Sample records for soil-to-plant transfer factor

  1. Soil-to-Plant Transfer Factors of Stable Elements and Naturally Occurring Radionuclides: (2) Rice Collected in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeo UCHIDA; Keiko TAGAMI; Ikuko HIRAI

    2007-01-01

    The critical paths of radionuclides and the critical foods in Japan are different from those in European and North American countries because agricultural products and food customs are different. Consequently, safety assessment in Japan is required to consider rice and vegetables as the critical foods. In this study, we measured soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) for rice using naturally existing elements

  2. Phylogeny can be used to make useful predictions of soil-to-plant transfer factors for radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Willey, Neil J

    2010-11-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides can be related to plant evolutionary history (phylogeny). For some species and radionuclides the effect is significant enough to be useful in predicting Transfer Factors (TFs). Here a Residual Maximum Likelihood (REML)-based mixed model and a recent plant phylogeny are used to compile data on soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides and to show how the phylogeny can be used to fill gaps in TFs. Using published data, generic means for TFs are used to anchor the data from REML modelling and hence predict TFs for important groups of plants. Radionuclides of Cs are used as an example. With a generic soil-to-plant TF of 0.07, TFs of 0.035 and 0.085 are predicted for monocot and eudicot gaps, respectively. Also demonstrated is how the known effects of soil conditions can be predicted across plant groups-predicted Cs TFs for gap-filling across all flowering plants are calculated for sandy loams with and without waterlogging. Predictions of TFs for Sr, Co, Cl and Ru are also given. Overall, the results show that general predictions of TFs based on phylogeny are possible-a significant contribution to gap filling for TFs. PMID:20809227

  3. Soil to plant transfer of 238 Th on a uranium

    E-print Network

    Hu, Qinhong "Max"

    Soil to plant transfer of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th on a uranium mining-impacted soil from species grown in soils from southeastern China contaminated with uranium mine tailings were analyzed. Keywords: Uranium; Thorium; Radium; Tailings-contaminated soil; Soileplant transfer 1. Introduction

  4. Multivariate soft-modeling to predict radiocesium soil-to-plant transfer.

    PubMed

    Rigol, Anna; Camps, Marta; De Juan, Anna; Rauret, Gemma; Vidal, Miquel

    2008-06-01

    A multivariate soft-modeling approach based on an exploratory principal component analysis (PCA) followed by a partial least squares regression (PLS) was developed, tested, and validated to estimate radiocesium transfer to grass from readily measurable soil characteristics. A data set with 145 soil samples and 21 soil and plant parameters was used. Samples were soils from various field plots contaminated by the Chernobyl accident (soddy-podzolic and peaty soils), submitted to several agricultural treatments (disking, ploughing, fertilization, and liming). Parameters included soil characteristics and the corresponding radiocesium soil-to-plant transfer factors. PCA of data showed that soil samples were grouped according to the field plots and that they covered a wide range of possible soil-to-plant transfer scenarios. PLS was used to design and build the multivariate prediction model. The soil database was split in two parts: (i) a representative calibration set for training purposes and model building and (ii) a prediction set for external validation and model testing. The regression coefficients of the model confirmed the relevant parametersto describe radiocesium soil-to-plant transfer variation (e.g., phyllosilicate content and NH4+ status), which agreed with previous knowledge on the interaction mechanisms of this radionuclide in soils. The prediction of soil-to-plant transfer was satisfactory with an error of the same order of magnitude as the variability of field replicates. PMID:18589962

  5. Predicting soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides with a mechanistic model (BioRUR).

    PubMed

    Casadesus, J; Sauras-Yera, T; Vallejo, V R

    2008-05-01

    BioRUR model has been developed for the simulation of radionuclide (RN) transfer through physical and biological compartments, based on the available information on the transfer of their nutrient analogues. The model assumes that radionuclides are transferred from soil to plant through the same pathways as their nutrient analogues, where K and Ca are the analogues of Cs and Sr, respectively. Basically, the transfer of radionuclide between two compartments is calculated as the transfer of nutrient multiplied by the ratio of concentrations of RN to nutrient, corrected by a selectivity coefficient. Hydroponic experiments showed the validity of this assumption for root uptake of Cs and Sr and reported a selectivity coefficient around 1.0 for both. However, the application of this approach to soil-to-plant transfer raises some questions on which are the effective concentrations of RN and nutrient detected by the plant uptake mechanism. This paper describes the evaluation of two configurations of BioRUR, one which simplifies the soil as an homogeneous pool, and the other which considers that some concentration gradients develop around roots and therefore ion concentrations at the root surface are different from those of the bulk soil. The results show a good fit between the observed Sr transfer and the mechanistic simulations, even when a homogeneous soil is considered. On the other hand, Cs transfer is overestimated by two orders of magnitude if the development of a decreasing K profile around roots is not taken into account. PMID:18261831

  6. Soil-to-plant transfer of radiocaesium for selected tropical plant species in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Rahman, M M; Koddus, A; Ahmad, G U; Voigt, G

    2005-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) of radiocaesium (137Cs) were determined under field condition for grassy vegetation grown in Bangladesh at contaminated land in the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) campus. TF values for rice, grass and grassy/root vegetations grown in the same type of soil were also measured under pot condition. TF values of 137Cs for grassy vegetation (2.4 x 10(-2) -4.2 x 10(-2) with an average of 3.1 x 10(-2) +/-0.005) obtained under field condition were slightly lower than the values for grass and grassy/root vegetations (2.9 x 10(-2) -6.6 x 10(-2) with an average of 4.8 x 10(-2) +/-0.01 for grass and grassy vegetations and 2.3 x 10(-2) -5.6 x 10(-2) with an average of 4.0 x 10(-2) +/-0.009 for root vegetations, respectively) obtained under pot condition. However, TF values (9.0 x 10(-3) -2.6 x 10(-2) with an average of 1.9 x 10(-2) +/-0.004) obtained for rice were about a factor of 4 lower than the values obtained for grass and grassy/root vegetations. When the properties of the AERE soils as input parameters were used in the soil-plant transfer model of Absalom, the estimated TF values (4.5 x 10(-2) -6.7 x 10(-2) with an average of 5.3 x 10(-2) +/-0.006) were consistent with the measured values obtained for grass and grassy vegetations under pot condition, however, the model overestimates the TF values for rice. PMID:15923070

