and vegetation observations. These case studies illustrate the role channel morphology plays in controlling vegetation patterning of riparian zones via the groundwater hydrologic linkage.

  12. Remote sensing of vegetation and soil using microwave ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.; Schutt, J. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described of determining vegetation height and water content of vegetation from the intensity and state of elliptical polarization of a reflected train of microwaves. The method comprises the steps of reflecting a circularly polarized train of microwaves from vegetation at a predetermined angle of incidence and detecting the reflected train of microwaves. The ratio of the intensities of the electric field vector components is determined, the phase difference of the components is measured, and the refractive index and thickness of the layer of vegetation are computed from a formula. The refractive index is given essentially by the water content of the vegetation.

  13. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using vegetation. A microbial study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.; Banks, M.K. )

    1993-12-01

    The degradation of selected petroleum hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere of alfalfa was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Petroleum contaminated and uncontaminated soils were spiked with 100 ppm of polynuclear aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Unspiked, uncontaminated soil was used as a control. Microbial counts for soils with and without plants for each soil treatment were performed 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after planting. Microbial numbers were substantially greater in soil with plants when compared to soil containing no plants, indicating that plant roots enhanced microbial populations in contaminated soil. Soil treatments had no effect on microbial numbers in the presence of plants. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Closure modeling and direct simulation of vegetation drag in flow through emergent vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Su Jin; Stoesser, Thorsten

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations of flow through emergent vegetation. Two simulation strategies are evaluated, (1) Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)- based simulations employing a vegetation closure model and (2) low-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES). RANS-based models offer efficiency in terms of computational resources, however, it is demonstrated herein that the accuracy of RANS models depends strongly on empirical parameters of the corresponding vegetation closure model. The method of low-resolution LES is an efficient alternative to a fully resolved LES, simulates vegetation drag directly, and does not require empirical parameter input. Predictions of the vegetative flow resistance of emergent vegetation using low-resolution LES are in fairly good agreement with measurements, in particular for low and moderate vegetation densities. This is because prevailing stream- and spanwise-velocity gradients, vertical velocity profiles, and recirculation zones are calculated with reasonable accuracy.

  15. improved vegetation phenology in the JULES land-surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, S. O.

    2013-12-01

    Sietse Los, Steven Hancock, Peter North, Jose Gomez-Dans Introduction: Land-surface properties such as albedo, soil moisture and vegetation biophysical parameters affect water, energy and carbon fluxes from the land to the atmosphere an this can alter weather patterns. Here we use globally consistent satellite observations to improve modelling of the vegetation seasonal cycle in the JULES land-surface model (LSM) to better represent these fluxes. JULES model: The JULES LSM is the land surface component of the suite of UK MetOffice general circulation models. JULES is used both in operational weather forecasting and for simulations of future climate. Within JULES, seasonal changes in surface albedo are controlled by snow (not covered here) and vegetation dynamics (phenology). Vegetation phenology is controlled by temperature and water availability, with timings and rates set by a number of trigger thresholds and leaf growth/death rates. Satellite data: The ability of JULES to represent vegetation, in terms of its seasonal cycle as well as the interannual variation, was tested on normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI = (near-infrared - red) / (near-infrared + red)) data. JULES uses a 1D radiative transfer model to predict hemispheric surface albedo for a given leaf area whilst satellites measure reflectance from a single view direction and this may not match the hemispheric albedo. To test this, JULES predictions were compared to the FLIGHT (a 3D radiative transfer model) simulations for different view directions. This revealed that either NDVI profiles need to be normalised to allow a direct comparison (as done here) or else the JULES 1D model must be replaced by a full 3D radiative transfer model, which is computationally expensive. Experiments: The original phenology module in JULES was optimised against NDVI observations using a Monte-Carlo Markov chain method. This optimisation was unsuccessful; and we therefore concluded that the JULES phenology cannot recreate observed NDVI and should be replaced by a different phenology model. The majority of previous studies that evaluated the JULES phenology verified only growing season start and end dates rather than the full seasonal shape, which is is a much simpler test. The original JULES phenology and can give the correct annual carbon fluxes, however it does not guarantee that the model is correct within the year; it does not correctly represent seasonal changes in albedo and therefore the model cannot be used in real-time data assimilation. An alternative phenology model, BETHY (Knorr et al 2010) was evaluated that can reproduce the rapid green-up and gradual drying out of vegetation was. The BETHY subroutines were put into JULES and were optimised against remotely sensed NDVI, and this led to a much more realistic seasonal vegetation cycle and seasonal variation in reflectance. The effect of the new vegetation seasonal cycle on surface temperature and carbon and water fluxes was evaluated; noting that any change to model processes is likely to upset any empirically tuned parameters. Thus recalibration is needed for accurate predictions, even though the model is now more realistic. References: Knorr, W. et al, 2010. J. Geophys. Res., 115, G04017.

  16. The influence of precipitation, vegetation and soil properties on the ecohydrology of sagebrush steppe rangelands on the INL site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    The INL Site and other landscapes having sagebrush steppe vegetation are experiencing a simultaneous change in climate and floristics that result from increases in exotic species. Determining the separate and combined/interactive effects of climate and vegetation change is important for assessing future changes on the landscape and for hydrologic processes. This research uses the 72 experimental plots established and initially maintained for many years as the “Protective Cap Biobarrier Experiment” by Dr. Jay Anderson and the Stoller ESER program, and the experiment is also now referred to as the “INL Site Ecohydrology Study.” We are evaluating long-term impacts of different plant communities commonly found throughout Idaho subject to different precipitation regimes and to different soil depths. Treatments of amount and timing of precipitation (irrigation), soil depth, and either native/perennial or exotic grass vegetation allow researchers to investigate how vegetation, precipitation and soil interact to influence soil hydrology and ecosystem biogeochemistry. This information will be used to improve a variety of models, as well as provide data for these models.

  17. Ecological optimality in water-limited natural soil-vegetation systems. II - Tests and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, P. S.; Tellers, T. E.

    1982-01-01

    The long-term optimal climatic climax soil-vegetation system is defined for several climates according to previous hypotheses in terms of two free parameters, effective porosity and plant water use coefficient. The free parameters are chosen by matching the predicted and observed average annual water yield. The resulting climax soil and vegetation properties are tested by comparison with independent observations of canopy density and average annual surface runoff. The climax properties are shown also to satisfy a previous hypothesis for short-term optimization of canopy density and water use coefficient. Using these hypotheses, a relationship between average evapotranspiration and optimum vegetation canopy density is derived and is compared with additional field observations. An algorithm is suggested by which the climax soil and vegetation properties can be calculated given only the climate parameters and the soil effective porosity. Sensitivity of the climax properties to the effective porosity is explored.

  18. Soil-vegetation correlations in selected wetlands and uplands of North-Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Best, G. Ronnie; Wolfe, Charlotte; Segal, Debra S.

    1990-01-01

    Vegetation on four hydric and two nonhydric soils series in north-central Florida was sampled as part of a national study examining the correspondence between wetland vegetation and soils. The wetland character of the vegetation was estimated by weighted average calculations using published wetland indicator values for individual plant species. The weighted averages produced an ordering of plant communities in general agreement with the hydric character of the soils. However, the two nonhydric soils has weighted average scores slightly below 3, normally considered the lowest end of the range of nonhydric vegetation. There was no clear or consistent effect of fire management on the weighted average scores. Vegetation strata (herbaceous, low shrub, tall shrub, and trees) were generally similar in weighted average values, with the wettest of the hydric soils tending to be low in all strata and the nonhydric soils tending to be high in all strata. However, strata differed considerably in the specific values for a single soil and in the specific rank ordering of soils in different strata.

  19. The role of vegetation and soil in the biogeochemical cycling of mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamenkovic, Jelena

    The major purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the role plants play in regulating atmospheric Hg exchange with vegetated landscapes at an individual plant, and at ecosystem level. Investigation of ecosystem level measurements showed that large mesocosms could not be used for directly quantifying Hg flux from low-Hg containing substrates without a reliable system blank. Designs that minimize the mesocosm (volume)/(area of interest) ratio are recommended (Chapter 2). Smaller scale plant and soil Hg fluxes quantified using dynamic flux chambers were used to determine the air-surface Hg exchange from tallgrass prairie ecosystem housed in mesocosms (Chapter 3). Plant foliage was found to be a sink for atmospheric Hg, with uptake influenced by plant functional type and age. Emissions of Hg from vegetated and litter-covered soil were lower than fluxes from adjacent bare soil and the difference between the two was seasonally dependent and greatest when canopy coverage was greatest. Thus, an index of plant canopy development (canopy greenness) was used to model Hg flux from vegetated soil. Mass balance for the ecosystem housed in mesocosms showed that the tallgrass prairie was a net sink of atmospheric Hg, annually transferring 7.4 mug Hg m-2 to soil pool. Relative importance of stomatal versus non-stomatal routes of the foliar Hg exchange was assessed (Chapter 4). The non-stomatal route was shown to be an important way of Hg uptake into plant tissue in low humidity air, although details of uptake are not understood. The final objective addressed in this dissertation was to model Hg exchange from three biomes with background Hg concentrations using Geographic Information System (GIS) framework, and evaluate their importance in the regional and global Hg exchange (Chapter 5). Without taking into account foliar Hg uptake from the air, Hg emissions from desert, grassland and deciduous forest in the continental US were roughly estimated to be 5-7 tones per year. Plant canopy assimilation of air Hg (17 tones year-1) balanced the emissions, and the modeled domain was a net sink of atmospheric Hg, annually removing 10-12 tons Hg from the atmosphere.

  20. Evaluating Soil Compaction for an Annual Winter Grazing/Vegetable Production Rotation in North-Central

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degraded soils of Alabama have demonstrated the ability to respond well to conservation tillage in a large variety of crops. Winter annual grazing/sod-based rotations with summer vegetable production can offer reduced economic risks for producers but may change tillage requirements for vegetable pro...

  1. Capturing Vegetation Diversity in the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, N. Y.; Haralick, R. M.; Cook, B.; Aleinov, I. D.

    2013-12-01

    We present preliminary results from data mining to develop parameter sets and global vegetation structure datasets to set boundary conditions for the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM) for improved representation of diversity and to propagate uncertainty in simulations of land carbon dynamics in the 20th century and under future climate change. The Ent TBM is the only dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) developed for coupling with general circulation models (GCMs) to account for the height structure of mixed canopies, including a canopy radiative transfer scheme that accounts for foliage clumping in dynamically changing canopies. It is flexibly programmed to incorporate any number of "plant functional types" (PFTs). It is now a coupled component of the ModelE2 version of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM). We demonstrate a data mining method, linear manifold clustering, to be used with several very recently compiled large databases of plant traits and phenology combined with climate and satellite data, to identify new PFT groupings, and also conduct customized parameter fits of PFT traits already defined in Ent. These parameter sets are used together with satellite-derived global forest height structure and land cover derived from a combination of satellite and inventory sources and bioclimatic relations to provide a new estimate and uncertainty bounds on vegetation biomass carbon stocks. These parameter sets will also be used to reproduce atmospheric CO2 time series over the flask observational period, to evaluate the impact of improved representation of vegetation dynamics on soil carbon stocks, and finally to produce a projection of the land carbon sink under future climate change. This research is timely in taking advantage of new, globally ranging vegetation databases, satellite-derived forest heights, and the advanced framework of the Ent TBM. It will advance understanding of and reduce uncertainty in land carbon dynamics and stocks through development, implementation, and evaluation of new parameterizations for a DGVM, parameterizations which will expand and or revise representation of vegetation diversity in the Earth system or replace modules or static parameters with more continuous, functional schemes.

  2. Spatial variability of the properties of marsh soils and their impact on vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, V. A.; Svyatova, E. N.; Tseits, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    Spatial variability of the properties of soils and the character of vegetation was studied on seacoasts of the Velikii Island in the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. It was found that the chemical and physicochemical properties of marsh soils (Tidalic Fluvisols) are largely dictated by the distance from the sea and elevation of the sampling point above sea level. The spatial distribution of the soil properties is described by a quadratic trend surface. With an increase in the distance from the sea, the concentration of ions in the soil solution decreases, and the organic carbon content and soil acidity become higher. The spatial dependence of the degree of variability in the soil properties is moderate. Regular changes in the soil properties along the sea-land gradient are accompanied by the presence of specific spatial patterns related to the system of temporary water streams, huge boulders, and beached heaps of sea algae and wood debris. The cluster analysis made it possible to distinguish between five soil classes corresponding to the following plant communities: barren surface (no permanent vegetation), clayey-sandy littoral with sparse halophytes, marsh with large rhizomatous grasses, and grass-forb-bunchberry vegetation of forest margins. The subdivision into classes is especially distinct with respect to the concentration of chloride ions. The following groups of factors affect the distribution of vegetation: the composition of the soil solution, the height above sea level, the pH of water suspensions, and the humus content.

  3. Uptake of trace elements and PAHs by fruit and vegetables from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Samsøe-Petersen, Lise; Larsen, Erik H; Larsen, Poul B; Bruun, Preben

    2002-07-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate the uptake of seven trace elements and five PAHs in crop plants in order to establish advice regarding consumption of fruit and vegetables grown in soils contaminated by trace elements and PAHs. In a field experiment, vegetables were grown in two contaminated soils and in a reference soil, whereas fruits were collected from uncontaminated and contaminated private gardens. The results showed elevated levels of several trace elements and PAHs in the vegetables from contaminated soil. Bioconcentration factors (BCF values), based on dry weight, were below 1, except for those of Cd in lettuce and carrot with peel from uncontaminated soil. In most cases, BCF values were decreasing with increasing concentrations in soil. From the heavily contaminated soil, BCF values for Pb in lettuce, potato, and carrot with peel were 0.001, 0.002, and 0.05, respectively, and those for benzo[a]pyrene were 0.004, 0.002, and 0.002, respectively. For most metals in most vegetables, linear regression showed good correlation between soil and crop concentrations. For PAHs, such good correlation was generally not found. The contents of contaminants in fruits were generally low and no correlation with the level of contamination in the soils was found. PMID:12141482

  4. Multi-discipline resource inventory of soils, vegetation and geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonson, G. H. (Principal Investigator); Paine, D. P.; Lawrence, R. D.; Norgren, J. A.; Pyott, W. Y.; Herzog, J. H.; Murray, R. J.; Rogers, R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Computer classification of natural vegetation, in the vicinity of Big Summit Prairie, Crook County, Oregon was carried out using MSS digital data. Impure training sets, representing eleven vegetation types plus water, were selected from within the area to be classified. Close correlations were visually observed between vegetation types mapped from the large scale photographs and the computer classification of the ERTS data (Frame 1021-18151, 13 August 1972).

  5. Temporal variations in soil moisture for three typical vegetation types in inner Mongolia, northern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Gao, Jixi; Teng, Yanguo; Feng, Chaoyang; Tian, Meirong

    2015-01-01

    Drought and shortages of soil water are becoming extremely severe due to global climate change. A better understanding of the relationship between vegetation type and soil-moisture conditions is crucial for conserving soil water in forests and for maintaining a favorable hydrological balance in semiarid areas, such as the Saihanwula National Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia, China. We investigated the temporal dynamics of soil moisture in this reserve to a depth of 40 cm under three types of vegetation during a period of rainwater recharge. Rainwater from most rainfalls recharged the soil water poorly below 40 cm, and the rainfall threshold for increasing the moisture content of surface soil for the three vegetations was in the order: artificial Larix spp. (AL) > Quercus mongolica (QM) > unused grassland (UG). QM had the highest mean soil moisture content (21.13%) during the monitoring period, followed by UG (16.52%) and AL (14.55%); and the lowest coefficient of variation (CV 9.6-12.5%), followed by UG (CV 10.9-18.7%) and AL (CV 13.9-21.0%). QM soil had a higher nutrient content and higher soil porosities, which were likely responsible for the higher ability of this cover to retain soil water. The relatively smaller QM trees were able to maintain soil moisture better in the study area. PMID:25781333

  6. Temporal Variations in Soil Moisture for Three Typical Vegetation Types in Inner Mongolia, Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hao; Gao, Jixi; Teng, Yanguo; Feng, Chaoyang; Tian, Meirong

    2015-01-01

    Drought and shortages of soil water are becoming extremely severe due to global climate change. A better understanding of the relationship between vegetation type and soil-moisture conditions is crucial for conserving soil water in forests and for maintaining a favorable hydrological balance in semiarid areas, such as the Saihanwula National Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia, China. We investigated the temporal dynamics of soil moisture in this reserve to a depth of 40 cm under three types of vegetation during a period of rainwater recharge. Rainwater from most rainfalls recharged the soil water poorly below 40 cm, and the rainfall threshold for increasing the moisture content of surface soil for the three vegetations was in the order: artificial Larix spp. (AL) > Quercus mongolica (QM) > unused grassland (UG). QM had the highest mean soil moisture content (21.13%) during the monitoring period, followed by UG (16.52%) and AL (14.55%); and the lowest coefficient of variation (CV 9.6-12.5%), followed by UG (CV 10.9-18.7%) and AL (CV 13.9-21.0%). QM soil had a higher nutrient content and higher soil porosities, which were likely responsible for the higher ability of this cover to retain soil water. The relatively smaller QM trees were able to maintain soil moisture better in the study area. PMID:25781333

  7. Changes in regional boreal climate due to historic and future structural vegetation changes and variations in soil moisture memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydsaa, Johanne H.; Stordal, Frode; Tallaksen, Lena M.

    2014-05-01

    Amplified warming at high latitudes over the past decades already has led to, and will continue to lead to, changes in the boreal and arctic part of the climate system. Climate change induced alterations include structural shifts in high latitude ecosystems such as boreal forest expansion towards higher latitudes and altitudes, and shrub-ecosystems replacing tundra in large areas of the arctic. These shifts affect surface physical qualities such as albedo, roughness length, and soil properties. Shifts in vegetation species may also lead to alterations in soil- and boundary layer moisture. Resultant changes in land surface properties and processes provide important feedbacks to regional climate by changes in radiation, and water and energy fluxes. Structural vegetation changes that appear on local scale may through these feedback mechanisms also propagate to affect large scale climatic features. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with the Noah Land surface model is used in a series of experiments in order to investigate the influence of observed and anticipated structural changes in the boreal ecosystem on changes in the land-atmosphere feedbacks. MODIS land surface data are used together with observational data and dynamical vegetation model output from the CMIP5 database, to simulate the influence of historical and future structural vegetation changes over the Northern European Boreal domain. In a series of three experiments the MODIS dataset is manually altered in order to reflect observed and anticipated changes in Boreal forest geography on summer water and energy fluxes at the surface, including Bowen ratio changes. As results are highly sensitive to soil moisture variations, experiments are conducted under wet and dry soil moisture regimes, to take into account uncertainties in future soil state projections and to estimate sensitivity to soil moisture memory in surface flux estimates.

