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Sample records for soil vegetation model

  1. A nonlinear coupled soil moisture-vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shikuo; Liu, Shida; Fu, Zuntao; Sun, Lan

    2005-06-01

    Based on the physical analysis that the soil moisture and vegetation depend mainly on the precipitation and evaporation as well as the growth, decay and consumption of vegetation a nonlinear dynamic coupled system of soil moisture-vegetation is established. Using this model, the stabilities of the steady states of vegetation are analyzed. This paper focuses on the research of the vegetation catastrophe point which represents the transition between aridness and wetness to a great extent. It is shown that the catastrophe point of steady states of vegetation depends mainly on the rainfall P and saturation value v0, which is selected to balance the growth and decay of vegetation. In addition, when the consumption of vegetation remains constant, the analytic solution of the vegetation equation is obtained.

  2. [Soil moisture estimation model based on multiple vegetation index].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-long; Yu, Xin-xiao; Zhang, Zhen-ming; Zhang, Yan

    2014-06-01

    Estimating soil moisture conveniently and exactly is a hot issues in water resource monitoring among agriculture and forestry. Estimating soil moisture based on vegetation index has been recognized and applied widely. 8 vegetation indexes were figured out based on the hyper-spectral data measured by portable spectrometer. The higher correlation indexes among 8 vegetation indexes and surface vegetation temperature were selected by Gray Relative Analysis method (GRA). Then, these selected indexes were analyzed using Multiple Linear Regression to establish soil moisture estimation model based on multiple vegetation indexes, and the model accuracy was evaluated. The accuracy evaluation indicated that the fitting was satisfied and the significance was 0.000 (P < 0.001). High correlation was turned out between estimated and measured soil moisture with R2 reached 0.636 1 and RMSE 2.149 9. This method introduced multiple vegetation indexes into soil water content estimating over micro scale by non-contact measuring method using portable spectrometer. The exact estimation could be an appropriate replacement for remote sensing inversion and direct measurement. The model could estimate soil moisture quickly and accurately, and provide theory and technology reference for water resource management in agriculture and forestry. PMID:25358174

  3. Hillslope soils and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundson, Ronald; Heimsath, Arjun; Owen, Justine; Yoo, Kyungsoo; Dietrich, William E.

    2015-04-01

    Assessing how vegetation controls hillslope soil processes is a challenging problem, as few abiotic landscapes exist as observational controls. Here we identify five avenues to examine how actively eroding hillslope soils and processes would differ without vegetation, and we explore some potential feedbacks that may result in landscape resilience on vegetated hillslopes. The various approaches suggest that a plant-free world would be characterized by largely soil-free hillslopes, that plants may control the maximum thickness of soils on slopes, that vegetated landforms erode at rates about one order of magnitude faster than plant-free outcrops in comparable settings, and that vegetated hillslope soils generally maintain long residence times such that both N and P sufficiency for ecosystems is the norm. We conclude that quantitatively parameterizing biota within process-based hillslope models needs to be a priority in order to project how human activity may further impact the soil mantle.

  4. Spatiotemporal Variability of Precipitation, Modeled Soil Moisture, and Vegetation Greenness in North America within the Recent Observational Record

    E-print Network

    Castro, Christopher L.

    Spatiotemporal Variability of Precipitation, Modeled Soil Moisture, and Vegetation Greenness) ABSTRACT Dominant spatiotemporal patterns of precipitation, modeled soil moisture, and vegetation in soil moisture and vegetation, respectively. The 9-yr signal is related to precipitation in late fall

  5. Modeling radium and radon transport through soil and vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozak, J.A.; Reeves, H.W.; Lewis, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    A one-dimensional flow and transport model was developed to describe the movement of two fluid phases, gas and water, within a porous medium and the transport of 226Ra and 222Rn within and between these two phases. Included in this model is the vegetative uptake of water and aqueous 226Ra and 222Rn that can be extracted from the soil via the transpiration stream. The mathematical model is formulated through a set of phase balance equations and a set of species balance equations. Mass exchange, sink terms and the dependence of physical properties upon phase composition couple the two sets of equations. Numerical solution of each set, with iteration between the sets, is carried out leading to a set-iterative compositional model. The Petrov-Galerkin finite element approach is used to allow for upstream weighting if required for a given simulation. Mass lumping improves solution convergence and stability behavior. The resulting numerical model was applied to four problems and was found to produce accurate, mass conservative solutions when compared to published experimental and numerical results and theoretical column experiments. Preliminary results suggest that the model can be used as an investigative tool to determine the feasibility of phytoremediating radium and radon-contaminated soil. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling the effects of vegetation and soil moisture onto biogenic nitrogen oxide emissions from Sahelian soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delon, Claire; Mougin, Eric; Grippa, Manuela; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Serça, Dominique; Kergoat, Laurent; Hiernaux, Pierre; Diawara, Mamadou

    2013-04-01

    Natural (biogenic) emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO) from soils are strongly dependent on soil moisture, particularly in Sahelian regions where the soil moisture is very low at the end of the dry season (around 2% in top soil 0-20 cm). When the first rains fall at the beginning of the wet season, soil moisture increases sharply, until reaching a threshold value above which the microbial population can develop, and the microbial activity generating nitrogen within the soil is reactivated. NO emissions to the atmosphere result from the microbial decomposition of organic matter, and present important peaks at the beginning of the wet season. In Sahelian soils, the organic matter decomposition is very efficient at the onset of the wet season because part of the litter has been buried during the dry season by livestock trampling, and is rapidly decomposed when soil moisture is sufficient. The goal of the work presented here is to simulate NO emissions from soils thanks to a parameterization based on a neural network development, coupled to a vegetation model (STEP) and a litter decomposition model (GENDEC), at the Agoufou site (15.1°N, 1.7°W, Gourma, Mali, super site of the AMMA-CATCH observatory). The resulting coupled model (STEP-GENDEC) includes vegetation growth in a dynamic way, and the quantity of nitrogen brought to the soil either as litter and straws or as livestock excretions. Livestock contributes to the N flux either directly trough excretion deposition (faeces and urine) or indirectly through grazing uptake, conversion of standing straw to litter, fragmentation and burying of litter by trampling. A small part of this N available in the soil is released to the atmosphere in the form of different N compounds such as NO. Knowing the quantity of N available in the soil, NO emissions to the atmosphere are calculated for the years 2006-2007-2008, and compared to the few existing measurements. These results show that Sahelian soils emit non negligible quantities of NO to the atmosphere, compared to anthropogenic NO emissions (fires) at the continental scale, and that the processes of these emissions are original due to the specificity of the climate (short wet season, sandy soils, hot temperatures). However, too few studies have been dedicated to N emissions in these arid environments, and many questions remain on their underlying processes.

  7. Parameter estimation for a detailed atmosphere-soil-vegetation model including fog deposition onto vegetation (SOLVEG) by inverse optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, A.; Katata, G.; Regalado, C. M.; Nagai, H.

    2010-07-01

    SOLVEG is a one-dimensional multilayer atmosphere-soil-vegetation model including fog deposition onto vegetation. However the complexity of the processes described by SOLVEG involves the use of many parameters not always readily available. We describe how an inverse parameter estimation algorithm, based on the Global Multilevel Coordinate Search (GMCS), coupled to SOLVEG can be used to determine model parameters. Focusing on the soil hydraulic parameters, which typically suffer from large uncertainty, we applied this inverse GMCS procedure to optimize such parameters from top soil water content time series measured in a laurel cloud forest of the Garajonay National Park (Canary Islands, Spain).

  8. Soil detachment by overland flow under different vegetation restoration models in the loess plateau of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use change has significant effects on soil properties and vegetation cover and thus probably affects soil detachment by overland flow. Few studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of restoration models on the soil detachment process in the Loess Plateau in the past decade during which a Gr...

  9. Measuring and modeling water-related soil-vegetation feedbacks in a fallow plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, N.; Cassiani, G.; Deiana, R.; Vignoli, G.; Boaga, J.

    2014-03-01

    Land fallowing is one possible response to shortage of water for irrigation. Leaving the soil unseeded implies a change of the soil functioning that has an impact on the water cycle. The development of a soil crust in the open spaces between the patterns of grass weed affects the soil properties and the field-scale water balance. The objectives of this study are to test the potential of integrated non-invasive geophysical methods and ground-image analysis and to quantify the effect of the soil-vegetation interaction on the water balance of fallow land at the local- and plot scale. We measured repeatedly in space and time local soil saturation and vegetation cover over two small plots located in southern Sardinia, Italy, during a controlled irrigation experiment. One plot was left unseeded and the other was cultivated. The comparative analysis of ERT maps of soil moisture evidenced a considerably different hydrologic response to irrigation of the two plots. Local measurements of soil saturation and vegetation cover were repeated in space to evidence a positive feedback between weed growth and infiltration at the fallow plot. A simple bucket model captured the different soil moisture dynamics at the two plots during the infiltration experiment and was used to estimate the impact of the soil vegetation feedback on the yearly water balance at the fallow site.

  10. Measuring and modelling water related soil-vegetation feedbacks in a fallow plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, N.; Cassiani, G.; Deiana, R.; Vignoli, G.; Boaga, J.

    2013-08-01

    Land fallowing is one possible response to shortage of water for irrigation. Leaving the soil unseeded implies a change of the soil functioning that has an impact on the water cycle. The development of a soil crust in the open spaces between the patterns of grass weed affects the soil properties and the field scale water balance. The objectives of this study are to test the potential of integrated non invasive geophysical methods and ground-image analysis and to quantify the effect of the soil vegetation interaction on the water balance of a fallow land at the local and plot scale. We measured repeatedly in space and time local soil saturation and vegetation cover over two small plots located in southern Sardinia, Italy, during a controlled irrigation experiment. One plot was left unseeded and the other was cultivated. The comparative analysis of ERT maps of soil moisture evidenced a considerably different hydrologic response to irrigation of the two plots. Local measurements of soil saturation and vegetation cover were repeated in space to evidence a positive feedback between weed growth and infiltration at the fallow plot. A simple bucket model captured the different soil moisture dynamics at the two plots during the infiltration experiment and was used to estimate the impact of the soil vegetation feedback on the yearly water balance at the fallow site.

  11. Soil dynamics and accelerated erosion: a sensitivity analysis of the LPJ Dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchoms, Samuel; Van Oost, Kristof; Vanacker, Veerle; Kaplan, Jed O.; Vanwalleghem, Tom

    2013-04-01

    It is widely accepted that humans have become a major geomorphic force by disturbing natural vegetation patterns. Land conversion for agriculture purposes removes the protection of soils by the natural vegetation and leads to increased soil erosion by one to two orders of magnitude, breaking the balance that exists between the loss of soils and its production. Accelerated erosion and deposition have a strong influence on evolution and heterogeneity of basic soil characteristics (soil thickness, hydrology, horizon development,…) as well as on organic matter storage and cycling. Yet, since they are operating at a long time scale, those processes are not represented in state-of-art Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, which is a clear lack when exploring vegetation dynamics over past centuries. The main objectives of this paper are (i) to test the sensitivity of a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model, in terms of NPP and organic matter turnover, variations in state variables in response to accelerated erosion and (ii) to assess the performance of the model under the impact of erosion for a case-study in Central Spain. We evaluated the Lund-Postdam-Jena Dynamic Vegetation Model (LPJ DVGM) (Sitch et al, 2003) which simulates vegetation growth and carbon pools at the surface and in the soil based on climatic, pedologic and topographic variables. We assessed its reactions to changes in key soil properties that are affected by erosion such as texture and soil depth. We present the results of where we manipulated soil texture and bulk density while keeping the environmental drivers of climate, slope and altitude constant. For parameters exhibiting a strong control on NPP or SOM, a factorial analysis was conducted to test for interaction effects. The simulations show an important dependence on the clay content, especially for the slow cycling carbon pools and the biomass production, though the underground litter seems to be mostly influenced by the silt content. The fast cycling C pools and/or the surface pools vary with sand and silt richness, the highest values being reached with a combination of 50% silt and 25% sand while the lowest are for a 100% clay soil. Finally, LPJ is run for three cases corresponding to a stable, erosive and depositional soil profile. These simulations show how the model reacts and performs under erosion/deposition conditions which are recreated by changing the soil's texture and soil depth over time. We discuss the performance of the LPJ model in the context of accelerated erosion and conclusions drawn from the sensitivity analysis.

  12. Modeling the effects of vegetation on methane oxidation and emissions through soil landfill final covers across different climates.

    PubMed

    Abichou, Tarek; Kormi, Tarek; Yuan, Lei; Johnson, Terry; Francisco, Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Plant roots are reported to enhance the aeration of soil by creating secondary macropores which improve the diffusion of oxygen into soil as well as the supply of methane to bacteria. Therefore, methane oxidation can be improved considerably by the soil structuring processes of vegetation, along with the increase of organic biomass in the soil associated with plant roots. This study consisted of using a numerical model that combines flow of water and heat with gas transport and oxidation in soils, to simulate methane emission and oxidation through simulated vegetated and non-vegetated landfill covers under different climatic conditions. Different simulations were performed using different methane loading flux (5-200 g m(-2) d(-1)) as the bottom boundary. The lowest modeled surface emissions were always obtained with vegetated soil covers for all simulated climates. The largest differences in simulated surface emissions between the vegetated and non-vegetated scenarios occur during the growing season. Higher average yearly percent oxidation was obtained in simulations with vegetated soil covers as compared to non-vegetated scenario. The modeled effects of vegetation on methane surface emissions and percent oxidation were attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) increase in methane oxidation associated with the change of the physical properties of the upper vegetative layer and (2) increase in organic matter associated with vegetated soil layers. Finally, correlations between percent oxidation and methane loading into simulated vegetated and non-vegetated covers were proposed to allow decision makers to compare vegetated versus non-vegetated soil landfill covers. These results were obtained using a modeling study with several simplifying assumptions that do not capture the complexities of vegetated soils under field conditions. PMID:25475118

  13. Measuring and Modelling water related soil - vegetation feedbacks in a fallow plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, Nadia; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Vignoli, Giulio; Boaga, Jacopo

    2013-04-01

    Land fallowing is one possible response to shortage of water for irrigation. Leaving the soil unseeded implies a change of the soil functioning that has an impact on the water cycle. The development of a soil crust in the open spaces between the patterns of grass weed affects the soil properties and the field scale water balance. The objective of this study was to test the potential of integrated non invasive geophysics and ground-image analysis and to quantify the effect of the soil vegetation interaction on the water balance of a fallow land at the local and plot scale. We measured repeatedly in space and time local soil saturation and vegetation cover over two small plots located in southern Sardinia, Italy, during an infiltration experiment. One plot was left unseeded and the other was cultivated. The comparative analysis of the experimental data evidenced a positive feedback between weed growth and infiltration at the fallow plot. A simple bucket model captured the different soil moisture dynamics at the two plots during the infiltration experiment and was used to estimate the impact of the soil vegetation feedback on the yearly water balance at the site.

  14. Soil temperature depressions beneath vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Starkweather, S.

    1996-10-01

    The results from a summer-long monitoring project were used to determine the effects of vegetative cover on soil temperatures and ground heat fluxes. The measurements were taken over three months in a residential neighborhood adjacent to the University of Colorado campus and correlated with data from a weather station located a mile away. By contrasting the soil temperatures beneath a moderately shaded, vegetated site to those beneath an open site covered with turf grass, the authors were able to quantify an added energy saving benefit of alternative landscapes and tree planting; reduced summer-time ground heat flux. The results from the monitoring project were used to develop a general model for relating local weather data and site-specific vegetative morphologies to site-specific ground heat fluxes. The authors found that the reduced ground heat flux can be largely attributed to the reduced net radiation flux arriving at the soil surface.

  15. Modeling carbon dynamics in vegetation and soil under the impact of soil erosion and deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, S.; Bliss, N.; Sundquist, E.; Huntington, T.G.

    2003-01-01

    Soil erosion and deposition may play important roles in balancing the global atmospheric carbon budget through their impacts on the net exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere. Few models and studies have been designed to assess these impacts. In this study, we developed a general ecosystem model, Erosion-Deposition-Carbon-Model (EDCM), to dynamically simulate the influences of rainfall-induced soil erosion and deposition on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in soil profiles. EDCM was applied to several landscape positions in the Nelson Farm watershed in Mississippi, including ridge top (without erosion or deposition), eroding hillslopes, and depositional sites that had been converted from native forests to croplands in 1870. Erosion reduced the SOC storage at the eroding sites and deposition increased the SOC storage at the depositional areas compared with the site without erosion or deposition. Results indicated that soils were consistently carbon sources to the atmosphere at all landscape positions from 1870 to 1950, with lowest source strength at the eroding sites (13 to 24 gC m-2 yr-1), intermediate at the ridge top (34 gC m-2 yr-1), and highest at the depositional sites (42 to 49 gC m-2 yr-1). During this period, erosion reduced carbon emissions via dynamically replacing surface soil with subsurface soil that had lower SOC contents (quantity change) and higher passive SOC fractions (quality change). Soils at all landscape positions became carbon sinks from 1950 to 1997 due to changes in management practices (e.g., intensification of fertilization and crop genetic improvement). The sink strengths were highest at the eroding sites (42 to 44 gC m-2 yr-1 , intermediate at the ridge top (35 gC m-2 yr-1), and lowest at the depositional sites (26 to 29 gC m-2 yr-1). During this period, erosion enhanced carbon uptake at the eroding sites by continuously taking away a fraction of SOC that can be replenished with enhanced plant residue input. Overall, soil erosion and deposition reduced CO2 emissions from the soil into the atmosphere by exposing low carbon-bearing soil at eroding sites and by burying SOC at depositional sites. The results suggest that failing to account for the impact of soil erosion and deposition may potentially contribute to an overestimation of both the total historical carbon released from soils owing to land use change and the contemporary carbon sequestration rates at the eroding sites.

  16. Smart plants, smart models? On adaptive responses in vegetation-soil systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Teuling, Ryan; van Dam, Nicole; de Rooij, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological models that will be able to cope with future precipitation and evapotranspiration regimes need a solid base describing the essence of the processes involved [1]. The essence of emerging patterns at large scales often originates from micro-behaviour in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. A complicating factor in capturing this behaviour is the constant interaction between vegetation and geology in which water plays a key role. The resilience of the coupled vegetation-soil system critically depends on its sensitivity to environmental changes. To assess root water uptake by plants in a changing soil environment, a direct indication of the amount of energy required by plants to take up water can be obtained by measuring the soil water potential in the vicinity of roots with polymer tensiometers [2]. In a lysimeter experiment with various levels of imposed water stress the polymer tensiometer data suggest maize roots regulate their root water uptake on the derivative of the soil water retention curve, rather than the amount of moisture alone. As a result of environmental changes vegetation may wither and die, or these changes may instead trigger gene adaptation. Constant exposure to environmental stresses, biotic or abiotic, influences plant physiology, gene adaptations, and flexibility in gene adaptation [3-7]. To investigate a possible relation between plant genotype, the plant stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the soil water potential, a proof of principle experiment was set up with Solanum Dulcamare plants. The results showed a significant difference in ABA response between genotypes from a dry and a wet environment, and this response was also reflected in the root water uptake. Adaptive responses may have consequences for the way species are currently being treated in models (single plant to global scale). In particular, model parameters that control root water uptake and plant transpiration are generally assumed to be a property of the plant functional type. Assigning plant functional types does not allow for local plant adaptation to be reflected in the model parameters, nor does it allow for correlations that might exist between root parameters and soil type. [1] Seibert, J. 2000. Multi-criteria calibration of a conceptual runoff model using a genetic algorithm. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 4(2): 215-224. [2] Van der Ploeg, M.J., H.P.A. Gooren, G. Bakker, C.W. Hoogendam, C. Huiskes, L.K. Koopal, H. Kruidhof and G.H. de Rooij. 2010. Polymer tensiometers with ceramic cones: performance in drying soils and comparison with water-filled tensiometers and time domain reflectometry. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 14: 1787-1799, doi: 10.5194/hess-14-1787-2010. [3] McClintock B. The significance of responses of the genome to challenge. Science 1984; 226: 792-801 [4] Ries G, Heller W, Puchta H, Sandermann H, Seldlitz HK, Hohn B. Elevated UV-B radiation reduces genome stability in plants. Nature 2000; 406: 98-101 [5] Lucht JM, Mauch-Mani B, Steiner H-Y, Metraux J-P, Ryals, J, Hohn B. Pathogen stress increases somatic recombination frequency in Arabidopsis. Nature Genet. 2002; 30: 311-314 [6] Kovalchuk I, Kovalchuk O, Kalck V., Boyko V, Filkowski J, Heinlein M, Hohn B. Pathogen-induced systemic plant signal triggers DNA rearrangements. Nature 2003; 423: 760-762 [7] Cullis C A. Mechanisms and control of rapid genomic changes in flax. Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 2005; 95: 201-206

  17. Mapping crop evapotranspiration by integrating vegetation indices into a soil water balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consoli, Simona; Vanella, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    The approach combines the basal crop coefficient (Kcb) derived from vegetation indices (VIs) with the daily soil water balance, as proposed in the FAO-56 paper, to estimate daily crop evapotranspiration (ETc) rates of orange trees. The reliability of the approach to detect water stress was also assessed. VIs were simultaneously retrieved from WorldView-2 imagery and hyper-spectral data collected in the field for comparison. ETc estimated were analysed at the light of independent measurements of the same fluxes by an eddy covariance (EC) system located in the study area. The soil water depletion in the root zone of the crop simulated by the model was also validated by using an in situ soil water monitoring. Average overestimate of daily ETc of 6% was obtained from the proposed approach with respect to EC measurements, evidencing a quite satisfactory agreement between data. The model also detected several periods of light stress for the crop under study, corresponding to an increase of the root zone water deficit matching quite well the in situ soil water monitoring. The overall outcomes of this study showed that the FAO-56 approach with remote sensing-derived basal crop coefficient can have the potential to be applied for estimating crop water requirements and enhancing water management strategies in agricultural contexts.

  18. The influence of soil type, vegetation cover and soil moisture on spin up behaviour of a land surface model in a monsoonal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Anwesha; Mandal, Manabottam

    2015-04-01

    Model spin-up is the process through which the model is adequately equilibrated to ensure balance between the mass fields and velocity fields. In this study, an offline one dimensional Noah land surface model is integrated recursively for three years to assess its spin-up behavior at different sites over the Indian Monsoon domain. Several numerical experiments are performed to investigate the impact of soil category, vegetation cover, initial soil moisture and subsequent dry or wet condition on model spin-up. These include simulations with the dominant soil and vegetation covers of this region, different initial soil moisture content (observed soil moisture; dry soil; moderately wet soil; saturated soil), simulations initialized at different rain conditions (no rain; infrequent rain; continuous rain) and different seasons (Winter, Spring, Summer/Pre-Monsoon, Monsoon and Autumn). It is seen that the spin-up behavior of the model depends on the soil type and vegetation cover with soil characteristics having the larger influence. Over India, the model has the longest spin-up in the case of simulations with loamy soil covered with mixed-shrub. It is noted that the model has a significantly longer spin-up when initialized with very low initial soil moisture content than with higher soil moisture content. It is also seen that in general, simulations initialized just before a continuous rainfall event have the least spin-up time. This observation is reinforced by the results from the simulations initialized in different seasons. It is seen that for monsoonal region, the model spin-up time is least for simulations initialized just before the Monsoon. Model initialized during the Monsoon rain episodes has a longer spin-up than that initialized in any other season. Furthermore, it is seen that the model has a shorter spin-up if it reaches the equilibrium state predominantly via drying process and could be as low as two months under quasi-equilibrium condition depending on the time of initialization.

  19. Levels of tritium in soils and vegetation near Canadian nuclear facilities releasing tritium to the atmosphere: implications for environmental models.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P A; Kwamena, N-O A; Ilin, M; Wilk, M; Clark, I D

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT]plant) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT]soil) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT]plant/[OBT]soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative. PMID:25461522

  20. Radar for Measuring Soil Moisture Under Vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam, Mahta; Moller, Delwyn; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    A two-frequency, polarimetric, spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system has been proposed for measuring the moisture content of soil as a function of depth, even in the presence of overlying vegetation. These measurements are needed because data on soil moisture under vegetation canopies are not available now and are necessary for completing mathematical models of global energy and water balance with major implications for global variations in weather and climate.

  1. Impact of Soil Moisture and Vegetation Distribution on July 1989 Climate Using a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, Jeffrey Howard

    1995-01-01

    Anyone who has ever walked from a closed forest into an open meadow knows that vegetation can have a significant effect on the atmosphere. Additionally, anyone who has tried gardening is also aware of the role the atmosphere can have on the success or failure of that hobby. It is fairly well understood, at least in a broad sense, how the earth's surface and the planetary boundary layer interact on the local scale. What is less known is how changes in the characteristics of the earth's surface feed back up to larger scales such as regional or global. This has important consequences in understanding how changes in surface characteristics due to natural or anthropogenic causes impact the climate. Perhaps even more important, is understanding the sensitivity of our parameterizations of atmosphere-landsurface interactions to the specification of the earth's surface. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System has been modified for use in regional climate studies (CLIMRAMS). The model has been verified for July 1989 and has shown that the simulated screen height temperatures over 70% of the model domain were within 1^circC of observations. The simulated precipitation was generally within a factor of two of the observations. The United States average daily precipitation was 2.3mmcdot day^{-1} while the simulated rate was 1.5mmcdotday ^{-1}. The model was also applied to sensitivity studies to assess the impact of soil moisture and vegetation distribution. Results from the soil moisture studies indicate that the initial specification of the soil moisture content can have small but significant effects on screen height quantities and precipitation for time periods up to a month. Results from a homogeneous grassland study demonstrate that regionally there can be cooling due to increased albedo or warming due to decreased latent heat flux. Finally, CLIMRAMS was applied to study the effect of lost forest and grassland ecosystems to agricultural usage. The results of the final study suggest the possibility that the current landuse has caused summertime surface conditions to be warmer and drier than the natural landscape would indicate.

  2. Soil Moisture and Vegetation Controls on Surface Energy Balance Using the Maximum Entropy Production Model of Evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Parolari, A.; Huang, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to formulate and test plant water stress parameterizations for the recently proposed maximum entropy production (MEP) model of evapotranspiration (ET) over vegetated surfaces. . The MEP model of ET is a parsimonious alternative to existing land surface parameterizations of surface energy fluxes from net radiation, temperature, humidity, and a small number of parameters. The MEP model was previously tested for vegetated surfaces under well-watered and dry, dormant conditions, when the surface energy balance is relatively insensitive to plant physiological activity. Under water stressed conditions, however, the plant water stress response strongly affects the surface energy balance. This effect occurs through plant physiological adjustments that reduce ET to maintain leaf turgor pressure as soil moisture is depleted during drought. To improve MEP model of ET predictions under water stress conditions, the model was modified to incorporate this plant-mediated feedback between soil moisture and ET. We compare MEP model predictions to observations under a range of field conditions, including bare soil, grassland, and forest. The results indicate a water stress function that combines the soil water potential in the surface soil layer with the atmospheric humidity successfully reproduces observed ET decreases during drought. In addition to its utility as a modeling tool, the calibrated water stress functions also provide a means to infer ecosystem influence on the land surface state. Challenges associated with sampling model input data (i.e., net radiation, surface temperature, and surface humidity) are also discussed.

  3. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

    2014-06-01

    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  4. Thermal remote sensing of surface soil water content with partial vegetation cover for incorporation into climate models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Robert R.; Carlson, Toby N.

    1995-01-01

    This study outlines a method for the estimation of regional patterns of surface moisture availability (M(sub 0)) and fractional vegetation (Fr) in the presence of spatially variable vegetation cover. The method requires relating variations in satellite-derived (NOAA, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)) surface radiant temperature to a vegetation index (computed from satellite visible and near-infrared data) while coupling this association to an inverse modeling scheme. More than merely furnishing surface soil moisture values, the method constitues a new conceptual and practical approach for combining thermal infrared and vegetation index measurements for incorporating the derived values of M(sub 0) into hydrologic and atmospheric prediction models. Application of the technique is demonstrated for a region in and around the city of Newcastle upon Tyne situated in the northeast of England. A regional estimate of M(sub 0) is derived and is probabbly good for fractional vegetation cover up to 80% before errors in the estimated soil water content become unacceptably large. Moreover, a normalization scheme is suggested from which a nomogram, `universal triangle,' is constructed and is seen to fit the observed data well. The universal triangle also simplifies the inclusion of remotely derived M(sub 0) in hydrology and meteorological models and is perhaps a practicable step toward integrating derived data from satellite measurements in weather forecasting.

  5. Spatiotemporal analysis of urban environment based on the vegetation-impervious surface-soil model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huadong; Huang, Qingni; Li, Xinwu; Sun, Zhongchang; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    This study explores a spatiotemporal comparative analysis of urban agglomeration, comparing the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) of Canada and the city of Tianjin in China. The vegetation-impervious surface-soil (V-I-S) model is used to quantify the ecological composition of urban/peri-urban environments with multitemporal Landsat images (3 stages, 18 scenes) and LULC data from 1985 to 2005. The support vector machine algorithm and several knowledge-based methods are applied to get the V-I-S component fractions at high accuracies. The statistical results show that the urban expansion in the GTHA occurred mainly between 1985 and 1999, and only two districts revealed increasing trends for impervious surfaces for the period from 1999 to 2005. In contrast, Tianjin has been experiencing rapid urban sprawl at all stages and this has been accelerating since 1999. The urban growth patterns in the GTHA evolved from a monocentric and dispersed pattern to a polycentric and aggregated pattern, while in Tianjin it changed from monocentric to polycentric. Central Tianjin has become more centralized, while most other municipal areas have developed dispersed patterns. The GTHA also has a higher level of greenery and a more balanced ecological environment than Tianjin. These differences in the two areas may play an important role in urban planning and decision-making in developing countries.

  6. Representing the effects of alpine grassland vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics by ecosystem models applied to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yi, S.; Li, N.; Xiang, B.; Wang, X.; Ye, B.; McGuire, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Soil surface temperature is a critical boundary condition for the simulation of soil temperature by environmental models. It is influenced by atmospheric and soil conditions and by vegetation cover. In sophisticated land surface models, it is simulated iteratively by solving surface energy budget equations. In ecosystem, permafrost, and hydrology models, the consideration of soil surface temperature is generally simple. In this study, we developed a methodology for representing the effects of vegetation cover and atmospheric factors on the estimation of soil surface temperature for alpine grassland ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Our approach integrated measurements from meteorological stations with simulations from a sophisticated land surface model to develop an equation set for estimating soil surface temperature. After implementing this equation set into an ecosystem model and evaluating the performance of the ecosystem model in simulating soil temperature at different depths in the soil profile, we applied the model to simulate interactions among vegetation cover, freeze-thaw cycles, and soil erosion to demonstrate potential applications made possible through the implementation of the methodology developed in this study. Results showed that (1) to properly estimate daily soil surface temperature, algorithms should use air temperature, downward solar radiation, and vegetation cover as independent variables; (2) the equation set developed in this study performed better than soil surface temperature algorithms used in other models; and (3) the ecosystem model performed well in simulating soil temperature throughout the soil profile using the equation set developed in this study. Our application of the model indicates that the representation in ecosystem models of the effects of vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics has the potential to substantially improve our understanding of the vulnerability of alpine grassland ecosystems to changes in climate and grazing regimes.

  7. Multi-year assessment of soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) modeling uncertainties over a Mediterranean agricultural site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J.-C.; Lafont, S.; Martin, E.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Bertrand, N.; Desfonds, V.; Renard, D.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation productivity and water balance of Mediterranean regions will be particularly affected by climate and land-use changes. In order to analyze and predict these changes through land surface models, a critical step is to quantify the uncertainties associated with these models (processes, parameters) and their implementation over a long period of time. Besides, uncertainties attached to the data used to force these models (atmospheric forcing, vegetation and soil characteristics, crop management practices...) which are generally available at coarse spatial resolution (>1-10 km) and for a limited number of plant functional types, need to be evaluated. This paper aims at assessing the uncertainties in water (evapotranspiration) and energy fluxes estimated from a Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) model over a Mediterranean agricultural site. While similar past studies focused on particular crop types and limited period of time, the originality of this paper consists in implementing the SVAT model and assessing its uncertainties over a long period of time (10 years), encompassing several cycles of distinct crops (wheat, sorghum, sunflower, peas). The impacts on the SVAT simulations of the following sources of uncertainties are characterized: - Uncertainties in atmospheric forcing are assessed comparing simulations forced with local meteorological measurements and simulations forced with re-analysis atmospheric dataset (SAFRAN database). - Uncertainties in key surface characteristics (soil, vegetation, crop management practises) are tested comparing simulations feeded with standard values from global database (e.g. ECOCLIMAP) and simulations based on in situ or site-calibrated values. - Uncertainties dues to the implementation of the SVAT model over a long period of time are analyzed with regards to crop rotation. The SVAT model being analyzed in this paper is ISBA in its a-gs version which simulates the photosynthesis and its coupling with the stomata conductance, as well as the time course of the plant biomass and the Leaf Area Index (LAI). The experiment was conducted at the INRA-Avignon (France) crop site (ICOS associated site), for which 10 years of energy and water eddy fluxes, soil moisture profiles, vegetation measurements, agricultural practises are available for distinct crop types. The uncertainties in evapotranspiration and energy flux estimates are quantified from both 10-year trend analysis and selected daily cycles spanning a range of atmospheric conditions and phenological stages. While the net radiation flux is correctly simulated, the cumulated latent heat flux is under-estimated. Daily plots indicate i) an overestimation of evapotranspiration over bare soil probably due to an overestimation of the soil water reservoir available for evaporation and ii) an under-estimation of transpiration for developed canopy. Uncertainties attached to the re-analysis atmospheric data show little influence on the cumulated values of evapotranspiration. Better performances are reached using in situ soil depths and site-calibrated photosynthesis parameters compared to the simulations based on the ECOCLIMAP standard values. Finally, this paper highlights the impact of the temporal succession of vegetation cover and bare soil on the simulation of soil moisture and evapotranspiration over a long period of time. Thus, solutions to account for crop rotation in the implementation of SVAT models are discussed.

  8. Climate-Soil-Vegetation Control on Groundwater Table Dynamics and its Feedbacks in a Climate Model

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Qian, Yun; Liang, Xu

    2010-01-29

    Among the three dynamically linked branches of the water cycle, including atmospheric, surface, and subsurface water, groundwater is the largest reservoir and an active component of the hydrologic system. Because of the inherent slow response time, groundwater may be particularly relevant for long time-scale processes such as multi-years or decadal droughts. This study uses regional climate simulations with and without surface water – groundwater interactions for the conterminous U.S. to assess the influence of climate, soil, and vegetation on groundwater table dynamics, and its potential feedbacks to regional climate. Analysis shows that precipitation has a dominant influence on the spatial and temporal variations of groundwater table depth (GWT). The simulated GWT is found to decrease sharply with increasing precipitation. Our simulation also shows some distinct spatial variations that are related to soil porosity and hydraulic conductivity. Vegetation properties such as minimum stomatal resistance, and root depth and fraction are also found to play an important role in controlling the groundwater table. Comparing two simulations with and without groundwater table dynamics, we find that groundwater table dynamics mainly influences the partitioning of soil water between the surface (0 – 0.5 m) and subsurface (0.5 – 5 m) rather than total soil moisture. In most areas, groundwater table dynamics increases surface soil moisture at the expense of the subsurface, except in regions with very shallow groundwater table. The change in soil water partitioning between the surface and subsurface is found to strongly correlate with the partitioning of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. The evaporative fraction (EF) is generally higher during summer when groundwater table dynamics is included. This is accompanied by increased cloudiness, reduced diurnal temperature range, cooler surface temperature, and increased cloud top height. Although both convective and non-convective precipitation are enhanced, the higher EF changes the partitioning to favor more non-convective precipitation, but this result could be sensitive to the convective parameterization used. Compared to simulations without groundwater table dynamics, the dry bias in the summer precipitation is slightly reduced over the central and eastern U.S. Groundwater table dynamics can provide important feedbacks to atmospheric processes, and these feedbacks are stronger in regions with deeper groundwater table, because the interactions between surface and subsurface are weak when the groundwater table is deep. This increases the sensitivity of surface soil moisture to precipitation anomalies, and therefore enhances land surface feedbacks to the atmosphere through changes in soil moisture and evaporative fraction. By altering the groundwater table depth, land use change and groundwater withdrawal can alter land surface response and feedback to the climate system.

  9. Impact of Hillslope-Scale Organization of Topography, Soil Moisture, Soil Temperature, and Vegetation on Modeling Surface Microwave Radiation Emission

    E-print Network

    Flores, Alejandro N.

    Microwave radiometry will emerge as an important tool for global remote sensing of near-surface soil moisture in the coming decade. In this modeling study, we find that hillslope-scale topography (tens of meters) influences ...

  10. Stochastic generation of meteorological variables and effects on global models of water and carbon cycles in vegetation and soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, B.; Francois, L.; Warnant, P.; Strivay, D.

    1998-12-01

    Global models of water and carbon cycles in continental vegetation and soils are usually forced with monthly mean climatic data-sets and thus neglect day to day variations of the weather. This treatment may be justified for empirical models based on parametrizations validated at a monthly timescale. Mechanistic models handling hydrological and biological processes at much shorter timescales might, however, be largely affected by such an approximation, since the various processes described are highly nonlinear. A random generator of daily precipitations and temperatures applicable at the global scale has thus been developed from worldwide meteorological data covering 6 years of observations. The probability of a wet day is correlated to the weather encountered the previous day. The amount of precipitation, the daily mean temperature and the diurnal range of temperature are described from the statistical point of view by the cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of three random variables. The CDFs relative to temperatures are different for rainy and dry days. This stochastically generated weather field is used as input to IBM (Improved Bucket Model) and CARAIB (CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere), two global models of respectively soil hydrology and vegetation productivity. Large differences in both the geographical distribution and the global value of soil water, vegetation productivity and carbon stocks are obtained between the model runs using monthly uniform weather on one side and randomly generated weather on the other. The main contribution to this difference at the global scale arises from the precipitation generation occurring as a result of high degree of nonlinearity of the interception scheme used in IBM.

  11. Soil-vegetation feedbacks driving early ecosystems genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwenzi, Willis; Hinz, Christoph; McGrath, Gavan; Veneklaas, Erik

    2010-05-01

    During the early phase of terrestrial ecosystems genesis feedbacks between soil and vegetation may become a key driver determining whether and how the systems will converge to a stable state. This is particular true for water-limited ecosystems for which water availability determines biomass. Based on a review of how vegetation growth affects soil hydraulic properties, we propose a simple conceptual model that captures the feedbacks between soil water storage in soil and soil hydraulic behaviour and vegetation biomass. The feedbacks that we considered are (i) vegetation biomass and soil water storage, (ii) root growth and infiltration capacity, (iii) vegetation biomass and bare soil evaporation, and (iv) root growth and soil water drainage. In water-limited environments, these feedbacks are responsible for highly organized vegetation patterns in space and may also lead to oscillating behaviour of soil water storage and vegetation biomass in time. Biomass overshooting as a result of initially high soil water content is predicted, which is consistent with observations made in forested catchments after clearing or during re-vegetation of mine tailings. We furthermore study how the oscillation of rainfall and evaporative demand affects the biomass fluctuations in time. We can show that such systems may converge to either an equilibrium point or a limit cycle. Climate oscillation can cause period doubling and for large periods it may control the biomass dynamics.

  12. Process-based modeling of vegetation dynamics, snow, evapotranspiration and soil moisture patterns in an alpine catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Engel, Michael; Niedrist, Georg; Brenner, Johannes G.; Endrizzi, Stefano; Dall'Amico, Matteo; Cordano, Emanuele; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Rigon, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    Mountain regions are particularly sensitive to climate change and at the same time they represent a key water resource not only locally but as well for lowland areas. Because of the complexity of mountain landscapes and the high climatic variability at a local scale, detailed quantification of key water budget components as snow cover, soil moisture and groundwater recharge is required. Therefore, there is a strong need to improve the capability of hydrological models to identify patterns in complex terrain (i.e. when variability of spatial characteristics counts), and to quantify changes of the water cycle components explicitly, considering interactions and feedbacks with climate and vegetation. Process-based hydrological models represent promising tools for addressing those needs. However, even if their inherent complexity sometimes limits their applicability for operational purpose, they offer great potential in terms of tools to test hypotheses, which can be verified in the field. GEOtop is a hydrological model that calculates the energy and mass exchanges between soil, vegetation, and atmosphere, accounting for land cover, water redistribution, snow processes, glacier mass budget and the effects of complex terrain and thus is one of the few models that was built with this complexity in mind. Recently, it has also been coupled with a dynamic vegetation model in order to simulate alpine grassland ecosystems. In this contribution, we want to present an application of the GEOtop model in simulating above ground biomass (Bag) production, evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture (SM) and snow water equivalent (SWE) patterns for a catchment of about 100 km2, located in the Venosta/Vinschgau valley in the European Alps. Despite the Alps are one of the 'water towers of Europe', water scarcity issues can affect the region where the model is applied, and an intensive hydrological and ecological monitoring activity with ground observations and remote-sensing products has been established in the last five years. Simulations results showed that, along south-facing slopes, ET and Bag did not decrease with elevation, as it happens along north facing slopes, but showed a maximum at an intermediate elevation around ca. 1500 m a.s.l., because of the contrasting trends of a shorter vegetation season at higher elevations and water stress at lower elevations. Therefore, results suggest that in this region south-facing pastures and woodlands below the elevation band of 1000 - 1500 m a.s.l. are the locations exposed to more frequent water stress conditions. Future climate change will likely worsen drought frequency. This contribution highlights that the collected data set permits a multi-scale and multi-process evaluation of the model. Plot scale observations of evapotranspiration, soil moisture and snow cover, combined with remote sensing observations of snow and soil moisture help to discriminate between uncertainties in input data (i.e. snow/rainfall partitioning) and model parameterization. Moreover, we want to show with practical examples how, when dealing with coupled process-based eco-hydrological models is essential considering the physical consistency between different processes as modeled in GEOtop. For example, accounting the role of subsurface water lateral distribution on surface soil moisture; considering both water and energy budget constrains; introducing the control of snow cover on vegetation phenology. This introduces additional constraints in model parameterization that allow a better understanding of some processes dynamics, and can lead to a more coherent and accurate estimation of the catchment hydrological behavior than the one, which is possible with simpler models.

  13. Preliminary assessment of soil moisture over vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, T. N.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling of surface energy fluxes was combined with in-situ measurement of surface parameters, specifically the surface sensible heat flux and the substrate soil moisture. A vegetation component was incorporated in the atmospheric/substrate model and subsequently showed that fluxes over vegetation can be very much different than those over bare soil for a given surface-air temperature difference. The temperature signatures measured by a satellite or airborne radiometer should be interpreted in conjunction with surface measurements of modeled parameters. Paradoxically, analyses of the large-scale distribution of soil moisture availability shows that there is a very high correlation between antecedent precipitation and inferred surface moisture availability, even when no specific vegetation parameterization is used in the boundary layer model. Preparatory work was begun in streamlining the present boundary layer model, developing better algorithms for relating surface temperatures to substrate moisture, preparing for participation in the French HAPEX experiment, and analyzing aircraft microwave and radiometric surface temperature data for the 1983 French Beauce experiments.

  14. Parametrizing soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models with non-destructive and high resolution stable isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothfuss, Youri; Vereecken, Harry; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    For nearly 50 years, stable isotopologues of water (1H2H16O and 1H218O) have been used in a wide range of water research disciplines to identify the origin and to quantify proportions of water pools involved in processes of the terrestrial water cycle. In soils between rain events, the combined action of convective capillary rise of water depleted in 1H2H16O and 1H218O with back-diffusion of water enriched in 1H2H16O and 1H218O from the evaporation site (i.e., soil surface or evaporation front) downwards leads to the formation of - typically exponential - soil water stable isotopologue profiles. The first steady state and isothermal analytical solutions of these isotopologues profiles were proposed in the late 60ies. They were later extended to unsteady state and non-isothermal conditions. These analytical formulations link the shape of the isotopologue profiles to soil evaporation flux and regime, and to the soil physical properties associated with both diffusive and convective water transport (such as tortuosity length and dispersivity). More recently, the movement of 1H2H16O and 1H218O was implemented in physically-based numerical soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) models (e.g., TOUGHREACT, SiSPAT-Isotope, Soil-Litter iso, Hydrus 1D). In these fully coupled models, the output of the heat transfer module, i.e., the temperature profile, is fed into the isotope module. Isotope and water transport are therefore inter-dependent as opposed to analytical solutions. In addition to thermodynamic (equilibrium) isotope effects, which are only temperature-dependent, kinetic isotope effects during soil evaporation greatly affect the stable isotopic composition of soil water and evaporation and can be highly variable. Thus, a better understanding of the implications of these kinetic effects in addition to the well characterized equilibrium effects as well as their implementation in SVAT models are required for improving the use of 1H2H16O and 1H218O as tracers of soil water processes. An important challenge is to provide models with non-destructive and high resolution isotope data, both in space and time (e.g., using microporous tubing or membrane-based available setups). Moreover, parallel to field studies effort should be made to design specific experiments under controlled conditions, allowing for testing the underlying hypotheses of the above mentioned isotope-enabled SVAT models. Using isotope data obtained from these controlled experiments will improve the characterization of evaporation processes within the soil profile and ameliorate the parametrization of the respective isotope modules.

  15. Thallium contamination of soils/vegetation as affected by sphalerite weathering: a model rhizospheric experiment.

    PubMed

    Van?k, Aleš; Grösslová, Zuzana; Mihaljevi?, Martin; Ettler, Vojt?ch; Chrastný, Vladislav; Komárek, Michael; Tejnecký, Václav; Drábek, Ond?ej; Penížek, Vít; Galušková, Ivana; Van??ková, Barbora; Pavl?, Lenka; Ash, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The environmental stability of Tl-rich sphalerite in two contrasting soils was studied. Rhizospheric conditions were simulated to assess the risk associated with sulfide microparticles entering agricultural (top)soils. The data presented here clearly demonstrate a significant effect of 500 ?M citric acid, a model rhizospheric solution, on ZnS alteration followed by enhanced Tl and Zn release. The relative ZnS mass loss after 28 days of citrate incubation reached 0.05 and 0.03 wt.% in Cambisol and Leptosol samples respectively, and was up to 4 times higher, compared to H2O treatments. Incongruent (i.e., substantially increased) mobilization of Tl from ZnS was observed during the incubation time. Generally higher (long-term) stability of ZnS with lower Tl release is predicted for soils enriched in carbonates. Furthermore, the important role of silicates (mainly illite) in the stabilization of mobilized Tl, linked with structural (inter)layer Tl-K exchange, is suggested. Thallium was highly bioavailable, as indicated by its uptake by white mustard; maximum Tl amounts were detected in biomass grown on the acidic Cambisol. Despite the fact that sulfides are thought as relatively stable phases in soil environments, enhanced sulfide dissolution and Tl/trace element release (and bioaccumulation) can be assumed in rhizosphere systems. PMID:25265594

  16. Green vegetation, nonphotosynthetic vegetation, and soils in AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. A.; Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of distinguishing between green vegetation, nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV, such as dry grass, leaf litter, and woody material), and soils in imaging-spectrometer data is addressed by analyzing an image taken by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (California) on September 20, 1989, using spectral mixture analysis. Over 98 percent of the spectral variation could be explained by linear mixtures of three endmembers, green vegetation, shade, and soil. NPV, which could not be distinguished from soil when included as an endmember, was discriminated by residual spectra that contained cellulose and lignin absorptions. Distinct communities of green vegetation were distinguished by (1) nonlinear mixing effect caused by transmission and scattering by green leaves, (2) variations in a derived canopy-shade spectrum, and (3) the fraction of NPV.

  17. Solar radiation signature manifested on the spatial patterns of modeled soil moisture, vegetation, and topography using an ecohydro-geomorphic landscape evolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetemen, O.; Flores Cervantes, J. H.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2013-12-01

    The role of solar radiation on ecohydrologic fluxes, vegetation dynamics, species composition, and landscape morphology have long been documented in field studies. However a numerical model framework to integrate a range of ecohydrologic and geomorphic processes to explore the integrated ecohydro-geomorphic landscape response have been missing. In this study, our aim is to realistically represent flood generation and solar-radiation-driven echydrologic dynamics in a landscape evolution model (LEM) to investigate how ecohydrologic differences caused by differential irradiance on opposing hillslopes manifest themselves on the organization of modeled topography, soil moisture and plant biomass. We use the CHILD LEM equipped with a spatially-distributed solar-radiation component, leading to spatial patterns of soil moisture; a vegetation dynamics component that explicitly tracks above- and below-ground biomass; and a runoff component that allows for runoff-runon processes along the landscape flow paths. Ecohydrological component has been verified using a detailed data gathered from Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico, and Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in southern Arizona. LEM scenarios were designed to compare the outcomes of spatially distributed versus spatially uniform solar radiation forced with a constant climate and variable uplift. Modeled spatial patterns of soil moisture confirm empirical observations at the landscape scale and other hydrologic modeling studies. The spatial variability in soil moisture is controlled by aspect prior to the wet season (North American Monsoon, NAM), and by the hydraulic connectivity of the flow network during NAM. Aspect and network connectivity signatures are also manifested on plant biomass with typically denser vegetation cover on north-facing slopes than south facing slopes. Over the long-term, CHILD gives slightly steeper and less dissected north-facing slopes more dissected south facing slopes and an overall asymmetry in the modeled morphology of valleys. The model simulations show how subtle differences in biomass and soil moisture dynamics at annual scale lead to distinct geomorphic differences at both hillslope and catchment scales.

  18. Managing soil under vegetable production to improve soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the years, soil quality has eroded as soil organic matter has declined on farms across North Carolina. This study is assessing the effects of tillage practice, winter cover cropping and compost use on changes in soil function and improvement in soil quality under vegetable production. The field...

  19. MANAGING VEGETATION DYNAMICS: SOIL-GEOMORPHIC MAPS, STATE-AND-TRANSITION MODELS, AND REMOTE SENSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation mapping via remote sensing tools is a useful and cost-effective approach for understanding current land use and species habitat patterns, but has limited utility in predicting the future state of vegetation. We describe an approach that couples data-supported, conceptual state-and-transi...

  20. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (principal investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Kubelka-Munk model, a regression model, and a combination of these models were used to extract plant, soil, and shadow reflectance components of vegetated surfaces. The combination model was superior to the others; it explained 86% of the variation in band 5 reflectance of corn and sorghum, and 90% of the variation in band 6 reflectance of cotton. A fractional shadow term substantially increased the proportion of the digital count sum of squares explained when plant parameters alone explained 85% or less of the variation. Overall recognition of 94 agricultural fields using simultaneously acquired aircraft and spacecraft MSS data was 61.8 and 62.8%, respectively; recognition of vegetable fields larger than 10 acres and taller than 25 cm, rose to 88.9 and 100% for aircraft and spacecraft, respectively. Agriculture and rangeland, were well discriminated for the entire county but level 2 categories of vegetables, citrus, and idle cropland, except for citrus, were not.

  1. Modeling Spatial Patterns of Soil Respiration in Maize Fields from Vegetation and Soil Property Factors with the Use of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ni; Wang, Li; Guo, Yiqiang; Hao, Pengyu; Niu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    To examine the method for estimating the spatial patterns of soil respiration (Rs) in agricultural ecosystems using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS), Rs rates were measured at 53 sites during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China. Through Pearson's correlation analysis, leaf area index (LAI), canopy chlorophyll content, aboveground biomass, soil organic carbon (SOC) content, and soil total nitrogen content were selected as the factors that affected spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize. The use of a structural equation modeling approach revealed that only LAI and SOC content directly affected Rs. Meanwhile, other factors indirectly affected Rs through LAI and SOC content. When three greenness vegetation indices were extracted from an optical image of an environmental and disaster mitigation satellite in China, enhanced vegetation index (EVI) showed the best correlation with LAI and was thus used as a proxy for LAI to estimate Rs at the regional scale. The spatial distribution of SOC content was obtained by extrapolating the SOC content at the plot scale based on the kriging interpolation method in GIS. When data were pooled for 38 plots, a first-order exponential analysis indicated that approximately 73% of the spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize can be explained by EVI and SOC content. Further test analysis based on independent data from 15 plots showed that the simple exponential model had acceptable accuracy in estimating the spatial patterns of Rs in maize fields on the basis of remotely sensed EVI and GIS-interpolated SOC content, with R2 of 0.69 and root-mean-square error of 0.51 µmol CO2 m?2 s?1. The conclusions from this study provide valuable information for estimates of Rs during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China. PMID:25157827

  2. An integrated model of soil, hydrology, and vegetation for carbon dynamics in wetland ecosystems

    E-print Network

    and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, USA Carl C. Trettin and Harbin Li Center on quantifying water table dynamics, soil thermal dynamics, growth of mosses and herbaceous plants, and soil biogeochemical processes under anaerobic conditions. In this paper, we report new developments made for Wetland

  3. Using the landscape evolution modelling framework Landlab to quantify how soils, climate, and vegetation are linked in semi-arid landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelb, L.; Flores, A. N.; Yager, E.; Pierce, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Soils are the interface between the lithosphere and the atmosphere. The presence and thickness of a soil mantle is locally a function of the rate of parent material weathering and the net transport of soil downslope, which are both heavily controlled by the type and density of vegetation present. In semiarid landscapes, water is often both a limiting material to the growth of vegetation as well as additional control on weathering and erosion of soil. The goal of our study is to promote fundamental understanding of the sensitivity of soil thickness to changes in precipitation in these water-limited environments. To accomplish this, we have quantified denudation rates in a semi-arid ecosystem through field work and used these data to inform a variety of climate change simulations in a landscape evolution model. Our denudation rates were sampled from areas with varying elevation, slope, and aspect, all variables that engender differences in the vegetation of sagebrush steppe ecosystems. The data were collected using a sediment flux measurement technique where a GPS with sub-centimeter accuracy was used to periodically resample the movement of rebar that was installed in the regolith. Within sagebrush steppe ecosystems, wildfires were historically common before the presence of humans. Contemporarily, after a disturbance invasive species are able to establish themselves more quickly than native plants can, and so fires have a much different effect on our landscapes than they did in the past. With Landlab, an open-source, community framework that supports the rapid development of integrated landscape development models, we have modeled the effect of this shift on landscape evolution. Our model is able to react to shifts in climate by changing the vegetation present and the recurrence interval of fires. We can, therefore, use the model to quantify the linkages between climate, local soil evolution, and landscape evolution under plausible alternative futures of climate.

  4. Soil Water Dynamics in a Clumped Vegetation Pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfreda, S.; Pizzolla, T.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the general principles behind the self-organization of vegetation may help to predict some of the consequences of environmental change for both ecosystem services and water resources. The accurate representation of landscape structure is necessary to estimate the flows exchanged between the earth's surface and atmosphere. Here, we adopted a physically based model to describe the spatial dynamics of vegetation taking into account soil physical characteristics and plant physiology. This approach is used at the landscape scale in order investigate the impact of spatial organization of vegetation on soil moisture distribution, evapotranspiration rate, root system uptake, vegetation stress, net primary productivity, etc. The proposed model is adopted in a patchy vegetation mosaic based on a spatial random process of individual tree canopies and their accompanying root systems. The spatial distribution of vegetation is not modeled like a homogeneous process of canopies, but like aggregated tree distribution, typically observed in savannas. To this end, we used a mathematical framework for describing vegetation structure based on the density, dispersion, and size distribution of individuals within a landscape. In particular, we posed particular attention to the role of clumping on the landscape dynamics analyzing different configurations of climatic parameters, soil types and plant types. The analyses show how the clumping structure may be beneficial for water use efficiency at the landscape scale.

  5. Bowen ratio measurements above various vegetation covers and its comparison with actual evapotranspiration estimated by SoilClim model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, P.; Trnka, M.; Fischer, M.; Kucera, J.; Mozny, M.; Zalud, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The principle of Bowen ratio is one of the available techniques for measurements of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) as one of essential water balance fractions. The main aims of submitted study were: (i) to compare the water balance of selected crops, (ii) to compare outputs of SoilClim model with observed parameters (including ETa on Bowen ratio basis). The measurements were conducted at two experimental stations in the Czech Republic (Polkovice 49°23´ (N), 17°17´ (E), 205 m a.s.l.; Domanínek 49°32´ (N), 16°15´ (E), 544 m a.s.l.) during the years 2009 and 2010. Together with Bowen ratio the global solar radiation, radiation balance, soil heat flux, volumetric soil moisture and temperature within selected depths, precipitation and wind speed were measured. The measurements were conducted simultaneously above various covers within the same soil conditions: spring barley vs. winter wheat, spring barley vs. winter rape; grass vs. poplars; harvested field after tillage vs. harvested field after cereals without any tillage. The observed parameters from different covers were compared with SoilClim estimates. SoilClim model is modular software for water balance and soil temperature modelling and finally could be used for soil Hydric and Thermic regimes (according to USDA classification) identification. The core of SoilClim is based on modified FAO Penman-Monteith methodology. Submitted study proved the applicability of SoilClim model for ETa, soil moisture within two defined layers and soil temperature (in 0.5 m depth) estimates for various crops, covers, selected soil types and climatic conditions. Acknowledgement: We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (no. 521/09/P479) and the project NAZV QI91C054. The study was also supported by Research plan No. MSM6215648905 "Biological and technological aspects of sustainability of controlled ecosystems and their adaptability to climate change".

  6. Spatial pattern formation of coastal vegetation in response to external gradients and positive feedbacks affecting soil porewater salinity: A model study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, J.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Smith, T. J., III; Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal vegetation of South Florida typically comprises salinity-tolerant mangroves bordering salinity-intolerant hardwood hammocks and fresh water marshes. Two primary ecological factors appear to influence the maintenance of mangrove/hammock ecotones against changes that might occur due to disturbances. One of these is a gradient in one or more environmental factors. The other is the action of positive feedback mechanisms, in which each vegetation community influences its local environment to favor itself, reinforcing the boundary between communities. The relative contributions of these two factors, however, can be hard to discern. A spatially explicit individual-based model of vegetation, coupled with a model of soil hydrology and salinity dynamics is presented here to simulate mangrove/hammock ecotones in the coastal margin habitats of South Florida. The model simulation results indicate that an environmental gradient of salinity, caused by tidal flux, is the key factor separating vegetation communities, while positive feedback involving the different interaction of each vegetation type with the vadose zone salinity increases the sharpness of boundaries, and maintains the ecological resilience of mangrove/hammock ecotones against small disturbances. Investigation of effects of precipitation on positive feedback indicates that the dry season, with its low precipitation, is the period of strongest positive feedback. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  7. Harmonic propagation of variability in surface energy balance within a coupled soil-vegetation-atmosphere system

    E-print Network

    Gentine, Pierre

    [1] The response of a soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum model to incoming radiation forcing is investigated in order to gain insights into the coupling of soil and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) states and fluxes. The ...

  8. Calculations of radar backscattering coefficient of vegetation-covered soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, T.; Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J. (principal investigators)

    1983-01-01

    A model for simulating the measured backscattering coefficient of vegetation-covered soil surfaces includes both coherent and incoherent components of the backscattered radar pulses from a rough sil surface. The effect of vegetation canopy scattering is also incorporated into the model by making the radar pulse subject to two-way attenuation and volume scattering when it passes through the vegetation layer. Model results agree well with the measured angular distributions of the radar backscattering coefficient for HH polarization at the 1.6 GHz and 4.75 GHz frequencies over grass-covered fields. It was found that the coherent scattering component is very important at angles near nadir, while the vegetation volume scattering is dominant at incident angles 30 degrees.

  9. Soil Respiration Responses to Variation in Temperature Treatment and Vegetation Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Pavao-zuckerman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Complex linkages exist between terrestrial vegetation, soil moisture, soil organic matter (SOM), local climate, and soil microorganisms. Thus, large-scale changes in vegetation, such as the woody plant encroachment observed in many historically semiarid and arid grasslands worldwide, could potentially alter the flux of carbon from soil reserves to the atmosphere. Mathematical models that attempt to project the long-term impact of vegetative shifts on soil fluxes largely rely on assumptions such as first-order donor control rather than incorporate the biological aspects of soil respiration such as microbial activity. To examine the impact of vegetation type on soil physicochemical properties and soil microbial respiration and provide experimental data to refine existing predictive models, we compared soil (ground basalt from northern Arizona) in mesocosms established with no vegetation, velvet mesquites (Prosopis velutina; woody shrub), or sideoats gramas (Bouteloua curtipendula; grass) for 2 years, The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was examined by incubating soil (0-10 and 10-30 cm depth fractions) from each vegetation treatment at 10, 20, 30, and 40 °C for 24 hours. Vegetated soils contained more SOM (~0.1% for mesquite and grass mesocosms) than non-vegetated soils (~0.02%). Respiration rates were generally highest from grass-established soils, intermediate from mesquite-established soils, and lowest from non-vegetated soils. Respiration rates of samples incubated without the addition of substrate peaked at approximately 30 °C, whereas respiration rates of samples incubated with dextrose were highest at 40 °C. Further, the respiration assays suggest that while respiration rates are overall higher in grass-established soils, mesquite-established soils are more temperature sensitive which may have significant implications in the context of global warming and current fire management practices.

  10. Ecological optimality in water-limited natural soil-vegetation systems. I - Theory and hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    The solution space of an approximate statistical-dynamic model of the average annual water balance is explored with respect to the hydrologic parameters of both soil and vegetation. Within the accuracy of this model it is shown that water-limited natural vegetation systems are in stable equilibrium with their climatic and pedologic environments when the canopy density and species act to minimize average water demand stress. Theory shows a climatic limit to this equilibrium above which it is hypothesized that ecological pressure is toward maximization of biomass productivity. It is further hypothesized that natural soil-vegetation systems will develop gradually and synergistically, through vegetation-induced changes in soil structure, toward a set of hydraulic soil properties for which the minimum stress canopy density of a given species is maximum in a given climate. Using these hypotheses, only the soil effective porosity need be known to determine the optimum soil and vegetation parameters in a given climate.

  11. Evaluation of land surface model simulations of evapotranspiration over a 12-year crop succession: impact of soil hydraulic and vegetation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J. C.; Martin, E.; Lafont, S.; Moulin, S.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Buis, S.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Renard, D.