  7. Soil-to-plant transfer of native selenium for wild vegetation cover at selected locations of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Száková, Ji?ina; Tremlová, Jana; Pegová, Kristýna; Najmanová, Jana; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Total selenium (Se) contents were determined in aboveground biomass of wild plant species growing in two uncultivated meadows at two different locations. The soils in these locations had pseudototal (Aqua Regia soluble) Se in concentration ranges of between 0.2 and 0.3 mg kg(-1) at the first location, and between 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg(-1) at the second location. The plant species represented 29 plant families where the most numerous ones were Poaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae , and Asteraceae. The selenium contents in the plants varied between undetectable levels (Aegopodium podagraria, Achillea millefolium, Lotus corniculatus) and 0.158 mg kg(-1) (Veronica arvensis, Veronicaceae). The Se levels were roughly one order of magnitude lower compared to other elements with similar soil content, such as cadmium and molybdenum. The transfer factors of Se, quantifying the element transfer from soil to plants, varied between <0.001 and 0.146 with no significant differences between the locations, confirming the limited soil-plant selenium transfer regardless of location, soil Se level, and plant species. Among the plant families, no unambiguous trend to potential elevated Se uptake was observed. Low Se content in the soil and its plant availability was comparable to other Se-deficient areas within Europe. PMID:25975239

  8. Transfer of ²³?U and ²³²Th from soil to plant in a high background radiation area of the southwestern region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ben-Bolie, G H; Ele Abiama, P; Owono Ateba, P; El Khoukhi, T; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R

    2013-12-01

    In order to estimate the soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of some natural radionuclides, the activity of ²³?U and ²³²Th was measured in the soil and in agricultural crop samples collected from identified high background radiation areas in the southwestern region of Cameroon. The results showed that the ²³?U and ²³²Th TFs values were in the ranges 1.0×10?²-12.2×10?¹ kg kg?¹ and 5.0×10?²-9.7×10?¹ kg kg?¹, respectively. These computed TFs values were found to be globally higher than those proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. PMID:23754831

  9. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of 137Cs in soil and the soil-to-plant transfer in a pine forest in SW Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iisa Outola; Reijo Pehrman; Timo Jaakkola

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of radiocaesium in soil and on its transfer from soil to plants. The study was started in September 2000 in four Scots pine stands located at distances of 0.5, 2, 4 and 8 km along a transect running SE from the Cu–Ni smelter at

  10. Toward a theory of the effect of inhibition of the transfer of radionuclides and heavy metals from soil to plants by ameliorants. 1. Formulation of the problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olodovskii, P. P.

    1995-11-01

    The effect of an ameliorant on soil and plants is characterized. A model of convective diffusion transfer of nutrition elements from the soil to plants is substantiated. Experimental results that determine a decrease in the ion diffusion coefficients in soil after the application of an ameliorant are presented.

  11. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of 137Cs in soil and the soil-to-plant transfer in a pine forest in SW Finland.

    PubMed

    Outola, Iisa; Pehrman, Reijo; Jaakkola, Timo

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of radiocaesium in soil and on its transfer from soil to plants. The study was started in September 2000 in four Scots pine stands located at distances of 0.5, 2, 4 and 8 km along a transect running SE from the Cu-Ni smelter at Harjavalta in SW Finland. Annual emissions from the smelter in 1990 were 80 t of Cu, 31 t of Ni and 9000 t of SO(2), and in 1999 these were 5.9, 0.8 and 3400 t, respectively. At each site, soil profiles were sampled with a corer, and samples were separated into litter (L), organic soil layer (O) and mineral soil layers (B, E). Mushrooms, lichens (Cladina spp. and Cetraria islandica), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) plants were collected at each site, except at a distance of 0.5 km, where only mushrooms were available. In the organic soil layer, 137Cs activity decreased from 8000 Bq/m(2) at a distance of 8 km from the smelter to 1500 Bq/m(2) at a distance of 0.5 km; in litter, 137Cs concentration increased from 6300 Bq/m(2) at 8 km to 14000 Bq/m(2) at 0.5 km. 137Cs activity concentration decreased significantly in plants, mushrooms and lichens as the pollution load increased. In lichens, 137Cs activity decreased from 910 Bq/kg at 8 km to 170 Bq/kg at 2 km, while in lingonberry it decreased from 1470 to 20 Bq/kg and in crowberry from 310 to 20 Bq/kg. Aggregated transfer factors for 137Cs decreased in a similar way in lingonberry from 7.6x10(-2) m(2)/kg at 8 km to 7.7x10(-4) m(2)/kg at 2 km and in crowberry from 1.6x10(-2) to 7.9x10(-4) m(2)/kg. PMID:12606162

  12. Seasonal changes of redox potential and microbial activity in two agricultural soils of tropical Australia: some implications for soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Twining, J R; Zaw, M; Russell, R; Wilde, K

    2004-01-01

    Very little is known of the factors controlling soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides in tropical environments. As part of an IAEA/FAO coordinated research project (CRP) designed to elucidate some of those factors, near-surface samples of two agricultural red-earth soils (Blain and Tippera) were collected from a study site in the Northern Territory. The climate is tropical monsoonal with crops being grown over the wet season from December to March/April. It is important to understand soil variables that may be related to this dramatic seasonality. In this investigation, soil redox state and microbial populations were assessed before and after the growing season with a view to generating hypotheses for future evaluation. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) technique was used to determine overall changes in the solid-state redox speciation of Fe and Mn in soils across the growing period. Fe speciation did not change but approximately 10% of the total Mn was oxidised from Mn(II) to Mn(III) and Mn(IV) in both soils between October 1999 and April 2000. An apparent disconnect between Fe and Mn was not unexpected given the >10 times higher concentration of Fe in the soils compared with Mn. These results have implications for the bioavailability of redox sensitive radionuclides such as Tc and Pu. Similarly, microbial population estimates were derived before and after the growing period. Total bacterial populations did not vary from 10(6) to 10(7) colonies per gram. Fungal populations increased over the growing season from 3-6 x 10(5) to 1-4 x 10(6) colonies per gram of soil. Fungi have the potential to decrease soil pH and hence increase the bioavailability of radionuclides such as Cs. In addition, fungi act to facilitate plant nutrition. This could lead to enhanced accumulation of nutrient analogues (e.g. Sr and Ra for Ca; Tc for Mn), but this effect may be masked by improved biomass production. PMID:15245853