  8. Linking contemporary vegetation models with spatially explicit animal population models

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.D.; Pacala, S.W.; Smith, T.W.; Liu, Jianguo

    1995-02-01

    Spatially explicit models for animal populations (SEPMs) necessarily embody assumptions about plant community structure and dynamics. This paper explores the advantages and limitations of directly linking animal SEPMs with models for vegetation dynamics. Such linkages may often be unnecessary. For instance, in research focussed on questions with short time horizons, the spatial patterning of vegetation can be reasonably approximated as a fixed landscape templet for animal population dynamics. But if one needs to consider longer time scales (e.g., decades to centuries), landscapes will be dynamic. Models of vegetation dynamics provide useful tools for predicting landscape dynamics. We outline the sorts of output from vegetation models that might be useful in animal SEPMs. We discuss as a concrete example recent forest simulators, which predict with reasonable accuracy some variables (e.g., tree species composition), but which, to date, are quite poor for others (e.g., seed production). Moreover, because vegetation models target a restricted range of temporal and spatial scales, they may be more useful for certain consumer groups than for others. Despite these cautionary observations, we believe that the time is ripe for fruitful linkages between models of vegetation dynamics and animal SEPMs. 61 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Role of vegetation in modulating rainfall interception and soil water flux in ecosystems under transition from grassland to woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chris; Will, Rodney; Stebler, Elaine; Qiao, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Vegetation exerts strong control on the hydrological budget by shielding the soil from rainfall through interception and modulating water transmission in the soil by altering soil properties and rooting zone water extraction. Therefore, a change in vegetation alters the water cycle by a combination of a passive, rainfall redistribution mechanism controlled by the physical dimensions of vegetation and active, water extracting processes resulting from physiological attributes of different plants. As a result, the role of vegetation on the water cycle is likely to change where vegetation is under transition such as in the southern Great Plains of USA due to woody plant encroachment. However, it remains largely unknown how this physiognomic transformation from herbaceous cover to woody canopy alters rainfall influx, soil water transmission and efflux from the soil profile and consequently alters historic patterns of runoff and groundwater recharge. This knowledge is critical for both water resource and ecosystem management. We conducted a comprehensive, 5-year study involving direct quantification of throughfall and stemflow for grassland and encroached juniper woodland (Juniperus virginiana), water efflux through transpiration using an improved Granier thermal dissipation method (trees) and ET chamber (grassland), soil moisture storage and dynamics (capacitance probe) and streamflow (small catchment). We calibrated a prevailing hydrological model (SWAT) based on observed data to simulate potential change in runoff and recharge for the Cimarron River basin (study site located within this basin) under various phases of grassland to woodland transition. Our results show that juniper encroachment reduces throughfall reaching the soil surface compared with grassland under moderate grazing. The evergreen junipers transpired water year-round including fall and winter when the warm season grasses were senescent. As a result, soil water content and soil water storage on the encroached catchment were generally lower than on the grassland catchment, especially proceeding the seasons of peak rainfall in spring and fall. Frequency and magnitude of streamflow events was observed to be substantially reduced in the encroached catchment. Model simulation suggests that conversion of all existing grassland to juniper in the Cimarron River basin will increase overall water efflux through evapotranspiration sufficient to substantially reduce water yield for streamflow. Rapid transformation of mesic grasslands to a woodland state with juniper encroachment, if not confined, has the potential to reduce soil water, streamflow and flow duration of ephemeral streams. Slowing the expansion of woody encroachment into grasslands might be considered as a land-based strategy to sustain or even augment streamflow and groundwater recharge to meet the increase in water demand under increasing climate variability and population growth in the southern Great Plains of USA

  10. A multi-frequency radiometric measurement of soil moisture content over bare and vegetated fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Schmugge, T. J.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Gould, W. I.; Glazar, W. S.; Fuchs, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A USDA Beltsville Agricultural Research Center site was used for an experiment in which soil moisture remote sensing over bare, grass, and alfalfa fields was conducted over a three-month period using 0.6 GHz, 1.4 GHz, and 10.6 GHz Dicke-type microwave radiometers mounted on mobile towers. Ground truth soil moisture content and ambient air and sil temperatures were obtained concurrently with the radiometric measurements. Biomass of the vegetation cover was sampled about once a week. Soil density for each of the three fields was measured several times during the course of the experiment. Results of the radiometric masurements confirm the frequency dependence of moisture sensing sensitivity reduction reported earlier. Observations over the bare, wet field show that the measured brightness temperature is lowest at 5.0 GHz and highest of 0.6 GHz frequency, a result contrary to expectation based on the estimated dielectric permittivity of soil water mixtures and current radiative transfer model in that frequency range.

  11. Modelling increased soil cohesion by plant roots with EUROSEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Baets, S.; Poesen, J.; Torri, D.; Salvador, M. P.

    2009-04-01

    Soil cohesion is an important variable to model soil detachment by runoff (Morgan et al., 1998a). As soil particles are not loose, soil detachment by runoff will be limited by the cohesion of the soil material. It is generally recognized that plant roots contribute to the overall cohesion of the soil. Determination of this increased cohesion and soil roughness however is complicated and measurements of shear strength and soil reinforcement by plant roots are very time- and labour consuming. A model approach offers an alternative for the assessment of soil cohesion provided by plant roots However, few erosion models account for the effects of the below-ground biomass in their calculation of erosion rates. Therefore, the main objectives of this study is to develop an approach to improve an existing soil erosion model (EUROSEM) accounting for the erosion-reducing effects of roots. The approach for incorporating the root effects into this model is based on a comparison of measured soil detachment rates for bare and for root-permeated topsoil samples with predicted erosion rates under the same flow conditions using the erosion equation of EUROSEM. Through backwards calculation, transport capacity efficiencies and corresponding soil cohesion values can be assessed for bare and root-permeated topsoils respectively. The results are promising and show that grass roots provide a larger increase in soil cohesion as compared with tap-rooted species and that the increase in soil cohesion is not significantly different under wet and dry soil conditions, either for fibrous root systems or for tap root systems. Relationships are established between measured root density values and the corresponding calculated soil cohesion values, reflecting the effects of roots on the resistance of the topsoil to concentrated flow incision. These relationships enable one to incorporate the root effect into the soil erosion model EUROSEM, through adapting the soil cohesion input value. A scenario analysis performed with EUROSEM for different vegetation treatments, indicates that runoff and soil loss on root-permeated topsoils are slightly higher as compared to fully covered grass fields or harvested grass fields with some plant residue left, but much smaller as compared to bare topsoils. Moreover, when re-vegetating bare soils, roots are responsible for a large part of the reduction in soil loss and runoff by concentrated flow. Hence, this analysis shows that the contribution of roots to soil cohesion is very important for preventing soil loss and reducing runoff volume. The increase in soil shear strength due to the binding effect of roots on soil particles is two orders of magnitude lower as compared with soil reinforcement achieved when roots mobilize their tensile strength during soil shearing and root breakage.

  12. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  13. Probabilistic Evaluation of Anthropogenic Regulations In a Vegetated River Channel Using a Vegetation Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation overgrowth in fluvial floodplains, gravel beds, and sand bars has been a serious engineering problem for riparian management in Japan. From the viewpoints of flood control and ecological conservation, it would be necessary to predict the vegetation dynamics accurately for long-term duration. In this research, we have developed a stochastic model for predicting the vegetation dynamics in fluvial floodplains with emphasis on the interaction with flood impacts. The model consists of the following four components: (i) long-term stochastic behavior of flow discharge, (ii) hydrodynamics in a channel with floodplain vegetation, (iii) variation of riverbed topography, and (iv) vegetation dynamics on floodplains. In the vegetation dynamics model, the flood discharge (i) is stochastically simulated using a filtered Poisson process, one of the conventional approaches in hydrological time-series generation. The component for vegetation dynamics (iv) includes the effects of tree growth, mortality by floods, and infant tree recruitment. Vegetation condition has been observed mainly before and after floods since 2008 at a field site located between 23-24 km from the river mouth in Kako River, Japan. The Kako River has the catchment area of 1,730 km2 and the main channel length of 96 km. This site is one of the vegetation overgrowth sites in the Kako River floodplains. The predominant tree species are willows and bamboos. In the field survey, the position, trunk diameter and height of each tree as well as the riverbed materials were measured after several flood events to investigate their impacts on the floodplain vegetation community. This presentation tries to examine effects of anthropogenic river regulations, i.e., thinning and cutting-down, in the vegetated channel in Kako River by using the vegetation dynamics model. Sensitivity of both the flood water level and the vegetation status in the channel is statistically evaluated in terms of the different cutting-down levels, timings and scales of the thinning, etc., by the Monte Carlo simulation of the model.

  14. Petroleum contamination of soil and water, and their effects on vegetables by statistically analyzing entire data set.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shu-kai; Yang, Jun-cheng; Du, Xiao-ming; Li, Fa-sheng; Hou, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons have been used to assess total oil concentrations, petroleum sources, and petroleum degradation. In this study, surface soil, groundwater, surface water, and vegetables were collected from the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China, and the samples were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbon contents. The concentrations of n-alkanes were 1.06-4.01 μg/g in the soil. The concentrations and the geochemical characteristics of n-alkanes showed that the low carbon number hydrocarbons were mainly from petroleum sources, whereas the high carbon number hydrocarbons received more hydrocarbons from herbaceous plants. The concentrations of n-alkanes were 9.20-93.44 μg/L and 23.74-118.27 μg/L in the groundwater and the surface water, respectively. The water had characteristics of petroleum and submerged/floating macrophytes and was found in concentrations that would cause chronic disruption of sensitive organisms. The concentrations and geochemical characteristics of n-alkanes in Brassica chinensis L. and Apium graveolens were different, but both were contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. The results from principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the sorption of n-alkanes to soil particles could not be described by linear models. The distributions of n-alkanes in vegetables were positively correlated with those in soil, and the correlation coefficient was up to 0.9310 using the constructed vectors. Therefore, the researchers should pay close attention to the effect of soil contamination on vegetables. PMID:24468500

  15. Soil vulnerability to future climate in the southwestern USA, with implications for vegetation change and water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, W. L.; Bachelet, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding soil response to changes in precipitation/snow cover and increasing temperatures is essential to predicting changes in riparian, wetland, and aquatic as well as terrestrial communities in the coming decades. Changes in precipitation and snowmelt are affecting streamflow seasonality and magnitude, and rising air temperatures and declining precipitation affect aquatic habitats directly by causing increases in stream temperatures and evapo-transpiration causing lower streamflow. The water resources of the Colorado River system are projected to be strained due to runoff losses of 7 to 20% this century, and a reduction of approximately 5% of the annual average runoff is due to increased evapotranspiration from early exposure of vegetation and soils. We are developing a spatially-explicit soil vulnerability index of high, moderate and low sensitivity soils for the southwestern USA and comparing it to projections of vegetation dieback under future climate change scenarios to provide 1) a measure of uncertainty of the model skill and 2) a warning that vegetation shifts may increase soil vulnerability in areas where it is still protected by current plant cover, thus enabling a preliminary estimate of the future location of sources of aeolian dust.

  16. Soil moisture inferences from thermal infrared measurements of vegetation temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Thermal infrared measurements of wheat (Triticum durum) canopy temperatures were used in a crop water stress index to infer root zone soil moisture. Results indicated that one time plant temperature measurement cannot produce precise estimates of root zone soil moisture due to complicating plant factors. Plant temperature measurements do yield useful qualitative information concerning soil moisture and plant condition.

  17. [Characteristics of soil microelements contents in the rhizospheres of different vegetation in hilly-gully region of Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Guo-Bin; Xue, Sha; Zhang, Chang-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    To explore the rhizosphere effect of the microelements in the soils under different vegetation types in Loess Plateau, this paper analyzed the organic C, total N, Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn contents in the rhizosphere soil and bulk soil of six vegetation types in hilly-gully region of Loess Plateau. Among the six vegetation types, Caragana korshinskii, Heteropappus altaicus, and Artemisia capillaries had higher organic C and total N contents in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. With the exception of C. korshinskii and H. rhamnoides, all the six vegetation types had a significantly lower pH in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. The six vegetation types had a lower available Mn content in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil, and the C. korshinskii, Astragalus adsurgen, and Panicum virgatum had a significantly higher available Cu content in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. The six vegetation types except A. adsurgens had a slightly higher available Fe content in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil, and A. adsurgens, P. virgatum, H. altaicus, and A. capillaries had a significant accumulation of available Zn in rhizosphere soil. There existed significant positive correlations between the rhizosphere soil and bulk soil of the six vegetation types in the relationships between the organic C and total N contents and the available Mn and Zn contents and between the contents of available Mn and Zn. In rhizosphere soil, available Mn and Zn contents were significantly negative- ly correlated with pH value. Due to the differences in root growth characteristics, rhizosphere pH value, and microbial structure composition, the microelements contents in the rhizosphere soil of the six vegetation types differed, with the contents of Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn being higher in the rhizosphere soil of H. altaicus than in that of the other vegetation types. PMID:22720606

  18. [Characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in red soil profile under different vegetation types].

    PubMed

    Ji, Gang; Xu, Ming-gang; Wen, Shi-lin; Wang, Bo-ren; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Li-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in soil profile under different vegetation types were studied in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan Province, China. The soil samples from red soil profiles within 0-100 cm depth at fertilized plots and unfertilized plots were collected and analyzed to understand the profile distribution of soil pH and exchangeable acidity. The results showed that, pH in 0-60 cm soil from the fertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: citrus orchard > Arachis hypogaea field > tea garden. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was A. hypogaea field ≤ citrus orchard < tea garden. After tea tree and A. hypogaea were planted for long time, acidification occurred in surface soil (0-40 cm), compared with the deep soil (60-100 cm), and soil pH decreased by 0.55 and 0.17 respectively, but such changes did not occur in citrus orchard. Soil pH in 0-40 cm soil from the natural recovery vegetation unfertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: Imperata cylindrica land > Castanea mollissima garden > Pinus elliottii forest ≥ Loropetalum chinensis forest. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was L cylindrica land < C. mollissima garden < L. chinensis forest ≤ P. elliottii forest. Soil pH in surface soil (0-20 cm) from natural forest plots, secondary forest and Camellia oleifera forest were significantly lower than that from P. massoniana forest, decreased by 0.34 and 0.20 respectively. For exchangeable acidity content in 0-20 cm soil from natural forest plot, P. massoniana forest and secondary forest were significantly lower than C. oleifera forest. Compared with bare land, surface soil acidification in unfertilized plots except I. cylindrica land had been accelerated, and the natural secondary forest was the most serious among them, with surface soil pH decreasing by 0.52. However, the pH increased in deep soils from unfertilized plots except natural secondary forest, and I. cylindrica land was the most obvious among them, with soil pH increasing by 0.43. The effects of fertilization and vegetation type on pH and exchangeable acidity decreased with the increasing soil depth from all plots. PMID:26785544

  19. Models For Soil Erosion In Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, M. J.; Irvine, B.; Gobin, A.; Govers, G.

    2003-04-01

    A model to estimate Soil Erosion risk is being extended, within the PESERA project, for the full range of environments in Europe. The model provides estimates, at 1 km resolution, of the expected mean erosion rates. Data for land use, topographic, soil and climate are used to estimate ground cover, surface crusting, runoff and sediment transport and so forecast the water and sediment delivered to stream channels. The estimates are consistent with finer scale erosion models for flow strips, evaluated at the slope base; and are integrated across the frequency distribution of storm magnitudes. The model is based on a partition of daily precipitation into interception, Hortonian and saturation overland flow, subsurface flow and evapo-transpiration. Hortonian overland flow, which is mainly responsible for soil erosion, is generated with respect to local soil and sub-surface moisture characteristics. Some allowance is also made for snow accumulation and melting. Preliminary model results are available, and forecasts are now being calibrated against runoff plot and small catchment data. 'The model produces a quantitative forecast of soil erosion and vegetation growth, and has the capacity to respond rationally to a range of possible climate or land use scenarios.

  20. Modelling Soil respiration in agro-ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delogu, Emilie; LeDantec, Valerie; Mordelet, Patrick; Buysse, Pauline; Aubinet, Marc; Pattey, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    A soil respiration model was developed to simulate soil respiration in crops on a daily time step. The soil heterotrophic respiration component was derived from Century (Parton et al., 1987). Soil organic carbon is divided into three major components including active, slow and passive soil carbon. Each pool has its own decomposition rate coefficient. Carbon flows between these pools are controlled by carbon inputs (crop residues), decomposition rate and microbial respiration loss parameters, both of which are a function of soil texture, soil temperature and soil water content. The model assumes that all C decompositions flows are associated with microbial activity and that microbial respiration occurs for each of these flows. Heterotrophic soil respiration is the sum of all these microbial respiration processes. To model the soil autotrophic respiration component, maintenance respiration is calculated from the nitrogen content and assuming an exponential relationship to account for temperature dependence (Ryan et al., 1991). Growth respiration is calculated assuming a dependence on both growth rate and construction cost of the considered organ (MacCree et al., 1982) A database, made of four different soil and climate conditions in mid-latitude was used to study the two components of the soil respiration model in wheat fields. Soil respiration were measured in three winter wheat fields at Lamasquère (43°49'N, 01°23'E, 2007) and Auradé (43°54'N, 01°10'E, 2008), South-West France and Lonzée (50°33'N, 4°44'E, 2007), Belgium, and in a spring wheat field at Ottawa (45°22'N, 75°43'W, 2007, 2011), Ontario, Canada. Manual closed chambers were used in the French sites. The Belgium and Canadian sites were equipped with automated closed chamber systems, which continuously collected 30-min soil respiration exchanges. All the sites were also equipped with eddy flux towers. When eddy flux data were collected over bare soil, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was equal to soil respiration exchange. These NEE data were used to validate the model. The carbon pools in the model needed to be initialized at each site, by running iteratively simulations of a same climatic year in a given wheat field, until equilibrium was reached. The model performance was evaluated by comparing simulated and measured soil respiration values. The predicted heterotrophic soil respiration compared well with the seasonal dynamic fluxes at each site. The measured values of heterotrophic soil respiration were also well calculated by the model. Then, the autotrophic soil respiration was validated. The parameterization of the Root/Shoot ratio dynamic was a key factor to retrieve the seasonal dynamic of observed root+rhizosphere respiration during vegetation growth period. Finally, the total soil respiration model was validated on independent datasets from calibration, of four wheat crops and could be used as a prediction model for comparison between different scenario of irrigation, ploughing, or crop rotation.

  1. Comparisons among a new soil index and other two- and four-dimensional vegetation indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The 2-D difference vegetation index (DVI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI), and the 4-D green vegetation index (GVI) are compared in Landsat MSS data from grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench) fields for the years 1973 to 1977. PVI and DVI were more closely related to LAI than was GVI. A new 2-D soil line index (SLI), the vector distance from the soil line origin to the point of intersection of PVI with the soil line, is defined and compared with the 4-D soil brightness index, SBI. SLI (based on MSS and MSS7) and SL16 (based on MSS5 and MSS6) were smaller in magnitude than SBI but contained similar information about the soil background. These findings indicate that vegetation and soil indices calculated from the single visible and reflective infrared band sensor systems, such as the AVHRR of the TIROS-N polar orbiting series of satellites, will be meaningful for synoptic monitoring of renewable vegetation. Previously announced in STAR as N83-14567

  2. Comparisons among a new soil index and other two- and four-dimensional vegetation indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The 2-D difference vegetation index (DVI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI), and the 4-D green vegetation index (GVI) are compared in LANDSAT MSS data from grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench) fields for the years 1973 to 1977. PVI and DVI were more closely related to LAI than was GVI. A new 2-D soil line index (SLI), the vector distance from the soil line origin to the point of intersection of PVI with the soil line, is defined and compared with the 4-D soil brightness index, SBI. SLI (based on MSS and MSS7) and SL16 (based on MSS 5 and MSS 6) were smaller in magnitude than SBI but contained similar information about the soil background. These findings indicate that vegetation and soil indices calculated from the single visible and reflective infrared band sensor systems, such as the AVHRR of the TIROS-N polar orbiting series of satellites, will be meaningful for synoptic monitoring of renewable vegetation.

  3. Retrieval of soil moisture and vegetation characteristics by use of ERS-1 wind scatterometer over arid and semi-arid areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magagi, R. D.; Kerr, Y. H.

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this study is to use the information provided by the ERS-1 wind scatterometer (WSC) over land surfaces in arid and semi-arid environments to infer soil moisture in the presence of vegetation. Driven by dielectric properties and surface roughness, the soil contribution is attenuated by a factor which depends on canopy characteristics (water content, shape, height, density) and scatterometer viewing conditions. To describe the influence of vegetation on the signal, a semi-empirical 'water-cloud' model (a first-order radiative transfer solution) was used. The optical thickness (τ) and the single scattering albedo (ω) are the parameters used to quantify vegetation contribution to the measured signal. Through a simulation analysis for different soil moisture and viewing (incidence angle) conditions, we show the importance of τ and ω on the signal partition between vegetation and soil contributions. To quantify the effect of vegetation on the signal, we used information on the gree vegetation acquired from NOAA-AVHRR, visible and near-IR data combined with WSC satellite data in a water-cloud model to extract τ and ω. The temporal evolution of the various contributions to the signal was then compared for different angular ranges. This semi-empirical model was then applied within suitable angular ranges to retrieve soil moisture.