    2015-07-01

    Evapotranspiration has been recognized as one of the most uncertain terms in the surface water balance simulated by land surface models. In this study, the SURFEX/ISBA-A-gs (Interaction Sol-Biosphere-Atmosphere) simulations of evapotranspiration are assessed at the field scale over a 12-year Mediterranean crop succession. The model is evaluated in its standard implementation which relies on the use of the ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil properties. The originality of this work consists in explicitly representing the succession of crop cycles and inter-crop bare soil periods in the simulations and assessing its impact on the dynamics of simulated and measured evapotranspiration over a long period of time. The analysis focuses on key parameters which drive the simulation of ET, namely the rooting depth, the soil moisture at saturation, the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at wilting point. A sensitivity analysis is first conducted to quantify the relative contribution of each parameter on ET simulation over 12 years. The impact of the estimation method used to retrieve the soil parameters (pedotransfer function, laboratory and field methods) on ET is then analysed. The benefit of representing the variations in time of the rooting depth and wilting point is evaluated. Finally, the propagation of uncertainties in the soil parameters on ET simulations is quantified through a Monte Carlo analysis and compared with the uncertainties triggered by the mesophyll conductance which is a key above-ground driver of the stomatal conductance. This work shows that evapotranspiration mainly results from the soil evaporation when it is continuously simulated over a Mediterranean crop succession. This results in a high sensitivity of simulated evapotranspiration to uncertainties in the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at saturation, both of which drive the simulation of soil evaporation. Field capacity was proved to be the most influencing parameter on the simulation of evapotranspiration over the crop succession. The evapotranspiration simulated with the standard surface and soil parameters of the model is largely underestimated. The deficit in cumulative evapotranspiration amounts to 24 % over 12 years. The bias in daily daytime evapotranspiration is -0.24 mm day-1. The ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil moisture at saturation and at wilting point are overestimated, which explains most of the evapotranspiration underestimation. The use of field capacity values retrieved from laboratory methods leads to inaccurate simulation of ET due to the lack of representativeness of the soil structure variability at the field scale. The most accurate simulation is achieved with the average values of the soil properties derived from the analysis of field measurements of soil moisture vertical profiles over each crop cycle. The representation of the variations in time of the wilting point and the maximum rooting depth over the crop succession has little impact on the simulation performances. Finally, we show that the uncertainties in the soil parameters can generate substantial uncertainties in ET simulated over 12 years (the 95 % confidence interval represents 23 % of cumulative ET over 12 years). Uncertainties in the mesophyll conductance have lower impact on ET. Measurement random errors explain a large part of the scattering between simulations and measurements at half-hourly timescale. The deficits in simulated ET reported in this work are probably larger due to likely underestimation of ET by eddy-covariance measurements. Other possible model shortcomings include the lack of representation of soil vertical heterogeneity and root profile along with inaccurate energy balance partitioning between the soil and the vegetation at low leaf area index.

  12. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The ability to read the 24-channel MSS CCT tapes, select specified agricultural land use areas from the CCT, and perform multivariate statistical and pattern recognition analyses has been demonstrated. The 5 optimum channels chosen for classifying an agricultural scene were, in the order of their selection the far red visible, short reflective IR, visible blue, thermal infrared, and ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, respectively. Although chosen by a training set containing only vegetal categories, the optimum 4 channels discriminated pavement, water, bare soil, and building roofs, as well as the vegetal categories. Among the vegetal categories, sugar cane and cotton had distinctive signatures that distinguished them from grass and citrus. Acreages estimated spectrally by the computer for the test scene were acceptably close to acreages estimated from aerial photographs for cotton, sugar cane, and water. Many nonfarmable land resolution elements representing drainage ditch, field road, and highway right-of-way as well as farm headquarters area fell into the grass, bare soil plus weeds, and citrus categories and lessened the accuracy of the farmable acreage estimates in these categories. The expertise developed using the 24-channel data will be applied to the ERTS-1 data.

  13. Soil Moisture Estimation under Vegetation Applying Polarimetric Decomposition Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagdhuber, T.; Schön, H.; Hajnsek, I.; Papathanassiou, K. P.

    2009-04-01

    Polarimetric decomposition techniques and inversion algorithms are developed and applied on the OPAQUE data set acquired in spring 2007 to investigate their potential and limitations for soil moisture estimation. A three component model-based decomposition is used together with an eigenvalue decomposition in a combined approach to invert for soil moisture over bare and vegetated soils at L-band. The applied approach indicates a feasible capability to invert soil moisture after decomposing volume and ground scattering components over agricultural land surfaces. But there are still deficiencies in modeling the volume disturbance. The results show a root mean square error below 8.5vol.-% for the winter crop fields (winter wheat, winter triticale and winter barley) and below 11.5Vol-% for the summer crop field (summer barley) whereas all fields have a distinct volume layer of 55-85cm height.

  14. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Gerbermann, A. H. (principal investigators)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Iron deficient and normal grain sorghum plants were sufficiently different spectrally in ERTS-1 band 5 CCT data to detect chlorotic sorghum areas 2.8 acres (1.1 hectares) or larger in size in computer printouts of the MSS data. The ratio of band 5 to band 7 or band 7 minus band 5 relates to vegetation ground cover conditions and helps to select training samples representative of differing vegetation maturity or vigor classes and to estimate ground cover or green vegetation density in the absence of ground information. The four plant parameters; leaf area index, plant population, plant cover, and plant height explained 87 to 93% of the variability in band 6 digital counts and from 59 to 90% of the variation in bands 4 and 5. A ground area 2244 acres in size was classified on a pixel by pixel basis using simultaneously acquired aircraft support and ERTS-1 data. Overall recognition for vegetables, immature crops and mixed shrubs, and bare soil categories was 64.5% for aircraft and 59.6% for spacecraft data, respectively. Overall recognition results on a per field basis were 61.8% for aircraft and 62.8% for ERTS-1 data.

  15. Soil water availability as controlling factor for actual evapotranspiration in urban soil-vegetation-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Simon; Reisdorff, Christoph; Gröngröft, Alexander; Jensen, Kai; Eschenbach, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The City of Hamburg is characterized by a large number of greens, parks and roadside trees: 600.000 trees cover about 14% of the city area, and moreover, 245.000 roadside trees can be found here. Urban vegetation is generally known to positively contribute to the urban micro-climate via cooling by evapotranspiration (ET). The water for ET is predominantly stored in the urban soils. Hence, the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is - beside atmospheric drivers - determined by soil water availability at the soil surface and in the rooting zones of the respective vegetation. The overall aim of this study is to characterize soil water availability as a regulative factor for ETa in urban soil-vegetation systems. The specific questions addressed are: i) What is the spatio-temporal variation in soil water availability at the study sites? ii) Which soil depths are predominantly used for water uptake by the vegetation forms investigated? and iii) Which are the threshold values of soil water tension and soil water content (?), respectively, that limit ETa under dry conditions on both grass-dominated and tree-dominated sites? Three study areas were established in the urban region of Hamburg, Germany. We selected areas featuring both single tree stands and grass-dominated sites, both representing typical vegetation forms in Hamburg. The areas are characterized by relatively dry soil conditions. However, they differ in regard to soil water availability. At each area we selected one site dominated by Common Oak (Quercus ruber L.) with ages from 40 to 120 years, and paired each oak tree site with a neighboring grass-dominated site. All field measurements were performed during the years 2013 and 2014. At each site, we continuously measured soil water tension and ? up to 160 cm depth, and xylem sap flux of each of three oak trees per site in a 15 min-resolution. Furthermore, we measured soil hydraulic properties as pF-curve, saturated and unsaturated conductivity at all sites. Automated weather stations for the continuous measurement of all relevant climatic factors were established at all grass-dominated sites. Based on the field data, soil water balances were simulated for all sites with the HYDRUS model. Potential ET for the grass-dominated sites was calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation. Results regarding the spatio-temporal variability of available soil water of the study sites will be shown and discussed in this contribution. Moreover, correlations between soil water availability and ETa will be presented.

  16. Coevolution of hydraulic, soil and vegetation processes in estuarine wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivisonno, Franco; Rodriguez, Jose F.; Riccardi, Gerardo; Saco, Patricia; Stenta, Hernan

    2014-05-01

    Estuarine wetlands of south eastern Australia, typically display a vegetation zonation with a sequence mudflats - mangrove forest - saltmarsh plains from the seaward margin and up the topographic gradient. Estuarine wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, providing unique habitats for fish and many terrestrial species. They also have a carbon sequestration capacity that surpasess terrestrial forest. Estuarine wetlands respond to sea-level rise by vertical accretion and horizontal landward migration, in order to maintain their position in the tidal frame. In situations in which buffer areas for landward migration are not available, saltmarsh can be lost due to mangrove encroachment. As a result of mangrove invasion associated in part with raising estuary water levels and urbanisation, coastal saltmarsh in parts of south-eastern Australia has been declared an endangered ecological community. Predicting estuarine wetlands response to sea-level rise requires modelling the coevolving dynamics of water flow, soil and vegetation. This paper presents preliminary results of our recently developed numerical model for wetland dynamics in wetlands of the Hunter estuary of NSW. The model simulates continuous tidal inflow into the wetland, and accounts for the effect of varying vegetation types on flow resistance. Coevolution effects appear as vegetation types are updated based on their preference to prevailing hydrodynamic conditions. The model also considers that accretion values vary with vegetation type. Simulations are driven using local information collected over several years, which includes estuary water levels, accretion rates, soil carbon content, flow resistance and vegetation preference to hydraulic conditions. Model results predict further saltmarsh loss under current conditions of moderate increase of estuary water levels.

  17. Modeling aeolian erosion in presence of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, S.; Bergametti, G.; Simoëns, S.

    2014-02-01

    Semiarid landscapes are characterized by vegetated surfaces. Understanding the impact of vegetation on aeolian soil erosion is important for reducing soil erosion or limiting crop damage through abrasion or burial. In the present study, a saltation model fully coupled with a large-eddy simulation airflow model is extended to vegetated landscapes. From this model, the sensitivity of sand erosion to different arrangements and type of plants (shrub versus tree) representative of semiarid landscapes is investigated and the wind erosion reduction induced by plants is quantified. We show that saltation processes over vegetated surfaces have a limited impact on the mean wind statistics, the momentum extracted from the flow by saltating particles being negligible compared to that extracted by plants. Simulated sand erosion patterns resulting from plant distribution, i.e., accumulation and erosion areas, appear qualitatively consistent with previous observations. It is shown that sand erosion reduction depends not only on vegetation cover but also on plant morphology and plant distribution relative to the mean wind direction. A simple shear stress partitioning approach applied in shrub cases gives similar trends of sand erosion reduction as the present model following wind direction and vegetation cover. However, the magnitude of the reduction appears significantly different from one approach to another. Although shrubs trap saltating particles, trees appear more efficient than shrubs to reduce sand erosion. This is explained by the large-scale sheltering effect of trees compared to the local shrub one.

  18. Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Disaggregation radar data and relationship between soil moisture, vegetation and surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, Venkat; Fang, Bin

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is an important variable in weather and climate. The passive microwave sensors have provided soil moisture of various spatial resolutions and are available for all-weather conditions, including AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer- Earth Observing System), AMSR2 (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2) and SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity). However, the spatial resolution of passive microwave soil moisture product is restricted at tens of kilometers level and needs to be improved. Toward this issue, the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) is set to be launched in October 2014 will be the first mission to provide L-band radar/radiometer soil moisture retrievals at three resolutions. In this paper we present two distinct methods to obtain higher spatial resolution soil moisture. The first one is use of active radar data to downscale soil moisture obtained by passive radiometers. The SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) was taken place and provided Passive/Active L-band Sensor (PALS) observations of two along-track resolutions (650 m and 1590 m), as well as ground soil moisture measurements. Consequently the PALS data can be used for disaggregating coarse resolution passive soil moisture retrievals. Based on a change detection theory, the relationships between change in radar backscatter and change in soil moisture at both coarse and fine resolutions are examined and used for calculating high spatial resolution soil moisture from AMSR-E and SMOS. Using SMAPVEX12 ground measurements validates the disaggregation results. The second method is use of the relationship between vegetation and surface temperature to downscale soil moisture obtained from passive radiometers. The physical relationships amongst soil moisture, land surface temperature and vegetation index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI), the historic soil moisture data of recent 30 years at 1/8 degree NLDAS (North America Land Data Assimilation Systems) scale were studied and modeled by using the long term records of land surface model and remote sensing products, NLDAS, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer). This modeled relationship was then applied to the 1 km MODIS land surface temperature for disaggregating the microwave soil moisture estimates AMSR-E and SMOS in Oklahoma. Two sets of in-situ measurements Oklahoma Mesonet and Little Washita watershed Micronet were used for validating the disaggregated soil moisture.

  19. Response of spectral vegetation indices to soil moisture in grasslands and shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, L.; Ji, L.; Wylie, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between satellite-derived vegetation indices (VIs) and soil moisture are complicated because of the time lag of the vegetation response to soil moisture. In this study, we used a distributed lag regression model to evaluate the lag responses of VIs to soil moisture for grasslands and shrublands at Soil Climate Analysis Network sites in the central and western United States. We examined the relationships between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived VIs and soil moisture measurements. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) showed significant lag responses to soil moisture. The lag length varies from 8 to 56 days for NDVI and from 16 to 56 days for NDWI. However, the lag response of NDVI and NDWI to soil moisture varied among the sites. Our study suggests that the lag effect needs to be taken into consideration when the VIs are used to estimate soil moisture. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  20. Improved prediction of quasi-global vegetation conditions using remotely-sensed surface soil moisture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The additive value of satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals for agricultural drought monitoring is assessed by calculating the lagged rank correlation between remotely-sensed vegetation indices (VI) and model-based soil moisture obtained before and after the assimilation of surface soil m...

  1. Dual frequency microwave radiometer measurements of soil moisture for bare and vegetated rough surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    Controlled ground-based passive microwave radiometric measurements on soil moisture were conducted to determine the effects of terrain surface roughness and vegetation on microwave emission. Theoretical predictions were compared with the experimental results and with some recent airborne radiometric measurements. The relationship of soil moisture to the permittivity for the soil was obtained in the laboratory. A dual frequency radiometer, 1.41356 GHz and 10.69 GHz, took measurements at angles between 0 and 50 degrees from an altitude of about fifty feet. Distinct surface roughnesses were studied. With the roughness undisturbed, oats were later planted and vegetated and bare field measurements were compared. The 1.4 GHz radiometer was less affected than the 10.6 GHz radiometer, which under vegetated conditions was incapable of detecting soil moisture. The bare surface theoretical model was inadequate, although the vegetation model appeared to be valid. Moisture parameters to correlate apparent temperature with soil moisture were compared.

  2. An Overview of the Use of the SimSphere Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) Model for the Study of Land-Atmosphere Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Petropoulos, George; Carlson, Toby N.; Wooster, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) models consist of deterministic mathematical representations of the physical processes involved between the land surface and the atmosphere and of their interactions, at time-steps acceptable for the study of land surface processes. The present article provides a comprehensive and systematic review of one such SVAT model suitable for use in mesoscale or boundary layer studies, originally developed by [1]. This model, which has evolved significantly both architecturally and functionally since its foundation, has been widely applied in over thirty interdisciplinary science investigations, and it is currently used as a learning resource for students in a number of educational institutes globally. The present review is also regarded as very timely, since a variation of a method using this specific SVAT model along with satellite observations is currently being considered in a scheme being developed for the operational retrieval of soil surface moisture by the US National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), in a series of satellites that are due to be launched from 2016 onwards. PMID:22408527

  3. A land data assimilation system for simultaneous simulation of soil moisture and vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Yohei; Koike, Toshio; Walker, Jeffrey P.

    2015-06-01

    Despite the importance of the coupling between vegetation dynamics and root-zone soil moisture in land-atmosphere interactions, there is no land data assimilation system (LDAS) that currently addresses this issue, limiting the capacity to positively impact weather and seasonal forecasting. We develop a new LDAS that can improve the skill of an ecohydrological model to simulate simultaneously surface soil moisture, root-zone soil moisture, and vegetation dynamics by assimilating passive microwave observations that are sensitive to both surface soil moisture and terrestrial biomass. This LDAS first calibrates both hydrological and ecological parameters of a land surface model, which explicitly simulates vegetation growth and senescence. Then, it adjusts the model states of soil moisture and leaf area index (LAI) sequentially using a genetic particle filter. We can adjust the subsurface soil moisture, which is not observed directly by satellites, because we simulate the interactions between vegetation dynamics and subsurface water dynamics. From a point-scale evaluation, we succeed in improving the performance of our land surface model and generate ensembles of the model state whose distribution reflects the combined information in the land surface model and satellite observations. We show that the adjustment of the subsurface soil moisture significantly improves the capacity to simulate vegetation dynamics in seasonal forecast timescales. This LDAS can contribute to the generation of ensemble initial conditions of surface and subsurface soil moisture and LAI for a probabilistic framework of weather and seasonal forecasting.

  4. Soil microbial properties under different vegetation types on Mountain Han.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Qu, Laiye; Ma, Keming; Yuan, Xiu

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of broadleaf and conifer vegetation on soil microbial communities in a distinct vertical distribution belt in Northeast China. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths from four vegetation types at different altitudes, which were characterized by poplar (Populus davidiana) (1250-1300 m), poplar (P. davidiana) mixed with birch (Betula platyphylla) (1370-1550 m), birch (B. platyphylla) (1550-1720 m), and larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii) (1840-1890 m). Microbial biomass and community structure were determined using the fumigation-extraction method and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, and soil fungal community level physiological profiles (CLPP) were characterized using Biolog FF Microplates. It was found that soil properties, especially soil organic carbon and water content, contributed significantly to the variations in soil microbes. With increasing soil depth, the soil microbial biomass, fungal biomass, and fungal catabolic ability diminished; however, the ratio of fungi to bacteria increased. The fungal ratio was higher under larch forests compared to that under poplar, birch, and their mixed forests, although the soil microbial biomass was lower. The direct contribution of vegetation types to the soil microbial community variation was 12%. If the indirect contribution through soil organic carbon was included, variations in the vegetation type had substantial influences on soil microbial composition and diversity. PMID:23737003

  5. Influences of soil moisture and vegetation on convective precipitation forecasts

    E-print Network

    Robock, Alan

    Influences of soil moisture and vegetation on convective precipitation forecasts over the United National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA Abstract This study investigates the influences of soil moisture (NARR) data were used as initial and boundary conditions. We also used an adjusted soil moisture

  6. Arctic Region Evaluation of the Hydro-Thermodynamic Soil Vegetation Scheme (HTSVS)

    E-print Network

    Moelders, Nicole

    Arctic Region Evaluation of the Hydro-Thermodynamic Soil Vegetation Scheme (HTSVS) Pamela Spier temperatures and the temporal change in soil volumetric water content. The methodology involves comparing et al. 2003a) is a land-surface model designed for use in climate models to numerically examine

  7. Linking carbon-water- and nitrogen fluxes at forest ecosystems throughout Europe with a coupled soil-vegetation process model "LandscapeDNDC"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina Herrera, Saul; Grote, Rüdiger; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Forest ecosystems in Europe play a key role in the emission reduction commitment agreed in the Kyoto Protocol for mitigating climatic change. Forest ecological functioning and potential services (such as carbon sequestration) are a matter of debate for policy decision makers resulting from the need of identifying affordable strategies for forest management and exploitation against climate change. Forest ecosystem functioning and the linkages governing carbon-, water- and nitrogen fluxes at site scale was evaluated for three dominant tree species (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica) grown on 10 different sites across Europe. We did answer in particular the following questions: a) is LandscapeDNDC able to represent NEE, GPP, TER and ET fluxes for dominant forest types in Europe at different sites with only a species specific parameterization? b) What is the relation between carbon input into the ecosystem and on the emission of carbon and nitrogen from the forest soil? Furthermore we analyzed the interaction between carbon-, nitrogen-, and water cycle, in particular the dependence of gaseous fluxes on water and litter availability. LandscapeDNDC is a process based model that integrates modules for carbon, nitrogen and water cycling within terrestrial ecosystems (i.e. forest) on the site and regional scale. Biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere processes in forest ecosystems are linked by daily time step integration of the microclimate, water cycle, soil biogeochemistry and tree physiology and dimensional growth modules which balances all three aforementioned cycles. All processes and state variables are considered in a vertically structured one dimensional vertical column that reaches from rooting depth (more than 1 m depth) to the uppermost canopy layer. LandscapeDNDC was tested against long term (about 10 years) field data. The capability of the applied model for reproducing daily derived GPP and TER was accompanied by a high statistical precision (r2), accuracy (r2eff) and agreement (RMSPEn) while for reproducing daily NEE and ET as well as soil moisture was accompanied by a good statistical precision and agreement. In addition, beside C fixation also simulated C allocation into different vegetation compartments agreed well with measured data on biomass development and vegetation structure. Also soil respiration and N2O emissions agreed well with field observations. Soil respiration was driven by GPP and the rates of N2O fluxes depended on soil ecosystem properties and were influenced by litter C/N inputs and weather conditions. In conclusion by use of general tree species parameterizations LandscapeDNDC was capable to simulate and capture impacts of a multitude of environmental drivers on forest ecosystem C-, N-, water dynamics, as well as linking above - and belowground processes across various sites in Europe. Nevertheless, the quality of measured data (e.g. spatial representation, time resolution) as well as the existing description of ecosystem processes in the model should be considered when evaluating the capability of process based models to be used for evaluation of biogeochemical ecosystem functioning.

  8. Mediterranean shrub vegetation: soil protection vs. water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Estringana, Pablo; Nieves Alonso-Blázquez, M.; Alegre, Alegre; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Soil Erosion and Land Degradation are closely related to the changes in the vegetation cover (Zhao et al., 2013). Although other factors such as rainfall intensiy or slope (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) the plant covers is the main factor that controls the soil erosion (Haregeweyn, 2013). Plant cover is the main factor of soil erosion processes as the vegetation control the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1998a; Kargar Chigani et al., 2012). Vegetation cover acts in a complex way in influencing on the one hand on runoff and soil loss and on the other hand on the amount and the way that rainfall reaches the soil surface. In arid and semiarid regions, where erosion is one of the main degradation processes and water is a scant resource, a minimum percentage of vegetation coverage is necessary to protect the soil from erosion, but without compromising the availability of water (Belmonte Serrato and Romero Diaz, 1998). This is mainly controlled by the vegetation distribution (Cerdà, 1997a; Cammeraat et al., 2010; Kakembo et al., 2012). Land abandonment is common in Mediterranean region under extensive land use (Cerdà, 1997b; García-Ruiz, 2010). Abandoned lands typically have a rolling landscape with steep slopes, and are dominated by herbaceous communities that grow on pasture land interspersed by shrubs. Land abandonment use to trigger an increase in soil erosion, but the vegetation recovery reduces the impact of the vegetation. The goal of this work is to assess the effects of different Mediterranean shrub species (Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Medicago strasseri, Colutea arborescens L., Retama sphaerocarpa, L., Pistacia Lentiscus L. and Quercus coccifera L.) on soil protection (runoff and soil losses) and on rainfall reaching soil surface (rainfall partitioning fluxes). To characterize the effects of shrub vegetation and to evaluate their effects on soil protection, two field experiments were carried out. The presence of shrub vegetation reduced runoff by at least 45% and soil loss by at least 59% in relation to an abandoned and degraded soil (bare soil) (Garcia-Estringana et al., 2010a). D. pentaphyllum, M. strasseri and C. arborescens were more effective in reducing runoff and soil loss (at least 83% and 97% respectively) than R. sphaerocarpa (45% and 59% respectively). Pisctacia Lentiscus L reduced the soil losses in 87% and the runoff rates (68%) meanwhile Quercus coccifera L reached a larger reduction (95% and 88 %) in comparison to herbicide treated agriculture soil. So, all shrub species protected the soil, but not in the same way. In relation to rainfall reaching the soil surface, great differences were observed among species, with interception losses varying between 10% for R. sphaerocarpa to greater than 36% for D. pentaphyllum and M. strasseri, and with stemflow percentages changing between less than 11% for D. pentaphyllum and M. strasseri and 20% for R. sphaerocarpa (Garcia-Estringana et al., 2010b). Rainfall interception on Pistacia Lentiscus and Quercus coccifera were 24% and 34% respectively for the two years of measurements. The integration of the effects of Mediterranean shrub vegetation on soil protection and rainfall partitioning fluxes facilitates understanding the effects of changes in vegetation type on soil and water resources. From this perspective, the interesting protective effect of D. pentpahyllum and M. strasseri, reducing intensely runoff and soil loss contrasts with the dangerous reduction in rainfall reaching the soil surface. Soil protection is essential in semiarid and arid environments, but a proper assessment of the effects on water availability is critical because of water is a scant resource in these kinds of environments. Pistacia Lentiscus and Quercus coccifera shown both a high capacity to intercept rainfall, increase infiltration and reduce the soil losses. We suggest to apply similar research programs into recently fire affected land as the role of vegetation after the fire is very dynamic (Cerdà 1998b). Acknowledgements The research projects 07 M/0077/1998, 07 M/0023/

  9. Effects of heterogeneous soil-water diffusivity on vegetation pattern formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizhaq, H.; Sela, S.; Svoray, T.; Assouline, S.; Bel, G.

    2014-07-01

    Many mathematical models have been proposed to explain the emergence of vegetation patterns in arid and semiarid environments, but only a few of them take into account the heterogeneity in the system properties. Here we present a rigorous study of the effects of heterogeneous soil-water diffusivity on vegetation patterns, using two mathematical models. The two models differ in the pattern-forming feedback that they capture; one model captures the infiltration contrast between vegetated and bare-soil domains, whereas the other model captures the increased growth rate of denser vegetation due to an enhanced ability to extract water from the soil. In both models, the most significant effect of the heterogeneity on the soil-water diffusivity is the increased durability of patterned vegetation to a reduced precipitation rate. An additional effect is that the heterogeneity makes the desertification process, namely, the transition from a spotted vegetation pattern to a bare-soil state, more gradual than in the homogeneous system. Our findings suggest that the heterogeneity cannot be neglected in the study of critical transitions in heterogeneous ecosystems and, particularly, in the study of the desertification process due to climate changes or anthropogenic disturbances.

  10. Vegetation classification and soil moisture calculation using land surface temperature (LST) and vegetation index (VI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liangyun; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Genxing; Zheng, Lanfen; Tong, Qingxi

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, the temperature-missivity separating (TES) method and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are introduced, and the hyperspectral image data are analyzed using land surface temperature (LST) and NDVI channels which are acquired by Operative Module Imaging Spectral (OMIS) in Beijing Precision Agriculture Demonstration Base in Xiaotangshan town, Beijing in 26 Apr, 2001. Firstly, the 6 kinds of ground targets, which are winter wheat in booting stage and jointing stage, bare soil, water in ponds, sullage in dry ponds, aquatic grass, are well classified using LST and NDVI channels. Secondly, the triangle-like scatter-plot is built and analyzed using LST and NDVI channels, which is convenient to extract the information of vegetation growth and soil's moisture. Compared with the scatter-plot built by red and near-infrared bands, the spectral distance between different classes are larger, and the samples in the same class are more convergent. Finally, we design a logarithm VIT model to extract the surface soil water content (SWC) using LST and NDVI channel, which works well, and the coefficient of determination, R2, between the measured surface SWC and the estimated is 0.634. The mapping of surface SWC in the wheat area are calculated and illustrated, which is important for scientific irrigation and precise agriculture.

  11. Carbon Dynamics in Vegetation and Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumbore, Susan; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Camargo, Plinio; Martinelli, Luiz; Santos, Joaquim

    2005-01-01

    The overall goals of CD-08 team in Phase I were to quantify the contributions of different components of the carbon cycle to overall ecosystem carbon balance in Amazonian tropical forests and to undertake process studies at a number of sites along the eastern LBA transect to understand how and why these fluxes vary with site, season, and year. We divided this work into a number of specific tasks: (1) determining the average rate (and variability) of tree growth over the past 3 decades; (2) determining age demographics of tree populations, using radiocarbon to determine tree age; (3) assessing the rate of production and decomposition of dead wood debris; (4) determining turnover rates for organic matter in soils and the mean age of C respired from soil using radiocarbon measurements; and (5) comparing our results with models and constructing models to predict the potential of tropical forests to function as sources or sinks of C. This report summarizes the considerable progress made towards our original goals, which have led to increased understanding of the potential for central Amazon forests to act as sources or sinks of carbon with altered productivity. The overall picture of tropical forest C dynamics emerging from our Phase I studies suggests that the fraction of gross primary production allocated to growth in these forests is only 25-30%, as opposed to the 50% assumed by many ecosystem models. Consequent slow tree growth rates mean greater mean tree age for a given diameter, as reflected in our measurements and models of tree age. Radiocarbon measurements in leaf and root litter suggest that carbon stays in living tree biomass for several years up to a decade before being added to soils, where decomposition is rapid. The time lags predicted from 14C, when coupled with climate variation on similar time scales, can lead to significant interannual variation in net ecosystem C exchange.

  12. Remote measurement of soil moisture over vegetation using infrared temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Toby N.

    1991-01-01

    Better methods for remote sensing of surface evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and fractional vegetation cover were developed. The objectives were to: (1) further develop a model of water movement through the soil/plant/atmosphere system; (2) use this model, in conjunction with measurements of infrared surface temperature and vegetation fraction; (3) determine the magnitude of radiometric temperature response to water stress in vegetation; (4) show at what point one can detect that sensitivity to water stress; and (5) determine the practical limits of the methods. A hydrological model that can be used to calculate soil water content versus depth given conventional meteorological records and observations of vegetation cover was developed. An outline of the results of these initiatives is presented.

  13. SOIL AND VEGETATIVE COVERS FOR LEAD (PB) MINE WASTE PILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conduct vegetation studies that evaluate a variety of seed mixtures and surface amendments (soil, compost, biosolids, yard waste and fertilizers). US Bureau of Reclamation with experts formerly with US Bureau of Mines to contribute to Vegetation Plan for Big River NTCR EE/CA

  14. Relative skills of soil moisture and vegetation optical depth retrievals for agricultural drought monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture condition is an important indicator for agricultural drought monitoring. Through the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), vegetation optical depth (VOD) as well as surface soil moisture (SM) can be retrieved simultaneously from brightness temperature observations from the Advanced Mi...

  15. Landsat spectral signatures - Studies with soil associations and vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.; Lemme, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of soils and vegetation upon Landsat spectral properties was investigated for a 12,950 hectare area. Six soil associations used for corn, small grains, and grass were analyzed for two dates during the 1974 growing season. Landsat scenes for April 19 and June 30 were studied to separate categories of agricultural land use and to assess the influence of soil association on the spectral signatures of vegetation and bare ground. The April 19 data were useful to separate cropland from grassland and to locate areas of open water. The June 30 data showed that soil associations could not consistently be separated within the data of a single vegetative type; however, the results showed that soils did influence all vegetative spectral reflectances to some degree. Because soils did influence vegetative spectral reflectance, a generalized training set containing data points from each of the six soil associations was used to separate four categories of agricultural land use in the 12,950 hectare test area. An accuracy of about 94% was obtained.

  16. Improved Prediction of Quasi-Global Vegetation Conditions Using Remotely-Sensed Surface Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John; Crow, Wade

    2012-01-01

    The added value of satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals for agricultural drought monitoring is assessed by calculating the lagged rank correlation between remotely-sensed vegetation indices (VI) and soil moisture estimates obtained both before and after the assimilation of surface soil moisture retrievals derived from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) into a soil water balance model. Higher soil moisture/VI lag correlations imply an enhanced ability to predict future vegetation conditions using estimates of current soil moisture. Results demonstrate that the assimilation of AMSR-E surface soil moisture retrievals substantially improve the performance of a global drought monitoring system - particularly in sparsely-instrumented areas of the world where high-quality rainfall observations are unavailable.

  17. Soil, water, and vegetation conditions in south Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H. (principal investigators)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The best wavelengths in the 0.4 to 2.5 micron interval were determined for detecting lead toxicity and ozone damage, distinguishing succulent from woody species, and detecting silverleaf sunflower. A perpendicular vegetation index, a measure of the distance from the soil background line, in MSS 5 and MSS 7 data space, of pixels containing vegetation was developed and tested as an indicator of vegetation development and crop vigor. A table lookup procedure was devised that permits rapid identification of soil background and green biomass or phenological development in LANDSAT scenes without the need for training data.

  18. On soil moisture-vegetation feedbacks and their possible effects on the dynamics of dryland ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Caylor, Kelly; Okin, Gregory S.; Scanlon, Todd M.

    2007-12-01

    Soil moisture is the environmental variable synthesizing the effect of climate, soil, and vegetation on the dynamics of water-limited ecosystems. Unlike abiotic factors (e.g., soil texture and rainfall regime), the control exerted by vegetation composition and structure on soil moisture variability remains poorly understood. A number of field studies in dryland landscapes have found higher soil water contents in vegetated soil patches than in adjacent bare soil, providing a convincing explanation for the observed preferential establishment of grasses and seedlings beneath tree canopies. Thus, because water is the limiting factor for vegetation in arid and semiarid ecosystems, a positive feedback could exist between soil moisture and woody vegetation dynamics. It is still unclear how the strength of such a feedback would change under different long-term rainfall regimes. To this end, we report some field observations from savanna ecosystems located along the south-north rainfall gradient in the Kalahari, where the presence of relatively uniform sandy soils limits the effects of covarying factors. The data available from our field study suggest that the contrast between the soil moisture in the canopy and intercanopy space increases (with wetter soils under the canopy) with increasing levels of aridity. We hypothesize that this contrast may lead to a positive feedback and explore the implications of such a feedback in a minimalistic model. We found that when the feedback is relatively strong, the system may exhibit two stable states corresponding to conditions with and without tree canopy cover. In this case, even small changes in environmental variables may lead to rapid and largely irreversible shifts to a state with no tree canopy cover. Our data suggest that the tendency of the system to exhibit two (alternative) stable states becomes stronger in the more arid regions. Thus, at the desert margins, vegetation is more likely to be prone to discontinuous and abrupt state changes.

  19. Soil permeability as a function of vegetation type and soil water content

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.C.; Fraley, L. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Soil permeability is important for estimating the rate of mass transport of {sup 222}Rn through soils and into basements. We measured permeability and soil water content on a set of nine plots consisting of three plots vegetated with common barley (Hordeum vulgare), three plots vegetated with Russian thistle (Salsola kali), and three bare plots. Soil moisture was consistently highest on the bare plots and lowest on the Russian thistle plots. Plots with vegetation had lower soil water content during the growing season. Permeability was consistently higher on Russian thistle plots. ANOVA showed that both soil water content and presence of Russian thistle had a significant impact on permeability but that presence of barley did not. The effect of vegetation and moisture on permeability may have significant effects on {sup 222}Rn transport in soils. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. ORGANIC VEGETABLE CROPPING SYSTEM EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic vegetable crop production practices, suitable for small-scale farms, can improve soil properties and provide conditions for optimal crop production; however, little research has been conducted. This study investigates short-term changes in soil biological properties of 12 management schemes....

  1. Influences of soil moisture and vegetation on convective precipitation forecasts over the United States Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collow, Thomas W.; Robock, Alan; Wu, Wei

    2014-08-01

    This study investigates the influences of soil moisture and vegetation on 30 h convective precipitation forecasts using the Weather Research and Forecasting model over the United States Great Plains with explicit treatment of convection. North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data were used as initial and boundary conditions. We also used an adjusted soil moisture (uniformly adding 0.10 m3/m3 over all soil layers based on NARR biases) to determine whether using a simple observationally based adjustment of soil moisture forcing would provide more accurate simulations and how the soil moisture addition would impact meteorological parameters for different vegetation types. Current and extreme (forest and barren) land covers were examined. Compared to the current vegetation cover, the complete removal of vegetation produced substantially less precipitation, while conversion to forest led to small differences in precipitation. Adding 0.10 m3/m3 to the soil moisture with the current vegetation cover lowered the near surface temperature and increased the humidity to a similar degree as using a fully forested domain with no soil moisture adjustment. However, these temperature and humidity effects on convective available potential energy and moist enthalpy nearly canceled each other out, resulting in a limited precipitation response. Although no substantial changes in precipitation forecasts were found using the adjusted soil moisture, the similarity found between temperature and humidity forecasts using the increased soil moisture and those with a forested domain highlights the sensitivity of the model to soil moisture changes, reinforcing the need for accurate soil moisture initialization in numerical weather forecasting models.

  2. Predicting Vegetation Patterning across Climate, Soil, and Topographic Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsson, C.; Hanan, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation communities in water-limited systems sometimes form periodic patterns, e.g. banded, spotted and labyrinthine distributions of woody and herbaceous plants. Pattern formation is commonly linked to competition and facilitation among plants, and variation in runoff and infiltration capacity in the landscape. Based on previous studies, we expect that climate, soil type, and slope to a large degree influence the type of vegetation pattern found at a specific site. We have analyzed to what extent vegetation patterns on the African continent can be predicted based on available climatic, topographic, and soil data. Our focus is not restricted to periodic patterns in drylands, but encompasses a range of tropical ecosystems from arid to humid. Vegetation patterns observed in remote sensing data can be informative regarding the underlying ecological processes that shape the landscape, not only in strikingly periodic vegetation but also in savannas with randomly located or dispersed vegetation. We use high-resolution multispectral and panchromatic remote sensing data classified into woody, herbaceous, and bare ground components. From these images we extract spatial statistical metrics that define type and degree of vegetation patterning. We then relate variables from climate, soil and topographic datasets to the observed patterns in order to determine how well we can predict vegetation patterning and which climatic and edaphic variables are most informative. We discuss the results and the possible sources of uncertainty in the relationships.

  3. Investigation of Soil Moisture - Vegetation Interactions in Oklahoma 

    E-print Network

    Ford, Trenton W.

    2013-03-06

    vegetation parameterizations. The first is the model default vegetation parameter which is interannually-invariant leaf area index (LAI). This parameter is referred to as the control parameter. The second is MODIS-derived LAI, which captures interannual...

  4. Effects of Woody Vegetation Removal on Soil Water Dynamics in a South Texas Shrubland 

    E-print Network

    Mattox, April Marie

    2013-07-30

    m soil depth to drier shallow soils. Roller chopping in sandy soils is the vegetation removal treatment and soil type most likely to result in water moving beyond the root zone. Although treatments had significant effects on soil moisture dynamics...

  5. Scaling dimensions in spectroscopy of soil and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malenovský, Zbyn?k; Bartholomeus, Harm M.; Acerbi-Junior, Fausto W.; Schopfer, Jürg T.; Painter, Thomas H.; Epema, Gerrit F.; Bregt, Arnold K.

    2007-05-01

    The paper revises and clarifies definitions of the term scale and scaling conversions for imaging spectroscopy of soil and vegetation. We demonstrate a new four-dimensional scale concept that includes not only spatial but also the spectral, directional and temporal components. Three scaling remote sensing techniques are reviewed: (1) radiative transfer, (2) spectral (un)mixing, and (3) data fusion. Relevant case studies are given in the context of their up- and/or down-scaling abilities over the soil/vegetation surfaces and a multi-source approach is proposed for their integration. Radiative transfer (RT) models are described to show their capacity for spatial, spectral up-scaling, and directional down-scaling within a heterogeneous environment. Spectral information and spectral derivatives, like vegetation indices (e.g. TCARI/OSAVI), can be scaled and even tested by their means. Radiative transfer of an experimental Norway spruce ( Picea abies (L.) Karst.) research plot in the Czech Republic was simulated by the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model to prove relevance of the correct object optical properties scaled up to image data at two different spatial resolutions. Interconnection of the successive modelling levels in vegetation is shown. A future development in measurement and simulation of the leaf directional spectral properties is discussed. We describe linear and/or non-linear spectral mixing techniques and unmixing methods that demonstrate spatial down-scaling. Relevance of proper selection or acquisition of the spectral endmembers using spectral libraries, field measurements, and pure pixels of the hyperspectral image is highlighted. An extensive list of advanced unmixing techniques, a particular example of unmixing a reflective optics system imaging spectrometer (ROSIS) image from Spain, and examples of other mixture applications give insight into the present status of scaling capabilities. Simultaneous spatial and temporal down-scaling by means of a data fusion technique is described. A demonstrative example is given for the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data from Brazil. Corresponding spectral bands of both sensors were fused via a pyramidal wavelet transform in Fourier space. New spectral and temporal information of the resultant image can be used for thematic classification or qualitative mapping. All three described scaling techniques can be integrated as the relevant methodological steps within a complex multi-source approach. We present this concept of combining numerous optical remote sensing data and methods to generate inputs for ecosystem process models.

  6. Vegetation types alter soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity at the field scale in an estuary wetland.

    PubMed

    Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Luo, Yiqi; Rafique, Rashad; Yu, Junbao; Mikle, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation type plays an important role in regulating the temporal and spatial variation of soil respiration. Therefore, vegetation patchiness may cause high uncertainties in the estimates of soil respiration for scaling field measurements to ecosystem level. Few studies provide insights regarding the influence of vegetation types on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity in an estuary wetland. In order to enhance the understanding of this issue, we focused on the growing season and investigated how the soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity are affected by the different vegetation (Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil) in the Yellow River Estuary. During the growing season, there were significant linear relationships between soil respiration rates and shoot and root biomass, respectively. On the diurnal timescale, daytime soil respiration was more dependent on net photosynthesis. A positive correlation between soil respiration and net photosynthesis at the Phragmites australis site was found. There were exponential correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, and the fitted Q10 values varied among different vegetation types (1.81, 2.15 and 3.43 for Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil sites, respectively). During the growing season, the mean soil respiration was consistently higher at the Phragmites australis site (1.11 µmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)), followed by the Suaeda salsa site (0.77 µmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)) and the bare soil site (0.41 µmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)). The mean monthly soil respiration was positively correlated with shoot and root biomass, total C, and total N among the three vegetation patches. Our results suggest that vegetation patchiness at a field scale might have a large impact on ecosystem-scale soil respiration. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the differences in vegetation types when using models to evaluate soil respiration in an estuary wetland. PMID:24608636

  7. Natural and anthropogenic lead in soils and vegetables around Guiyang city, southwest China: a Pb isotopic approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei-Li; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Yang, Yuan-Gen; Bi, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Tao-Ze; Zhao, Zhi-Qi

    2012-08-01

    Soils, vegetables and rainwaters from three vegetable production bases in the Guiyang area, southwest China, were analyzed for Pb concentrations and isotope compositions to trace its sources in the vegetables and soils. Lead isotopic compositions were not distinguishable between yellow soils and calcareous soils, but distinguishable among sampling sites. The highest (207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios were found for rainwaters (0.8547-0.8593 and 2.098-2.109, respectively), and the lowest for soils (0.7173-0.8246 and 1.766-2.048, respectively). The (207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios increased in vegetables in the order of rootsmodel for Pb in vegetables. Using deep soils and rainwaters as geogenic and anthropogenic end members in the mixing model, it was estimated that atmospheric Pb contributed 30-77% to total Pb for vegetable roots, 43-71% for stems, 72-85% for leaves, and 90% for capsicum fruits, whereas 10-70% of Pb in all vegetable parts was derived from soils. This research supports that heavy metal contamination in vegetables can result mainly from atmospheric deposition, and Pb isotope technique is useful for tracing the sources of Pb contamination in vegetables. PMID:22705869

  8. [Soil infiltration characteristics under main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dao-Ping; Chen, San-Xiong; Zhang, Jin-Chi; Xie, Li; Jiang, Jiang

    2007-03-01

    The study on the soil infiltration under different main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province showed that the characteristics of soil infiltration differed significantly with land use type, and the test eight vegetation types could be classified into four groups, based on soil infiltration capability. The first group, deciduous broadleaved forest, had the strongest soil infiltration capability, and the second group with a stronger soil infiltration capability was composed of grass, pine forest, shrub community and tea bush. Bamboo and evergreen broadleaved forest were classified into the third group with a relatively strong soil infiltration capability, while bare land belonged to the fourth group because of the bad soil structure and poorest soil infiltration capability. The comprehensive parameters of soil infiltration (alpha) and root (beta) were obtained by principal component analysis, and the regression model of alpha and beta could be described as alpha = 0. 1708ebeta -0. 3122. Soil infiltration capability was greatly affected by soil physical and chemical characteristics and root system. Fine roots (< or = 1 mm in diameter) played effective roles on the improvement of soil physical and chemical properties, and the increase of soil infiltration capability was closely related to the amount of the fine roots. PMID:17552181

  9. Vegetation dynamics and soil water balance in a water-limited Mediterranean ecosystem on Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.; Mancini, M.

    2008-11-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly heterogeneous savanna-like ecosystems, with contrasting plant functional types (PFTs, e.g. grass and woody vegetation) competing for water. Mediterranean ecosystems are also commonly characterized by strong inter-annual rainfall variability, which influences the distributions of PFTs that vary spatially and temporally. An extensive field campaign in a Mediterranean setting was performed with the objective to investigate interactions between vegetation dynamics, soil water budget and land-surface fluxes in a water-limited ecosystem. Also a vegetation dynamic model (VDM) is coupled to a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) Land surface model (LSM). The case study is in Orroli, situated in the mid-west of Sardegna within the Flumendosa river basin. The landscape is a mixture of Mediterranean patchy vegetation types: trees, including wild olives and cork oaks, different shrubs and herbaceous species. Land surface fluxes, soil moisture and vegetation growth were monitored during the May 2003 June 2006 period. Interestingly, hydrometeorological conditions of the monitored years strongly differ, with dry and wet years in turn, such that a wide range of hydrometeorological conditions can be analyzed. The coupled VDM-LSM model is successfully tested for the case study, demonstrating high model performance for the wide range of eco-hydrologic conditions. Results demonstrate also that vegetation dynamics are strongly influenced by the inter-annual variability of atmospheric forcing, with grass leaf area index changing significantly each spring season according to seasonal rainfall amount.

  10. Modeling Feedbacks Between Water and Vegetation in the Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Not only is water essential for life on earth, but life itself affects the global hydrologic cycle and consequently the climate of the planet. Whether the global feedbacks between life and the hydrologic cycle tend to stabilize the climate system about some equilibrium level is difficult to assess. We use a global climate model to examine how the presence of vegetation can affect the hydrologic cycle in a particular region. A control for the present climate is compared with a model experiment in which the Sahara Desert is replaced by vegetation in the form of trees and shrubs common to the Sahel region. A second model experiment is designed to identify the separate roles of two different effects of vegetation, namely the modified albedo and the presence of roots that can extract moisture from deeper soil layers. The results show that the presence of vegetation leads to increases in precipitation and soil moisture in western Sahara. In eastern Sahara, the changes are less clear. The increase in soil moisture is greater when the desert albedo is replaced by the vegetation albedo than when both the vegetation albedo and roots are added. The effect of roots is to withdraw water from deeper layers during the dry season. One implication of this study is that the insertion of vegetation into the Sahara modifies the hydrologic cycle so that the vegetation is more likely to persist than initially.

  11. A multi-frequency radiometric measurement of soil moisture content over bare and vegetated fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Schmugge, T. J.; Gould, W. I.; Glazar, W. S.; Fuchs, J. E.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1982-01-01

    An experiment on soil moisture remote sensing was conducted during July to September 1981 on bare, grass, and alfalfa fields at frequencies of 0.6, 1.4, 5.0, and 10.6 GHz with radiometers mounted on mobile towers. The results confirm the frequency dependence of sensitivity reduction due to the presence of vegetation cover. For the type of vegetated fields reported here, the vegetation effect is appreciable even at 0.6 GHz. Measurements over bare soil show that when the soil is wet, the measured brightness temperature is lowest at 5.0 GHz and highest at 0.6 GHz, a result contrary to the expectation based on the estimated dielectric permittivity of soil-water mixtures and the current radiative transfer model in that frequency range.

  12. Soil erosion-vegetation interactions in Mediterranean-dry reclaimed mining slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Merino-Martín, Luis; Espigares, Tíscar; Nicolau, José M.

    2014-05-01

    Mining reclamation in Mediterranean-dry environments represents a complex task. Reclaimed mining slopes are particularly vulnerable to the effects of accelerated soil erosion processes, especially when these processes lead to the formation of rill networks. On the other hand, encouraging early vegetation establishment is perceived as indispensable to reduce the risk of degradation in these man-made ecosystems. This study shows a synthesis of soil erosion-vegetation research conducted in reclaimed mining slopes at El Moral field site (Teruel coalfield, central-east Spain). Our results highlight the role of rill erosion processes in the development of reclaimed ecosystems. Runoff routing is conditioned by the development of rill networks, maximizing the loss of water resources at the slope scale by surface runoff and altering the spatial distribution of soil moisture. As a result, the availability of water resources for plant growth is drastically reduced, affecting vegetation development. Conversely, vegetation exerts a strong effect on soil erosion: erosion rates rapidly decrease with vegetation cover and no significant rill erosion is usually observed after a particular cover threshold is reached. These interactive two-way vegetation-soil erosion relationships are further studied using a novel modeling approach that focuses on stability analysis of water-limited reclaimed slopes. Our framework reproduces two main groups of trends along the temporal evolution of reclaimed slopes: successful trends, characterized by widespread vegetation development and the effective control of rill erosion processes; and gullying trends, characterized by the progressive loss of vegetation and a sharp logistic increase in erosion rates. This stability-analysis also facilitates the determination of threshold values for both vegetation cover and rill erosion that drive the long-term reclamation results, assisting the identification of critical situations that require specific human interventions to ensure the long-term sustainability of the restored ecosystems.

  13. Combined effect of soil erosion and climate change induces abrupt changes in soil and vegetation properties in semiarid Mediterranean shrublands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio

    2013-04-01

    Semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems are experiencing major alterations as a result of the complex interactions between climatic fluctuations and disturbances caused by human activities. Future scenarios of global change forecast a rapid degradation of these ecosystems, with a reduction of their functionality, as a result of changes in relevant vegetation and soil properties. Some theoretical models indicate that these ecosystems respond non-linearly to regular variations in the external conditions, with an abrupt shift when conditions approach a certain critical level or threshold. Considering these predictions, there is an urgent need to know the effects that these alterations might have on semi-arid ecosystems and their components. In this study, we aim at analyzing the consequences of climate change and increasing soil erosion on soil and vegetation properties and the functional dynamics of semiarid Mediterranean shrublands. We predict that the combined effect of both drivers will be additive or synergistic, increasing the negative effects of each one. We compared vegetation and soil properties of flat areas (low erosion) and steep hillslopes (high erosion) in two climatic areas (484 mm and 10.3°C, and 368mm and 11.9°C, respectively) that reproduce the predicted climate change in temperature and precipitation for the next 40 years. Species richness, vegetal cover, plant life-form composition were determined in 20 m2 plots and soil was sampled in the same plots to determine bulk density, aggregate stability, fertility and water holding capacity. All soil and vegetation properties were negatively affected by soil erosion and climate change. However, contrary to our hypothesis, the joined effect of both drivers on all soil and vegetation properties was antagonistic, except for the vegetal cover that showed an additive response to their interaction. Our results evidence that soil erosion affects more negatively the soil and vegetation properties in the cooler and wetter climatic area than in the warmer and drier one, and support moreover the idea that a functional threshold has been crossed between the two climatic areas.

  14. Development of a ground hydrology model suitable for global climate modeling using soil morphology and vegetation cover, and an evaluation of remotely sensed information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobler, L.; Lewis, R.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term purpose was to contribute to scientific understanding of the role of the planet's land surfaces in modulating the flows of energy and matter which influence the climate, and to quantify and monitor human-induced changes to the land environment that may affect global climate. Highlights of the effort include the following: production of geo-coded, digitized World Soil Data file for use with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model; contribution to the development of a numerical physically-based model of ground hydrology; and assessment of the utility of remote sensing for providing data on hydrologically significant land surface variables.

  15. Assessment of regional biomass-soil relationships using vegetation indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozano-Garcia, D. Fabian; Fernandez, R. Norberto; Johannsen, Chris J.

    1991-01-01

    The development of photosynthetic active biomass in different ecological conditions, as indicated by normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVIs) is compared by performing a stratified sampling (based on soil assocations) on data acquired over Indiana. Data from the NOAA-10 AVHRR were collected for the 1987 and 1988 growing seasons. An NDVI transformation was performed using the two optical bands of the sensor (0.58-0.68 microns and 0.72-1.10 microns). The NDVI is related to the amount of active photosynthetic biomass present on the ground. Samples of NDVI values over 45 fields representing eight soil associations throughout Indiana were collected to assess the effect of soil conditions and acquisition date on the spectral response of the vegetation, as shown by the NDVIs. Statistical analysis of results indicate that land-cover types (forest, forest/pasture, and crops), soil texture, and soil water-holding capacity have an important effect on vegetation biomass changes as measured by AVHRR data. Acquisition dates should be selected with condideration of the phenological stages of vegetation. Sampling of AVHRR data over extended areas should be stratified according to physiographic units rather than man-made boundaries. This will provide more homogeneous samples for statistical analysis.

  16. Role of vegetation cover on soil water balance in two Mediterranean areas: semiarid and dry at southeastern of Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, Àngela; Ruiz, Samantha; Chirino, Esteban; Bellot, Juan

    2014-05-01

    Water is a limited resource in the semiarid areas, which affects both, the population services, the economic growth, like the natural ecosystems stability. In this context, an accurate knowledge of soil water balance and role of the vegetation cover contribute to improve the management of resources water and forest. These studies are increasingly important, if we consider the latest Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In this paper the main objectives were focused on:(1)To determine the soil water balance on two different climatic conditions, semiarid and dry climate and(2) Assess the effect of vegetation (structure and cover) on soil water balance under the studied climatic conditions. For this purpose we used HYDROBAL ecohydrological model, which calculates at a daily resolution the water flows through of the vegetation canopy, estimates daily soil moisture and predicts deep drainage from the unsaturated soil layer into the aquifer. In order to achieve these objectives, we have selected two sites in the south-eastern of Spain, on soils calcareous and different climatic conditions. Ventós site in a semiarid Mediterranean area and Confrides site in a dry Mediterranean area, with 303 and 611 mm of annual precipitation respectively. Both sites, the predominant vegetation are afforestations with Pinus halepensis on dry grasslands with some patches of thorn shrublands and dwarf scrubs; but it show difference on trees density, cover and height of pines.Soil water balance was determined in each site using HYDROBAL ecohydrological model on one hydrological year (October 2012 and September 2013).Model inputs include climatic variables (daily rainfall and temperature), as well as soil and vegetation characteristics (soil field capacity, soil wilting point, initial soil water content and vegetation cover index). Model outputs are interception, net rainfall, runoff, soil water reserves, actual evapotranspiration, direct percolation, and deep percolation (or aquifer recharge). In the last decade, HYDROBAL model has been used successfully in semiarid conditions, to assess the soil water balance on different vegetation cover types, and the effect of different land-use scenarios on water resources and aquifer recharge. Results highlight the role of vegetation cover type and volume of annual rainfall on the soil water balance. Both sites present similar percentage of vegetation cover(>80%), however in Ventós site (semiarid area), a lower pine cover (44%) and lower volume of annual rainfall produced differences in the soil water balance. In Confrides site (dry area), in spite of show the twice of annual rainfall, a higher pine cover (78%) reduced the net precipitation and consequently affected the soil water balance. An understanding the role of vegetation cover on soil water balance is a very useful tool to implement an optimal management of forest and water resources.

  17. Estimation of effective hydrologic properties of soils from observations of vegetation density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tellers, T. E.; Eagleson, P. S.

    1980-01-01

    A one-dimensional model of the annual water balance is reviewed. Improvements are made in the method of calculating the bare soil component of evaporation, and in the way surface retention is handled. A natural selection hypothesis, which specifies the equilibrium vegetation density for a given, water limited, climate soil system, is verified through comparisons with observed data. Comparison of CDF's of annual basin yield derived using these soil properties with observed CDF's provides verification of the soil-selection procedure. This method of parameterization of the land surface is useful with global circulation models, enabling them to account for both the nonlinearity in the relationship between soil moisture flux and soil moisture concentration, and the variability of soil properties from place to place over the Earth's surface.

  18. Vegetation dynamics and soil water balance in a water-limited Mediterranean ecosystem on Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.; Mancini, M.

    2008-01-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly heterogeneous savanna-like ecosystems, with contrasting plant functional types (PFTs, e.g., grass and woody vegetation) competing for the water use. Mediterranean ecosystems are also commonly characterized by strong inter-annual rainfall variability, which influences the distributions of PFTs that vary spatially and temporally. With the objective to investigate interactions between vegetation dynamics, soil water budget and land-surface fluxes in a water-limited ecosystem, an extensive field campaign in a Mediterranean setting was performed. Also a vegetation dynamic model (VDM) is coupled to a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) Land surface model (LSM). The case study is in Orroli, situated in the mid-west of Sardegna within the Flumendosa river basin. The landscape is a mixture of Mediterranean patchy vegetation types: trees, including wild olives and cork oaks, different shrubs and herbaceous species. Land surface fluxes, soil moisture and vegetation growth were monitored during the May 2003-June 2006 period. Interestingly, hydrometeorological conditions of the monitored years strongly differ, with dry and wet years in turn, such that a wide range of hydrometeorological conditions can be analyzed. The coupled VDM-LSM model is successfully tested for the case study, demonstrating high model performance for the wide range of eco-hydrologic conditions. The use of the VDM in the LSM is demonstrated to be essential when studying the climate-soil-vegetation interactions of these water-limited ecosystems. Results demonstrate also that vegetation dynamics are strongly influenced by the inter-annual variability of atmospheric forcing, with grass leaf area index changing significantly each spring season according to seasonal rainfall amount.

  19. Can SMAP radar observations be used to determine vegetation moisture status and root zone soil moisture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Friesen, J.; van de Giesen, N.

    2010-12-01

    Recently, large differences in backscatter between the ascending (evening) and descending (morning) tracks of the wind scatterometer onboard the ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites have been identified in times and locations of vegetation water stress. This suggests that vegetation might be considered as a source of information rather than a barrier to soil moisture retrieval. The goal here is to develop a quantitative relationship between the magnitude of the diurnal variation in backscatter and the vegetation water status. In turn, this will lead to information on the availability of water in the root zone. Diurnal variation in the backscatter response of vegetation was identified as early as the 1970s and was first observed from space in Seasat-1 scatterometer data in 1982. Subsequent field and laboratory experiments, primarily those of Ulaby and McDonald, have demonstrated that the variation is largely driven by changes in the dielectric properties of vegetation, which in turn depend on vegetation moisture content, sap chemistry and temperature. The magnitude of the diurnal variation in dielectric constant varies considerably within the vegetation itself. Furthermore, the contribution of individual vegetation components to backscatter depends on polarization and frequency. A combination of microwave theory and a numerical study will be used to argue that the morning and evening passes of the L-band radar on the SMAP satellite could be combined to yield information on vegetation water stress and root zone soil moisture. An innovative data assimilation strategy will be presented that could be used to merge the SMAP radar observations with a microwave backscatter model and a resistance-capacitance model to estimate vegetation moisture status and infer root zone soil moisture.

  20. An Intercomparison of Vegetation Products from Satellite-based Observations used for Soil Moisture Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreugdenhil, Mariette; de Jeu, Richard; Wagner, Wolfgang; Dorigo, Wouter; Hahn, Sebastian; Bloeschl, Guenter

    2013-04-01

    Vegetation and its water content affect active and passive microwave soil moisture retrievals and need to be taken into account in such retrieval methodologies. This study compares the vegetation parameterisation that is used in the TU-Wien soil moisture retrieval algorithm to other vegetation products, such as the Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD), Net Primary Production (NPP) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). When only considering the retrieval algorithm for active microwaves, which was developed by the TU-Wien, the effect of vegetation on the backscattering coefficient is described by the so-called slope [1]. The slope is the first derivative of the backscattering coefficient in relation to the incidence angle. Soil surface backscatter normally decreases quite rapidly with the incidence angle over bare or sparsely vegetated soils, whereas the contribution of dense vegetation is fairly uniform over a large range of incidence angles. Consequently, the slope becomes less steep with increasing vegetation. Because the slope is a derivate of noisy backscatter measurements, it is characterised by an even higher level of noise. Therefore, it is averaged over several years assuming that the state of the vegetation doesn't change inter-annually. The slope is compared to three dynamic vegetation products over Australia, the VOD, NPP and LAI. The VOD was retrieved from AMSR-E passive microwave data using the VUA-NASA retrieval algorithm and provides information on vegetation with a global coverage of approximately every two days [2]. LAI is defined as half the developed area of photosynthetically active elements of the vegetation per unit horizontal ground area. In this study LAI is used from the Geoland2 products derived from SPOT Vegetation*. The NPP is the net rate at which plants build up carbon through photosynthesis and is a model-based estimate from the BiosEquil model [3, 4]. Results show that VOD and slope correspond reasonably well over vegetated areas, whereas in arid areas, where the microwave signals mostly stem from the soil surface and deeper soil layers, they are negatively correlated. A second comparison of monthly values of both vegetation parameters to modelled NPP data shows that particularly over dry areas the VOD corresponds better to the NPP, with r=0.79 for VOD-NPP and r=-0.09 for slope-NPP. 1. Wagner, W., et al., A Study of Vegetation Cover Effects on ERS Scatterometer Data. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 1999. 37(2): p. 938-948. 2. Owe, M., R. de Jeu, and J. Walker, A methodology for surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth retrieval using the microwave polarization difference index. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, 2001. 39(8): p. 1643-1654. 3. Raupach, M.R., et al., Balances of Water, Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Australian Landscapes: (1) Project Description and Results, 2001, Sustainable Minerals Institute, CSIRO Land and Water. 4. Raupach, M.R., et al., Balances of Water, Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosporus in Australian Landscapes: (2) Model Formulation and Testing, 2001, Sustainable Minerals Institute, CSIRO Land and Water. * These products are the joint property of INRA, CNES and VITO under copyright of Geoland2. They are generated from the SPOT VEGETATION data under copyright CNES and distribution by VITO.

  1. Evolution of hydrological pathways in engineered hillslopes due to soil and vegetation development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appels, Willemijn M.; Ireson, Andrew M.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Barbour, S. Lee

    2015-04-01

    The structure and hydraulic properties of soils and bedrock within a hillslope combined with the timing and rates of water availability control the partitioning of precipitation into vertical and lateral flowpaths. In natural hillslope sites, heterogeneity in both soil texture and structure are the result of long-term landscape evolution processes and consequently can be assumed to be static relative to the timescale of rainfall-runoff processes. However; engineered hillslopes, constructed commonly as reclamation covers overlying mine waste, have been observed to undergo rapid changes in hydraulic properties over relatively short timescales (i.e. 3-5 years) as a result of weathering (e.g. freeze-thaw and wet-dry cycles) and vegetation growth (e.g. increasing rooting depth and density). Rainfall-runoff responses on such hillslopes would therefore not only be expected to reflect seasonal dynamics, but also the evolution of the system from a relatively homogeneous initial condition to a system with increasing heterogeneity of soil texture and structure. We present results of a combined field and modeling study of three prototype soil covers on a saline-sodic shale overburden dump at the Syncrude Canada Ltd. Mildred Lake mine, north of Fort McMurray, Canada. Since their construction in 1999, soil properties, hydrological response to atmospheric and vegetative demands, and vegetation properties have been extensively monitored. The three covers have undergone substantial evolution due to freeze-thaw processes and aggrading vegetation. In this work, we quantify hydrological processes in the reclamation covers, focusing on inter- and intra-annual patterns. To this purpose we analyzed the long-term hydrometric data with field sampling of the distribution of salts and the stable isotopes of water within soil water and subsurface flow in the base of the cover. We use a 2D Hydrus model to explore the co-evolution of soil and vegetation and quantify its effect on flow partitioning and salt movement from the overburden into the soil.