  13. Modelling soil and soil to plant transfer processes of radionuclides and toxic chemicals at long time scales for performance assessment of Radwaste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Achim; Miquel, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Performance assessments for surface nuclear waste disposal facilities require simulation of transfer processes from the waste canisters to a reference group living near-by. Such simulations need to be extended over several hundred to hundred thousand years, depending on waste type, restraining possibilities to represent short term system complexity and variability. Related modelling can be simplified as long as processes are represented conservatively with assessment endpoints estimated larger compared to more realistic modelling approaches. The indicators are doses for radionuclides (RN) and risk factors for toxic chemicals (TC, i.e. heavy metals, nitrate). We discuss a new simulation tool (SCM-Andra-multilayer-model, SAMM) that, among others, allows to model situations where RN/TC move through a soil profile characterised by temporal undersaturation and root growth (soil-plant subsystem of the biosphere model compared to the adjacent saturated geosphere). SAMM describes all relevant transfer and reaction processes (advection, diffusion, root transport, radioactive decay, chemical reactions incl. sorption - desorption) using well known differential equations solved numerically within MATLAB with scenario description and parameterisation defined in Excel sheets. With this conservative approach in mind, we apply global parameters for which the solid-solution (Kd) or soil-to-plant (TF) distribution coefficients are the most relevant. Empirical data are available for homogeneous situations, such as one compartment pot experiments, but rare for entire soil profiles. Similarly soil hydrology, in particular upward and downward advective fluxes are modelled using an empirical approach solely based on key soil hydrological parameters (precipitation, evapotranspiration, irrigation, water table level) and the soil porosity. Variability of soil hydrology in space and time, likely to change drastically even on hourly bases (i.e. intense precipitation event) or within a single column (i.e. preferential flow and capillary rise) is nonetheless represented by annual averages. Changing water saturation and associated variability in redox conditions, RN/TC speciation and mobility, represents an example, where the simulation abilities with SAMM are beyond our capacity of in situ observation and measurement, restricting of course our efforts of validation. The latter is thus limited to simpler cases with parameter values stable within the soil column or throughout time. The study of more complex situations is possible with the SAMM simulation tool. For illustration, we give at least two examples, one for a RN and one for a TC; we evaluate the species initially present as well as the daughter RN and the product of reactivity of the TC. Focus is given to situations where RN/TC are present at the base of a soil column; simulation end points are concentrations at the soil surface and for specified agricultural plant species. Dose and risk calculations based on these data are carried out in classical food chain assessment tools. These illustrations are for generic sites and situations for which at least a minor component of upward advective movement is considered, keeping in mind the conservative approach mentioned above.

  14. Soil to plant transfer of 238U, 226Ra and 232Th on a uranium mining-impacted soil from southeastern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Chen; Y. G. Zhu; Q. H. Hu

    2005-01-01

    Both soil and plant samples of nine different plant species grown in soils from southeastern China contaminated with uranium mine tailings were analyzed for the plant uptake and translocation of 238U, 226Ra and 232Th. Substantial differences were observed in the soil–plant transfer factor (TF) among these radionuclides and plant species. Lupine (Lupinus albus) exhibited the highest uptake of 238U (TF

  15. Chemical Fractionation and Soil-to-Plant Transfer Characteristics of Heavy Metals in a Sludge Deposit Field of the River Ruhr, Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Wiegand; Guido Aschan; Uta Kraus; Judith Piontek; Joachim Mederer

    2009-01-01

    The presented study assessed the heavy metal contamination risk in a former sludge deposit field of the River Ruhr in Essen, Germany. Therefore, the temporal and spatial distribution in soils and plants, chemical fractionation, mobilization potential, and transfer characteristics have been investigated. Soil samples, roots and shoots of rushes (Juncus sp.), and stem wood disks of willows (Salix sp.) were

  16. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    2013-11-20

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

  17. Transfer factors of polonium from soil to parsley and mint.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Eadan, Z; Amin, Y

    2010-12-01

    Transfer factors of (210)Po from soil to parsley and mint have been determined. Artificial polonium isotope ((208)Po) was used as a tracer to determine transfer factor of Po from soil to plant in pot experiments. Two plant growing systems were used for this study namely, an outdoor system and a sheltered system by a polyethylene tent. (208)Po and (210)Po were determined in soil and different parts of the studied plants (stem and leaf), using alpha spectroscopy. The results have shown that there was a clear uptake of (208)Po by roots to leaves and stems of both plants. Higher values of transfer factors using the (210)Po activity concentrations than the (208)Po activity concentration were observed. Transfer factors of (210)Po from soil to parsley varied between 20 × 10?² and 50 × 10?² and 22 × 10?³ and 67 × 10?³ in mint, while (208)Po transfer factors varied between 4 × 10?² and 12 × 10?² for parsley and 10 × 10?² and 22 × 10?² in mint. Transfer factors of Po were higher in those plants grown in the sheltered system than in the open system; about 75% of Po was transferred from atmosphere to parsley parts using the two systems. Ratios of transferred Po from soil to mint stem and leaf in the sheltered system were higher by 2 times from those in the open system. PMID:20833456

  18. Transfer factors: identification of conserved sequences in transfer factor molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, C. H.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfer factors are small proteins that "transfer" the ability to express cell-mediated immunity from immune donors to non-immune recipients. We developed a process for purifying specific transfer factors to apparent homogeneity. This allowed us to separate individual transfer factors from mixtures containing several transfer factors and to demonstrate the antigen-specificity of transfer factors. Transfer factors have been shown to be an effective means for correction of deficient cellular immunity in patients with opportunistic infections, such as candidiasis or recurrent Herpes simplex and to provide prophylactic immunity against varicella-zoster in patients with acute leukemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transfer factors of bovine and murine origin were purified by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Cyanogen bromide digests were sequenced. The properties of an apparently conserved sequence on expression of delayed-type hypersensitivity by transfer factor recipients were assessed. RESULTS: A novel amino acid sequence, LLYAQDL/VEDN, was identified in each of seven transfer factor preparations. These peptides would not transfer expression of delayed-type hypersensitivity to recipients, which indicates that they are not sufficient for expression of the specificity or immunological properties of native transfer factors. However, administration of the peptides to recipients of native transfer factors blocked expression of delayed-type hypersensitivity by the recipients. The peptides were not immunosuppressive. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the peptides may represent the portion of transfer factors that binds to the "target cells" for transfer factors. Identification of these cells will be helpful in defining the mechanisms of action of transfer factors. PMID:10949913

  19. Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by radionuclide releases) of waste disposal facilities and decommissioning sites.