  4. Influence of soil spatial variability on surface and subsurface flow at a vegetative buffer strip scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatel, Laura; Lauvernet, Claire; Carluer, Nadia; Paniconi, Claudio; Leblois, Etienne

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of soil hydrodynamic characteristics variability on surface and subsurface flow at a vegetative buffer strip scale, using mecanistic modeling. Cathy (CATchment HYdrology, Camporese et al. 2010) is a research physically based model able to simulate coupled surface/subsurface flow. The evaluation of soil hydrodynamic characteristics variability is based essentially on saturated hydraulic conductivity because of its large spatial variability in the 3 dimensions and its important influence on flow pathways, as well as its high influence on the model output variables. After testing the model sensitivity to some input variables, to the boundary conditions and to the mesh definition, the work focuses on hydraulic conductivity parametrization. The study was first conducted with uniform (by horizons) conductivity domains based on field measurements. In a second step, heterogeneous fields were generated by a statistical tool which allows the user to choose the statistical law (in this case, lognormal or Gauss), the hydraulic conductivity auto-correlation length and the possibility to condition the fields with measured points. With all these different ways to represent spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity, model simulated surface and subsurface fluxes consistent with datasets from artificial run-off experiments on an French wineyard hillslope (Morcille catchment, Beaujolais, France). Model simulations are evaluated and compared to observations on several criteria : consistency, stability, interaction with water table, etc...

  5. How can effect the synergy of climate change, soil units and vegetation groups the potential global distribution of plants up to 2300: a modelling study for prediction of potential global distribution and migration of the N2 fixing species Alnus spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant migration is a well known adaptation strategy of plant groups or species with evidence from historical to present observation and monitoring studies. Importance of N2-fixing plants has increased in last decades. Alnus (alder) is an important plant group because of its nitrogen fixation ability. Alders are generally distributed in humid locations of boreal, temperate and tropical climate zones, where the nitrogen fixation is an important nitrogen source for other plants. To model the nitrogen fixation by alder, data about the global distribution of alder is absolutely required. In this study a new method and model are presented to predict the distribution of N2-fixing genus on global scale and its migration in the future by using climate change scenarios. Three linear functions were defined for the determination of climate niche of alders. The distribution and migration model (Alnus-Distribution-Model (ADM)) was improved with the aid of the soil units from FAO-Unesco Soil Database, and vegetation types from Schmithüsen's biogeographical atlas. The model was also developed to predict the impact of climate change on alder distribution by using climate data from experiments performed by the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) including the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) mitigation scenarios, and extensions of the scenarios beyond 2100 to 2300. The model covered basic approaches to understand the combine effect of climate, soil and vegetation on plant distribution and migration in the current time and future.

  6. Can artificial soil be used in the vegetative vigor test for U.S. pesticide registration?

    PubMed

    Bidelspach, Conor; Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Current testing guidelines for pesticide registration for the protection of nontarget plants calls for the use of sterilized, standardized soil consisting of primarily sandy loam, loamy sand, loamy clay, or clay loam that contains up to 3% organic matter. Low organic matter soils can be difficult to manage in a greenhouse setting because when soils dry, they contract, causing impeded water infiltration, or when overwatered, poor drainage increases the chances of anaerobic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine if the results for the vegetative vigor test differed when using either natural or artificial soils. The herbicide sulfometuron methyl was applied 14 d after emergence at 0.1 and 0.0032 of the suggested field application rate. Six plant species were tested, 4 of the common test species, Zea mays (corn), Glycine max (soybean), Avena sativa (oat), and Lactuca sativa (lettuce), and 2 native plants of the Willamette Valley, Oregon prairie, Bromus carinatus (California brome) and Ranunculus occidentalis (western buttercup). Herbicide application rate was the most significant factor in the experiment regardless of soil type. The different soils generally produced different results, even though the 2 native soils, one from Oregon and the other from Maryland, are both acceptable soils for the pesticide registration tests. The plants grown on artificial soil produced results generally between the Oregon and Maryland soil results. This study indicates that artificial soils may produce results similar to or more sensitive than soils currently used in the vegetative vigor test. PMID:18563958

  7. [Soil microbial properties under different vegetation types in Loess hilly region].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Yan; Qu, Lai-Ye; Chen, Li-Ding; Wei, Wei

    2010-01-01

    By using fumigation-extract (FE) method and Biolog Ecoplate, this paper investigated the microbial biomass and diversity in 0-20 cm soil layer under five vegetation types, including artificial woodland, shrubland, cropland, abandoned farmland, and natural grassland, in Dingxi of Gansu Province. In the meanwhile, the relationships between soil microbes and soil nutrients were studied by path analysis, and the five typical vegetation types were evaluated from the aspect of soil microbes. Relative to cropland, "grain for green" project played a key role in improving soil microbial resources. Microbial biomass carbon was the highest in ridge grassland, abandoned farmland, and pine woodland, followed by in Caragana korshinskii land, Medicago sativa land, restored land, and roadside land, and in wheat field and potato field. Microbial biomass nitrogen was the highest in ridge land, abandoned farmland, Pinus tabulaeformis woodland, Caragana korshinskii land, and Medicago sativa land, followed by in restored land and roadside land, and in wheat field and potato field. Caragana korshinskii land and Medicago sativa land, due to the existence of N-fixing rhizobium, had the highest ratio of soil microbial biomass nitrogen to soil total nitrogen. Owing to the continual biomass loss and rare feedback, cropland had the lowest quantity and activity of soil microbes. Through planting trees, shrubs and grasses or through fallowing, soil microbial biomass and activity were recovered, and the effect was increased with time. In 20-year old Caragana korshinskii land, the quantity and activity of soil microbes were similar to those in 50-year old Pinus tabulaeformis woodland, and the microbial community catabolic activity and soil nutrient use efficiency were higher. Considering the features of soil microbes under test vegetation types, Caragana korshinskii would be a good choice for local vegetation restoration. PMID:20387439

  8. Modeling Vernal Pool Hydrology and Vegetation in the Sierra Nevadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montrone, A. K.; Saito, L.; Weisberg, P.; Gosejohan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Vernal pools are geographic depressions with relatively impermeable substrates that are subject to four distinct seasons in mountainous regions: they fill with snow in the winter, melt into inundated pools in the spring, become unsaturated and vegetated by summer, then dry and become fully desiccated by fall. Vernal pools in California are greatly threatened. Over 90% of the pools in California have been destroyed by urbanization and other land use changes and continue to disappear with population growth. Furthermore, these pools face threats posed by climate change due to altered precipitation and temperature regimes. In the context of anthropogenic climate change, we are evaluating the direct and indirect effects of grazing management on ecohydrology and plant community structure in vernal pools Northern Sierra Nevada mountains. Hydrologic models of vernal pool basins, driven by climatic variables, are used to 1) determine if a changing climate will alter the magnitude and spatial distribution of inundation period within the pools; 2) determine how the available habitat for vernal pool vegetation specialists will change with climate change; 3) determine if increased soil compaction due to cattle grazing can help mitigate effects of climate change resulting from changes in hydraulic conductivity; and 4) determine the importance of spatial resolution in constructing the physical representation of the pools within the hydrologic models. Preliminary results from the models including calibration error metrics and hydroperiod impacts of grazing for models with varying spatial complexity will be presented.

  9. Effect of Vegetation Patterns on SAR derived Surface Soil Moisture Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, C. N.; Schneider, K.

    2012-12-01

    Soil moisture can be regarded as one of the important life sustaining entities on our planet. Among its various functions, the first is probably to enable the growth of vegetation on the land surface. Apart from this, water stored in soils plays many other important roles in the global water (and energy) cycle. In the past decades, radar imaging has proven its potential to quantitatively estimate the near surface water content of soils at high spatial resolutions. The use of active microwave data to measure surface soil moisture requires the consideration of several factors like e.g. soil texture, surface roughness, and vegetation. Among these factors, the presence of a vegetation cover is perhaps the major impediment to accurate quantitative retrievals of soil moisture. On the one hand, the vegetation has a disturbing effect on the radar reflectivity and thus causes errors in the soil moisture retrieval which is generally based on theoretical or experimental relationships between the dielectric properties of the soil surface and the radar backscattering coefficient. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of vegetation with e.g. different crop types with different transpiration coefficients and different phenological development, etc, can cause large variations in the plant water consumption and thus has a significant impact on the soil moisture patterns. We have developed methods to estimate the amount of biomass for different crop types and the underlying surface soil water content directly from polarimetric L-band SAR images. While the horizontally-transmit horizontally-receive co-polarization (hh) is most sensitive towards the dielectric soil properties, the horizontally-transmit vertically-receive cross-polarization (hv) is much more sensitive towards the backscattering from the vegetation canopy. In addition the polarimetric observables entropy (H), alpha angle (α), and the total reflected power (span), all of which are highly affected by the canopy conditions, are used to derive biomass information independently from the soil moisture retrieval. Nevertheless, the canopy still has an attenuation effect on the co-polarized backscattering, but this can be corrected by using the vegetation information obtained from the other SAR observables. For constant permittivity states of the soil surface the canopy can have a disturbing effect of up to 6dB. This is the same order of magnitude of dynamic range as observed for soil moisture values ranging from 10 - 40 Vol.-% over bare surfaces. The present study is focused on the Rur catchment (Germany) where the effect of different vegetation patterns on the spatial distribution of near-surface soil water content is investigated by comparison between ALOS PALSAR derived biomass and soil moisture maps. The findings show that the impact of vegetation on the near-surface moisture contents may vary considerably. For wet and intermediate soil conditions where enough water is available for transpiration it was observed that the near-surface moisture content tends to be higher on vegetated fields. This may be explained by the fact that the canopy hampers evaporations due to lack of air movement while the plants uptake water from deeper soil layers. However if the water supply is low the plant water consumption can also lead to accelerated drying of the soil surface. This was especially observed for cereal crops.

  10. Modeling soil freezing dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonally frozen soil strongly influences runoff and erosion on large areas of land around the world. In many areas, rain or snowmelt on seasonally frozen soil is the single leading cause of severe runoff and erosion events. As soils freeze, ice blocks the soil pores, greatly diminishing the permea...

  11. Spectral mixture analysis to assess post-fire vegetation regeneration using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery: Accounting for soil brightness variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veraverbeke, S.; Somers, B.; Gitas, I.; Katagis, T.; Polychronaki, A.; Goossens, R.

    2012-02-01

    Post-fire vegetation cover is a crucial parameter in rangeland management. This study aims to assess the post-fire vegetation recovery 3 years after the large 2007 Peloponnese (Greece) wildfires. Post-fire recovery landscapes typically are mixed vegetation-substrate environments which makes spectral mixture analysis (SMA) a very effective tool to derive fractional vegetation cover maps. Using a combination of field and simulation techniques this study aimed to account for the impact of background brightness variability on SMA model performance. The field data consisted out of a spectral library of in situ measured reflectance signals of vegetation and substrate and 78 line transect plots. In addition, a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scene was employed in the study. A simple SMA, in which each constituting terrain feature is represented by its mean spectral signature, a multiple endmember SMA (MESMA) and a segmented SMA, which accounts for soil brightness variations by forcing the substrate endmember choice based on ancillary data (lithological map), were applied. In the study area two main spectrally different lithological units were present: relatively bright limestone and relatively dark flysch (sand-siltstone). Although the simple SMA model resulted in reasonable regression fits for the flysch and limestones subsets separately (coefficient of determination R2 of respectively 0.67 and 0.72 between field and TM data), the performance of the regression model on the pooled dataset was considerably weaker ( R2 = 0.65). Moreover, the regression lines significantly diverged among the different subsets leading to systematic over-or underestimations of the vegetative fraction depending on the substrate type. MESMA did not solve the endmember variability issue. The MESMA model did not manage to select the proper substrate spectrum on a reliable basis due to the lack of shape differences between the flysch and limestone spectra,. The segmented SMA model which accounts for soil brightness variations minimized the variability problems. Compared to the simple SMA and MESMA models, the segmented SMA resulted in a higher overall correlation ( R2 = 0.70), its regression slope and intercept were more similar among the different substrate types and its resulting regression lines more closely resembled the expected one-one line. This paper demonstrates the improvement of a segmented approach in accounting for soil brightness variations in estimating vegetative cover using SMA. However, further research is required to evaluate the model's performance for other soil types, with other image data and at different post-fire timings.

  12. Heterogeneity as an index of anthropogenic disturbance of soil and vegetation in urban Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhevelev, H.; Sarah, P.

    2012-04-01

    The conditions of urban ecosystems depend on a wide range of anthropogenic factors, one of which is visitor pressure on urban parks. This study aims: (1) to analyze soil properties and vegetation characteristics of different open areas, and (2) to determine an index of disturbance for these areas, according to their spatial heterogeneity. The study was conducted in Tel-Aviv, and addressed two scales: (1) Land Use Units (municipal parks and vacant lots); and (2) Microenvironment (under tree, under bush, herbaceous area, lawn, and path). In each type of microenvironment, soil was sampled at seven points, from layers at two depths (0-2 and 5-10 cm). Before the sampling, penetration depth, litter biomass and vegetation characteristics (vegetation cover, number of species, and vegetation height) were determined in the field. In each soil sample gravimetric soil moisture and organic matter contents were determined, and pH, electrical conductivity and soluble-ion contents were measured in a 1:1 water extraction. The level of disturbance by visitors was scored for each microenvironment according to field evidence of trampling, such as lack of vegetation cover and litter biomass. The results show strong differences in soil properties among the various microenvironments: penetration depth ranged from a few millimeters up to ~ 3 cm; organic matter content from less than 1% to 10%; soil moisture content from a few percents to ~ 30%; electrical conductivity from ~ 0.3 to ~2 dS/m; sodium content from ~ 1 to 7.5 meq/kg; chlorine content from ~ 0.5 to ~9 meq/kg; and litter biomass from 0.5 to 1.4 kg/m2. The vegetation characteristics also varied among the microenvironments: vegetation cover ranged from 11 to 99 %; number of species from 2 to11; and vegetation height from 5 to 35 cm. In order to assess the level of heterogeneity of soil and vegetation, an integral index, based on the number of Duncan groups, has been calculated. Regarding the Scale of Land Use unit, it was found that the highest heterogeneity of soil characteristics corresponded with the lowest species richness. For the smaller-scale unit - Microenvironment - an index was developed that defines the status of disturbance, and it was used to sort the microenvironments into several groups. High correlation between percentiles and averages of soil properties was found for the microenvironments. This hints at a fractal structure of soil properties distribution at the microenvironment level.

  13. Application of a coupled vegetation competition and groundwater simulation model to study effects of sea level rise and storm surges on coastal vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teh, Su Yean; Turtora, Michael; DeAngelis, Don; Jiang Jiang; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Smith, Thomas; Koh, Hock Lye

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change poses challenges to areas such as low-lying coastal zones, where sea level rise (SLR) and storm-surge overwash events can have long-term effects on vegetation and on soil and groundwater salinities, posing risks of habitat loss critical to native species. An early warning system is urgently needed to predict and prepare for the consequences of these climate-related impacts on both the short-term dynamics of salinity in the soil and groundwater and the long-term effects on vegetation. For this purpose, the U.S. Geological Survey’s spatially explicit model of vegetation community dynamics along coastal salinity gradients (MANHAM) is integrated into the USGS groundwater model (SUTRA) to create a coupled hydrology–salinity–vegetation model, MANTRA. In MANTRA, the uptake of water by plants is modeled as a fluid mass sink term. Groundwater salinity, water saturation and vegetation biomass determine the water available for plant transpiration. Formulations and assumptions used in the coupled model are presented. MANTRA is calibrated with salinity data and vegetation pattern for a coastal area of Florida Everglades vulnerable to storm surges. A possible regime shift at that site is investigated by simulating the vegetation responses to climate variability and disturbances, including SLR and storm surges based on empirical information.

  14. Soil carbon storage and temperature sensitivity associated with shrub and graminoid vegetation in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley-Cook, J. I.; Petrenko, C. L.; Friedland, A. J.; Virginia, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic tundra is experiencing rapid change, including warming temperatures, shrub expansion and shifts in precipitation patterns. Environmental conditions and vegetation cover are strong controls on soil carbon storage, respiration, and temperature sensitivity of decomposition. Temperature control of soil organic matter processing is particularly important in permafrost soils, which contain more than two times the carbon in the atmosphere and exist at the freeze-thaw threshold. To investigate sensitivity of decomposition to abiotic controls in a heterogeneous landscape, we conducted a laboratory incubation experiment on mineral soils collected in shrub and graminoid vegetation types near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. We crossed temperature and moisture treatments and measured soil respiration rates over a seven-week incubation period. We measured soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations through elemental analysis and conducted sequential chemical extractions to measure carbon fractions and quantify soil carbon quality. Results show soils overlain by graminoids have higher carbon concentrations at shallow depth and respiration rates than soils overlain by shrub (mean ± 1 s.e. organic carbon concentration, 0-10 cm: graminoid = 68.7 ± 8.1 mg C * g soil-1, shrub = 48.8 ± 2.9 mg C * g soil-1). Temperature sensitivity was higher in graminoid soils, with no effect from soil moisture level. Carbon fractions and quality varied by vegetation type and profile depth. This study informs our understanding of the relationship between carbon quality and the temperature and moisture sensitivity of decomposition in western Greenland and demonstrates the importance of landscape heterogeneity in understanding soil carbon response to environmental drivers.

  15. A broad approach to abrupt boundaries: looking beyond the boundary at soil attributes within and across tropical vegetation types.