  2. Development of a New Land Data Assimilation System for Improvement of Forecasting both Soil Moisture and Vegetation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Y.; Koike, T.

    2014-12-01

    To improve the skill of reproducing land-atmosphere interactions in weather, seasonal, and climate prediction systems, it is necessary to simulate correctly and simultaneously the soil moisture and terrestrial biomass in land surface models. Despite the importance of the interactions between subsurface soil moisture and vegetation dynamics on the climate system both in global and regional scales, a land data assimilation approach that can effectively address these water and vegetation growth interactions has yet to be established. We develop a new land data assimilation system that can improve to simultaneously simulate surface and subsurface soil moisture and vegetation growth by assimilating a microwave observation that is sensitive to both surface soil moisture and terrestrial biomass. Our new system, Coupled Land and Vegetation Data Assimilation System (CLVDAS) comprises an eco-hydrological model that has a physically-based and sophisticated soil hydrology scheme and dynamic vegetation model that can estimate vegetation growth and senescence, and radiative transfer model that can convert land surface conditions into brightness temperatures in the microwave region. The CLVDAS firstly optimizes hydrological and ecological unknown parameters in the model at the same time by using the shuffled complex evolution method. Secondly, the model states of surface soil moisture, root-zone soil moisture, and leaf area index are adjusted by using genetic particle filter. We can justify to adjust the root-zone soil moisture from a microwave observation of the earth surface since we explicitly model subsurface water - vegetation dynamics interactions. From the point-scale evaluation at the in-situ observation sites in Mali, Mongolia, the United States, and Australia, we confirm the CLVDAS significantly improve the skill of simulating vertical soil moisture distribution and vegetation dynamics by assimilating microwave brightness temperatures from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and its successor (AMSR2).

  3. Investigation of soil influences in AVHRR red and near-infrared vegetation index imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huete, A. R.; Tucker, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of soil optical properties on vegetation index imagery are analyzed with ground-based spectral measurements and both simulated and actual AVHRR data from the NOAA satellites. Soil effects on vegetation indices were divided into primary variations associated with the brightness of bare soils, secondary variations attributed to 'color' differences among bare soils, and soil-vegetation spectral mixing. Primary variations were attributed to shifts in the soil line owing to atmosphere or soil composition. Secondary soil variance was responsible for the Saharan desert 'artefact' areas of increased vegetation index response in AVHRR imagery.

  4. Modeling the Influence of Vegetation Dynamics on Landscape Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, D. B.; Bras, R. L.; Tucker, G. E.

    2001-05-01

    It is clear that plants play a significant role in directing the course of landscape evolution in many environments. Gully and arroyo erosion in the Colorado High Plains, for example, is controlled to a large extent by the presence of vegetative root mats, thus limiting rates of headcut advance. Vegetation may also lead to gully sedimentation. It is inevitable, therefore, for models of landscape evolution to include these effects to better understand the processes and rates governing landform morphology and development. For this purpose a simple representation of vegetation dynamics is incorporated into a numerical landscape evolution model to investigate the influence of vegetation properties on landscape morphology and development. The vegetation parameters embodied in the model include growth, erosion-dependent death, and root strength which imparts additional strength to the soil in the form of a critical shear stress. This leads to dynamic vegetation-erosion feedbacks which affect spatial and temporal denudation rates. Through numerical simulation, the equilibrium landscape's sensitivity to the three vegetation parameters (timescale for regrowth, vegetation erodibility and additional critical shear stress) is assessed, shedding light on the issues of landscape stability and variability of denudation rates under the influence of a stochastically-driven climate. Applications of this research include management and rehabilitation of soil erosion and sedimentation.

  5. Sulfamethazine sorption to vegetative filter strip and row crop soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary antibiotic (VA) presence in the environment, often associated with land application of manure, has generated significant interest in VA fate and transport in soil. However, few studies have focused on land management practices, such as vegetative filter strips, that might mitigate VA loss...

  6. Aminopyralid soil residues affect rotational vegetable crops in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the sensitivity of bell pepper, eggplant, tomato, muskmelon, and watermelon to aminopyralid soil residues. Aminopyralid was applied at six rates ranging from 0.0014 kg ae ha 1 to 0.0448 kg ae ha 1, and vegetable crops were planted in the treated areas. ...

  7. Interactions Between Wind Erosion, Vegetation Structure, and Soil Stability in Groundwater Dependent Plant Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vest, K. R.; Elmore, A. J.; Okin, G. S.

    2009-12-01

    Desertification is a human induced global phenomenon causing a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem productivity. Semi-arid grasslands are vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts (i.e., groundwater pumping and surface water diversion) that decrease vegetation cover and increase bare soil area leading to a greater probability of soil erosion, potentially enhancing feedback processes associated with desertification. To enhance our understanding of interactions between anthropogenic, physical, and biological factors causing desertification, this study used a combination of modeling and field observations to examine the relationship between chronic groundwater pumping and vegetation cover change and its effects on soil erosion and stability. The work was conducted in Owens Valley California, where a long history of groundwater pumping and surface water diversion has lead to documented vegetation changes. The work examined hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical factors across thirteen sites in Owens Valley. We analyzed soil stability, vegetation and gap size, soil organic carbon, and we also installed Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) catchers to calculate mass transport of aeolian sediment across sites. Mass transport calculations were used to validate a new wind erosion model that represents the effect of porous vegetation on surface windshear velocity. Results across two field seasons show that the model can be used to predict mass transport, and areas with increased groundwater pumping show a greater susceptibility to erosion. Sediment collected in BSNE catchers was positively correlated with site gap size. Additionally, areas with larger gap sizes have a greater threshold shear velocity and soil stability, yet mass transport was greater at these sites than at sites with smaller gap sizes. Although modeling is complicated by spatial variation in multiple model parameters (e.g., gap size, threshold shear velocity in gaps), our results support the hypothesis that soils with high organic matter are being eroded following the loss of vegetation cover due to groundwater decline leaving behind bare soil surfaces with less fertility hampering vegetation reestablishment. Desertification in this system is apparently easily initiated through groundwater decline due to the high friability of these meadow soils.

  8. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (principal investigator); Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Torline, R. J.; Gautreaux, M. R.; Everitt, J. H.; Guellar, J. A.; Rodriguez, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Bands 4, 5, and 7 and 5, 6, and 7 were best for distinguishing among crop and soil categories in ERTS-1 SCENES 1182-16322 (1-21-73) and 1308-16323 (5-21-73) respectively. Chlorotic sorghum areas 2.8 acres or larger in size were identified on a computer printout of band 5 data. Reflectance of crop residues was more often different from bare soil in band 4 than in bands 5, 6, and 7. Simultaneously acquired aircraft and spacecraft MSS data indicated that spacecraft surveys are as reliable as aircraft surveys. ERTS-1 data were successfully used to estimate acreage of citrus, cotton, and sorghum as well as idle crop land.

  9. Benchmarking LSM root-zone soil mositure predictions using satellite-based vegetation indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of modern land surface models (LSMs) to agricultural drought monitoring is based on the premise that anomalies in LSM root-zone soil moisture estimates can accurately anticipate the subsequent impact of drought on vegetation productivity and health. In addition, the water and energy ...

  10. A method to downscale soil moisture to fine-resolutions using topographic, vegetation, and soil data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture can be estimated over large regions with spatial resolutions greater than 500 m, but many applications require finer resolutions (10 – 100 m grid cells). Several methods use topographic data to downscale, but vegetation and soil patterns can also be important. In this paper, a downsc...

  11. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. This report deals with the selection of the best channels from the 24-channel aircraft data to represent crop and soil conditions. A three-step procedure has been developed that involves using univariate statistics and an F-ratio test to indicate the best 14 channels. From the 14, the 10 best channels are selected by a multivariate stochastic process. The third step involves the pattern recognition procedures developed in the data analysis plan. Indications are that the procedures in use are satsifactory and will extract the desired information from the data.

  12. Holistic environmental soil-landscape modeling of soil organic carbon Xiong Xiong a

    E-print Network

    Grunwald, Sabine

    a Department of Soil and Water Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA b Division of Plant important for explaining SOC variation in Florida were vegetation and soil water gradient. TopographyHolistic environmental soil-landscape modeling of soil organic carbon Xiong Xiong a , Sabine

  13. Distinguishing vegetation from soil background information. [by gray mapping of Landsat MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    In aircraft and satellite multispectral scanner data, soil background signals are superimposed on or intermingled with information about vegetation. A procedure which accounts for soil background would, therefore, make a considerable contribution to an operational use of Landsat and other spectral data for monitoring the productivity of range, forest, and crop lands. A description is presented of an investigation which was conducted to obtain information for the development of such a procedure. The investigation included a study of the soil reflectance that supplies the background signal of vegetated surfaces. Landsat data as recorded on computer compatible tapes were used in the study. The results of the investigation are discussed, taking into account a study reported by Kauth and Thomas (1976). Attention is given to the determination of Kauth's plane of soils, sun angle effects, vegetation index modeling, and the evaluation of vegetation indexes. Graphs are presented which show the results obtained with a gray mapping technique. The technique makes it possible to display plant, soil, water, and cloud conditions for any Landsat overpass.

  14. The effect of soil surface sealing on vegetation water uptake along a dry climatic gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sela, Shai; Svoray, Tal; Assouline, Shmuel

    2015-09-01

    Soil surface sealing is a widespread natural process occurring frequently in bare soil areas between vegetation patches. The low hydraulic conductivity that characterizes the seal layer reduces both infiltration and evaporation fluxes from the soil, and thus has the potential to affect local vegetation water uptake (VWU). This effect is investigated here using experimental data, 2-D physically based modeling, and a long-term climatic data set from three dry sites presenting a climatic gradient in the Negev Desert, Israel. The Feddes VWU parameters for the dominant shrub at the study site (Sarcopoterium spinosum) were acquired using lysimeter experiments. The results indicate that during the season surface sealing could either increase or decrease VWU depending on initial soil water content, rainfall intensity, and the duration of the subsequent drying intervals. These factors have a marked effect on interannual variability of the seal layer effect on VWU, which on average was found to be 26% higher under sealed conditions than in the case of unsealed soil surfaces. The seal layer was found to reduce the period where the vegetation was under water stress by 31% compared with unsealed conditions. This effect was more pronounced for seasons with total rainfall depth higher than 10 cm/yr, and was affected by interseasonal climatic variability. These results shed light on the importance of surface sealing in dry environments and its contribution to the resilience of woody vegetation.

  15. Modelling the Congo basin ecosystems with a dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dury, Marie; Hambuckers, Alain; Trolliet, Franck; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Haineaux, Damien; Fontaine, Corentin M.; Fayolle, Adeline; François, Louis

    2014-05-01

    The scarcity of field observations in some parts of the world makes difficult a deep understanding of some ecosystems such as humid tropical forests in Central Africa. Therefore, modelling tools are interesting alternatives to study those regions even if the lack of data often prevents sharp calibration and validation of the model projections. Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) are process-based models that simulate shifts in potential vegetation and its associated biogeochemical and hydrological cycles in response to climate. Initially run at the global scale, DVMs can be run at any spatial scale provided that climate and soil data are available. In the framework of the BIOSERF project ("Sustainability of tropical forest biodiversity and services under climate and human pressure"), we use and adapt the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model (Dury et al., iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 4:82-99, 2011) to study the Congo basin vegetation dynamics. The field campaigns have notably allowed the refinement of the vegetation representation from plant functional types (PFTs) to individual species through the collection of parameters such as the specific leaf area or the leaf C:N ratio of common tropical tree species and the location of their present-day occurrences from literature and available database. Here, we test the model ability to reproduce the present spatial and temporal variations of carbon stocks (e.g. biomass, soil carbon) and fluxes (e.g. gross and net primary productivities (GPP and NPP), net ecosystem production (NEP)) as well as the observed distribution of the studied species over the Congo basin. In the lack of abundant and long-term measurements, we compare model results with time series of remote sensing products (e.g. vegetation leaf area index (LAI), GPP and NPP). Several sensitivity tests are presented: we assess consecutively the impacts of the level at which the vegetation is simulated (PFTs or species), the spatial resolution and the initial land cover (potential or human-induced). First, we show simulations over the whole Congo basin at a 0.5° spatial resolution. Then, we present high-resolution simulations (1 km) carried out over different areas of the Congo basin, notably the DRC part of the WWF Lake Tele - Lake Tumba Landscape. Studied in the BIOSERF project, this area is characterized by a forest-savannah mosaic but also by swamp and flooded forest. In addition, forward transient projections of the model driven with the outputs of about thirty global climate models (GCMs) from the new Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) will permit to outline the likely response of carbon pools to changing climate over the Congo basin during the 21th century.

  16. Estimating photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and bare soil fractions using Landsat and MODIS data: Effects of site heterogeneity, soil properties and land cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerschman, J. P.; Scarth, P.; McVicar, T.; Malthus, T. J.; Stewart, J.; Rickards, J.; Trevithick, R.; Renzullo, L. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation fractional cover is a key indicator for land management monitoring, both in pastoral and agricultural settings. Maintaining adequate vegetation cover protects the soil from the effects of water and wind erosion and also ensures that carbon is returned to soil through decomposition. Monitoring vegetation fractional cover across large areas and continuously in time needs good remote sensing techniques underpinned by high quality ground data to calibrate and validate algorithms. In this study we used Landsat and MODIS reflectance data together with field measurements from 1476 observations across Australia to produce estimates of vegetation fractional cover using a linear unmixing technique. Specifically, we aimed at separating fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare soil (B). We used Landsat reflectance averaged over a 3x3 pixel window representing the area actually measured on the ground and also a 'degraded' Landsat reflectance 40x40 pixel window to simulate the effect of a coarser sensor. Using these two Landsat reflectances we quantified the heterogeneity of each site. We used data from two MODIS-derived reflectance products: the Nadir BRDF-Adjusted surface Reflectance product (MCD43A4) and the MODIS 8-day surface reflectance (MOD09A1). We derived endmembers from the data and estimated fractional cover using a linear unmixing technique. Log transforms and band interaction terms were added to account for non-linearities in the spectral mixing. For each reflectance source we investigated if the residuals were correlated with site heterogeneity, soil colour, soil moisture and land cover type. As expected, the best model was obtained when Landsat data for a small region around each site was used. We obtained root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.134, 0.175 and 0.153 for PV, NPV and B respectively. When we degraded the Landsat data to an area of ~1 km2 around each site the model performance decreased to RMSE of 0.142, 0.181 and 0.166 for PV, NPV and B. Using MODIS reflectance data (from the MCD43A4 and MOD09A1 products) we obtained similar results as when using the 'degraded' Landsat reflectance, with no significant differences between them. Model performance decreased (i.e. RMSE increased) with site heterogeneity when coarse resolution reflectance data was used. We did not find any evidence of soil colour or moisture influence on model performance. We speculate that the unmixing models may be insensitive to soil colour and/or that the soil moisture in the top few millimetres of soil, which influence reflectance in optical sensors, is decoupled from the soil moisture in the top layer (i.e. a few cm) as measured by passive microwave sensors or estimated by models. The models tended to overestimate PV in cropping areas, possibly due to a strong red/ near infrared signal in homogeneous crops which do not have a high green cover. This study sets the basis for an operational Landsat/ MODIS combined product which would benefit users with varying requirements of spatial, temporal resolution and latency and could potentially be applied to other regions in the world.

  17. A comparison of soil properties under four vegetation units from six metalliferous hills in Katanga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Donato; Gregory, Mahy; Michel, Ngongo; Gilles, Colinet

    2013-04-01

    In Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo), numerous metalliferous hills are distributed along what is called the copperhill belt from Kolwezi to Lubumbashi. Very specific vegetation developed on these hills within the miombo forest in response to very specific soil conditions, among which the copper content. Previous studies have already shown the existence of gradients of copper from the mineralized rocks outcropping at the top of the hills to the foot slopes on colluviums. After a characterization of the vertical variability of soil properties in pits distributed along the main slopes, we investigated the soil-vegetation relationships in six hills located between the towns of Tenke and Fungurume. Observation 1-square meter plots were installed in four vegetation units and sixty of them were selected according to their relative importance on the six hills. The soil from the top 10cm was sampled and analyzed for pH, Total Organic Carbon, available P, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Co and Mn and soluble Cu and Co. Analysis of variance was performed in order to assess whether the effects of the "Hill" and of the "Vegetation Unit" were significant to explain soil chemical variability. Additionally, short transects were sampled at the boundaries from adjacent vegetation units in order to evaluate the gradual or rough nature of change in soil properties under these units. The results indicate that the six hills can not be considered as different for pH and available nutrients, excepted K, nor for the available Cu and Mn. Only TOC and Co contents were differing, mainly from one hill compared to the other five. The vegetation effect is significant for almost every studied soil characteristics, to the exception of Ca and Mn. Soluble Cu and Co significantly correlate to available Cu and Co, respectively. The pH variations however explain local departures from linear regression. The ANOVA models take into account 30 to 60% of the variations of soil properties. The study of the boundaries indicate that most changes of vegetation types may be related to abrupt changes in soil properties. These changes do not only occur along the slope as a result of malachite deposition by erosion but the surface processes seem to be predominant in the context of the hills.

  18. Integrating Vegetation, Soil and Topography to Assess the Impact of Lateral Flow on Plant Solute Uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebel, K. T.; Riha, S. J.; Stedinger, J. R.

    2005-05-01

    Simulation of solute uptake by vegetation in complex terrain typically fails to account for subsurface lateral movement of solutes. This study uses a spatially explicit plant-soil-water simulation model to investigate whether subsurface lateral flow at the sand-clay interface impacts tritium uptake by mixed forest vegetation. Ten hectares of a mixed pine - laurel oak forest on Coastal Plain soils periodically received irrigation with tritium-enriched water (activity ranged from 5,000 to 20,000 pCi/ml) over a three year time period. To simulate water and tritium fluxes we developed a spatially explicit water balance model. Tritium was completely mixed daily with water in each soil layer. Vertical flow of water was simulated using a capacitance model with lateral flow dependent on head development and the local slope of the impeding clay layer. The model was evaluated by comparing biweekly measurements of tritium activity (measured to 3 meter depth) and soil water content (measured to 2 meter depth) in 18 measurement clusters distributed over the catchment. We evaluated the importance of including subsurface flow in model simulations. Lateral flow was locally important (mean distance tritium traveled laterally was 1.35 m). However, after three years of simulation, the maximum predicted lateral movement of tritium did not exceed 70 meters. On the catchment scale, the average simulated amount of tritium taken up by vegetation was not impacted by lateral flow, but smaller scale spatial variability in tritium uptake increased with the inclusion of lateral flow. Simulated tritium uptake was most sensitive to changes in vegetation cover, and was less sensitive to differences in soil properties (e.g. field capacity, hydraulic conductivity and root distribution). When integrated over the study area, the simulation of solute uptake by a mixed forest in Coastal Pain soils was not sensitive to inclusion of subsurface lateral flow of water.

  19. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A ratio of MSS channels 5 and 7 (5/7) and 5 to 6 (5/6) signals resulted in a correct recognition of 86.9% of the members of representative crop and soil conditions, compared with recognitions of 60.0, 64.1, 74.1, and 81.4% for channels 4, 5, 6, and 7 taken individually. Based on this result a satellite channel ratio procedure has been developed that enhances line printer gray maps for more efficient experimental test site location in the CCT data. Because independent estimates are not available to judge acreage estmates derived from ERTS-1 data against, except for a few crops, an interpenetrating sample constituting 3.5% of the county is ground truthed periodically. The crop of land uses and their acreages, respectively, as estimated from the interpenetrating samples, are: cotton, 129, 714; sorghum, 182,783; mixed citrus, 53,954; oranges, 16,929; grapefruit, 13,863; rangeland, 137,845; and, improved pastures, 57.169.

  20. River basin soil-vegetation condition assessment applying mathematic simulation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Trifonova, Tatiana; Shirkin, Leonid

    2013-04-01

    Meticulous attention paid nowadays to the problem of vegetation cover productivity changes is connected also to climate global transformation. At the same time ecosystems anthropogenic transformation, basically connected to the changes of land use structure and human impact on soil fertility, is developing to a great extent independently from climatic processes and can seriously influence vegetation cover productivity not only at the local and regional levels but also globally. Analysis results of land use structure and soil cover condition influence on river basin ecosystems productive potential is presented in the research. The analysis is carried out applying integrated characteristics of ecosystems functioning, space images processing results and mathematic simulation methods. The possibility of making permanent functional simulator defining connection between macroparameters of "phytocenosis-soil" system condition on the basis of basin approach is shown. Ecosystems of river catchment basins of various degrees located in European part of Russia were chosen as research objects. For the integrated assessment of ecosystems soil and vegetation conditions the following characteristics have been applied: 1. Soil-productional potential, characterizing the ability of natural and natural-anthropogenic ecosystem in certain soil-bioclimatic conditions for long term reproduction. This indicator allows for specific phytomass characteristics and ecosystem produce, humus content in soil and bioclimatic parameters. 2. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has been applied as an efficient, remotely defined, monitoring indicator characterizing spatio-temporal unsteadiness of soil-productional potential. To design mathematic simulator functional simulation methods and principles on the basis of regression, correlation and factor analysis have been applied in the research. Coefficients values defining in the designed static model of phytoproductivity distribution has been executed applying non-linear approximation by the smallest squares method with the help of software in Mathcad environment. Mathematic simulation resulted in defining possible permanent conditions of "phytocenosis-soil" system in coordinates of phytomass, phytoproductivity, humus percentage in soil. It has been demonstrated that phytocenosis productivity is determined not only by vegetation photosynthetic activity but by forest and meadow phytocenosis area ratio as well. Local maximums attached to certain phytomass areas and humus content in soil have been determined at basin phytoproductivity distribution diagram. One of such areas lies within specific phytomass values of B = 133,56 t/hectare and humus content of 2,29 % and the most stable "phytocenosis - soil" system condition corresponds to it. Efficient correlation of natural forest and meadow phytocenosis for the Klyazma river has been defined, at which the most stable permanent condition is achieved and it ranks 7:1. It corresponds to the Klyazma basin location in south taiga zone and it is proved by intensive forest over growing of the abandoned agricultural lands.

  1. Canopy reflectance modelling of semiarid vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Janet

    1994-01-01

    Three different types of remote sensing algorithms for estimating vegetation amount and other land surface biophysical parameters were tested for semiarid environments. These included statistical linear models, the Li-Strahler geometric-optical canopy model, and linear spectral mixture analysis. The two study areas were the National Science Foundation's Jornada Long Term Ecological Research site near Las Cruces, NM, in the northern Chihuahuan desert, and the HAPEX-Sahel site near Niamey, Niger, in West Africa, comprising semiarid rangeland and subtropical crop land. The statistical approach (simple and multiple regression) resulted in high correlations between SPOT satellite spectral reflectance and shrub and grass cover, although these correlations varied with the spatial scale of aggregation of the measurements. The Li-Strahler model produced estimated of shrub size and density for both study sites with large standard errors. In the Jornada, the estimates were accurate enough to be useful for characterizing structural differences among three shrub strata. In Niger, the range of shrub cover and size in short-fallow shrublands is so low that the necessity of spatially distributed estimation of shrub size and density is questionable. Spectral mixture analysis of multiscale, multitemporal, multispectral radiometer data and imagery for Niger showed a positive relationship between fractions of spectral endmembers and surface parameters of interest including soil cover, vegetation cover, and leaf area index.

  2. The influence of biological soil crusts on successional vegetation patterns in a revegetated desert area in the Tengger Desert, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huang; Zhi-shan, Zhang; Xin-rong, Li

    2014-05-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an important cover in arid desert landscapes, and have a profound effect on the soil water redistribution, plant growth and vegetation succession. Although a large number of studies have focused on the single-process of BSCs experimentally, relatively few studies have examined the eco-hydrological mechanisms of BSCs influence on successional vegetation patterns in revegetated desert areas. In this study, based on the long term monitoring and focused research on sand-binding vegetation in the Shapotou region (southeastern edge of the Tengger Desert, China) since the 1950s, the characteristics of plant community and BSCs at different successional stages, and the soil water dynamics were investigated. Then a simplified mathematical model describing the coupled dynamics of soil moisture and vegetation in drylands was developed. And finally the role of BSCs on soil water dynamics and vegetation patterns were discussed. Results have showed that BSCs was closely associated with the vegetation succession, such as in the Caragana korshinskii community, moss crusts were the dominate species and in the Artemisia ordosica community, algae crusts were the dominate species. BSCs had a significant effect on soil water infiltration and it was one of the main driving forces to vegetation pattern formations, as algae crusts would induced the tiger bush stripes and moss crusts would lead to the leopard bush spots in arid ecosystems.

  3. Decadal predictability of soil water, vegetation, and wildfire frequency over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamoto, Yoshimitsu; Timmermann, Axel; Stevenson, Samantha; DiNezio, Pedro; Langford, Sally

    2015-10-01

    The potential decadal predictability of land hydrological and biogeochemical variables in North America is examined using a 900-year-long pre-industrial control simulation, conducted with the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) version 1.0.3. The leading modes of simulated North American precipitation and soil water storage are characterized essentially by qualitatively similar meridional seesaw patterns associated with the activity of the westerly jet. Whereas the corresponding precipitation variability can be described as a white noise stochastic process, power spectra of vertically integrated soil water exhibit significant redness on timescales of years to decades, since the predictability of soil water storage arises mostly from the integration of precipitation variability. As a result, damped persistence hindcasts following a 1st order Markov process are skillful with lead times of up to several years. This potential multi-year skill estimate is consistent with ensemble hindcasts conducted with the CESM for various initial conditions. Our control simulation further suggests that decadal variations in soil water storage also affect vegetation and wildfire occurrences. The long-term potential predictability of soil water variations in combination with the slow regrowth of vegetation after major disruptions leads to enhanced predictability on decadal timescales for vegetation, terrestrial carbon stock, and fire frequency, in particular in the Southern United States (US)/Mexico region. By contrast, the prediction skill of fire frequency in the Northern US is limited to 1 year. Our results demonstrate that skillful decadal predictions of soil water storage, carbon stock, and fire frequency are feasible with proper initialization of soil conditions. Although the potential predictability in our idealized modeling framework would overestimate the real predictability of the coupled climate-land-vegetation system, the decadal climate prediction may become beneficial for water resource management, forestry, and agriculture.

  4. The Role of Vegetation and Mulch in Mitigating the Impact of Raindrops on Soils in Urban Vegetated Green Infrastructure Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadehtazi, B.; Montalto, F. A.; Sjoblom, K.

    2014-12-01

    Raindrop impulses applied to soils can break up larger soil aggregates into smaller particles, dispersing them from their original position. The displaced particles can self-stratify, with finer particles at the top forming a crust. Occurrence of this phenomenon reduces the infiltration rate and increases runoff, contributing to downstream flooding, soil erosion, and non point source pollutant loads. Unprotected soil surfaces (e.g. without vegetation canopies, mulch, or other materials), are more susceptible to crust formation due to the higher kinetic energy associated with raindrop impact. By contrast, soil that is protected by vegetation canopies and mulch layers is less susceptible to crust formation, since these surfaces intercept raindrops, dissipating some of their kinetic energy prior to their impact with the soil. Within this context, this presentation presents preliminary laboratory work conducted using a rainfall simulator to determine the ability of new urban vegetation and mulch to minimize soil crust formation. Three different scenarios are compared: a) bare soil, b) soil with mulch cover, and c) soil protected by vegetation canopies. Soil moisture, surface penetration resistance, and physical measurements of the volume of infiltrate and runoff are made on all three surface treatments after simulated rainfall events. The results are used to develop recommendations regarding surface treatment in green infrastructure (GI) system designs, namely whether heavily vegetated GI facilities require mulching to maintain infiltration capacity.

  5. Transfer of Cadmium from Soil to Vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huihua; Chen, Junjian; Zhu, Li; Yang, Guoyi; Li, Dingqiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd) concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg?1) compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg?1). 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg?1). The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (), and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils. PMID:25247431

  6. Controls on surface connectivity and vegetation patterns in semiarid areas: The role of evolving soil depth profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saco, P. M.; Willgoose, G. R.

    2009-12-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions distinct patterns of vegetation emerge from the interaction between hydrology, plants, soils and topography. Water redistribution as prescribed by these interactions gives rise to patterns of surface connectivity. Desertification is usually associated with an increase in surface connectivity that results in resources being lost from the ecosystem. Recent research argues that landscape structure, and particularly soil depth, plays a key role in the redistribution of overland flow and therefore on the resulting surface connectivity and vegetation patterns. Important feedback effects are associated to this dynamics as surface runoff connectivity modulates the resulting sediment redistribution that, in turn, affects soil depths. Most of the recent models of vegetation patterns evolution in arid regions do not explicitly incorporate feedbacks with evolving soil depths. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the spatial and temporal evolution of connectivity of overland flow in semiarid areas with patchy vegetation for varying landscape structures. We use an existing landform evolution-dynamic vegetation model and we include a new module to simulate spatial patterns of soil depth evolution. The soil depth evolution module accounts for both weathering and sediment redistribution processes. We analyze the evolution of connectivity patterns and the resulting vegetation patterns for a variety different soil erodibilities, slopes and initial soil depths. The response of the systems to disturbances such as drought and vegetation clearing is simulated using these varying initial conditions. We find that for deeper soils, the facilitation effect of vegetation gives rise to the formation of regular patterns, and slope and soil erodibility are the key factors for recovery after disturbance. Disturbances in area with high slopes and/or soil erodibilities lead to an increase in connectivity (desertification). In contrast, we find that for shallow soils, the facilitation effect of vegetation becomes less important and vegetation patterns are more irregular. In this case, soil depth becomes the key factor prescribing surface connectivity and for the recovery of the system after disturbance. These results have important implications for restoration efforts.

  7. Estimating Sahelian and East African soil moisture using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Funk, C.; Husak, G. J.; Michaelsen, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Demarty, J.; Pellarin, T.; Young, T. P.; Caylor, K. K.; Riginos, C.; Veblen, K. E.

    2013-06-01

    Rainfall gauge networks in Sub-Saharan Africa are inadequate for assessing Sahelian agricultural drought, hence satellite-based estimates of precipitation and vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) provide the main source of information for early warning systems. While it is common practice to translate precipitation into estimates of soil moisture, it is difficult to quantitatively compare precipitation and soil moisture estimates with variations in NDVI. In the context of agricultural drought early warning, this study quantitatively compares rainfall, soil moisture and NDVI using a simple statistical model to translate NDVI values into estimates of soil moisture. The model was calibrated using in-situ soil moisture observations from southwest Niger, and then used to estimate root zone soil moisture across the African Sahel from 2001-2012. We then used these NDVI-soil moisture estimates (NSM) to quantify agricultural drought, and compared our results with a precipitation-based estimate of soil moisture (the Antecedent Precipitation Index, API), calibrated to the same in-situ soil moisture observations. We also used in-situ soil moisture observations in Mali and Kenya to assess performance in other water-limited locations in sub Saharan Africa. The separate estimates of soil moisture were highly correlated across the semi-arid, West and Central African Sahel, where annual rainfall exhibits a uni-modal regime. We also found that seasonal API and NDVI-soil moisture showed high rank correlation with a crop water balance model, capturing known agricultural drought years in Niger, indicating that this new estimate of soil moisture can contribute to operational drought monitoring. In-situ soil moisture observations from Kenya highlighted how the rainfall-driven API needs to be recalibrated in locations with multiple rainy seasons (e.g., Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia). Our soil moisture estimates from NDVI, on the other hand, performed well in Niger, Mali and Kenya. This suggests that the NDVI-soil moisture relationship may be more robust across rainfall regimes than the API because the relationship between NDVI and plant available water is less reliant on local characteristics (e.g., infiltration, runoff, evaporation) than the relationship between rainfall and soil moisture.

  8. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.; Maritan, Amos; Porporato, Amilcare

    2010-05-01

    Large areas of cultivated land worldwide are affected by soil salinity. Estimates report that 10% of arable land in over 100 countries, and nine million km2 are salt affected, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. High salinity causes both ion specific and osmotic stress effects, with important consequences for plant production and quality. Salt accumulation in the root zone may be due to natural factors (primary salinization) or due to irrigation (secondary salinization). Simple (e.g., vertically averaged over the soil depth) coupled soil moisture and salt balance equations have been used in the past. Despite their approximations, these models have the advantage of parsimony, thus allowing a direct analysis of the interplay of the main processes. They also provide the ideal starting point to include external, random hydro-climatic fluctuations in the analysis of long-term salinization trends. We propose a minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In fact, soil salinity statistics are obtained as a function of climate, soil and vegetation parameters. These, in turn, can be combined with soil moisture statistics to obtain a full characterization of soil salt concentrations and the ensuing risk of primary salinization. In particular, the solutions show the existence of two quite distinct regimes, the first one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant with increasing rainfall frequency, and the second one where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trends, with significant consequences e.g. for climate change impacts on rain-fed agriculture. The analytical nature of the solution allows direct estimation of the impact of changes in the climatic drivers on soil salinity and makes it suitable for computations of salinity risk at the global scale as a function of simple parameters. Moreover it facilitates their coupling with other models of long-term soil-plant biogeochemistry.

  9. Environmental behavior of technetium in soil and vegetation: implications for radiological impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1982-04-01

    Significant radiological exposures have been estimated for hypothetical atmospheric releases of Tc-99 from gaseous diffusion facilities when vegetation-to-soil concentration ratios representative of laboratory experiments are substituted for generic default values assumed in current regulatory models. To test the relevancy of these laboratory ratios, field investigations were conducted to obtain measurements of the vegetation-to-soil concentration ratio for Tc-99 in samples collected near operating gaseous diffusion facilities and to observe the dynamic behavior of technetium in soil and vegetation following a single application of a sprayed solution of /sup 95m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/ Comparison of observed field concentration ratios and calculated steady-state concentration ratios with ratios obtained from previous laboratory experiments indicates that concentration ratios obtained from field data are one to two orders of magnitude less than those obtained from the laboratory. Furthermore, a substantial accumulation of technetium in soil and vegetation may not occur over long periods of time, since concentrations of technetium in both environmental media were observed to decrease with time subsequent to initial application of /sup 95m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/.

  10. Derivation of soil thresholds for lead applying species sensitivity distribution: A case study for root vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ding, Changfeng; Ma, Yibing; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2016-02-13

    The combination of food quality standard and soil-plant transfer models can be used to derive critical limits of heavy metals for agricultural soils. In this paper, a robust methodology is presented, taking the variations of plant species and cultivars and soil properties into account to derive soil thresholds for lead (Pb) applying species sensitivity distribution (SSD). Three species of root vegetables (four cultivars each for radish, carrot, and potato) were selected to investigate their sensitivity differences for accumulating Pb through greenhouse experiment. Empirical soil-plant transfer model was developed from carrot New Kuroda grown in twenty-one soils covering a wide variation in physicochemical properties and was used to normalize the bioaccumulation data of non-model cultivars. The relationship was then validated to be reliable and would not cause over-protection using data from field experimental sites and published independent studies. The added hazardous concentration for protecting 95% of the cultivars not exceeding the food quality standard (HC5add) were then calculated from the Burr Type III function fitted SSD curves. The derived soil Pb thresholds based on the added risk approach (total soil concentration subtracting the natural background part) were presented as continuous or scenario criteria depending on the combination of soil pH and CEC. PMID:26513560

  11. Development of the IAP Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaodong; Li, Fang; Song, Xiang

    2014-05-01

    The IAP Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (IAP-DGVM) has been developed to simulate the distribution and structure of global vegetation within the framework of Earth System Models. It incorporates our group's recent developments of major model components such as the shrub sub-model, establishment and competition parameterization schemes, and a process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity. The model has 12 plant functional types, including seven tree, two shrub, and three grass types, plus bare soil. Different PFTs are allowed to coexist within a grid cell, and their state variables are updated by various governing equations describing vegetation processes from fine-scale biogeophysics and biogeochemistry, to individual and population dynamics, to large-scale biogeography. Environmental disturbance due to fire not only affects regional vegetation competition, but also influences atmospheric chemistry and aerosol emissions. Simulations under observed atmospheric conditions showed that the model can correctly reproduce the global distribution of trees, shrubs, grasses, and bare soil. The simulated global dominant vegetation types reproduce the transition from forest to grassland (savanna) in the tropical region, and from forest to shrubland in the boreal region, but overestimate the region of temperate forest.

  12. Effects of varying soil moisture contents and vegetation canopies on microwave emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, H.-H. K.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Results of NASA airborne passive microwave scans of bare and vegetated fields for comparison with ground truth tests are discussed and a model for atmospheric scattering of radiation by vegetation is detailed. On-board radiometers obtained data at 21, 2.8, and 1.67 cm during three passes over each of 46 fields, 28 of which were bare and the others having wheat or alfalfa. Ground-based sampling included moisture in five layers down to 15 cm in addition to soil temperature. The relationships among the brightness temperature and soil moisture, as well as the surface roughness and the vegetation canopy were examined. A model was developed for the dielectric coefficient and volume scattering for a vegetation medium. L- to C-band data were found useful for retrieving soil information directly. A surface moisture content of 5-35% yielded an emissivity of 0.9-0.7. The data agreed well with a combined multilayer radiative transfer model with simple roughness correction.

  13. An evaluation of hyperspectral vegetation indices for detecting soil salinity in sugarcane fields using EO-1 Hyperion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzeh, S.; Naseri, A. A.; Alavi Panah, S. K.; Bartholomeus, H.; Mojaradi, B.; Clevers, J.; Behzad, M.

    2012-04-01

    Sugarcane is the major agricultural crops in the Khuzestan province, in the southwest of Iran. But soil salinity is a major problem affecting the sugarcane yield, and therefore, monitoring and assessment of soil salinity is necessary. This research was carried out to investigate the performance of several hyperspectral vegetation indices to assess salinity stress in sugarcane fields and to determine the suitable indicators and statistical models for detecting various soil salinity levels. For this purpose one Hyperion image was acquired on Sept 2, 2010 and soil salinity was measured in 108 points 5 to 15 days from this date. 60 Samples were used for modeling and 48 samples were used for validation. Values of the soil salinity were linked with the corresponding pixel at the satellite imagery and 16 (hyperspectral) spectral indices were calculated. Then, the potential of these indices for estimating the soil salinity were analyzed and results show that soil salinity can well be estimated by vegetation indices derived from Hyperion data. Indices that are based on the chlorophyll and water absorption bands have medium to high relationship with soil salinity, while indices that only use visible bands or combination of visible and NIR bands don't perform well. From the investigated indices the Optimized Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI) has the strongest relationship (R2 = 0.69) with soil salinity, because this index minimizes the variations in reflectance characteristics of soil background.

  14. Soil moisture status estimation over Three Gorges area with Landsat TM data based on temperature vegetation dryness index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lina; Niu, Ruiqing; Li, Jiong; Dong, Yanfang

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture is the important indicator of climate, hydrology, ecology, agriculture and other parameters of the land surface and atmospheric interface. Soil moisture plays an important role on the water and energy exchange at the land surface/atmosphere interface. Remote sensing can provide information on large area quickly and easily, so it is significant to do research on how to monitor soil moisture by remote sensing. This paper presents a method to assess soil moisture status using Landsat TM data over Three Gorges area in China based on TVDI. The potential of Temperature- Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) from Landsat TM data in assessing soil moisture was investigated in this region. After retrieving land surface temperature and vegetation index a TVDI model based on the features of Ts-NDVI space is established. And finally, soil moisture status is estimated according to TVDI. It shows that TVDI has the advantages of stability and high accuracy to estimating the soil moisture status.

  15. Soil moisture modeling review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildreth, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    A determination of the state of the art in soil moisture transport modeling based on physical or physiological principles was made. It was found that soil moisture models based on physical principles have been under development for more than 10 years. However, these models were shown to represent infiltration and redistribution of soil moisture quite well. Evapotranspiration has not been as adequately incorporated into the models.

  16. Soil phosphorus landscape models for precision soil conservation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinseok; Grunwald, Sabine; Vasques, Gustavo M

    2015-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) enrichment in soils has been documented in the Santa Fe River watershed (SFRW, 3585 km) in north-central Florida. Yet the environmental factors that control P distribution in soils across the landscape, with potential contribution to water quality impairment, are not well understood. The main goal of this study was to develop soil-landscape P models to support a "precision soil conservation" approach combining fine-scale (i.e., site-specific) and coarse-scale (i.e., watershed-extent) assessment of soil P. The specific objectives were to: (i) identify those environmental properties that impart the most control on the spatial distribution of soil Mehlich-1 extracted P (MP) in the SFRW; (ii) model the spatial patterns of soil MP using geostatistical methods; and (iii) assess model quality using independent validation samples. Soil MP data at 137 sites were fused with spatially explicit environmental covariates to develop soil MP prediction models using univariate (lognormal kriging, LNK) and multivariate methods (regression kriging, RK, and cokriging, CK). Incorporation of exhaustive environmental data into multivariate models (RK and CK) improved the prediction of soil MP in the SFRW compared with the univariate model (LNK), which relies solely on soil measurements. Among all tested environmental covariates, land use and vegetation related properties (topsoil) and geologic data (subsoil) showed the largest predictive power to build inferential models for soil MP. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of spatially explicit interactions between soil P and other environmental variables, facilitating improved land resource management while minimizing adverse risks to the environment. PMID:26024255

  17. Surface modeling of soil antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen-Jiao; Yue, Tian-Xiang; Du, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zong; Li, Xue-Wen

    2016-02-01

    Large numbers of livestock and poultry feces are continuously applied into soils in intensive vegetable cultivation areas, and then some veterinary antibiotics are persistent existed in soils and cause health risk. For the spatial heterogeneity of antibiotic residues, developing a suitable technique to interpolate soil antibiotic residues is still a challenge. In this study, we developed an effective interpolator, high accuracy surface modeling (HASM) combined vegetable types, to predict the spatial patterns of soil antibiotics, using 100 surface soil samples collected from an intensive vegetable cultivation area located in east of China, and the fluoroquinolones (FQs), including ciprofloxacin (CFX), enrofloxacin (EFX) and norfloxacin (NFX), were analyzed as the target antibiotics. The results show that vegetable type is an effective factor to be combined to improve the interpolator performance. HASM achieves less mean absolute errors (MAEs) and root mean square errors (RMSEs) for total FQs (NFX+CFX+EFX), NFX, CFX and EFX than kriging with external drift (KED), stratified kriging (StK), ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighting (IDW). The MAE of HASM for FQs is 55.1?g/kg, and the MAEs of KED, StK, OK and IDW are 99.0?g/kg, 102.8?g/kg, 106.3?g/kg and 108.7?g/kg, respectively. Further, RMSE simulated by HASM for FQs (CFX, EFX and NFX) are 106.2?g/kg (88.6?g/kg, 20.4?g/kg and 39.2?g/kg), and less 30% (27%, 22% and 36%), 33% (27%, 27% and 43%), 38% (34%, 23% and 41%) and 42% (32%, 35% and 51%) than the ones by KED, StK, OK and IDW, respectively. HASM also provides better maps with more details and more consistent maximum and minimum values of soil antibiotics compared with the measured data. The better performance can be concluded that HASM takes the vegetable type information as global approximate information, and takes local sampling data as its optimum control constraints. PMID:26613514

  18. A microwave scattering model for layered vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Fung, Adrian K.; Lang, Roger H.; Chauhan, Narinder S.

    1992-01-01

    A microwave scattering model was developed for layered vegetation based on an iterative solution of the radiative transfer equation up to the second order to account for multiple scattering within the canopy and between the ground and the canopy. The model is designed to operate over a wide frequency range for both deciduous and coniferous forest and to account for the branch size distribution, leaf orientation distribution, and branch orientation distribution for each size. The canopy is modeled as a two-layered medium above a rough interface. The upper layer is the crown containing leaves, stems, and branches. The lower layer is the trunk region modeled as randomly positioned cylinders with a preferred orientation distribution above an irregular soil surface. Comparisons of this model with measurements from deciduous and coniferous forests show good agreements at several frequencies for both like and cross polarizations. Major features of the model needed to realize the agreement include allowance for: (1) branch size distribution, (2) second-order effects, and (3) tree component models valid over a wide range of frequencies.

  19. The Dependence of Peat Soil Hydraulic Conductivity on Dominant Vegetation Type in Mountain Fens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, A. C.; Ronayne, M. J.; Cooper, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The peat soil within fen wetlands provides water storage that can substantially influence the hydrology of mountain watersheds. In this study, we investigated the relationship between hydraulic conductivity and vegetation type for fens occurring in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA. Vegetation in RMNP fens can be dominated by woody plants and shrubs, such as willows; by mosses; or by herbaceous plants such as sedges. Fens dominated by each vegetation type were selected for study. Six fens were investigated, all of which are in the Colorado River watershed on the west side of RMNP. For each site, soil hydraulic conductivity was measured at multiple locations using a single-ring infiltrometer. As a result of the shallow water table in these fens (the water table was always within 10 cm of the surface), horizontal hydraulic gradients were produced during the field tests. The measured infiltration rates were analyzed using the numerical model HYDRUS. In order to determine the hydraulic conductivity, a parameter estimation problem was solved using HYDRUS as the forward simulator. Horizontal flow was explicitly accounted for in the model. This approach produced more accurate estimates of hydraulic conductivity than would be obtained using an analytical solution that assumes strictly vertical flow. Significant differences in hydraulic properties between fens appear to result at least in part from the effects of different dominant vegetation types on peat soil formation.

  20. Impacts of vegetation and cold season processes on soil moisture and climate relationships over Eurasia

    E-print Network

    Ni-Meister, Wenge

    Impacts of vegetation and cold season processes on soil moisture and climate relationships over soil moisture persistence and its effects on the atmosphere. Such analyses are particularly valuable investigate the impacts of vegetation and cold season processes on soil moisture persistence and climate

  1. Use of LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, Peter S.; Jasinski, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    The estimation of the spatially variable surface moisture and heat fluxes of natural, semivegetated landscapes is difficult due to the highly random nature of the vegetation (e.g., plant species, density, and stress) and the soil (e.g., moisture content, and soil hydraulic conductivity). The solution to that problem lies, in part, in the use of satellite remotely sensed data, and in the preparation of those data in terms of the physical properties of the plant and soil. The work was focused on the development and testing of a stochastic geometric canopy-soil reflectance model, which can be applied to the physically-based interpretation of LANDSAT images. The model conceptualizes the landscape as a stochastic surface with bulk plant and soil reflective properties. The model is particularly suited for regional scale investigations where the quantification of the bulk landscape properties, such as fractional vegetation cover, is important on a pixel by pixel basis. A summary of the theoretical analysis and the preliminary testing of the model with actual aerial radiometric data is provided.

  2. The effects of soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation on L-band emission and backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James R.; Shiue, J. C.; Engman, Edwin T.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Mo, Tsan

    1987-01-01

    Measurements performed with SIR-B at 1.28 GHz and an airborne multiple-beam push-broom radiometer at 1.4 GHz over agricultural fields near Fresno, California are examined. A theoretical model (Kirchhoff approximation) was used to assess the effects of surface roughness and vegetation (alfalfa and lettuce) with respect to the responses of microwave emission and backscatter to soil-moisture variations. It is found that the surface roughness plays a dominant role compared to the vegetation cover in the microwave backscatter.

  3. Long-term measurements of forest soil Ca and Mg decline with vegetation uptake and leaching

    E-print Network

    Post, Wilfred M.

    , Mulholland PJ (2008) Decadal changes in potassium, calcium, and magnesium in a deciduous forest soil Soil Science Society of America Journal 72:1795-1805magnesium in a deciduous forest soil. Soil Science SocietyLong-term measurements of forest soil Ca and Mg decline with vegetation uptake and leaching Contact

  4. Radar response to vegetation. [soil moisture mapping via microwave backscattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    Active microwave measurements of vegetation backscatter were conducted to determine the utility of radar in mapping soil moisture through vegetation and mapping crop types. Using a truck-mounted boom, spectral response data were obtained for four crop types (corn, milo, soybeans, and alfalfa) over the 4-8 GHz frequency band, at incidence angles of 0 to 70 degrees in 10-degree steps, and for all four linear polarization combinations. Based on a total of 125 data sets covering a wide range of soil moisture, content, system design criteria are proposed for each of the aforementioned objectives. Quantitative soil moisture determination was best achieved at the lower frequency end of the 4-8 GHz band using HH polarized waves in the 5- to 15-degree incidence angle range. A combination of low and high frequency measurements are suggested for classifying crop types. For crop discrimination, a dual-frequency dual-polarization (VV and cross) system operating at incidence angles above 40 degrees is suggested.

  5. Modeling the effects of vegetation on heavy metals containment

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.; Erickson, L.E.; Govindaraju, R.; Kalita, P.; Pierzynski, G.

    1997-12-31

    Soil and water contamination of lead, cadmium, and zinc are of concern in Southeast Kansas, where mining activities occurred until the middle of this century. Sediment erosion from the remnant piles of chat, an aftermath of the mining activity, is responsible for the increasing metal-contaminant concentrations in nearby farmland. Vegetation is being examined as a means of controlling the further spread of the metals. One current program used in watershed modeling, the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Model, or AGNPS, is examined to determine the role that vegetation plays in controlling metal contamination from an 800-acre watershed, containing such chat piles, near Galena, Kansas.

  6. MICROBIAL POPULATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SOIL DEPTH, SOIL PHOSPHORUS, AND VEGETATION CHANGES DOWNWIND OF A CATTLE FEEDYARD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, the 30-year effect (1970 to 2000) of a 25,000-head beef cattle feedyard upon a downwind native shortgrass pasture was documented. Vegetation changes and a soil phosphorus (P) gradient with respect to distance from the feedyard were determined. The objective of this study was t...

  7. Soil Water Balance and Vegetation Dynamics in two Contrasting Water-limited Mediterranean Ecosystems on Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.; Corona, R.

    2011-12-01

    Water limited conditions strongly impacts soil and vegetation dynamics in Mediterranean regions, which are commonly heterogeneous ecosystems, characterized by inter-annual rainfall variability, topography variability and contrasting plant functional types (PFTs) competing for water use. Mediterranean regions are characterized by two main ecosystems, grassland and woodland, which for both natural and anthropogenic causes can grow in soils with different characteristics, highly impacting water resources. Water resources and forestal planning need a deep understanding of the dynamics between PFTs, soil and atmosphere and their impacts on water and CO2 distributions of these two main ecosystems. The first step is the monitoring of land surface fluxes, soil moisture, and vegetation dynamics of the two contrasting ecosystems. Moreover, due to the large percentage of soils with low depth (< 50 cm), and due to the quick hydrologic answer to atmospheric forcing in these soils, there is also the need to understand the impact of the soil depth in the vegetation dynamics, and make measurements in these types of soils. Sardinia island is a very interesting and representative region of Mediterranean ecosystems. It is low urbanized, and is not irrigated, except some plan areas close to the main cities where main agricultural activities are concentrated. The case study sites are within the Flumendosa river basin on Sardinia. Two sites, both in the Flumendosa river and with similar height a.s.l., are investigated. The distance between the sites is around 4 km but the first is a typically grass site located on an alluvial plan valley with a soil depth more than 2m, while the second site is a patchy mixture of Mediterranean vegetation types Oaks, creepers of the wild olive trees and C3 herbaceous species and the soil thickness varies from 15-40 cm, bounded from below by a rocky layer of basalt, partially fractured. In both sites land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by eddy correlation technique based micrometeorological towers. Soil moisture profiles were also continuously estimated using water content reflectometers and gravimetric method, and periodically leaf area index PFTs are estimated during the Spring-Summer 2005. The following objectives are addressed:1) pointing out the dynamics of land surface fluxes, soil moisture, CO2 and vegetation cover for two contrasting water-limited ecosystems; 2) assess the impact of the soil depth and type on the CO2 and water balance dynamics. For reaching the objectives an ecohydrologic model is also successfully used and applied to the case studies. It couples a vegetation dynamic model, which computes the change in biomass over time for the PFTs, and a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) land surface model.

  8. Bacterial and enchytraeid abundance accelerate soil carbon turnover along a lowland vegetation gradient in interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Turetsky, M.R.; Petersen, D.G.; McGuire, A.D.; Briones, M.J.I.; Churchill, A.C.; Doctor, D.H.; Pruett, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    Boreal wetlands are characterized by a mosaic of plant communities, including forests, shrublands, grasslands, and fens, which are structured largely by changes in topography and water table position. The soil associated with these plant communities contain quantitatively and qualitatively different forms of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrient availability that drive changes in biogeochemical cycling rates. Therefore different boreal plant communities likely contain different soil biotic communities which in turn affect rates of organic matter decomposition. We examined relationships between plant communities, microbial communities, enchytraeids, and soil C turnover in near-surface soils along a shallow topographic soil moisture and vegetation gradient in interior Alaska. We tested the hypothesis that as soil moisture increases along the gradient, surface soils would become increasingly dominated by bacteria and mesofauna and have more rapid rates of C turnover. We utilized bomb radiocarbon techniques to infer rates of C turnover and the 13C isotopic composition of SOM and respired CO2 to infer the degree of soil humification. Soil phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activities were generally higher in the rich fen compared with the forest and bog birch sites. Results indicated greater C fluxes and more rapid C turnover in the surface soils of the fen sites compared to the wetland forest and shrub sites. Quantitative PCR analyses of soil bacteria and archaea, combined with enchytraeid counts, indicated that surface soils from the lowland fen ecosystems had higher abundances of these microbial and mesofaunal groups. Fungal abundance was highly variable and not significantly different among sites. Microbial data was utilized in a food web model that confirmed that rapidly cycling systems are dominated by bacterial activity and enchytraeid grazing. However, our results also suggest that oxidative enzymes play an important role in the C mineralization process in saturated systems, which has been often ignored.

  9. Vegetation stress from soil moisture and chlorophyll fluorescence: synergy between SMAP and FLEX approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Jose; Moran, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Vegetation stress detection continues being a focal objective for remote sensing techniques. It has implications not only for practical applications such as irrigation optimization or precision agriculture, but also for global climate models, providing data to better link water and carbon exchanges between the surface and the atmospheric and improved parameterization of the role of terrestrial vegetation in the coupling of water and carbon cycles. Traditional approaches to map vegetation stress using remote sensing techniques have been based on measurements of soil moisture status, canopy (radiometric) temperature and, to a lesser extent, canopy water content, but new techniques such as the dynamics of vegetation fluorescence emission, are also now available. Within the context of the preparatory activities for the SMAP and FLEX missions, a number of initiatives have been put in place to combine modelling activities and field experiments in order to look for alternative and more efficient ways of detecting vegetation stress, with emphasis on synergistic remote sensing approaches. The potential of solar-induced vegetation fluorescence as an early indicator of stress has been widely demonstrated, for different type of stress conditions: light amount (excess illumination) and conditions (direct/diffuse), temperature extremes (low and high), soil water availability (soil moisture), soil nutrients (nitrogen), atmospheric water vapour and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The effects caused by different stress conditions are sometimes difficult to be decoupled, also because different causes are often combined, but in general they then to change the overall fluorescence emission (modulating amplitude) or changing the relative contributions of photosystems PSI and PSII or the relative fluorescence re-absorption effects caused by modifications in the structure of pigment bed responsible for light absorption, in particular for acclimation for persistent stress conditions. While soil moisture deficit is often the reason for the stress, the capability for an early detection of short-time stress conditions is one of the main advantages of vegetation fluorescence. The combined usage of active and passive techniques is also discussed. In the case of soil moisture, combination of active (radar) and passive (L-band radiometry) approaches are used, while in the case of fluorescence active (laser induced) and passive (solar induced) techniques are used as well. Experience from active techniques in laboratory and field conditions helps the operational usage of passive techniques which are readily applicable to satellite observations. Vegetation fluorescence dynamics, particularly over boreal forest, is characterized by an abrupt change in fluorescence levels in coincidence with the activation and deactivation of the photosynthetic machinery at start/end of growing season, which is also related to freeze/thaw state of soil conditions. The interest of looking at such transitions both on the side of photosynthetic activity (combined fluorescence and temperature measurements) and freeze/thaw conditions (L-band radiometry) can provide an unprecedented description of the soil and vegetation interactions and dynamical feedbacks in the energy and chemical exchanges with the atmosphere. A review of methods and results will be discussed in this paper, including suggestions for synergistic approaches to be exploited in future research priorities in vegetation stress detection.

  10. Productivity of wet soils: Biomass of cultivated and natural vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, C.A.

    1988-12-01

    Wet soils, soils which have agronomic limitations because of excess water, comprise 105 million acres of non-federal land in the conterminous United States. Wet soils which support hydrophytic plants are ''wetlands'', and are some of the most productive natural ecosystems in the world. When both above- and belowground productivity are considered, cattail (Typha latifolia) is the most productive temperate wetland species (26.4 Mg/ha/year). Both cattail and reed (Phragmites australis) have aboveground productivities of about 13 Mg/ha/year. Although average aboveground yields of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) are lower (9.5 Mg/ha/year), techniques for its establishment and cultivation are well-developed. Other herbaceous wetland species which show promise as biomass crops include sedge (Carex spp.), river bulrush (Scirpus fluviatilis) and prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata). About 40% of wet soils in the conterminous US are currently cultivated, and they produce one-quarter of the major US crops. Most of this land is artificially drained for crops such as corn, soybeans, and vegetables. US wetlands are drained for agriculture at the rate of 223,000 ha/yr. Paddies flooded with water are used to grow rice, cranberries, and wild rice. Forage and live sphagnum moss are products of undrained wetlands. A number of federal and state regulations apply to the draining or irrigation of wetlands, but most do not seriously restrict their use for agriculture. 320 refs., 36 tabs.

  11. Interactions between soil moisture and Atmospheric Boundary Layer at the Brazilian savana-type vegetation Cerrado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, L. R.; Siqueira, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Before the large people influx and development of the central part of Brazil in the sixties, due to new capital Brasília, Cerrado, a typical Brazilian savanna-type vegetation, used to occupy about 2 million km2, going all the way from the Amazon tropical forest, in the north of the country, to the edges of what used to be of the Atlantic forest in the southeast. Today, somewhat 50% of this area has given place to agriculture, pasture and managed forests. It is forecasted that, at the current rate of this vegetation displacement, Cerrado will be gone by 2030. Understanding how Cerrado interacts with the atmosphere and how this interaction will be modified with this land-use change is a crucial step towards improving predictions of future climate-change scenarios. Cerrado is a vegetation adapted to a climate characterized by two very distinct seasons, a wet season (Nov-Mar) and dry season (May-Ago), with April and October being transitions between seasons. Typically, based on measurements in a weather station located in Brasilia, 75% of precipitation happens in the wet-season months and only 5% during dry-season. Under these circumstances, it is clear that the vegetation will have to cope with long periods of water stress. In this work we studied using numerical simulations, the interactions between soil-moisture, responsible for the water stress, with the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). The numerical model comprises of a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere model where the biophysical processes are represented with a big-leaf approach. Soil water is estimated with a simple logistic model and with water-stress effects on stomatal conductance are parameterized from local measurements of simultaneous latent-heat fluxes and soil moisture. ABL evolution is calculate with a slab model that considers independently surface and entrainment fluxes of sensible- and latent- heat. Temperature tropospheric lapse-rate is taken from soundings at local airport. Simulations of 30-day dry down from saturation to complete water stress were performed and is analyzed as far how ABL respond to soil moisture changes. This provides informations about ABL behavior on the transition states. Future studies will look on how this behavior will change with the new vegetation covers.

  12. A Methodology for Surface Soil Moisture and Vegetation Optical Depth Retrieval Using the Microwave Polarization Difference Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, Manfred; deJeu, Richard; Walker, Jeffrey; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A methodology for retrieving surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth from satellite microwave radiometer data is presented. The procedure is tested with historical 6.6 GHz brightness temperature observations from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer over several test sites in Illinois. Results using only nighttime data are presented at this time, due to the greater stability of nighttime surface temperature estimation. The methodology uses a radiative transfer model to solve for surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth simultaneously using a non-linear iterative optimization procedure. It assumes known constant values for the scattering albedo and roughness. Surface temperature is derived by a procedure using high frequency vertically polarized brightness temperatures. The methodology does not require any field observations of soil moisture or canopy biophysical properties for calibration purposes and is totally independent of wavelength. Results compare well with field observations of soil moisture and satellite-derived vegetation index data from optical sensors.

  13. Sulfamethazine sorption to soil: vegetative management, pH, and dissolved organic matter effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elucidating veterinary antibiotic (VA) interactions with soil is important for assessing and mitigating possible environmental hazards. Objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of vegetative management, soil physical and chemical properties, and manure-derived dissolved organic matte...

  14. Vegetation and soils field research data base: Experiment summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biehl, L. L.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Bauer, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Understanding of the relationships between the optical, spectral characteristics and important biological-physical parameters of earth-surface features can best be obtained by carefully controlled studies over fields and plots where complete data describing the condition of targets are attainable and where frequent, timely spectral measurement can be obtained. Development of a vegetation and soils field research data base was initiated in 1972 at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing and expanded in the fall of 1974 by NASA as part of LACIE. Since then, over 250,000 truck-mounted and helicopter-borne spectrometer/multiband radiometer observations have been obtained of more than 50 soil series and 20 species of crops, grasses, and trees. These data are supplemented by an extensive set of biophysical and meteorological data acquired during each mission. The field research data form one of the most complete and best-documented data sets acquired for agricultural remote sensing research. Thus, they are well-suited to serve as a data base for research to: (1) quantiatively determine the relationships of spectral and biophysical characteristics of vegetation, (2) define future sensor systems, and (3) develop advanced data analysis techniques.

  15. EVALUATION OF SOIL WATER RETENTION MODELS BASED ON BASIC SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algorithms to model soil water retention are needed to study the response of vegetation and hydrologic systems to climate change. he objective of this study was to evaluate some soil water retention models to identify minimum input data requirements. ix models that function with ...

  16. Dynamics of deep soil moisture in response to vegetational restoration on the Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yu-Hua; Shao, Ming-An

    2014-11-01

    The limitation of soil water in semiarid regions restricts the formation of a good cover of vegetation. The Loess Plateau in China, well known for its severe soil erosion, has a thick loessial soil that holds substantial volumes of water and provides the basis of a sustainable restoration of vegetation. Our limited understanding of the dynamics of deep soil moisture, however, could lead to the mismanagement of soil-water resources or could even misguide the policies of vegetational reconstruction. To evaluate the temporal response of deep soil moisture in different types of revegetation, we observed soil moisture to a depth of 340 cm in four plots, planted with Korshinsk peashrub (KOP), purple alfalfa (ALF), native plants (natural fallow, NAF), and millet (MIL), on 15 measurement events from 2010 to 2012. Our analysis provided four main conclusions. (1) The quantitative difference of potential evapotranspiration and actual precipitation resulted in natural deficits of soil moisture. The dynamics of deep soil moisture, however, were mainly dominated by the type of vegetation. Deep soils in plots of KOP and ALF became drier than the soil in plots of NAF and MIL. (2) Deep soil moisture in KOP and ALF was weakly variable. Correlations of time series of soil moisture between the upper and lower layers tended not to be significant. Dried soil layer, a special hydrological phenomenon, had formed in the plots. (3) The correlation between variances of soil moisture and the corresponding mean values were not always significantly positive due to the influence of vegetational type, observational depth, and date. (4) Fallow may be the best cover for achieving adequate hydrological sustainability of the soil. These results are expected to help improve the understanding of the response of deep soil moisture to vegetational restoration and to provide insight into the dynamics of deep soil moisture influenced by vegetation on loessial slopes.