  20. Plant uptake and translocation of air-borne chlordane and comparison with the soil-to-plant route.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Yee; Iannucci-Berger, William A; Eitzer, Brian D; White, Jason C; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia

    2003-10-01

    In order to assess fully the impact of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human health, pollutant exchange at the interface between terrestrial plants, in particular food crops, and other environmental compartments must be thoroughly understood. In this regard, transfers of multicomponent and chiral pollutants are particularly informative. In the present study, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) was planted in containerized, uncontaminated soil under both greenhouse and field conditions and exposed to air-borne chlordane contamination at 14.0 and 0.20 ng/m(3) (average, greenhouses), and 2.2 ng/m(3) (average, field). Chiral gas chromatography interfaced to an ion trap mass spectrometer was used to determine the chiral (trans-chlordane, TC, and cis-chlordane, CC) and achiral (trans-nonachlor, TN) chlordane components in vegetation, air, and soil compartments. The chlordane components of interest were detected in all vegetation tissues examined--root, stem, leaves, and fruits. When compared with the data from a soil-to-plant uptake study, the compositional profile of the chlordane components, i.e. the component fractions of TC, CC, and TN, in plant tissues, showed significantly different patterns between the air-to-plant and soil-to-plant pathways. Changes in the enantiomer fractions of TC and CC in plant tissues relative to the source, i.e. air or soil, although observed, were not markedly different between the two routes. This report provides the first comprehensive comparison between two distinct plant uptake routes for POPs and their subsequent translocation within plant tissues. PMID:12892673

  1. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-07-20

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  2. Effect of industrial pollution on soil-to-plant transfer of plutonium in a Boreal forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iisa Riekkinen; Timo Jaakkola

    2001-01-01

    Plutonium in a forest ecosystem was studied at different distances from the copper and nickel smelter at Monchegorsk, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Soil and plant samples were collected 7 (site A), 16 (B), 21 (C) and 28 (D) km from the smelter and at a reference site situated in Finland, 152 km from Monchegorsk. The deposition of Cu in litter and

  3. Characterization of soil-to-plant transfer coefficients for stable cesium and strontium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Hoffman; J. H. Keller

    1982-01-01

    Soil and vegetation samples were collected from seven counties in the United States in which commercial nuclear power reactors were sited. Samples were analyzed for stable cesium and strontium by atomic emission spectrometry. In addition, soils were analyzed for major element content, organic content, pH and ion exchange capacity using standard soil analytical methods. Soils were classified using US Department

  4. Nickel and manganese transfer from soil to plant in lateritic mining soils from New Caledonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Pouschat; J. Rose; I. Alliot; C. Dominici; C. Keller; I. Laffont-Schwob; L. Olivi; J.-P. Ambrosi

    2009-01-01

    New Caledonian ferritic soils (more than 50 % of iron) are naturally rich in metals (chromium, nickel, cobalt, and manganese), deficient in major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium), and unbalanced for the calcium\\/magnesium ratio. Under these particular ecological conditions, New Caledonia, recognized as a hot-spot of biodiversity, is a natural laboratory to study and understand the adaptation strategies of plants

  5. Transfer factor therapy: evidence for nonspecificity.

    PubMed

    Ballow, M; Dupont, B; Hansen, J A; Good, R A

    1975-01-01

    Four patients were treated with multiple doses of dialyzed transfer factor in which one Wiskott-Aldrich patient with abnormal IgG monocyte receptors obtained benefit. All patients converted skin reactivity, and had improved in vitro lymphocyte responses to varying degrees. Three patients developed positive reactivity to allogeneic cells in MLC, and one patient developed DNCB reactivity. These latter two findings suggest transfer factor may act by inducing a nonspecific maturation of lymphocyte function. A possible mechanism for the action of transfer factor is discussed. PMID:125119

  6. Some factors affecting ink transfer in gravure printing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Elsayad; F. Morsy; S. El-Sherbiny; E. Abdou

    2002-01-01

    Many factors affect the print quality and ink transfer. These are either machine factors, paper factors, or Ink factors. The aim of this work was to find out to what extent are the amount of ink transferred influenced by the previously mentioned factors. Atomic absorption was used for quantitatively measuring the amount of ink transferred. Copper phthalocyanine pigment was chosen.

  7. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Transfer Student Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jacob T. N.; Litzler, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Transfer students' adjustment to college has received substantial attention by researchers. This focus has predominately investigated the observation of "transfer shock": a decrease in grade point average (GPA) experienced after transferring. In response to the persistent focus on transfer shock, growing attention has been directed…

  8. Factors Affecting Training Transfer: Participants' Motivation to Transfer Training, Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alawneh, Muhammad K.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates factors that motivate participants in learning and training activities to transfer skills, knowledge and attitude from the learning setting to the workplace. Based on training transfer theories hypothesized by Holton (1996), one of the major theories that affect an organization's learning is motivation to transfer theory.…

  9. Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Charge and Excitation Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Piotrowiak

    2004-09-28

    We report the and/or state of several subprojects of our DOE sponsored research on Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Electron and Excitation Transfer: (1) Construction of an ultrafast Ti:sapphire amplifier. (2) Mediation of electronic interactions in host-guest molecules. (3) Theoretical models of electrolytes in weakly polar media. (4) Symmetry effects in intramolecular excitation transfer.

  10. Factors That Influence Transfer Student Academic Performance and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Lijuan; Newcomb, L. H.

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to the academic performance and retention of students who transferred to a four-year university. The population for this study consisted of 232 transfer students. Data were collected via questionnaire surveys and from existing records. Descriptive and correlational statistics were used to…

  11. A Compendium of Transfer Factors for Agricultural and Animal Products

    SciTech Connect

    Staven, Lissa H.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rhoads, Kathleen; Strenge, Dennis L.

    2003-06-02

    Transfer factors are used in radiological risk assessments to estimate the amount of radioactivity that could be present in a food crop or organism based on the calculated concentration in the source medium (i.e., soil or animal feed). By calculating the concentration in the food, the total intake can be estimated and a dose calculated as a result of the annual intake. This report compiles transfer factors for radiological risk assessments, using common food products, including meats, eggs, and plants. Transfer factors used were most often selected from recommended values listed by national or international organizations for use in radiological food chain transport calculations. Several methods of estimation and extrapolation were used for radionuclides not listed in the primary information sources. Tables of transfer factors are listed by element and information source for beef, eggs, fish, fruit, grain, leafy vegetation, milk, poultry, and root vegetables.