    PubMed

    Warman, Laura; Bradford, Matt G; Moles, Angela T

    2013-01-01

    Most research on boundaries between vegetation types emphasizes the contrasts and similarities between conditions on either side of a boundary, but does not compare boundary to non-boundary vegetation. That is, most previous studies lack suitable controls, and may therefore overlook underlying aspects of landscape variability at a regional scale and underestimate the effects that the vegetation itself has on the soil. We compared 25 soil chemistry variables in rainforest, sclerophyll vegetation and across rainforest-sclerophyll boundaries in north-eastern Queensland, Australia. Like previous studies, we did find some contrasts in soil chemistry across vegetation boundaries. However we did not find greater variation in chemical parameters across boundary transects than in transects set in either rainforest or woodland. We also found that soil on both sides of the boundary is more similar to "rainforest soil" than to "woodland soil". Transects in wet sclerophyll forests with increasing degrees of rainforest invasion showed that as rainforest invades wet sclerophyll forest, the soil beneath wet sclerophyll forest becomes increasingly similar to rainforest soil. Our results have implications for understanding regional vegetation dynamics. Considering soil-vegetation feedbacks and the differences between soil at boundaries and in non-boundary sites may hold clues to some of the processes that occur across and between vegetation types in a wide range of ecosystems. Finally, we suggest that including appropriate controls should become standard practice for studies of vegetation boundaries and edge effects worldwide. PMID:23593312

  16. Bacterial Community Responses to Soils along a Latitudinal and Vegetation Gradient on the Loess Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Quanchao; Dong, Yanghong; An, Shaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacterial communities play an important role in nutrient recycling and storage in terrestrial ecosystems. Loess soils are one of the most important soil resources for maintaining the stability of vegetation ecosystems and are mainly distributed in northwest China. Estimating the distributions and affecting factors of soil bacterial communities associated with various types of vegetation will inform our understanding of the effect of vegetation restoration and climate change on these processes. In this study, we collected soil samples from 15 sites from north to south on the Loess Plateau of China that represent different ecosystem types and analyzed the distributions of soil bacterial communities by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. The results showed that the 142444 sequences were grouped into 36816 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. The results of the analysis showed that the dominant taxonomic phyla observed in all samples were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the two most abundant groups in all samples. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased from 14.73% to 40.22% as the ecosystem changed from forest to sandy, while the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased from 35.35% to 21.40%. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria had significant correlations with mean annual precipitation (MAP), pH, and soil moisture and nutrients. MAP was significantly correlated with soil chemical and physical properties. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes correlated significantly with MAP, suggesting that MAP was a key factor that affected the soil bacterial community composition. However, along with the MAP gradient, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria had narrow ranges that did not significantly vary with the soil and environmental factors. Overall, we conclude that the edaphic properties and/or vegetation types are driving bacterial community composition. MAP was a key factor that affects the composition of the soil bacteria on the Loess Plateau of China. PMID:27045518

  17. Bacterial Community Responses to Soils along a Latitudinal and Vegetation Gradient on the Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Quanchao; Dong, Yanghong; An, Shaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacterial communities play an important role in nutrient recycling and storage in terrestrial ecosystems. Loess soils are one of the most important soil resources for maintaining the stability of vegetation ecosystems and are mainly distributed in northwest China. Estimating the distributions and affecting factors of soil bacterial communities associated with various types of vegetation will inform our understanding of the effect of vegetation restoration and climate change on these processes. In this study, we collected soil samples from 15 sites from north to south on the Loess Plateau of China that represent different ecosystem types and analyzed the distributions of soil bacterial communities by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. The results showed that the 142444 sequences were grouped into 36816 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. The results of the analysis showed that the dominant taxonomic phyla observed in all samples were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the two most abundant groups in all samples. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased from 14.73% to 40.22% as the ecosystem changed from forest to sandy, while the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased from 35.35% to 21.40%. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria had significant correlations with mean annual precipitation (MAP), pH, and soil moisture and nutrients. MAP was significantly correlated with soil chemical and physical properties. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes correlated significantly with MAP, suggesting that MAP was a key factor that affected the soil bacterial community composition. However, along with the MAP gradient, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria had narrow ranges that did not significantly vary with the soil and environmental factors. Overall, we conclude that the edaphic properties and/or vegetation types are driving bacterial community composition. MAP was a key factor that affects the composition of the soil bacteria on the Loess Plateau of China. PMID:27045518

  18. Groundwater decline, vegetation change, and surface soil stability in a semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, A. J.; Kaste, J. M.; Vest, K. R.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater resources provide water to human populations within arid and semi-arid environments globally. In many regions, shallow groundwater has been overexploited, breaking a poorly understood link between above- and belowground processes in ecosystems dominated by groundwater dependent vegetation. Of particular importance are connections between groundwater and vegetation cover, soil resources, and surface soil stability. Although groundwater is thought to increase the risk of dust emissions from non- vegetated playas (a process that characterizes many of the dustiest places on earth) little is known regarding dust emissions from terrain covered by groundwater dependent vegetation. In a multi-year study of these effects in Owens Valley California, we are integrating field measurements of plant community composition, soil stability, and groundwater depth with remotely sensed measurements of vegetation cover with the goal of elucidating the processes behind ecosystem change in a groundwater dependent ecosystem. We have identified a strong non-linear response between vegetation cover from remote sensing and groundwater decline. This response includes a threshold in groundwater depth, which separates groundwater and precipitation driven vegetation dynamics. At sites where groundwater went below this threshold, a shift towards dominance by more deeply rooted shrub vegetation and unstable surface soils is qualitatively evident. Quantitative evidence from fallout radionuclide concentrations suggests that surface soil stability is lower in regions of groundwater decline, but there is significant within-site variability. Although fine sediments might be winnowed away, groundwater affected sites appear to be characterized by a reorganization of sediments from the inter-canopy zone, where more shallowly rooted grasses were once dominant, to the canopy zones surrounding deeper-rooted shrubs. Therefore, our preliminary finding is that the resource island desertification hypothesis holds for groundwater dependent plant communities subjected to groundwater pumping. Continued study of the processes behind these changes is extremely relevant to groundwater management.

  19. Effect of long term organic amendments and vegetation of vineyard soils on the microscale distribution and biogeochemistry of copper.

    PubMed

    Navel, Aline; Martins, Jean M F

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of the long term organic management of a vineyard-soil on the biogeochemistry of copper at the micro-aggregate scale. The model vineyard-soil (Mâcon-France) experienced a long-term field-experiment that consisted in amendments and vegetations with various materials and plants. We studied specifically the effect of Straw (S) and Conifer Compost (CC) organic amendments and Clover (Cl) and Fescue (F) vegetation on the fate of copper (fungicide) in the surface layer of this loamy soil, through a comparison with the Non Amended soil (NA). After collection the five soils were immediately physically fractionated in order to obtain 5 granulometric size-fractions. All soils and size-fractions were quantitatively characterized in terms of granulometry, chemical content and copper distribution, speciation and bioavailability to bacteria and plants. The results showed strong increases of soil-constituents aggregation for all treatments (Cl>CC>S>F>NA), in relation with the increased cementation of soil-constituents by organic matter (OM). The distribution patterns of all major elements and organic carbon were found highly variable within the soil sub-fractions and also between the 5 treatments. Due to their specific inorganic and organic composition, soil sub-fractions can thus be considered as a specific microbial habitat. Added OM accumulated preferentially in the 20-2 μm and in the >250 μm of the 5 soils. The distribution patterns of copper as well as its speciation and bioavailability to bacteria in the soil sub-fractions were shown to be strongly different among the five soils, in relation with OM distribution. Our results also suggest that Cu-bioavailability to plants is controlled by soil-rhizosphere structure. Altogether our results permitted to show that long-term organic management of a vineyard soil induced stable modifications of soil physical and chemical properties at both macro and micro-scales. These modifications affected in turn the micro-scale biogeochemistry of copper, and especially its bioavailability to bacteria and plants. PMID:23959219

  20. Influence of vegetation spatial heterogeneity on soil enzyme activity in burned Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Á. G.; Goirán, S.; Bautista, S.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly considered resilient to wildfires. However, depending on fire severity and recurrence, post-fire climatic conditions and plant community type, the recovery rate of the vegetation can greatly vary. Often, the post-fire vegetation cover remains low and sparsely distributed many years after the wildfire, which could have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning. In this work, we studied the influence of vegetation patchiness on soil enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase and urease), at the patch and landscape scales, in degraded dry Mediterranean shrublands affected by wildfires. At the patch scale, we assessed the variation in soil enzyme between bare soils and vegetation patches. At the landscape scale, we studied the relationships between soil enzyme activity and various landscape metrics (total patch cover, average interpatch length, average patch width, and patch density). The study was conducted in 19 sites in the Valencia Region (eastern Spain), which had been affected by large wildfires in 1991. Site selection aimed at capturing a wide range of the variability of post-fire plant recovery rates in Mediterranean areas. The activities of the three enzymes were significantly higher in soils under the vegetation canopies than in adjacent bare areas, which we attributed to the effect of plants on the soil amount of both enzyme substrates and enzymes. The differences between bare and plant microsites were larger in the case of the acid phosphatase and less marked for urease. The activity of acid phosphatase was also higher under patches of resprouter species than under patches of seeder species, probably due to the faster post-fire recovery and older age of resprouter patches in fire-prone ecosystems. Soil enzyme activities of β-glucosidase and urease in both bare soils and vegetation patches showed no relationships with any of the landscape metrics analysed. However, the activity of acid phosphatase increased linearly with the total cover of vegetation patches, which is consistent with the strong effect of plant patches on the activity of this enzyme. According to our results, variations in the cover and composition of vegetation patches may have profound impacts on the soil enzyme activity and associated nutrient cycling processes in burned Mediterranean areas, particularly in the case of phosphorus. Keywords: wildfires, landscape metrics, Mediterranean shrublands, soil enzyme activity, resprouter species.

  1. Ad Hoc Modeling of Root Zone Soil Water with Landsat Imagery and Terrain and Soils Data

    PubMed Central

    Sankey, Joel B.; Lawrence, Rick L.; Wraith, Jon M.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural producers require knowledge of soil water at plant rooting depths, while many remote sensing studies have focused on surface soil water or mechanistic models that are not easily parameterized. We developed site-specific empirical models to predict spring soil water content for two Montana ranches. Calibration data sample sizes were based on the estimated variability of soil water and the desired level of precision for the soil water estimates. Models used Landsat imagery, a digital elevation model, and a soil survey as predictor variables. Our objectives were to see whether soil water could be predicted accurately with easily obtainable calibration data and predictor variables and to consider the relative influence of the three sources of predictor variables. Independent validation showed that multiple regression models predicted soil water with average error (RMSD) within 0.04 mass water content. This was similar to the accuracy expected based on a statistical power test based on our sample size (n = 41 and n = 50). Improved prediction precision could be achieved with additional calibration samples, and range managers can readily balance the desired level of precision with the amount of effort to collect calibration data. Spring soil water prediction effectively utilized a combination of land surface imagery, terrain data, and subsurface soil characterization data. Ranchers could use accurate spring soil water content predictions to set stocking rates. Such management can help ensure that water, soil, and vegetation resources are used conservatively in irrigated and non-irrigated rangeland systems.

  2. Variation in Soil Respiration Across an Alpine Soil Moisture and Vegetation Community Gradient at Niwot Ridge, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, J. F.; Blanken, P.; Williams, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    The alpine tundra is a mosaic of comingled vegetation communities that vary predominantly as a function of landscape position, micro-scale topography, subsurface permeability, and resultant soil moisture availability. We characterized the spatio-temporal variability of soil respiration from 17 alpine tundra sites across an irregular soil moisture gradient within the footprint of ongoing eddy covariance measurements over the 2011 (wet year) and 2012 (dry year) growing seasons. We then used a soil moisture threshold as a proxy to separate the sites into fellfield, dry/moist meadow, and wet meadow tundra vegetation communities. Soil moisture and soil respiration were significantly correlated across all communities (p << 0.001), but increasing soil moisture invoked a bidirectional response from fellfield and dry/moist meadow communities (directly proportional) relative to wet meadow communities (inversely proportional). Soil temperature and soil respiration were not significantly correlated. Linearly interpolating between sampling dates, the cumulative soil respiration flux over the two growing seasons ranged from 595 to 3177 g CO2 m-2, and median fluxes were 1114, 1679, and 1400 g CO2 m-2 for fellfield, dry/moist meadow, and wet meadow sites, respectively. Ecosystem respiration from nighttime eddy covariance measurements was 618 g CO2 m-2 over the same period, suggesting that soil respiration fluxes from very dry fellfield tundra disproportionately influenced the eddy covariance data. Overall, cumulative soil respiration was 50% greater in the wet year (2011) relative to the dry year (2012); therefore increased precipitation has the potential to increase soil respiration from alpine tundra as a whole.

  3. [Residue and Degradation of Roxarsone in the System of Soil-Vegetable].

    PubMed

    Shao, Ting; Yao, Chun-xia; Shen, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Yu-jie; Su, Nan-nan; Zhou, Shou-biao

    2015-08-01

    The field experiment was developed for simulating the residues, transformation and degradation in soil-vegetable system of Roxarsone contained in organic fertilizer. Under the treatment, the yield of Brassica chinensis decreased in low Roxarsone concentration with a decline by 15% to 32% compared with the control group; there had an accumulating role of vegetables to arsenic, and the root was the main part; total content of arsenic in the soil was positively correlated with the dose of the applied Roxarsone; total arsenic in soil first increased and then decreased with the planting time prolonged and peaked at 12.94 mg x kg(-1), while the level of inorganic arsenic in the soil stabilized after 30 d, which accounting for 66.75% to 98.56% of the total arsenic; there existed a positively significant correlation of total arsenic content between the Brassica chinensis and the soil as well as the arsenic enrichment factor of vegetables; the degradation rate of Roxarsone in soil was slow, there was still some Roxarsone remained in soil after 45 d when added the organic fertilizer which containing Roxarsone with the dose higher than 5 000 kg x hm(-2); Roxarsone could significantly increase the number of bacteria in the soil, and low concentration showed an inhibited role in the growth of fungi and actinomyces, while high concentration of Roxarsone promoted the growth. PMID:26592042

  4. Technique for assessing vegetation-induced moisture flux, with implications for global climate modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macari, Emir Jose

    1990-01-01

    The time between storms, the duration of storms, and the storm depths are studied in relation to vegetation controls on the disposition of rainfall. It is proposed that understanding the movement of water between the vegetation and soil (including evapotranspiration and infiltration) will be the gateway for modeling atmospheric flux and improving global climate models. The overall objective goal of the proposed research effort is to develop a field/lab methodology which will provide a better understanding of vegetation induced water movement. Water flow initiated from stem flow of wooded slopes feeds soil water pathways, which in turn feed the deeper ground water system and give rise to stream response. This is balanced by more water inputs via throughfall, where it percolates the soil matrix and allows much greater rates of evapotranspiration and atmospheric/soil moisture flux. This research study seeks to gain an understanding of the effect of vegetation on soil moisture, and the effect of this differential wetting on resulting evapotranspiration and atmospheric flux.

  5. Vegetation effects on soil water erosion rates and nutrient losses at Santa Catarina highlands, south Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, I.; Barbosa, F. T.; Vidal Vázquez, E.; Paz Ferreiro, J.

    2009-04-01

    Water erosion involves three main processes: detachment, transport and deposition of soil particles. The main factors affecting water erosion are rainfall, soil, topography, soil management and land cover and use. Soil erosion potential is increased if the soil has no or very little vegetative cover of plants and/or crop residues, whereas plant and residue cover substantially decrease rates of soil erosion. Plant and residue cover protects the soil from raindrop impact and splash, tends to slow down the movement of surface runoff and allows excess surface water to infiltrate. Moreover, plant and residue cover improve soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Soils with improved structure have a greater resistance to erosion. By contrast, accelerated soil erosion is accentuated by deforestation, biomass burning, plowing and disking, cultivation of open-row crops, etc. The erosion-reducing effectiveness of plant and/or residue covers depends on the type, extent and quantity of cover. Vegetation and residue combinations that completely cover the soil are the most efficient in controlling soil. Partially incorporated residues and residual roots are also important, as these provide channels that allow surface water to move into the soil. The effectiveness of any crop, management system or protective cover also depends on how much protection is available at various periods during the year, relative to the amount of erosive rainfall that falls during these periods. Most of the erosion on annual row crop land can be reduced by leaving a residue cover greater after harvest and over the winter months, or by inter-seeding a forage crop. Soil erosion potential is also affected by tillage operations and tillage system. Conservation tillage reduces water erosion in relation to conventional tillage by increasing soil cover and soil surface roughness. Here, we review the effect of vegetation on soil erosion in the Santa Catarina highlands, south of Brazil, under subtropical climatic conditions. The area cropped under no tillage in Brazil has increased rapidly since 1990, especially in the southern region. This practice was first introduced in the 1970s as a strategy to control soil erosion and continuous declines in land productivity under conventional tillage systems. No tillage almost entirely keeps the previous crop residue on the surface. In the last 15 years soil and water losses by water erosion have been quantified for different soil tillage systems, diverse crop rotations and successive crop stages under simulated and natural rain conditions. Plot experiments showed that soil losses under no tillage systems with a vegetative cover were 98% lower when compared with conventionally tilled bare soil. Moreover water losses were 60% lower for these conditions. Conventional tillage (plowing + harrowing) in the presence of vegetative cover reduced soil losses and water losses by 80% and 50%, respectively, taken the uncultivated bare soil as a reference. The review includes the effect of vegetative cover on nutrient losses at the studied sites in the Santa Catarina highlands.

  6. Estimation of effective hydrologic properties of soils from observations of vegetation density. M.S. Thesis; [water balance of watersheds in Clinton, Maine and Santa Paula, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tellers, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    An existing one-dimensional model of the annual water balance is reviewed. Slight improvements are made in the method of calculating the bare soil component of evaporation, and in the way surface retention is handled. A natural selection hypothesis, which specifies the equilibrium vegetation density for a given, water limited, climate-soil system, is verified through comparisons with observed data and is employed in the annual water balance of watersheds in Clinton, Ma., and Santa Paula, Ca., to estimate effective areal average soil properties. Comparison of CDF's of annual basin yield derived using these soil properties with observed CDF's provides excellent verification of the soil-selection procedure. This method of parameterization of the land surface should be useful with present global circulation models, enabling them to account for both the non-linearity in the relationship between soil moisture flux and soil moisture concentration, and the variability of soil properties from place to place over the Earth's surface.

  7. Correlations of Soil C and N With Vegetation and Soil Attributes and Their Spatial Scaling in a Subtropical Savanna Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Bai, E.; Wu, B.; Archer, S.; Boutton, T.

    2005-12-01

    Invasion of woody plants into grass-dominated ecosystems has occurred worldwide. At present, there is no clear consensus as to whether soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools increase, decrease, or remain unchanged following shifts from grass to woody plant domination. The purpose of this study was to quantify correlations of soil C and N with soil and vegetation parameters and their spatial scaling properties along a topoedaphic gradient in a subtropical savanna in the Southern Great Plains (Texas) where woody cover is known to have increased over the past 100 years. Variables measured along a 309 m upland-to-lowland catena gradient included soil bulk density, soil particle size distribution, grass and forb biomass, shrub and tree basal diameter, litter and root biomass, and soil C and soil N (0-15 cm). Results indicated that vegetation cover was an important determinant of soil C and N, and that soil C and N mass have increased since woody plant invasion. Mantel tests showed that soil C and N are spatially autocorrelated. Based on correlation analyses with a modified t-test that corrected for autocorrelation, litter and root biomass had strongest correlation with soil C and N. Soil bulk density, shrub basal area, and tree basal area are also significantly correlated with soil C and N. Relationships between grass biomass and soil C and N differed in herbaceous vs. woody dominated patches. The scale of the spatial patterns of soil C and N was about 45m based on quadrat variance methods and corresponded approximately to the distance between the centers of dominant woody patches and the adjacent herbaceous patches. Soil C, N, litter, root biomass, shrub and tree basal area exhibited similar scaling characteristics and differed from those of grass biomass and soil bulk density. Spatial scaling of soil C and N was more strongly related to that of litter and root biomass than to the basal area of neighboring trees and shrubs. This suggests increases in near surface soil C and N accompanying woody plant encroachment is related to production and turnover of litter and root biomass. These, in turn, are likely related to local leaf biomass which increases logarithmically with basal area. This knowledge of scaling and correlations will facilitate efforts to extrapolate point estimates of ecosystem properties to landscapes and regions.

  8. Soil moisture characteristics and implications for vegetation regeneration in Sudan during the period 1965-2005.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Haj El Tahir, M.; Xu, C.; Zengxin, Z.

    2012-04-01

    This study aims at better understanding the soil moisture (SM) characteristics as fundamental factors for vegetation regeneration in Sudan during the period 1965-2005. The Mann Kendall (MK) analysis was used to test the trend in the average monthly soil moisture (SM), rainfall and temperature data. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was selected to study the SM, rainfall and temperature relations because it accounts for the local spatial variability and non-stationarity of these variables. To further understand dry and wet variations in terms of regeneration demand, the aridity index (AI) was used. The results of (MK) test showed that there were decreasing trends of SM on an annual and seasonal level and that the trend was less dramatic or softer in the dry season (November-April) than the wet season (May- October). That soil moisture variability followed closely that of rainfall and temperature, although there was a hint that SM variability followed temperature changes more closely than rainfall. The (GWR) model gave optimal results in semi-arid central Sudan. In the north due to lack of rainfall and in the south due to plant heterogeneity, the model did not perform so well. The spatio-temporal variability of the (AI) showed that the long-term average of (AI) was affected by the reported decline in rainfall during 1965-1985. The decadal (AI) average of 1995-2005 gave evidence of increases in rainfall that are reported since the mid-nineties. (AI) performed well in reflecting the wet conditions in Sudan. Very rare are the studies of soil moisture in Sudan, especially in the through way that is presented here.