  17. Discrete random media techniques for microwave modeling of vegetated terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Roger H.

    1991-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing models of vegetated terrain are investigated. The problem is to determine canopy characteristics such as biomass, canopy height, and the moisture of the underlying soil. The report describes a discrete scatter model which has been employed to model backscatter in the active (radar) case and to model brightness temperature in the passive (radiometric) case. The acquisition of ground truth data is discussed, as well as the comparison of theory and experiment. The overall conclusion of the work has been that the discrete scatter model in conjunction with efficient scatter algorithms and the distorted Born approximation is a most appropriate methodology to use for modeling purposes in the microwave region.

  18. Soil amendments reduce trace element solubility in a contaminated soil and allow regrowth of natural vegetation.

    PubMed

    Madejón, Engracia; de Mora, Alfredo Pérez; Felipe, Efraín; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of three amendments (a biosolid compost, a sugar beet lime, and a combination of leonardite plus sugar beet lime) on trace element stabilisation and spontaneous revegetation of a trace element contaminated soil. Soil properties were analysed before and after amendment application. Spontaneous vegetation growing on the experimental plot was studied by three surveys in terms of number of taxa colonising, percentage vegetation cover and plant biomass. Macronutrients and trace element concentrations of the five most frequent species were analysed. The results showed a positive effect of the amendments both on soil chemical properties and vegetation. All amendments increased soil pH and TOC content and reduced CaCl(2)-soluble-trace element concentrations. Colonisation by wild plants was enhanced in all amended treatments. The nutritional status of the five species studied was improved in some cases, while a general reduction in trace element concentrations of the aboveground parts was observed in all treated plots. The results obtained show that natural assisted remediation has potential for success on a field scale reducing trace element entry in the food chain. PMID:16005126

  19. Vegetation controls on soil water dynamics and runoff production in a headwater catchment in the Ore Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, E.; Graeff, T.; Schlaeger, S.; Morgner, M.; Bauer, A.

    2009-04-01

    Spatial variability of soil hydraulic parameters and soil structures dominate surface runoff production as well as soil water dynamics at the hillslope and headwater scale. These seem to be common grounds in soil physics and was our credo when we instrumented a small headwater (10 km2) of the Weiáeritz with six rain gauges, a meteorological station, shallow piezometers and two STDR clusters to investigate soil moisture control on runoff and surface runoff production. Both TDR clusters consist of 35 individual TDR sensors of 60 cm depth covering an extend of 15m by 15m. Cluster 1 one is located at a grassland site, cluster 2 is located in a nearby forested area. The soil at the grassland site is a clayey loam with a high content of organic matter, a very large porosity of 0.63 in the top 20 cm and a soil hydraulic conductivity of on average around 4 * 10-5 m/s. Soil at the forested site is similar with an even higher infiltrability and higher organic content of the top soil. Both soils exhibit a high gravel content and rather high spatial variability of soil properties. Despite of this large heterogeneity of soil parameters, we found that vegetation exerts crucial control on average soil moisture dynamics, its spatial variability and most interesting on the development of the spatial covariance structure of the soil moisture patterns. Correlation length at the grassland site was rather short but increased with increasing average wetness. So did the nugget to sill ratio of the variogram. At the forested site correlation length did not vary with average wetness and was constantly 50% of the maximum probe distance. We therefore conclude that the correlation structure at the forested site is dominated by the pattern of through-fall and interception and therefore vegetation. During a modelling exercise we found that despite of the large heterogeneity of the soils a homogeneous soil setup allowed a good reproduction of observed soil moisture dynamics at the hourly scale for a period of more than 3 months. At both sites simulations were most sensitive to small changes of key plant parameters. Especially root depth, leaf area index and plant coverage and their evolution during the vegetation phase were of prime importance for a good model performance. Surprisingly, evapo-transpiration and thus vegetation determines near surface soil moisture dynamics and therefore surface runoff production at this headwater catchment. Consequently, survey of key plant parameters such as leaf area index, plant coverage and their evolution during the vegetation phase is of prime importance for model predictions of soil moisture dynamics and surface runoff production in this headwater. Many process-orientated model studies put their major efforts into assessment of soil parameters and treat vegetation as something static that can be characterized by a few constant parameters. Model studies ? including some of our own ? often just devote a single statement such as ?vegetation was short grass and parameters were taken from the literature? to characterize vegetation in their model structure. This story shows that sometimes even grown up process hydrologists don?t see the wood for the trees.

  20. The Aggregate Description of Semi-Arid Vegetation with Precipitation-Generated Soil Moisture Heterogeneity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Cary B.; Houser, Paul R.; Arain, Altaf M.; Yang, Zong-Liang; Syed, Kamran; Shuttleworth, W. James

    1997-01-01

    Meteorological measurements in the Walnut Gulch catchment in Arizona were used to synthesize a distributed, hourly-average time series of data across a 26.9 by 12.5 km area with a grid resolution of 480 m for a continuous 18-month period which included two seasons of monsoonal rainfall. Coupled surface-atmosphere model runs established the acceptability (for modelling purposes) of assuming uniformity in all meteorological variables other than rainfall. Rainfall was interpolated onto the grid from an array of 82 recording rain gauges. These meteorological data were used as forcing variables for an equivalent array of stand-alone Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) models to describe the evolution of soil moisture and surface energy fluxes in response to the prevalent, heterogeneous pattern of convective precipitation. The calculated area-average behaviour was compared with that given by a single aggregate BATS simulation forced with area-average meteorological data. Heterogeneous rainfall gives rise to significant but partly compensating differences in the transpiration and the intercepted rainfall components of total evaporation during rain storms. However, the calculated area-average surface energy fluxes given by the two simulations in rain-free conditions with strong heterogeneity in soil moisture were always close to identical, a result which is independent of whether default or site-specific vegetation and soil parameters were used. Because the spatial variability in soil moisture throughout the catchment has the same order of magnitude as the amount of rain failing in a typical convective storm (commonly 10% of the vegetation's root zone saturation) in a semi-arid environment, non-linearitv in the relationship between transpiration and the soil moisture available to the vegetation has limited influence on area-average surface fluxes.

  1. Variability in apparent soil organic carbon turnover times across climate zones and vegetation classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomik, M.; Reichstein, M.; Schrumpf, M.; Beer, C.; Curiel Yuste, J.; Janssens, I.; Luyssaert, S.; Subke, J.; Trumbore, S.; Wutzler, T.; Fluxnet Lathuile: Www. Fluxdata. Org

    2011-12-01

    Our understanding about the climatic controls on the rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition is still limited and greatly debated, especially the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition. Some argue that SOC turnover time (TO) decreases exponentially with increasing temperatures, while others disagree. Based on a number of assumptions, we calculated the ratio between soil CO2 efflux and soil bulk carbon stocks, from which we obtained an estimate of apparent TO for bulk soils across a selection of forested sites around the globe. We used data collected from site-PIs and from recently-available databases of: soil chamber flux measurements (Global soil respiration database: code.google.com/p/srdb/), ecosystem carbon flux measurements (FLUXNET LaThuile dataset: www.fluxdata.org), and global soil carbon stock estimates (Harmonized world soil database: www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/LUC/External-World-soil-database/HTML/). We investigated across-site variability of these apparent TO values in relation to climate (i.e. site's mean annual temperature, MAT, and total annual precipitation, TAP) and vegetation classes (i.e. broadleaf deciduous, needle-leaf deciduous, broadleaf evergreen, and needle-leaf evergreen). We found that, when all data points were considered, TO decreased exponentially with increasing MAT and TAP, in accordance with past studies, although the relationship with TAP was not as strong as with MAT. The overall negative exponential relationship was maintained even when the data was analyzed under the combined effects of MAT and TAP and vegetation class. TO at sites with low annual precipitation and low mean annual temperatures were high (i.e. the rate of decomposition was low). However, we also found that this overall global exponential relationship was largely driven by the difference in TO between sites located in the boreal climate zone and sites located in the other climate zones considered (i.e. tropical, Mediterranean and temperate climate zones, combined). Furthermore, the range of computed TO values in the boreal zone was statistically higher compared to the rest of the climatic zones studied. We also found that accounting for foliage type improved the model fit. However, there was a strong correlation between climate and vegetation class. Results from this study add to our understanding of the spatial variability of SOM decomposition. The trends and relationships we obtained could help to constrain current models of global soil carbon dynamics.

  2. MANAGING VEGETABLE GARDEN SOIL FERTILITY IN VERMONT Vern Grubinger, Extension Professor, University of Vermont

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    1 MANAGING VEGETABLE GARDEN SOIL FERTILITY IN VERMONT Vern Grubinger, Extension Professor, University of Vermont Soil fertility is determined by the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of soil. Chemical characteristics include nutrient availability which is determined by soil pH (acidity

  3. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables.

    PubMed

    McBride, Murray B; Shayler, Hannah A; Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Ferenz, Gretchen S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-11-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. PMID:25163429

  4. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Murray B.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Ferenz, Gretchen S.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M.; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. PMID:25163429

  5. Evaluation of soil and vegetation response to drought using SMOS soil moisture satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piles, Maria; Sánchez, Nilda; Vall-llossera, Mercè; Ballabrera, Joaquim; Martínez, Justino; Martínez-Fernández, José; Camps, Adriano; Font, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture plays an important role in determining the likelihood of droughts and floods that may affect an area. Knowledge of soil moisture distribution as a function of time and space is highly relevant for hydrological, ecological and agricultural applications, especially in water-limited or drought-prone regions. However, measuring soil moisture is challenging because of its high variability; point-scale in-situ measurements are scarce being remote sensing the only practical means to obtain regional- and global-scale soil moisture estimates. The ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) is the first satellite mission ever designed to measuring the Earth's surface soil moisture at near daily time scales with levels of accuracy previously not attained. Since its launch in November 2009, significant efforts have been dedicated to validate and fine-tune the retrieval algorithms so that SMOS-derived soil moisture estimates meet the standards required for a wide variety of applications. In this line, the SMOS Barcelona Expert Center (BEC) is distributing daily, monthly, and annual temporal averages of 0.25-deg global soil moisture maps, which have proved useful for assessing drought and water-stress conditions. In addition, a downscaling algorithm has been developed to combine SMOS and NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data into fine-scale (< 1km) soil moisture estimates, which permits extending the applicability of the data to regional and local studies. Fine-scale soil moisture maps are currently limited to the Iberian Peninsula but the algorithm is dynamic and can be transported to any region. Soil moisture maps are generated in a near real-time fashion at BEC facilities and are used by Barcelona's fire prevention services to detect extremely dry soil and vegetation conditions posing a risk of fire. Recently, they have been used to explain drought-induced tree mortality episodes and forest decline in the Catalonia region. These soil moisture products can also be a useful tool to monitor the effectiveness of land restoration management practices. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using SMOS soil moisture maps for monitoring drought and water-stress conditions. In previous research, SMOS-derived Soil Moisture Anomalies (SSMA), calculated in a ten-day basis, were shown to be in close relationship with well-known drought indices (the Standardized Precipitation Index and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index). In this work, SSMA have been calculated for the period 2010-2013 in representative arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid areas across global land biomes. The SSMA reflect the cumulative precipitation anomalies and is known to provide 'memory' in the climate and hydrological system; the water retained in the soil after a rainfall event is temporally more persistent than the rainfall event itself, and has a greater persistence during periods of low precipitation. Besides, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from MODIS is used as an indicator of vegetation activity and growth. The NDVI time series are expected to reflect the changes in surface vegetation density and status induced by water-deficit conditions. Understanding the relationships between SSMA and NDVI concurrent time series should provide new insight about the sensitivity of land biomes to drought.

  6. PIXE, 252Cf-PDMS and radiochemistry applied for soil and vegetable analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias da Cunha, K.; Cazicava, J.; Coelho, M. J.; Barros Leite, C. V.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the elements present in vegetables and soils using PIXE (particle induced X-rays emission) and 252Cf-PDMS (252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry) techniques in order to estimate the possible influence of soil and agricultural techniques in the metal absorption by the vegetables. In this work, metal concentrations were evaluated in soil and vegetable samples from several regions, where different agricultural techniques were employed. Si, Zr, Ce, Th, Sc and Pb identified in the soil samples were not biologically available. Ga, Ge, As and Br identified in the tubercles indicate that spray pesticide used on the vegetable leaves was absorbed by them. 232Th and 238U present in the soil were not absorbed by the vegetables. The airborne particles from anthropogenic sources (as CFn, VCn) were absorbed by the vegetables. Compounds from mineral sources present in soil as V+, VCO3, HPO4, Cr+, CrOH+, Mn+, FeH+, Fe(OH)n and in the bioorganic compounds as N+, Ca (CN)n+and CnH+ were identified in vegetables. The metal absorption by the vegetables is not dependent of the metal concentration in soil. Different tubercles cultivated in the same soil show similar metal absorption. The exogenous contributions such as the elements present in water irrigation, pesticides, fertilizers and airborne particles deposited on leaves can be absorbed by vegetables. The absorption by the roots depends on the chemical compound of the elements. The use of pesticide sprays and air pollution can cause more contamination in the vegetables than in soil. The use of this methodology allows the identification of possible sources of metals in soils and in vegetables and the metal speciation.

  7. Influence of planting patterns on fluoroquinolone residues in the soil of an intensive vegetable cultivation area in northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuewen; Xie, Yunfeng; Wang, Jinfeng; Christakos, George; Si, Jiliang; Zhao, Huinan; Ding, Yanqiang; Li, Jie

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the persistence of antibiotics in soil, especially in areas of vegetable cultivation. However, there are very few studies of the influence of planting regimes on the levels of antibiotic pollution. This work introduces geographical-detector models to investigate the relationship between planting patterns (vegetable planting model, manure type and quantity, planting age, greenhouse area, and topographic elevation) and residual fluoroquinolones (FQs) in soil in a pilot project in Shouguang County, Shandong Province (the largest vegetable-producing area in China). The results led to the following findings. 1. The vegetable planting model is the major determinant of the spatial stratification of FQ in the soil. For example, the "cucumber-cucumber" model (growing cucumbers after cucumbers) has a three-fold power of determinant compared to the "pepper-melon" model (growing melons after peppers). 2. Planting age (years with continuous vegetable cultivation) does not necessarily affect the spatial distribution of FQ owing to their relatively short degradation period. 3. Interactions between risk factors were more significant than the individual factors for FQ pollution. In particular, the interaction between the vegetable planting model and amount of manure resulted in the highest pollution level. The findings of the present study make it possible to introduce effective and practical measures to alleviate pollution of soils by FQ in the study area. Adjustment of the vegetable cultivation models and application of chicken manure (less than 6 kg/m(2) manure annually with a more dry than fresh manure) could be an effective and flexible approach to alleviate FQ pollution. PMID:23644280

  8. Feasibility of using LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    Research activities conducted from February 1, 1985 to July 31, 1985 and preliminary conclusions regarding research objectives are summarized. The objective is to determine the feasibility of using LANDSAT data to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils. The general approach is to apply the climatic-climax hypothesis (Ealgeson, 1982) to natural water-limited vegetation systems using canopy cover estimated from LANDSAT data. Natural water-limited systems typically consist of inhomogeneous vegetation canopies interspersed with bare soils. The ground resolution associated with one pixel from LANDSAT MSS (or TM) data is generally greater than the scale of the plant canopy or canopy clusters. Thus a method for resolving percent canopy cover at a subpixel level must be established before the Eagleson hypothesis can be tested. Two formulations are proposed which extend existing methods of analyzing mixed pixels to naturally vegetated landscapes. The first method involves use of the normalized vegetation index. The second approach is a physical model based on radiative transfer principles. Both methods are to be analyzed for their feasibility on selected sites.

  9. An update on remote measurement of soil moisture over vegetation using infrared temperature measurements: A FIFE perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Toby N.

    1988-01-01

    Using model development, image analysis and micrometeorological measurements, the object is to push beyond the present limitations of using the infrared temperature method for remotely determining surface energy fluxes and soil moisture over vegetation. Model development consists of three aspects: (1) a more complex vegetation formulation which is more flexible and realistic; (2) a method for modeling the fluxes over patchy vegetation cover; and (3) a method for inferring a two-layer soil vertical moisture gradient from analyses of horizontal variations in surface temperatures. HAPEX and FIFE satellite data will be used along with aircraft thermal infrared and solar images as input for the models. To test the models, moisture availability and bulk canopy resistances will be calculated from data collected locally at the Rock Springs experimental field site and, eventually, from the FIFE project.

  10. Vegetation and climate controls on potential CO2, DOC and DON production in northern latitude soils

    E-print Network

    Neff, Jason

    Vegetation and climate controls on potential CO2, DOC and DON production in northern latitude soils High St., Bellingham, WA 98225±9160 Abstract Climatic change may influence decomposition dynamics on a g soil C basis, with most variation related to vegetation type rather than climate. Keywords: arctic

  11. Impact of Foot Traffic from Military Training on Soil and Vegetation Properties1

    E-print Network

    David, Mark B.

    Impact of Foot Traffic from Military Training on Soil and Vegetation Properties1 CAPTAIN (USAF of military training activities (primarily foot traffic) on soils and vegetation was assessed at the United and other heavy equipment are used, but foot traffic can also disturb sites. Past research on human foot

  12. Beryllium7 in soils and vegetation along an arid precipitation gradient in Owens Valley, California

    E-print Network

    Elmore, Andrew J.

    Beryllium7 in soils and vegetation along an arid precipitation gradient in Owens Valley, California; revised 29 March 2011; accepted 1 April 2011; published 7 May 2011. [1] Beryllium7 is a potentially potential as a sediment tracer in desert environments. Beryllium7 in vegetation and the upper few cm of soil

  13. Use of LANDSAT images of vegetation cover to estimate effective hydraulic properties of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, Peter S.; Jasinski, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    This work focuses on the characterization of natural, spatially variable, semivegetated landscapes using a linear, stochastic, canopy-soil reflectance model. A first application of the model was the investigation of the effects of subpixel and regional variability of scenes on the shape and structure of red-infrared scattergrams. Additionally, the model was used to investigate the inverse problem, the estimation of subpixel vegetation cover, given only the scattergrams of simulated satellite scale multispectral scenes. The major aspects of that work, including recent field investigations, are summarized.

  14. Modelling global terrestrial vegetation-climate interaction

    PubMed Central

    Claussen, M.

    1998-01-01

    By coupling an atmospheric general circulation model asynchronously with an equilibrium vegetation model, manifold equilibrium solutions of the atmosphere-biosphere system have been explored. It is found that under present-day conditions of the Earth's orbital parameters and sea-surface temperatures, two stable equilibria of vegetation patterns are possible: one corresponding to present-day sparse vegetation in the Sahel, the second solution yielding savannah which extends far into the south-western part of the Sahara. A similar picture is obtained for conditions during the last glacial maximum (21 000 years before present (BP)). For the mid-Holocene (6000 years BP), however, the model finds only one solution: the green Sahara. We suggest that this intransitive behaviour of the atmosphere-biosphere is related to a westward shift of the Hadley-Walker circulation. A conceptual model of atmosphere-vegetation dynamics is used to interpret the bifurcation as well as its change in terms of stability theory.

  15. A model for predicting continental-scale vegetation distribution and water balance

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, R.P.

    1995-05-01

    A Mapped atmosphere-Plant-Soil System (MAPSS) has been constructed for simulating the potential biosphere impacts and biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks from climatic change. The system calculates the potential vegetation type and leaf area that could be supported at a site, within the constraints of the abiotic climate. Both woody vegetation and grass are supported and compete for light and water. The woody vegetation can be either trees or shrubs, evergreen or deciduous, and needleleaved or broadleaved. A complete site water balance is calculated and integrates the vegetation leaf area and stomatal conductance in canopy transpiration and soil hydrology. The MAPSS model accurately simulates the distributions of forests, grasslands, and deserts and reproduces observed monthly runoff. The model can be used for predictions of new vegetation distribution patterns, soil moisture, and runoff patterns in alternative climates. 112 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Directional infrared temperature and emissivity of vegetation: Measurements and models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. M.; Castello, S.; Balick, L. K.

    1994-01-01

    Directional thermal radiance from vegetation depends on many factors, including the architecture of the plant canopy, thermal irradiance, emissivity of the foliage and soil, view angle, slope, and the kinetic temperature distribution within the vegetation-soil system. A one dimensional model, which includes the influence of topography, indicates that thermal emissivity of vegetation canopies may remain constant with view angle, or emissivity may increase or decrease as view angle from nadir increases. Typically, variations of emissivity with view angle are less than 0.01. As view angle increases away from nadir, directional infrared canopy temperature usually decreases but may remain nearly constant or even increase. Variations in directional temperature with view angle may be 5C or more. Model predictions of directional emissivity are compared with field measurements in corn canopies and over a bare soil using a method that requires two infrared thermometers, one sensitive to the 8 to 14 micrometer wavelength band and a second to the 14 to 22 micrometer band. After correction for CO2 absorption by the atmosphere, a directional canopy emissivity can be obtained as a function of view angle in the 8 to 14 micrometer band to an accuracy of about 0.005. Modeled and measured canopy emissivities for corn varied slightly with view angle (0.990 at nadir and 0.982 at 75 deg view zenith angle) and did not appear to vary significantly with view angle for the bare soil. Canopy emissivity is generally nearer to unity than leaf emissivity may vary by 0.02 with wavelength even though leaf emissivity. High spectral resolution, canopy thermal emissivity may vary by 0.02 with wavelength even though leaf emissivity may vary by 0.07. The one dimensional model provides reasonably accurate predictions of infrared temperature and can be used to study the dependence of infrared temperature on various plant, soil, and environmental factors.

  17. Sensitivity of Three Vegetation Indices to Cimate and Soil moisture at a Tallgrass Prairie Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajgain, R.; Xiao, X.; Wagle, P.; Basara, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Climatic variability influence vegetation condition and growth, which are often characterized by satellite derived vegetation indices (VIs) such as normalized difference vegetation Index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation Index (EVI) and land surface water index (LSWI). A fourteen-year (2000 - 2013) of NDVI, EVI and LSWI data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were analyzed for assessing grassland vegetation dynamics to climatic variability ( i.e., drought) and soil moisture over the time series at the Marena site, Stillwater Oklahoma,USA. This is also the Marena, Oklahoma In-situ Sensor Testbed (MOISST) site in support of NASA SMAP mission. Change in magnitudes of VIs provided the dynamics of inter-annual variability of the grassland vegetation. The magnitude of VIs declined in dry years (2006 and 2012) .Variation in NDVI and EVI over years resulting from climatic variability was strongly correlated to cumulative seasonal rainfall (NDVI, r = 0.82, EVI, r = 0.77) and average seasonal soil volumetric water content up to 60 cm depth. The EVI declined more than did NDVI during the dry events of 2006 and 2012, indicating that the use of EVI in place of NDVI appears to increase the performance of ecosystem models under drought condition. Furthermore, LSWI was the most sensitive index to drought among the three VIs tested. The LSWI values were negative (LSWI < 0) even within the middle of plant growing season in dry years, showing its potential to track the hydrological status of the ecosystem. Duration of LSWI < 0 in summer was greater in dry years (2006= 53 & 2012= 34 days) compared to wet years (2007 & 2013= 0 days). The result also revealed that LSWI values quantitatively corresponded well with the drought severity categories identified by the United States Drought Monitoring (USDM). In conclusion, the number of days with LSWI < 0 during the plant growing season and LSWI-based drought severity classification scheme can provide useful information for an assessment of the drought impacts over grasslands.

  18. Interactive effects of vegetation, soil moisture and bulk density on depth of burning of thick organic soils

    E-print Network

    Turetsky, Merritt

    Interactive effects of vegetation, soil moisture and bulk density on depth of burning of thick consumption. We experimentally altered soil moisture profiles of peat monoliths collected from several (Johnstone and Chapin 2006; Benscoter and Vitt 2008; Johnstone et al. 2010), soil moisture and temperature

  19. Interactive effects of vegetation, soil moisture and bulk density on depth of burning of thick organic soils

    E-print Network

    Benscoter, Brian W.

    PROOF ONLY Interactive effects of vegetation, soil moisture and bulk density on depth of burning consumption. We experimentally altered soil moisture profiles of peat monoliths collected from several (Johnstone and Chapin 2006; Benscoter and Vitt 2008; Johnstone et al. 2010), soil moisture and temperature

  20. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water. [in Hidalgo County, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A study was conducted in a 340-acre (139 hectares) field of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) to determine if multispectral data from ERTS-1 could be used to detect differences in chlorophyll concentration between iron-deficient (chlorotic) and apparently normal (green) grain sorghum. Chlorotic sorghum areas 2.8 acres (1.1 hectares) or larger in size were identified on a computer printout of band 5 data which contains the chlorophyll absorption band at the 0.65 micron wavelength. ERTS resolution is sufficient for practical applications in detecting iron-deficient sorghum in otherwise uniform fields. The first classification map of the study county has been produced. Vegetation (crops), rangeland, bare soil, water, and an undefined (all other) category occupied 15.2, 45.0, 19.1, 0.02, and 20.6% of the land area, respectively.

  1. Soil, water, and vegetation conditions in south Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H. (principal investigators)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Field spectral measurements and laboratory densitometric measurements showed that tree canopy reflectance differences among the Marrs, Redblush, and Valencia varieties in the visible spectral region were due to their different leaf chlorophyll concentrations. Field measurements of visible light reflectance were directly related to the tonal responses on infrared color photos of the varietal tree canopies. Consequently, densitometric measurements of the foliage on the infrared color transparency with red-filtered light successfully discriminated among the three varieties. Reflectance measurements with a field spectroradiometer on nine dates the growing season of two wheat varieties, Milam and Penjamo, documented their spectra over the 0.45 to 2.50 micron wavelength interval associated with plant cover and physiological development. An image analyzer system was used to optically planimeter the percentage of soil background, vegetation and shadow in the vertical photographs taken within the FOV of the spectroradiometer on each measurement date.

  2. Roles of climate, vegetation and soil in regulating the spatial variations in ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes in the Northern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Guirui; Ge, Jianping; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhu, Xianjin; Xu, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Climate, vegetation, and soil characteristics play important roles in regulating the spatial variation in carbon dioxide fluxes, but their relative influence is still uncertain. In this study, we compiled data from 241 eddy covariance flux sites in the Northern Hemisphere and used Classification and Regression Trees and Redundancy Analysis to assess how climate, vegetation, and soil affect the spatial variations in three carbon dioxide fluxes (annual gross primary production (AGPP), annual ecosystem respiration (ARE), and annual net ecosystem production (ANEP)). Our results showed that the spatial variations in AGPP, ARE, and ANEP were significantly related to the climate and vegetation factors (correlation coefficients, R = 0.22 to 0.69, P < 0.01) while they were not related to the soil factors (R = -0.11 to 0.14, P > 0.05) in the Northern Hemisphere. The climate and vegetation together explained 60% and 58% of the spatial variations in AGPP and ARE, respectively. Climate factors (mean annual temperature and precipitation) could account for 45-47% of the spatial variations in AGPP and ARE, but the climate constraint on the vegetation index explained approximately 75%. Our findings suggest that climate factors affect the spatial variations in AGPP and ARE mainly by regulating vegetation properties, while soil factors exert a minor effect. To more accurately assess global carbon balance and predict ecosystem responses to climate change, these discrepant roles of climate, vegetation, and soil are required to be fully considered in the future land surface models. Moreover, our results showed that climate and vegetation factors failed to capture the spatial variation in ANEP and suggest that to reveal the underlying mechanism for variation in ANEP, taking into account the effects of other factors (such as climate change and disturbances) is necessary. PMID:25928452

  3. Roles of Climate, Vegetation and Soil in Regulating the Spatial Variations in Ecosystem Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in the Northern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Guirui; Ge, Jianping; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhu, Xianjin; Xu, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Climate, vegetation, and soil characteristics play important roles in regulating the spatial variation in carbon dioxide fluxes, but their relative influence is still uncertain. In this study, we compiled data from 241 eddy covariance flux sites in the Northern Hemisphere and used Classification and Regression Trees and Redundancy Analysis to assess how climate, vegetation, and soil affect the spatial variations in three carbon dioxide fluxes (annual gross primary production (AGPP), annual ecosystem respiration (ARE), and annual net ecosystem production (ANEP)). Our results showed that the spatial variations in AGPP, ARE, and ANEP were significantly related to the climate and vegetation factors (correlation coefficients, R = 0.22 to 0.69, P < 0.01) while they were not related to the soil factors (R = -0.11 to 0.14, P > 0.05) in the Northern Hemisphere. The climate and vegetation together explained 60 % and 58 % of the spatial variations in AGPP and ARE, respectively. Climate factors (mean annual temperature and precipitation) could account for 45 - 47 % of the spatial variations in AGPP and ARE, but the climate constraint on the vegetation index explained approximately 75 %. Our findings suggest that climate factors affect the spatial variations in AGPP and ARE mainly by regulating vegetation properties, while soil factors exert a minor effect. To more accurately assess global carbon balance and predict ecosystem responses to climate change, these discrepant roles of climate, vegetation, and soil are required to be fully considered in the future land surface models. Moreover, our results showed that climate and vegetation factors failed to capture the spatial variation in ANEP and suggest that to reveal the underlying mechanism for variation in ANEP, taking into account the effects of other factors (such as climate change and disturbances) is necessary. PMID:25928452

  4. The effects of vegetation parameter aggregation on modeled evapotranspiration 

    E-print Network

    Hoffpauir, Richard James

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the scale of vegetation parameter aggregation on modeled evapotranspiration pattern and rate is explored. Vegetation biomass, height and fractional coverage per model grid cell were the vegetation parameters used in this research...

  5. Vegetation study in support of the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM inc., Albuquerque, NM); Knight, Paul J. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM); Ashton, Thomas S. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-11-01

    A vegetation study was conducted in Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico in 2003 to assist in the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and Kirtland Air Force Base. The objective of the study was to obtain site-specific, vegetative input parameters for the one-dimensional code UNSAT-H and to identify suitable, diverse native plant species for use on vegetative soil covers that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance. The identification and selection of appropriate native plant species is critical to the proper design and long-term performance of vegetative soil covers. Major emphasis was placed on the acquisition of representative, site-specific vegetation data. Vegetative input parameters measured in the field during this study include root depth, root length density, and percent bare area. Site-specific leaf area index was not obtained in the area because there was no suitable platform to measure leaf area during the 2003 growing season due to severe drought that has persisted in New Mexico since 1999. Regional LAI data was obtained from two unique desert biomes in New Mexico, Sevilletta Wildlife Refuge and Jornada Research Station.

  6. Large-scale assessment of soil erosion in Africa: satellites help to jointly account for dynamic rainfall and vegetation cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrieling, Anton; Hoedjes, Joost C. B.; van der Velde, Marijn

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to map and monitor soil erosion need to account for the erratic nature of the soil erosion process. Soil erosion by water occurs on sloped terrain when erosive rainfall and consequent surface runoff impact soils that are not well-protected by vegetation or other soil protective measures. Both rainfall erosivity and vegetation cover are highly variable through space and time. Due to data paucity and the relative ease of spatially overlaying geographical data layers into existing models like USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation), many studies and mapping efforts merely use average annual values for erosivity and vegetation cover as input. We first show that rainfall erosivity can be estimated from satellite precipitation data. We obtained average annual erosivity estimates from 15 yr of 3-hourly TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) data (1998-2012) using intensity-erosivity relationships. Our estimates showed a positive correlation (r = 0.84) with long-term annual erosivity values of 37 stations obtained from literature. Using these TMPA erosivity retrievals, we demonstrate the large interannual variability, with maximum annual erosivity often exceeding two to three times the mean value, especially in semi-arid areas. We then calculate erosivity at a 10-daily time-step and combine this with vegetation cover development for selected locations in Africa using NDVI - normalized difference vegetation index - time series from SPOT VEGETATION. Although we do not integrate the data at this point, the joint analysis of both variables stresses the need for joint accounting for erosivity and vegetation cover for large-scale erosion assessment and monitoring.

  7. Antibiotic resistance genes in manure-amended soil and vegetables at harvest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Hua; Qiao, Min; Chen, Zheng; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-12-15

    Lettuce and endive, which can be eaten raw, were planted on the manure-amended soil in order to explore the influence of plants on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in bulk soil and rhizosphere soil, and the occurrence of ARGs on harvested vegetables. Twelve ARGs and one integrase gene (intI1) were detected in all soil samples. Five ARGs (sulI, tetG, tetC, tetA, and tetM) showed lower abundance in the soil with plants than those without. ARGs and intI1 gene were also detected on harvested vegetables grown in manure-amended soil, including endophytes and phyllosphere microorganisms. The results demonstrated that planting had an effect on the distribution of ARGs in manure-amended soil, and ARGs were detected on harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil, which had potential threat to human health. PMID:26124067

  8. Vegetation Dynamics and Soil Water Balance in a Water-limited Mediterranean Ecosystem on Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.; Mancini, M.

    2007-12-01

    Semi-arid regions, such as around the Mediterranean, suffer from broad desertification processes produced by both natural and human influences. Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly heterogeneous savanna-like ecosystems, with contrasting plant functional types (PFTs, e.g., grass and woody vegetation) competing for the water use. At the same time the structure and function of the vegetation regulates the exchange of mass, energy and momentum across the biosphere-atmosphere interface, influencing strongly the soil water budget. With the objective to investigate vegetation dynamics, soil water budget and land-surface fluxes interactions in a water-limited ecosystem, an extensive field campaign in a Mediterranean water-limited field is performed, and a parsimonious and robust vegetation dynamic model (VDM) is coupled to a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) LSM. The case study is in Orroli, situated in the mid-west of Sardegna within the Flumendosa river watershed. Sardinia is a region that suffers from water scarcity, and the Flumendosa basin plays a primary role in the water supply for much of southern Sardinia, including the island's biggest city, Cagliari. The site landscape is a mixture of Mediterranean patchy vegetation types: trees, including wild olives and cork oaks, different shrubs and herbaceous species. An extensive field campaign started in April 2003. More than three years of data are available. Interestingly, hydrometeorological conditions of the monitored years strongly differ, with dry and wet years in turn, and a wide range of hydrometeorological conditions can be analyzed. Land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by an eddy correlation technique based micrometeorological tower. Soil moisture profiles were also continuously estimated using water content reflectometers and gravimetric method, and periodically leaf area index (LAI) estimates of both plant types are made using the Accupar LP-80 by Decagon Devices Inc. Furthermore, two high spatial resolution (2.8 m) Quickbird satellite images were acquired in August of 2003 and March 2004 for defining the spatial organization of the main land cover types around the tower for two contrasting seasons of the year (Summer and Spring). A parsimonious ecohydrologic model is developed. The VDM computes the change in biomass over time as difference between the rate of production (e.g., photosynthesis) and the rate of destruction (e.g., respiration and senescence). VDM incorporates two PFTs using basic rules regarding competition for a limiting resource. The VDM is then coupled to a 3-component LSM, with the VDM providing the green biomass and the LAI evolution through time, and the LSM using this information in the computation of the land surface fluxes and updating the soil water content in the root-zone. The coupled VDM-LSM model is successfully tested for the case study, demonstrating high model performance for the wide range of eco-hydrologic conditions. The inclusion of the VDM in the LSM is demonstrated to be essential when studying the climate-soil-vegetation interactions of these water-limited ecosystems. Results demonstrate also that vegetation dynamics are strongly influenced by the inter-annual variability of atmospheric forcing, with grass leaf area index changing significantly each spring season according to seasonal rainfall amount.

  9. Effects of Vegetation and of Heat and Vapor Fluxes from Soil on Snowpack Evolution and Radiobrightness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Y. C.; England, A. W.; DeRoo, R. D.; Weininger, Etai

    2006-01-01

    The radiobrightness of a snowpack is strongly linked to the snow moisture content profile, to the point that the only operational inversion algorithms require dry snow. Forward dynamic models do not include the effects of freezing and thawing of the soil beneath the snowpack and the effect of vegetation within the snow or above the snow. To get a more realistic description of the evolution of the snowpack, we reported an addition to the Snow-Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere- Transfer (SSVAT) model, wherein we coupled soil processes of the Land Surface Process (LSP) model with the snow model SNTHERM. In the near future we will be adding a radiobrightness prediction based on the modeled moisture, temperature and snow grain size profiles. The initial investigations with this SSVAT for a late winter and early spring snow pack indicate that soil processes warm the snowpack and the soil. Vapor diffusion needs to be considered whenever the ground is thawed. In the early spring, heat flow from the ground into a snow and a strong temperature gradient across the snow lead to thermal convection. The buried vegetation can be ignored for a late winter snow pack. The warmer surface snow temperature will affect radiobrightness since it is most sensitive to snow surface characteristics. Comparison to data shows that SSVAT provides a more realistic representation of the temperature and moisture profiles in the snowpack and its underlying soil than SNTHERM. The radiobrightness module will be optimized for the prediction of brightness when the snow is moist. The liquid water content of snow causes considerable absorption compared to dry snow, and so longer wavelengths are likely to be most revealing as to the state of a moist snowpack. For volumetric moisture contents below about 7% (the pendular regime), the water forms rings around the contact points between snow grains. Electrostatic modeling of these pendular rings shows that the absorption of these rings is significantly higher than a sphere of the same volume. The first implementation of the radiobrightness module will therefore be a simple radiative transfer model without scattering.

  10. Radar backscattering measurement of bare soil and vegetation covered soil using X-band and full polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, B.; Kalita, M.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study is to measure backscattered power of bare soil and vegetation covered soil using X-band scatterometer system with full polarization and various angles during monsoon season and relate backscattered power to the density of vegetation over soil. The measurement was conducted at an experimental field located in the campus of Assam Engineering College, Guwahati, India. The soil sample consists of Silt and Clay in higher proportions as compared to Sand. The scatterometer system consists of dual-polarimetric square horn antennas, Power meter, Klystron, coaxial cables, isolator and waveguide detector. The polarization of the horn antennas as well as the look angle can be changed in the set-up. The backscattering coefficients were calculated by applying a radar equation for the measured values at incident angles between 30° and 60° for full polarization (HH, VV, HV, VH), respectively, and compared with vegetation cover over soil for each scatterometer measurement simultaneously. The VH polarization and 60° look angle are found to be the most suitable combination of configuration of an X-band scatterometer for distinguishing the land cover targets such as bare soil and vegetation covered soil. From the analysis of the results, polarimetric scatterometer data appear to be promising to distinguish the land cover types such as bare soil and soil completely covered by vegetation. The results of this study will help the scientists working in the field of active microwave remote sensing.

  11. [Mechanism of watershed soil erosion control by vegetation].

    PubMed

    Qin, Fucang; Yu, Xinxiao; Zhang, Manling; Xie, Yuanyuan

    2005-09-01

    From the view of hydrodynamics, this paper studied the acting mechanism of tree, grass and forest litter on slope runoff velocity and kinetic energy. The results showed that slope runoff head loss was related to slope gradient, forest density, net rainfall intensity and slope length. The relationship of water head loss with the distance among trees and the diameter at the ground of tree was Eoc (D/b)4/3. The grass on slope turned to be curved with s flowing, and thus, increased the bottom resistance of flow, and reduced the shearing stress of soil surface. Therefore, silt-carrying capacity decreased dramatically. The analysis of actually measured materials of each rainfall, runoff and sediment, and the comparison of Qiaozi eastern gully and Qiaozi west gully in Tianshui city of Gansu Province showed that under same precipitation condition, the runoff, sediment yield, flood peak discharge and maximum sediment transport rate in treated watershed was less than those in untreated watershed, suggesting that vegetation was obviously beneficial to water reservation and water and soil conservation. PMID:16355771

  12. Evaluation of Soil Moisture Estimation in Vegetated Areas Using Compact Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jian; Chen, Lin; Yin, Qiang; Li, Yang; Hong, Wen

    2010-12-01

    Within the framework of the DRAGON project, in this paper, we preliminarily analyze the soil moisture estimation performance in vegetated areas based on Water-Cloud model and Dubois model using compact polarimetry. We compare the inversion results of the compact polarimetry (CP) data to those of the dual polarimetric data (DP, HH and VV) and to the in-situ data. The comparison indicates that the retrieved parameters from original DP data are mainly in consistence with ground measured values, but the estimated parameters from the reconstructed data of CP are not quite consistent with the in-situ values, especially for the moisture.

  13. Sensitivity of the normalized difference vegetation index to subpixel canopy cover, soil albedo, and pixel scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical framework is provided for examining the physically based behavior of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in terms of the variability in bulk subpixel landscape components and with respect to variations in pixel scales, within the context of the stochastic-geometric canopy reflectance model. Analysis focuses on regional scale variability in horizontal plant density and soil background reflectance distribution. Modeling is generalized to different plant geometries and solar angles through the use of the nondimensional solar-geometric similarity parameter. Results demonstrate that, for Poisson-distributed plants and for one deterministic distribution, NDVI increases with increasing subpixel fractional canopy amount, decreasing soil background reflectance, and increasing shadows, at least within the limitations of the geometric reflectance model. The NDVI of a pecan orchard and a juniper landscape is presented and discussed.

  14. Comparison of deep soil moisture in two re-vegetation watersheds in semi-arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Liding; Wei, Wei; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Handan

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture stored below rainfall infiltration depth is a reliable water resource for plant growth in semi-arid ecosystems. Along with the large-scale ecological restoration in Chinese Loess Plateau, identifying the ecohydrological response to human-introduced vegetation restoration has become an important issue in current research. In this study, soil moisture data in depth of 0-5 m was obtained by field observation and geostatistical method in two neighboring re-vegetation watersheds. Profile characteristics and spatial pattern of soil moisture was compared between different land use types, transects, and watersheds. The results showed that: (1) Introduced vegetation drastically decreased deep soil moisture when compared with farmland and native grassland. No significant differences in deep soil moisture were found between different introduced vegetation types. (2) An analysis of differences in soil moisture for different land use patterns indicated that land use had significant influence on deep soil moisture spatial variability. Land use structure determined the soil moisture condition and its spatial variation. (3) Vegetation restoration with introduced plants diminished the spatial heterogeneity of deep soil moisture on watershed scale. The improvement of land use management was suggested to improve the water management and maintain the sustainability of vegetation restoration.

  15. A new offline dust cycle model that includes dynamic vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, Sarah; Lunt, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Current offline dust cycle models are unable to predict variability in the extent of arid and semi-arid regions caused by the transient response of vegetation cover to the climate. As a consequence, it is not possible to test whether inter-annual variability in the dust loading is caused by vegetation changes or other processes. A new dust cycle model is presented which uses the Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamic global vegetation model (Sitch et al., 2003) to calculate time varying dust sources. Surface emissions are calculated by simulating the processes of saltation and sandblasting (Tegen et al., 2002). Dust particles are transported as independent tracers within the TOMCAT chemical transport (Chipperfield, 2006). Dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling and sub-cloud scavenging. To improve the performance of the model, threshold values for vegetation cover, soil moisture, snow depth and threshold friction velocity, used to determine surface emissions are tuned. The effectiveness of three sub-cloud scavenging schemes are also tested. The tuning experiments are evaluated against multiple measurement datasets. The tuned model is used to investigate whether changes in vegetation cover in the Sahel can explain the four-fold increase in dust concentrations measured at Barbados during the 1980s relative to the 1960s (Prospero and Nees, 1986). Results show there was an expansion of the Sahara in 1984 relative to 1966 resulting in a doubling of emissions from the Sahel. However, this alone is not enough to account for the high dust concentrations measured at Barbados. This finding adds strength to the hypothesis that human induced soil degradation in North Africa may be responsible for the increase in high dust concentrations at Barbados during the 1980s relative to the 1960s. Chipperfield, M. P. (2006). "New version of the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT off-line chemical transport model: Intercomparison of stratospheric tracer experiments." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 132(617): 1179-1203. Prospero, J. M. and R. T. Nees (1986). "Impact of the North African drought and El Nino on mineral dust in the Barbados trade winds." Nature 320(6064): 735-738. Sitch, S., B. Smith, et al. (2003). "Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model." Global Change Biology 9: 161-185. Tegen, I., S. P. Harrison, et al. (2002). "Impact of vegetation and preferential source areas on global dust aerosol: Results from a model study." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D21).

  16. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water. [Hidalgo County, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (principal investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The majority of the rangelands of Hidalgo County, Texas are used in cow-calf operations. Continuous year-long grazing is practiced on about 60% of the acreage and some type of deferred system on the rest. Mechanical brush control is used more than chemical control. Ground surveys gave representative estimates for 15 vegetable crops produced in Hidalgo County. ERTS-1 data were used to estimate the acreage of citrus in the county. Combined Kubleka Munk and regression models, that included a term for shadow areas, gave a higher correlation of composite canopy reflectance with ground truth than either model alone.

  17. Establishing an International Soil Modelling Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Soil is one of the most critical life-supporting compartments of the Biosphere. Soil provides numerous ecosystem services such as a habitat for biodiversity, water and nutrients, as well as producing food, feed, fiber and energy. To feed the rapidly growing world population in 2050, agricultural food production must be doubled using the same land resources footprint. At the same time, soil resources are threatened due to improper management and climate change. Soil is not only essential for establishing a sustainable bio-economy, but also plays a key role also in a broad range of societal challenges including 1) climate change mitigation and adaptation, 2) land use change 3) water resource protection, 4) biotechnology for human health, 5) biodiversity and ecological sustainability, and 6) combating desertification. Soils regulate and support water, mass and energy fluxes between the land surface, the vegetation, the atmosphere and the deep subsurface and control storage and release of organic matter affecting climate regulation and biogeochemical cycles. Despite the many important functions of soil, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain, regarding the role of soil biota and biodiversity on ecosystem services, the structure and dynamics of soil communities, the interplay between hydrologic and biotic processes, the quantification of soil biogeochemical processes and soil structural processes, the resilience and recovery of soils from stress, as well as the prediction of soil development and the evolution of soils in the landscape, to name a few. Soil models have long played an important role in quantifying and predicting soil processes and related ecosystem services. However, a new generation of soil models based on a whole systems approach comprising all physical, mechanical, chemical and biological processes is now required to address these critical knowledge gaps and thus contribute to the preservation of ecosystem services, improve our understanding of climate-change-feedback processes, bridge basic soil science research and management, and facilitate the communication between science and society . To meet these challenges an international community effort is required, similar to initiatives in systems biology, hydrology, and climate and crop research. We therefore propose to establish an international soil modelling consortium with the aims of 1) bringing together leading experts in modelling soil processes within all major soil disciplines, 2) addressing major scientific gaps in describing key processes and their long term impacts with respect to the different functions and ecosystem services provided by soil, 3) intercomparing soil model performance based on standardized and harmonized data sets, 4) identifying interactions with other relevant platforms related to common data formats, protocols and ontologies, 5) developing new approaches to inverse modelling, calibration, and validation of soil models, 6) integrating soil modelling expertise and state of the art knowledge on soil processes in climate, land surface, ecological, crop and contaminant models, and 7) linking process models with new observation, measurement and data evaluation technologies for mapping and characterizing soil properties across scales. Our consortium will bring together modelers and experimental soil scientists at the forefront of new technologies and approaches to characterize soils. By addressing these aims, the consortium will contribute to improve the role of soil modeling as a knowledge dissemination instrument in addressing key global issues and stimulate the development of translational research activities. This presentation will provide a compelling case for this much-needed effort, with a focus on tangible benefits to the scientific and food security communities.

  18. Toward a general evaluation model for soil respiration (GEMSR).

    PubMed

    Zhou, GuangSheng; Jia, BingRui; Han, GuangXuan; Zhou, Li

    2008-03-01

    Soil respiration is an important component of terrestrial carbon budget. Its accurate evaluation is essential to the study of terrestrial carbon source/sink. Studies on soil respiration at present mostly focus on the temporal variations and the controlling factors of soil respiration, but its spatial variations and controlling factors draw less attention. Moreover, the evaluation models for soil respiration at present include only the effects of water and heat factors, while the biological and soil factors controlling soil respiration and their interactions with water and heat factors have not been considered yet. These models are not able to accurately evaluate soil respiration in different vegetation/terrestrial ecosystems at different temporal and spatial scales. Thus, a general evaluation model for soil respiration (GEMSR) including the interacting meteorological (water and heat factors), soil nutrient and biological factors is suggested in this paper, and the basic procedure developing GEMSR and the research tasks of soil respiration in the future are also discussed. PMID:18246313

  19. Vegetation Dynamics and Soil Water Balance Interactions in a Water-limited Mediterranean Ecosystem on Sardinia Under Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly heterogeneous savanna-like ecosystems, with contrasting plant functional types (PFT) competing for the water use. At the same time the structure and function of the vegetation regulates the exchange of mass, energy and momentum across the biosphere-atmosphere interface, influencing strongly the soil water budget. Mediterranean regions suffer water scarcity produced in part by natural (e.g., climate variations) influences. For instance, in the Flumendosa basin water reservoir system, which plays a primary role in the water supply for much of southern Sardinia, the average annual input from stream discharge in the latter part of the 20th century was less than half the historic average rate. The precipitation over the Flumendosa basin has decreased, but not at such a drastic rate as the discharge, suggesting a marked non-linear response of discharge to precipitation changes. Indeed, precipitation decreased in winter months, which are crucial for reservoirs recharge through runoff. The IPCC models predicts a further increase of drought in the Mediterranean region, increasing the uncertainty on the future of the water resources system of these regions. Hence, there is the need to investigate the role of the PFT vegetation dynamics on the soil water budget of these ecosystems in the context of the climate change, and predict hydrologic variables for climate change scenarios. The case study is in the Flumendosa basin. The site landscape is a mixture of Mediterranean patchy vegetation types: trees, including wild olives and cork oaks, different shrubs and herbaceous species. An extensive field campaign started in May 2003. Six years of data are available now. Land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by an eddy correlation technique based micrometeorological tower. Soil moisture profiles were also continuously estimated using water content reflectometers and gravimetric method, and periodically leaf area index (LAI) PFTs are estimated. An ecohydrologic model is successfully tested to the case study. It couples a vegetation dynamic model (VDM), which computes the change in biomass over time for the PFTs, and a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) land surface model (LSM). Hydrometeorological change scenarios are then generated using a stochastic weather generator. It simulates hydrometeorological variables from historical time series (available from 1922 for this basin) altered by IPCC meteorological change predictions. The calibrated VDM-LSM predicts soil water balance and vegetation dynamics for the generated hydrometeorological scenarios. Results demonstrate that vegetation dynamics are strongly influenced by the variability of atmospheric forcing, with vegetation density changing significantly according to seasonal rainfall amount. At the same time the vegetation dynamics affect the soil water balance, and the runoff. Water resources predictions are worrying, with further decrease of runoff.

  20. Soil Water Balance and Vegetation Dynamics in a Water-limited Mediterranean Ecosystem on Sardinia under climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, Nicola; Cortis, Clorinda; Albertson, John D.

    2010-05-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly heterogeneous savanna-like ecosystems, with contrasting plant functional types (PFT) competing for the water use. At the same time the structure and function of the vegetation regulates the exchange of mass, energy and momentum across the biosphere-atmosphere interface, influencing strongly the soil water budget. Mediterranean regions suffer water scarcity produced in part by natural (e.g., climate variations) influences. For instance, in the Flumendosa basin water reservoir system, which plays a primary role in the water supply for much of southern Sardinia, the average annual input from stream discharge in the latter part of the 20th century was less than half the historic average rate. The precipitation over the Flumendosa basin has decreased, but not at such a drastic rate as the discharge, suggesting a marked non-linear response of discharge to precipitation changes. Indeed, precipitation decreased in winter months, which are crucial for reservoirs recharge through runoff. The IPCC models predicts a further increase of drought in the Mediterranean region, increasing the uncertainty on the future of the water resources system of these regions. Hence, there is the need to investigate the role of the PFT vegetation dynamics on the soil water budget of these ecosystems in the context of the climate change, and predict hydrologic variables for climate change scenarios. The case study is in the Flumendosa basin. The site landscape is a mixture of Mediterranean patchy vegetation types: trees, including wild olives and cork oaks, different shrubs and herbaceous species. An extensive field campaign started in May 2003. More than six years of data of a micrometeorological tower are available now. Land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by the eddy correlation technique based micrometeorological tower. Soil moisture profiles were also continuously estimated using water content reflectometers and gravimetric method, and periodically leaf area index (LAI) PFTs are estimated. An ecohydrologic model is successfully tested to the case study. It couples a vegetation dynamic model (VDM), which computes the change in biomass over time for the PFTs, and a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) land surface model (LSM). Hydrometeorological change scenarios are then generated using a stochastic weather generator. It simulates hydrometeorological variables from historical time series (available from 1922 for this basin) altered by IPCC meteorological change predictions. The calibrated VDM-LSM predicts soil water balance and vegetation dynamics for the generated hydrometeorological scenarios. Results demonstrate that vegetation dynamics are strongly influenced by the variability of atmospheric forcing, with vegetation density changing significantly according to seasonal rainfall amount. At the same time the vegetation dynamics affect the soil water balance, and the runoff. Water resources predictions are worrying, with further decrease of runoff.

  1. NITRATE MOVEMENT IN SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN SOILS UNDER CONSERVATION-TILLED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Decoteau, Dennis R.

    t o increase water retention, organic matter, etc. and reduce evaporation, soil erosion, etc. (GilliamNITRATE MOVEMENT IN SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN SOILS UNDER CONSERVATION-TILLED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION G.D. Hoyt1 , D.C. Sanders2 , J.T. D.R. Decoteau3 , ABSTRACT Movement of soil nitrates by leaching

  2. Applied Vegetation Science 16 (2013) 438447 Impacts of Tamarix-mediated soil changes on

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Applied Vegetation Science 16 (2013) 438­447 Impacts of Tamarix-mediated soil changes species; Non-indigenous species; Plant-soil feedbacks; Restoration; Riparian; Saltcedar; Tamarisk; PSF = plant-soil feedbacks; S:R = ratio of shoots to roots; RGR = relative growth rate Nomenclature

  3. Hysteresis of soil moisture spatial heterogeneity and the "homogenizing" effect of vegetation

    E-print Network

    Troch, Peter

    Hysteresis of soil moisture spatial heterogeneity and the "homogenizing" effect of vegetation 16 September 2010. [1] By partitioning mass and energy fluxes, soil moisture exerts a fundamental experiment, this study investigates aspects of soil moisture spatial and temporal variability in a zeroorder

  4. Monte Carlo simulation model for electromagnetic scattering from vegetation and inversion of vegetation parameters

    E-print Network

    Wang, Li-Fang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis research, a coherent scattering model for microwave remote sensing of vegetation canopy is developed on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations. An accurate model of vegetation structure is essential for the ...

  5. Assembly Processes under Severe Abiotic Filtering: Adaptation Mechanisms of Weed Vegetation to the Gradient of Soil Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Nina; Böcker, Reinhard; Kostic-Kravljanac, Ljiljana; Nikolic, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Questions Effects of soil on vegetation patterns are commonly obscured by other environmental factors; clear and general relationships are difficult to find. How would community assembly processes be affected by a substantial change in soil characteristics when all other relevant factors are held constant? In particular, can we identify some functional adaptations which would underpin such soil-induced vegetation response? Location Eastern Serbia: fields partially damaged by long-term and large-scale fluvial deposition of sulphidic waste from a Cu mine; subcontinental/submediterranean climate. Methods We analysed the multivariate response of cereal weed assemblages (including biomass and foliar analyses) to a strong man-made soil gradient (from highly calcareous to highly acidic, nutrient-poor soils) over short distances (field scale). Results The soil gradient favoured a substitution of calcicoles by calcifuges, and an increase in abundance of pseudometallophytes, with preferences for Atlantic climate, broad geographical distribution, hemicryptophytic life form, adapted to low-nutrient and acidic soils, with lower concentrations of Ca, and very narrow range of Cu concentrations in leaves. The trends of abundance of the different ecological groups of indicator species along the soil gradient were systematically reflected in the maintenance of leaf P concentrations, and strong homeostasis in biomass N:P ratio. Conclusion Using annual weed vegetation at the field scale as a fairly simple model, we demonstrated links between gradients in soil properties (pH, nutrient availability) and floristic composition that are normally encountered over large geographic distances. We showed that leaf nutrient status, in particular the maintenance of leaf P concentrations and strong homeostasis of biomass N:P ratio, underpinned a clear functional response of vegetation to mineral stress. These findings can help to understand assembly processes leading to unusual, novel combinations of species which are typically observed as a consequence of strong environmental filtering, as for instance on sites affected by industrial activities. PMID:25474688

  6. A regional dynamic vegetation-climate model for Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snell, R. S.; Cowling, S. A.; Smith, B.

    2009-12-01

    Global vegetation models simulate the distribution of vegetation as a function of climate. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are also able to simulate the vegetation shifts in response to climate change, which makes them particularly useful for addressing questions about past and future climate scenarios. However, DGVMs have been criticized for using generic plant functional types (PFTs) and running the models at a coarse grid cell resolution. Regional dynamic vegetation models are able to simulate important landscape variation, since they use a finer resolution and specific PFTs for their region. Regional studies have typically focused on boreal or temperate ecosystems in North America and Europe. We will be presenting the results of applying a dynamic regional vegetation-climate model (LPJ-GUESS) for Central America. Initially, the model was run with the described global PFTs. However, several biomes were very poorly represented. Two PFTs were added: a Tropical Needleleaf Evergreen Tree to improve the simulation of the Mixed Pine-Oak biome, and a Desert Shrub to capture the Xeric Shrublands. The overall distribution of biomes was visually similar, however the Kappa statistic indicated a poor agreement with the potential biome map (overall Kappa = 0.301). The Kappa statistic did improve as we aggregated cell sizes and simplified the biomes (overall Kappa = 0.728). Compared to remote sensing data, the model showed a strong correlation with total LAI (r = 0.75). The poor Kappa statistic is likely due to a combination of factors. The way in which biomes are defined by the author can have a large influence on the level of agreement between simulated and potential vegetation. The Kappa statistic is also limited to comparing individual grid cells and thus, cannot detect overall patterns. Examining those areas which are poorly represented will help to identify future work and improve the representation of vegetation in these ecological models. In particular, the model was especially poor at distinguishing between the different ‘dry’ biomes, such as Tropical Dry Forest, Savanna, Grassland and Xeric Shrubland. There are several potential reasons why this might be so. The module which simulates fire in LPJ-GUESS is based on fire requirement for boreal and temperate regions. Fire was underestimated in those areas which were supposed to be Savannas, which is likely why those areas were dominated by a Dry Tropical Forest. Other potential factors include hydraulic redistribution, facilitation, photosynthetic pathway, and the described soil layer.

  7. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M; Soares, Pedro M M; Cancela, Javier J; Pinto, Joaquim G; Santos, João A

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate. PMID:25251495

  8. Integrated Analysis of Climate, Soil, Topography and Vegetative Growth in Iberian Viticultural Regions

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cancela, Javier J.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Santos, João A.

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate. PMID:25251495

  9. Evaluation of MODIS NDVI and NDWI for vegetation drought monitoring using Oklahoma Mesonet soil moisture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, Y.; Hunt, E.; Wardlow, B.; Basara, J.B.; Brown, J.F.; Verdin, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of the relationship between satellite-derived vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index and normalized difference water index) and soil moisture improves our understanding of how these indices respond to soil moisture fluctuations. Soil moisture deficits are ultimately tied to drought stress on plants. The diverse terrain and climate of Oklahoma, the extensive soil moisture network of the Oklahoma Mesonet, and satellite-derived indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provided an opportunity to study correlations between soil moisture and vegetation indices over the 2002-2006 growing seasons. Results showed that the correlation between both indices and the fractional water index (FWI) was highly dependent on land cover heterogeneity and soil type. Sites surrounded by relatively homogeneous vegetation cover with silt loam soils had the highest correlation between the FWI and both vegetation-related indices (r???0.73), while sites with heterogeneous vegetation cover and loam soils had the lowest correlation (r???0.22). Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Integrated Analysis of Climate, Soil, Topography and Vegetative Growth in Iberian Viticultural Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cancela, Javier J.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Santos, João A.

    2015-04-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  11. The influence of variations of vegetation and soil moisture on surface weather and atmospheric circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of variations of vegetation and soil moisture on surface weather and atmospheric circulation is studied through the use of the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) and the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere interactions (COLA) GCM. Tests for the SiB sensitivity to the conversion of the forest to other short vegetation or bare soil were performed at Amazonian and Great Plains sites, and a North Wales spruce forest site respectively. The results show that deforestation has a significant influence on the local surface energy budget and surface weather. The influence is especially prominent at the Amazon and Great Plains sites, and larger in summer than in other seasons. The influence on the partitioning of surface incoming radiative energy is generally constrained by the local atmospheric boundary condition. The sensitivity of the COLA GCM to changes in initial soil wetness (ISW) is determined by repeating three 10-day model integrations with the same initial and boundary conditions as the control runs except the values of ISW, which are revised at 69 model grid points covering much of the continental U.S. It is found that the relations between the changes in the 5-day mean forecast surface air temperature/surface specific humidity and the changes in ISW depend upon vegetation type and the values of ISW, and can be approximated by regression equations. These relations are also confirmed with independent data. With the ISW revised based on these regression equations the surface forecasts of the revised runs are consistently improved. The spatial scale of the ISW anomaly determines the degree and range of the influence. The influence of a small regional ISW change is mainly confined to the local region and to low atmospheric levels. The influence on surface fluxes is strong and persists for more than one month, but the effects on precipitation are relatively weak, changeable, and complex, particularly when an interactive cloud scheme is used.

  12. Modeling Hydrologic and Vegetation Responses in Freshwater Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Low, Swee Yang; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2010-05-01

    Wetlands constitute 6 - 7 % of the Earth's land surface and provide various critical ecosystem services such as purifying the air and water, mitigating floods and droughts, and supporting wildlife habitats. Despite the importance of wetlands, they are under threat of degradation by human-induced land use changes and climate change. Even if the value of wetlands is recognized, they are often not managed properly or restored successfully due to an inadequate understanding of the ecosystems and their responses to management scenarios. A better understanding of the main components of wetlands, namely the interdependent hydrologic and vegetation systems, and the sensitivity of their responses to engineering works and climate change, is crucial for the preservation of wetlands. To assess these potential impacts, a model is developed in this study for characterizing the coupled dynamics between soil moisture and plant biomass in wetland habitats. The hydrology component of the model is based on the Richards' equation and simulates spatially-varying groundwater movement and provides information on soil moisture at different depths. The plant growth component of the model is described through an equation of the Lotka-Volterra type modified for plant growth dynamics and is adapted from published literature. The two components are coupled via transpiration and ecosystem carrying capacity for plants. Transpiration is modeled for both unsaturated and saturated zones, while the carrying capacity describes limiting oxygen and subsequent nutrient availability in the soil column as a function of water table depth. Vegetation is represented by two species characteristic of mudflat herbaceous plants ranging from facultative wetland to upland plants. The model is first evaluated using a simplified domain and the hydrological information available in the RG2 site of the Everglades wetlands region. The modeled water table fluctuations in general are comparable to field data collected on-site, indicating the potential of the model in capturing soil moisture dynamics. Further application of the model for impact assessments demonstrates that drainage of wetlands resulting in groundwater drawdown is expected to produce appreciable effects on vegetation biomass response. The model developed in this study simulates the coupled and spatially-varying groundwater movement and plant growth dynamics, which allows researchers to better understand and protect the integrated hydrologic and vegetation systems of wetlands worldwide.