  12. Standardisation of gas mixtures for estimating carbon monoxide transfer factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A H Kendrick; G Laszlo

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The American Thoracic Society recommends that the inspired concentration used for the estimation of carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) mixture should be 0.25-0.35% carbon monoxide, 10-14% helium, 17-21% oxygen, balance nitrogen. Inspired oxygen influences alveolar oxygen and hence carbon monoxide uptake, such that transfer factor increases by 0.35% per mm Hg decrease in alveolar oxygen. To aid in the standardisation

  13. Considering factors beyond transfer of conceptual knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Eric; Champney, Danielle; Little, Angela

    2013-01-01

    One thread in education research has been to investigate whether and in what ways students "transfer" conceptual knowledge from one context to another. We argue that in understanding students' reasoning across contexts, it can additionally be productive to attend to their epistemological framing. We present a case study of one student (Will), whose reasoning on two similarly structured approximation problems does not draw on pieces of conceptual knowledge across contexts in a manner that experts might view as productive. We further show that attending to Will's epistemological framing aids our understanding of why he draws on different types of knowledge on the two problems.

  14. The Pion Form Factor at Large Momentum Transfer

    E-print Network

    Pai-hsien Jennifer Hsu; George T. Fleming

    2007-10-24

    We present our calculations of the electromagnetic form factor of pions. We explore the properties of pion form factor at momentum transfer larger than previous studies by including more combinations of source and sink momenta and using more configurations.We fit our results using vector meson dominance (VMD) hypothesis.

  15. Fertility Regulation in F-Like Resistance Transfer Factors1

    PubMed Central

    Hoar, David I.

    1970-01-01

    Mutants of the R factor R100 have been isolated that mediate high-frequency transfer of the R factor during conjugation. Complementation tests revealed two classes of mutants, operator-constitutive and repressor-negative. Some of the latter class were suppressible by amber and ochre suppressors. The results support a simple model of regulation for the control of R-factor-mediated piliation. PMID:4908788

  16. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Leeman, W R; Van Den Berg, K J; Houben, G F

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data concerning feed contaminant concentrations, feeding periods, residue levels in animal products, and other parameters were gathered and recorded. For each case a 'transfer factor', which was defined as the ratio of the concentration of a chemical in an animal product to the concentration of the chemical in animal feed, was calculated. Scientifically founded transfer factors were calculated and analysed for groups of chemicals based on their contaminant classes or physicochemical properties. These database-derived transfer factors enable a more accurate risk assessment in the case of a feed contamination, and enable rapid risk management decision-making and/or intervention. PMID:17164211

  17. Progressive vaccinia: immunological aspects and transfer factor therapy.

    PubMed

    Timár, L; Budai, J; Nyerges, G; Szigeti, R; Hollós, I; Sonkoly, I

    1978-01-01

    Progressive vaccinia is a rare and serious complication of smallpox vaccination. Depressed immune function can generally be found as an underlying disorder; thus adequate immuno-correction may be expected to be therapeutically effective. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity was repeatedly examined in one case throughout the course of the disease. Results indicated partial deficiency of cell-mediated immunity. No therapeutic effect was achieved by using human antivaccinia immunoglobulin and N-methylisatin beta-thiosemicarbazone. Transfer factor therapy was also attempted. Treatment with a non-specific transfer factor preparation was followed by a transitory clinical improvement. A specific transfer factor preparation given during the last month of life, however, had no therapeutic effect. The patient died on the 145th day after vaccination. Autopsy findings pointed to combined immune deficiency. PMID:80384

  18. Effect of transfer factor therapy on mixed lymphocyte culture reactivity.

    PubMed

    Dupont, B; Ballow, M; Hansen, J A; Quick, C; Yunis, E J; Good, R A

    1974-03-01

    We have studied the effect of dialyzable transfer factor therapy on three patients with immunodeficiency disease and in one patient who demonstrated no evidence of deficiency of either humoral or cellular immunity. We found evidence for nonspecificity in the effect of transfer factor on mixed lymphocyte culture reactivity. The data suggest that in patients with immunodeficiency disease a maturation of lymphocytes may lead to a generalized increased immune responsiveness. More profoundly, our data show that transfer factor may induce changes in the expression of histocompatibility determinants. We observed changes in the expression of determinants capable of stimulating in the mixed lymphocyte culture reaction as well as an increase in the capacity of lymphocytes to respond. PMID:4274562

  19. Initial solidification phenomena: Factors affecting heat transfer in strip casting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Nolli

    2007-01-01

    In the last few years a few companies have announced the final stage of the commercial development of strip casting of steels. In strip casting heat extraction and productivity are limited by the thermal resistance at the interface between processed material and moving mold (rolls for twin-roll strip casters). Among many factors influencing interfacial heat transfer, films of various composition,

  20. University Technology Transfer Factors as Predictors of Entrepreneurial Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, Dorothy M.

    2011-01-01

    University technology transfer is a collaborative effort between academia and industry involving knowledge sharing and learning. Working closely with their university partners affords biotechnology firms the opportunity to successfully develop licensed inventions and gain access to novel scientific and technological discoveries. These factors may…

  1. Chlorophyll a Franck-Condon factors and excitation energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, J. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Physics] [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Physics; [Ames Lab., IA (United States); [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Voigt, J. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Physics] [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Physics; Small, G.J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)] [Ames Lab., IA (United States); [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-04-01

    The Franck-Condon factors for the S{sub 1}(Q{sub y}) {leftrightarrow} S{sub 0} electronic transition of chlorophyll (Chl) molecules are important for understanding excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes. Currently, there are two sets of Chl a Frank-Condon factors for over 40 modes, one determined by spectral hole burning and the other by fluorescence line narrowing. Those obtained by the latter spectroscopy are, on average, a factor of 30 times smaller than the hole burning values. Nonline-narrowed fluorescence results for the light-harvesting complex 2 of photosystem 2 at 4.2 K are presented that agree quite well with the hole burning but not the fluorescence line narrowing values.