  9. Utilization of vegetation indices to improve microwave soil moisture estimates over agricultural lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theis, S. W.; Blanchard, B. J.; Newton, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A technique is presented by means of which visible/near-IR data are used to develop corrections in remotely sensed microwave soil moisture signals, in order to account for vegetation effects. Visible/IR data collected with the NASA NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator were used to calculate the Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI), which was then related to the change of sensitivity of the microwave measurement to surface soil moisture. Effective estimation of soil moisture in the presence of vegetation can be made with L-band microwave radiometers and visible/IR sensors when the PVI is lower than 4.3. This technique offers a means for the estimation of moisture from a space platform over many agricultural areas, without expensive ground data collection.

  10. Biotic carbon feedbacks in a materially closed soil-vegetation-atmosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milcu, Alexandru; Lukac, Martin; Subke, Jens-Arne; Manning, Pete; Heinemeyer, Andreas; Wildman, Dennis; Anderson, Robert; Ineson, Phil

    2012-04-01

    The magnitude and direction of the coupled feedbacks between the biotic and abiotic components of the terrestrial carbon cycle is a major source of uncertainty in coupled climate-carbon-cycle models. Materially closed, energetically open biological systems continuously and simultaneously allow the two-way feedback loop between the biotic and abiotic components to take place, but so far have not been used to their full potential in ecological research, owing to the challenge of achieving sustainable model systems. We show that using materially closed soil-vegetation-atmosphere systems with pro rata carbon amounts for the main terrestrial carbon pools enables the establishment of conditions that balance plant carbon assimilation, and autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration fluxes over periods suitable to investigate short-term biotic carbon feedbacks. Using this approach, we tested an alternative way of assessing the impact of increased CO2 and temperature on biotic carbon feedbacks. The results show that without nutrient and water limitations, the short-term biotic responses could potentially buffer a temperature increase of 2.3°C without significant positive feedbacks to atmospheric CO2. We argue that such closed-system research represents an important test-bed platform for model validation and parameterization of plant and soil biotic responses to environmental changes.

  11. Physically-based parameterization of spatially variable soil and vegetation using satellite multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Eagleson, Peter S.

    1989-01-01

    A stochastic-geometric landsurface reflectance model is formulated and tested for the parameterization of spatially variable vegetation and soil at subpixel scales using satellite multispectral images without ground truth. Landscapes are conceptualized as 3-D Lambertian reflecting surfaces consisting of plant canopies, represented by solid geometric figures, superposed on a flat soil background. A computer simulation program is developed to investigate image characteristics at various spatial aggregations representative of satellite observational scales, or pixels. The evolution of the shape and structure of the red-infrared space, or scattergram, of typical semivegetated scenes is investigated by sequentially introducing model variables into the simulation. The analytical moments of the total pixel reflectance, including the mean, variance, spatial covariance, and cross-spectral covariance, are derived in terms of the moments of the individual fractional cover and reflectance components. The moments are applied to the solution of the inverse problem: The estimation of subpixel landscape properties on a pixel-by-pixel basis, given only one multispectral image and limited assumptions on the structure of the landscape. The landsurface reflectance model and inversion technique are tested using actual aerial radiometric data collected over regularly spaced pecan trees, and using both aerial and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data obtained over discontinuous, randomly spaced conifer canopies in a natural forested watershed. Different amounts of solar backscattered diffuse radiation are assumed and the sensitivity of the estimated landsurface parameters to those amounts is examined.

  12. Does vegetation type matter? Plant-soil interactions change urban rain garden hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M. R.; Balster, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    Residential infiltration basins or rain gardens are being installed at an ever-increasing rate across the urban landscape, yet their impact on the urban hydrologic cycle remains largely untested. Specifically, because rain garden design varies considerably, we know little about how plant-soil dynamics control their hydrologic function. In a controlled field experiment with closed-system rain gardens, we tested the hydrologic response of three vegetation treatments common in rain garden design (shrubs, wet-mesic prairie, turfgrass). We used a complete, randomized block design in which each vegetative treatment was replicated three times. Each rain garden represented 17% of a contributing roof area where stormwater was collected and then applied following precipitation events. We continuously monitored stormwater input, soil water content, and soil exfiltration to assess differences in the hydrologic function of each rain garden. Overall, vegetation type significantly changed the magnitude and timing of the hydrologic response. During the months of June and July, 2009, the rain gardens planted with shrubs, prairie, and turfgrass all reduced the volume of soil exfiltration by 50%, 30%, and 17%, respectively, relative to the non-vegetated controls. Similarly, depending on storm magnitude and antecedent soil moisture, vegetation type significantly decreased the mean peak flow rate of exfiltration (p < 0.001), as well as the duration of the exfiltration response (p < 0.0001). The flashiest hydrologic responses (i.e. shortest lag time, highest peak flow rate) were observed in the turfgrass gardens. We explain these vegetative-mediated responses in hydrology relative to differences in infiltration, aboveground dry mass, root dynamics, and transpirative loss. Our data suggest that changing the vegetation type of urban rain gardens yields marked differences in the hydrologic budget via shifts in ecohydrological processes.

  13. Coincidence and spatial variability of geology, soils, and vegetation, Mill Run watershed, Virginia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, C.G.; Hupp, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Mill Run watershed is a structurally-controlled synclinal basin on the eastern limb of the Massanutten Mountain complex of NW Virginia. Bedrock contacts are obscured by coarse sandstone debris from exposures near basin divides. Colluvium blankets more than half the basin, masking geomorphic surfaces, affecting vegetation patterns, and contributing to the convexity of the alluvial, terrace, pediment and erosion surfaces. Vegetation is strongly interdependent with geomorphology, bedrock geology, and soils. - from Authors

  14. Mapping the spectral variability in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic vegetation, soils, and shade using AVIRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Smith, Milton O.; Sabol, Donald E.; Adams, John B.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to map as many spectrally distinct types of green vegetation (GV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), shade, and soil (endmembers) in an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) scene as is warranted by the spectral variability of the data. Once determined, a secondary objective was to interpret these endmembers and their abundances spatially and spectrally in an ecological context.

  15. Post Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplow, J. S.; Beresford, N. A.; Barnett, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    The dataset "Post Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain" was developed to enable data collected by the Natural Environment Research Council after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. Data for samples collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl) to spring 1997 are presented. Additional data to radiocaesium concentrations are presented where available. The data have value in trying to assess the contribution of new sources of radiocaesium in the environment, providing baseline data for future planned releases and to aid the development and testing of models. The data are freely available for non-commercial use under Open Government Licence terms and conditions. doi:10.5285/7a5cfd3e-0247-4228-873d-5be563c4ee3b

  16. Soils under conservation agriculture with vegetables in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smallholder vegetable farmers in Siem Reap, Cambodia experienced declining crop productivity. It could be a result of a mixture of factors such as nutrient and pest problems and extreme weather events such as droughts and/or heavy rains. The no-till, continuous mulch and diverse species principles o...

  17. Assessment of Fluoride Concentration of Soil and Vegetables in Vicinity of Zinc Smelter, Debari, Udaipur, Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Singh, Anukriti; Gandhi, Neha; Gupta, Vivek Vardhan

    2015-01-01

    Background As of late, natural contamination has stimulated as a reaction of mechanical and other human exercises. In India, with the expanding industrialization, numerous unsafe substances are utilized or are discharged amid generation as cleans, exhaust, vapours and gasses. These substances at last are blended in the earth and causes health hazards. Objective To determine concentration of fluoride in soils and vegetables grown in the vicinity of Zinc Smelter, Debari, Udaipur, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods Samples of vegetables and soil were collected from areas situated at 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10 km distance from the zinc smelter, Debari. Three samples of vegetables (i.e. Cabbage, Onion and Tomato) and 3 samples of soil {one sample from the upper layer of soil (i.e. 0 to 20 cm) and one from the deep layer (i.e. 20 – 40 cm)} at each distance were collected. The soil and vegetable samples were sealed in clean polythene bags and transported to the laboratory for analysis. One sample each of water and fertilizer from each distance were also collected. Results The mean fluoride concentration in the vegetables grown varied between 0.36 ± 0.69 to 0.71 ± 0.90 ppm. The fluoride concentration in fertilizer and water sample from various distances was found to be in the range of 1.4 – 1.5 ppm and 1.8 – 1.9 ppm respectively. Conclusion The fluoride content of soil and vegetables was found to be higher in places near to the zinc smelter. PMID:26557620

  18. Relations between soil moisture and satellite vegetation indices in the U.S. Corn Belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adegoke, Jimmy O.; Carleton, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite-derived vegetation indices extracted over locations representative of midwestern U.S. cropland and forest for the period 1990-94 are analyzed to determine the sensitivity of the indices to neutron probe soil moisture measurements of the Illinois Climate Network (ICN). The deseasoned (i.e., departures from multiyear mean annual cycle) soil moisture measurements are shown to be weakly correlated with the deseasoned full resolution (1 km ?? 1 km) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and fractional vegetation cover (FVC) data over both land cover types. The association, measured by the Pearson-moment-correlation coefficient, is stronger over forest than over cropland during the growing season (April-September). The correlations improve successively when the NDVI and FVC pixel data are aggregated to 3 km ?? 3 km, 5 km ?? 5 km, and 7 km ?? 7 km areas. The improved correlations are partly explained by the reduction in satellite navigation errors as spatial aggregation occurs, as well as the apparent scale dependence of the NDVI-soil moisture association. Similarly, stronger relations are obtained with soil moisture data that are lagged by up to 8 weeks with respect to the vegetation indices, implying that soil moisture may be a useful predictor of warm season satellite-derived vegetation conditions. This study suggests that a "long-term" memory of several weeks is present in the near-surface hydrological characteristics, especially soil water content, of the Midwest Corn Belt. The memory is integrated into the satellite vegetation indices and may be us??eful for predicting crop yield estimates and surface temperature anomalies.

  19. Understory vegetation leads to changes in soil acidity and in microbial communities 27 years after reforestation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoli; Yang, Fengting; Wang, Jianlei; Di, Yuebao; Dai, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with potted plants and removed understories have indicated that understory vegetation often affects the chemical and microbial properties of soil. In this study, we examined the mechanism and extent of the influence of understory vegetation on the chemical and microbial properties of soil in plantation forests. The relationships between the vegetational structure (diversity for different functional layers, aboveground biomass of understory vegetation, and species number) and soil properties (pH, microbial community structure, and levels of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and inorganic nitrogen) were analyzed across six reforestation types (three pure needleleaf forests, a needle-broadleaf mixed forest, a broadleaf forest, and a shrubland). Twenty-seven years after reforestation, soil pH significantly decreased by an average of 0.95 across reforestation types. Soil pH was positively correlated with the aboveground biomass of the understory. The levels of total, bacterial, and fungal phospholipid fatty acids, and the fungal:bacterial ratios were similar in the shrubland and the broadleaf forest. Both the aboveground biomass of the understory and the diversity of the tree layer positively influenced the fungal:bacterial ratio. Improving the aboveground biomass of the understory could alleviate soil acidification. An increase in the aboveground biomass of the understory, rather than in understory diversity, enhanced the functional traits of the soil microbial communities. The replacement of pure plantations with mixed-species stands, as well as the enhancement of understory recruitment, can improve the ecological functions of a plantation, as measured by the alleviation of soil acidification and increased fungal dominance. PMID:25261818

  20. The Soil Biota Composition along a Progressive Succession of Secondary Vegetation in a Karst Area

    PubMed Central

    He, Xunyang; Liu, Lu; Wang, Kelin

    2014-01-01

    Karst ecosystems are fragile and are in many regions degraded by anthropogenic activities. Current management of degraded karst areas focuses on aboveground vegetation succession or recovery and aims at establishing a forest ecosystem. Whether progressive succession of vegetation in karst areas is accompanied by establishment of soil biota is poorly understood. In the present study, soil microbial and nematode communities, as well as soil physico-chemical properties were studied along a progressive succession of secondary vegetation (from grassland to shrubland to forest) in a karst area in southwest China. Microbial biomass, nematode density, ratio of fungal to bacterial biomass, nematode structure index, and nematode enrichment index decreased with the secondary succession in the plant community. Overall, the results indicated a pattern of declines in soil biota abundance and food web complexity that was associated with a decrease in soil pH and a decrease in soil organic carbon content with the progressive secondary succession of the plant community. Our findings suggest that soil biota amendment is necessary during karst ecosystem restoration and establishment and management of grasslands may be feasible in karst areas. PMID:25379741

  1. [Sizes of soil macropores and related main affecting factors on a vegetated basalt slope].

    PubMed

    Guan, Qi; Xu, Ze-Min; Tian, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The landslide on vegetated slopes caused by extreme weather has being increased steadily, and the preferential flow in soil macropores plays an important role in the landslide. By using water breakthrough curve and Poiseuille equation, this paper estimated the radius range, amount, and average volume of soil macropores on a vegetated basalt slope of Maka Mountain, Southwest China, and analyzed the distribution of the soil macropores and the main affecting factors. In the study area, the radius of soil macropores ranged from 0.3 to 1.8 mm, mainly between 0.5 and 1.2 mm. The large-radius macropores (1.4-1.8 mm) were lesser, while the small-radius macropores (< 1.4 mm) were more. With the development of soil profile, soil macropores were more in upper layers and lesser in deeper layers. The average volume of the macropores contributed 84.7% to the variance of steady effluent rate. Among the factors affecting the average volume of the large macropores, vegetations root mass had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.70, and soil organic matter content also had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.64. PMID:24483084

  2. Anthropogenic impact on the presence of L. monocytogenes in soil, fruits, and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Barbara; Szymczak, Mariusz; Sawicki, Wojciech; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in soil samples with reference to type of fertilizers (natural and artificial) and distance from places intensively exploited by men, as well as to determine the relationship between the presence of L. monocytogenes in the soil and in fruits and vegetables. The examined 1,000 soil samples originated from 15 different areas, whilst 140 samples of fruits and 210 samples of vegetables were collected from those areas. L. monocytogenes was isolated only from 5.5 % of all soil samples coming exclusively from meadows intensively grazed by cattle (27.8 %) and areas near food processing plants (25 %) and wild animal forests (24 %). Listeria sp. and L. monocytogenes were not present on artificially fertilized areas and wastelands. L. monocytogenes was detected in 10 % of samples of strawberry, 15 % of potato samples, and 5 % of parsley samples. Our data indicate that Listeria spp. and particularly L. monocytogenes were found in the soil from (1) arable lands fertilized with manure, (2) pasture (the land fertilized with feces of domestic animals), and (3) forests (again, the land fertilized with feces of animals, not domestic but wild). The bacteria were not detected in the soil samples collected at (1) artificially fertilized arable lands and (2) wastelands (the lands that were not fertilized with manure or animal feces). Moreover, a correlation was determined in the presence of L. monocytogenes between soil samples and samples of the examined fruits and vegetables. PMID:23775320

  3. The soil biota composition along a progressive succession of secondary vegetation in a karst area.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Li, Shengping; He, Xunyang; Liu, Lu; Wang, Kelin

    2014-01-01

    Karst ecosystems are fragile and are in many regions degraded by anthropogenic activities. Current management of degraded karst areas focuses on aboveground vegetation succession or recovery and aims at establishing a forest ecosystem. Whether progressive succession of vegetation in karst areas is accompanied by establishment of soil biota is poorly understood. In the present study, soil microbial and nematode communities, as well as soil physico-chemical properties were studied along a progressive succession of secondary vegetation (from grassland to shrubland to forest) in a karst area in southwest China. Microbial biomass, nematode density, ratio of fungal to bacterial biomass, nematode structure index, and nematode enrichment index decreased with the secondary succession in the plant community. Overall, the results indicated a pattern of declines in soil biota abundance and food web complexity that was associated with a decrease in soil pH and a decrease in soil organic carbon content with the progressive secondary succession of the plant community. Our findings suggest that soil biota amendment is necessary during karst ecosystem restoration and establishment and management of grasslands may be feasible in karst areas. PMID:25379741

  4. Alteration of arsenopyrite in soils under different vegetation covers.

    PubMed

    Mihaljevic, Martin; Ettler, Vojtech; Sebek, Ondrej; Drahota, Petr; Strnad, Ladislav; Procházka, Radek; Zeman, Josef; Sracek, Ondra

    2010-02-15

    The weathering of arsenopyrite (FeAsS) has been monitored in soils using an in situ experimental approach. Arsenopyrite in nylon experimental bags was placed in individual horizons in soils in spruce (litter, horizons A, B, and C), beech (litter, horizons A, B, and C) and unforested (horizons A, B, and C) areas and left in contact with the soil for a period of 1 year. The individual areas on the ridge of the Krusné hory Mts., Czech Republic, had the same lithology, climatic and environmental conditions. Scorodite (FeAsO(4).2H(2)O) was identified as a principal secondary mineral of arsenic (As) formed directly on the surface of the arsenopyrite. Scorodite was formed in all the areas in all soil horizons. The amount of scorodite formed decreased in the series beech, spruce and unforested areas. In forested areas, there was a larger amount of scorodite on arsenopyrites exposed in organic horizons (litter, A horizon). The greater rate of arsenopyrite alteration in organic horizons in the beech stand compared to spruce stand is probably a result of faster mineralization of organic material with resulting production of nitrate and better seepage conditions of soil in this area. Speciation of As determined using the sequential extraction technique demonstrated that As was bonded in the soils primarily in the residual fractions prior to the experiment. The As content in the mobile fractions increased in the organic horizon in the forested areas after the experiments. PMID:20035968

  5. Estimation of vegetation LAI from hyperspectral reflectance data: Effects of soil type and plant architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew; Atzberger, Clement; van Wieren, Sip

    2008-09-01

    The retrieval of canopy biophysical variables is known to be affected by confounding factors such as plant type and background reflectance. The effects of soil type and plant architecture on the retrieval of vegetation leaf area index (LAI) from hyperspectral data were assessed in this study. In situ measurements of LAI were related to reflectances in the red and near-infrared and also to five widely used spectral vegetation indices (VIs). The study confirmed that the spectral contrast between leaves and soil background determines the strength of the LAI-reflectance relationship. It was shown that within a given vegetation species, the optimum spectral regions for LAI estimation were similar across the investigated VIs, indicating that the various VIs are basically summarizing the same spectral information for a given vegetation species. Cross-validated results revealed that, narrow-band PVI was less influenced by soil background effects (0.15 ≤ RMSE cv ≤ 0.56). The results suggest that, when using remote sensing VIs for LAI estimation, not only is the choice of VI of importance but also prior knowledge of plant architecture and soil background. Hence, some kind of landscape stratification is required before using hyperspectral imagery for large-scale mapping of vegetation biophysical variables.

  6. Arsenic and Lead Uptake by Vegetable Crops Grown on Historically Contaminated Orchard Soils

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transfer of Pb and As into vegetables grown in orchard soils historically contaminated by Pb arsenate pesticides was measured in the greenhouse. Lettuce, carrots, green beans and tomatoes were grown on soils containing a range of total Pb (16.5915 mg/kg) and As (6.9211 mg/kg) concentrations. The vegetables were acid-digested and analyzed for total Pb and As using ICP-mass spectrometry. Vegetable contamination was dependent on soil total Pb and As content, pH, and vegetable species. Arsenic concentrations were highest in lettuce and green beans, lower in carrots, and much lower in tomato fruit. Transfer of Pb into lettuce and beans was generally lower than that of As, and Pb and As were strongly excluded from tomato fruit. Soil metal concentrations as high as 400 mg/kg Pb and 100 mg/kg As produced vegetables with concentrations of Pb and As below the limits of international health standards.