  13. Evaluating models of climate and forest vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, James S.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding how the biosphere may respond to increasing trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere requires models that contain vegetation responses to regional climate. Most of the processes ecologists study in forests, including trophic interactions, nutrient cycling, and disturbance regimes, and vital components of the world economy, such as forest products and agriculture, will be influenced in potentially unexpected ways by changing climate. These vegetation changes affect climate in the following ways: changing C, N, and S pools; trace gases; albedo; and water balance. The complexity of the indirect interactions among variables that depend on climate, together with the range of different space/time scales that best describe these processes, make the problems of modeling and prediction enormously difficult. These problems of predicting vegetation response to climate warming and potential ways of testing model predictions are the subjects of this chapter.

  14. Calculation set for design and optimization of vegetative soil covers Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James

    2005-02-01

    This study demonstrates that containment of municipal and hazardous waste in arid and semiarid environments can be accomplished effectively without traditional, synthetic materials and complex, multi-layer systems. This research demonstrates that closure covers combining layers of natural soil, native plant species, and climatic conditions to form a sustainable, functioning ecosystem will meet the technical equivalency criteria prescribed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this study, percolation through a natural analogue and an engineered cover is simulated using the one-dimensional, numerical code UNSAT-H. UNSAT-H is a Richards. equation-based model that simulates soil water infiltration, unsaturated flow, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, and deep percolation. This study incorporates conservative, site-specific soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters. Historical meteorological data are used to simulate percolation through the natural analogue and an engineered cover, with and without vegetation. This study indicates that a 3-foot (ft) cover in arid and semiarid environments is the minimum design thickness necessary to meet the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-prescribed technical equivalency criteria of 31.5 millimeters/year and 1 x 10{sup -7} centimeters/second for net annual percolation and average flux, respectively. Increasing cover thickness to 4 or 5 ft results in limited additional improvement in cover performance.

  15. Vegetation and soil feedbacks on the response of the African monsoon to orbital forcing in the early to middle Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzbach, J.; Bonan, G.; Foley, J.; Harrison, S. P.

    1996-12-01

    FOSSIL pollen, ancient lake sediments and archaeological evidence from Africa indicate that the Sahel and Sahara regions were considerably wetter than today during the early to middle Holocene period, about 12,000 to 5,000 years ago1-4. Vegetation associated with the modern Sahara/Sahel boundary was about 5° farther north, and there were more and larger lakes between 15 and 30° N. Simulations with climate models have shown that these wetter conditions were probably caused by changes in Earth's orbital parameters that increased the amplitude of the seasonal cycle of solar radiation in the Northern Hemisphere, enhanced the land-ocean temperature contrast, and thereby strengthened the African summer monsoon5-7. However, these simulations underestimated the consequent monsoon enhancement as inferred from palaeorecords4. Here we use a climate model to show that changes in vegetation and soil may have increased the climate response to orbital forcing. We find that replacing today's orbital forcing with that of the mid-Holocene increases summer precipitation by 12% between 15 and 22° N. Replacing desert with grassland, and desert soil with more loamy soil, further enhances the summer precipitation (by 6 and 10% respectively), giving a total precipitation increase of 28%. When the simulated climate changes are applied to a biome model, vegetation becomes established north of the current Sahara/Sahel boundary, thereby shrinking the area of the Sahara by 11% owing to orbital forcing alone, and by 20% owing to the combined influence of orbital forcing and the prescribed vegetation and soil changes. The inclusion of the vegetation and soil feedbacks thus brings the model simulations and palaeovegetation observations into closer agreement.

  16. Using GPS Interferometric Reflectometry to estimate soil moisture and vegetation water content fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, C. C.; Small, E. E.; Larson, K. M.; Braun, J. J.; Shreve, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    High-precision GPS receivers can be used to estimate fluctuations in near surface soil moisture, snow and vegetation water content. This approach, referred to as GPS-Interferometric Reflectometry (GPS-IR), relates precise changes in the geometry of reflected GPS signals to observe soil moisture and snow while simultaneously using signal attenuation and diffuse scattering to infer changes in vegetative state. Previous remote sensing research has shown that microwave signals (e.g., L-band) are optimal for measuring hydrologic variables, such as soil moisture, and because GPS satellites transmit similar signals, they can be useful for sensing water in the environment. In addition, standard GPS antenna configurations that are used in NSF's Plate Boundary Observatory network yield sensing footprints of ~1000 m2. Given this sensitivity, hundreds of GPS receivers that exist in the U.S. could be used to provide near-real time estimates of soil moisture and vegetation water content for satellite validation, drought monitoring and related studies. A significant obstacle to using L-band (or similar) signals for remote sensing is differentiating the effects of soil moisture and vegetation on the retrieval of hydrologic variables. This same challenge exists when using GPS-IR data. We have established nine research sites with identical GPS and hydrologic infrastructure to study this problem. These sites span a wide range of soil, vegetation, and climate types. In addition to daily GPS and hourly soil moisture data, we have collected weekly vegetation water content samples at all sites. Our data demonstrate that soil moisture fluctuations can be estimated from GPS-IR records when vegetation water content is low (< 2 kg m-2). We outline different approaches for separating the soil moisture and vegetation signals and quantifying errors in our retrieval algorithm.

  17. The influence of precipitation, vegetation and soil properties on the ecohydrology of sagebrush steppe rangelands on the INL site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    The INL Site and other landscapes having sagebrush steppe vegetation are experiencing a simultaneous change in climate and floristics that result from increases in exotic species. Determining the separate and combined/interactive effects of climate and vegetation change is important for assessing future changes on the landscape and for hydrologic processes. This research uses the 72 experimental plots established and initially maintained for many years as the “Protective Cap Biobarrier Experiment” by Dr. Jay Anderson and the Stoller ESER program, and the experiment is also now referred to as the “INL Site Ecohydrology Study.” We are evaluating long-term impacts of different plant communities commonly found throughout Idaho subject to different precipitation regimes and to different soil depths. Treatments of amount and timing of precipitation (irrigation), soil depth, and either native/perennial or exotic grass vegetation allow researchers to investigate how vegetation, precipitation and soil interact to influence soil hydrology and ecosystem biogeochemistry. This information will be used to improve a variety of models, as well as provide data for these models.

  18. Role of native and exotic woody vegetation in soil restoration in active gully systems (southern Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja Ramon, Pablo; Alvarado Moncayo, Dario; Vanacker, Veerle; Cisneros, Pedro; Molina, Armando; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Revegetation projects in degraded lands have the potential to recover essential soil functions. If vegetation restoration is combined with bioengineering techniques, such as the construction of retention dams in active gully systems, soil restoration could be enhanced. One important aspect of this process is the role of vegetation on restoration of soil chemical and physical properties. There is currently a lack of knowledge on the potential of soil restoration in active badland systems, as most studies have concentrated on the direct and visible effect of revegetation on erosion control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of revegetation and bioengineering works on the restoration of soil physical and chemical properties. The analyses are realized in a highly degraded area of 3 km2, located in the lower part of the Loreto catchment (Southern Ecuadorian Andes). First, the soil physical and/or chemical parameters that are most sensitive to track environmental change were evaluated. Second, the role of vegetation on soil restoration was quantified. . Soil samples were taken in sites with different vegetation cover, land use and physiographic position. The following physical and chemical parameters were measured: volumetric water content (?sat, ?act), bulk density, pH, texture, organic matter, C and N content. Our first results do not show a clear relationship between volumetric water content at saturation (?sat), bulk density, or C content. The saturation water content does not vary significantly between different sites, or land use types. However, significant differences are found between sites at different stages of restoration; and this for most chemical and physical soil properties. Vegetation cover (%) appears to exert a strong control on the C content in the mineral soils. The highest C values are found in soils of forest plantations with Eucalyptus and Pinus species. These plantations are located in areas that were previously affected by active gullying. Our results show that the establishment of a protective vegetation cover is an important factor in soil restoration.

  19. Effects of changing channel morphology on vegetation, groundwater, and soil moisture regimes in groundwater dependent ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.

    2008-12-01

    Channel incision and excessive floodplain sedimentation are major causes of riparian degradation across the country. Though the causes and consequences of these processes vary significantly, the resulting morphology in both cases is steep streambanks and a stream that is less connected with the floodplain. A case study from semi-arid, wet meadows with snow-melt driven hydrology in the Sierra Nevada of CA will be compared with one from a riparian wet prairie in the humid environment of the Driftless Area of southern Wisconsin. In the mountain meadows, 80 years of logging and overgrazing led to more flashy runoff and downcutting of the stream. This led to drainage of groundwater from the meadow and a shift in vegetation composition from sedges and rushes to dryland grasses and sagebrush in this groundwater dependent ecosystem. In the Driftless Area of WI, the introduction of agricultural practices by European settlers in the 1830s resulted in severe erosion from the cropped areas in the uplands. This sediment was transported to the stream valleys where it was deposited on the floodplain, raising this surface relative to the streambed. As a result, the water table is at a greater depth from this elevated land surface. In this ecosystem, the vegetation has shifted from wet prairie and sedge meadow communities to grasses and lowland forests dominated by box elder trees. The geomorphic result at both sites was a channel bounded by tall banks with reduced hydrologic connectivity with the floodplain. In both cases, the slope of the water table towards the stream is greater than the topographic slope across the riparian zone and the greatest depth to the water table is found adjacent to the channel. Transects exhibit a decreasing trend in soil moisture with increasing variability toward the channel. Remotely sensed imagery shows trends of drier vegetation communities adjacent to channels and wetter vegetation communities toward the margin of the riparian zones. Coupled hydrologic and vegetation models describing the effects following channel incision or excessive floodplain sedimentation are consistent with water table, soil moisture and vegetation observations. These case studies illustrate the role channel morphology plays in controlling vegetation patterning of riparian zones via the groundwater hydrologic linkage.

  20. The Changing Model of Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D. D.; Yaalon, D.

    2012-12-01

    The contemporary genetic model of soil is changing rapidly in response to advances in soil science and to human and environmental forcings in the 21st century (Richter and Yaalon, 2012). Three ongoing changes in the model of soil include that: (1) lower soil boundaries are much deeper than the solum, historically the O to B horizons, (2) most soils are polygenetic paleosols, products of soil-forming processes that have ranged widely over soils' lifetimes, and (3) soils are globally human-natural bodies, no longer natural bodies. Together, these changes in the model of soil mean that human forcings are a global wave of soil polygenesis altering fluxes of matter and energy and transforming soil thermodynamics as potentially very deep systems. Because soils are non-linear systems resulting from high-order interactions of physics, chemistry, and biology, trajectories of how human forcings alter soils over decades are not readily predictable and require long-term soil observations. There is much to learn about how soils are changing internally as central components of management systems and externally in relation to wider environments. To be critical, research has been remarkably superficial in studies of soil, reductionist in approach, and lacking in time-series observations of responses to soil management. While this criticism may sound negative, it creates significant opportunities for contemporary soil scientists.

  1. Vegetation, soils, and surface hydrology of playa landforms in the Rio Grande Plains, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Farley, Andrea Lee

    2000-01-01

    Playas in the Rio Grande Plains of southern Texas were compared with respect to their: 1) size, shape, soil properties, and microtopography, 2) vegetation composition and structure, 3) surface water accumulation potential, ...

  2. Soil-vegetation correlations in selected wetlands and uplands of North-Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Best, G. Ronnie; Wolfe, Charlotte; Segal, Debra S.

    1990-01-01

    Vegetation on four hydric and two nonhydric soils series in north-central Florida was sampled as part of a national study examining the correspondence between wetland vegetation and soils. The wetland character of the vegetation was estimated by weighted average calculations using published wetland indicator values for individual plant species. The weighted averages produced an ordering of plant communities in general agreement with the hydric character of the soils. However, the two nonhydric soils has weighted average scores slightly below 3, normally considered the lowest end of the range of nonhydric vegetation. There was no clear or consistent effect of fire management on the weighted average scores. Vegetation strata (herbaceous, low shrub, tall shrub, and trees) were generally similar in weighted average values, with the wettest of the hydric soils tending to be low in all strata and the nonhydric soils tending to be high in all strata. However, strata differed considerably in the specific values for a single soil and in the specific rank ordering of soils in different strata.

  3. Assessing the soil texture specific sensitivity of simulated soil moisture to projected climate change by SVAT modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, H.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is assumed to have a regionally specific impact on the soil moisture regime. The impact of climate change on the soil moisture can be expected to depend on the soil texture. Since soil moisture observations are not available operationally, models can be used to elaborate such sensitivity. In this study, a soil vegetation atmosphere transfer scheme (SVAT) was applied to virtual soil columns to assess the soil texture specific sensitivity of simulated soil moisture to projected climate change. For each of the 31 soil texture classes of the German soil texture classification, long term simulations were carried out based on observed and scenario based climate data representing five different climate regions in Germany. The simulation results indicate that soil moisture regimes considerably differ from region to region and among different soil texture classes. Different soil texture classes showed different sensitivities of soil moisture with respect to projected climate change. While differences in soil moisture between current conditions and SRES climate scenarios were largest for silt soils, they were smallest for clay soils for continental as well as humid climates. Sand and loam soils behaved intermediately, showing a moderate sensitivity. The results also showed that soil texture specific sensitivity of soil moisture to climate change was largest for soils which were not affected by groundwater (no capillary rise). With an increasing influence of groundwater, differences between soil texture classes decreased. In contrast, increasing vegetation density, rooting depths and transpiration demand induced an increasing sensitivity of soil moisture to climate change except for continental climates. This study indicates that validated, physical based soil hydrological models serve as suitable tools to assess the response of soil moisture to changing climate conditions. Based on virtual soil columns, modelling experiments systematically reveal soil texture dependent sensitivities which can hardly be identified in real world studies due to limited availability and accessibility of the wide spectrum of different soil textures.

  4. Simulation of vegetation, soil characteristics, and topography effects on soil water distribution and streamflow timing over a semi-arid mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, L. E.; Seyfried, M. S.; Marks, D.; Winstral, A.

    2004-12-01

    Soil water (? , m3m-3) and soil characteristics act as intermediaries, along with plants and climate, modifying and modulating streamflow timing and quantity-the majority in the intermountain US west resulting from spring-melt events of accumulated winter snow. The antecedent soil water conditions also predispose different patterns and dynamic responses, especially in semiarid, mountain regions. The context of soil water, analyzed using modeling, is necessary to describe the processes of soil water dynamics. In this research, two years of neutron probe soil water data from a small, semiarid mountain catchment were evaluated using a vertical flow, combined snowmelt-soil water, capacitance-parameter model with available snowmelt data and climate data as driving inputs. Model parameters were vegetation characteristics and soil properties. Results at the point scale show good fit at many locations while a few have poor simulation results at depth. The discrepancies are hypothesized to be due to lack of understanding of parameters such as rooting depth of trees; heterogeneity of parameters within the soil layers; using capacitance parameters that treat some variables as constants; exclusion of lateral flow processes that must occur in some locations due to basin geometry and nature of soil-fractured bedrock interface; and rising water table effects that can be seen in the gleying of clayey soils near drainage lines. Driving parameters were then distributed over the 0.36 km2 catchment using the regional 10 m DEM, soil maps, remotely sensed color-infrared imagery, and the spatiotemporal distributions of soil water from previous research. The model was run discretely at each pixel. Results matched point data simulations well. Simulated throughflow, totaled over the watershed, compared well with weir measured streamflow in timing and quantity indicating accurate representation of parameters over the watershed, proper calibration, and well described processes.

  5. Evaluating Soil Compaction for an Annual Winter Grazing/Vegetable Production Rotation in North-Central

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degraded soils of Alabama have demonstrated the ability to respond well to conservation tillage in a large variety of crops. Winter annual grazing/sod-based rotations with summer vegetable production can offer reduced economic risks for producers but may change tillage requirements for vegetable pro...

  6. Soil-vegetation relationships on a banded ironstone 'island', Carajás Plateau, Brazilian Eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Jaquelina A; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Ferreira Júnior, Walnir G; Neri, Andreza V; Correa, Guilherme R; Enright, Neal J

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation and soil properties of an iron-rich canga (laterite) island on the largest outcrop of banded-iron formation in Serra de Carajás (eastern Amazonia, Brazil) were studied along a topographic gradient (738-762 m asl), and analyzed to test the hypothesis that soil chemical and physical attributes play a key role in the structure and floristic composition of these plant communities. Soil and vegetation were sampled in eight replicate plots within each of the four vegetation types. Surface (0-10 cm) soil samples from each plot were analyzed for basic cations, N, P and plant species density for all species was recorded. CCA ordination analysis showed a strong separation between forest and non-forest sites on the first axis, and between herbaceous and shrubby campo rupestre on the second axis. The four vegetation types shared few plant species, which was attributed to their distinctive soil environments and filtering of their constituent species by chemical, physical and hydrological constraints. Thus, we can infer that Edaphic (pedological) factors are crucial in explaining the types and distributions of campo rupestre vegetation associated with ferruginous ironstone uplands (Canga) in Carajás, eastern Amazonia, therefore the soil properties are the main drivers of vegetation composition and structure on these ironstone islands. PMID:26648541

  7. Storage of atmospheric carbon in global litter and soil pools in response to vegetation change and biomass allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Klooster, S.A.; Potter, C.S.

    1995-06-01

    Changes in the distribution of vegetation types under altered climate regimes could have important consequences for the storage of stems. Because there are relatively few definitive field studies of changes in whole ecosystem carbon process-level models driven by gridded global databases may provide reasonable indicators of to changes in vegetation cover. We have used plant litter quality (lignin content) and carbon allocation to woody tissues as surrogates for testing the hypothetical effects of future vegetation change using the CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach) Biosphere model. The model is driven by global gridded (1{degree}) satellite imagery on a monthly time interval to simulate seasonal patterns in net ecosystem carbon balance and steady-state carbon storage in detritus arid soils. Sensitivity tests treated litter quality and allocation effects independently from other direct effects of changes in climate, atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, and primary production. Results support the hypothesis that soil C storage in today`s temperate and boreal forest life zones are those most sensitive to changes in litter lignin content which may accompany increased climate stress. For these systems, the model predicts that a 50% increase in litter lignin concentration would result in a long-term net gain of about 10% C from the atmosphere into surface litter and soil organic matter pools. A 50% decrease in C allocation to woody tissues would invoke a net loss of 10% C from litter and soil organic matter pools.

  8. Static headspace analysis of volatile organic compounds in soil and vegetation samples for site characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, J. S.; Rose, C. M.; Environmental Research

    2004-01-09

    Traditional methodologies for the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in subsurface soil are expensive, time-consuming processes that are often conducted on samples collected at random. The determination of VOCs in near-surface soils and vegetation is the foundation for a more efficient sampling strategy to characterize subsurface soil and improve understanding of environmental problems. In the absence of a standard methodology for the determination of VOCs in vegetation and in view of the high detection limits of the method for soils, we developed a methodology using headspace gas chromatography with an electron capture detector for the determination of low levels (parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion) of VOCs in soils and vegetation. The technique demonstrates good sensitivity, good recoveries of internal standards and surrogate compounds, good performance, and minimal waste. A case study involving application of this technique as a first-step vadose-zone characterization methodology is presented.

  9. Spatial variability of the properties of marsh soils and their impact on vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, V. A.; Svyatova, E. N.; Tseits, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    Spatial variability of the properties of soils and the character of vegetation was studied on seacoasts of the Velikii Island in the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. It was found that the chemical and physicochemical properties of marsh soils (Tidalic Fluvisols) are largely dictated by the distance from the sea and elevation of the sampling point above sea level. The spatial distribution of the soil properties is described by a quadratic trend surface. With an increase in the distance from the sea, the concentration of ions in the soil solution decreases, and the organic carbon content and soil acidity become higher. The spatial dependence of the degree of variability in the soil properties is moderate. Regular changes in the soil properties along the sea-land gradient are accompanied by the presence of specific spatial patterns related to the system of temporary water streams, huge boulders, and beached heaps of sea algae and wood debris. The cluster analysis made it possible to distinguish between five soil classes corresponding to the following plant communities: barren surface (no permanent vegetation), clayey-sandy littoral with sparse halophytes, marsh with large rhizomatous grasses, and grass-forb-bunchberry vegetation of forest margins. The subdivision into classes is especially distinct with respect to the concentration of chloride ions. The following groups of factors affect the distribution of vegetation: the composition of the soil solution, the height above sea level, the pH of water suspensions, and the humus content.

  10. Role of vegetation in modulating rainfall interception and soil water flux in ecosystems under transition from grassland to woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chris; Will, Rodney; Stebler, Elaine; Qiao, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Vegetation exerts strong control on the hydrological budget by shielding the soil from rainfall through interception and modulating water transmission in the soil by altering soil properties and rooting zone water extraction. Therefore, a change in vegetation alters the water cycle by a combination of a passive, rainfall redistribution mechanism controlled by the physical dimensions of vegetation and active, water extracting processes resulting from physiological attributes of different plants. As a result, the role of vegetation on the water cycle is likely to change where vegetation is under transition such as in the southern Great Plains of USA due to woody plant encroachment. However, it remains largely unknown how this physiognomic transformation from herbaceous cover to woody canopy alters rainfall influx, soil water transmission and efflux from the soil profile and consequently alters historic patterns of runoff and groundwater recharge. This knowledge is critical for both water resource and ecosystem management. We conducted a comprehensive, 5-year study involving direct quantification of throughfall and stemflow for grassland and encroached juniper woodland (Juniperus virginiana), water efflux through transpiration using an improved Granier thermal dissipation method (trees) and ET chamber (grassland), soil moisture storage and dynamics (capacitance probe) and streamflow (small catchment). We calibrated a prevailing hydrological model (SWAT) based on observed data to simulate potential change in runoff and recharge for the Cimarron River basin (study site located within this basin) under various phases of grassland to woodland transition. Our results show that juniper encroachment reduces throughfall reaching the soil surface compared with grassland under moderate grazing. The evergreen junipers transpired water year-round including fall and winter when the warm season grasses were senescent. As a result, soil water content and soil water storage on the encroached catchment were generally lower than on the grassland catchment, especially proceeding the seasons of peak rainfall in spring and fall. Frequency and magnitude of streamflow events was observed to be substantially reduced in the encroached catchment. Model simulation suggests that conversion of all existing grassland to juniper in the Cimarron River basin will increase overall water efflux through evapotranspiration sufficient to substantially reduce water yield for streamflow. Rapid transformation of mesic grasslands to a woodland state with juniper encroachment, if not confined, has the potential to reduce soil water, streamflow and flow duration of ephemeral streams. Slowing the expansion of woody encroachment into grasslands might be considered as a land-based strategy to sustain or even augment streamflow and groundwater recharge to meet the increase in water demand under increasing climate variability and population growth in the southern Great Plains of USA

  11. Temporal Variations in Soil Moisture for Three Typical Vegetation Types in Inner Mongolia, Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hao; Gao, Jixi; Teng, Yanguo; Feng, Chaoyang; Tian, Meirong

    2015-01-01

    Drought and shortages of soil water are becoming extremely severe due to global climate change. A better understanding of the relationship between vegetation type and soil-moisture conditions is crucial for conserving soil water in forests and for maintaining a favorable hydrological balance in semiarid areas, such as the Saihanwula National Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia, China. We investigated the temporal dynamics of soil moisture in this reserve to a depth of 40 cm under three types of vegetation during a period of rainwater recharge. Rainwater from most rainfalls recharged the soil water poorly below 40 cm, and the rainfall threshold for increasing the moisture content of surface soil for the three vegetations was in the order: artificial Larix spp. (AL) > Quercus mongolica (QM) > unused grassland (UG). QM had the highest mean soil moisture content (21.13%) during the monitoring period, followed by UG (16.52%) and AL (14.55%); and the lowest coefficient of variation (CV 9.6-12.5%), followed by UG (CV 10.9-18.7%) and AL (CV 13.9-21.0%). QM soil had a higher nutrient content and higher soil porosities, which were likely responsible for the higher ability of this cover to retain soil water. The relatively smaller QM trees were able to maintain soil moisture better in the study area. PMID:25781333

  12. Direct leaf wetness measurements and its numerical analysis using a multi-layer atmosphere-soil-vegetation model at a grassland site in pre-alpine region in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katata, Genki; Held, Andreas; Mauder, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    The wetness of plant leaf surfaces (leaf wetness) is important in meteorological, agricultural, and environmental studies including plant disease management and the deposition process of atmospheric trace gases and particles. Although many models have been developed to predict leaf wetness, wetness data directly measured at the leaf surface for model validations are still limited. In the present study, the leaf wetness was monitored using seven electrical sensors directly clipped to living leaf surfaces of thin and broad-leaved grasses. The measurements were carried out at the pre-alpine grassland site in TERestrial ENvironmental Observatories (TERENO) networks in Germany from September 20 to November 8, 2013. Numerical simulations of a multi-layer atmosphere-SOiL-VEGetation model (SOLVEG) developed by the authors were carried out for analyzing the data. For numerical simulations, the additional routine meteorological data of wind speed, air temperature and humidity, radiation, rainfall, long-wave radiative surface temperature, surface fluxes, ceilometer backscatter, and canopy or snow depth were used. The model reproduced well the observed leaf wetness, net radiation, momentum and heat, water vapor, and CO2 fluxes, surface temperature, and soil temperature and moisture. In rain-free days, a typical diurnal cycle as a decrease and increase during the day- and night-time, respectively, was observed in leaf wetness data. The high wetness level was always monitored under rain, fog, and snowcover conditions. Leaf wetness was also often high in the early morning due to thawing of leaf surface water frozen during a cold night. In general, leaf wetness was well correlated with relative humidity (RH) in condensation process, while it rather depended on wind speed in evaporation process. The comparisons in RH-wetness relations between leaf characteristics showed that broad-leaved grasses tended to be wetter than thin grasses.

  13. A multi-frequency radiometric measurement of soil moisture content over bare and vegetated fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Schmugge, T. J.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Gould, W. I.; Glazar, W. S.; Fuchs, J. E. (principal investigators)

    1981-01-01

    A USDA Beltsville Agricultural Research Center site was used for an experiment in which soil moisture remote sensing over bare, grass, and alfalfa fields was conducted over a three-month period using 0.6 GHz, 1.4 GHz, and 10.6 GHz Dicke-type microwave radiometers mounted on mobile towers. Ground truth soil moisture content and ambient air and sil temperatures were obtained concurrently with the radiometric measurements. Biomass of the vegetation cover was sampled about once a week. Soil density for each of the three fields was measured several times during the course of the experiment. Results of the radiometric masurements confirm the frequency dependence of moisture sensing sensitivity reduction reported earlier. Observations over the bare, wet field show that the measured brightness temperature is lowest at 5.0 GHz and highest of 0.6 GHz frequency, a result contrary to expectation based on the estimated dielectric permittivity of soil water mixtures and current radiative transfer model in that frequency range.

  14. Multi-discipline resource inventory of soils, vegetation and geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonson, G. H. (principal investigator); Paine, D. P.; Lawrence, R. D.; Norgren, J. A.; Pyott, W. Y.; Herzog, J. H.; Murray, R. J.; Rogers, R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Computer classification of natural vegetation, in the vicinity of Big Summit Prairie, Crook County, Oregon was carried out using MSS digital data. Impure training sets, representing eleven vegetation types plus water, were selected from within the area to be classified. Close correlations were visually observed between vegetation types mapped from the large scale photographs and the computer classification of the ERTS data (Frame 1021-18151, 13 August 1972).

  15. [Characteristics of soil microelements contents in the rhizospheres of different vegetation in hilly-gully region of Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Guo-Bin; Xue, Sha; Zhang, Chang-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    To explore the rhizosphere effect of the microelements in the soils under different vegetation types in Loess Plateau, this paper analyzed the organic C, total N, Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn contents in the rhizosphere soil and bulk soil of six vegetation types in hilly-gully region of Loess Plateau. Among the six vegetation types, Caragana korshinskii, Heteropappus altaicus, and Artemisia capillaries had higher organic C and total N contents in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. With the exception of C. korshinskii and H. rhamnoides, all the six vegetation types had a significantly lower pH in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. The six vegetation types had a lower available Mn content in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil, and the C. korshinskii, Astragalus adsurgen, and Panicum virgatum had a significantly higher available Cu content in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. The six vegetation types except A. adsurgens had a slightly higher available Fe content in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil, and A. adsurgens, P. virgatum, H. altaicus, and A. capillaries had a significant accumulation of available Zn in rhizosphere soil. There existed significant positive correlations between the rhizosphere soil and bulk soil of the six vegetation types in the relationships between the organic C and total N contents and the available Mn and Zn contents and between the contents of available Mn and Zn. In rhizosphere soil, available Mn and Zn contents were significantly negative- ly correlated with pH value. Due to the differences in root growth characteristics, rhizosphere pH value, and microbial structure composition, the microelements contents in the rhizosphere soil of the six vegetation types differed, with the contents of Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn being higher in the rhizosphere soil of H. altaicus than in that of the other vegetation types. PMID:22720606

  16. Seed rain, safe sites, competing vegetation, and soil resources spatially structure white pine

    E-print Network

    Hui, Bowen

    Seed rain, safe sites, competing vegetation, and soil resources spatially structure white pine of seed rain, safe sites, soil depth, overstory, and shrub layer on the establishment and recruitment and seedling densities were positively related to seed rain and safe site characteristics that indicate moist

  17. Reclaiming Hard Rock Mines: An In Depth Look at Vegetation, Soil, and Water on the Bullion

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Reclaiming Hard Rock Mines: An In Depth Look at Vegetation, Soil, and Water on the Bullion Mine, nine miles north of Basin, Montana, the hard rock Bullion Mine produced gold, silver, lead, zinc with tailings piles, waste rock and acid mine drainage (AMD; Figure 1). Waste rock, the soil and rock material

  18. Forest Service -U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Moisture and Vegetation Patterns

    E-print Network

    pine forests; California mixed conifer forests; vegetation drought index (VM); soil drought index (SDI California Forests U.S. FOREST SERVICE RESEARCH PAPER PSW-46 1967 Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station P.O. Box 245, Berkeley, California 94701 #12;Griffin, James R. 1967. Soil moisture

  19. Metal speciation in soil and health risk due to vegetables consumption in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the contamination level of heavy metals in soil and vegetables, chemical speciation, and their transfer to the edible part of vegetables. Metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The ranges of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb in agricultural soils were 3.7-41, 3.9-36, 3.7-46, 2.3-26, 0.6-13, and 4.5-32 mg/kg, respectively. The metals were predominantly associated with the residual fractions of 39, 41, 40, 40, 34, and 41 % for Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb, respectively. Considering the metal transfer from soil to the edible part of vegetables, the mean transfer factors (TFs) were in the descending order of Cu?>?Ni?>?Cr?>?Pb?>?As?>?Cd. In the edible tissues of vegetables, the concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb in most vegetable samples exceeded the maximum permissible levels, indicating not safe for human consumption. Total target hazard quotient (THQ) of the studied metals (except Cr) from all vegetables were higher than 1, indicated that if people consume these types of vegetables in their diet, they might pose risk to these metals. Total values of carcinogenic risk (CR) were 3.2 for As and 0.15 for Pb which were higher than the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) threshold level (0.000001), indicating that the inhabitants consuming these vegetables are exposed to As and Pb with a lifetime cancer risk. PMID:25903407

  20. Comparisons among a new soil index and other two- and four-dimensional vegetation indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    The 2-D difference vegetation index (DVI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI), and the 4-D green vegetation index (GVI) are compared in LANDSAT MSS data from grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench) fields for the years 1973 to 1977. PVI and DVI were more closely related to LAI than was GVI. A new 2-D soil line index (SLI), the vector distance from the soil line origin to the point of intersection of PVI with the soil line, is defined and compared with the 4-D soil brightness index, SBI. SLI (based on MSS and MSS7) and SL16 (based on MSS 5 and MSS 6) were smaller in magnitude than SBI but contained similar information about the soil background. These findings indicate that vegetation and soil indices calculated from the single visible and reflective infrared band sensor systems, such as the AVHRR of the TIROS-N polar orbiting series of satellites, will be meaningful for synoptic monitoring of renewable vegetation.

  1. Comparisons among a new soil index and other two- and four-dimensional vegetation indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The 2-D difference vegetation index (DVI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI), and the 4-D green vegetation index (GVI) are compared in Landsat MSS data from grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench) fields for the years 1973 to 1977. PVI and DVI were more closely related to LAI than was GVI. A new 2-D soil line index (SLI), the vector distance from the soil line origin to the point of intersection of PVI with the soil line, is defined and compared with the 4-D soil brightness index, SBI. SLI (based on MSS and MSS7) and SL16 (based on MSS5 and MSS6) were smaller in magnitude than SBI but contained similar information about the soil background. These findings indicate that vegetation and soil indices calculated from the single visible and reflective infrared band sensor systems, such as the AVHRR of the TIROS-N polar orbiting series of satellites, will be meaningful for synoptic monitoring of renewable vegetation. Previously announced in STAR as N83-14567

  2. Can artificial soil be used in the vegetative vigor test for U.S. pesticide registration?

    PubMed

    Bidelspach, Conor; Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Current testing guidelines for pesticide registration for the protection of nontarget plants calls for the use of sterilized, standardized soil consisting of primarily sandy loam, loamy sand, loamy clay, or clay loam that contains up to 3% organic matter. Low organic matter soils can be difficult to manage in a greenhouse setting because when soils dry, they contract, causing impeded water infiltration, or when overwatered, poor drainage increases the chances of anaerobic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine if the results for the vegetative vigor test differed when using either natural or artificial soils. The herbicide sulfometuron methyl was applied 14 d after emergence at 0.1 and 0.0032 of the suggested field application rate. Six plant species were tested, 4 of the common test species, Zea mays (corn), Glycine max (soybean), Avena sativa (oat), and Lactuca sativa (lettuce), and 2 native plants of the Willamette Valley, Oregon prairie, Bromus carinatus (California brome) and Ranunculus occidentalis (western buttercup). Herbicide application rate was the most significant factor in the experiment regardless of soil type. The different soils generally produced different results, even though the 2 native soils, one from Oregon and the other from Maryland, are both acceptable soils for the pesticide registration tests. The plants grown on artificial soil produced results generally between the Oregon and Maryland soil results. This study indicates that artificial soils may produce results similar to or more sensitive than soils currently used in the vegetative vigor test. PMID:18563958

  3. Soil moisture inferences from thermal infrared measurements of vegetation temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D. (principal investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Thermal infrared measurements of wheat (Triticum durum) canopy temperatures were used in a crop water stress index to infer root zone soil moisture. Results indicated that one time plant temperature measurement cannot produce precise estimates of root zone soil moisture due to complicating plant factors. Plant temperature measurements do yield useful qualitative information concerning soil moisture and plant condition.

  4. Modelling Soil respiration in agro-ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delogu, Emilie; LeDantec, Valerie; Mordelet, Patrick; Buysse, Pauline; Aubinet, Marc; Pattey, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    A soil respiration model was developed to simulate soil respiration in crops on a daily time step. The soil heterotrophic respiration component was derived from Century (Parton et al., 1987). Soil organic carbon is divided into three major components including active, slow and passive soil carbon. Each pool has its own decomposition rate coefficient. Carbon flows between these pools are controlled by carbon inputs (crop residues), decomposition rate and microbial respiration loss parameters, both of which are a function of soil texture, soil temperature and soil water content. The model assumes that all C decompositions flows are associated with microbial activity and that microbial respiration occurs for each of these flows. Heterotrophic soil respiration is the sum of all these microbial respiration processes. To model the soil autotrophic respiration component, maintenance respiration is calculated from the nitrogen content and assuming an exponential relationship to account for temperature dependence (Ryan et al., 1991). Growth respiration is calculated assuming a dependence on both growth rate and construction cost of the considered organ (MacCree et al., 1982) A database, made of four different soil and climate conditions in mid-latitude was used to study the two components of the soil respiration model in wheat fields. Soil respiration were measured in three winter wheat fields at Lamasquère (43°49'N, 01°23'E, 2007) and Auradé (43°54'N, 01°10'E, 2008), South-West France and Lonzée (50°33'N, 4°44'E, 2007), Belgium, and in a spring wheat field at Ottawa (45°22'N, 75°43'W, 2007, 2011), Ontario, Canada. Manual closed chambers were used in the French sites. The Belgium and Canadian sites were equipped with automated closed chamber systems, which continuously collected 30-min soil respiration exchanges. All the sites were also equipped with eddy flux towers. When eddy flux data were collected over bare soil, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was equal to soil respiration exchange. These NEE data were used to validate the model. The carbon pools in the model needed to be initialized at each site, by running iteratively simulations of a same climatic year in a given wheat field, until equilibrium was reached. The model performance was evaluated by comparing simulated and measured soil respiration values. The predicted heterotrophic soil respiration compared well with the seasonal dynamic fluxes at each site. The measured values of heterotrophic soil respiration were also well calculated by the model. Then, the autotrophic soil respiration was validated. The parameterization of the Root/Shoot ratio dynamic was a key factor to retrieve the seasonal dynamic of observed root+rhizosphere respiration during vegetation growth period. Finally, the total soil respiration model was validated on independent datasets from calibration, of four wheat crops and could be used as a prediction model for comparison between different scenario of irrigation, ploughing, or crop rotation.

  5. A Broad Approach to Abrupt Boundaries: Looking Beyond the Boundary at Soil Attributes within and Across Tropical Vegetation Types

    PubMed Central

    Warman, Laura; Bradford, Matt G.; Moles, Angela T.

    2013-01-01

    Most research on boundaries between vegetation types emphasizes the contrasts and similarities between conditions on either side of a boundary, but does not compare boundary to non-boundary vegetation. That is, most previous studies lack suitable controls, and may therefore overlook underlying aspects of landscape variability at a regional scale and underestimate the effects that the vegetation itself has on the soil. We compared 25 soil chemistry variables in rainforest, sclerophyll vegetation and across rainforest-sclerophyll boundaries in north-eastern Queensland, Australia. Like previous studies, we did find some contrasts in soil chemistry across vegetation boundaries. However we did not find greater variation in chemical parameters across boundary transects than in transects set in either rainforest or woodland. We also found that soil on both sides of the boundary is more similar to “rainforest soil” than to “woodland soil”. Transects in wet sclerophyll forests with increasing degrees of rainforest invasion showed that as rainforest invades wet sclerophyll forest, the soil beneath wet sclerophyll forest becomes increasingly similar to rainforest soil. Our results have implications for understanding regional vegetation dynamics. Considering soil-vegetation feedbacks and the differences between soil at boundaries and in non-boundary sites may hold clues to some of the processes that occur across and between vegetation types in a wide range of ecosystems. Finally, we suggest that including appropriate controls should become standard practice for studies of vegetation boundaries and edge effects worldwide. PMID:23593312

  6. Capturing Vegetation Diversity in the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, N. Y.; Haralick, R. M.; Cook, B.; Aleinov, I. D.

    2013-12-01

    We present preliminary results from data mining to develop parameter sets and global vegetation structure datasets to set boundary conditions for the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM) for improved representation of diversity and to propagate uncertainty in simulations of land carbon dynamics in the 20th century and under future climate change. The Ent TBM is the only dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) developed for coupling with general circulation models (GCMs) to account for the height structure of mixed canopies, including a canopy radiative transfer scheme that accounts for foliage clumping in dynamically changing canopies. It is flexibly programmed to incorporate any number of "plant functional types" (PFTs). It is now a coupled component of the ModelE2 version of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM). We demonstrate a data mining method, linear manifold clustering, to be used with several very recently compiled large databases of plant traits and phenology combined with climate and satellite data, to identify new PFT groupings, and also conduct customized parameter fits of PFT traits already defined in Ent. These parameter sets are used together with satellite-derived global forest height structure and land cover derived from a combination of satellite and inventory sources and bioclimatic relations to provide a new estimate and uncertainty bounds on vegetation biomass carbon stocks. These parameter sets will also be used to reproduce atmospheric CO2 time series over the flask observational period, to evaluate the impact of improved representation of vegetation dynamics on soil carbon stocks, and finally to produce a projection of the land carbon sink under future climate change. This research is timely in taking advantage of new, globally ranging vegetation databases, satellite-derived forest heights, and the advanced framework of the Ent TBM. It will advance understanding of and reduce uncertainty in land carbon dynamics and stocks through development, implementation, and evaluation of new parameterizations for a DGVM, parameterizations which will expand and or revise representation of vegetation diversity in the Earth system or replace modules or static parameters with more continuous, functional schemes.

  7. Modeled, climate-induced vegetation change at landscape, continental and global scales

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, R.P. )

    1993-06-01

    A vegetation distribution model has been constructed based on a mechanistic simulation of site water balance and vegetation leaf area index (LAI). Transpiration is deterministically related to LAI and stomatal conductance. The model predicts leaf area indices of woody and grass vegetation, such that soil water is just utilized during the growing season. The model (MAPSS) has been successfully calibrated to regional, continental and global vegetation patterns and is currently being implemented at a landscape scale. At the global scale, over thirty unique vegetation types are simulated. Under most 2XCO[sub 2] climatic scenarios, global forests undergo drought-induced decline, with decline being most severe in temperate and boreal regions. Increased drought stress is largely imparted by increases in Potential evapotranspiration that more than offset regional increases in precipitation. CO[sub 2]-induced, increased water-use-efficiency is more than negated under most future scenarios.

  8. How can effect the synergy of climate change, soil units and vegetation groups the potential global distribution of plants up to 2300: a modelling study for prediction of potential global distribution and migration of the N2 fixing species Alnus spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant migration is a well known adaptation strategy of plant groups or species with evidence from historical to present observation and monitoring studies. Importance of N2-fixing plants has increased in last decades. Alnus (alder) is an important plant group because of its nitrogen fixation ability. Alders are generally distributed in humid locations of boreal, temperate and tropical climate zones, where the nitrogen fixation is an important nitrogen source for other plants. To model the nitrogen fixation by alder, data about the global distribution of alder is absolutely required. In this study a new method and model are presented to predict the distribution of N2-fixing genus on global scale and its migration in the future by using climate change scenarios. Three linear functions were defined for the determination of climate niche of alders. The distribution and migration model (Alnus-Distribution-Model (ADM)) was improved with the aid of the soil units from FAO-Unesco Soil Database, and vegetation types from Schmithüsen's biogeographical atlas. The model was also developed to predict the impact of climate change on alder distribution by using climate data from experiments performed by the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) including the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) mitigation scenarios, and extensions of the scenarios beyond 2100 to 2300. The model covered basic approaches to understand the combine effect of climate, soil and vegetation on plant distribution and migration in the current time and future.

  9. Heavy metals and metalloid content in vegetables and soil collected from the gardens of Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Puntari?, Dinko; Vidosavljevi?, Domagoj; Gvozdi?, Vlatka; Puntari?, Eda; Puntari?, Ida; Mayer, Dijana; Bosnir, Jasna; Lasi?, Dario; Jergovi?, Matijana; Klari?, Ivana; Vidosavljevi?, Marina; Krivdi?, Ivancica

    2013-09-01

    Aim of this study was to determine concentration of Pb, Cd, As and Hg in green leafy vegetables and soil in the urban area of Zagreb, Croatia and to determine if there is a connection between the contamination of soil and vegetables. Green leafy vegetables and soil samples were taken from the gardens located in the outskirts of the city. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Hg were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry; showing that average concentrations of metals and metalloids in vegetables and in soil, regardless of the location of sampling were below the maximum allowed concentration (MAC). The analysis determined that metal concentrations in only nine vegetable samples (9%) were above maximum allowed values prescribed by national and European legislation (three with higher concentrations of Pb, one with a higher concentration of Cd and five with higher concentrations of Hg). Concentrations of contaminants present in the analysed samples, in general, are lower than the ones published in similar studies. The final distribution and concentration of contaminants in vegetables of Zagreb, besides industry and traffic, is affected by the dominant wind direction. PMID:24308243

  10. Estimation of effective hydrologic properties of soils from observations of vegetation density. M.S. Thesis; [water balance of watersheds in Clinton, Maine and Santa Paula, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tellers, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    An existing one-dimensional model of the annual water balance is reviewed. Slight improvements are made in the method of calculating the bare soil component of evaporation, and in the way surface retention is handled. A natural selection hypothesis, which specifies the equilibrium vegetation density for a given, water limited, climate-soil system, is verified through comparisons with observed data and is employed in the annual water balance of watersheds in Clinton, Ma., and Santa Paula, Ca., to estimate effective areal average soil properties. Comparison of CDF's of annual basin yield derived using these soil properties with observed CDF's provides excellent verification of the soil-selection procedure. This method of parameterization of the land surface should be useful with present global circulation models, enabling them to account for both the non-linearity in the relationship between soil moisture flux and soil moisture concentration, and the variability of soil properties from place to place over the Earth's surface.

  11. Groundwater decline, vegetation change, and surface soil stability in a semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, A. J.; Kaste, J. M.; Vest, K. R.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater resources provide water to human populations within arid and semi-arid environments globally. In many regions, shallow groundwater has been overexploited, breaking a poorly understood link between above- and belowground processes in ecosystems dominated by groundwater dependent vegetation. Of particular importance are connections between groundwater and vegetation cover, soil resources, and surface soil stability. Although groundwater is thought to increase the risk of dust emissions from non- vegetated playas (a process that characterizes many of the dustiest places on earth) little is known regarding dust emissions from terrain covered by groundwater dependent vegetation. In a multi-year study of these effects in Owens Valley California, we are integrating field measurements of plant community composition, soil stability, and groundwater depth with remotely sensed measurements of vegetation cover with the goal of elucidating the processes behind ecosystem change in a groundwater dependent ecosystem. We have identified a strong non-linear response between vegetation cover from remote sensing and groundwater decline. This response includes a threshold in groundwater depth, which separates groundwater and precipitation driven vegetation dynamics. At sites where groundwater went below this threshold, a shift towards dominance by more deeply rooted shrub vegetation and unstable surface soils is qualitatively evident. Quantitative evidence from fallout radionuclide concentrations suggests that surface soil stability is lower in regions of groundwater decline, but there is significant within-site variability. Although fine sediments might be winnowed away, groundwater affected sites appear to be characterized by a reorganization of sediments from the inter-canopy zone, where more shallowly rooted grasses were once dominant, to the canopy zones surrounding deeper-rooted shrubs. Therefore, our preliminary finding is that the resource island desertification hypothesis holds for groundwater dependent plant communities subjected to groundwater pumping. Continued study of the processes behind these changes is extremely relevant to groundwater management.

  12. Assessment and Mapping of Carbon Sequestration Opportunities in the Soils and Vegetation across the Landscapes of the British Isles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konadu, D. D.; Quinton, J.; Jarvis, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Among the main objectives of land management strategies and policies towards the sequestration of carbon (C) in terrestrial biosphere systems are: the protection of existing stores; the restoration of historically depleted stores resulting from anthropogenic activities; and the creation of new stores through increased C storage in areas that currently have little. It is therefore imperative that policies and management schemes to this effect are informed by considerations of evidence which expresses the potential capacities available, the feasibility of implementation, and the environmental gains that can be achieved over space and time. This study presents an assessment and mapping of the opportunities for sequestering C in terrestrial biosphere systems - mainly soil and vegetation - across the landscapes of the British Isles based on a combination of model predictions and spatial analyses. This involves a comparison of potentially undisturbed terrestrial C stocks - estimated from model outputs of Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) and Potential Vegetation (PV) distribution - and present day C stocks - determined from the integration of national dataset on soil C distribution and vegetation cover. The comparison establishes the 'physically' available potential across landscapes that can be harnessed for sequestration or protection purposes. This 'physically' available potential is then subjected to socio-economic constraints of land values, based on Agricultural Land Classification (ALC) to determine areas which present feasible opportunities for sequestration activities. These analyses were implemented on a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) platform which gives an output of the spatial distribution of sequestration potentials across landscapes.

  13. Application of a coupled vegetation competition and groundwater simulation model to study effects of sea level rise and storm surges on coastal vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teh, Su Yean; Turtora, Michael; DeAngelis, Don; Jiang Jiang; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Smith, Thomas; Koh, Hock Lye

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change poses challenges to areas such as low-lying coastal zones, where sea level rise (SLR) and storm-surge overwash events can have long-term effects on vegetation and on soil and groundwater salinities, posing risks of habitat loss critical to native species. An early warning system is urgently needed to predict and prepare for the consequences of these climate-related impacts on both the short-term dynamics of salinity in the soil and groundwater and the long-term effects on vegetation. For this purpose, the U.S. Geological Survey’s spatially explicit model of vegetation community dynamics along coastal salinity gradients (MANHAM) is integrated into the USGS groundwater model (SUTRA) to create a coupled hydrology–salinity–vegetation model, MANTRA. In MANTRA, the uptake of water by plants is modeled as a fluid mass sink term. Groundwater salinity, water saturation and vegetation biomass determine the water available for plant transpiration. Formulations and assumptions used in the coupled model are presented. MANTRA is calibrated with salinity data and vegetation pattern for a coastal area of Florida Everglades vulnerable to storm surges. A possible regime shift at that site is investigated by simulating the vegetation responses to climate variability and disturbances, including SLR and storm surges based on empirical information.

  14. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  15. Vegetation effects on soil water erosion rates and nutrient losses at Santa Catarina highlands, south Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, I.; Barbosa, F. T.; Vidal Vázquez, E.; Paz Ferreiro, J.

    2009-04-01

    Water erosion involves three main processes: detachment, transport and deposition of soil particles. The main factors affecting water erosion are rainfall, soil, topography, soil management and land cover and use. Soil erosion potential is increased if the soil has no or very little vegetative cover of plants and/or crop residues, whereas plant and residue cover substantially decrease rates of soil erosion. Plant and residue cover protects the soil from raindrop impact and splash, tends to slow down the movement of surface runoff and allows excess surface water to infiltrate. Moreover, plant and residue cover improve soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Soils with improved structure have a greater resistance to erosion. By contrast, accelerated soil erosion is accentuated by deforestation, biomass burning, plowing and disking, cultivation of open-row crops, etc. The erosion-reducing effectiveness of plant and/or residue covers depends on the type, extent and quantity of cover. Vegetation and residue combinations that completely cover the soil are the most efficient in controlling soil. Partially incorporated residues and residual roots are also important, as these provide channels that allow surface water to move into the soil. The effectiveness of any crop, management system or protective cover also depends on how much protection is available at various periods during the year, relative to the amount of erosive rainfall that falls during these periods. Most of the erosion on annual row crop land can be reduced by leaving a residue cover greater after harvest and over the winter months, or by inter-seeding a forage crop. Soil erosion potential is also affected by tillage operations and tillage system. Conservation tillage reduces water erosion in relation to conventional tillage by increasing soil cover and soil surface roughness. Here, we review the effect of vegetation on soil erosion in the Santa Catarina highlands, south of Brazil, under subtropical climatic conditions. The area cropped under no tillage in Brazil has increased rapidly since 1990, especially in the southern region. This practice was first introduced in the 1970s as a strategy to control soil erosion and continuous declines in land productivity under conventional tillage systems. No tillage almost entirely keeps the previous crop residue on the surface. In the last 15 years soil and water losses by water erosion have been quantified for different soil tillage systems, diverse crop rotations and successive crop stages under simulated and natural rain conditions. Plot experiments showed that soil losses under no tillage systems with a vegetative cover were 98% lower when compared with conventionally tilled bare soil. Moreover water losses were 60% lower for these conditions. Conventional tillage (plowing + harrowing) in the presence of vegetative cover reduced soil losses and water losses by 80% and 50%, respectively, taken the uncultivated bare soil as a reference. The review includes the effect of vegetative cover on nutrient losses at the studied sites in the Santa Catarina highlands.

  16. Modeling gap probability in discontinuous vegetation canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaowen; Strahler, Alan H.

    1987-01-01

    In the present model for the gap probability of a discontinuous vegetation canopy, the assumption of a negative exponential attenuation within individual plant canopies will yield a problem involving the distribution distances within canopies through which a ray will pass. If, however, the canopies intersect and/or overlap, so that foliage density remains constant within the overlap area, the problem can be approached with two types of approximations. Attention is presently given to the case of a comparison of modeled gap probabilities with those observed for a stand of Maryland pine, which shows good agreement for zenith angles of illumination up to about 45 deg.

  17. Evolution of vegetation and soil nutrients after uranium mining in Los Ratones mine (Cáceres, Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, María A; Vera-Tomé, Feliciano; Blanco-Rodríguez, María P; Lozano, Juan C

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of vegetation structure following mine rehabilitation is rather scarce in the literature. The concentration of long-lived radionuclides of the (238)U series might have harmful effects on living organisms. We studied soil properties and the natural vegetation occurring along a gradient in Los Ratones, an area rehabilitated after uranium mining located in Cáceres, Spain. Soil and vegetation were sampled seasonally and physical and chemical properties of soil were analysed, including natural isotopes of (238)U, (230)Th, (226)Ra and (210)Pb. Species richness, diversity, evenness and plant cover were estimated and correlated in relation to soil physical and chemical variables. The location of the sampling sites along a gradient had a strong explanatory effect on the herbaceous species, as well as the presence of shrubs and trees. Seasonal effects of the four natural isotopes were observed in species richness, species diversity and plant cover; these effects were directly related to the pH values in the soil, this being the soil property that most influences the plant distribution. Vegetation in the studied area resembles that of the surroundings, thus proving that the rehabilitation carried out in Los Ratones mine was successful in terms of understorey cover recovery. PMID:24450758

  18. [Relationships between typical vegetations, soil salinity, and groundwater depth in the Yellow River Delta of China].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu-Lei; Wang, De; Liu, Jun-Min; Wen, Xiao-Hu; Gao, Meng; Shao, Hong-Bo

    2013-09-01

    Soil salinity and groundwater depth are the two important factors affecting the vegetation growth and distribution in the Yellow River Delta. Through field investigation and statistical analysis, this paper studied the relationships between the typical vegetations (Suaeda heteroptera-Tamarix chinensis, Robinia pseudoacacia, Phragmites australis, and cotton) , soil salinity, and groundwater depth in the Delta. In the study area, groundwater depth had significant effects on soil salinity, with the average influence coefficient being 0.327. When the groundwater depth was 0.5-1.5 m, soil salinization was most severe. The vegetation growth in the Delta was poorer, with the NDVI in 78% of the total area being less than 0.4. Groundwater depth and soil salinity had significant effects on the vegetation distribution. Soil salinity had significant effects on the NDVI of R. pseudoacacia, S. heteroptera-T. chinensis, P. australis, and cotton, while groundwater depth had significant effects on the NDVI of S. heteroptera - T. chinensis, but lesser effects on the NDVI of P. australis, cotton and R. pseudoacacia. PMID:24417097

  19. Probabilistic Evaluation of Anthropogenic Regulations In a Vegetated River Channel Using a Vegetation Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation overgrowth in fluvial floodplains, gravel beds, and sand bars has been a serious engineering problem for riparian management in Japan. From the viewpoints of flood control and ecological conservation, it would be necessary to predict the vegetation dynamics accurately for long-term duration. In this research, we have developed a stochastic model for predicting the vegetation dynamics in fluvial floodplains with emphasis on the interaction with flood impacts. The model consists of the following four components: (i) long-term stochastic behavior of flow discharge, (ii) hydrodynamics in a channel with floodplain vegetation, (iii) variation of riverbed topography, and (iv) vegetation dynamics on floodplains. In the vegetation dynamics model, the flood discharge (i) is stochastically simulated using a filtered Poisson process, one of the conventional approaches in hydrological time-series generation. The component for vegetation dynamics (iv) includes the effects of tree growth, mortality by floods, and infant tree recruitment. Vegetation condition has been observed mainly before and after floods since 2008 at a field site located between 23-24 km from the river mouth in Kako River, Japan. The Kako River has the catchment area of 1,730 km2 and the main channel length of 96 km. This site is one of the vegetation overgrowth sites in the Kako River floodplains. The predominant tree species are willows and bamboos. In the field survey, the position, trunk diameter and height of each tree as well as the riverbed materials were measured after several flood events to investigate their impacts on the floodplain vegetation community. This presentation tries to examine effects of anthropogenic river regulations, i.e., thinning and cutting-down, in the vegetated channel in Kako River by using the vegetation dynamics model. Sensitivity of both the flood water level and the vegetation status in the channel is statistically evaluated in terms of the different cutting-down levels, timings and scales of the thinning, etc., by the Monte Carlo simulation of the model.

  20. [Spatial variation of soil moisture/salinity and the relationship with vegetation under natural conditions in Yancheng coastal wetland].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-Bing; Liu, Hong-Yu; Li, Yu-Feng; An, Jing; Xue, Xing-Yu; Hou, Ming-Hang

    2013-02-01

    Taking the core part of Yancheng national nature reserve as the study area, according to soil sampling analysis of coastal wetlands in April and May 2011 land the 2011 ETM + remote sensing image, the spatial difference characteristic of coastal wetlands soil moisture and salinity, and the relationship with vegetation under natural conditions, were investigated with the model of correspondence analysis (CCA), linear regression simulation and geo-statistical method. The results showed: Firstly, the average level of the soil moisture was fluctuating between 36.820% and 46.333% , and the soil salinity was between 0.347% and 1.328% , in a more detailed sense, the Spartina swamp was the highest, followed by the mudflats swamp, the Suaeda salsa swamp, and the Reed marsh. Secondly, the spatial variation of soil moisture was consistent with that of the salinity, and the degree of variation in the east-west direction was greater than that in the north-south. The maximum soil moisture and salinity were found in the southwest Spartina swamp. The minimum was in the Reed swamp. The soil moisture and salinity were divided into 5 levels, from I to V. Level IV occupied the highest proportion, which were 36.156% and 28.531% , respectively. Finally, different landscape types with the combination of soil moisture and salinity showed a common feature that the moisture and salinity were from both high to low. The soil moisture value of Reed marshes was lower than 40.116% and the salinity value was lower than 0. 676% . The soil moisture value of Suaeda salsa marshes was between 38. 162% and 46. 403% and the salinity value was between 0.417% and 1.295%. The soil moisture value of Spartina swamp was higher than 43.214% and the salinity was higher than 1.090%. The soil moisture value of beach was higher than 43.214% and the salinity was higher than 0.677%. PMID:23668120

  1. Heterogeneity of Soils and Vegetation in an Eastern Amazonian

    E-print Network

    , Massachusetts 02543, USA; 2 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sa~o Jose´ dos Campos, SP, Brazil; and 3, and relationships among, vegeta- tion and soil properties in terra firme rain forest ecosystems in eastern Amazonia); gross primary production (GPP); Large-Scale Biosphere­Atmosphere experiment; soil texture; Amazonia

  2. Water based microwave assisted extraction of thiamethoxam residues from vegetables and soil for determination by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Rajib; Singh, Shashi Bala; Kulshrestha, Gita

    2012-02-01

    A microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method for determination of thiamethoxam residues in vegetable and soil samples was standardized. Insecticide spiked vegetable and soil samples were extracted by MAE using water as an extraction solvent, cleaned up by solid phase extraction and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography on photodiode array detector. The recoveries of the insecticide from various vegetable (tomato, radish, brinjal, okra, French been, sugarbeet) and soil (sandy loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay loam, loamy sand) samples at 0.1 and 0.5 ?g g(-1) spiking levels ranged from 79.8% to 86.2% and from 82.1% to 87.0%, respectively. The recoveries by MAE were comparable to those obtained by the conventional blender and shake-flask extraction techniques. The precision of the MAE method was demonstrated by relative standard deviations of <3% for the insecticide. PMID:22065124

  3. Physically-based parameterization of spatially variable soil and vegetation using satellite multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Eagleson, Peter S.

    1989-01-01

    A stochastic-geometric landsurface reflectance model is formulated and tested for the parameterization of spatially variable vegetation and soil at subpixel scales using satellite multispectral images without ground truth. Landscapes are conceptualized as 3-D Lambertian reflecting surfaces consisting of plant canopies, represented by solid geometric figures, superposed on a flat soil background. A computer simulation program is developed to investigate image characteristics at various spatial aggregations representative of satellite observational scales, or pixels. The evolution of the shape and structure of the red-infrared space, or scattergram, of typical semivegetated scenes is investigated by sequentially introducing model variables into the simulation. The analytical moments of the total pixel reflectance, including the mean, variance, spatial covariance, and cross-spectral covariance, are derived in terms of the moments of the individual fractional cover and reflectance components. The moments are applied to the solution of the inverse problem: The estimation of subpixel landscape properties on a pixel-by-pixel basis, given only one multispectral image and limited assumptions on the structure of the landscape. The landsurface reflectance model and inversion technique are tested using actual aerial radiometric data collected over regularly spaced pecan trees, and using both aerial and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data obtained over discontinuous, randomly spaced conifer canopies in a natural forested watershed. Different amounts of solar backscattered diffuse radiation are assumed and the sensitivity of the estimated landsurface parameters to those amounts is examined.

  4. Does vegetation type matter? Plant-soil interactions change urban rain garden hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M. R.; Balster, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    Residential infiltration basins or rain gardens are being installed at an ever-increasing rate across the urban landscape, yet their impact on the urban hydrologic cycle remains largely untested. Specifically, because rain garden design varies considerably, we know little about how plant-soil dynamics control their hydrologic function. In a controlled field experiment with closed-system rain gardens, we tested the hydrologic response of three vegetation treatments common in rain garden design (shrubs, wet-mesic prairie, turfgrass). We used a complete, randomized block design in which each vegetative treatment was replicated three times. Each rain garden represented 17% of a contributing roof area where stormwater was collected and then applied following precipitation events. We continuously monitored stormwater input, soil water content, and soil exfiltration to assess differences in the hydrologic function of each rain garden. Overall, vegetation type significantly changed the magnitude and timing of the hydrologic response. During the months of June and July, 2009, the rain gardens planted with shrubs, prairie, and turfgrass all reduced the volume of soil exfiltration by 50%, 30%, and 17%, respectively, relative to the non-vegetated controls. Similarly, depending on storm magnitude and antecedent soil moisture, vegetation type significantly decreased the mean peak flow rate of exfiltration (p < 0.001), as well as the duration of the exfiltration response (p < 0.0001). The flashiest hydrologic responses (i.e. shortest lag time, highest peak flow rate) were observed in the turfgrass gardens. We explain these vegetative-mediated responses in hydrology relative to differences in infiltration, aboveground dry mass, root dynamics, and transpirative loss. Our data suggest that changing the vegetation type of urban rain gardens yields marked differences in the hydrologic budget via shifts in ecohydrological processes.