  2. Distinguishing Between Knowledge Transfer and Technology Transfer Activities: The Role of Key Organizational Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanthi Gopalakrishnan; Michael D. Santoro

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge transfer and technology transfer are often used interchangeably and while both knowledge transfer and technology transfer are highly interactive activities, they serve different purposes. Knowledge transfer implies a broader, more inclusive construct that is directed more toward understanding the \\

  3. Transfer of metals in soil-grass ecosystems under long-term N, P, K fertilization in Hesse, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2015-04-01

    With this study focuses on the influence of long-term (14 years) fertilization on metal transition from soil to plants is presented. Accumulation of metals in plants due to long-term fertilization and predicting the bioavailability and transfer of metals in the soil-plant system is of great importance with regard to human health as plants represent the first compartment of the terrestrial food chain. Soil and plant (Lolio-Cynosuretum) samples were taken from a 14 years long-term fertilization field experiment which was carried out in Hesse, Germany. Correlation coefficients, transfer factors, and regression analysis was performed for Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn to quantify the relative difference in bioavailability of metals to plants or to identify the capacity of plants to accumulate a given metal. Correlation coefficients between metals in soils and in plants show significant relationships (p<0.01) for selected metals. Metal bioavailability from soil to plant based on transfer factor (TF) was observed to decrease in the order Cd>Cu>Zn>Mn>Pb. Results of stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that Corg, CEC and bioavailable metal content are the most important predictors for plant metal uptake.

  4. Wind tunnel experimental study on influence factors of evaporative heat transfer of porous building material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning Li; Qinglin Meng

    2010-01-01

    With Orthogonal experimental method, an experimental study on influence factors of evaporative heat transfer of aerated concrete under a certain moisture content was carried out in the hot-humid climatic wind tunnel. The factors concerned include four meteorological factors and sample thickness. Measured from the impact of significant and persistent on evaporative heat transfer, solar radiation is the greatest influence factor,

  5. Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    E-print Network

    Engelhardt, John F.

    Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo 19 July 2005; accepted 30 October 2005 Abstract Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts

  6. Long-term lysimeter experiment to investigate the leaching of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and the carry-over from soil to plants: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Thorsten; Riebe, Rika Alessa; Falk, Sandy; Failing, Klaus; Brunn, Hubertus

    2013-02-27

    To study the behavior of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil and the carry-over from soil to plants, technical mixtures of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at a concentration of 25 mg/kg soil were applied to 1.5 m(3) monolithic soil columns of a lysimeter. Growth samples and percolated water were analyzed for PFASs throughout a period of 5 years. In addition to PFOA/PFOS plant compartments and leachate were found to be contaminated with short-chain PFASs. Calculation showed significant decreasing trends (p < 0.05) for all substances tested in the growth samples. Short-chain PFASs and PFOA pass through the soil much more quickly than PFOS. Of the 360 g of PFOA and 367.5 g of PFOS applied to the soil, 96.88% PFOA and 99.98% PFOS were still present in the soil plot of the lysimeter after a period of 5 years. Plants accumulated 0.001% PFOA and 0.004% PFOS. Loss from the soil plot through leachate amounted to 3.12% for PFOA and 0.013% for PFOS. PMID:23379692

  7. AIDS and transfer factor: myths, certainties and realities.

    PubMed

    Viza, D

    1996-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, the triumph of biology is as indisputable as that of physics was at the end of the 19th century, and so is the might of the inductive thought. Virtually all diseases have been seemingly conquered and HIV, the cause of AIDS, has been fully described ten years after the onset of the epidemic. However, the triumph of biological science is far from being complete. The toll of several diseases, such as cancer, continues to rise and the pathogenesis of AIDS remains elusive. In the realm of inductive science, the dominant paradigm can seldom be challenged in a frontal attack, especially when it is apparently successful, and only what Kuhn calls "scientific revolutions" can overthrow it. Thus, it is hardly surprising that the concept of transfer factor is considered with contempt, and the existence of the moiety improbable: over forty years after the introduction of the concept, not only its molecular structure remains unknown, but also its putative mode of action contravenes dogmas of both immunology and molecular biology. And when facts challenge established dogmas, be in religion, philosophy or science, they must be suppressed. Thus, results of heterodox research become henceforth nisi-i.e., valid unless cause is shown for rescinding them, because they challenge the prevalent paradigm. However, when observations pertain to lethal disorders, their suppression in the name of dogmas may become criminal. Because of the failure of medical science to manage the AIDS pandemic, transfer factor, which has been successfully used for treating or preventing viral infections, may today overcome a priori prejudice and rejection more swiftly. In science, as in life, certainties always end up by dying, and Copernicus' vision by replacing that of Ptolemy. PMID:8993753

  8. Initial solidification phenomena: Factors affecting heat transfer in strip casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolli, Paolo

    In the last few years a few companies have announced the final stage of the commercial development of strip casting of steels. In strip casting heat extraction and productivity are limited by the thermal resistance at the interface between processed material and moving mold (rolls for twin-roll strip casters). Among many factors influencing interfacial heat transfer, films of various composition, either formed during casting or deposited before casting on the surface of the rolls, melt superheat and gas atmosphere composition can have a significantly positive or negative effect on the achieved heat transfer rate. From an industrial point view, methods to improve interfacial heat transfer rates must be found, in order to increase productivity. The objective of this research project is to assess if it is feasible to improve heat transfer rates during solidification of steel in direct contact with a copper mold: (1) by the application of thin coatings on the mold surface; (2) by adding a reactive gas species containing sulfur in the gas shrouding where casting is performed. To address the former, solidification experiments were performed with the mold surface either kept uncoated or coated with coatings of different compositions. To address the latter, the experiments were performed in gas shrouding atmospheres with or without sulphydric acid. It was observed that the resulting heat extraction rates were improved by the application of certain coatings and by the addition of H2S to the gas atmosphere. These findings prove that the application of coatings and the use of small amounts of reactive gaseous species containing sulfur may be methods to increase productivity in strip casting. The effect of superheat and the effect of naturally deposited oxides (Mn-oxide) were also evaluated experimentally. A numerical study of the effect of the critical undercooling on the productivity of a twin-roll strip caster showed that the maximum allowable casting speed can be increased by increasing the critical undercooling, which in turns can be changed by changing the composition of the coating applied on the roll surface; this increase is significant when casting thicknesses are small (less than 1 mm). Finally, a procedure, based on Scheill's method, vaporization and liquation, to predict the composition of films depositing naturally during solidification, starting from the steel composition, is proposed.

  9. In Vivo and In Vitro studies on transfer factor with a protein antigen system

    E-print Network

    Kelleher, Peter Joseph

    1975-01-01

    skin thickness at 24 hours. Normal guinea pigs receiving 1/3 the amount of transfer factor material collected failed in three experiments to induce a state of sensitivity as seen by skin reactivity. Crude (not dialyzed) transfer factor when...), and bovine gamma globu- lin (BGG). 34 Migration inhibition of peritoneal cells ob- tained from normal guinea pigs when incubated with dialyzable (DTF) and nondialyzable (NDTF) transfer factor from experiment 3 and exposed to egg albumin (FA), bovine...