  7. A Broad Approach to Abrupt Boundaries: Looking Beyond the Boundary at Soil Attributes within and Across Tropical Vegetation Types

    PubMed Central

    Warman, Laura; Bradford, Matt G.; Moles, Angela T.

    2013-01-01

    Most research on boundaries between vegetation types emphasizes the contrasts and similarities between conditions on either side of a boundary, but does not compare boundary to non-boundary vegetation. That is, most previous studies lack suitable controls, and may therefore overlook underlying aspects of landscape variability at a regional scale and underestimate the effects that the vegetation itself has on the soil. We compared 25 soil chemistry variables in rainforest, sclerophyll vegetation and across rainforest-sclerophyll boundaries in north-eastern Queensland, Australia. Like previous studies, we did find some contrasts in soil chemistry across vegetation boundaries. However we did not find greater variation in chemical parameters across boundary transects than in transects set in either rainforest or woodland. We also found that soil on both sides of the boundary is more similar to “rainforest soil” than to “woodland soil”. Transects in wet sclerophyll forests with increasing degrees of rainforest invasion showed that as rainforest invades wet sclerophyll forest, the soil beneath wet sclerophyll forest becomes increasingly similar to rainforest soil. Our results have implications for understanding regional vegetation dynamics. Considering soil-vegetation feedbacks and the differences between soil at boundaries and in non-boundary sites may hold clues to some of the processes that occur across and between vegetation types in a wide range of ecosystems. Finally, we suggest that including appropriate controls should become standard practice for studies of vegetation boundaries and edge effects worldwide. PMID:23593312

  8. Vegetation and climate controls on potential CO2, DOC and DON production in northern latitude soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, J.C.; Hooper, D.U.

    2002-01-01

    Climatic change may influence decomposition dynamics in arctic and boreal ecosystems, affecting both atmospheric CO2 levels, and the flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to aquatic systems. In this study, we investigated landscape-scale controls on potential production of these compounds using a one-year laboratory incubation at two temperatures (10?? and 30??C). We measured the release of CO2, DOC and DON from tundra soils collected from a variety of vegetation types and climatic regimes: tussock tundra at four sites along a latitudinal gradient from the interior to the north slope of Alaska, and soils from additional vegetation types at two of those sites (upland spruce at Fairbanks, and wet sedge and shrub tundra at Toolik Lake in northern Alaska). Vegetation type strongly influenced carbon fluxes. The highest CO2 and DOC release at the high incubation temperature occurred in the soils of shrub tundra communities. Tussock tundra soils exhibited the next highest DOC fluxes followed by spruce and wet sedge tundra soils, respectively. Of the fluxes, CO2 showed the greatest sensitivity to incubation temperatures and vegetation type, followed by DOC. DON fluxes were less variable. Total CO2 and total DOC release were positively correlated, with DOC fluxes approximately 10% of total CO2 fluxes. The ratio of CO2 production to DOC release varied significantly across vegetation types with Tussock soils producing an average of four times as much CO2 per unit DOC released compared to Spruce soils from the Fairbanks site. Sites in this study released 80-370 mg CO2-C g soil C-1 and 5-46 mg DOC g soil C-1 at high temperatures. The magnitude of these fluxes indicates that arctic carbon pools contain a large proportion of labile carbon that could be easily decomposed given optimal conditions. The size of this labile pool ranged between 9 and 41% of soil carbon on a g soil C basis, with most variation related to vegetation type rather than climate.

  9. Estimation of energy and moisture fluxes for dynamic vegetation using coupled SVAT and crop-growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, Joaquin J.; Judge, Jasmeet

    2008-07-01

    A Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) model, viz. Land Surface Process (LSP) model, is coupled with a widely used crop-growth model, DSSAT, to estimate energy and moisture fluxes at the land surface and in the vadose zone for growing vegetation. In this study, we present detailed observations of soil and crop characteristics, and various components of energy and water balance during a season-long field experiment for sweet corn. The data set is used to calibrate the LSP with Latin Hypercube Sampling and Pareto ranking. We compare the observations with model estimates of crop growth and development, land surface fluxes, soil moisture and temperature profiles from both the stand-alone LSP and coupled LSP-DSSAT models. We find that the model estimates of radiation fluxes, soil moisture, and soil temperature, by both the LSP and LSP-DSSAT are very similar, indicating that the LSP-DSSAT model can be used to simulate fluxes for dynamic vegetation without the need of in situ vegetation observations. Moreover, because coupling was achieved without structurally changing either of the models, the methodology in this study can be extended to coupling other SVAT and vegetation growth models.

  10. Agricultural use of soil, consequences in soil organic matter and hydraulic conductivity compared with natural vegetation in central Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Verónica; Carral, Pilar; Alvarez, Ana Maria; Marques, Maria Jose

    2014-05-01

    When ecosystems are under pressure due to high temperatures and water scarcity, the use of land for agriculture can be a handicap for soil and water conservation. The interactions between plants and soils are site-specific. This study provides information about the influence of the preence vs. The absence of vegetation on soil in a semi-arid area of the sout-east of Madrid (Spain, in the Tagus River basin. In this area soil materials are developed over a calcareous-evaporitic lithology. Soils can be classified as Calcisols, having horizons of accumulation with powdered limestone and irregular nodules of calcium carbonate. They can be defined as Haplic Cambisols and Leptic Calcisols (WRB 2006-FAO). The area is mainly used for rainfed agriculture, olive groves, vineyards and cereals. There are some patches of bushes (Quercus sp.) and grasses (Stipa tenacissima L.) although only found on the top of the hills. This study analyses the differences found in soils having three different covers: Quercus coccifera, Stipa tenacissima and lack of vegetation. This last condition was found in the areas between cultivated olive trees. Soil organic matter, porosity and hydraulic conductivity are key properties of soil to understand its ability to adapt to climate or land use changes. In order to measure the influence of different soil covers, four replicates of soil were sampled in each condition at two soil depth, (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). Hydraulic conductivity was measured in each soil condition and replicate using a Mini-disk® infiltrometer. There were no differences between the two depths sampled. Similarly, there were no changes in electric conductivity (average 0.1±0.03 dS m-1); pH (8.7±0.2) or calcium carbonate content (43±20 %). Nevertheless, significant differences (p>0.001) were found in soil organic matter. The maximum was found in soils under Quercus (4.7±0.5 %), followed by Stipa (2.2±1.1 %). The soil without vegetation in the areas between olive trees had only 0.7±1.1 % soil organic matter; far from the usual limit advisable for cultivated soils. Soil porosity was also affected in cultivated soils, being 39±5% (total porosity), significantly less than those found under Stipa (46%) and Quercus (51%). Hydraulic conductivity presented a similar pattern to porosity, being higher in soils under Quercus, however further research is needed to clarify this result, as it can also be related to changes detected in soil texture. Sand content, which was different between soil conditions, is highly correlated to hydraulic conductivity. Changes in soil texture can be due to erosive processes that have to be studied to establish the causative relationships between these findings. Acknowledgements: Project CGL 2008-04296. Environmental Impact evaluation through the assessment of soil organic matter resilient forms in soils.

  11. Influence of Vegetations' Metabolites on the Composition and Functioning of Soil Microbial Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Microbiota is one of the major factors of soils fertility. It transforms organic substances in soil and, therefore, serves as the main component in the cycles of carbon and nitrogen. Microbial communities (MC) are characterized as highly diverse and extremely complex structures. This allows them to adapt to any affection and provide all the necessary biospheric functions. Hence, the study of their functional diversity and adaptivity of microbiota provides the key to the understanding of the ecosystems' functioning and their adaptivity to the human impact. The formation of MC at the initial stage is regulated by the fluxes of substrates and biologically active substances (BAS), which vary greatly in soils under different vegetations. These fluxes are presented by: low molecular weights organic substances (LMWOS), which can be directly included in metabolism of microbes; polymers, that can be decomposed to LMWOS by exoenzymes; and more complex compounds, having different "drug effects" (e.g. different types of phenolic acids) and regulating growth and enzymatic properties of microbiota. Therefore, the main hypothesis of the research was formulated as follows: penetration of different types of substrates and BAS into soil leads to the emergence of MC varying in enzymatic properties and structure. As a soil matrix we used the soil from the untreated variant of the lysimeter model experiment taking place in the faculty of Soil Science of the MSU for over the last 40 years. It was sieved with a 2mm sieves, humidified and incubated at 25C during one week. Subsequently, the samples were air-dried with occasional stirring for one more week. Thereafter, aliquots of the prepared soil were taken for the different experimental variants. The samples were rewetted with solutions of various substrates (glucose, cellulose, starch, etc.) and thoroughly mixed. The control variant was established with addition of deionised water. The samples were incubated at the 25C. During the incubation the rate of mineralisation of organic substances was assessed with CO2 measurements. In 5, 10 and 21 days of incubation the enzymatic properties of the formed MC were studied by the hydrolysis of fluorogenic substrates. The influence of BAS on enzymatic properties of MC were researched by addition of different concentrations of phenolic acids (e.g. salicylic, vanillic, benzoic, etc.) to the samples from various substrates treatments. The acute toxicity of BAS was studied with bacterial luminescent test. After the last measurement, the isolations of microorganisms on elective nutrient medias were made. The dominant microorganisms were collected to the library for further identification and physiological tests. MeOH-chloroform extraction of phospholipids were performed with the remaining samples. Finally, they were stored for subsequent FAME identifications. The obtained data prove that penetration of various substrates into the soil determines the formation of MC different in structure and properties. It was found, that EC50 of the most studied phenolic acids are similar to naturally occurring concentrations. This means that they can be the real drivers of forming endemical MC under various vegetations along with the plant-specific fluxes of nutrients.

  12. Modelling of groundwater-vegetation interactions in a tidal marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Pei; Kong, Jun; Li, Ling; Barry, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Wetting and drying due to tidal fluctuations affect soil conditions and hence plant growth in tidal marshes. Here, a coupled one-dimensional model was developed to simulate interacting groundwater flow and plant growth in these wetlands. The simulation results revealed three characteristic zones of soil conditions for plant growth along a cross-creek section subjected to the combined influences of spring-neap tides and evapotranspiration: (1) a near-creek zone affected by semi-diurnal tides over the whole spring-neap cycle, where the soil is well aerated although the plant growth could be slightly limited by the local water content dropping periodically below the wilting point on the ebb tide; (2) a less well-drained zone where drainage occurs only during neap tides (for which the daily inundation is absent) and plant growth is aeration-limited; and (3) an interior zone where evapotranspiration determines the soil-water saturation. Plant growth dynamics, which depend on these soil conditions, lead to spatial biomass distributions that are consistent with the characteristic zonation. The simulations shed light on the feedback mechanism for groundwater-vegetation interactions in the marsh system. It was demonstrated that the growth of pioneer plants can improve the soil aeration condition as a result of transpiration. The strength of this feedback varies spatially in accordance with the three characteristic zones of soil-water saturation. However, the development of another species in the marsh system is likely to be more complicated than suggested by the "positive feedback" mechanism proposed previously, due to the influence of inter-species competition. The feedback effects are generally more complex, involving both plant growth enhancement and inhibition depending on the combined influence of the intra- and inter-species competition, the ecosystem's carrying capacity and plant transpiration. These findings demonstrate the interplay of ecological and hydrological processes in tidal marshes, and provide guidance for future research, including field investigations that aim to establish the principle relationship between marsh morphology and plant zonation.

  13. Impact of vegetation types on soil organic carbon stocks SOC-S in Mediterranean natural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Cantudo-Pérez, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle because they can either emit large quantities of CO2 or on the contrary they can act as a store for carbon. Agriculture and forestry are the only activities that can achieve this effect through photosynthesis and the carbon incorporation into carbohydrates (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2013). The Mediterranean evergreen oak Woodland (MEOW - dehesa) is a type of pasture with scattered evergreen and deciduous oak stands in which cereals are often grown under the tree cover. It is a system dedicated to the combined production of Iberian swine, sheep, fuel wood, coal and cork as well as to hunting. These semi-natural areas still preserve some of the primitive vegetation of the Mediterranean oak forests. The dehesa is a pasture where the herbaceous layer is comprised of either cultivated cereals such as oat, barley and wheat or native vegetation dominated by annual species, which are used as grazing resources. These Iberian open woodland rangelands (dehesas) have been studied from different points of view: hydrologically, with respect to soil organic matter content, as well as in relation to gully erosion, topographical thresholds, soil erosion and runoff production, soil degradation and management practices…etc, among others. The soil organic carbon stock capacity depends not only on abiotic factors such as the mineralogical composition and the climate, but also on soil use and management (Parras et al., 2014 and 2015). In Spanish soils, climate, use and management strongly affect the carbon variability, mainly in soils in dry Mediterranean climates characterized by low organic carbon content, weak structure and readily degradable soils. Hontoria et al. (2004) emphasized that the climate and soil use are two factors that greatly influence carbon content in the Mediterranean climate. This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability in MEOW - dehesa with cereals, olive grove and Mediterranean oak forest with different vegetation types (Quercus suber, Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea) in The Cardeña-Montoro Natural Park, a nature reserve that consists of a 38,449 ha forested area in southern Spain. Sixty-eight sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed as soil control section with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The studied soils were classified as Cambisols and the major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The total SOCS in The Cardeña-Montoro Natural Park was higher in MEOW with olive grove (111,69 Mg ha-1) and lower in MEOW with Quercus faginea (93,57 Mg ha-1). However, when the top soil (superficial section control) was analyzed, the SOCS was the highest in MEOW with olive grove (70,12 Mg-1) and the lowest in MEOW with Pinus (47,82 Mg ha-1). This research is a preliminary assessment for modeling SOCS at the regional level in Mediterranean natural areas. References Hontoria, C., Rodríguez-Murillo, J., and Saa, A.: Contenido de carbono orgánico en el suelo y factores de control en la España Peninsular, Edafología, 11, 149-155, 2004. Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., and Lozano-García, B: Organic farming affects C and N in soils under olive groves in Mediterranean areas, Land Degrad. Develop., in press, available online: in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2231, 2013. Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., Lozano-García, B., Fernández Rebollo, P., Moreno Elcure, F., Carbonero Muñoz, M.D.: Organic farming has little effect on carbon stock in a Mediterranean dehesa (southern Spain). Catena 113 (2014) 9-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.09.002 Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., and Lozano-García, B.: Management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean open rangelands -- treeless grasslands, Land Degrad. Develop., in press, available online: in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2269, 2015.

  14. NITROGEN MODELING FOR SOIL MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation models of the nitrogen (N) cycle have been used for well over 20 years to help estimate NO3-N leaching, soil residual NO3-N, fertilizer N requirements, soil organic N status, and gaseous N emissions associated with agriculture. These models have been coupled with simulations of other rela...

  15. Continuous measurements of net CO2 exchange by vegetation and soils in a suburban landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Emily B.; McFadden, Joseph P.

    2012-09-01

    In a suburban neighborhood of Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA, we simultaneously measured net CO2 exchange of trees using sap flow and leaf gas exchange measurements, net CO2exchange of a turfgrass lawn using eddy covariance from a portable tower, and total surface-atmosphere CO2 fluxes (FC) using an eddy covariance system on a tall tower. Two years of continuous measurements showed that net CO2exchange varied among vegetation types, with the largest growing-season (Apr-Nov) net CO2 uptake on a per cover area basis from evergreen needleleaf trees (-603 g C m-2), followed by deciduous broadleaf trees (-216 g C m-2), irrigated turfgrass (-211 g C m-2), and non-irrigated turfgrass (-115 g C m-2). Vegetation types showed seasonal patterns of CO2exchange similar to those observed in natural ecosystems. Scaled-up net CO2 exchange from vegetation and soils (FC(VegSoil)) agreed closely with landscape FC measurements from the tall tower at times when fossil fuel emissions were at a minimum. Although FC(VegSoil) did not offset fossil fuel emissions on an annual basis, the temporal pattern of FC(VegSoil) did significantly alter the seasonality of FC. Total growing season FC(VegSoil)in recreational land-use areas averaged -165 g C m-2 and was dominated by turfgrass CO2 exchange (representing 77% of the total), whereas FC(VegSoil) in residential areas averaged -124 g C m-2 and was dominated by trees (representing 78% of the total). Our results suggest urban vegetation types can capture much of the variability required to predict seasonal patterns and differences in FC(VegSoil) that could result from changes in land use or vegetation composition in temperate cities.

  16. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper for detecting soil properties under grassland vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of Thematic Mapper data acquired November 15, 1982, over a vegetated site located in the East Texas Timberlands and Claypan area of Texas has indicated that montmorillonitic clay textured soils can be separated from soils with different textures. The difference of TM band 4 (0.76-0.90 micron) and band 7 (2.08-2.35 microns) had an agreement of 55.8 percent with the USDA soil survey for upland clay soils. This compared to 55.9-percent agreement when all six bands (excluding the thermal) were used. The disagreement occurred at the boundary lines as defined by the USDA soil survey and the spectral data. This result is considered to be fairly good, considering the difficulty in placement of soil boundaries by the soil scientist in the field. While the exact influence on the vegetation, and thus the spectral response observed by TM, is not understood at this time, it appears that TM band 7 is responding to the type of mineralogy of the soil and that soil properties important to the plant can be detected using TM.

  17. Radiostrontium contamination of soil and vegetation within the Semipalatinsk test site.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Semioschkina, N; Voigt, G; Mukusheva, M; Clifford, J

    2004-12-01

    The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (STS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan was an important site for testing atomic bombs and other civil and military nuclear devices of the former Soviet Union. Results are presented from investigations on the extent of radiostrontium contamination in soils and vegetation at the technical areas of the STS, where the tests were conducted and in pastures used by farmers for grazing animals or for hay production. Our data are compared with those reported largely in the recent Russian language literature that has been reviewed. The extent of (90)Sr contamination of soil is highly variable over the STS with the highest values associated with the technical areas, particularly the Degelen mountains. Recently measured values in both the present data and the Russian language literature confirm the relatively high current contamination of soil and vegetation in the vicinity of tunnels and associated watercourses in the Degelen area. The proportion of (90)Sr in soil which could not be extracted with 6 M HCl was only an average of 20%, which is low compared to other test site areas and possibly indicates a relatively high mobility in this area, because the (90)Sr is derived from leakage from explosion tunnels along watercourses rather than being associated with fused silicates. A comparison of relative activity concentrations in soil and vegetation suggests that the transfer of (90)Sr to vegetation on the STS is high compared to that of (137)Cs and plutonium. PMID:15645315

  18. Runoff loss of pesticides and soil: a comparison between vegetative mulch and plastic mulch in vegetable production systems.

    PubMed

    Rice, P J; McConnell, L L; Heighton, L P; Sadeghi, A M; Isensee, A R; Teasdale, J R; Abdul-Baki, A A; Harman-Fetcho, J A; Hapeman, C J

    2001-01-01

    Current vegetable production systems use polyethylene (plastic) mulch and require multiple applications of agrochemicals. During rain events, runoff from vegetable production is enhanced because 50 to 75% of the field is covered with an impervious surface. This study was conducted to quantify off-site movement of soil and pesticides with runoff from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plots containing polyethylene mulch and a vegetative mulch, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth). Side-by-side field plots were instrumented with automated flow meters and samplers to measure and collect runoff, which was filtered, extracted, and analyzed to determine soil and pesticide loss. Seasonal losses of two to four times more water and at least three times as much sediment were observed from plots with polyethvlene mulch (55.4 to 146 L m(-2) and 247 to 535 g m(-2), respectively) versus plots with hairy vetch residue (13.7 to 75.7 L m(-2) and 32.8 to 118 g m(-2), respectively). Geometric means (+/-standard deviation) of total pesticide loads for chlorothalonil (tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) and alpha-and beta-endosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepin 3-oxide) for a runoff event were 19, 6, and 9 times greater from polyethylene (800+/-4.6, 17.6+/-3.9, and 39.1+/-4.9 microg m(-2), respectively) than from hairy vetch mulch plots (42+/-6.0, 2.8+/-5.0, and 4.3+/-4.6 microg m(-2), respectively) due to greater concentrations and larger runoff volumes. The increased runoff volume, soil loss, and off-site loading of pesticides measured in runoff from the polyethylene mulch suggests that this management practice is less sustainable and may have a harmful effect on the environment. PMID:11577890

  19. Effect of land-use practice on soil moisture variability for soils covered with dense forest vegetation of Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsegaye, T.; Coleman, T.; Senwo, Z.; Shaffer, D.; Zou, X.