  5. Coincidence and spatial variability of geology, soils, and vegetation, Mill Run watershed, Virginia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, C.G.; Hupp, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Mill Run watershed is a structurally-controlled synclinal basin on the eastern limb of the Massanutten Mountain complex of NW Virginia. Bedrock contacts are obscured by coarse sandstone debris from exposures near basin divides. Colluvium blankets more than half the basin, masking geomorphic surfaces, affecting vegetation patterns, and contributing to the convexity of the alluvial, terrace, pediment and erosion surfaces. Vegetation is strongly interdependent with geomorphology, bedrock geology, and soils. - from Authors

  6. Mapping the spectral variability in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic vegetation, soils, and shade using AVIRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Smith, Milton O.; Sabol, Donald E.; Adams, John B.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to map as many spectrally distinct types of green vegetation (GV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), shade, and soil (endmembers) in an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) scene as is warranted by the spectral variability of the data. Once determined, a secondary objective was to interpret these endmembers and their abundances spatially and spectrally in an ecological context.

  7. Post Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplow, J. S.; Beresford, N. A.; Barnett, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    The dataset "Post Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain" was developed to enable data collected by the Natural Environment Research Council after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. Data for samples collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl) to spring 1997 are presented. Additional data to radiocaesium concentrations are presented where available. The data have value in trying to assess the contribution of new sources of radiocaesium in the environment, providing baseline data for future planned releases and to aid the development and testing of models. The data are freely available for non-commercial use under Open Government Licence terms and conditions. doi:10.5285/7a5cfd3e-0247-4228-873d-5be563c4ee3b

  8. Relations between soil moisture and satellite vegetation indices in the U.S. Corn Belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adegoke, Jimmy O.; Carleton, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite-derived vegetation indices extracted over locations representative of midwestern U.S. cropland and forest for the period 1990-94 are analyzed to determine the sensitivity of the indices to neutron probe soil moisture measurements of the Illinois Climate Network (ICN). The deseasoned (i.e., departures from multiyear mean annual cycle) soil moisture measurements are shown to be weakly correlated with the deseasoned full resolution (1 km ?? 1 km) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and fractional vegetation cover (FVC) data over both land cover types. The association, measured by the Pearson-moment-correlation coefficient, is stronger over forest than over cropland during the growing season (April-September). The correlations improve successively when the NDVI and FVC pixel data are aggregated to 3 km ?? 3 km, 5 km ?? 5 km, and 7 km ?? 7 km areas. The improved correlations are partly explained by the reduction in satellite navigation errors as spatial aggregation occurs, as well as the apparent scale dependence of the NDVI-soil moisture association. Similarly, stronger relations are obtained with soil moisture data that are lagged by up to 8 weeks with respect to the vegetation indices, implying that soil moisture may be a useful predictor of warm season satellite-derived vegetation conditions. This study suggests that a "long-term" memory of several weeks is present in the near-surface hydrological characteristics, especially soil water content, of the Midwest Corn Belt. The memory is integrated into the satellite vegetation indices and may be us??eful for predicting crop yield estimates and surface temperature anomalies.

  9. Assessment of Fluoride Concentration of Soil and Vegetables in Vicinity of Zinc Smelter, Debari, Udaipur, Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Singh, Anukriti; Gandhi, Neha; Gupta, Vivek Vardhan

    2015-01-01

    Background As of late, natural contamination has stimulated as a reaction of mechanical and other human exercises. In India, with the expanding industrialization, numerous unsafe substances are utilized or are discharged amid generation as cleans, exhaust, vapours and gasses. These substances at last are blended in the earth and causes health hazards. Objective To determine concentration of fluoride in soils and vegetables grown in the vicinity of Zinc Smelter, Debari, Udaipur, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods Samples of vegetables and soil were collected from areas situated at 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10 km distance from the zinc smelter, Debari. Three samples of vegetables (i.e. Cabbage, Onion and Tomato) and 3 samples of soil {one sample from the upper layer of soil (i.e. 0 to 20 cm) and one from the deep layer (i.e. 20 – 40 cm)} at each distance were collected. The soil and vegetable samples were sealed in clean polythene bags and transported to the laboratory for analysis. One sample each of water and fertilizer from each distance were also collected. Results The mean fluoride concentration in the vegetables grown varied between 0.36 ± 0.69 to 0.71 ± 0.90 ppm. The fluoride concentration in fertilizer and water sample from various distances was found to be in the range of 1.4 – 1.5 ppm and 1.8 – 1.9 ppm respectively. Conclusion The fluoride content of soil and vegetables was found to be higher in places near to the zinc smelter. PMID:26557620

  10. Agricultural use of soil, consequences in soil organic matter and hydraulic conductivity compared with natural vegetation in central Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Verónica; Carral, Pilar; Alvarez, Ana Maria; Marques, Maria Jose

    2014-05-01

    When ecosystems are under pressure due to high temperatures and water scarcity, the use of land for agriculture can be a handicap for soil and water conservation. The interactions between plants and soils are site-specific. This study provides information about the influence of the preence vs. The absence of vegetation on soil in a semi-arid area of the sout-east of Madrid (Spain, in the Tagus River basin. In this area soil materials are developed over a calcareous-evaporitic lithology. Soils can be classified as Calcisols, having horizons of accumulation with powdered limestone and irregular nodules of calcium carbonate. They can be defined as Haplic Cambisols and Leptic Calcisols (WRB 2006-FAO). The area is mainly used for rainfed agriculture, olive groves, vineyards and cereals. There are some patches of bushes (Quercus sp.) and grasses (Stipa tenacissima L.) although only found on the top of the hills. This study analyses the differences found in soils having three different covers: Quercus coccifera, Stipa tenacissima and lack of vegetation. This last condition was found in the areas between cultivated olive trees. Soil organic matter, porosity and hydraulic conductivity are key properties of soil to understand its ability to adapt to climate or land use changes. In order to measure the influence of different soil covers, four replicates of soil were sampled in each condition at two soil depth, (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). Hydraulic conductivity was measured in each soil condition and replicate using a Mini-disk® infiltrometer. There were no differences between the two depths sampled. Similarly, there were no changes in electric conductivity (average 0.1±0.03 dS m-1); pH (8.7±0.2) or calcium carbonate content (43±20 %). Nevertheless, significant differences (p>0.001) were found in soil organic matter. The maximum was found in soils under Quercus (4.7±0.5 %), followed by Stipa (2.2±1.1 %). The soil without vegetation in the areas between olive trees had only 0.7±1.1 % soil organic matter; far from the usual limit advisable for cultivated soils. Soil porosity was also affected in cultivated soils, being 39±5% (total porosity), significantly less than those found under Stipa (46%) and Quercus (51%). Hydraulic conductivity presented a similar pattern to porosity, being higher in soils under Quercus, however further research is needed to clarify this result, as it can also be related to changes detected in soil texture. Sand content, which was different between soil conditions, is highly correlated to hydraulic conductivity. Changes in soil texture can be due to erosive processes that have to be studied to establish the causative relationships between these findings. Acknowledgements: Project CGL 2008-04296. Environmental Impact evaluation through the assessment of soil organic matter resilient forms in soils.

  11. Understory vegetation leads to changes in soil acidity and in microbial communities 27 years after reforestation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoli; Yang, Fengting; Wang, Jianlei; Di, Yuebao; Dai, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with potted plants and removed understories have indicated that understory vegetation often affects the chemical and microbial properties of soil. In this study, we examined the mechanism and extent of the influence of understory vegetation on the chemical and microbial properties of soil in plantation forests. The relationships between the vegetational structure (diversity for different functional layers, aboveground biomass of understory vegetation, and species number) and soil properties (pH, microbial community structure, and levels of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and inorganic nitrogen) were analyzed across six reforestation types (three pure needleleaf forests, a needle-broadleaf mixed forest, a broadleaf forest, and a shrubland). Twenty-seven years after reforestation, soil pH significantly decreased by an average of 0.95 across reforestation types. Soil pH was positively correlated with the aboveground biomass of the understory. The levels of total, bacterial, and fungal phospholipid fatty acids, and the fungal:bacterial ratios were similar in the shrubland and the broadleaf forest. Both the aboveground biomass of the understory and the diversity of the tree layer positively influenced the fungal:bacterial ratio. Improving the aboveground biomass of the understory could alleviate soil acidification. An increase in the aboveground biomass of the understory, rather than in understory diversity, enhanced the functional traits of the soil microbial communities. The replacement of pure plantations with mixed-species stands, as well as the enhancement of understory recruitment, can improve the ecological functions of a plantation, as measured by the alleviation of soil acidification and increased fungal dominance. PMID:25261818

  12. [Sizes of soil macropores and related main affecting factors on a vegetated basalt slope].

    PubMed

    Guan, Qi; Xu, Ze-Min; Tian, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The landslide on vegetated slopes caused by extreme weather has being increased steadily, and the preferential flow in soil macropores plays an important role in the landslide. By using water breakthrough curve and Poiseuille equation, this paper estimated the radius range, amount, and average volume of soil macropores on a vegetated basalt slope of Maka Mountain, Southwest China, and analyzed the distribution of the soil macropores and the main affecting factors. In the study area, the radius of soil macropores ranged from 0.3 to 1.8 mm, mainly between 0.5 and 1.2 mm. The large-radius macropores (1.4-1.8 mm) were lesser, while the small-radius macropores (< 1.4 mm) were more. With the development of soil profile, soil macropores were more in upper layers and lesser in deeper layers. The average volume of the macropores contributed 84.7% to the variance of steady effluent rate. Among the factors affecting the average volume of the large macropores, vegetations root mass had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.70, and soil organic matter content also had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.64. PMID:24483084

  13. The Soil Biota Composition along a Progressive Succession of Secondary Vegetation in a Karst Area

    PubMed Central

    He, Xunyang; Liu, Lu; Wang, Kelin

    2014-01-01

    Karst ecosystems are fragile and are in many regions degraded by anthropogenic activities. Current management of degraded karst areas focuses on aboveground vegetation succession or recovery and aims at establishing a forest ecosystem. Whether progressive succession of vegetation in karst areas is accompanied by establishment of soil biota is poorly understood. In the present study, soil microbial and nematode communities, as well as soil physico-chemical properties were studied along a progressive succession of secondary vegetation (from grassland to shrubland to forest) in a karst area in southwest China. Microbial biomass, nematode density, ratio of fungal to bacterial biomass, nematode structure index, and nematode enrichment index decreased with the secondary succession in the plant community. Overall, the results indicated a pattern of declines in soil biota abundance and food web complexity that was associated with a decrease in soil pH and a decrease in soil organic carbon content with the progressive secondary succession of the plant community. Our findings suggest that soil biota amendment is necessary during karst ecosystem restoration and establishment and management of grasslands may be feasible in karst areas. PMID:25379741

  14. Vegetation and climate controls on potential CO2, DOC and DON production in northern latitude soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, J.C.; Hooper, D.U.

    2002-01-01

    Climatic change may influence decomposition dynamics in arctic and boreal ecosystems, affecting both atmospheric CO2 levels, and the flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to aquatic systems. In this study, we investigated landscape-scale controls on potential production of these compounds using a one-year laboratory incubation at two temperatures (10?? and 30??C). We measured the release of CO2, DOC and DON from tundra soils collected from a variety of vegetation types and climatic regimes: tussock tundra at four sites along a latitudinal gradient from the interior to the north slope of Alaska, and soils from additional vegetation types at two of those sites (upland spruce at Fairbanks, and wet sedge and shrub tundra at Toolik Lake in northern Alaska). Vegetation type strongly influenced carbon fluxes. The highest CO2 and DOC release at the high incubation temperature occurred in the soils of shrub tundra communities. Tussock tundra soils exhibited the next highest DOC fluxes followed by spruce and wet sedge tundra soils, respectively. Of the fluxes, CO2 showed the greatest sensitivity to incubation temperatures and vegetation type, followed by DOC. DON fluxes were less variable. Total CO2 and total DOC release were positively correlated, with DOC fluxes approximately 10% of total CO2 fluxes. The ratio of CO2 production to DOC release varied significantly across vegetation types with Tussock soils producing an average of four times as much CO2 per unit DOC released compared to Spruce soils from the Fairbanks site. Sites in this study released 80-370 mg CO2-C g soil C-1 and 5-46 mg DOC g soil C-1 at high temperatures. The magnitude of these fluxes indicates that arctic carbon pools contain a large proportion of labile carbon that could be easily decomposed given optimal conditions. The size of this labile pool ranged between 9 and 41% of soil carbon on a g soil C basis, with most variation related to vegetation type rather than climate.

  15. Influence of Vegetations' Metabolites on the Composition and Functioning of Soil Microbial Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Microbiota is one of the major factors of soils fertility. It transforms organic substances in soil and, therefore, serves as the main component in the cycles of carbon and nitrogen. Microbial communities (MC) are characterized as highly diverse and extremely complex structures. This allows them to adapt to any affection and provide all the necessary biospheric functions. Hence, the study of their functional diversity and adaptivity of microbiota provides the key to the understanding of the ecosystems' functioning and their adaptivity to the human impact. The formation of MC at the initial stage is regulated by the fluxes of substrates and biologically active substances (BAS), which vary greatly in soils under different vegetations. These fluxes are presented by: low molecular weights organic substances (LMWOS), which can be directly included in metabolism of microbes; polymers, that can be decomposed to LMWOS by exoenzymes; and more complex compounds, having different "drug effects" (e.g. different types of phenolic acids) and regulating growth and enzymatic properties of microbiota. Therefore, the main hypothesis of the research was formulated as follows: penetration of different types of substrates and BAS into soil leads to the emergence of MC varying in enzymatic properties and structure. As a soil matrix we used the soil from the untreated variant of the lysimeter model experiment taking place in the faculty of Soil Science of the MSU for over the last 40 years. It was sieved with a 2mm sieves, humidified and incubated at 25C during one week. Subsequently, the samples were air-dried with occasional stirring for one more week. Thereafter, aliquots of the prepared soil were taken for the different experimental variants. The samples were rewetted with solutions of various substrates (glucose, cellulose, starch, etc.) and thoroughly mixed. The control variant was established with addition of deionised water. The samples were incubated at the 25C. During the incubation the rate of mineralisation of organic substances was assessed with CO2 measurements. In 5, 10 and 21 days of incubation the enzymatic properties of the formed MC were studied by the hydrolysis of fluorogenic substrates. The influence of BAS on enzymatic properties of MC were researched by addition of different concentrations of phenolic acids (e.g. salicylic, vanillic, benzoic, etc.) to the samples from various substrates treatments. The acute toxicity of BAS was studied with bacterial luminescent test. After the last measurement, the isolations of microorganisms on elective nutrient medias were made. The dominant microorganisms were collected to the library for further identification and physiological tests. MeOH-chloroform extraction of phospholipids were performed with the remaining samples. Finally, they were stored for subsequent FAME identifications. The obtained data prove that penetration of various substrates into the soil determines the formation of MC different in structure and properties. It was found, that EC50 of the most studied phenolic acids are similar to naturally occurring concentrations. This means that they can be the real drivers of forming endemical MC under various vegetations along with the plant-specific fluxes of nutrients.

  16. Impact of vegetation types on soil organic carbon stocks SOC-S in Mediterranean natural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Cantudo-Pérez, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle because they can either emit large quantities of CO2 or on the contrary they can act as a store for carbon. Agriculture and forestry are the only activities that can achieve this effect through photosynthesis and the carbon incorporation into carbohydrates (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2013). The Mediterranean evergreen oak Woodland (MEOW - dehesa) is a type of pasture with scattered evergreen and deciduous oak stands in which cereals are often grown under the tree cover. It is a system dedicated to the combined production of Iberian swine, sheep, fuel wood, coal and cork as well as to hunting. These semi-natural areas still preserve some of the primitive vegetation of the Mediterranean oak forests. The dehesa is a pasture where the herbaceous layer is comprised of either cultivated cereals such as oat, barley and wheat or native vegetation dominated by annual species, which are used as grazing resources. These Iberian open woodland rangelands (dehesas) have been studied from different points of view: hydrologically, with respect to soil organic matter content, as well as in relation to gully erosion, topographical thresholds, soil erosion and runoff production, soil degradation and management practices…etc, among others. The soil organic carbon stock capacity depends not only on abiotic factors such as the mineralogical composition and the climate, but also on soil use and management (Parras et al., 2014 and 2015). In Spanish soils, climate, use and management strongly affect the carbon variability, mainly in soils in dry Mediterranean climates characterized by low organic carbon content, weak structure and readily degradable soils. Hontoria et al. (2004) emphasized that the climate and soil use are two factors that greatly influence carbon content in the Mediterranean climate. This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability in MEOW - dehesa with cereals, olive grove and Mediterranean oak forest with different vegetation types (Quercus suber, Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea) in The Cardeña-Montoro Natural Park, a nature reserve that consists of a 38,449 ha forested area in southern Spain. Sixty-eight sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed as soil control section with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The studied soils were classified as Cambisols and the major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The total SOCS in The Cardeña-Montoro Natural Park was higher in MEOW with olive grove (111,69 Mg ha-1) and lower in MEOW with Quercus faginea (93,57 Mg ha-1). However, when the top soil (superficial section control) was analyzed, the SOCS was the highest in MEOW with olive grove (70,12 Mg-1) and the lowest in MEOW with Pinus (47,82 Mg ha-1). This research is a preliminary assessment for modeling SOCS at the regional level in Mediterranean natural areas. References Hontoria, C., Rodríguez-Murillo, J., and Saa, A.: Contenido de carbono orgánico en el suelo y factores de control en la España Peninsular, Edafología, 11, 149-155, 2004. Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., and Lozano-García, B: Organic farming affects C and N in soils under olive groves in Mediterranean areas, Land Degrad. Develop., in press, available online: in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2231, 2013. Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., Lozano-García, B., Fernández Rebollo, P., Moreno Elcure, F., Carbonero Muñoz, M.D.: Organic farming has little effect on carbon stock in a Mediterranean dehesa (southern Spain). Catena 113 (2014) 9-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.09.002 Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., and Lozano-García, B.: Management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean open rangelands -- treeless grasslands, Land Degrad. Develop., in press, available online: in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2269, 2015.

  17. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper for detecting soil properties under grassland vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of Thematic Mapper data acquired November 15, 1982, over a vegetated site located in the East Texas Timberlands and Claypan area of Texas has indicated that montmorillonitic clay textured soils can be separated from soils with different textures. The difference of TM band 4 (0.76-0.90 micron) and band 7 (2.08-2.35 microns) had an agreement of 55.8 percent with the USDA soil survey for upland clay soils. This compared to 55.9-percent agreement when all six bands (excluding the thermal) were used. The disagreement occurred at the boundary lines as defined by the USDA soil survey and the spectral data. This result is considered to be fairly good, considering the difficulty in placement of soil boundaries by the soil scientist in the field. While the exact influence on the vegetation, and thus the spectral response observed by TM, is not understood at this time, it appears that TM band 7 is responding to the type of mineralogy of the soil and that soil properties important to the plant can be detected using TM.

  18. Radiostrontium contamination of soil and vegetation within the Semipalatinsk test site.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Semioschkina, N; Voigt, G; Mukusheva, M; Clifford, J

    2004-12-01

    The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (STS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan was an important site for testing atomic bombs and other civil and military nuclear devices of the former Soviet Union. Results are presented from investigations on the extent of radiostrontium contamination in soils and vegetation at the technical areas of the STS, where the tests were conducted and in pastures used by farmers for grazing animals or for hay production. Our data are compared with those reported largely in the recent Russian language literature that has been reviewed. The extent of (90)Sr contamination of soil is highly variable over the STS with the highest values associated with the technical areas, particularly the Degelen mountains. Recently measured values in both the present data and the Russian language literature confirm the relatively high current contamination of soil and vegetation in the vicinity of tunnels and associated watercourses in the Degelen area. The proportion of (90)Sr in soil which could not be extracted with 6 M HCl was only an average of 20%, which is low compared to other test site areas and possibly indicates a relatively high mobility in this area, because the (90)Sr is derived from leakage from explosion tunnels along watercourses rather than being associated with fused silicates. A comparison of relative activity concentrations in soil and vegetation suggests that the transfer of (90)Sr to vegetation on the STS is high compared to that of (137)Cs and plutonium. PMID:15645315

  19. Classification of Soil Moisture on Vegetated Earthen Levees Using X and L Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrooghy, M.; Aanstoos, J. V.; Hasan, K.; Nobrega, R. A.; Younan, N. H.

    2011-12-01

    Earthen levees protect large areas of land in the US from flooding. Timely inspection and repairs can reduce the potential for catastrophic failures. Changes in spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture can reveal signs of instability and help identify zones of weakness. Since analytical and empirical models have shown a relationship between SAR backscatter and soil moisture, we are using SAR to classify soil moisture on levees. Estimation of soil moisture from SAR is challenging when the surface has any significant vegetation. For the levee application, the soil is typically covered with a uniform layer of grass. Our methodology is based on a supervised soil moisture classification using a back propagation neural network with four classes of low, medium, high, and very high soil moisture. Our methodology consists of the following steps: 1) segmentation of the levee area from background and exclusion of tree-covered areas; 2) extracting the backscattering and texture features such as GLCM (Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix) and wavelet features; 3) training the back propagation neural network classifier; and 4) testing the area of interest and validation of the results using ground truth data. Two sources of SAR imagery are tested with this method: (1) fully polarimetric L-band data from NASA's UAVSAR; and (2) dual-polarimetric X-band data from the German TerraSAR-X satellite. The study area is a 4 km stretch of levee along the lower Mississippi River in the United States. Field data collected simultaneously with image acquisition are utilized for training and validation. Preliminary results show classification accuracies of about 50% for the UAVSAR image and 30% for the TerraSAR-X image in vegetated areas. The figure below shows a soil moisture classification using UAVSAR on April 28, 2011.

  20. Estimating root-zone soil moisture in the West Africa Sahel using remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Amy L.

    Agricultural drought is characterized by shortages in precipitation, large differences between actual and potential evapotranspiration, and soil water deficits that impact crop growth and pasture productivity. Rainfall and other agrometeorological gauge networks in Sub-Saharan Africa are inadequate for drought early warning systems and hence, satellite-based estimates of rainfall and vegetation greenness provide the main sources of information. While a number of studies have described the empirical relationship between rainfall and vegetation greenness, these studies lack a process based approach that includes soil moisture storage. In Chapters I and II, I modeled soil moisture using satellite rainfall inputs and developed a new method for estimating soil moisture with NDVI calibrated to in situ and microwave soil moisture observations. By transforming both NDVI and rainfall into estimates of soil moisture I was able to easily compare these two datasets in a physically meaningful way. In Chapter II, I also show how the new NDVI derived soil moisture can be assimilated into a water balance model that calculates an index of crop water stress. Compared to the analogous rainfall derived estimates of soil moisture and crop stress the NDVI derived estimates were better correlated with millet yields. In Chapter III, I developed a metric for defining growing season drought events that negatively impact millet yields. This metric is based on the data and models used in the Chapters I and II. I then use this metric to evaluate the ability of a sophisticated land surface model to detect drought events. The analysis showed that this particular land surface model's soil moisture estimates do have the potential to benefit the food security and drought early warning communities. With a focus on soil moisture, this dissertation introduced new methods that utilized a variety of data and models for agricultural drought monitoring applications. These new methods facilitate a more quantitative, transparent `convergence of evidence' approach to identifying agricultural drought events that lead to food insecurity. Ideally, these new methods will contribute to better famine early warning and the timely delivery of food aid to reduce the human suffering caused by drought.

  1. Fully coupled climate/dynamical vegetation model simulations over Northern Africa during the mid-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, R.; Kutzbach, J.; Foley, J.; Pollard, D.

    The climate and vegetation patterns of the middle Holocene (6000 years ago; 6ka) over Northern Africa are simulated using a fully-synchronous climate and dynamical vegetation model. The coupled model predicts a northward shift in tropical rainforest and tropical deciduous forest vegetation by about 5 degrees of latitude, and an increase in grassland at the present-day simulated Saharan boundaries. The northward expansion of vegetation over North Africa at 6ka is initiated by an orbitally-induced amplification of the summer monsoon, and enhanced by feedback effects induced by the vegetation. These combined processes lead to a major reduction in Saharan desert area at 6ka relative to present-day of about 50%. However, as shown in previous asynchronous modelling studies, the coupled climate/vegetation model does not fully reproduce the vegetation patterns inferred from palaeoenvironmental records, which suggest that steppe vegetation may have existed across most of Northern Africa. Orbital changes produce an intensification of monsoonal precipitation during the peak rainy season (July to September), whilst vegetation feedbacks, in addition to producing further increases in the peak intensity, play an important role in extending the rainy season from May/June through to November. The orbitally induced increases in precipitation are relatively uniform from west to east, in contrast to vegetation feedback-induced increases in precipitation which are concentrated in western North Africa. Annual-average precipitation increases caused by vegetation feedbacks are simulated to be of similar importance to orbital effects in the west, whilst they are relatively unimportant farther to the east. The orbital, vegetation and combined orbital and vegetation-induced changes in climate, from the simulations presented in this study, have been compared with results from previous modelling studies over the appropriate North African domain. Consequently, the important role of vegetation parametrizations in determining the magnitude of vegetation feedbacks has been illustrated. Further modelling studies which include the effects of changes in ocean temperature and changes in soil properties may be needed, along with additional observations, to resolve the discrepancy between model predictions of vegetation and palaeorecords for North Africa.

  2. Infrared temperature measurements over bare soil and vegetation - A HAPEX perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Toby N.; Perry, Eileen M.; Taconet, Odile

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of aircraft and ground measurements made in France during the HAPEX experiment show that horizontal radiometric surface temperature variations, as viewed by aircraft, can reflect the vertical profile of soil moisture (soil versus root zone) because of horizontal variations in vegetation density. Analyses based on one day's data show that, although horizontal variations in soil moisture were small, the vertical differences between a dry surface and a wet root zone were large. Horizontal temperature differences between bare soil, corn and oats reflect differences in the fractional vegetation cover, as seen by the radiometer. On the other hand, these horizontal variations in radiometric surface temperature seem to reflect real horizontal variations in surface turbulent energy fluxes.

  3. Reorganization of vegetation, hydrology and soil carbon after permafrost degradation across heterogeneous boreal landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torre Jorgenson, M.; Harden, Jennifer; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Wickland, Kim; Ewing, Stephanie; Manies, Kristen; Zhuang, Qianlai; Shur, Yuri; Striegl, Robert; Koch, Josh

    2013-09-01

    The diversity of ecosystems across boreal landscapes, successional changes after disturbance and complicated permafrost histories, present enormous challenges for assessing how vegetation, water and soil carbon may respond to climate change in boreal regions. To address this complexity, we used a chronosequence approach to assess changes in vegetation composition, water storage and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks along successional gradients within four landscapes: (1) rocky uplands on ice-poor hillside colluvium, (2) silty uplands on extremely ice-rich loess, (3) gravelly-sandy lowlands on ice-poor eolian sand and (4) peaty-silty lowlands on thick ice-rich peat deposits over reworked lowland loess. In rocky uplands, after fire permafrost thawed rapidly due to low ice contents, soils became well drained and SOC stocks decreased slightly. In silty uplands, after fire permafrost persisted, soils remained saturated and SOC decreased slightly. In gravelly-sandy lowlands where permafrost persisted in drier forest soils, loss of deeper permafrost around lakes has allowed recent widespread drainage of lakes that has exposed limnic material with high SOC to aerobic decomposition. In peaty-silty lowlands, 2-4 m of thaw settlement led to fragmented drainage patterns in isolated thermokarst bogs and flooding of soils, and surface soils accumulated new bog peat. We were not able to detect SOC changes in deeper soils, however, due to high variability. Complicated soil stratigraphy revealed that permafrost has repeatedly aggraded and degraded in all landscapes during the Holocene, although in silty uplands only the upper permafrost was affected. Overall, permafrost thaw has led to the reorganization of vegetation, water storage and flow paths, and patterns of SOC accumulation. However, changes have occurred over different timescales among landscapes: over decades in rocky uplands and gravelly-sandy lowlands in response to fire and lake drainage, over decades to centuries in peaty-silty lowlands with a legacy of complicated Holocene changes, and over centuries in silty uplands where ice-rich soil and ecological recovery protect permafrost.

  4. Reorganization of vegetation, hydrology and soil carbon after permafrost degradation across heterogeneous boreal landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, M. Torre; Harden, Jennifer; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Wickland, Kim; Ewing, Stephanie; Manies, Kristen; Zhuang, Qianlai; Shur, Yuri; Striegl, Robert; Koch, Josh

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of ecosystems across boreal landscapes, successional changes after disturbance and complicated permafrost histories, present enormous challenges for assessing how vegetation, water and soil carbon may respond to climate change in boreal regions. To address this complexity, we used a chronosequence approach to assess changes in vegetation composition, water storage and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks along successional gradients within four landscapes: (1) rocky uplands on ice-poor hillside colluvium, (2) silty uplands on extremely ice-rich loess, (3) gravelly–sandy lowlands on ice-poor eolian sand and (4) peaty–silty lowlands on thick ice-rich peat deposits over reworked lowland loess. In rocky uplands, after fire permafrost thawed rapidly due to low ice contents, soils became well drained and SOC stocks decreased slightly. In silty uplands, after fire permafrost persisted, soils remained saturated and SOC decreased slightly. In gravelly–sandy lowlands where permafrost persisted in drier forest soils, loss of deeper permafrost around lakes has allowed recent widespread drainage of lakes that has exposed limnic material with high SOC to aerobic decomposition. In peaty–silty lowlands, 2–4 m of thaw settlement led to fragmented drainage patterns in isolated thermokarst bogs and flooding of soils, and surface soils accumulated new bog peat. We were not able to detect SOC changes in deeper soils, however, due to high variability. Complicated soil stratigraphy revealed that permafrost has repeatedly aggraded and degraded in all landscapes during the Holocene, although in silty uplands only the upper permafrost was affected. Overall, permafrost thaw has led to the reorganization of vegetation, water storage and flow paths, and patterns of SOC accumulation. However, changes have occurred over different timescales among landscapes: over decades in rocky uplands and gravelly–sandy lowlands in response to fire and lake drainage, over decades to centuries in peaty–silty lowlands with a legacy of complicated Holocene changes, and over centuries in silty uplands where ice-rich soil and ecological recovery protect permafrost.

  5. Effect of vegetation on the temporal stability of soil moisture in grass-stabilized semi-arid sand dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tiejun; Wedin, David A.; Franz, Trenton E.; Hiller, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    Soil moisture is a critical state variable affecting a variety of land surface and subsurface processes. Despite the complex interactions between soil moisture and its controlling factors, the phenomenon of temporal stability of soil moisture (TS SM) has been widely observed under natural conditions. In this study, the control of vegetation on TS SM is investigated by artificially manipulating surface vegetation (e.g., vegetated and de-vegetated plots) in a native grassland-stabilized sand dune area with similar soil texture and topography. Soil moisture data were collected at the depths of 30 cm (within the root zone) and 110 cm (below the root zone) over a period of four years. Using soil moisture data from the de-vegetated plots as a baseline, TS SM within the root zone is shown to be mainly affected by vegetation phenology at the study site. Therefore, the control of vegetation on TS SM varies on both seasonal and annual time scales. The change in the interseasonal patterns of TS SM is tightly related to plant phenology and the control of vegetation on the ranking of mean relative difference (MRD) of soil moisture significantly weakens during non-growing seasons due to diminished root water uptake. It suggests that the timing of sampling schemes (e.g., growing season vs. non-growing season) may alter TS SM patterns. On annual time scales, TS SM is affected by climatic conditions, as the control of vegetation on TS SM becomes stronger under drier conditions. In particular, vegetation tends to create larger contrasts in soil moisture levels between vegetated and de-vegetated plots in drier years. The soil moisture data also provide evidence that vegetation tends to reduce TS SM and increase spatial variability in soil moisture at the study site. The standard deviation of relative difference (SDRD) of soil moisture at the 30 cm depth (within the root zone) is considerably larger in the vegetated plots than those in the de-vegetated plots. As such, the effectiveness of using representative locations for monitoring mean soil moisture conditions in the vegetated plots deteriorates.

  6. Interacting vegetative and thermal contributions to water movement in desert soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C.A.; Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Cooper, C.A.; Simunek, J.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally driven water-vapor flow can be an important component of total water movement in bare soil and in deep unsaturated zones, but this process is often neglected when considering the effects of soil-plant-atmosphere interactions on shallow water movement. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the coupled and separate effects of vegetative and thermal-gradient contributions to soil water movement in desert environments. The evaluation was done by comparing a series of simulations with and without vegetation and thermal forcing during a 4.7-yr period (May 2001-December 2005). For vegetated soil, evapotranspiration alone reduced root-zone (upper 1 m) moisture to a minimum value (25 mm) each year under both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. Variations in the leaf area index altered the minimum storage values by up to 10 mm. For unvegetated isothermal and nonisothermal simulations, root-zone water storage nearly doubled during the simulation period and created a persistent driving force for downward liquid fluxes below the root zone (total net flux ~1 mm). Total soil water movement during the study period was dominated by thermally driven vapor fluxes. Thermally driven vapor flow and condensation supplemented moisture supplies to plant roots during the driest times of each year. The results show how nonisothermal flow is coupled with plant water uptake, potentially influencing ecohydrologic relations in desert environments. ?? Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA. All rights reserved.

  7. Transfer of radioactive caesium from soil to vegetation and comparison with potassium in upland grasslands.

    PubMed

    Coughtrey, P J; Kirton, J A; Mitchell, N G; Morris, C

    1989-01-01

    The distribution and transfer of caesium and potassium between soils and vegetation has been investigated by field sampling and experimental studies on soils and vegetation typical of upland grassland in north west England. Total (137)Cs content to a depth of 0.05 m below root matt ranged from 13 000 to 18 000 Bq m(-2). This caesium content derives from three sources: the Windscale accident of 1957, weapons-testing fallout which peaked in the early 1960s, and the Chernobyl accident in May 1986. From 2200 to 6200 Bq m(-2) is attributed to the first two sources, and the remainder to Chernobyl. In December 1986, 23-78% of pre-Chernobyl (137)Cs was associated with soil underlying root matt and 0.5-5.5% was associated with vegetation. Plant/soil concentration ratios for pre-Chernobyl (137)Cs were in the range 0.5-6.5, the lowest values being associated with patches of Festuca/Agrostis turf. At the same time, 4-19% of (137)Cs deposited from Chernobyl was associated with vegetation, although higher values appeared in conjunction with the moss, Polytrichum commune. Corresponding total potassium contents were in the range 9.6-22 mg m(-2) to 0.05 m soil depth. Lower values were found at the wetter sites where, on average, 5.7% of the total potassium was present in vegetation. At drier sites the potassium content was higher and, on average, 8.9% was present in vegetation. Plant/soil concentration ratios ranged from 2.2 to 9.2. During accelerated growth of vegetation, on monoliths in glasshouse conditions over the winter of 1986/87, (137)Cs was transferred from soil and root matt to new growth, such that concentrations in fresh growth were similar to or higher than those observed in the field during December 1986. Removal of caesium by successive cuts resulted in up to 25% of the original estimated total being removed over a 240 day period. Increased concentrations coincided with the emergence of Carex sp. and Trichophorum caespitosum, as well as the development of Agrostis sp. and Festuca ovina. Observed Cs/K discrimination ratios, particularly for (137)Cs deposited from Chernobyl, were higher than previously reported in the literature. The experimental results were confirmed by field observations during spring 1987 and it is concluded that caesium deposited as a result of the Chernobyl accident will continue to be recycled in organic and low potassium soils. PMID:15092335

  8. Storage of atmospheric carbon in global litter and soil pools in response to vegetation change and biomass allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Klooster, S.A.; Potter, C.S.

    1995-09-01

    Changes in the distribution of vegetation types under altered climate regimes could have important consequences for the storage of atmospheric carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Because there are relatively few definitive field studies of changes in whole ecosystem carbon balance under modified climate stress, process-level models driven by gridded global databases may provide reasonable indicators of biome-specific sensitivity of C storage to changes in vegetation cover. We have used plant litter quality (lignin content) and carbon allocation to woody tissues as surrogates for testing the hypothetical effects of future vegetation change using the CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach) Biosphere model. The model is driven by global gridded (1{degrees}) satellite imagery on a monthly time interval to simulate seasonal patterns in net ecosystem carbon balance and steady-state carbon storage in detritus and soils. Sensitivity tests treated litter quality and allocation effects independently from other direct effects of changes in climate, atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, and primary production. Results support the hypothesis that soil C storage in today`s temperate and boreal forest life zones are those most sensitive to changes in litter lignin content which may accompany increased climate stress. For these systems, the model predicts that a 50% increase in litter lignin concentrations would result in a long-term net gain of about 10% C from the atmosphere into surface litter and soil organic matter pools. A 50% decrease in C allocation to woody tissues would invoke a net loss of 10% C from litter and soil organic matter pools.

  9. [Spatial variation of heavy metals contamination in the soil and vegetables of Huludao City].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Na; Wang, Qi-Chao; Liu, Jing-Shuang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Zhong-Sheng

    2009-07-15

    Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu concentrations in the soil, vegetables and crop of Huludao city were investigated. The Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu concentrations in soils of the smelting areas are 1.422, 443.1, 60.94, 4084, and 247.8 mg x kg(-1), thus 6.092, 3195, 341.7, 35 157, and 1 557 mg x kg(-1) for the maximal concentrations, respectively. Spatial distribution maps of heavy metals concentrations in top soils in Huludao City were separately laid out by using Kriging. Heavy metals spatial distribution patterns in soils show that Ph, Cd, Zn, Cu emissions from Huludao Zinc Plant are the main pollution sources of heavy metals to the top soils in Huludao City, but Hg emission from Huludao Zinc Plant and chlor-alkali industry is the main pollution source of mercury to the top soils. Heavy metals concentrations in top soils decrease exponentially with distance from the zinc smelting area. Except Hg, the exponential equation could be better to fit the variety forother heavy metals. Heavy metals in vegetable and crop cultivated around Huludao Zinc Plant are higher than from markets, suggests that heavy metals affect the local soil and crops seriously. PMID:19775010

  10. Relationships between soil microbial communities and soil carbon turnover along a vegetation and moisture gradient in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldrop, M. P.; Harden, J. W.; Turetsky, M. R.; Petersen, D. G.; McGuire, A. D.; Briones, M. J.; Churchill, A. C.; Doctor, D. H.; Pruett, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    Boreal landscapes are characterized by a mosaic of uplands and lowlands, which differ in plant species composition, litter biochemistry, and biogeochemical cycling rates. Boreal ecosystems, from upland black spruce stands to lowland fens, are structured largely by water table position and contain quantitatively and qualitatively different forms of soil organic matter. Differences in carbon (C) availability among ecosystems likely translate to differences in the structure of soil microbial communities, which in turn could affect rates of organic matter decomposition and turnover. We examined relationships between microbial communities and soil C turnover in near-surface soils along a topographic soil moisture and vegetation gradient in interior Alaska. We tested the hypothesis that upland black spruce sites would be dominated by soil fungi and have slow rates of C turnover, whereas lowland ecosystems would be dominated by bacteria and mesofauna (enchytraeids) and have more rapid rates of C turnover. We utilized several isotopic measures of soil C turnover including bomb radiocarbon techniques, the ?15N of SOM, and the difference between ?13C of SOM, DOC, and respired CO2. All three measures indicated greater C turnover rates in the surface soils of the lowland fen sites compared to the more upland locations. Quantitative PCR analyses of soil bacteria and archaea, combined with enchytraed counts, confirmed that surface soils from the lowland fen ecosystems had the highest abundances of these functional groups. Fungal biomass was highly variable and tended to be more abundant in the upland forest sites. Soil enzymatic results were mixed: potential cellulase activities were higher in the more upland soils even though rates of microbial activity were generally lower. Oxidative enzyme activities were higher in fens, even though these ecosystems are saturated and partly anaerobic. Overall our data support soil food web theory which argues that rapidly cycling systems are bacterial dominated with mesofaunal grazing, whereas slowly cycling systems have characteristic higher fungal:bacterial ratios.

  11. Soil, water, and vegetation conditions in South Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H. (principal investigators)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Reflectance measurements with a field spectroradiometer on nine dates (between December 9 and April 8) during the growing season of two wheat varieties, Milam and Penjamo, showed that the reflectance curves had the characteristic shape of vegetated surfaces by 4 weeks after the emergence. Green light (0.55 micron) reflectance was maximal and between water absorption bands (1.65 and 2.2 microns) reflectance was minimal when green vegetation development was greatest. Computer classification was accomplished for 81,000 hectare coastal rangeland area for October 13 and December 10, 1975, overpass dates. A hard freeze occurred between these two dates and many of the deciduous woody species defoliated so that more light penetrated to the herbaceous understory in December than in October.

  12. Soil, water, and vegetation conditions in south Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H. (principal investigators)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Software development for a computer-aided crop and soil survey system is nearing completion. Computer-aided variety classification accuracies using LANDSAT-1 MSS data for a 600 hectare citrus farm were 83% for Redblush grapefruit and 91% for oranges. These accuracies indicate that there is good potential for computer-aided inventories of grapefruit and orange citrus orchards with LANDSAT-type MSS data. Mean digital values of clouds differed statistically from those for crop, soil, and water entities, and those for cloud shadows were enough lower than sunlit crop and soil to be distinguishable. The standard errors of estimate for the calibration of computer compatible tape coordinate system (pixel and record) to earth coordinate system (longitude and latitude) for 6 LANDSAT scenes ranged from 0.72 to 1.50 pixels and from 0.58 to 1.75 records.

  13. Soil seed bank recovery occurs more rapidly than expected in semi-arid Mediterranean gypsum vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Olano, J. M.; Caballero, I.; Escudero, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Seed banks are critical in arid ecosystems and ensure the persistence of species. Despite the importance of seed banks, knowledge about their formation and the extent to which a seed bank can recover after severe perturbation remains scarce. If undisturbed, soil seed banks reflect a long vegetation history; therefore, we would expect that new soil seed banks and those of undisturbed soils require long periods to become similar with respect to both density and composition. In contrast, if soil seed banks are only a short- to mid-term reservoir in which long-term accumulation constitutes only a tiny fraction, they will recover rapidly from the vegetation. To shed light on this question, we evaluated seed bank formation in a semi-arid gypsum community. Methods Soils from 300 plots were replaced with sterilized soil in an undisturbed semi-arid Mediterranean community. Seasonal changes in seed bank density and composition were monitored for 3 years by comparing paired sterilized and control soil samples at each plot. Key Results Differences in seed bank density between sterilized and control soil disappeared after 18 months. The composition of sterilized seed banks was correlated with that of the control plots from the first sampling date, and both were highly correlated with vegetation. Nearly 24 % of the seed bank density could be attributed to secondary dispersal. Most seeds died before emergence (66·41–71·33 %), whereas the rest either emerged (14·08–15·48 %) or persisted in the soil (14·59–18·11 %). Conclusions Seed banks can recover very rapidly even under the limiting and stressful conditions of semi-arid environments. This recovery is based mainly on the seed rain at small scales together with secondary dispersal from intact seed banks in the vicinity. These results emphasize the relevance of processes occurring on short spatial scales in determining community structure. PMID:22003238

  14. Radionuclide concentrations in terrestrial vegetation and soil on and around the Hanford Site, 1983 through 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Antonio, E.J.; Cooper, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    This report reviews concentrations of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, U isotopes, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in soil and vegetation samples collected from 1983 through 1993 during routine surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling locations were grouped in study areas associated with operational areas on the Site. While radionuclide concentrations were very low and representative of background concentrations from historic fallout, some study areas on the Site contained slightly elevated concentrations compared to other study areas onsite and offsite. The 100 Areas had concentrations of {sup 60}Co comparable to the minimum detectable concentration of 0.02 pCi/g in soil. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in 200 Area soils were slightly elevated. The 300 Area had a slight elevation of U in soil. These observations were expected because many of the sampling locations were selected to monitor specific facilities or operations at the operational areas. Generally, concentrations of the radionuclides studied were greater and more readily measured in soil samples compared to vegetation samples. The general pattern of concentrations of radionuclide concentrations in vegetation by area mirrored that observed in soil. Declines in {sup 90}Sr in soil appear to be attributed to radioactive decay and possibly downward migration out of the sampling horizon. The other radionuclides addressed in this report strongly sorb to soil and are readily retained in surface soil. Because of their long half-lives compared to the length of the study period, there was no significant indication that concentrations of U isotopes and Pu isotopes were decreasing over time.

  15. [Effects of land use and vegetation restoration on soil quality in a small catchment of the Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Gong, Jie; Chen, Liding; Fu, Bojie; Li, Yanmei; Huang, Zhilin; Huang, Yilong; Peng, Hongjia

    2004-12-01

    Soil quality improvement plays an important role in sustaining global biosphere. This paper studied the changes of soil quality after 25 years' land use and vegetation restoration at the Anjiapo catchment of western Loess Plateau. The analyses of soil characteristics of wasteland, almond land, farmland, pineland, shrub land and fallow land showed that different land use and vegetation restoration had different effects on soil integrated fertility index. Soil organic matter content was increased due to planting shrubs and forests. Both vegetation restoration and fallow could improve soil quality. Cultivation practice could decrease soil nutrient levels, and cropland soil was degraded. Shrub soil formed "fertile island" in the semi-arid region. Fallow could improve soil fertility to some extent. Human activities and vegetation restoration could affect soil nutrient contents after land use pattern was changed. With the launch out into the "Grand development of Western China", "Grain for Green Project" and ecological restoration, both shrub planting and fallow (natural restoration) should be the optional choices to restore soil fertility, as they could decrease soil erosion and improve soil condition at catchment scale, especially in the hilly and gully loess area. Integrative control of small catchment may be the best way for the sustainable development of the semi-arid hilly area of Loess Plateau. PMID:15825444

  16. A three-tiered approach for coupled vegetation and soil sampling to develop ecological descriptions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecological site descriptions (ESDs), alongside similar land classification systems, are used to describe the breadth of plant community types, community changes, and soil surface conditions that can occur within a particular land area. Vegetation dynamic processes and management may change the ident...

  17. Microbial Communities in Cerrado Soils under Native Vegetation Subjected to Prescribed Fires and Under Pasture

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of fire regimes and vegetation cover on the structure and dynamics of soil microbial communities, through phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Comparisons were made between native areas with different woody covers ("cerra...

  18. Exploring cover crops as carbon sources for anaerobic soil disinfestation in a vegetable production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a raised-bed plasticulture vegetable production system utilizing anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) in Florida field trials, pathogen, weed, and parasitic nematode control was equivalent to or better than the methyl bromide control. Molasses was used as the labile carbon source to stimulate micr...

  19. Ultramafic Rocks: Their Soils, Vegetation and Fauna Rocas Ultramficas: Sus Suelos, Vegetacin y Fauna

    E-print Network

    Boyd, Robert S.

    Ultramafic Rocks: Their Soils, Vegetation and Fauna Rocas Ultramáficas: Sus Suelos, Vegetación y Caledonia y los Estados Unidos. El volumen incluye artículos sobre los temas siguientes: · Geología y suelos, · Flora, fitogeografía y vegetación de Cuba y otras regiones, · Microbiología de suelos ultramáficos

  20. Structure, functions and interguild relationships of the soil nematode assemblage in organic vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The abundance and metabolic footprints of soil nematodes were quantified during four of eight years of an intensive organic vegetable production system. Treatment variables included cover crop mixtures and frequency, and compost application rates. The abundances of bacterivore and fungivore nematode...

  1. Soil erosion and runoff in different vegetation patches from semiarid Central Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation patches in arid and semiarid areas are important in the regulation of surface hydrological processes. Canopy and ground cover in these fertility islands develop a natural cushion against the impact energy of rainfall, and the higher levels of organic matter improve soil physicochemical pr...

  2. Impact of soil type on vegetation response to prairie dog herbivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prairie dogs and their impact on vegetation have been the focus of numerous research projects. However, the effect of soil from this interaction has been less thoroughly documented. We evaluated prairie dog colonies (on-colony) and nearby sites without prairie dogs (off-colony) on Wayden, Cabba an...

  3. Author's personal copy Soil and vegetation as the determinants of lake nitrogen

    E-print Network

    Mazumder, Asit

    Author's personal copy Soil and vegetation as the determinants of lake nitrogen concentrations, rivers and aquifers (Meidinger and Pojar, 1991). High nitrogen concentration can cause lake quality (Vitousek and Howarth, 1991; Carpenter et al., 1998). As nitrogen (N) is a major determinant

  4. Fertility Element Storage in Chaparral Vegetation, Leaf Litter, and Soil1

    E-print Network

    distributions for total weights of constituents, and their elemental compositions and storages. This will allowFertility Element Storage in Chaparral Vegetation, Leaf Litter, and Soil1 Paul J. Zinke2 Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-58. Berkeley, CA: Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, U

  5. The role of vegetation covers on soil wetting processes at rainfall event scale in scattered tree woodland of Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-Parra, Javier; Schnabel, Susanne; Ceballos-Barbancho, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Soil water is recognized as the key factor that controls the organization and functioning of dryland ecosystems. However, in spite of its great importance in ecohydrological processes as well as in modelling applications, most of the studies focus on daily or longer timescales, while its dynamics at shorter timescales are very little known. The main objective of this work was to determine the role of vegetation covers (grassland and tree canopy) in the soil hydrological response using measurements with high temporal resolution in evergreen oak woodland with Mediterranean climate. For this, soil water content was measured with capacitive sensors installed in the soil profile at different depths registering continuously with a high time resolution. Three study areas were monitored for two and half hydrological years. Results obtained revealed that rainwater amounts reaching the soil may temporarily be modified by covers according to precipitation properties and antecedent conditions (from dry to wet) before the rain episode. Rainfall amounts triggering a positive soil hydrological response decreased as initial states became drier, being more accentuated below tree canopies. The frequency of re-wetting cycles and the antecedent states seem to be as important or even more than either the duration or the precipitation amount. Therefore, the role of vegetation was more decisive under drier environmental conditions, where events lower than 6 mm and 2 mm never caused soil hydrological response either below tree canopy or grassland, respectively. This is important because initial conditions were independent of seasonality and because more than half of all rainfall events registered amounts smaller than 5 mm. If changes on precipitation patterns turn out in drier conditions, the predominance of such situations could have important ecohydrological consequences in semiarid ecosystems.

  6. Contributions of Understory and/or Overstory Vegetations to Soil Microbial PLFA and Nematode Diversities in Eucalyptus Monocultures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhanfeng; Zhou, Lixia; Fu, Shenglei

    2014-01-01

    Ecological interactions between aboveground and belowground biodiversity have received many attentions in the recent decades. Although soil biodiversity declined with the decrease of plant diversity, many previous studies found plant species identities were more important than plant diversity in controlling soil biodiversity. This study focused on the responses of soil biodiversity to the altering of plant functional groups, namely overstory and understory vegetations, rather than plant diversity gradient. We conducted an experiment by removing overstory and/or understory vegetation to compare their effects on soil microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and nematode diversities in eucalyptus monocultures. Our results indicated that both overstory and understory vegetations could affect soil microbial PLFA and nematode diversities, which manifested as the decrease in Shannon–Wiener diversity index (H?) and Pielou evenness index (J) and the increase in Simpson dominance index (?) after vegetation removal. Soil microclimate change explained part of variance of soil biodiversity indices. Both overstory and understory vegetations positively correlated with soil microbial PLFA and nematode diversities. In addition, the alteration of soil biodiversity might be due to a mixing effect of bottom-up control and soil microclimate change after vegetation removal in the studied plantations. Given the studied ecosystem is common in humid subtropical and tropical region of the world, our findings might have great potential to extrapolate to large scales and could be conducive to ecosystem management and service. PMID:24427315

  7. [Soil organic carbon storage changes with land reclamation under vegetation reconstruction on opencast coal mine dump].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Chao; Dang, Ting-Hui; Guo, Sheng-Li; Xue, Jiang; Tang, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation reconstruction was an effective solution to reclaim the opencast coal mine dump which was formed in the process of mining. To understand the impact of the vegetation reconstruction patterns' on the mine soil organic carbon (SOC) storage was essential for selecting the methods of vegetation restoration and also important for accurately estimating the potential of the soil carbon sequestration. The study area was on the Heidaigou opencast coal mine, which was 15 years reclaimed coal mine dump in Zhungeer, Inner Mongolia autonomous region, we selected 5 vegetation reconstruction patterns (natural recovery land, grassland, bush land, mixed woodland of arbor and bush, arbor land), and 16 vegetation types, 408 soil samples (0-100 m), to study the effect of the vegetation reconstruction patterns on the SOC storage. The results were showed as follows: (1) on the reclaimed coal mine dump, the vegetation reconstruction patterns significantly affected the SOC content and its distribution in the soil profile (P < 0.05). The surface 0-10 cm SOC content was grassland > shrub land > arbor forest > mixed forest of arbor and shrub > natural recovery land, in which the grassland, shrub land and arbor forest were about 2.2, 1.3, and 1.3 times of natural recovery land (2.14 g · kg(-1)) respectively. The total nitrogen (TN) showed the similar trends. (2) Among the vegetation types, Medicago sativa had the highest surface SOC content (5.71 g · kg(-1)) and TN content (0.49 g · kg(-1)), that were 171.3% and 166.7% higher than the natural recovery land, and two times of Hippophae rhamnoides, Amorpha fruticosa + Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. (3) The effect of vegetation types on SOC mainly concentrated in the 0-20 cm depth, and the effect on TN accounted for 40 cm. (4) For the SOC storage, the order was original landform area > reclaimed dump > new dump and grassland > woodland (including arbor and shrub land). After 15 years revegetation, the soil carbon storage of the grassland, shrub land and arbor land were increased by 15.47 t · hm(-2), 6.93 t · hm(-2) and 6.95 t · hm(-2) respectively in the 100 cm depth, which were equivalent to 2/3, 1/2 and 1/2 of the original landform levels. The results showed a great ability of carbon sequestration. PMID:25693392

  8. Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 32: Patterns in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Simmer, Clemens; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Crewell, Susanne; Klitzsch, Norbert; Vereecken, Harry; Kollet, Stefan; Hintz, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVA) system is characterized by non-linear multi-scale exchange processes concerning mass, momentum and energy resulting in complex spatial and temporal patterns and structures. Under the TR32 framework, the characterisation of these structures and patterns will lead to a deeper qualitative and quantitative understanding of the SVA system, and ultimately to better predictions of the SVA state. TR32-research is based on three methodological pillars: Monitoring, Modelling and Data Assimilation. While focusing on the Rur Catchment (Germany), patterns are monitored since 2006 continuously using existing and novel geophysical and remote sensing techniques from the local to the catchment scale like ground penetrating radar, polarimetric precipitation and cloud radar imaging, spectrally induced polarization, radiomagnetotellurics, electrical resistivity tomography, boundary layer scintillometry, lidar techniques, cosmic-ray, and microwave radiometry. Model development centers around a coupled model platform TerrSysMP, which considers mutual fluxes from the groundwater to the atmosphere from the meter to the kilometer scale by combining the atmospheric model COSMO, the land surface model CLM, and the hydrological model ParFlow in a scale-consistent way using the external OASIS coupler. Another focus is a LES model coupled to a novel landsurface scheme, which has been developed for a better understanding of the propagation of patterns between landsurface and atmosphere and their mutual interactions. A range of projects focus on smaller scales processes e.g. down to individual roots, which are modelled at high resolution in order to develop suitable parametrisations for TerrSysMP. Other research foci of TR32 are the transfer of results and developed technology related to new soil analysis tools from the laboratory to the field, the quantification of patterns of soil-carbon, evapotranspiration and respiration in the field, and the setup and operation of the atmospheric boundary layer, cloud and precipitation monitoring site JOYCE (Jülich ObservatorY for Cloud Evolution). These modern and predominantly non-invasive measurement techniques are exploited in combination with advanced modelling systems by data assimilation to yield improved predictions of the transfers of water-, energy and CO2 by accounting for the patterns occurring at various scales. We will present selected results and remaining challenges for characterizing the intertwined patterns and structure at the catchment scale.

  9. Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 32: Patterns in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmer, C.; Diekkrueger, B.; Crewell, S.; Klitzsch, N.; Vereecken, H.; Boessenkool, K. P.; Kollet, S. J.; Hintz, M.; Schickling, A.; Masbou, M.

    2013-12-01

    The soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVA) system is characterized by non-linear multi-scale exchange processes concerning mass, momentum and energy resulting in complex spatial and temporal patterns and structures. Under the TR32 framework, the characterisation of these structures and patterns will lead to a deeper qualitative and quantitative understanding of the SVA system, and ultimately to better predictions of the SVA state. TR32-research is based on three methodological pillars: Monitoring, Modelling and Data Assimilation. While focusing on the Rur Catchment (Germany), patterns are monitored since 2006 continuously using existing and novel geophysical and remote sensing techniques from the local to the catchment scale like ground penetrating radar, polarimetric precipitation and cloud radar imaging, spectrally induced polarization, radiomagnetotellurics, electrical resistivity tomography, boundary layer scintillometry, lidar techniques, cosmic-ray, and microwave radiometry. Model development centers around a coupled model platform TerrSysMP, which considers mutual fluxes from the groundwater to the atmosphere from the meter to the kilometer scale by combining the atmospheric model COSMO, the land surface model CLM, and the hydrological model ParFlow in a scale-consistent way using the external OASIS coupler. Another focus is a LES model coupled to a novel landsurface scheme, which has been developed for a better understanding of the propagation of patterns between landsurface and atmosphere and their mutual interactions. A range of projects focus on smaller scales processes e.g. down to individual roots, which are modelled at high resolution in order to develop suitable parametrisations for TerrSysMP. Other research foci of TR32 are the transfer of results and developed technology related to new soil analysis tools from the laboratory to the field, the quantification of patterns of soil-carbon, evapotranspiration and respiration in the field, and the setup and operation of the atmospheric boundary layer, cloud and precipitation monitoring site JOYCE (Jülich ObservatorY for Cloud Evolution). These modern and predominantly non-invasive measurement techniques are exploited in combination with advanced modelling systems by data assimilation to yield improved predictions of the transfers of water-, energy and CO2 by accounting for the patterns occurring at various scales. We will present selected results and remaining challenges for characterizing the intertwined patterns and structure at the catchment scale.

  10. Soil changes after four years of organic vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2002, scientists at the Lane Agricultural Center in southeastern Oklahoma began a study to explore the potential for organic agricultural production. Land was certified as organic according to the guidelines of the National Organic Program. At the beginning of the study, soil samples were taken...

  11. Soil-vegetation feedbacks in dynamic landscapes: Implications for restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    State changes from perennial grasslands to shrub-dominated systems characterize much of the arid regions of the world, including the American Southwest. Where this conversion is associated with a change in soil surface texture, near-surface water availability can be increased or reduced with importa...

  12. Coevolution of topography, hydrology, soil development, and vegetation in sky islands of the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.; Breshears, D. D.; Brooks, P. D.; Chorover, J.; Huxman, T. E.; Lohse, K. A.; Meixner, T.; McIntosh, J. C.; Kurc, S. A.; Schaap, M. G.; Swetnam, T.; Troch, P. A.; University Of Arizona Czo

    2010-12-01

    The sky islands of the southwestern U.S. offer a unique opportunity to study the coevolution of landscape processes in areas of similar rock type and tectonic history but a wide range of climates. In this study we compile high-resolution, spatially-distributed data for the available energy to drive rock weathering and other landscape processes, i.e. the Effective Energy and Mass Transfer (EEMT) variable of Rasmussen and Tabor (2005), together with data for LiDAR-derived above-ground biomass, soil thickness, water storage potential, hillslope relief, and valley density in the Santa Catalina and Pinaleno Mountains, two predominantly granitic ranges in southern Arizona. Strong correlations exist among these variables such that warm, dry, low elevation portions of these areas are characterized by low biomass, thin soils, low water-storage potential, steep slopes, and high valley densities. Cooler, wetter, higher-elevation portions have systematically higher biomass, thicker soils, higher water-storage potential, gentler slopes, and lower valley densities. Moreover, all of these variables have a nonlinear dependence on climate/elevation. Slope gradient and aspect also exert an important control on these variables, with steep, south-facing hillslopes characterized by drier-than-average conditions for a given elevation and north-facing slopes associated with wetter-than-average conditions. We hypothesize that these correlations partly reflect coevolutionary positive-feedback mechanisms among these processes that amplify differences in rates set by climate, tectonics, and rock type. For example, thicker soils with higher water storage potential that form at higher elevations/north-facing slopes tend to have greater biomass, causing lower runoff ratios, lower rates of slopewash and fluvial erosion, and increased rates of colluvial transport, thereby promoting thicker soils, lower-gradient slopes, and lower valley densities. Thicker soils and higher water storage potentials, in turn, promote greater biomass in a positive feedback. To test this hypothesis, we developed a landscape evolution model that couples soil development, the partitioning of rainfall into runoff, infiltration, and evapotranspiration, vegetation growth, and geomorphic processes (colluvial and fluvial transport) over geologic time scales. Numerical experiments with this model can be run for a range of input data for climate, tectonics, and rock type. Across a climate gradient similar to that of the sky islands of the southwestern U.S., the model self-organizes into states similar to those observed in the Santa Catalina and Pinaleno ranges, i.e. higher biomass, thicker soils, higher water storage potential, lower relief, and lower valley density at higher elevations/north-facing slopes. The model exhibits similar nonlinear relationships among landscape variables across the elevation/climate gradient, lending support to the hypothesis that positive feedback mechanisms contribute to the observed nonlinearity.

  13. Modelling of groundwater-vegetation interactions in a tidal marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Pei; Kong, Jun; Li, Ling; Barry, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Wetting and drying due to tidal fluctuations affect soil conditions and hence plant growth in tidal marshes. Here, a coupled one-dimensional model was developed to simulate interacting groundwater flow and plant growth in these wetlands. The simulation results revealed three characteristic zones of soil conditions for plant growth along a cross-creek section subjected to the combined influences of spring-neap tides and evapotranspiration: (1) a near-creek zone affected by semi-diurnal tides over the whole spring-neap cycle, where the soil is well aerated although the plant growth could be slightly limited by the local water content dropping periodically below the wilting point on the ebb tide; (2) a less well-drained zone where drainage occurs only during neap tides (for which the daily inundation is absent) and plant growth is aeration-limited; and (3) an interior zone where evapotranspiration determines the soil-water saturation. Plant growth dynamics, which depend on these soil conditions, lead to spatial biomass distributions that are consistent with the characteristic zonation. The simulations shed light on the feedback mechanism for groundwater-vegetation interactions in the marsh system. It was demonstrated that the growth of pioneer plants can improve the soil aeration condition as a result of transpiration. The strength of this feedback varies spatially in accordance with the three characteristic zones of soil-water saturation. However, the development of another species in the marsh system is likely to be more complicated than suggested by the "positive feedback" mechanism proposed previously, due to the influence of inter-species competition. The feedback effects are generally more complex, involving both plant growth enhancement and inhibition depending on the combined influence of the intra- and inter-species competition, the ecosystem's carrying capacity and plant transpiration. These findings demonstrate the interplay of ecological and hydrological processes in tidal marshes, and provide guidance for future research, including field investigations that aim to establish the principle relationship between marsh morphology and plant zonation.