  10. Relationship between the radiocesium interception potential and the transfer of radiocesium from soil to soybean cultivated in 2011 in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Akira; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Takeuchi, Megumi; Sato, Mutsuto; Nakao, Atsushi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2014-11-01

    The concentration of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in agricultural fields around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) was elevated after the accident in March 2011. Evaluation of soil properties that influence phytoavailability of radiocesium is important for optimal soil management to minimize radiocesium transfer to crops. In this study, soybean grain and soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected from 46 locations in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011, and (137)Cs concentrations were measured. (137)Cs concentration ranges were 11-329 Bq kg(-1)-dry in soybean grain samples, and 0.29-2.49 kBq kg(-1)-dry in soil samples. The radiocesium interception potential (RIP) values in the soil samples ranged from 0.30 to 8.61 mol kg(-1). RIP negatively correlated with total carbon content and oxalate-extractable Si and Al + 1/2 Fe in the soils, suggesting that soils rich in organic matter and poorly crystalline clays tended to have lower RIP in this region. The soil-to-plant transfer factor for (137)Cs, analyzed in relation with various soil characteristics, varied by two orders of magnitude and was significantly negatively correlated with RIP and exchangeable K concentration in soil. The results show that RIP is useful for evaluating the efficiency of radiocesium transfer from soil to plants in this region. PMID:25036920

  11. Single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide in an asymptomatic population of never smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Gulsvik; P Bakke; S Humerfelt; E Omenaas; T Tosteson; S T Weiss; F E Speizer

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on reference values of transfer factor variables in general populations of asymptomatic never smokers are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between test variables and age, height, haemoglobin concentration and carboxyhaemoglobin concentration. METHODS: Measurements of single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO) were obtained for a randomly selected sample of never smokers

  12. Factors Affecting Transfer of "Traditional" Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.; Christie, Ray; Rao, Michael

    2006-01-01

    While increasing demands on time and resources compete for attention with the transfer function of community colleges, the goal of providing the first two years of education on the pathway to a baccalaureate degree is still an important mission. The research reported here examines the determinants of successful traditional transfer students. The…

  13. Transfer passenger needs at airports : human factors in terminal design

    E-print Network

    Brillembourg, Marie-Claire

    1982-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the needs of particular users of airport: transfer passengers. The object of this work has been to produce a set of design guidelines for terminals. these guidelines are framed upon a user-need survey ...

  14. Relation of pulmonary vessel size to transfer factor in subjects with airflow obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Musk, A.W.

    1983-11-01

    In a group of 61 consecutive patients undergoing assessment of airflow obstruction, a significant linear relation was demonstrated between measurements of the diameter of the midzonal pulmonary vessels on the plain chest radiographs and transfer factor (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide) (r = 0.46, p < 0.001). Since reduction in transfer factor has been shown to relate to structural emphysema, reduction in midzone vessel caliber implies the same. However, in the individual patient neither the transfer factor nor structural emphysema can be reliably predicted from midzone vessel diameters alone.

  15. Gene Ther . Author manuscript Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Gene Ther . Author manuscript Page /1 4 Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene been genetically engineered to ablate the interaction with coagulation factor X (FX) resulting coagulation factors in mediating liver gene transfer and the mechanism underlying Ad5 hepatocyte transduction

  16. An investigation of factors predictive of independence in transfers and ambulation after hip fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross G. Duke; Jennifer L. Keating

    2002-01-01

    Duke RG, Keating JL. An investigation of factors predictive of independence in transfers and ambulation after hip fracture. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:158-64. Objectives: To compare the predictive value of measurements of mobility on the second day postsurgery with previously established outcome predictors after hip fracture and to establish a statistical model for the prediction of independence in transfers and

  17. Transitioning Transfer Students: Interactive Factors that Influence First-Year Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Mingchu; Williams, James E.; Vieweg, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the diverse patterns of interactive factors that influence transfer students' first-year retention at a midsize four-year university. The population for this study consisted of five cohorts totaling 1,713 full-time, degree-seeking transfer students. Sequential sets of logistic regression analyses on blocks of variables were…

  18. Characterization of guinea pig transfer factor collected by In vivo exposure to antilymphocyte gamma globulin 

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Robert Stanley

    1976-01-01

    CHARACTERIZATIO5I OF GUINEA PIG TRANSFER FACTOR COLIZCTED BY IN VIVO EXPOSURE TO ANTILYMPHOCYTE GAMM'A GLOBULIN A Thesis by ROBERT STANIZY STEWART, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AtrM University in partia1 fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Microbiology CHARACTERIZATION OF GUINEA PIG TRANSFER FACTOR COLLECTED BY IN VIVO EXPOSURE TO ANTILYMPHOCYTE GAMMA GLOBULIN A Thesis ROBERT STANLEY STEWART, JR. Approved...

  19. Placental fatty acid transfer: a key factor in fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Larqué, Elvira; Pagán, Ana; Prieto, María Teresa; Blanco, José Eliseo; Gil-Sánchez, Alfonso; Zornoza-Moreno, Matilde; Ruiz-Palacios, María; Gázquez, Antonio; Demmelmair, Hans; Parrilla, Juan José; Koletzko, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    The functionality of the placenta may affect neonatal adiposity and fetal levels of key nutrients such as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fetal macrosomia and its complications may occur even in adequately controlled gestational diabetic (GDM) mothers, suggesting that maternal glycemia is not the only determinant of fetal glycemic status and wellbeing. We studied in vivo the placental transfer of fatty acids (FA) labeled with stable isotopes administered to 11 control and 9 GDM pregnant women (6 treated with insulin). Subjects received orally (13)C-palmitic, (13)C-oleic, and (13)C-linoleic acids and (13)C-docosahexaenoic acid ((13)C-DHA) 12 h before an elective caesarean section. FA were quantified by gas chromatography and (13)C enrichments by gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The (13)C-FA concentration was higher in total lipids of maternal plasma in GDM patients versus controls, except for (13)C-DHA. Moreover, (13)C-DHA showed a lower placenta/maternal plasma ratio in GDM patients versus controls and a significantly lower cord/maternal plasma ratio. Other FA ratios studied were not different between GDM and controls. A disturbed (13)C-DHA placental uptake occurred in GDM patients treated with diet or insulin, while the latter also had lower (13)C-DHA levels in the venous cord. The tracer study pointed towards an impaired placental DHA uptake as a critical step, while the transfer of other (13)C-FA was less affected. Patients with GDM treated with insulin could also have a greater fetal fat storage, which may have contributed to the reduced (13)C-DHA in the venous cord observed. The DHA transfer to the fetus was reduced in GDM pregnancies compared to controls. This might have an influence on fetal neurodevelopment and long-term consequences for the child. PMID:25300267