    1998-01-01

    Little is known about the landuse management effect on soil moisture and soil pH distribution on a landscape covered with dense tropical forest vegetation. This study was conducted at three locations where the history of the landuse management is different. Soil moisture was measured using a 6-cm three-rod Time Domain Reflectometery (TDR) probe. Disturbed soil samples were taken from the top 5-cm at the up, mid, and foothill landscape position from the same spots where soil moisture was measured. The results showed that soil moisture varies with landscape position and depth at all three locations. Soil pH and moisture variability were found to be affected by the change in landuse management and landscape position. Soil moisture distribution usually expected to be relatively higher in the foothill (P3) area of these forests than the uphill (P1) position. However, our results indicated that in the Luquillo and Guanica site the surface soil moisture was significantly higher for P1 than P3 position. These suggest that the surface and subsurface drainage in these two sites may have been poor due to the nature of soil formation and type.

  20. Infrared temperature measurements over bare soil and vegetation - A HAPEX perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Toby N.; Perry, Eileen M.; Taconet, Odile

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of aircraft and ground measurements made in France during the HAPEX experiment show that horizontal radiometric surface temperature variations, as viewed by aircraft, can reflect the vertical profile of soil moisture (soil versus root zone) because of horizontal variations in vegetation density. Analyses based on one day's data show that, although horizontal variations in soil moisture were small, the vertical differences between a dry surface and a wet root zone were large. Horizontal temperature differences between bare soil, corn and oats reflect differences in the fractional vegetation cover, as seen by the radiometer. On the other hand, these horizontal variations in radiometric surface temperature seem to reflect real horizontal variations in surface turbulent energy fluxes.

  1. Effects of vegetation on soil moisture distribution and flux with implications for the global hydrologic cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macari, Emir Jose

    1991-01-01

    Recent climate modeling experiments have identified the critical need for a better understanding of land surface - atmosphere interactions. An important issue in global climate modeling is to be able to relate land surface and atmospheric processes. In the past this link has been inadequately represented due to the lack of understanding of the interaction between the processes and also due to the large spatial variability of the hydrological and soil properties. A project was initiated at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in FY-90 under the Center's Directorate Discretionary Fund (CDDF) to study small-scale effects of vegetation on the distribution and fluxes of soil moisture. Installation of a large array of instruments was accomplished during that first year (FY-90). During this second year of the project, the instrumentation and data collection systems were improved and data has begun to be taken. Preliminary analysis of the data show that the equipment has been functioning properly. Some of the preliminary results that have recently been analyzed are given.

  2. Mesoscale modeling of the effect of woody plant encroachment on vegetation-atmosphere interactions in drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; de Wekker, S.; D'Odorico, P.

    2010-12-01

    Composition and structure of vegetation in many arid grasslands around the world has been changing as an effect of woody plant encroachment. A number of environmental drivers and feedbacks are associated with such grassland-to-shrubland transitions, including positive feedbacks between shrub encroachment and microclimate. This change in plant community composition is often associated with a reduction in vegetation cover and an increase in bare soil. This change in vegetation cover allows for stronger soil heat fluxes and soil heat storage during daytime and a stronger release of energy in the form of long-wave radiation at night, thereby causing higher nighttime near-ground air temperature in the shrubland, particularly in wintertime. Because some shrub species - such as Larrea tridentate in the western US - are prone to freezing-induced mortality, the increase in winter nighttime temperature favors their successful establishment. It is still unclear whether and how land surface models (LSMs) commonly used in mesoscale atmospheric models can adequately represent the energy flux partitioning underlying the effect of shrub encroachment on microclimate. In this study, we performed sensitivity simulations with two mesoscale atmospheric models coupled with two sophisticated LSMs: Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) coupled with Noah LSM, and Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) coupled with Land Ecosystem Atmosphere Feedback model, version 3 (LEAF3). Idealized 2-dimensional simulations were conducted with different vegetation types that correspond to shrubland and grassland typical of the northern Chihuahuan desert. Simulated surface energy fluxes and temperature field of both LSMs were analyzed and model performances were evaluated through a comparison with observations. Results suggest that large differences exist between the models in their simulation of the vegetation-atmosphere interactions and the energy balance over the sparse vegetation covers typical of arid landscapes. We performed a thorough analysis of the model output to investigate the underlying causes of these differences and to explain the processes responsible for the simulated differences in nocturnal temperatures over the shrubland and grassland.

  3. Soil, water, and vegetation conditions in South Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Reflectance measurements with a field spectroradiometer on nine dates (between December 9 and April 8) during the growing season of two wheat varieties, Milam and Penjamo, showed that the reflectance curves had the characteristic shape of vegetated surfaces by 4 weeks after the emergence. Green light (0.55 micron) reflectance was maximal and between water absorption bands (1.65 and 2.2 microns) reflectance was minimal when green vegetation development was greatest. Computer classification was accomplished for 81,000 hectare coastal rangeland area for October 13 and December 10, 1975, overpass dates. A hard freeze occurred between these two dates and many of the deciduous woody species defoliated so that more light penetrated to the herbaceous understory in December than in October.

  4. Oscillations in a simple climate-vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rombouts, J.; Ghil, M.

    2015-05-01

    We formulate and analyze a simple dynamical systems model for climate-vegetation interaction. The planet we consider consists of a large ocean and a land surface on which vegetation can grow. The temperature affects vegetation growth on land and the amount of sea ice on the ocean. Conversely, vegetation and sea ice change the albedo of the planet, which in turn changes its energy balance and hence the temperature evolution. Our highly idealized, conceptual model is governed by two nonlinear, coupled ordinary differential equations, one for global temperature, the other for vegetation cover. The model exhibits either bistability between a vegetated and a desert state or oscillatory behavior. The oscillations arise through a Hopf bifurcation off the vegetated state, when the death rate of vegetation is low enough. These oscillations are anharmonic and exhibit a sawtooth shape that is characteristic of relaxation oscillations, as well as suggestive of the sharp deglaciations of the Quaternary. Our model's behavior can be compared, on the one hand, with the bistability of even simpler, Daisyworld-style climate-vegetation models. On the other hand, it can be integrated into the hierarchy of models trying to simulate and explain oscillatory behavior in the climate system. Rigorous mathematical results are obtained that link the nature of the feedbacks with the nature and the stability of the solutions. The relevance of model results to climate variability on various timescales is discussed.

  5. Powdered hide model for vegetable tanning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdered hide samples for this initial study of vegetable tanning were prepared from hides that were dehaired by a typical sulfide or oxidative process, and carried through the delime/bate step of a tanning process. In this study, we report on interactions of the vegetable tannin, quebracho with th...

  6. MODELING STREAM CHANNEL ADJUSTMENT TO WOODY VEGETATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    River restoration and bank stabilization programs often use vegetation for improving stream corridor habitat, aesthetic, and function. Yet no study has examined the use of managed vegetation plantings to transform a straight, degraded stream corridor into a more functional, aesthetically-pleasing m...

  7. Estimating root-zone soil moisture in the West Africa Sahel using remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Amy L.

    Agricultural drought is characterized by shortages in precipitation, large differences between actual and potential evapotranspiration, and soil water deficits that impact crop growth and pasture productivity. Rainfall and other agrometeorological gauge networks in Sub-Saharan Africa are inadequate for drought early warning systems and hence, satellite-based estimates of rainfall and vegetation greenness provide the main sources of information. While a number of studies have described the empirical relationship between rainfall and vegetation greenness, these studies lack a process based approach that includes soil moisture storage. In Chapters I and II, I modeled soil moisture using satellite rainfall inputs and developed a new method for estimating soil moisture with NDVI calibrated to in situ and microwave soil moisture observations. By transforming both NDVI and rainfall into estimates of soil moisture I was able to easily compare these two datasets in a physically meaningful way. In Chapter II, I also show how the new NDVI derived soil moisture can be assimilated into a water balance model that calculates an index of crop water stress. Compared to the analogous rainfall derived estimates of soil moisture and crop stress the NDVI derived estimates were better correlated with millet yields. In Chapter III, I developed a metric for defining growing season drought events that negatively impact millet yields. This metric is based on the data and models used in the Chapters I and II. I then use this metric to evaluate the ability of a sophisticated land surface model to detect drought events. The analysis showed that this particular land surface model's soil moisture estimates do have the potential to benefit the food security and drought early warning communities. With a focus on soil moisture, this dissertation introduced new methods that utilized a variety of data and models for agricultural drought monitoring applications. These new methods facilitate a more quantitative, transparent `convergence of evidence' approach to identifying agricultural drought events that lead to food insecurity. Ideally, these new methods will contribute to better famine early warning and the timely delivery of food aid to reduce the human suffering caused by drought.

  8. Soil, water, and vegetation conditions in south Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Software development for a computer-aided crop and soil survey system is nearing completion. Computer-aided variety classification accuracies using LANDSAT-1 MSS data for a 600 hectare citrus farm were 83% for Redblush grapefruit and 91% for oranges. These accuracies indicate that there is good potential for computer-aided inventories of grapefruit and orange citrus orchards with LANDSAT-type MSS data. Mean digital values of clouds differed statistically from those for crop, soil, and water entities, and those for cloud shadows were enough lower than sunlit crop and soil to be distinguishable. The standard errors of estimate for the calibration of computer compatible tape coordinate system (pixel and record) to earth coordinate system (longitude and latitude) for 6 LANDSAT scenes ranged from 0.72 to 1.50 pixels and from 0.58 to 1.75 records.

  9. Reorganization of vegetation, hydrology and soil carbon after permafrost degradation across heterogeneous boreal landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, M. Torre; Harden, Jennifer; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Wickland, Kim; Ewing, Stephanie; Manies, Kristen; Zhuang, Qianlai; Shur, Yuri; Striegl, Robert; Koch, Josh

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of ecosystems across boreal landscapes, successional changes after disturbance and complicated permafrost histories, present enormous challenges for assessing how vegetation, water and soil carbon may respond to climate change in boreal regions. To address this complexity, we used a chronosequence approach to assess changes in vegetation composition, water storage and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks along successional gradients within four landscapes: (1) rocky uplands on ice-poor hillside colluvium, (2) silty uplands on extremely ice-rich loess, (3) gravelly–sandy lowlands on ice-poor eolian sand and (4) peaty–silty lowlands on thick ice-rich peat deposits over reworked lowland loess. In rocky uplands, after fire permafrost thawed rapidly due to low ice contents, soils became well drained and SOC stocks decreased slightly. In silty uplands, after fire permafrost persisted, soils remained saturated and SOC decreased slightly. In gravelly–sandy lowlands where permafrost persisted in drier forest soils, loss of deeper permafrost around lakes has allowed recent widespread drainage of lakes that has exposed limnic material with high SOC to aerobic decomposition. In peaty–silty lowlands, 2–4 m of thaw settlement led to fragmented drainage patterns in isolated thermokarst bogs and flooding of soils, and surface soils accumulated new bog peat. We were not able to detect SOC changes in deeper soils, however, due to high variability. Complicated soil stratigraphy revealed that permafrost has repeatedly aggraded and degraded in all landscapes during the Holocene, although in silty uplands only the upper permafrost was affected. Overall, permafrost thaw has led to the reorganization of vegetation, water storage and flow paths, and patterns of SOC accumulation. However, changes have occurred over different timescales among landscapes: over decades in rocky uplands and gravelly–sandy lowlands in response to fire and lake drainage, over decades to centuries in peaty–silty lowlands with a legacy of complicated Holocene changes, and over centuries in silty uplands where ice-rich soil and ecological recovery protect permafrost.

  10. Modeling the Response of Arctic Vegetation to Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, E. S.; Snyder, P. K.

    2009-12-01

    An increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide is contributing to planetary warming that is strongest over high latitude land areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and strong warming have led to changes in vegetation distribution, permafrost depth, and snow cover, which significantly affect the interactions between the terrestrial ecosystem and the climate through biophysical and biogeochemical processes. With a continued rise in greenhouse gas emissions and additional warming in the high latitudes, uncertainty exists as to how the Arctic biosphere will respond in the coming decades and whether Arctic ecosystems will remain a carbon sink or instead become a source of carbon to the atmosphere. Elevated carbon dioxide and climate change can affect vegetation growth through changing the assimilation of carbon dioxide and the respiration of carbon from the vegetation and soil. Using a dynamic global vegetation model, the Integrated BIosphere Simulator Model (IBIS), potential changes in both the biophysical and biogeochemical processes of Arctic vegetation were analyzed to determine how future climate change and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may alter their functioning and ability to store carbon. High latitude regions were modeled using a variety of temperature, precipitation, and carbon dioxide scenarios. Changes in gross and net primary production, net ecosystem exchange, soil carbon, soil respiration, leaf area index, and biomass content were analyzed. Under high levels of carbon dioxide, net primary production increased at a greater rate than high levels of warming. Soil carbon decreased dramatically with high levels of warming as soil respiration increased, but soil carbon increased with higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide as the vegetation fixed more carbon. Net primary production also increased in scenarios with elevated precipitation. The results from the combined scenarios of climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes were not linearly related to the sum of the single variable scenarios due to the complex processes occurring between the vegetation, climate, and high carbon dioxide levels. These findings suggest that an understanding of the role of the Arctic terrestrial biosphere as a source or sink of carbon with climate change is highly dependent on the ability of ecosystem models to properly represent the combined effects of carbon dioxide, temperature, and precipitation changes on vegetation processes.

  11. Spatial variability of soil and vegetation characteristics in an urban park in Tel-Aviv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarah, Pariente; Zhevelev, Helena M.; Oz, Atar

    2010-05-01

    Mosaic-like spatial patterns, consisting of divers soil microenvironments, characterize the landscapes of many urban parks. These microenvironments may differ in their pedological, hydrological and floral characteristics, and they play important roles in urban ecogeomorphic system functioning. In and around a park covering 50 ha in Tel Aviv, Israel, soil properties and herbaceous vegetation were measured in eight types of microenvironments. Six microenvironments were within the park: area under Ceratonia siliqua (Cs-U), area under Ficus sycomorus (Fi-U), a rest area under F. sycomorus (Re-U), an open area with bare soil (Oa-S), an open area with biological crusts (Oa-C), and an open area with herbaceous vegetation (Oa-V). Outside the park were two control microenvironments, located, respectively, on a flat area (Co-P) and an inclined open area (Co-S). The soil was sampled from two depths (0-2 and 5-10 cm), during the peak of the growing season (March). For each soil sample, moisture content, organic matter content, CaCO3 content, texture, pH, electrical conductivity, and soluble ions contents were determined in 1:1 water extraction. In addition, prior to the soil sampling, vegetation cover, number of species, and species diversity of herbaceous vegetation were measured. The barbecue fires and visitors in each of the microenvironments were counted. Whereas the soil organic matter and vegetation in Fi-U differed from those in the control(Co-P, Co-S), those in Oa-V were similar to those in the control. Fi-U was characterized by higher values of soil moisture, organic matter, penetration depth, and vegetation cover than Cs-U. Open microenvironments within the park (Oa-S, Oa-C, Oa-V) showed lower values of soil penetration than the control microenvironments. In Oa-V unique types of plants such as Capsella bursa-pastoris and Anagallis arvensis, which did not appear in the control microenvironments, were found. This was true also for Fi-U, in which species like Oxalis pes-caprae were found. Significant differences in soil and vegetation properties were found between Re-U and the rest of microenvironments. Differences in levels of human activities, in addition to differences in vegetation types, increased the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties. The rest microenvironment (Re-U) exhibited degraded soil conditions and can be regarded as forming the fragile areas of the park. An urban park offers potential for presence and growth of natural vegetation and, therefore, also for preservation of biodiversity. Natural vegetation, in its role as a part of the urban park, enriches the landscape diversity and thereby may contribute to the enjoyment of the visitors in the park.

  12. Optimum vegetation characteristics, assimilation, and transpiration during a dry season: 1. Model description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Tol, C.; Meesters, A. G. C. A.; Dolman, A. J.; Waterloo, M. J.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a model to predict optimum vegetation characteristics in water stressed conditions. Starting point is the principle of homeostasis of water flow through the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Combining this with a biochemical model for photosynthesis, a relationship between photosynthetic capacity, stomatal regulation, and hydraulic properties of the vegetation is derived. Optimum photosynthetic capacity and internal carbon dioxide concentration are calculated using the assumption that growth is maximized. This optimality hypothesis is applied for three scenarios which are increasingly realistic. Optimum parameters reflect a strategy to deal with two tradeoffs: the trade-off between fast growth and avoidance of drought and between a high photosynthetic capacity and avoidance of high respiration losses. The theory predicts general boundary conditions for growth but does not consider effects of competition between species, fires, pest, and diseases or other limitations that occur locally. In a companion paper the theory is evaluated using a data set collected in sub-Mediterranean vegetation.

  13. Interacting vegetative and thermal contributions to water movement in desert soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C.A.; Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Cooper, C.A.; Simunek, J.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally driven water-vapor flow can be an important component of total water movement in bare soil and in deep unsaturated zones, but this process is often neglected when considering the effects of soil-plant-atmosphere interactions on shallow water movement. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the coupled and separate effects of vegetative and thermal-gradient contributions to soil water movement in desert environments. The evaluation was done by comparing a series of simulations with and without vegetation and thermal forcing during a 4.7-yr period (May 2001-December 2005). For vegetated soil, evapotranspiration alone reduced root-zone (upper 1 m) moisture to a minimum value (25 mm) each year under both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. Variations in the leaf area index altered the minimum storage values by up to 10 mm. For unvegetated isothermal and nonisothermal simulations, root-zone water storage nearly doubled during the simulation period and created a persistent driving force for downward liquid fluxes below the root zone (total net flux ~1 mm). Total soil water movement during the study period was dominated by thermally driven vapor fluxes. Thermally driven vapor flow and condensation supplemented moisture supplies to plant roots during the driest times of each year. The results show how nonisothermal flow is coupled with plant water uptake, potentially influencing ecohydrologic relations in desert environments. ?? Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic algorithm applied to a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere system: Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Sébastien; Jacques, Diederik; Mallants, Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Numerical models are of precious help for predicting water fluxes in the vadose zone and more specifically in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere (SVA) systems. For such simulations, robust models and representative soil hydraulic parameters are required. Calibration of unsaturated hydraulic properties is known to be a difficult optimization problem due to the high non-linearity of the water flow equations. Therefore, robust methods are needed to avoid the optimization process to lead to non-optimal parameters. Evolutionary algorithms and specifically genetic algorithms (GAs) are very well suited for those complex parameter optimization problems. Additionally, GAs offer the opportunity to assess the confidence in the hydraulic parameter estimations, because of the large number of model realizations. The SVA system in this study concerns a pine stand on a heterogeneous sandy soil (podzol) in the Campine region in the north of Belgium. Throughfall and other meteorological data and water contents at different soil depths have been recorded during one year at a daily time step in two lysimeters. The water table level, which is varying between 95 and 170 cm, has been recorded with intervals of 0.5 hour. The leaf area index was measured as well at some selected time moments during the year in order to evaluate the energy which reaches the soil and to deduce the potential evaporation. Water contents at several depths have been recorded. Based on the profile description, five soil layers have been distinguished in the podzol. Two models have been used for simulating water fluxes: (i) a mechanistic model, the HYDRUS-1D model, which solves the Richards' equation, and (ii) a compartmental model, which treats the soil profile as a bucket into which water flows until its maximum capacity is reached. A global sensitivity analysis (Morris' one-at-a-time sensitivity analysis) was run previously to the calibration, in order to check the sensitivity in the chosen parameter search space. For the inversion procedure a genetical algorithm (GA) was used. Specific features such as elitism, roulette-wheel process for selection operator and island theory were implemented. Optimization was based on the water content measurements recorded at several depths. Ten scenarios have been elaborated and applied on the two lysimeters in order to investigate the impact of the conceptual model in terms of processes description (mechanistic or compartmental) and geometry (number of horizons in the profile description) on the calibration accuracy. Calibration leads to a good agreement with the measured water contents. The most critical parameters for improving the goodness of fit are the number of horizons and the type of process description. Best fit are found for a mechanistic model with 5 horizons resulting in absolute differences between observed and simulated water contents less than 0.02 cm3cm-3 in average. Parameter estimate analysis shows that layers thicknesses are poorly constrained whereas hydraulic parameters are much well defined.