  14. Vegetation heterogeneity and landscape position exert strong controls on soil CO2 efflux in a moist, Appalachian watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, J. W.; Epstein, H. E.; Welsch, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    In topographically complex watersheds, landscape position and vegetation heterogeneity can alter the soil water regime through both lateral and vertical redistribution, respectively. These alterations of soil moisture may have significant impacts on the spatial heterogeneity of biogeochemical cycles throughout the watershed. To evaluate how landscape position and vegetation heterogeneity affect soil CO2 efflux (FSOIL) we conducted observations across the Weimer Run watershed (373 ha), located near Davis, West Virginia, for three growing seasons with varying precipitation (2010 - 1042 mm; 2011 - 1739 mm; 2012 - 1244 mm; precipitation data from BDKW2 station, MesoWest, University of Utah). An apparent soil temperature threshold of 11 °C at 12 cm depth on FSOIL was observed in our data - where FSOIL rates greatly increase in variance above this threshold. For analysis, FSOIL values above this threshold were isolated and examined. Differences in FSOIL among years were apparent by elevation (F4,633 = 3.17; p = 0.013) and by vegetation cover (F4, 633 = 2.96; p = 0.019). For the Weimer Run watershed, vegetation exerts the major control on soil CO2 efflux (FSOIL), with the plots beneath shrubs at all elevations for all years showing the greatest mean rates of FSOIL (6.07 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1) compared to plots beneath closed-forest canopy (4.69 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1) and plots located in open, forest gaps (4.09 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1) plots. During periods of high soil moisture, we find that CO2 efflux rates are constrained and that maximum efflux rates in this system occur during periods of average to below average soil water availability. These findings offer valuable insight into the processes occurring within these topographically complex, temperate and humid systems, and the interactions of abiotic and biotic factors mediating biogeochemical cycles. With possible changing rainfall patterns as predicted by climate models, it is important to understand the couplings between water and carbon cycling at the watershed and landscape scales, and their potential dynamics under global change scenarios.

  15. Trampling resistance of tropical rainforest soils and vegetation in the wet tropics of north east Australia.

    PubMed

    Talbot, L M; Turton, S M; Graham, A W

    2003-09-01

    Controlled trampling was conducted to investigate the trampling resistance of contrasting high fertility basaltic and low fertility rhyolitic soils and their associated highland tropical rainforest vegetation in north east Australia's Wet Tropics. Although this approach has been taken in numerous studies of trampling in a variety of ecosystem types (temperate and subtropical forest, alpine shrubland, coral reef and seagrass beds), the experimental method does not appear to have been previously applied in a tropical rainforest context. Ground vegetation cover and soil penetration resistance demonstrated variable responses to trampling. Trampling, most noticeably after 200 and 500 passes reduced organic litter cover. Bulk density increased with trampling intensity, particularly on basalt soils as rhyolite soils appeared somewhat resistant to the impacts of trampling. The permeability of the basalt and rhyolite soils decreased markedly with increased trampling intensity, even after only 75 passes. These findings suggest physical and hydrological changes may occur rapidly in tropical rainforest soils following low levels of trampling, particularly on basalt soils. PMID:12927152

  16. Laboratory and Airborne BRDF Analysis of Vegetation Leaves and Soil Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) analysis of vegetation leaves, soil, and leaf litter samples is presented. The leaf litter and soil samples, numbered 1 and 2, were obtained from a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza: 25.0degS, 31.5degE). A third soil sample, number 3, was obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20degS, 15.93degE, alt. 1100 m). In addition, BRDF of local fresh and dry leaves from tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and acacia tree (Acacia greggii) were studied. It is shown how the BRDF depends on the incident and scatter angles, sample size (i.e. crushed versus whole leaf,) soil samples fraction size, sample status (i.e. fresh versus dry leaves), vegetation species (poplar versus acacia), and vegetation s biochemical composition. As a demonstration of the application of the results of this study, airborne BRDF measurements acquired with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the soil and leaf litter samples were obtained are compared to the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory and airborne measured BRDF is reported.

  17. Interacting vegetative and thermal contributions to water movement in desert soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C.A.; Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Cooper, C.A.; Šim?nek, J.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally driven water-vapor flow can be an important component of total water movement in bare soil and in deep unsaturated zones, but this process is often neglected when considering the effects of soil–plant–atmosphere interactions on shallow water movement. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the coupled and separate effects of vegetative and thermal-gradient contributions to soil water movement in desert environments. The evaluation was done by comparing a series of simulations with and without vegetation and thermal forcing during a 4.7-yr period (May 2001–December 2005). For vegetated soil, evapotranspiration alone reduced root-zone (upper 1 m) moisture to a minimum value (25 mm) each year under both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. Variations in the leaf area index altered the minimum storage values by up to 10 mm. For unvegetated isothermal and nonisothermal simulations, root-zone water storage nearly doubled during the simulation period and created a persistent driving force for downward liquid fluxes below the root zone (total net flux ~1 mm). Total soil water movement during the study period was dominated by thermally driven vapor fluxes. Thermally driven vapor flow and condensation supplemented moisture supplies to plant roots during the driest times of each year. The results show how nonisothermal flow is coupled with plant water uptake, potentially influencing ecohydrologic relations in desert environments.

  18. Growing up green on serpentine soils: Biogeochemistry of serpentine vegetation in the Central Coast Range of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oze, C.; Skinner, C.; Schroth, A.W.; Coleman, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Serpentine soils derived from the weathering of ultramafic rocks and their metamorphic derivatives (serpentinites) are chemically prohibitive for vegetative growth. Evaluating how serpentine vegetation is able to persist under these chemical conditions is difficult to ascertain due to the numerous factors (climate, relief, time, water availability, etc.) controlling and affecting plant growth. Here, the uptake, incorporation, and distribution of a wide variety of elements into the biomass of serpentine vegetation has been investigated relative to vegetation growing on an adjacent chert-derived soil. Soil pH, electrical conductivity, organic C, total N, soil extractable elements, total soil elemental compositions and plant digestions in conjunction with spider diagrams are utilized to determine the chemical relationships of these soil and plant systems. Plant available Mg and Ca in serpentine soils exceed values assessed in chert soils. Magnesium is nearly 3 times more abundant than Ca in the serpentine soils; however, the serpentine soils are not Ca deficient with Ca concentrations as high as 2235 mg kg-1. Calcium to Mg ratios (Ca:Mg) in both serpentine and chert vegetation are greater than one in both below and above ground tissues. Soil and plant chemistry analyses support that Ca is not a limiting factor for plant growth and that serpentine vegetation is actively moderating Mg uptake as well as tolerating elevated concentrations of bioavailable Mg. Additionally, results demonstrate that serpentine vegetation suppresses the uptake of Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn and Co into its biomass. The suppressed uptake of these metals mainly occurs in the plants' roots as evident by the comparatively lower metal concentrations present in above ground tissues (twigs, leaves and shoots). This research supports earlier studies that have suggested that ion uptake discrimination and ion suppression in the roots are major mechanisms for serpentine vegetation to tolerate the chemistry of serpentine soils. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Concentrations of Radionuclides and Trace Elements in Soils and Vegetation Around the DARHT Facility during 2004

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez

    2004-10-01

    Samples of soil, sediment, and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation were collected at four locations around the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). All samples were analyzed for concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl. These results, which represent five years since the start of operations, were compared with baseline statistical reference level (BSRL) data established over a four-year-long preoperational period prior to DARHT operations, and to LANL and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Screening Action Levels (SALs). Most radionuclides and trace elements in soil, sediment, and vegetation were below BSRL values and those soils/sediments that were above BSRLs were far below SALs.

  20. Pollution Status of Pakistan: A Retrospective Review on Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Soil, and Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Jahanzaib; Iqbal, Farhat; Sajjad, Ashif; Mehmood, Zahid

    2014-01-01

    Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water), soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health. PMID:25276818

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF COAL SURFACE MINE SOIL MATERIAL FOR VEGETATION MANAGEMENT AND SOIL WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Alabama minesoil classification system was developed based on soil texture, soil color value and soil pH. Only five different soil classes were found in this study. However, the classification scheme allows for the inclusion of any minesoil that occurs on the basis of its text...

  2. Optical Remote Sensing of Vegetation: Modeling, Caveats, and Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    , model inversion, expert systems, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Their applicability is alsoELSEVIER Optical Remote Sensing of Vegetation: Modeling, Caveats, and Algorithms R. B. Myneni, B,tt and D. L. Williams* The state-of-the-art on radiative transfer modeling in vegetation canopies

  3. Chemical-Specific Representation of Air-Soil Exchange and Soil Penetration in Regional Multimedia Models

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Bennett, D.H.

    2002-08-01

    In multimedia mass-balance models, the soil compartment is an important sink as well as a conduit for transfers to vegetation and shallow groundwater. Here a novel approach for constructing soil transport algorithms for multimedia fate models is developed and evaluated. The resulting algorithms account for diffusion in gas and liquid components; advection in gas, liquid, or solid phases; and multiple transformation processes. They also provide an explicit quantification of the characteristic soil penetration depth. We construct a compartment model using three and four soil layers to replicate with high reliability the flux and mass distribution obtained from the exact analytical solution describing the transient dispersion, advection, and transformation of chemicals in soil with fixed properties and boundary conditions. Unlike the analytical solution, which requires fixed boundary conditions, the soil compartment algorithms can be dynamically linked to other compartments (air, vegetation, ground water, surface water) in multimedia fate models. We demonstrate and evaluate the performance of the algorithms in a model with applications to benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, MTBE, TCDD, and tritium.

  4. Phthalic Acid Esters in Soils from Vegetable Greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Chao; Cheng, Hongzhen; Ge, Wei; Ma, Dong; Shi, Yanxi

    2014-01-01

    Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (?16PAEs) ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of ?16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of ?16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US) in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs. PMID:24747982

  5. Biomarker patterns in present-day vegetation: consistency and variation - A study on plaggen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Jansen, Boris; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2013-04-01

    Biomarker patterns in present-day vegetation are commonly used as proxies to reconstruct paleo-vegetation composition, land use history and to elucidate carbon cycling. Plaggen soils are formed by diverse vegetational inputs during century-long plaggen (i.e. sod) application associated with plaggen-agriculture on poor soils in north-western Europe. This resulted in remarkably stable organic matter. Plant source identification by biomarkers could provide insight in yet unknown stabilization mechanisms and the fate of organic matter upon ongoing land use change. The current rationale behind biomarker-based source identification is that patterns observed in present-day vegetation are generally representative with little random variation. However, our knowledge on variability and consistency of biomarker patterns is yet scarce. Therefore, to assess the applicability of biomarkers for source identification in plaggen soils, we analyzed published n-alkane and n-alcohol patterns of species and their various parts which contribute(d) input to plaggen soils. We considered shrubs, trees and grass species and evaluated rescaled patterns (i.e. relative abundances in chain-length range C17-36), odd-over-even predominance (OEP) and predominant n-alkanes. In addition, we explicitly looked into potential sources of systematic variation, e.g. spatial variation (climate, site conditions), temporal variation (seasonality, ontogeny) and laboratory methodology (extraction technique: washing/shaking, Soxhlet/ASE, saponification). We found meaningful clustering of n-alkanes C27, C29, C31 and C33, allowing for clear distinction of input by shrubs, trees and grasses to plaggen soils. Combination of these homologues with complete n-alkane patterns (C17-36) and OEP enabled further differentiation, while n-alcohols patterns were less distinct. Current limitation is the lack of extended and diverse quantitative records on biomarker patterns, especially for n-alcohols, non-leaf and belowground tissues, which hindered full statistical analysis. On species level we also recognized outliers and spreading. Systematic variation was indicated among tree species according to spatial conditions and by ontogeny. Yet, observed effects were ambiguous for other variation sources. This study highlights clear opportunities for application of biomarker patterns for source identification and elucidation of stabilization processes in (plaggen) soils. At the same time, application is challenged by systematic variation. Further research is key to quantify controls, magnitude and potential correction factors for such systematic variation. This would validate the use of n-alkane and n-alcohol patterns across broad spatial and temporal scales or identify boundaries wherein their consistency is ensured. Likely, these challenges apply to vegetation in a broad perspective, transcending plaggen vegetation, as assessment and application of present-day vegetation patterns is emerging.

  6. Oscillations in a simple climate-vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rombouts, J.; Ghil, M.

    2015-02-01

    We formulate and analyze a simple dynamical systems model for climate-vegetation interaction. The planet we consider consists of a large ocean and a land surface on which vegetation can grow. The temperature affects vegetation growth on land and the amount of sea ice on the ocean. Conversely, vegetation and sea ice change the albedo of the planet, which in turn changes its energy balance and hence the temperature evolution. Our highly idealized, conceptual model is governed by two nonlinear, coupled ordinary differential equations, one for global temperature, the other for vegetation cover. The model exhibits either bistability between a vegetated and a desert state or oscillatory behavior. The oscillations arise through a Hopf bifurcation off the vegetated state, when the death rate of vegetation is low enough. These oscillations are anharmonic and exhibit a sawtooth shape that is characteristic of relaxation oscillations, as well as suggestive of the sharp deglaciations of the Quaternary. Our model's behavior can be compared, on the one hand, with the bistability of even simpler, Daisyworld-style climate-vegetation models. On the other hand, it can be integrated into the hierarchy of models trying to simulate and explain oscillatory behavior in the climate system. Rigorous mathematical results are obtained that link the nature of the feedbacks with the nature and the stability of the solutions. The relevance of model results to climate variability on various time scales is discussed.

  7. Oscillations in a simple climate-vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rombouts, J.; Ghil, M.

    2015-05-01

    We formulate and analyze a simple dynamical systems model for climate-vegetation interaction. The planet we consider consists of a large ocean and a land surface on which vegetation can grow. The temperature affects vegetation growth on land and the amount of sea ice on the ocean. Conversely, vegetation and sea ice change the albedo of the planet, which in turn changes its energy balance and hence the temperature evolution. Our highly idealized, conceptual model is governed by two nonlinear, coupled ordinary differential equations, one for global temperature, the other for vegetation cover. The model exhibits either bistability between a vegetated and a desert state or oscillatory behavior. The oscillations arise through a Hopf bifurcation off the vegetated state, when the death rate of vegetation is low enough. These oscillations are anharmonic and exhibit a sawtooth shape that is characteristic of relaxation oscillations, as well as suggestive of the sharp deglaciations of the Quaternary. Our model's behavior can be compared, on the one hand, with the bistability of even simpler, Daisyworld-style climate-vegetation models. On the other hand, it can be integrated into the hierarchy of models trying to simulate and explain oscillatory behavior in the climate system. Rigorous mathematical results are obtained that link the nature of the feedbacks with the nature and the stability of the solutions. The relevance of model results to climate variability on various timescales is discussed.

  8. Converging patterns of uptake and hydraulic redistribution of soil water in contrasting woody vegetation types.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, F C; Brooks, J R; Bucci, S; Goldstein, G; Scholz, F G; Warren, J M

    2004-08-01

    We used concurrent measurements of soil water content and soil water potential (Psi(soil)) to assess the effects of Psi(soil) on uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by roots during seasonal drought cycles at six sites characterized by differences in the types and amounts of woody vegetation and in climate. The six sites included a semi-arid old-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws & C. Laws) forest, a moist old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forest, a 24-year-old Douglas-fir forest and three Brazilian savanna sites differing in tree density. At all of the sites, HR was confined largely to the upper 60 cm of soil. There was a common threshold relationship between the relative magnitude of HR and Psi(soil) among the six study sites. Below a threshold Psi(soil) of about -0.4 MPa, overnight recharge of soil water storage increased sharply, and reached a maximum value of 80-90% over a range of Psi(soil) from ~ -1.2 to -1.5 MPa. Although amounts of water hydraulically redistributed to the upper 60 cm of soil were relatively small (0 to 0.4 mm day(-1)), they greatly reduced the rates of seasonal decline in Psi(soil). The effectiveness of HR in delaying soil drying diminished with increasing sapwood area per ground area. The relationship between soil water utilization and Psi(soil) in the 20-60-cm layer was nearly identical for all six sites. Soil water utilization varied with a surrogate measure of rhizosphere conductance in a similar manner at all six sites. The similarities in relationships between Psi(soil) and HR, soil water utilization and relative rhizosphere conductance among the six sites, suggests that, despite probable differences in maximum rooting depth and density, there was a convergence in biophysical controls on soil water utilization and redistribution in the upper soil layers where the density of finer roots is greatest. PMID:15172842

  9. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) Combined with Soil Solarization for Root-Knot Nematode Control in Vegetable and Ornamental Crops in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) combined with soil solarization continues to be evaluated for management of plant-parasitic nematodes in vegetable and ornamental crops in Florida. ASD combines organic amendments and soil saturation to stimulate microbial activity and create anaerobic conditions...

  10. Structure and condition of soil-vegetation cover in the Klyazma river basin applying remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Trifonova, Tatiana; Repkin, Roman

    2015-04-01

    Constant observation of vegetation and soil cover is one of the key issues of river basins ecologic monitoring. It is necessary to consider that observation objects have been continuously changing and these changes are comprehensive and depend on temporal and dimensional parameters. Remote sensing data, embracing vast areas and reflecting various interrelations, allow excluding accidental and short-term changes though concentrating on the transformation of the observed river basin ecosystem environmental condition. The research objective is to assess spatial-temporal peculiarities of soil-vegetation structure formation in the Klyazma basin as a whole and minor river basins within the area. Research objects are located in the centre of European Russia. Data used in our research include both statistic and published data, characterizing soil-vegetation cover of the area, space images Landsat. Research methods: Remote data analysis for assessing land utilization structure and soil-vegetation condition according to NDVI. Laying soil-geobotanic landscape profiles river valleys slopes. Phytomass reserve, phytoproductivity, soil fertility characteristics assessment. NDVI computation for each image pixel helped to map general condition of the Klyazma vegetation cover and to determine geographic ranges without vegetation or with depressed vegetation. For instance high vegetation index geographic range has been defined which corresponded to Vladimir Opolye characterized with the most fertile grey forest soil in the region. Comparative assessment of soil vegetation cover of minor river basins within the Klyazma basin, judging by the terrestrial data, revealed its better condition in the Koloksha basin which is also located in the area of grey forest soil. Besides here the maximum value of vegetation index for all phytocenosis was detected. In the research the most dynamically changing parts of the Klyazma basin have been determined according to NDVI dynamics analysis. Analyzing the reasons for such changes of NDVI the most significant ecologic processes in the region connected to the changes of vegetation cover condition have been revealed. Fields overgrowing and agricultural crops replacement are the most important of them. Soil-geobotanic profiles, laid in minor river basin of the Sudogda, allowed to reveal various vegetation association and to describe the confined soil profile. It is shown that well drained landscape forms correspond to arboreal vegetation type, more humidified elements of the landscape are occupied with gramineous meadow vegetation. There is sand and clay sand under mixed forest humus horizon. In pinewood forests light loam prevails in surface horizons. The results can be used for environmental monitoring of the river basins and for rational agricultural structuring.

  11. Modeling land surface processes of the midwestern United States : predicting soil moisture under a warmer climate

    E-print Network

    Winter, Jonathan (Jonathan Mark)

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to quantify the response of soil moisture to climate change in the midwestern United States. To assess this response, a dynamic global vegetation model, Integrated Biosphere Simulator, was coupled ...

  12. Spatial Distribution of Iron in Soils and Vegetation Cover Close to an Abandoned Manganese Oxide Ore Mine, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekosse, Georges Ivo E.

    This study aimed at establishing the spatial distribution of iron (Fe) in soils and vegetation cover within the periphery of the Kgwakgwe Manganese (Mn) oxides ore abandoned mine in Botswana. Four hundred soil samples and two hundred vegetation samples were obtained from a 4 km2 area close to the mine. Determination of Fe concentrations after acid digestion of samples was performed using an atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a deuterium background correction. Tests for soil pH and soil colour were complementary to soil chemical analysis. Results were processed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques with integrated Land and Water Information System (ILWIS), Geosoft Oasis Montaj, ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software packages. Concentrations of Fe in soils was from 1116.59 to 870766.00 ?g g-1 with a mean of 17593.52 ?g g-1 and for leaves, levels were from 101.2 to 3758.09 ?g g-1 with a mean of 637.07 ?g g-1. Soil pH values ranged from 2.92 to 7.26 and soil colour shades ranged from yellowish red to very dark grey. Gridded soils and vegetation maps show Fe anomalies in different parts of the study area. Values were low in areas located at the mine workings and in the Northwestern part of the study area and high in the north and southern part. Where concentrations of Fe were high in soils, correspondingly high figures were obtained for vegetation cover. Similar trends were obtained for soil pH distribution in the study area. Bedrock geology, topography, Mn mineralization, soil acidity and prevailing oxidizing conditions were governing factors that influenced the concentration and spatial distribution of Fe in the soils and vegetation. The findings further confirm that Fe distribution and its chemistry in the soils and environment around the Kgwakgwe abandoned Mn oxides ore mine have affected the vegetation cover.

  13. Uptake of explosives from contaminated soil by existing vegetation at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; Zellmer, S.D.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Rastorier, J.R.; Chen, D.; Banwart, W.L.

    1995-02-01

    This study examines the uptake of explosives by existing vegetation growing in soils contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5-trinitro-3,5-triazine (RDX) in three areas at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (IAAP). To determine explosives uptake under natural environmental conditions, existing plant materials and soil from the root zone were sampled at different locations in each area, and plant materials were separated by species. Standard methods were used to determine the concentrations of explosives, their derivatives, and metabolites in the soil samples. Plant materials were also analyzed. The compound TNT was not detected in the aboveground portion of plants, and vegetation growing on TNT-contaminated soils is not considered a health hazard. However, soil and plant roots may contain TNT degradation products that may be toxic; hence, their consumption is not advised. The compound RDX was found in the tops and roots of plants growing on RDX-contaminated soils at all surveyed sites. Although RDX is not a listed carcinogen, several of its potentially present degradation products are carcinogens. Therefore, the consumption of any plant tissues growing on RDX-contaminated sites should be considered a potential health hazard.

  14. Soil, Water, and Vegetation Conditions in South Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J. (principal investigators)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Reflectance differences between the dead leaves of six crops (corn, cotton, sorghum, sugar cane, citrus, and avocado) and the respective bare soils where the dead leaves were lying on the ground were determined from laboratory spectrophotometric measurements over the 0.5- to 2.5 micron wavelength interval. The largest differences were in the near infrared waveband 0.75- to 1.35 microns. Leaf area index was predicted from plant height, percent ground cover, and plant population for irrigated and nonirrigated grain sorghum fields for the 1975 growing season.

  15. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in vegetables and relationships with soil heavy metal distribution in Zhejiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuezhu; Xiao, Wendan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhao, Shouping; Wang, Gangjun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    There are increasing concerns on heavy metal contaminant in soils and vegetables. In this study, we investigated heavy metal pollution in vegetables and the corresponding soils in the main vegetable production regions of Zhejiang province, China. A total of 97 vegetable samples and 202 agricultural soil samples were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Pb, As, Hg, and Cr. The average levels of Cd, Pb, and Cr in vegetable samples [Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. Pekinensis), pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), celery (Apium graveolens), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), cucumber (Colletotrichum lagenarium), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.), and eggplant (Solanum melongena)] were 0.020, 0.048, and 0.043 mg kg(-1), respectively. The Pb and Cr concentrations in all vegetable samples were below the threshold levels of the Food Quality Standard (0.3 and 0.5 mg kg(-1), respectively), except that two eggplant samples exceeded the threshold levels for Cd concentrations (0.05 mg kg(-1)). As and Hg contents in vegetables were below the detection level (0.005 and 0.002 mg kg(-1), respectively). Soil pollution conditions were assessed in accordance with the Chinese Soil Quality Criterion (GB15618-1995, Grade II); 50 and 68 soil samples from the investigated area exceeded the maximum allowable contents for Cd and Hg, respectively. Simple correlation analysis revealed that there were significantly positive correlations between the metal concentrations in vegetables and the corresponding soils, especially for the leafy and stem vegetables such as pakchoi, cabbage, and celery. Bio-concentration factor values for Cd are higher than those for Pb and Cr, which indicates that Cd is more readily absorbed by vegetables than Pb and Cr. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the possible pollution of heavy metals in vegetables, especially Cd. PMID:26013654

  16. Vegetation, soil property and climatic controls over greenhouse gas fluxes in a blanket peatland hosting a wind farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Alona; Waldron, Susan; Ostle, Nick; Whitaker, Jeanette

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands are important carbon (C) stores, with boreal and subarctic peatlands containing 15-30 % of the world soil carbon stock (Limpens et al., 2008). Research has demonstrated that greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in peatlands are influenced by vegetation, soil property and climatic variables, including plant functional type (PFT), water table height and temperature. In this paper we present data from Black Law Wind Farm, Scotland, where we examined the effect of a predicted wind turbine-induced microclimatic gradient and PFT on carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. Moreover, we determined the role of vegetation, soil property and climatic variables as predictors of the variation in CO2 and CH4 emissions. We measured CO2 and CH4 at 48 plots within Black Law Wind Farm at monthly intervals from May 2011 to April 2012. Four sampling sites were located along a predicted wind turbine-induced microclimatic gradient. At each site four blocks were established, each with plots in areas dominated by mosses, sedges and shrubs. Plant biomass and PFT (vegetation factors); soil moisture, water table height, peat depth, C content, nitrogen (N) content and C:N (soil properties); and soil temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (climatic variables) were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) models based on the microclimatic gradient site, PFT and season when measurements were made explained 58 %, 44 % and 49 % of the variation in ecosystem respiration, photosynthesis and CH4, respectively. Site, PFT, season and their interactions were all significant for respiration and photosynthesis (with the exception of the PFT*site interaction) but for CH4 only the main effects were significant. Parsimonious ANOVA models using the biotic, soil property and climatic explanatory data explained 62 %, 55 % and 49 % of the variation in respiration, photosynthesis and CH4, respectively. Published studies (Baidya Roy and Traiteur 2010; Zhou et al., 2012) and preliminary results from this study suggest that a wind turbine-induced microclimatic effect may exist. Consequently, given that the climatic variables, factors influenced by changes in the climate, and their interactions affect GHG fluxes, the operational effects of wind farms on peatland ecosystems may need to be taken into account when considering their full life cycle carbon budget. Baidya Roy, S. and J. J. Traiteur (2010). Impacts of wind farms on surface air temperatures, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109: 15679-15684. Limpens, J. et al. (2008). Peatlands and the carbon cycle: from local processes to global implications - a synthesis, Biogeosciences, 5(5): 1475-1491. Zhou, L., et al. (2012). Impacts of wind farms on land surface temperature, Nature Climate Change, 2: 539-543.

  17. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in vegetables and soils of suburban plastic film greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Gangcai; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Manyun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are suspected of having adverse effects on human health and have been frequently detected in soils and vegetables. The present study investigated their occurrence and composition in plastic film greenhouse soil-vegetable systems and assessed their potential health risks to farmers exposed to these widespread pollutants. Six priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), were determined in 44 plastic film greenhouse vegetables and corresponding soils. Total PAEs ranged from 0.51 to 7.16mgkg(-1) in vegetables and 0.40 to 6.20mgkg(-1) in soils with average concentrations of 2.56 and 2.23mgkg(-1), respectively. DnBP, DEHP and DnOP contributed more than 90% of the total PAEs in both vegetables and soils but the proportions of DnBP and DnOP in vegetables were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in soils. The average concentrations of PAEs in pot herb mustard, celery and lettuce were >3.00mgkg(-1) but were <2.50mgkg(-1) in the corresponding soils. Stem and leaf vegetables accumulated more PAEs. There were no clear relationships between vegetable and soil PAEs. Risk assessment indicates that DnBP, DEHP and DnOP exhibited elevated non-cancer risk with values of 0.039, 0.338 and 0.038, respectively. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was about 3.94×10(-5) to farmers working in plastic film greenhouses. Health risks were mainly by exposure through vegetable consumption and soil ingestion. PMID:25863503

  18. Powdered hide model for vegetable tanning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdered hide samples for this initial study of vegetable tanning were prepared from hides that were dehaired by a typical sulfide or oxidative process, and carried through the delime/bate step of a tanning process. In this study, we report on interactions of the vegetable tannin, quebracho with th...

  19. MODELING STREAM CHANNEL ADJUSTMENT TO WOODY VEGETATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    River restoration and bank stabilization programs often use vegetation for improving stream corridor habitat, aesthetic, and function. Yet no study has examined the use of managed vegetation plantings to transform a straight, degraded stream corridor into a more functional, aesthetically-pleasing m...

  20. A model of goal directed vegetable parenting practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to explore factors underlying parents' motivations to use vegetable parenting practices (VPP) using the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MGDVPP) (an adaptation of the Model of Goal Directed Behavior) as the theoretical basis for qualitative interviews. ...

  1. Evaluation of a new model of aeolian transport in the presence of vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Junran; Okin, Gregory S.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Belnap, Jayne; Miller, Mark E.; Vest, Kimberly; Draut, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Aeolian transport is an important characteristic of many arid and semiarid regions worldwide that affects dust emission and ecosystem processes. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a recent model of aeolian transport in the presence of vegetation. This approach differs from previous models by accounting for how vegetation affects the distribution of shear velocity on the surface rather than merely calculating the average effect of vegetation on surface shear velocity or simply using empirical relationships. Vegetation, soil, and meteorological data at 65 field sites with measurements of horizontal aeolian flux were collected from the Western United States. Measured fluxes were tested against modeled values to evaluate model performance, to obtain a set of optimum model parameters, and to estimate the uncertainty in these parameters. The same field data were used to model horizontal aeolian flux using three other schemes. Our results show that the model can predict horizontal aeolian flux with an approximate relative error of 2.1 and that further empirical corrections can reduce the approximate relative error to 1.0. The level of error is within what would be expected given uncertainties in threshold shear velocity and wind speed at our sites. The model outperforms the alternative schemes both in terms of approximate relative error and the number of sites at which threshold shear velocity was exceeded. These results lend support to an understanding of the physics of aeolian transport in which (1) vegetation's impact on transport is dependent upon the distribution of vegetation rather than merely its average lateral cover and (2) vegetation impacts surface shear stress locally by depressing it in the immediate lee of plants rather than by changing the bulk surface's threshold shear velocity. Our results also suggest that threshold shear velocity is exceeded more than might be estimated by single measurements of threshold shear stress and roughness length commonly associated with vegetated surfaces, highlighting the variation of threshold shear velocity with space and time in real landscapes.

  2. Comparison of Hymap/E-SAR data with models for optial reflectance and microwave scattering from vegetation canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saich, P.; Lewis, P.; Disney, M.; Thackrah, G.

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of combined modelling of optical and radar signatures of cereal canopies. An optical model based on Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations of scattering behaviour in the vegetation canopy is used to simulate spectral reflectance, and a coherent microwave scattering model is used to simulate multi-frequency polarimetric microwave signatures. These use similar descriptions of the vegetation structure, and therefore provide a link between the two regimes. During the "SAR-Hyperspectral Airborne Campaign" (SHAC), conducted in the UK during summer 2000, datasets were acquired using the E-SAR and Hymap. Coincident with the E-SAR overflights, a ground measurement campaign was conducted, to characterise the moisture status of the vegetation, soil and the leaf area index (LAI), as well as more detailed measurements of the vegetation properties. We discuss the comparison between model simulations and the observed signatures, and highlight aspects of the link provided by the structural vegetation canopy model.

  3. The effects of vegetation and soil hydraulic properties on passive microwave sensing of soil moisture: Data report for the 1982 fiels experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, P.; Jackson, T.; Blanchard, B. J.; Vandenhoek, R.; Gould, W.; Wang, J.; Glazar, W.; Mcmurtrey, J., III

    1983-01-01

    Field experiments to (1) study the biomass and geometrical structure properties of vegetation canopies to determine their impact on microwave emission data, and (2) to verify whether time series microwave data can be related to soil hydrologic properties for use in soil type classification. Truck mounted radiometers at 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz were used to obtain microwave brightness temperatures of bare vegetated test plots under different conditions of soil wetness, plant water content and canopy structure. Observations of soil moisture, soil temperature, vegetation biomass and other soil and canopy parameters were made concurrently with the microwave measurements. The experimental design and data collection procedures for both experiments are documented and the reduced data are presented in tabular form.

  4. Identifying environmental controls on vegetation greenness phenology through model-data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkel, M.; Carvalhais, N.; Schaphoff, S.; Bloh, W. v.; Migliavacca, M.; Thurner, M.; Thonicke, K.

    2014-12-01

    Existing dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have a limited ability in reproducing phenology and decadal dynamics of vegetation greenness as observed by satellites. These limitations in reproducing observations reflect a poor understanding and description of the environmental controls on phenology, which strongly influence the ability to simulate longer-term vegetation dynamics, e.g. carbon allocation. Combining DGVMs with observational data sets can potentially help to revise current modelling approaches and thus enhance the understanding of processes that control seasonal to long-term vegetation greenness dynamics. Here we implemented a new phenology model within the LPJmL (Lund Potsdam Jena managed lands) DGVM and integrated several observational data sets to improve the ability of the model in reproducing satellite-derived time series of vegetation greenness. Specifically, we optimized LPJmL parameters against observational time series of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (FAPAR), albedo and gross primary production to identify the main environmental controls for seasonal vegetation greenness dynamics. We demonstrated that LPJmL with new phenology and optimized parameters better reproduces seasonality, inter-annual variability and trends of vegetation greenness. Our results indicate that soil water availability is an important control on vegetation phenology not only in water-limited biomes but also in boreal forests and the Arctic tundra. Whereas water availability controls phenology in water-limited ecosystems during the entire growing season, water availability co-modulates jointly with temperature the beginning of the growing season in boreal and Arctic regions. Additionally, water availability contributes to better explain decadal greening trends in the Sahel and browning trends in boreal forests. These results emphasize the importance of considering water availability in a new generation of phenology modules in DGVMs in order to correctly reproduce observed seasonal-to-decadal dynamics of vegetation greenness.

  5. Identifying environmental controls on vegetation greenness phenology through model-data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkel, M.; Carvalhais, N.; Schaphoff, S.; Bloh, W. v.; Migliavacca, M.; Thurner, M.; Thonicke, K.

    2014-07-01

    Existing dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have a~limited ability in reproducing phenology and decadal dynamics of vegetation greenness as observed by satellites. These limitations in reproducing observations reflect a poor understanding and description of the environmental controls on phenology, which strongly influence the ability to simulate longer term vegetation dynamics, e.g. carbon allocation. Combining DGVMs with observational data sets can potentially help to revise current modelling approaches and thus to enhance the understanding of processes that control seasonal to long-term vegetation greenness dynamics. Here we implemented a~new phenology model within the LPJmL (Lund Potsdam Jena managed lands) DGVM and integrated several observational data sets to improve the ability of the model in reproducing satellite-derived time series of vegetation greenness. Specifically, we optimized LPJmL parameters against observational time series of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (FAPAR), albedo and gross primary production to identify the main environmental controls for seasonal vegetation greenness dynamics. We demonstrated that LPJmL with new phenology and optimized parameters better reproduces seasonality, inter-annual variability and trends of vegetation greenness. Our results indicate that soil water availability is an important control on vegetation phenology not only in water-limited biomes but also in boreal forests and the arctic tundra. Whereas water availability controls phenology in water-limited ecosystems during the entire growing season, water availability co-modulates jointly with temperature the beginning of the growing season in boreal and arctic regions. Additionally, water availability contributes to better explain decadal greening trends in the Sahel and browning trends in boreal forests. These results emphasize the importance of considering water availability in a new generation of phenology modules in DGVMs in order to correctly reproduce observed seasonal to decadal dynamics of vegetation greenness.

  6. How do vegetation bands form in dry lands? Insights from numerical modeling and field studies in southern Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.; Delong, Stephen B.; Orem, Caitlin A.; Becerra, Patricio; Compton, Kathleen; Gressett, Katrina; Lyons-Baral, John; McGuire, Luke A.; Molaro, Jamie L.; Spinler, Joshua C.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation bands are periodic bands of vegetation, separated by interband spaces devoid of vegetation, oriented parallel to the topographic contour in some gently sloping arid to semiarid environments. Models of vegetation band formation attribute their formation to positive feedbacks among vegetation density, soil porosity/permeability, and infiltration rates. Here we present an alternative model based on field measurements at our study sites in southern Nevada. In this model, interband spaces between vegetation bands form because topographic mounds beneath vegetation bands detain water upslope from vegetation bands, leading to hydrologic and sedimentologic conditions that inhibit the survival of plants in interband spaces. We used terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to create high-resolution (˜10 cm2/pixel) raster data sets of bare-earth topography and canopy height for four study sites. Analyses of the TLS data, in addition to measurements of soil shear strength and particle size, document the potential for detention in interband spaces and a near-inverse proportionality between band spacing and regional slope. We describe a cellular automaton model (herein called model 1) for vegetation band formation that includes just two user-defined parameters and that generates vegetation bands similar to those at our field sites, including the inverse proportionality between spacing and regional slope. A second model (model 2) accurately predicts the width of vegetation bands in terms of the number and spacing of plants and the geometry of individual plant mounds. We also present a GIS-based analysis that predicts where bands occur within a region based on topographic and hydroclimatic controls.

  7. Uptake of explosives from contaminated soil by vegetation at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Zellmer, S.D.; Banwart, W.L.; Houser, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This study examines the uptake of explosives by vegetation growing on soils contaminated by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in Group 61 at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP). Plant materials and soil from the root zone were sampled and analyzed to determine TNT uptake under natural field conditions. Standard USATHAMA methods were used to determine concentrations of explosives, their derivatives, and metabolites in the soil samples. No- explosives were detected in the aboveground portion of any plant sample. However, results indicate that TNT, 2-aminodinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), and/or 4-ADNT were present in some root samples. The presence of 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT increases the likelihood that explosives were taken up by plant roots, as opposed to their presence resulting from external soil contamination.

  8. \\vspace{8mm}Inclusion of vegetation in the Town Energy Balance model for modelling urban green areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemonsu, A.; Masson, V.; Shashua-Bar, L.; Erell, E.; Pearlmutter, D.

    2012-11-01

    Cities impact both local climate, through urban heat islands and global climate, because they are an area of heavy greenhouse gas release into the atmosphere due to heating, air conditioning and traffic. Including more vegetation into cities is a planning strategy having possible positive impacts for both concerns. Improving vegetation representation into urban models will allow us to address more accurately these questions. This paper presents an improvement of the Town Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy model. Vegetation is directly included inside the canyon, allowing shadowing of grass by buildings, better representation of urban canopy form and, a priori, a more accurate simulation of canyon air microclimate. The surface exchanges over vegetation are modelled with the well-known Interaction Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA) model that is integrated in the TEB's code architecture in order to account for interactions between natural and built-up covers. The design of the code makes possible to plug and use any vegetation scheme. Both versions of TEB are confronted to experimental data issued from a field campaign conducted in Israel in 2007. Two semi-enclosed courtyards arranged with bare soil or watered lawn were instrumented to evaluate the impact of landscaping strategies on microclimatic variables and evapotranspiration. For this case study, the new version of the model with integrated vegetation performs better than if vegetation is treated outside the canyon. Surface temperatures are closer to the observations, especially at night when radiative trapping is important. The integrated vegetation version simulates a more humid air inside the canyon. The microclimatic quantities (i.e., the street-level meteorological variables) are better simulated with this new version. This opens opportunities to study with better accuracy the urban microclimate, down to the micro (or canyon) scale.

  9. Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 32: Patterns in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmer, C.

    2014-12-01

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of states, flow and transport within the groundwater-soil-vegetation-atmosphere (GSVA) system lead to complex, scale-dependent patterns, which make predictions of terrestrial systems challenging to both scientists and policymakers. Studying how patterns influence fluxes and state variables across scales is a key goal of the Collaborative Research Centre TR32, which approaches this challenge by monitoring, modelling and data assimilation using the Rur catchment (Germany) as its study area.The evolution of system state variables across scales is monitored using two dual-polarized X-band Doppler radars as well as the atmospheric boundary layer, cloud and precipitation monitoring site JOYCE (Jülich ObservatorY for Cloud Evolution), and measurements from eddy covariance stations, an extensive soil moisture network including cosmic-ray probes. Monitoring is complemented by a suite of geophysical methods such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Spectral Induced Polarization, Electromagnetic Induction, and Ground-Penetrating Radar, as well as a rhizotrone facility set up to monitor root development in conjunction with plant growth.The TR32 employs multi-compartment modelling to upscale the water, CO2 and energy fluxes from the local to the catchment scale. The analysis of the simulations with grids that honor the respective scales reveal the role of patterns on the fluxes and helps to design a general upscaling framework that quantifies information transfer between scales.Model development centers around the coupled model platform TerrSysMP, which considers mutual fluxes from the groundwater to the atmosphere by combining the atmospheric model COSMO, the land surface model CLM, and the hydrological model ParFlow in a scale-consistent way using the OASIS coupler. Processes down to the root scale are modelled at high resolution in order to obtain improved parameterizations for TerrSysMP. State variable assimilation and parameter estimation methods are extended to the complete terrestrial system. We will present selected results and challenges for the prediction of states and fluxes of water, CO2 and energy in terrestrial systems across scales.

  10. Predicting soil water repellency using hydrophobic organic compounds and their vegetation origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Nierop, K. G. J.; Rietkerk, M.; Dekker, S. C.

    2015-06-01

    It is widely accepted that soil water repellency (SWR) is mainly caused by plant-derived hydrophobic organic compounds in soils; such hydrophobic compounds are defined as SWR markers. However, the detailed influence of SWR markers on SWR is yet unclear and the knowledge of their original sources is still limited. The aims of this study are to select important SWR markers to predict SWR based on their correlation with SWR and to determine their origin. In our study, sandy soils with different SWR were collected, along with their covering vegetation, i.e. plant leaves/needles and roots. A sequential extraction procedure was applied to the soils to obtain three organic fractions: dichloromethane (DCM)/MeOH soluble fraction (D), DCM/MeOH insoluble fraction of isopropanol/ammonia solution (IPA/NH3) extract (AI) and DCM/MeOH soluble fraction of IPA/NH3 extract (AS), which were subdivided into 10 dominant SWR marker groups: D fatty acid, D alcohol, D alkane, AI fatty acid, AI alcohol, AI ?-hydroxy fatty acid, AI ?,?-dicarboxylic acid, AS fatty acid, AS alcohol and AS ?-hydroxy fatty acid. Waxes and biopolyesters of the vegetation were also sequentially extracted from plants. The soils with higher SWR have significantly higher relative concentrations of AS alcohols. A number of indications suggest that AS alcohols are mainly derived from roots and most likely produced by microbial hydrolysis of biopolyesters (mainly suberins). In addition, the strong correlation between the biomarkers of plant tissues and SWR markers in soils suggests that it is more accurate to predict SWR of topsoils using ester-bound alcohols from roots, and to predict SWR of subsoils using root-derived ?-hydroxy fatty acids and ?,?-dicarboxylic acids. Considering the sandy soils studied here, the relationships we obtained need to be tested for other types of soils. Our analysis indicates that plant roots have a primary role influencing SWR relative to plant leaves.

  11. Effect of Industrial Effluents of Zob-Ahan on Soil, Water and Vegetable Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Hamid Reza; Rezaei, Mosleheddin

    Monitoring harmful chemicals especially heavy metals in industrial effluent for prevention and degradation of natural resources are required. The Effluent Water (EW) of Zob-Ahan (steel industrial complex), were seasonally collected, three times during 48 h period. The soils, well-water and vegetable plant samples were collected in land irrigated with EW and soil in adjacent virgin lands. The EW EC, TDS, BOD, COD, sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate and N-NO3 and of Cd, Co and Cr were above permissible limit, wells-water for in the down side of evaporation ponds EC, TDS, N-NO3, sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate and concentration of Cu, Co, Fe and Cr were above permissible limit and the soils treated with EW Zn, Mn and Cd concentration were in critical range. Soils irrigated with EW had higher OC content and available concentration of Cd, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Pb compared to control sample (adjacent virgin land). In vegetable plants, all measured heavy metals concentration (except Cu content in Taree Irani that was in critical rang) was in normal range. The heavy metals concentration in unwashed plant samples were higher than washed ones. The results showed that Zob-Ahan EW has limitation for application as irrigation water, discharge into surface and subsurface water. Therefore, the EW, should properly be treated before discharging into environment. The heavy metals in soil and well-water affected by EW and irrigated plants with EW should regularly and closely be monitored.

  12. Infiltration and soil erosion modelling on Lausatian post mine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunth, Franziska; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Land management of reclaimed lignite mine sites requires long-term and safe structuring of recultivation areas. Erosion by water leads to explicit soil losses, especially on heavily endangered water repellent and non-vegetated soil surfaces. Beyond that, weathering of pyrite-containing lignite burden dumps causes sulfuric acid-formation, and hence the acidification of groundwater, seepage water and surface waters. Pyrite containing sediment is detached by precipitation and transported into worked-out open cuts by draining runoff. In addition to ground water influence, erosion processes are therefore involved in acidification of surface waters. A model-based approach for the conservation of man-made slopes of post mining sites is the objective of this ongoing study. The study shall be completed by modeling of the effectiveness of different mine site recultivation scenarios. Erosion risks on man-made slopes in recultivation areas should be determined by applying the physical, raster- and event based computer model EROSION 2D/3D (Schmidt, 1991, 1992; v. Werner, 1995). The widely used erosion model is able to predict runoff as well as detachment, transport and deposition of sediments. Lignite burden dumps contain hydrophobic substances that cover soil particles. Consequently, these soils show strong water repellency, which influences the processes of infiltration and soil erosion on non-vegetated, coal containing dump soils. The influence of water repellency had to be implemented into EROSION 2D/3D. Required input data for soil erosion modelling (e.g. physical soil parameters, infiltration rates, calibration factors, etc.) were gained by soil sampling and rainfall experiments on non-vegetated as well as recultivated reclaimed mine sites in the Lusatia lignite mining region (southeast of Berlin, Germany). The measured infiltration rates on the non-vegetated water repellent sites were extremely low. Therefore, a newly developed water repellency-factor was applied to depict infiltration and erosion processes on water repellent dump soils. For infiltration modelling with EROSION 2D calibration factors (e.g. water repellency factor, skin-factor, etc.) were determined in different steps by calibrating computer modelled infiltration, respectively volume rate of flow to the measured data.

  13. Algal biochar enhances the re-vegetation of stockpiled mine soils with native grass.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David A; Cole, Andrew J; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-09-15

    In most countries the mining industry is required to rehabilitate disturbed land with native vegetation. A typical approach is to stockpile soils during mining and then use this soil to recreate landforms after mining. Soil that has been stockpiled for an extended period typically contains little or no organic matter and nutrient, making soil rehabilitation a slow and difficult process. Here, we take freshwater macroalgae (Oedogonium) cultivated in waste water at a coal-fired power station and use it as a feedstock for the production of biochar, then use this biochar to enhance the rehabilitation of two types of stockpiled soil - a ferrosol and a sodosol - from the adjacent coal mine. While the biomass had relatively high concentrations of some metals, due to its cultivation in waste water, the resulting biochar did not leach metals into the pore water of soil-biochar mixtures. The biochar did, however, contribute essential trace elements (particularly K) to soil pore water. The biochar had very strong positive effects on the establishment and growth of a native plant (Kangaroo grass, Themeda australis) in both of the soils. The addition of the algal biochar to both soils at 10 t ha(-1) reduced the time to germination by the grass and increased the growth and production of plant biomass. Somewhat surprisingly, there was no beneficial effect of a higher application rate (25 t ha(-1)) of the biochar in the ferrosol, which highlights the importance of matching biochar application rates to the requirements of different types of soil. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that algal biochar can be produced from biomass cultivated in waste water and used at low application rates to improve the rehabilitation of a variety of soils typical of coal mines. This novel process links biomass production in waste water to end use of the biomass in land rehabilitation, simultaneously addressing two environmental issues associated with coal-mining and processing. PMID:26172107

  14. Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Notaro, Michael; Liu, Zhengyu; Gallimore, Robert; Levis, Samuel; Kutzbach, John E.

    2008-03-31

    Using two climate-vegetation model simulations from the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, version 2), we investigate vegetation-precipitation feedbacks across North Africa during the mid-Holocene. From mid-Holocene snapshot runs of FOAM and CCSM2, we detect a negative feedback at the annual timescale with our statistical analysis. Using the Monte- Carlo bootstrap method, the annual negative feedback is further confirmed to be significant in both simulations. Additional analysis shows that this negative interaction is partially caused by the competition between evaporation and transpiration in North African grasslands. Furthermore, we find the feedbacks decrease with increasing timescales, and change signs from positive to negative at increasing timescales in FOAM. The proposed mechanism for this sign switch is associated with the different persistent timescales of upper and lower soil water contents, and their interactions with vegetation and atmospheric precipitation.

  15. INTERCOMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE VEGETATION DATABASES FOR REGIONAL AIR QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vegetation cover data are used to characterize several regional air quality modeling processes, including the calculation of heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes with the Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5) and the estimate of biogenic volatile organic compound and nitric oxide...

  16. The applicability of ERTS-1 data covering the major landforms of Kenya. [landforms, vegetation, soils, forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omino, J. H. O. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Five investigators report on the applicability of ERTS-1 data covering the major landforms of Kenya. Deficiencies due to lack of equipment, repetitive coverage and interpretation know-how are also reported on. Revision of lake shorelines is an immediate benefit. Basement system metasediments are rapidly differentiated, but dune areas are not readily distinguishable from sandy soils. Forest, moorland, high altitude grass, tea, and conifer plantations are readily distinguished, with podocarpus forest especially distinguishable from podocarpus/juniperus forest. In the arid areas physiographic features, indicating the major soil types, are readily identified and mapped. Preliminary vegetation type analysis in the Mara Game Reserve indicates that in a typical savannah area about 36% of the vegetation types are distinguishable at a scale of 1:1 million as well as drainage patterns and terrain features.

  17. Measurement of directional thermal infrared emissivity of vegetation and soils

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, J.M.; Balick, L.K.

    1995-10-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring directional thermal emissivity as a function of view angle for plant canopies and soils using two infrared thermometers each sensitive to a different wavelength band. By calibrating the two infrared thermometers to 0.1C consistency, canopy directional emissivity can be estimated with typical errors less than 0.005 in the 8--14 um wavelength band, depending on clarity of the sky and corrections for CO{sub 2} absorption by the atmosphere. A theoretical justification for the method is developed along with an error analysis. Laboratory measurements were used to develop corrections for CO{sub 2}, absorption and a field calibration method is used to obtain the necessary 0.1C consistency for relatively low cost infrared thermometers. The emissivity of alfalfa (LAI=2.5) and corn (LAI=3.2) was near 0.995 and independent of view angle. Individual corn leaves had an emissivity of 0.97. A wheat (LAI=3.0) canopy had an emissivity of 0.985 at nadir and 0.975 at 75 degree view angle. The canopy emissivity values tend to be higher than values in the literature, and are useful for converting infrared thermometer measurements to kinetic temperature and interpreting satellite thermal observations.

  18. Modeling plant competition for soil water balance in Water-limited Mediterranean Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortis, C.; Montaldo, N.

    2009-12-01

    In heterogeneous ecosystems, such Mediterranean ecosystems, contrasting plant functional types (PFTs, e.g., grass and woody vegetation) compete for the water use. In these complex ecosystems current modeling approaches need to be improved due to a general lack of knowledge about the relationship between ET and the plant survival strategies for the different PFTs under water stress. Indeed, still unsolved questions are: how the PFTs (in particular the root systems) compete for the water use, the impact of this competition on the water balance terms, and the role of the soil type and soil depth in this competition. For this reasons an elaborated coupled Vegetation dynamic model (VDM) - land surface model (LSM) model able to also predict root distribution of competing plant systems is developed. The transport of vertical water flow in the unsaturated soil is modelled through a Richards’ equation based model. The water extraction (sink) term is considered as the root water uptake. Two VDMs predict vegetation dynamics, including spatial and temporal distribution/evolution of the root systems in the soil of two competing species (grass and woody vegetation). An innovative method for solving the unlinear system of predicting equations is proposed. The coupled model is able to predict soil and root water potential of the two competing plant species. The model is tested for the Orroli case study, situated in the mid-west of Sardinia within the Flumendosa river watershed. The site landscape is a mixture of Mediterranean patchy vegetation types: trees, including wild olives and coark oaks, different shrubs and herbaceous species. In particular two contrasting plant functional types (grass and woody vegetation) have been included. The model well predict the soil moisture and vegetation dynamics for the case study, and significantly different root potentials are predicted for the two PFTs, highlighting the root competition for the water use. The soil depth is low in the case study, while the Flumendosa basin is characterized by soils of different type and depth (more silty and deep nearly the river valley), such as typical in Mediterranean basins. A sensitivity analysis to the soil depth and soil type is performed for investigating their influences on the PFT dynamics and soil water balance. The influence of vegetation cover distribution of each plant type is also investigated. Results show that the plant compete differently according to site soil characteristics, and the impact of vegetation dynamics on the soil water balance terms is significant and cannot be neglected in current hydrological approaches.

  19. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) Combined with Soil Solarization as a Methyl Bromide Alternative: Vegetable Crop Performance and Soil Nutrient Dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil treatment by anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) combined with soil solarization can effectively control soilborne plant pathogens and plant-parasitic nematodes in specialty crop production systems. At the same time, research is limited on the impact of soil treatment by ASD + solarization on c...

  20. MONITORING ROOT-ZONE SOIL MOISTURE THROUGH THE ASSIMILATION OF A THERMAL REMOTE SENSING-BASED SOIL MOISTURE PROXY INTO A WATER BALANCE MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two types of Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) modeling approaches can be applied to monitor root-zone soil moisture in agricultural landscapes. Water and Energy Balance (WEB) SVAT modeling is based on forcing a prognostic root-zone water balance model with observed rainfall and predicted ...

  1. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There is a risk of misinterpreting C stocks in Amazonia when such great pedological variability is not taken into account. PMID:17846909

  2. A fully traits-based approach to modeling global vegetation distribution.

    PubMed

    van Bodegom, Peter M; Douma, Jacob C; Verheijen, Lieneke M

    2014-09-23

    Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are indispensable for our understanding of climate change impacts. The application of traits in DGVMs is increasingly refined. However, a comprehensive analysis of the direct impacts of trait variation on global vegetation distribution does not yet exist. Here, we present such analysis as proof of principle. We run regressions of trait observations for leaf mass per area, stem-specific density, and seed mass from a global database against multiple environmental drivers, making use of findings of global trait convergence. This analysis explained up to 52% of the global variation of traits. Global trait maps, generated by coupling the regression equations to gridded soil and climate maps, showed up to orders of magnitude variation in trait values. Subsequently, nine vegetation types were characterized by the trait combinations that they possess using Gaussian mixture density functions. The trait maps were input to these functions to determine global occurrence probabilities for each vegetation type. We prepared vegetation maps, assuming that the most probable (and thus, most suited) vegetation type at each location will be realized. This fully traits-based vegetation map predicted 42% of the observed vegetation distribution correctly. Our results indicate that a major proportion of the predictive ability of DGVMs with respect to vegetation distribution can be attained by three traits alone if traits like stem-specific density and seed mass are included. We envision that our traits-based approach, our observation-driven trait maps, and our vegetation maps may inspire a new generation of powerful traits-based DGVMs. PMID:25225413

  3. Gravel admix, vegetation, and soil water interactions in protective barriers: Experimental design, construction, and initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the interactive effects of gravel admix and greater precipitation on soil water storage and plant abundance. The study is one of many tasks in the Protective Barrier Development Program for the disposal of Hanford defense waste. A factorial field-plot experiment was set up at the site selected as the borrow area for barrier topsoil. Gravel admix, vegetation, and enhanced precipitation treatments were randomly assigned to the plots using a split-split plot design structure. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover were monitored using neutron probe and point intercept methods, respectively. The first-year results suggest that water extraction by plants will offset gravel-caused increases in soil water storage. Near-surface soil water contents were much lower in graveled plots with plants than in nongraveled plots without plants. Large inherent variability in deep soil water storage masked any effects gravel may have had on water content below the root zone. In the future, this source of variation will be removed by differencing monthly data series and testing for changes in soil water storage. Tests of the effects of greater precipitation on soil water storage were inconclusive. A telling test will be possible in the spring of 1988, following the first wet season during which normal precipitation is doubled. 26 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Simulation of soil temperature dynamics with models using different concepts.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Renáta; Fodor, Nándor

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two soil temperature models with empirical and mechanistic concepts. At the test site (calcaric arenosol), meteorological parameters as well as soil moisture content and temperature at 5 different depths were measured in an experiment with 8 parcels realizing the combinations of the fertilized, nonfertilized, irrigated, nonirrigated treatments in two replicates. Leaf area dynamics was also monitored. Soil temperature was calculated with the original and a modified version of CERES as well as with the HYDRUS-1D model. The simulated soil temperature values were compared to the observed ones. The vegetation reduced both the average soil temperature and its diurnal amplitude; therefore, considering the leaf area dynamics is important in modeling. The models underestimated the actual soil temperature and overestimated the temperature oscillation within the winter period. All models failed to account for the insulation effect of snow cover. The modified CERES provided explicitly more accurate soil temperature values than the original one. Though HYDRUS-1D provided more accurate soil temperature estimations, its superiority to CERES is not unequivocal as it requires more detailed inputs. PMID:22792047

  5. Post-Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplow, J. S.; Beresford, N. A.; Barnett, C. L.

    2015-08-01

    The data set "Post Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain" was developed to enable data collected by the Natural Environment Research Council after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. Data for samples collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl) to spring 1997 are presented. Additional data to radiocaesium concentrations are presented where available. The data have value in trying to assess the contribution of new sources of radiocaesium in the environment, providing baseline data for future planned releases and to aid the development and testing of models. The data are freely available for non-commercial use under Open Government Licence terms and conditions. doi:10.5285/d0a6a8bf-68f0-4935-8b43-4e597c3bf251. Supporting information to assist with the reuse of this data is available from the Environmental Information Data Centre (EIDC) (http://eidc.ceh.ac.uk/).

  6. Soil versus foliar iodine fertilization as a biofortification strategy for field-grown vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Patrick G.; Daum, Diemo; Czauderna, Roman; Meuser, Helmut; Härtling, Joachim W.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine (I) biofortification of vegetables by means of soil and foliar applications was investigated in field experiments on a sandy loam soil. Supply of iodine to the soil in trial plots fertilized with potassium iodide (KI) and potassium iodate directly before planting (0, 1.0, 2.5, 7.5, and 15 kg I ha-1) increased the iodine concentration in the edible plant parts. The highest iodine accumulation levels were observed in the first growing season: In butterhead lettuce and kohlrabi the desired iodine content [50–100 ?g I (100 g FM)-1] was obtained or exceeded at a fertilizer rate of 7.5 kg IO3--I ha-1 without a significant yield reduction or impairment of the marketable quality. In contrast, supplying KI at the same rate resulted in a much lower iodine enrichment and clearly visible growth impairment. Soil applied iodine was phytoavailable only for a short period of time as indicated by a rapid decline of CaCl2-extractable iodine in the top soil. Consequently, long-term effects of a one-time iodine soil fertilization could not be observed. A comparison between the soil and the foliar fertilization revealed a better performance of iodine applied aerially to butterhead lettuce, which reached the desired iodine accumulation in edible plant parts at a fertilizer rate of 0.5 kg I--I ha-1. In contrast, the iodine content in the tuber of sprayed kohlrabi remained far below the targeted range. The results indicate that a sufficient spreading of iodine applied on the edible plant parts is crucial for the efficiency of the foliar approach and leafy vegetables are the more suitable target crops. The low iodine doses needed as well as the easy and inexpensive application may favor the implementation of foliar sprays as the preferred iodine biofortification strategy in practice. PMID:26157445

  7. Interactions of aluminum with forest soils and vegetation: Implications for acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that an important ecological consequence of acidic deposition is increased aluminum mobilization. There is concern that increased aluminum activity may produce toxic effects in forested ecosystems. My studies were concerned with the behavior of pedogenic and added aluminum in soils derived from chemically different parent material. Soil aluminum was related to the aluminum content of the vegetation found growing in the soils. In addition, aluminum levels of forest litter was compared to levels determined 40 years ago. Field, greenhouse, and laboratory investigations were conducted in which the effects of aluminum concentration on germination and early growth was determined. Soils were then used in greenhouse and laboratory studies to establish patterns of soil and plant aluminum behavior with implications to acid deposition. Results show that the amount of aluminum extracted was related to the pH value of the extracting solution and to the chemical characteristics of the soil. Some acid rain solutions extracted measurable amounts of aluminum from selected primary minerals. Germination and early growth of Pinus radiata was controlled by levels of aluminum in the soil or in solution. Field studies indicated that most forest species were sensitive to rising levels of aluminum in the soil. In general, ferns and fern allies were less sensitive to very high levels of aluminum in the soil, continuing to grow when more advanced dicots have disappeared. Aluminum tissue levels of all species were related to the concentration of aluminum in the soil as was the reappearance of species. Aluminum levels in leaf litter have risen at least 50% in the last 40 years. These values were consistent over 3 years. The implications to acid deposition were discussed.

  8. Spreading topsoil encourages ecological restoration on embankments: soil fertility, microbial activity and vegetation cover.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Desirée; Mejías, Violeta; Jáuregui, Berta M; Costa-Tenorio, Marga; López-Archilla, Ana Isabel; Peco, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    The construction of linear transport infrastructure has severe effects on ecosystem functions and properties, and the restoration of the associated roadslopes contributes to reduce its impact. This restoration is usually approached from the perspective of plant cover regeneration, ignoring plant-soil interactions and the consequences for plant growth. The addition of a 30 cm layer of topsoil is a common practice in roadslope restoration projects to increase vegetation recovery. However topsoil is a scarce resource. This study assesses the effects of topsoil spreading and its depth (10 to 30 cm) on two surrogates of microbial activity (?-glucosidase and phosphatase enzymes activity and soil respiration), and on plant cover, plant species richness and floristic composition of embankment vegetation. The study also evaluates the differences in selected physic-chemical properties related to soil fertility between topsoil and the original embankment substrate. Topsoil was found to have higher values of organic matter (11%), nitrogen (44%), assimilable phosphorous (50%) and silt content (54%) than the original embankment substrate. The topsoil spreading treatment increased microbial activity, and its application increased ?-glucosidase activity (45%), phosphatase activity (57%) and soil respiration (60%). Depth seemed to affect soil respiration, ?-glucosidase and phosphatase activity. Topsoil application also enhanced the species richness of restored embankments in relation to controls. Nevertheless, the depth of the spread topsoil did not significantly affect the resulting plant cover, species richness or floristic composition, suggesting that both depths could have similar effects on short-term recovery of the vegetation cover. A significant implication of these results is that it permits the application of thinner topsoil layers, with major savings in this scarce resource during the subsequent slope restoration work, but the quality of topsoil relative to the original substrate should be previously assessed on a site by site basis. PMID:24984137

  9. Grazing effects on soil characteristics and vegetation of grassland in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Johnson, D. A.; Rong, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Large areas of grassland in the agro-pastoral region of northern China were converted into cropland for grain production, and the remaining grasslands are being overgrazed and seriously degraded. The objective of this study was to evaluate how reductions in grazing intensity affect the soil and vegetation characteristics in grasslands of northern China. Soil heterogeneity and vegetation characteristics were evaluated for ungrazed (UG), moderate grazing (MG), and heavy grazing (HG) sites. Grazing increased diversity, but heavy grazing decreased aboveground biomass and increased the non-grass component. Vegetation biomass was greatest at the UG site (220 g m-2) followed by the MG (99 g m-2) and HG (27 g m-2) sites (P < 0.05). The non-grass proportion of total biomass increased with grazing intensity, which was 8, 16, and 48 % for UG, MG, and HG sites, respectively. Species richness at the MG and HG sites was significantly higher than at the UG site (P < 0.05) with 3.6, 5.5, and 5.7 for UG, MG, and HG sites, respectively. Over grazing homogenized soil characteristics at a 10 m scale. The ranges of spatial autocorrelation for soil organic C (SOC) and total N were both > 120 m at the HG site, which was considerably larger than that at the MG and UG sites with corresponding distances of 17.3 and 20.8 m for the MG site and 25.8 and 15.0 m for the UG site, respectively. Therefore, MG was recommended as the preferred management alternative for grasslands in northern China because of increased plant diversity without negative consequences related to decreased forage quality and forage quantity, and soil heterogeneity in northern China's grasslands.