  15. SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF SOIL MACROAGGREGATES IN DIFFERENT VEGETATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal variation of macroaggregate formation and disruption as well as macroaggregate stabilization and destabilization were evaluated under cool-season grass and switchgrass plots in a riparian buffer system and for a corn-soybean production system in north central Iowa. We collected surface soil...

  16. Soil changes after four years of organic vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2002, scientists at the Lane Agricultural Center in southeastern Oklahoma began a study to explore the potential for organic agricultural production. Land was certified as organic according to the guidelines of the National Organic Program. At the beginning of the study, soil samples were taken...

  17. Soil-vegetation feedbacks in dynamic landscapes: Implications for restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    State changes from perennial grasslands to shrub-dominated systems characterize much of the arid regions of the world, including the American Southwest. Where this conversion is associated with a change in soil surface texture, near-surface water availability can be increased or reduced with importa...

  18. Effect of vegetation on the temporal stability of soil moisture in grass-stabilized semi-arid sand dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tiejun; Wedin, David A.; Franz, Trenton E.; Hiller, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    Soil moisture is a critical state variable affecting a variety of land surface and subsurface processes. Despite the complex interactions between soil moisture and its controlling factors, the phenomenon of temporal stability of soil moisture (TS SM) has been widely observed under natural conditions. In this study, the control of vegetation on TS SM is investigated by artificially manipulating surface vegetation (e.g., vegetated and de-vegetated plots) in a native grassland-stabilized sand dune area with similar soil texture and topography. Soil moisture data were collected at the depths of 30 cm (within the root zone) and 110 cm (below the root zone) over a period of four years. Using soil moisture data from the de-vegetated plots as a baseline, TS SM within the root zone is shown to be mainly affected by vegetation phenology at the study site. Therefore, the control of vegetation on TS SM varies on both seasonal and annual time scales. The change in the interseasonal patterns of TS SM is tightly related to plant phenology and the control of vegetation on the ranking of mean relative difference (MRD) of soil moisture significantly weakens during non-growing seasons due to diminished root water uptake. It suggests that the timing of sampling schemes (e.g., growing season vs. non-growing season) may alter TS SM patterns. On annual time scales, TS SM is affected by climatic conditions, as the control of vegetation on TS SM becomes stronger under drier conditions. In particular, vegetation tends to create larger contrasts in soil moisture levels between vegetated and de-vegetated plots in drier years. The soil moisture data also provide evidence that vegetation tends to reduce TS SM and increase spatial variability in soil moisture at the study site. The standard deviation of relative difference (SDRD) of soil moisture at the 30 cm depth (within the root zone) is considerably larger in the vegetated plots than those in the de-vegetated plots. As such, the effectiveness of using representative locations for monitoring mean soil moisture conditions in the vegetated plots deteriorates.

  19. Modeling biogeochemistry in agricultural soils

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.; Frolking, S.; Harriss, R.

    1994-09-01

    An existing model of C and N dynamics in soils was supplemented with a plant growth submodel and cropping practice routines (fertilization, irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and manure amendments) to study the biogeochemistry of soil carbon in arable lands. The new model was validated against field results for short-term (1-9 years) decomposition experiments, the seasonal pattern of soil CO{sub 2} respiration, and long-term (100 years) soil carbon storage dynamics. A series of sensitivity runs investigated the impact of varying agricultural practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. The tests were simulated for corn (maize) plots over a range of soil and climate conditions typical of the United States. The largest carbon sequestration occurred with manure additions; the results were very sensitive to soil texture (more clay led to greater sequestration). Increased N fertilization generally enhanced carbon sequestration, but the results were sensitive to soil texture, initial soil carbon content, and annual precipitation. Reduced tillage also generally (but not always) increased SOC content, through the results were very sensitive to soil texture, initial SOC content, and annual precipitation. A series of long-term simulations investigated the SOC equilibrium for various agricultural practices, soil and climate conditions, and crop rotations. Equilibrium SOC content increased with decreasing temperatures, increasing clay content, enhanced N fertilization, manure amendments, and crops with higher residue yield. Time to equilibrium appears to be one hundred to several hundred years. In all cases, equilibration time was longer for increasing SOC content than for decreasing SOC content. Efforts to enhance carbon sequestration in agricultural soils would do well to focus on those specific areas and agricultural practices with the greatest potential for increasing soil carbon content. 64 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. CO2 leakage-induced vegetation decline is primarily driven by decreased soil O2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyan; Ma, Xin; Zhao, Zhi; Wu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2016-04-15

    To assess the potential risks of carbon capture and storage (CCS), studies have focused on vegetation decline caused by leaking CO2. Excess soil CO2 caused by leakage can affect soil O2 concentrations and soil pH, but how these two factors affect plant development remains poorly understood. This hinders the selection of appropriate species to mitigate potential negative consequences of CCS. Through pot experiments, we simulated CO2 leakage to examine its effects on soil pH and soil O2 concentrations. We subsequently assessed how maize growth responded to these changes in soil pH and O2. Decreased soil O2 concentrations significantly reduced maize biomass, and explained 69% of the biomass variation under CO2 leakage conditions. In contrast, although leaked CO2 changed soil pH significantly (from 7.32 to 6.75), it remained within the optimum soil pH range for maize growth. This suggests that soil O2 concentration, not soil pH, influences plant growth in these conditions. Therefore, in case of potential CO2 leakage risks, hypoxia-tolerant species should be chosen to improve plant survival, growth, and yield. PMID:26899305

  1. Relationships between soil microbial communities and soil carbon turnover along a vegetation and moisture gradient in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldrop, M. P.; Harden, J. W.; Turetsky, M. R.; Petersen, D. G.; McGuire, A. D.; Briones, M. J.; Churchill, A. C.; Doctor, D. H.; Pruett, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    Boreal landscapes are characterized by a mosaic of uplands and lowlands, which differ in plant species composition, litter biochemistry, and biogeochemical cycling rates. Boreal ecosystems, from upland black spruce stands to lowland fens, are structured largely by water table position and contain quantitatively and qualitatively different forms of soil organic matter. Differences in carbon (C) availability among ecosystems likely translate to differences in the structure of soil microbial communities, which in turn could affect rates of organic matter decomposition and turnover. We examined relationships between microbial communities and soil C turnover in near-surface soils along a topographic soil moisture and vegetation gradient in interior Alaska. We tested the hypothesis that upland black spruce sites would be dominated by soil fungi and have slow rates of C turnover, whereas lowland ecosystems would be dominated by bacteria and mesofauna (enchytraeids) and have more rapid rates of C turnover. We utilized several isotopic measures of soil C turnover including bomb radiocarbon techniques, the δ15N of SOM, and the difference between δ13C of SOM, DOC, and respired CO2. All three measures indicated greater C turnover rates in the surface soils of the lowland fen sites compared to the more upland locations. Quantitative PCR analyses of soil bacteria and archaea, combined with enchytraed counts, confirmed that surface soils from the lowland fen ecosystems had the highest abundances of these functional groups. Fungal biomass was highly variable and tended to be more abundant in the upland forest sites. Soil enzymatic results were mixed: potential cellulase activities were higher in the more upland soils even though rates of microbial activity were generally lower. Oxidative enzyme activities were higher in fens, even though these ecosystems are saturated and partly anaerobic. Overall our data support soil food web theory which argues that rapidly cycling systems are bacterial dominated with mesofaunal grazing, whereas slowly cycling systems have characteristic higher fungal:bacterial ratios.

  2. Water regime of soils under the different vegetative cover, the Giant Mountains, Czech Republic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, I. J.; Tesar, M.; M., Sir; Dohnal, J.

    2009-04-01

    Several monitored plots, located in the Giant Mountains in different positions (valley, slope), are covered by different vegetation (dwarf pine forest, spruce forest, meadow). Soil moisture properties in relation to vegetative cover (dwarf pine versus grassland stands) were studied from the year 2000 to 2006. The main goal was to analyse chosen rainfall-runoff periods with respect to diferent vegetative cover. Every plot was arranged by automatic station for continual soil moisture measurements by VIRRIB sensors (Phase Transmition) in depth of 15 and 45 cm, tensiometer suction presure in depth of 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm and temperature of soil and air. Three plots were also arranged by rain gauges for precipitation measurements in the vegetation season. To complete the characteristics of the unsaturated zone the particle-size analysis and retention curves for depths of 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm were done. Four groups of three rod probes (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m) for TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) soil moisture measurements for seven plots were installed. The irregular measurements were done during 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 vegetation seasons. The values of soil moisture for depth intervals of 0-30 cm, 30-60 cm and 60-90 cm were computed for each plot. The TDR values of soil moisture are generally lower than the results obtained from VIRRIB sensors. The explanation of this fact should be that the used TDR measurements involve bigger interval of soil profile than VIRRIB sensors which measure smaller area of soil. The other reason could be the diferent way of probe instalation for each method. The results were compared with the data obtained from VIRRIB sensors, and where possible, the TDR data was used for giving precision to the VIRRIB data. Significant influence of diferent vegetative cover on water regime in soils of tundra area of the Giant Mountains was determined but not sufficiently explained yet. Surprisingly the water regime under the grassland showed similar behavior as a forest area against the dwarf pine stands during the most rainfall-runoff periods studied. The research is supported by the Czech Science Foundation (Projects No. 205/08/1174 and 526/08/1016).

  3. A model of goal directed vegetable parenting practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to explore factors underlying parents' motivations to use vegetable parenting practices (VPP) using the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MGDVPP) (an adaptation of the Model of Goal Directed Behavior) as the theoretical basis for qualitative interviews. ...

  4. Trace metals in soil and vegetables and associated health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level of trace metals in soil and vegetables and health risk to the urban population in Bangladesh. The range of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb in agricultural soils was 158-1160, 104-443, 157-519, 41-93, 3.9-13, and 84-574 mg/kg, respectively. Sequential extraction tests revealed that the studied metals were predominantly associated with the residual fraction, followed by the organically bound phase. Concerning Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb in vegetables, more than 50 % samples exceeded the FAO/WHO recommended permissible limits. Considering the transfer of metals from soil to vegetables, Cu and Cd exhibited higher transfer factor (TF) values than the other metals. Target hazard quotient (THQ) for individual metal was below 1, suggesting that people would not experience significant health hazards if they ingest a single metal from vegetables. However, total metal THQ signifies the potential non-carcinogenic health hazard to the highly exposed consumers. The carcinogenic risk (TR) of As (1.9 × 10(-4)) and Pb (2.3 × 10(-5)) through consumption of vegetables were higher than the USEPA threshold level (10(-6)), indicating potential cancer risks. PMID:25204898

  5. Soil seed bank recovery occurs more rapidly than expected in semi-arid Mediterranean gypsum vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Olano, J. M.; Caballero, I.; Escudero, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Seed banks are critical in arid ecosystems and ensure the persistence of species. Despite the importance of seed banks, knowledge about their formation and the extent to which a seed bank can recover after severe perturbation remains scarce. If undisturbed, soil seed banks reflect a long vegetation history; therefore, we would expect that new soil seed banks and those of undisturbed soils require long periods to become similar with respect to both density and composition. In contrast, if soil seed banks are only a short- to mid-term reservoir in which long-term accumulation constitutes only a tiny fraction, they will recover rapidly from the vegetation. To shed light on this question, we evaluated seed bank formation in a semi-arid gypsum community. Methods Soils from 300 plots were replaced with sterilized soil in an undisturbed semi-arid Mediterranean community. Seasonal changes in seed bank density and composition were monitored for 3 years by comparing paired sterilized and control soil samples at each plot. Key Results Differences in seed bank density between sterilized and control soil disappeared after 18 months. The composition of sterilized seed banks was correlated with that of the control plots from the first sampling date, and both were highly correlated with vegetation. Nearly 24 % of the seed bank density could be attributed to secondary dispersal. Most seeds died before emergence (66·41–71·33 %), whereas the rest either emerged (14·08–15·48 %) or persisted in the soil (14·59–18·11 %). Conclusions Seed banks can recover very rapidly even under the limiting and stressful conditions of semi-arid environments. This recovery is based mainly on the seed rain at small scales together with secondary dispersal from intact seed banks in the vicinity. These results emphasize the relevance of processes occurring on short spatial scales in determining community structure. PMID:22003238

  6. Radionuclide concentrations in terrestrial vegetation and soil on and around the Hanford Site, 1983 through 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Antonio, E.J.; Cooper, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    This report reviews concentrations of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, U isotopes, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in soil and vegetation samples collected from 1983 through 1993 during routine surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling locations were grouped in study areas associated with operational areas on the Site. While radionuclide concentrations were very low and representative of background concentrations from historic fallout, some study areas on the Site contained slightly elevated concentrations compared to other study areas onsite and offsite. The 100 Areas had concentrations of {sup 60}Co comparable to the minimum detectable concentration of 0.02 pCi/g in soil. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in 200 Area soils were slightly elevated. The 300 Area had a slight elevation of U in soil. These observations were expected because many of the sampling locations were selected to monitor specific facilities or operations at the operational areas. Generally, concentrations of the radionuclides studied were greater and more readily measured in soil samples compared to vegetation samples. The general pattern of concentrations of radionuclide concentrations in vegetation by area mirrored that observed in soil. Declines in {sup 90}Sr in soil appear to be attributed to radioactive decay and possibly downward migration out of the sampling horizon. The other radionuclides addressed in this report strongly sorb to soil and are readily retained in surface soil. Because of their long half-lives compared to the length of the study period, there was no significant indication that concentrations of U isotopes and Pu isotopes were decreasing over time.

  7. Soil erosion and runoff in different vegetation patches from semiarid Central Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation patches in arid and semiarid areas are important in the regulation of surface hydrological processes. Canopy and ground cover in these fertility islands develop a natural cushion against the impact energy of rainfall, and the higher levels of organic matter improve soil physicochemical pr...

  8. Exploring cover crops as carbon sources for anaerobic soil disinfestation in a vegetable production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a raised-bed plasticulture vegetable production system utilizing anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) in Florida field trials, pathogen, weed, and parasitic nematode control was equivalent to or better than the methyl bromide control. Molasses was used as the labile carbon source to stimulate micr...

  9. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE: ESTABLISHMENT OF VEGETATION ON PONDED AND SOIL-APPLIED WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of research to identify and evaluate forms of vegetation and methods of their establishment for reclaiming retired flue gas desulfurization sludge ponds. Also studied were the soil liming value of limestone scrubber sludge (LSS) and plant uptake and perco...

  10. A three-tiered approach for coupled vegetation and soil sampling to develop ecological descriptions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecological site descriptions (ESDs), alongside similar land classification systems, are used to describe the breadth of plant community types, community changes, and soil surface conditions that can occur within a particular land area. Vegetation dynamic processes and management may change the ident...

  11. Microbial Communities in Cerrado Soils under Native Vegetation Subjected to Prescribed Fires and Under Pasture

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of fire regimes and vegetation cover on the structure and dynamics of soil microbial communities, through phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Comparisons were made between native areas with different woody covers ("cerra...

  12. Precontact vegetation and soil nutrient status in the shadow of Kohala Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, Oliver A.; Kelly, Eugene F.; Hotchkiss, Sara C.; Vitousek, Peter M.

    2007-09-01

    Humans colonized Hawaii about 1200 years ago and have progressively modified vegetation, particularly in mesic to dry tropical forests. We use δ 13C to evaluate the contribution of C 3 and C 4 plants to deep soil organic matter to reconstruct pre-human contact vegetation patterns along a wet to dry climate transect on Kohala Mountain, Hawaii Island. Precontact vegetation assemblages fall into three distinct zones: a wet C 3 dominated closed canopy forest where annual rainfall is > 2000 mm, a dry C 4 dominated grassland with annual rainfall < 500 mm, and a broad transition zone between these communities characterized by either C 3 trees with higher water-use efficiency than the rainforest trees or C 3 trees with a small amount of C 4 grasses intermixed. The likelihood of C 4 grass understory decreases with increasing rainfall. We show that the total concentration of rock-derived nutrients in the < 2-mm soil fraction differs in each of these vegetation zones. Nutrient losses are driven by leaching at high rainfall and by plant cycling and wind erosion at low rainfall. By contrast, nutrients are best preserved in surface soils of the intermediate rainfall zone, where rainfall supports abundant plant growth but does not contribute large amounts of water in excess of evapotranspiration. Polynesian farmers exploited these naturally enriched soils as they intensified their upland agricultural systems during the last three centuries before European contact.

  13. 110mAg root and foliar uptake in vegetables and its migration in soil.

    PubMed

    Shang, Z R; Leung, J K C

    2003-01-01

    110mAg, as a radionuclide of corrosion products in water-cooled nuclear reactors, was detected in the liquid effluents of Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) of Daya Bay under normal operation conditions. Experiments on a simulated terrestrial agricultural ecosystem were carried out using the pot experiment approach. The most common plants in Hong Kong and the South China vegetable gardens such as lettuce, Chinese spinach, kale, carrot, pepper, eggplant, bean, flowering cabbage, celery, European onion and cucumber were selected for (110m)Ag root and foliar uptake tests. The results show that carrot, kale and flowering cabbage have the greatest values of soil to plant transfer factor among the vegetables, while(110m)Ag can be transferred to Chinese spinach via foliar uptake. Flowering cabbage, the most popular leafy vegetable locally, could be used as a biomonitor for the radioisotope contamination in vegetables. Soil column and adsorption tests were also carried out to study the leaching ability and distribution coefficient (K(d)) of (110m)Ag in the soil. The results show that most of the radionuclide was adsorbed in the top 1 cm of soil regardless of the pH value. The K(d) was also determined. PMID:12573862

  14. Impact of soil type on vegetation response to prairie dog herbivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prairie dogs and their impact on vegetation have been the focus of numerous research projects. However, the effect of soil from this interaction has been less thoroughly documented. We evaluated prairie dog colonies (on-colony) and nearby sites without prairie dogs (off-colony) on Wayden, Cabba an...

  15. Structure, functions and interguild relationships of the soil nematode assemblage in organic vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The abundance and metabolic footprints of soil nematodes were quantified during four of eight years of an intensive organic vegetable production system. Treatment variables included cover crop mixtures and frequency, and compost application rates. The abundances of bacterivore and fungivore nematode...

  16. [Soil organic carbon storage changes with land reclamation under vegetation reconstruction on opencast coal mine dump].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Chao; Dang, Ting-Hui; Guo, Sheng-Li; Xue, Jiang; Tang, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation reconstruction was an effective solution to reclaim the opencast coal mine dump which was formed in the process of mining. To understand the impact of the vegetation reconstruction patterns' on the mine soil organic carbon (SOC) storage was essential for selecting the methods of vegetation restoration and also important for accurately estimating the potential of the soil carbon sequestration. The study area was on the Heidaigou opencast coal mine, which was 15 years reclaimed coal mine dump in Zhungeer, Inner Mongolia autonomous region, we selected 5 vegetation rec