  10. Soil warming and CO2 enrichment induce biomass shifts in alpine tree line vegetation.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Melissa A; Philipson, Christopher D; Fonti, Patrick; Bebi, Peter; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Hagedorn, Frank; Rixen, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Responses of alpine tree line ecosystems to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming are poorly understood. We used an experiment at the Swiss tree line to investigate changes in vegetation biomass after 9 years of free air CO2 enrichment (+200 ppm; 2001-2009) and 6 years of soil warming (+4 °C; 2007-2012). The study contained two key tree line species, Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata, both approximately 40 years old, growing in heath vegetation dominated by dwarf shrubs. In 2012, we harvested and measured biomass of all trees (including root systems), above-ground understorey vegetation and fine roots. Overall, soil warming had clearer effects on plant biomass than CO2 enrichment, and there were no interactive effects between treatments. Total plant biomass increased in warmed plots containing Pinus but not in those with Larix. This response was driven by changes in tree mass (+50%), which contributed an average of 84% (5.7 kg m(-2) ) of total plant mass. Pinus coarse root mass was especially enhanced by warming (+100%), yielding an increased root mass fraction. Elevated CO2 led to an increased relative growth rate of Larix stem basal area but no change in the final biomass of either tree species. Total understorey above-ground mass was not altered by soil warming or elevated CO2 . However, Vaccinium myrtillus mass increased with both treatments, graminoid mass declined with warming, and forb and nonvascular plant (moss and lichen) mass decreased with both treatments. Fine roots showed a substantial reduction under soil warming (-40% for all roots <2 mm in diameter at 0-20 cm soil depth) but no change with CO2 enrichment. Our findings suggest that enhanced overall productivity and shifts in biomass allocation will occur at the tree line, particularly with global warming. However, individual species and functional groups will respond differently to these environmental changes, with consequences for ecosystem structure and functioning. PMID:25471674

  11. Vegetation composition and soil microbial community structural changes along a wetland hydrological gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasooriya, W. K.; Denef, K.; Peters, J.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Boeckx, P.

    2008-02-01

    Fluctuations in wetland hydrology create an interplay between aerobic and anaerobic conditions, controlling vegetation composition and microbial community structure and activity in wetland soils. In this study, we investigated the vegetation composition and microbial community structural and functional changes along a wetland hydrological gradient. Two different vegetation communities were distinguished along the hydrological gradient; Caricetum gracilis at the wet depression and Arrhenatheretum elatioris at the drier upper site. Microbial community structural changes were studied by a combined in situ 13CO2 pulse labeling and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) based stable isotope probing approach, which identifies the microbial groups actively involved in assimilation of newly photosynthesized, root-derived C in the rhizosphere soils. Gram negative bacterial communities were relatively more abundant in the surface soils of the drier upper site than in the surface soils of the wetter lower site, while the lower site and the deeper soil layers were relatively more inhabited by gram positive bacterial communities. Despite their large abundance, the metabolically active proportion of gram positive bacterial and actinomycetes communities was much smaller at both sites, compared to that of the gram negative bacterial and fungal communities. This suggests much slower assimilation of root-derived C by gram positive and actinomycetes communities than by gram negative bacteria and fungi at both sites. Ground water depth showed a significant effect on the relative abundance of several microbial communities. Relative abundance of gram negative bacteria significantly decreased with increasing ground water depth while the relative abundance of gram positive bacteria and actinomycetes at the surface layer increased with increasing ground water depth.

  12. Vegetation composition and soil microbial community structural changes along a wetland hydrological gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasooriya, W. K.; Denef, K.; Peters, J.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Boeckx, P.

    2007-10-01

    Fluctuations in wetland hydrology create an interplay between aerobic and anaerobic conditions, controlling vegetation composition and microbial community structure and activity in wetland soils. In this study, we investigated the vegetation composition and microbial community structural and functional changes along a wetland hydrological gradient. Two different vegetation communities were distinguished along the hydrological gradient; textit{Caricetum gracilis} at the wet depression and textit{Arrhenatherum elatioris} at the drier upper site. Microbial community structural changes were studied by a combined in situ 13CO2 pulse labeling and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) based stable isotope probing approach, which identifies the microbial groups actively involved in assimilation of newly photosynthesized, root-derived C in the rhizosphere soils. Gram negative bacterial communities were relatively more abundant in the surface soils of the drier upper site than in the surface soils of the wetter lower site, while the lower site and the deeper soil layers were relatively more inhabited by gram positive bacterial communities. Despite their large abundance, the metabolically active proportion of gram positive bacterial and actinomycetes communities was much smaller at both sites, compared to that of the gram negative bacterial and fungal communities. This suggests much slower assimilation of root-derived C by gram positive and actinomycetes communities than by gram negative bacteria and fungi at both sites. Ground water depth showed a significant effect on the relative abundance of several microbial communities. Relative abundance of gram negative bacteria was significantly decreased with increasing ground water depth while the relative abundance of gram positive bacteria and actinomycetes at the surface layer increased with increasing ground water depth.

  13. Spreading Topsoil Encourages Ecological Restoration on Embankments: Soil Fertility, Microbial Activity and Vegetation Cover

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Desirée; Mejías, Violeta; Jáuregui, Berta M.; López-Archilla, Ana Isabel; Peco, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    The construction of linear transport infrastructure has severe effects on ecosystem functions and properties, and the restoration of the associated roadslopes contributes to reduce its impact. This restoration is usually approached from the perspective of plant cover regeneration, ignoring plant-soil interactions and the consequences for plant growth. The addition of a 30 cm layer of topsoil is a common practice in roadslope restoration projects to increase vegetation recovery. However topsoil is a scarce resource. This study assesses the effects of topsoil spreading and its depth (10 to 30 cm) on two surrogates of microbial activity (?-glucosidase and phosphatase enzymes activity and soil respiration), and on plant cover, plant species richness and floristic composition of embankment vegetation. The study also evaluates the differences in selected physic-chemical properties related to soil fertility between topsoil and the original embankment substrate. Topsoil was found to have higher values of organic matter (11%), nitrogen (44%), assimilable phosphorous (50%) and silt content (54%) than the original embankment substrate. The topsoil spreading treatment increased microbial activity, and its application increased ?-glucosidase activity (45%), phosphatase activity (57%) and soil respiration (60%). Depth seemed to affect soil respiration, ?-glucosidase and phosphatase activity. Topsoil application also enhanced the species richness of restored embankments in relation to controls. Nevertheless, the depth of the spread topsoil did not significantly affect the resulting plant cover, species richness or floristic composition, suggesting that both depths could have similar effects on short-term recovery of the vegetation cover. A significant implication of these results is that it permits the application of thinner topsoil layers, with major savings in this scarce resource during the subsequent slope restoration work, but the quality of topsoil relative to the original substrate should be previously assessed on a site by site basis. PMID:24984137

  14. Appropriate scale of soil moisture retrieval from high-resolution radar imagery for bare and minimally vegetated soils 1859

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research investigates the appropriate scale for watershed averaged and site specific soil moisture retrieval from high resolution radar imagery. The first approach involved filtering backscatter for input to a retrieval model that was compared against field measures of soil moisture. The seco...

  15. Simulating the effects of soil organic nitrogen and grazing on arctic tundra vegetation dynamics on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qin; Epstein, Howard; Walker, Donald

    2009-10-01

    Sustainability of tundra vegetation under changing climate on the Yamal Peninsula, northwestern Siberia, home to the world's largest area of reindeer husbandry, is of crucial importance to the local native community. An integrated investigation is needed for better understanding of the effects of soils, climate change and grazing on tundra vegetation in the Yamal region. In this study we applied a nutrient-based plant community model—ArcVeg—to evaluate how two factors (soil organic nitrogen (SON) levels and grazing) interact to affect tundra responses to climate warming across a latitudinal climatic gradient on the Yamal Peninsula. Model simulations were driven by field-collected soil data and expected grazing patterns along the Yamal Arctic Transect (YAT), within bioclimate subzones C (high arctic), D (northern low arctic) and E (southern low arctic). Plant biomass and NPP (net primary productivity) were significantly increased with warmer bioclimate subzones, greater soil nutrient levels and temporal climate warming, while they declined with higher grazing frequency. Temporal climate warming of 2 °C caused an increase of 665 g m-2 in total biomass at the high SON site in subzone E, but only 298 g m-2 at the low SON site. When grazing frequency was also increased, total biomass increased by only 369 g m-2 at the high SON site in contrast to 184 g m-2 at the low SON site in subzone E. Our results suggest that high SON can support greater plant biomass and plant responses to climate warming, while low SON and grazing may limit plant response to climate change. In addition to the first order factors (SON, bioclimate subzones, grazing and temporal climate warming), interactions among these significantly affect plant biomass and productivity in the arctic tundra and should not be ignored in regional scale studies.

  16. Differences in Soil Fungal Communities between European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Dominated Forests Are Related to Soil and Understory Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Gawlich, Melanie; Schnabel, Beatrix; Fischer, Markus; Buscot, François

    2012-01-01

    Fungi are important members of soil microbial communities with a crucial role in biogeochemical processes. Although soil fungi are known to be highly diverse, little is known about factors influencing variations in their diversity and community structure among forests dominated by the same tree species but spread over different regions and under different managements. We analyzed the soil fungal diversity and community composition of managed and unmanaged European beech dominated forests located in three German regions, the Schwäbische Alb in Southwestern, the Hainich-Dün in Central and the Schorfheide Chorin in the Northeastern Germany, using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Multiple sequence quality filtering followed by sequence data normalization revealed 1655 fungal operational taxonomic units. Further analysis based on 722 abundant fungal OTUs revealed the phylum Basidiomycota to be dominant (54%) and its community to comprise 71.4% of ectomycorrhizal taxa. Fungal community structure differed significantly (p?0.001) among the three regions and was characterized by non-random fungal OTUs co-occurrence. Soil parameters, herbaceous understory vegetation, and litter cover affected fungal community structure. However, within each study region we found no difference in fungal community structure between management types. Our results also showed region specific significant correlation patterns between the dominant ectomycorrhizal fungal genera. This suggests that soil fungal communities are region-specific but nevertheless composed of functionally diverse and complementary taxa. PMID:23094057

  17. The assessments of uncertainties in global vegetation and soil carbon projections in ISI-MIP study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishina, K.; Ito, A.; Beerling, D.; Cadule, P.; Ciais, P.; Clark, D. B.; Falloon, P.; Friend, A. D.; Kahana, R.; Kato, E.; Keribin, R. M.; Lucht, W.; Lomas, M. R.; Rademacher, T.; Pavlick, R.; Schaphoff, S.; Vuichard, N.; Warszawski, L.; Yokohata, T.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature and precipitation are critical factors in determining the feedback of terrestrial ecosystems to atmospheric CO2. However, the changes in temperature and precipitation in the future climate have large uncertainty both spatially and temporally even at the same radiative forcing levels. This difference in spatial and temporal patterns of climate change among model projections could affect the global C budget of terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we examined the global soil organic carbon (SOC) and vegetation carbon (VegC) stock dynamics estimated by 6 ecosystem models obtained from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Inter-comparison Project (ISI-MIP). Simulation results using 5 global climate models (GCMs) under forced 4 Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCPs) were used. We aimed at exploring the uncertainties in the future carbon budget projected by current ecosystem models. To clarify which of the 3 components (emission scenarios, climate projections, and biome models) has the largest contribution to estimation uncertainty, we applied wavelet clustering to the time-series data of global C stock simulated under 4 RCP scenarios for all GCMs. This cluster analysis procedure enabled us to consider the variability and trend in the time-series domains and to cope with aperiodic components, noise, and transient dynamics. During the projection period (2000-2099), the estimated changes in the global VegC stock for all GCM projections ranged from -20 Pg-C to 200 Pg-C, and corresponding changes in the global SOC stock ranged from -195 Pg-C to 471 Pg-C. The clustering wavelet spectra of SOC time-series data revealed that the 70 simulations were classified into 5 major groups. We focused on these 5 clusters, which mostly of biome models rather than RCPs and GCMs. Considering results of each biome model, the RCPs appropriately differentiated the clusters between the lowest and highest emission scenario. By combining RCP scenarios, GCM climates, and biome models, we found that uncertainties in the global SOC and VegC projection caused by biome models were greater than those caused by driving scenarios, i.e., RCPs and GCMs. The uncertainties associated with the SOC projections are significantly high and it was estimated that global SOC would act as either CO2 sources and or sinks by 2099, depending on biome models used, even though these models reasonably captured similar historical VegC and SOC trends.

  18. Mapping vegetation water content in the Red river basin during the soil moisture active passive validation experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture remote sensing requires an accurate assessment of moisture sources at the surface to account for attenuation to the radiometric signal. Vegetation water content is the most signficant store of moisture at the surface for most vegetated surfaces, greater than intercepted precipitation o...

  19. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering.

    PubMed

    Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I; Major, David W; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

    2015-03-21

    Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the relationship between key outcomes (TCE destruction, rate of remediation) to initial conditions (vegetable oil type, oil: TCE mass ratio, neat versus emulsified oils). Several vegetable oils and emulsified vegetable oil formulations were shown to support remediation of TCE via self-sustaining smoldering. A minimum concentration of 14,000 mg/kg canola oil was found to treat sand exhibiting up to 80,000 mg/kg TCE. On average, 75% of the TCE mass was removed due to volatilization. This proof-of-concept study suggests that injection and smoldering of vegetable oil may provide a new alternative for driving volatile contaminants to traditional vapour extraction systems without supplying substantial external energy. PMID:25528233

  20. Plumbum contamination detecting model for agricultural soil using hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangnan; Huang, Fang; Wang, Ping

    2008-10-01

    The issue of environmental pollution due to toxic heavy metals in agricultural land has caused worldwide growing concern in recent years. Being one of toxic heavy metals, the accumulation of Plumbum (Pb) may have negative effects on natural and agricultural vegetation growth, yield and quality. It can also constitute short-term and long-term health risks by entering the food chain. In this study, we analyze the relationships between physical and chemical characteristics, biological parameters of soil-vegetation system and hyperspectral spectrum responses systematically. The relation between hyperspectral data and the biological parameters of Pb polluted wheat canopy such as leaf pigments, leaf moisture, cell structure and leaf area index (LAI) are discussed. We detect the changes in the wheat biological parameters and spectral response associated with Pb concentration in soil. To reveal the impact mechanisms of Pb concentration on agricultural soil, six models including chlorophyll-leaf moisture model, chlorophyll-cell structure model, chlorophyll-LAI model, leaf moisture-cell structure model, leaf moisture-LAI model, cell structure- LAI model are explored. We find that changes in Pb concentration present various features in different models. Pb contamination in agricultural soil can be identified and assessed effectively while integrating the characteristics of those developed models.

  1. Sampling of technetium-99 in vegetation and soils in the vicinity of operating gaseous facilities. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1550

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.; Huckabee, J.W.; Lucas, D.M.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Scott, T.G.; Walker, R.L.; Gouge, P.S.; Holmes, C.V.

    1980-10-01

    Technetium-99 was measured in vegetation and soils collected near three operating gaseous diffusion facilities to obtain estimates of the soil-to-vegetation concentration factor. Analyses were performed primarily using radiochemical separations and low-level beta counting techniques with selected samples checked by isotope dilution mass spectroscopy. The concentration factor pooled from all three facilities appeared to be lognormally distributed with a geometric mean of 9.5 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.4. These values are comparable to calculated equilibrium concentration factors derived from other field experiments in which concentrations in soil and vegetation were observed to decrease with time subsequent to a single application of/sup 95m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/. These field values are one to two orders of magnitude less than concentration factors derived from laboratory experiments using potted plants. It is suggested that the radiologic significance of /sup 99/Tc in terrestrial food chains of importance to humans may be substantially lower than indicated by the simple difference between laboratory and field concentration factors if the time dependence of technetium activity in vegetation and soil is taken into consideration in radiological assessment models.

  2. Factors controlling accumulation of soil organic carbon along vegetation succession in a typical karst region in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shujuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kelin; Pan, Fujing; Yang, Shan; Shu, Shiyan

    2015-07-15

    Vegetation succession enhances the accumulation of carbon in the soil. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in different vegetation types in the karst region of Southwest China. The goal of this study was to identify and prioritize the effects of environmental parameters, including soil physico-chemical properties, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, and litter characteristics, on SOC accumulation along a vegetation succession sere (grassland, shrubland, secondary forest, and primary forest) in the karst landscape of Southwest China. Relationships between these parameters and SOC were evaluated by redundancy analysis. The results showed that SOC accumulation was significantly different among vegetation types (P<0.01) and increased with vegetation succession (from 29.10g·kg(-1) in grassland to 73.92g·kg(-1) in primary forest). Soil biochemistry and physical characteristics significantly affected the accumulation of SOC. Soil microbial biomass showed a predominant effect on SOC in each of the four vegetation types. In addition, the soil physical property (especially the silt content) was another controlling factor in the early stages (grassland), and urease activity and saccharase activity were important controlling factors in the early-middle and middle-late stages, respectively. Litter characteristics only showed mild effects on SOC accumulation. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the contribution of sole main factors to SOC variation decreased, while the interaction effect among parameters increased along the succession gradient. PMID:25828412

  3. Effects of various uranium leaching procedures on soil: Short-term vegetation growth and physiology. Progress report, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, N.T.

    1994-08-01

    Significant volumes of soil containing elevated levels of uranium exist in the eastern United States. The contamination resulted from the development of the nuclear industry in the United States requiring a large variety of uranium products. The contaminated soil poses a collection and disposal problem of a magnitude that justifies the development of decontamination methods. Consequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program to address the problem. The fundamental goal of the USID task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than what can be done using current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics and without generating waste that is difficult to manage and/or dispose of. However, procedures developed for removing uranium from contaminated soil have involved harsh chemical treatments that affect the physicochemical properties of the soil. The questions are (1) are the changes in soil properties severe enough to destroy the soil`s capacity to support and sustain vegetation growth and survival? and (2) what amendments might be made to the leached soil to return it to a reasonable vegetation production capacity? This study examines the vegetation-support capacity of soil that had been chemically leached to remove uranium. The approach is to conduct short-term germination and phytotoxicity tests for evaluating soils after they are subjected to various leaching procedures followed by longer term pot studies on successfully leached soils that show the greatest capacity to support plant growth. This report details the results from germination and short-term phytotoxicity testing of soils that underwent a variety of leaching procedures at the bench scale at ORNL and at the pilot plant at Fernald.

  4. Temporal variation of aqueous-extractable Ca, Mg and K in acidified forest mountainous soils under different vegetation cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejnecky, V.; Bradová, M.; Boruvka, L.; Vasat, R.; Nemecek, K.; Ash, C.; Sebek, O.; Rejzek, J.; Drabek, O.

    2012-12-01

    Acidification of forest soils is a natural degradation process which can be significantly enhanced by anthropogenic activities. Inputs of basic cations (BC - Ca, Mg and K) via precipitation, litter and soil organic matter decomposition and also via inter-soil weathering may partially mitigate the consequences of this degradation process. The aim of this study is to assess the temporal variation of aqueous-extractable Ca, Mg and K in acidified forest mountainous soils under different vegetation cover. The Jizera Mountains region (Czech Republic, northern Bohemia) was chosen as a representative soil mountainous ecosystem strongly affected by acidification. Soil and precipitation samples were collected at monthly basis from April till October/ November during the years 2009-2011. Study spots were delimited under two contrasting vegetation covers - beech and spruce monoculture. Prevailing soil types were classified as Alumic Cambisols under beech and Entic Podzols under spruce stands (according to FAO classification). Soil samples were collected from surface fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons and subsurface B horizons (cambic or spodic). The collected soil samples were analyzed immediately under laboratory condition in a "fresh" state. Unsieved fresh samples were extracted by deionised water. The content of main elements (Ca, Mg, K, Al and Fe) was determined by ICP-OES. The content of major anions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl- and F-) was determined by ion-exchange chromatography (IC). Content of major anions and main elements were determined in the precipitation samples (throughfall, stemflow and bulk) as well. Besides computing the basic statistical parameters (mean, median, variance, maximum, minimum, etc.) we also employed other statistical methods such as T-test and ANOVA to assess the differences between beech and spruce vegetation spots. To carry out the temporal variability in the data we used the time series analysis and short-term forecasting by Holt-Winters exponential smoothing and ARIMA models. Our results clearly exhibit differences in the horizontal and spatial distribution of BC. The influences of the study spot, i.e. the influence of stand factors e.g. vegetation covers on BC distribution are well pronounced. The highest amounts of aqueous extractable BC were identified in the F and H organic horizons. The contents of Ca and Mg were significantly higher under beech cover than under spruce cover. The influence of seasonality on BC content and distribution was the strongest in the upper organic horizons. The annual changes are less pronounced in inner mineral B horizons. We have observed a significant influence of the snow melting period - after this event the content of BC was the lowest. In contrast, the BC content rises during the summer period - the time of high biological activity and accelerated organic matter decomposition. This period is again followed by a BC content decrease during the fall period - the time of gradually decreasing biological activity and high precipitation. Generally, we can conclude that the seasonal variations are higher than annual and spatial for both sites.

  5. Stochastic Models of Soil Denitrification

    PubMed Central

    Parkin, T. B.; Robinson, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Soil denitrification is a highly variable process that appears to be lognormally distributed. This variability is manifested by large sample coefficients of variation for replicate estimates of soil core denitrification rates. Deterministic models for soil denitrification have been proposed in the past, but none of these models predicts the approximate lognormality exhibited by natural denitrification rate estimates. In this study, probabilistic (stochastic) models were developed to understand how positively skewed distributions for field denitrification rate estimates result from the combined influences of variables known to affect denitrification. Three stochastic models were developed to describe the distribution of measured soil core denitrification rates. The driving variables used for all the models were denitrification enzyme activity and CO2 production rates. The three models were distinguished by the functional relationships combining these driving variables. The functional relationships used were (i) a second-order model (model 1), (ii) a second-order model with a threshold (model 2), and (iii) a second-order saturation model (model 3). The parameters of the models were estimated by using 12 separate data sets (24 replicates per set), and their abilities to predict denitrification rate distributions were evaluated by using three additional independent data sets of 180 replicates each. Model 2 was the best because it produced distributions of denitrification rate which were not significantly different (P > 0.1) from distributions of measured denitrification rates. The generality of this model is unknown, but it accurately predicted the mean denitrification rates and accounted for the stochastic nature of this variable at the site studied. The approach used in this study may be applicable to other areas of ecological research in which accounting for the high spatial variability of microbiological processes is of interest. PMID:16347838

  6. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaping; Chen, Guangcheng; Ye, Yong

    2015-09-01

    Soil properties and soil-atmosphere fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil-atmosphere CO2-equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO2 m(-2) h(-1), which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH4 and N2O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 ?mol m(-2) h(-1), respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil-atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the same time increase soil carbon accumulation. PMID:25918889

  7. Effects of coal-bed methane discharge waters on the vegetation and soil ecosystem in Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, M.; Tindall, J.A.; Cronin, G.; Friedel, M.J.; Bergquist, E.

    2005-01-01

    Coal-bed methane (CBM) co-produced discharge waters in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, resulting from extraction of methane from coal seams, have become a priority for chemical, hydrological and biological research during the last few years. Soil and vegetation samples were taken from affected and reference sites (upland elevations and wetted gully) in Juniper Draw to investigate the effects of CBM discharge waters on soil physical and chemical properties and on native and introduced vegetation density and diversity. Results indicate an increase of salinity and sodicity within local soil ecosystems at sites directly exposed to CBM discharge waters. Elevated concentrations of sodium in the soil are correlated with consistent exposure to CBM waters. Clay-loam soils in the study area have a much larger specific surface area than the sandy soils and facilitate a greater sodium adsorption. However, there was no significant relation between increasing water sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values and increasing sediment SAR values downstream; however, soils exposed to the CBM water ranged from the moderate to severe SAR hazard index. Native vegetation species density was highest at the reference (upland and gully) and CBM affected upland sites. The affected gully had the greatest percent composition of introduced vegetation species. Salt-tolerant species had the greatest richness at the affected gully, implying a potential threat of invasion and competition to established native vegetation. These findings suggest that CBM waters could affect agricultural production operations and long-term water quality. ?? Springer 2005.

  8. Uptake of explosives from contaminated soil by existing vegetation at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Zellmer, S.D.; Banwart, W.L. |

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the uptake of explosives by existing vegetation growing in TNT-contaminated soils on Group 61 at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP). The soils in this group were contaminated more than 40 years ago. In this study, existing plant materials and soil from the root zone were sampled from 15 locations and analyzed to determine TNT uptake by plants under natural field conditions. Plant materials were separated by species if more than one species was present at a sampling location. Standard methods were used to determine concentrations of explosives, their derivatives, and metabolites in the soil samples. Plant materials were also analyzed. No. explosives were detected in the aboveground portion of any plant sample. However, the results indicate that TNT, 2-amino DNT, and/or 4-amino DNT were found in some root samples of false boneset (Kuhnia eupatorioides), teasel (Dipsacus sylvestris), and bromegrass (Bromus inermis). It is possible that slight soil contamination remained on the roots, especially in the case of the very fine roots for species like bromegrass, where washing was difficult. The presence of 2-amino DNT and 4-amino DNT, which could be plant metabolites of TNT, increases the likelihood that explosives were taken up by plant roots, as opposed to their presence resulting from external soil contamination.

  9. Use of arsenic contaminated irrigation water for lettuce cropping: effects on soil, groundwater, and vegetal.

    PubMed

    Beni, Claudio; Marconi, Simona; Boccia, Priscilla; Ciampa, Alessandra; Diana, Giampietro; Aromolo, Rita; Sturchio, Elena; Neri, Ulderico; Sequi, Paolo; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of using arsenic (As) contaminated irrigation water in Lactuca sativa L. cropping. Two different arsenic concentrations, i.e., 25 and 85 ?g L(-1) and two different soils, i.e., sandy and clay loam, were taken into account. We determined the arsenic mobility in the different soil fractions, its amount in groundwater, and the phytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) were used to assess the lettuce metabolic profile changes and the arsenic uptake by the plant, respectively, as a function of the various conditions studied, i.e., As content and type of soil. Data indicated that at both concentrations in sandy soil, arsenic is in part quickly leached and thus present in groundwater and in part absorbed by the vegetable, being therefore readily available for assimilation by consumption. NMR results reported a large modification of the metabolic pattern, which was depending on the pollutant amount. In clay loam soil, the groundwater had a low As content with respect to sandy soil, and NMR and ICP performed on the lettuce did not reveal severe changes related to As, most likely because the metalloid is bound to the colloidal fraction. PMID:20882365

  10. Predicting soil water repellency by hydrophobic organic compounds and their vegetation origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Nierop, K. G. J.; Rietkerk, M.; Dekker, S. C.

    2015-02-01

    It is widely accepted that soil water repellency (SWR) is mainly caused by plant-derived hydrophobic organic compounds in soils; such hydrophobic compounds are defined as SWR-markers. However, the detailed influence of SWR-markers on SWR is yet unclear and the knowledge of their original sources is still limited. The aims of this study are to select important SWR-markers to predict SWR based on their correlation with SWR and to determine their origin. In our study, sandy soils with different SWR were collected, along with their covering vegetation, i.e. plant leaves/needles and roots. A sequential extraction procedure was applied to the soils to obtain three organic fractions: DCM / MeOH soluble fraction (D), DCM / MeOH insoluble fraction of IPA / NH3 extract (AI) and DCM / MeOH soluble fraction of IPA / NH3 extract (AS), which were subdivided into ten dominant SWR-marker groups: (D) fatty acid, (D) alcohol, (D) alkane, (AI) fatty acid, (AI) alcohol, (AI) ?-hydroxy fatty acid, (AI) ?, ?-dicarboxylic acid, (AS) fatty acid, (AS) alcohol and (AS) ?-hydroxy fatty acid. Waxes and biopolyesters of the vegetation were also sequentially extracted from plants. In short, the soils with higher SWR have significantly higher relative concentrations of (AS) alcohols. A number of indications suggest that (AS) alcohols are mainly derived from roots and most likely produced by microbial hydrolysis of biopolyesters/suberins. In addition, the strong correlation between the biomarkers of plant tissues and SWR-markers in soils suggests that it is more accurate to predict SWR of topsoils using ester-bound alcohols from roots, and to predict SWR of subsoils using root-derived ?-hydroxy fatty acids and ?, ?-dicarboxylic acids. Our analysis indicates that plant roots have a primary role influencing SWR relative to plant leaves.

  11. Assessing environmental drivers of vegetation greenness by integrating multiple earth observation data in the LPJmL dynamic global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Schaphoff, Sibyll; von Bloh, Werner; Thurner, Martin; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2014-05-01

    Recently produced satellite datasets of vegetation greenness demonstrate a widespread greening of the earth in the last three decades. These positive trends in vegetation greenness are related to changes in leaf area, vegetation cover and photosynthetic activity. Climatic changes, CO2 fertilization, disturbances and other land cover changes are potential drivers of these greening trends. Nevertheless, different satellite datasets show different magnitudes and trends in vegetation greenness. This fact raises the question about the reliability of these datasets. On the other hand, global vegetation models can be potentially used to assess the effects of environmental drivers on vegetation greenness and thus to explore the environmental reliability of these datasets. Unfortunately, current vegetation models have several weaknesses in reproducing observed temporal dynamics in vegetation greenness. Our aim is to integrate multiple earth observation data sets in a dynamic global vegetation model in order to 1) improve the model's capability to reproduce observed dynamics and spatial patterns of vegetation greenness and 2) to assess the spatial and temporal importance of environmental drivers for the seasonal to decadal variability of vegetation greenness. For this purpose, we developed a data integration system for the LPJmL dynamic global vegetation model (LPJmL-DIS). We implemented a new phenology scheme in LPJmL to better represent observed temporal dynamics of FAPAR (fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation). Model parameters were globally optimized using a genetic optimization algorithm. The model optimization was performed globally against 30 year FAPAR time series (GIMMS3g dataset), against 10 year albedo time series (MODIS) and global patterns of gross primary production as up-scaled from FLUXNET eddy covariance measurements. Additionally, we directly prescribed satellite observations of land and tree cover in LPJmL to better represent global vegetation distribution by still keeping major processes of vegetation dynamics like mortality and competition among plant functional types. We prescribed observed burnt areas from the GFED dataset as well as from the Alaskan and Canadian national fire databases in LPJmL to better reproduce observed fire dynamics. We evaluated LPJmL with optimized parameters against independent data streams. LPJmL with a new phenology scheme and optimized parameters better represents spatial patterns of gross primary production, biomass, soil organic carbon, evapotranspiration and tree cover than the original model. LPJmL-DIS is able to reproduce spatial patterns and observed temporal dynamics of FAPAR from seasonal to decadal scales in all major biomes. We performed several model experiments to disentangle the spatial and temporal importance of temperature, radiation, water availability, CO2 fertilization, fire activity and permafrost changes on the seasonal to decadal variability of vegetation greenness. Our results indicate that water availability is a major driver for the seasonal to decadal variability of vegetation greenness in tropical, temperate and boreal biomes. The developed LPJmL data integration system enables to reanalyse recent trends in vegetation greenness and their environmental drivers by combining earth observation data of multiple environmental variables in a consistent process-based global vegetation model framework.

  12. GeoInformation studies of soil and vegetation patterns along Climatic Gradients: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoshany, M.

    2009-04-01

    Global evidence regarding magnitudes of desertification processes and recognition in their societal, ecological and climatological consequences had lead the international community to establish the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). Within the framework of this convention it is perceived that Desertification is a complex poorly understood phenomena which is " first and foremost, the result of resource management failures". Scientific research within this context have three primary roles: monitoring the situation, developing the understanding of relationships between factors promoting desertification and finally providing the international community with efficient recommendations regarding actions which may slow down these processes. Study of desertification processes in regions of sharp climatic gradients is of special importance within this framework since they represent areas where the processes are most intensive and where most deserts actually expand. The detection of threshold zones coupling sever land degradation with loss of resilience in their eco-geomophic systems is fundamental for the efficient combating of global desertification. Application of geoinformation tools and techniques is instrumental for this purpose: mapping biological, chemical and physical surface properties using remote sensing techniques, mapping historical patch-pattern changes using air-photographs, analysis of spatio-temporal variations in pattern properties and analysis of informational relationships between these surface properties and patterns with climatoloical, topographic, lithological and human factors. Numerous Remote Sensing studies had been undertaken during the last four decades in monitoring desertification through the provision of maps describing spatial distributions of biophysical surface parameters at resolutions between few meters to few kilometers and temporal resolutions between hours and weeks. These studies utilized radar backscattering , spectral reflectance at the visible, NIR and SWIR ranges and emissions in the thermal spectrum. However, despite the magnitude of these projects very few of the methods were proved to be operational yet. The main shortcomings of exiting methods are: - They are highly dependent on accurate calibration which for large region is impractical. - Most of the methods are semi-empirical: case dependent rather than representing robust physical indicators. - There is no one imagery source which is good for all mapping purposes, most of the methods use single imagery source and there is relatively little synergy (fusion) between imagery sources. - Data continuity for long time periods exits mainly for low resolution sources which are limited in supporting modeling of processes. - Difficulties in scaling-up results and methods from the local to the broad-regional scales Within the scope of interest here the most important shortcoming concern the fact that relatively little work treated explicitly regions of high climatic gradient partly due to their high spatio-temporal heterogeneity. Three areas of recent advancements in studying explicitly transition zones between humid and arid regions : - Mapping bio-physical properties of vegetation forms (herbaceous, dwarf-shrubs and shrubs): cover proportions, biomass, primary productivity using synergy between optical (phonologies) and SAR imagery. - Mapping chemical and physical soil properties and estimating their erodibility using hyper and multi spectral methods, and SAR backscattering. - Mapping soil and vegetation patch patterns and their changes within the last decades using historical air-photographs. These advancement s lead to the detection of threshold zones between regions along these gradients according to following indicators: - Life-forms compositions, biomass and primary productivity. Analysis of relationships between biomass and rainfall allow differentiation between cases were vegetation compositions and properties which follow 'expected' successional sequences and those which represent harsh land degr

  13. Effects of experimental protocol on global vegetation model accuracy: a comparison of simulated and observed vegetation patterns for Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tang, Guoping; Shafer, Sarah L.; Barlein, Patrick J.; Holman, Justin O.

    2009-01-01

    Prognostic vegetation models have been widely used to study the interactions between environmental change and biological systems. This study examines the sensitivity of vegetation model simulations to: (i) the selection of input climatologies representing different time periods and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, (ii) the choice of observed vegetation data for evaluating the model results, and (iii) the methods used to compare simulated and observed vegetation. We use vegetation simulated for Asia by the equilibrium vegetation model BIOME4 as a typical example of vegetation model output. BIOME4 was run using 19 different climatologies and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The Kappa statistic, Fuzzy Kappa statistic and a newly developed map-comparison method, the Nomad index, were used to quantify the agreement between the biomes simulated under each scenario and the observed vegetation from three different global land- and tree-cover data sets: the global Potential Natural Vegetation data set (PNV), the Global Land Cover Characteristics data set (GLCC), and the Global Land Cover Facility data set (GLCF). The results indicate that the 30-year mean climatology (and its associated atmospheric CO2 concentration) for the time period immediately preceding the collection date of the observed vegetation data produce the most accurate vegetation simulations when compared with all three observed vegetation data sets. The study also indicates that the BIOME4-simulated vegetation for Asia more closely matches the PNV data than the other two observed vegetation data sets. Given the same observed data, the accuracy assessments of the BIOME4 simulations made using the Kappa, Fuzzy Kappa and Nomad index map-comparison methods agree well when the compared vegetation types consist of a large number of spatially continuous grid cells. The results of this analysis can assist model users in designing experimental protocols for simulating vegetation.

  14. Soil carbon and soil respiration in conservation agriculture with vegetables in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A balance between food production and environmental protection is required to sustainably feed a growing population. The resource saving concept of conservation agriculture aims to achieve this balance through implementing simultaneously three conservation practices; no-till, continuous soil cover, ...

  15. Vegetation monitoring and estimation of evapotranspiration using remote sensing-based models in heterogeneous areas with patchy natural vegetation and crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, Elisabet; Andreu, Ana; Gonzalez-Dugo, Maria P.

    2015-04-01

    The integration of remotely sensed data into models for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) has increased significantly in recent years, allowing the extension of these models application from point to regional scale. Remote sensors provide distributed information about the status of vegetation and allow for a regular monitoring of water consumption. Currently, there are two types of approaches for estimating ET based either on the soil water balance, or surface energy balance. The first one uses the reflectance of vegetated surfaces in the visible and near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (VIS / NIR) to characterize the vegetation and its role in the water balance (Gonzalez-Dugo and Mateos, 2008). On the other hand, thermal-based energy balance models use the radiometric surface temperature registered by the sensor on thermal infrared (TIR) bands as the primary boundary condition for estimating ET (Kustas and Norman, 1996). The aim of this work is to carry out, using Landsat-8 satellite images, a continuous monitoring of growth and evapotranspiration of the different vegetation types, both natural and cultivated, in a region located in Southern Spain during the season August 2013 / September 2014. The region, with about 13800 ha, is marked by strong contrasts in the physical environment, with significant altitudinal gradient combined with a great variety of soil types and vegetation. It is characterized by a variation of grassland, scrubs, conifers, oaks and irrigated crops. In this work, a daily soil water balance has been applied using the vegetation index-basal crop coefficient approach (RSWB). This model is based on FAO-56 methodology (Allen et al., 1998), which determines the evapotranspiration of vegetation with the concepts of crop coefficient and reference ET. The crop coefficient accounts for the influence of the plants on the evapotranspiration, considering the effect of changes in canopy biophysical properties throughout the growth cycle. It has been derived using the dual method that separates the crop transpiration from soil surface evaporation. Combining it with the spectral response of the surface provided by satellite images, a distributed basal crop coefficient is derived, which determines vegetation transpiration. There are many applications that successfully validated this approach, both in agricultural areas and heterogeneous coverage (Padilla et al., 2011; Campos et al., 2013). In this application, local meteorological data and soil properties have been used, providing daily and distributed evapotranspiration information at 30 m pixel scale during the studied period. These results have been contrasted with that obtained from the application of a two-source energy balance model (TSEB) for the days with available thermal data. The TSEB model separates the soil and canopy contributions to the radiative temperature and to the exchange of surface energy fluxes. This model has proven to be robust in heterogeneous and incomplete covers (Timmermans et al., 2007; González-Dugo et al., 2009). The results of the comparison are used to validate the RSWB under different soil and vegetation conditions and to explore new possible applications of this approach.

  16. Effects of Land Cover / Land Use, Soil Texture, and Vegetation on the Water Balance of Lake Chad Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the effects of land use / land cover must be a first step to find how they disturb cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and disuse recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables and other spatial variations including the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and vegetation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal and spatial distribution of surface runoff, interception, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB. The study shows that major role in the water balance of LCB. The mean yearly actual evapotranspiration (ET) from the basin range from 60mm - 400 mm, which is 90 % (69mm - 430) of the annual precipitation from 2003 - 2010. It is striking that about 50 - 60 % of the total runoff is produced on build-up (impervious surfaces), while much smaller contributions are obtained from vegetated, bare soil and open water surfaces. The result of this study also shows that runoff is high in the clay, clay loam and sandy-clay loam due to the lack of infiltration process in clay soil from capping or crusting or sealing of the soil pores, therefore this situation will aid runoff. The application of the WetSpass model shows that precipitation, soil texture and land use / land cover are three controlling factors affecting the water balance in the LCB. Key words: Groundwater recharge, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, water balance, meteorological, draught, Landuse changes, climate changes, WetSpass, GIS.

  17. Modelling in situ enzyme potential of soils: a tool to predict soil respiration from agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbaz Ali, Rana; Poll, Christian; Demyan, Scott; Nkwain Funkuin, Yvonne; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Kandeler, Ellen

    2014-05-01

    The fate of soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting future climate and terrestrial ecosystem functions. Extra-cellular enzymes, produced by microorganisms, perform the very first step in SOC degradation and serve as key components in global carbon cycling. Very little information is available about the seasonal variation in the temperature sensitivity of soil enzymes. Here we aim to model in situ enzyme potentials involved in the degradation of either labile or recalcitrant organic compounds to understand the temporal variability of degradation processes. To identify the similarities in seasonal patterns of soil respiration and in situ enzyme potentials, we compared the modelled in situ enzyme activities with weekly measured soil CO2 emissions. Arable soil samples from two different treatments (4 years fallow and currently vegetated plots; treatments represent range of carbon input into soil) were collected every month from April, 2012 to April, 2013, from two different study regions (Kraichgau and Swabian Alb) in Southwest Germany. The vegetation plots were under crop rotation in both study areas. We measured activities of three enzymes including ?-glucosidase, xylanase and phenoloxidase at five different temperatures. We also measured soil microbial biomass in form of microbial carbon (Cmic). Land-use and area had significant effects (P < 0.001) on the microbial biomass; fallow plots having less Cmic than vegetation plots. Potential activities of ?-glucosidase (P < 0.001) and xylanase (P < 0.01) were significantly higher in the vegetation plots of the Swabian Alb region than in the Kraichgau region. In both study areas, enzyme activities were higher during vegetation period and lower during winter which points to the importance of carbon input and/or temperature and soil moisture. We calculated the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of enzyme activities based on laboratory measurements of enzyme activities at a range of incubation temperatures. Q10 of ?-glucosidase activity changed significantly across the year (Q10 values ranges from 1.5 to 2.0 in Kraichgau and 1.6 to 2.1 in Swabian Alb), while for xylanase activity, no significant effects were found (Q10 values ranges from 1.2 to 3.0 in Kraichgau and 1.3 to 3.3 in Swabian Alb) in both study regions. By using laboratory based enzyme activities, calculated Q10 values, and daily soil temperature data, we modelled in situ enzyme potentials in soils for labile and recalcitrant carbon pools for both study regions. We observed an increase in modelled in situ enzyme activities during the summer period and a substantial decrease during winter indicating temperature as a strong controlling factor. A significant higher positive correlation of soil surface CO2 flux with modelled in situ ?-glucosidase activity was found in both study regions compared to modelled in situ xylanase activity. These results demonstrate that (1) Q10 values are site and season specific and should be added into carbon models and (2) the indication of the relevance of greater contribution of labile carbon pool to soil CO2 emissions.

  18. Potential effects of large linear pipeline construction on soil and vegetation in ecologically fragile regions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Shi, Peng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-11-01

    Long-distance pipeline construction results in marked human disturbance of the regional ecosystem and brings into question the safety of pipeline construction with respect to the environment. Thus, the direct environmental impact and proper handling of such large projects have received much attention. The potential environmental effects, however, have not been fully addressed, particularly for large linear pipeline projects, and the threshold of such effects is unclear. In this study, two typical eco-fragile areas in western China, where large linear construction projects have been conducted, were chosen as the case study areas. Soil quality indices (SQI) and vegetation indices (VI), representing the most important potential effects, were used to analyze the scope of the effect of large pipeline construction on the surrounding environment. These two indices in different buffer zones along the pipeline were compared against the background values. The analysis resulted in three main findings. First, pipeline construction continues to influence the nearby eco-environment even after a 4-year recovery period. During this period, the effect on vegetation due to pipeline construction reaches 300 m beyond the working area, and is much larger in distance than the effect on soil, which is mainly confined to within 30 m either side of the pipeline, indicating that vegetation is more sensitive than soil to this type of human disturbance. However, the effect may not reach beyond 500 m from the pipeline. Second, the scope of the effect in terms of distance on vegetation may also be determined by the frequency of disturbance and the intensity of the pipeline construction. The greater the number of pipelines in an area, the higher the construction intensity and the more frequent the disturbance. Frequent disturbance may expand the effect on vegetation on both sides of the pipeline, but not on soil quality. Third, the construction may eliminate the stable, resident plant community. During the recovery period, the plant community in the work area of the pipeline is replaced by some species that are rare or uncommon in the resident plant community because of human disturbance, thereby increasing the plant diversity in the work area. In terms of plant succession, the duration of the recovery period has a direct effect on the composition and structure of the plant community. The findings provide a theoretical basis and scientific foundation for improving the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas pipeline construction as it pertains to the desert steppe ecosystem, and provide a reference point for recovery and management of the eco-environment during the pipeline construction period. PMID:25112841

  19. Pattern dynamics in a vegetation model with time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Bo-li

    2016-02-01

    A vegetation model with both cross diffusion and time delay is considered. Based upon a stability analysis, we demonstrate that the delay affects the stability and spatial patterns under some conditions. In addition, through numerical simulations, we obtain different spatial patterns, including spot patterns and stripe-like patterns. These results may help us better understand the dynamics of a vegetation model with time delay.

  20. VARIABILITY IN SOILS AND VEGETATION ASSOCIATED WITH HARVESTER ANT (POGONOMYRMEX RUGOSUS) NESTS ON A CHIHUAHUAN DESERT WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus) nests on the density and cover of spring annual plants and on soil characteristics were measured at three locations characterized by different soils and dominant vegetation on a desert watershed. There were few differences in ve...

  1. Improving the dynamics of northern vegetation in the ORCHIDEE ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.; Peng, S. S.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; Druel, A.; Kageyama, M.; Krinner, G.; Peylin, P.; Ottlé, C.; Piao, S. L.; Poulter, B.; Schepaschenko, D.; Shvidenko, A.

    2015-02-01

    Processes that describe the distribution of vegetation and ecosystem succession after disturbance are an important component of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). The vegetation dynamics module (ORC-VD) within the process-based ecosystem model ORCHIDEE (Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems) has not been updated and evaluated since many years and does not match the progress in modeling the rest of the physical and biogeochemical processes. Therefore, ORC-VD is known to produce unrealistic results. This study presents a new parameterization of ORC-VD for mid-to-high latitude regions in the Northern Hemisphere, including processes that influence the existence, mortality and competition between tree functional types. A new set of metrics is also proposed to quantify the performance of ORC-VD, using up to five different datasets of satellite land cover, forest biomass from remote sensing and inventories, a data-driven estimate of gross primary productivity (GPP) and two gridded datasets of soil organic carbon content. The scoring of ORC-VD derived from these metrics integrates uncertainties in the observational datasets. This multi-dataset evaluation framework is a generic method that could be applied to the evaluation of other DGVM models. The results of the original ORC-VD published in 2005 for mid-to-high latitudes and of the new parameterization are evaluated against the above-described datasets. Significant improvements were found in the modeling of the distribution of tree functional types north of 40° N. Three additional sensitivity runs were carried out to separate the impact of different processes or drivers on simulated vegetation distribution, including soil freezing which limits net primary production through soil moisture availability in the root zone, elevated CO2 concentration since 1850, and the return frequency of cold climate extremes causing tree mortality during the spin-up phase of the model.

  2. Investigation of North American vegetation variability under recent climate: A study using the SSiB4/TRIFFID biophysical/dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengqiu; Xue, Yongkang; MacDonald, Glen; Cox, Peter M.; Collatz, G. James

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that current dynamic vegetation models have serious weaknesses in reproducing the observed vegetation dynamics and contribute to bias in climate simulations. This study intends to identify the major factors that underlie the connections between vegetation dynamics and climate variability and investigates vegetation spatial distribution and temporal variability at seasonal to decadal scales over North America (NA) to assess a 2-D biophysical model/dynamic vegetation model's (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model version 4, coupled with the Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics Model (SSiB4/TRIFFID)) ability to simulate these characteristics for the past 60 years (1948 through 2008). Satellite data are employed as constraints for the study and to compare the relationships between vegetation and climate from the observational and the simulation data sets. Trends in NA vegetation over this period are examined. The optimum temperature for photosynthesis, leaf drop threshold temperatures, and competition coefficients in the Lotka-Volterra equation, which describes the population dynamics of species competing for some common resource, have been identified as having major impacts on vegetation spatial distribution and obtaining proper initial vegetation conditions in SSiB4/TRIFFID. The finding that vegetation competition coefficients significantly affect vegetation distribution suggests the importance of including biotic effects in dynamical vegetation modeling. The improved SSiB4/TRIFFID can reproduce the main features of the NA distributions of dominant vegetation types, the vegetation fraction, and leaf area index (LAI), including its seasonal, interannual, and decadal variabilities. The simulated NA LAI also shows a general increasing trend after the 1970s in responding to warming. Both simulation and satellite observations reveal that LAI increased substantially in the southeastern U.S. starting from the 1980s. The effects of the severe drought during 1987-1992 and the last decade in the southwestern U.S. on vegetation are also evident from decreases in the simulated and satellite-derived LAIs. Both simulated and satellite-derived LAIs have the strongest correlations with air temperature at northern middle to high latitudes in spring reflecting the effect of these climatic variables on photosynthesis and phenological processes. Meanwhile, in southwestern dry lands, negative correlations appear due to the heat and moisture stress there during the summer. Furthermore, there are also positive correlations between soil wetness and LAI, which increases from spring to summer. The present study shows both the current improvements and remaining weaknesses in dynamical vegetation models. It also highlights large continental-scale variations that have occurred in NA vegetation over the past six decades and their potential relations to climate. With more observational data availability, more studies with different models and focusing on different regions will be possible and are necessary to achieve comprehensive understanding of the vegetation dynamics and climate interactions.

  3. Modeling vegetation reflectance from satellite and in-situ monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria; Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Dida, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    Vegetation can be distinguished using remote sensing data from most other (mainly inorganic) materials by virtue of its notable absorption in the red and blue segments of the visible spectrum, its higher green reflectance and, especially, its very strong reflectance in the near-IR. Different types of vegetation show often distinctive variability from one another owing to such parameters as leaf shape and size, overall plant shape, water content, and associated background (e.g., soil types and spacing of the plants (density of vegetative cover within the scene). Different three-dimensional numerical models explicitly represent the vegetation canopy and use numerical methods to calculate reflectance. These models are computationally intensive and are therefore not generally suited to the correction of satellite imagery containing millions of pixels. Physically based models do provide understanding and are potentially more robust in extrapolation. They consider the vegetation canopy to comprise thin layers of leaves, suspended in air like sediment particles in water forming a turbid medium. Monitoring of vegetation cover changes by remote sensing data is one of the most important applications of satellite imagery. Vegetation reflectance has variations with sun zenith angle, view zenith angle, and terrain slope angle. To provide corrections of these effects, for visible and near-infrared light, was used a three parameters model and developed a simple physical model of vegetation reflectance, by assuming homogeneous and closed vegetation canopy with randomly oriented leaves. Multiple scattering theory was used to extend the model to function for both near-infrared and visible light. This vegetation reflectance model may be used to correct satellite imagery for bidirectional and topographic effects. For two ASTER images over Cernica forested area, placed to the East of Bucharest town , Romania, acquired within minutes from one another ,a nadir and off-nadir for band 3 lying in the near infra red, most radiance differences between the two scenes can be attributed to the BRDF effect. Must be considered also topographic corrections, as hill or mountain slopes affect the observed radiance of vegetation by modifying both the irradiance received by the vegetation and the vegetation reflectance. Model validation can be done based on spectral radiances in visible and infra-red wavelengths from satellite images and in-situ spectroradiometric measurements in some test forested areas. Based on satellite remote sensing data, can be mapped vegetation cover directly at local or regional scales from the apparent brightness measured in several spectral bands. The proposed model provides computationally efficient radiance corrections for varying sun and view zenith angles. It also provides a correction for the effect of terrain slope on vegetation reflectance, as a function of cosines of incidence and exitance angles. The proposed model can be applied for homogenous canopies over a wide range of sun zenith angles being analytically simple, facilitating rapid correction and applicable for both visible and near-infrared light. These attributes should make it for operational use in monitoring vegetation in temperate regions by remote sensing.

  4. Can seed removal through soil erosion explain the scarcity of vegetation in the Chinese Loess Plateau?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Juying; Han, Luyan; Jia, Yanfeng; Wang, Ning; Lei, Dong; Li, Linyu

    2011-09-01

    Seed removal by water erosion may explain the sparse vegetation cover in systems like the Chinese Loess Plateau, which is characterized by severe soil erosion. The seeds from 16 species found on the plateau were examined in relation to the likelihood of their removal by erosion, as tested by rainfall simulation experiments. The experiments were performed over 1-m 2 plots with slopes of 10°, 15°, 20° and 25° for 60 min at intensities of 50 mm h -1, 100 mm h -1 and 150 mm h -1, respectively. Seed loss occurred at simulated rainfall intensities of 100 mm h -1 and 150 mm h -1, with total seed loss rates of 26-33% and 59-67%, respectively. Most seeds were displaced, even at 50 mm h -1. The degrees of seed loss and displacement varied among species. These data, in combination with data from our former research on propagule, seedling and population development in these species, indicate that the species with high seed loss rates either compensate by having a soil seed bank that produces seedlings during the growing season or reproduce by vegetative propagation; the species with no seed loss are still sparsely distributed. Seed germination and seedling survival seem to be more important than seed loss in determining establishment in these regions of the Loess Plateau. Seed translocation by water erosion, however, contributes to the observed distribution of vegetation in this geographic region.

  5. Prediction of soil properties using imaging spectroscopy: Considering fractional vegetation cover to improve accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschini, M. H. D.; Demattê, J. A. M.; da Silva Terra, F.; Vicente, L. E.; Bartholomeus, H.; de Souza Filho, C. R.

    2015-06-01

    Spectroscopic techniques have become attractive to assess soil properties because they are fast, require little labor and may reduce the amount of laboratory waste produced when compared to conventional methods. Imaging spectroscopy (IS) can have further advantages compared to laboratory or field proximal spectroscopic approaches such as providing spatially continuous information with a high density. However, the accuracy of IS derived predictions decreases when the spectral mixture of soil with other targets occurs. This paper evaluates the use of spectral data obtained by an airborne hyperspectral sensor (ProSpecTIR-VS - Aisa dual sensor) for prediction of physical and chemical properties of Brazilian highly weathered soils (i.e., Oxisols). A methodology to assess the soil spectral mixture is adapted and a progressive spectral dataset selection procedure, based on bare soil fractional cover, is proposed and tested. Satisfactory performances are obtained specially for the quantification of clay, sand and CEC using airborne sensor data (R2 of 0.77, 0.79 and 0.54; RPD of 2.14, 2.22 and 1.50, respectively), after spectral data selection is performed; although results obtained for laboratory data are more accurate (R2 of 0.92, 0.85 and 0.75; RPD of 3.52, 2.62 and 2.04, for clay, sand and CEC, respectively). Most importantly, predictions based on airborne-derived spectra for which the bare soil fractional cover is not taken into account show considerable lower accuracy, for example for clay, sand and CEC (RPD of 1.52, 1.64 and 1.16, respectively). Therefore, hyperspectral remotely sensed data can be used to predict topsoil properties of highly weathered soils, although spectral mixture of bare soil with vegetation must be considered in order to achieve an improved prediction accuracy.

  6. The impacts of trail infrastructure on vegetation and soils: Current literature and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-12-01

    Reflecting the popularity of nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking, there are thousands of kilometres of recreational trails worldwide traversing a range of natural areas. These trails have environmental impacts on soils and vegetation, but where has there been research, what impacts have been found and how were they measured? Using a systematic quantitative literature review methodology, we assessed the impacts of trails on vegetation and soils, highlighting what is known, but also key knowledge gaps. Of the 59 original research papers identified on this topic that have been published in English language peer-reviewed academic journals, most were for research conducted in protected areas (71%), with few from developing countries (17%) or threatened ecosystems (14%). The research is concentrated in a few habitats and biodiversity hotspots, mainly temperate woodland, alpine grassland and Mediterranean habitats, often in the USA (32%) or Australia (20%). Most examined formal trails, with just 15% examining informal trails and 11% assessing both types. Nearly all papers report the results of observational surveys (90%), collecting quantitative data (66%) with 24% using geographic information systems. There was an emphasis on assessing trail impacts at a local scale, either on the trail itself and/or over short gradients away from the trail edge. Many assessed changes in composition and to some degree, structure, of vegetation and soils with the most common impacts documented including reduced vegetation cover, changes in plant species composition, trail widening, soil loss and soil compaction. There were 14 papers assessing how these local impacts can accumulate at the landscape scale. Few papers assessed differences in impacts among trails (7 papers), changes in impacts over time (4), species-specific responses (3) and only one assessed effects on plant community functioning. This review provides evidence that there are key research gaps including assessing informal trails, comparing trail types, landscape and temporal scale impacts, functional responses and impacts on threatened ecosystems/species. A more diverse geographic spread of research is also required including in regions experiencing rapid growth in tourism and recreation. PMID:26342267

  7. A LANDSAT study of ephemeral and perennial rangeland vegetation and soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, R. G., Jr. (principal investigator); Salmon-Drexler, B. C.; Bonner, W. J.; Vincent, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Several methods of computer processing were applied to LANDSAT data for mapping vegetation characteristics of perennial rangeland in Montana and ephemeral rangeland in Arizona. The choice of optimal processing technique was dependent on prescribed mapping and site condition. Single channel level slicing and ratioing of channels were used for simple enhancement. Predictive models for mapping percent vegetation cover based on data from field spectra and LANDSAT data were generated by multiple linear regression of six unique LANDSAT spectral ratios. Ratio gating logic and maximum likelihood classification were applied successfully to recognize plant communities in Montana. Maximum likelihood classification did little to improve recognition of terrain features when compared to a single channel density slice in sparsely vegetated Arizona. LANDSAT was found to be more sensitive to differences between plant communities based on percentages of vigorous vegetation than to actual physical or spectral differences among plant species.

  8. Simulating the effects of soil organic nitrogen and grazing on arctic tundra vegetation dynamics on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Q.; Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    Sustainability of tundra vegetation under changing climate on the Yamal Peninsula, northwestern Siberia, home to the world’s largest area of reindeer husbandry, is of crucial importance to the local native community. An integrated investigation is needed for better understanding of the effects of soils, climate change and grazing on tundra vegetation in the Yamal region. In this study we applied a nutrient-based plant community model (ArcVeg) to evaluate how two factors (soil organic nitrogen [SON] levels and grazing) interact to affect tundra responses to climate warming across a latitudinal climatic gradient on the Yamal Peninsula. Model simulations were driven by field-collected soil data and expected grazing patterns along the Yamal Arctic Transect (YAT), within bioclimate subzones C (High Arctic), D (northern Low Arctic) and E (southern Low Arctic). Plant biomass and NPP (net primary productivity) were significantly increased with warmer bioclimate subzones, greater soil nutrient levels and temporal climate warming, while they declined with higher grazing frequency. Temporal climate warming of 2 °C caused an increase of 665 g/m2 in total biomass at the high SON site in subzone E, while only 298 g/m2 in the low SON site. When grazing frequency was also increased, total biomass increased by only 369 g/m2 in the high SON site in contrast to 184 g/m2 in the low SON site in subzone E. When comparing low grazing to high grazing effects on soil organic nitrogen pools over time (Figure 1), higher grazing frequency led to either slower SON accumulation rates or more rapid SON depletion rates. Warming accentuated these differences caused by grazing, suggesting the interaction between grazing and warming may yield greater differences in SON levels across sites. Our results suggest that low SON and grazing may limit plant response to climate change. Interactions among bioclimate subzones, soils, grazing and warming significantly affect plant biomass and productivity in the arctic tundra and should not be ignored in regional scale studies.

  9. Wind erosion in semiarid landscapes: Predictive models and remote sensing methods for the influence of vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, H. Brad

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: to develop and test predictive relations for the quantitative influence of vegetation canopy structure on wind erosion of semiarid rangeland soils, and to develop remote sensing methods for measuring the canopy structural parameters that determine sheltering against wind erosion. The influence of canopy structure on wind erosion will be investigated by means of wind-tunnel and field experiments using structural variables identified by the wind-tunnel and field experiments using model roughness elements to simulate plant canopies. The canopy structural variables identified by the wind-tunnel and field experiments as important in determining vegetative sheltering against wind erosion will then be measured at a number of naturally vegetated field sites and compared with estimates of these variables derived from analysis of remotely sensed data.

  10. Wind erosion in semiarid landscapes: Predictive models and remote sensing methods for the influence of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musick, H. Brad

    1993-06-01

    The objectives of this research are: to develop and test predictive relations for the quantitative influence of vegetation canopy structure on wind erosion of semiarid rangeland soils, and to develop remote sensing methods for measuring the canopy structural parameters that determine sheltering against wind erosion. The influence of canopy structure on wind erosion will be investigated by means of wind-tunnel and field experiments using structural variables identified by the wind-tunnel and field experiments using model roughness elements to simulate plant canopies. The canopy structural variables identified by the wind-tunnel and field experiments as important in determining vegetative sheltering against wind erosion will then be measured at a number of naturally vegetated field sites and compared with estimates of these variables derived from analysis of remotely sensed data.

  11. Investigation of North American Vegetation Variability under Recent Climate: A Study Using the SSiB4/TRIFFID Biophysical/Dynamic Vegetation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Zhengqiu; Xue, Yongkang; MacDonald, Glen; Cox, Peter M.; Collatz, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that current dynamic vegetation models have serious weaknesses in reproducing the observed vegetation dynamics and contribute to bias in climate simulations. This study intends to identify the major factors that underlie the connections between vegetation dynamics and climate variability and investigates vegetation spatial distribution and temporal variability at seasonal to decadal scales over North America (NA) to assess a 2-D biophysical model/dynamic vegetation model's (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model version 4, coupled with the Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics Model (SSiB4/TRIFFID)) ability to simulate these characteristics for the past 60 years (1948 through 2008). Satellite data are employed as constraints for the study and to compare the relationships between vegetation and climate from the observational and the simulation data sets. Trends in NA veget