  20. Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Li, Ziyi; Sun, Xingshen; Chen, Juan; Leno, Gregory H; Engelhardt, John F

    2006-07-15

    Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females is a foundational strategy for a number of assisted reproductive technologies, including cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In an attempt to develop efficient ET in domestic ferrets, factors affecting development of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts in the oviduct or uterus was evaluated in recipient nulliparous or primiparous females. Developing fetuses were collected from recipient animals 21 days post-copulation and examined. The percentage of fetal formation was different (P<0.05) for unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes (71%) in nulliparous females with bilateral transfer (56%) in primiparous recipients. The percentage (90%) of fetal formation in nulliparous recipients following unilateral transfer of blastocysts was higher (P<0.05) than that observed in primiparous recipients with bilateral ET (73%). Notably, the percentage of fetal formation was higher (P<0.05) when blastocyts were transferred as compared to zygotes (90% versus 71%). Transuterine migration of embryos occurred following all unilateral transfers and also in approximately 50% of bilateral transfers with different number of embryos in each uterine horn. These data will help to facilitate the development of assisted reproductive strategies in the ferret and could lead to the use of this species for modeling human disease and for conservation of the endangered Mustelidae species such as black-footed ferret and European mink. PMID:16330092

  1. Tests of transfer reaction determinations of astrophysical S factors 

    E-print Network

    Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.; Azhari, A.; Clark, HL; Lui, YW; Mukhamedzhanov, AM; Sattarov, A.; Trache, L.; Burjan, V.; Cejpek, J.; Kroha, V.; Piskor, S.; Vincour, J.

    1999-01-01

    ? . Piskor?, and J. Vincour of Sciences, Prague-R? ez?, Czech Republic April 1998! e asymptotic normalization coefficients for transitions s provide the normalization for the tails of the e the S factors for 16O(p ,g)17F at astrophysical s and found...

  2. Transfer factors of 134Cs for olive and orange trees grown on different soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Skarlou; C. Nobeli; J. Anoussis; C. Haidouti; E. Papanicolaou

    1999-01-01

    Transfer factors (TF) of 134Cs to olive and citrus trees grown on two different soils, were determined for a 3-year greenhouse experiment. Two-year-old trees were transplanted with their entire rootball into large pots containing the contaminated soil (110kgpot-1). The soil was transferred to each pot in layers on the top of which 134Cs as CsCl was dripped (18.5MBqpot-1). For both

  3. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J., E-mail: ortoleva@indiana.edu [Center for Cell and Virus Theory, Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 800 E. Kirkwood Ave, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation.

  4. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: a multiscale factorization approach.

    PubMed

    Sereda, Yuriy V; Espinosa-Duran, John M; Ortoleva, Peter J

    2014-02-21

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation. PMID:24559333

  5. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sánchez; Pérez, Javiér; García, M. N. Jiménez; López, M. A. Jiménez; Espíndola, M. E. Sánchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernández, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez

    2008-08-01

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-?) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  6. Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in non-human primates (Microcebus murinus).

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in non- human primates the interaction with coagulation factor X (FX) resulting in substantially reduced hepatocyte transduction documented the role of blood coagulation factors in mediating liver gene transfer in vivo and the mechanism

  7. Factors Contributing to the Upward Transfer of Baccalaureate Aspirants Beginning at Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli

    2012-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, a sequential logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict bachelor's degree-seeking community…

  8. 396. Factors Affecting Retroviral Gene Transfer to Human CD34+ Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youngtae Hong; Seungshin Yu; Sujeong Kim; Joonggon Kim; Sunyoung Kim

    2004-01-01

    Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer is a useful technology in studying the biology of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as well as in developing gene therapy products for a variety of human diseases. One of the most important factors determining the success of these studies is the number of HSCs receiving the gene of interest. We tested various parameters for their influences on

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AIR-TO-LEAF VAPOR PHASE TRANSFER FACTOR FOR DIOXINS AND FURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of an experiment in which grass was grown in a greenhouse and outdoors, and in soils of different concentration levels of dioxins and furans, were used in a modeling exercise to derive an air-to-leaf vapor phase transfer factor. The purpose of the experiment was to under...

  10. Factors Associated with Transfer of Training in Workplace E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ji-Hye; Wentling, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of factors associated with e-learning, particularly computer attitudes and usability, on transfer of training in workplace e-learning courses. Design/methodology/approach--This study relied on quantitative data obtained from four online survey questionnaires. The sample of this study…

  11. Scale-model charge-transfer technique for measuring enhancement factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kositsky, J.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Determination of aircraft electric field enhancement factors is crucial when using airborne field mill (ABFM) systems to accurately measure electric fields aloft. SRI used the scale model charge transfer technique to determine enhancement factors of several canonical shapes and a scale model Learjet 36A. The measured values for the canonical shapes agreed with known analytic solutions within about 6 percent. The laboratory determined enhancement factors for the aircraft were compared with those derived from in-flight data gathered by a Learjet 36A outfitted with eight field mills. The values agreed to within experimental error (approx. 15 percent).

  12. The ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Benyi; Lu, Yigang

    2008-10-01

    Based on several hypotheses about the process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, the onflow around the solute granule is figured out by the Navier-Stocks equation. In combination with the Higbie’s solute infiltration model, the link between the mass-transfer coefficient and the velocity of flow is found. The mass-transfer coefficient with the ultrasonical effect is compared with that without the ultrasonical effect, and then a new parameter named the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient is brought forward, which describes the mathematical model of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction process enhanced by ultrasonic. The model gives out the relationships among the ultrasonical power, the ultrasonical frequency, the radius of solute granule and the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient. The results calculated by this model fit well with the experimental data, including the extraction of Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Oil (CLSO) and Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Ester (CLSE) from coix seeds and the extraction of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) from the alga by means of the ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (USFE) and the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) respectively. This proves the rationality of the ultrasonic-enhanced factor model. The model provides a theoretical basis for the application of ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical fluid extraction technique.

  13. Improved retroviral episome transfer of transcription factors enables sustained cell fate modification.

    PubMed

    Schott, J W; Hoffmann, D; Maetzig, T; Müller, F-J; Steinemann, D; Zychlinski, D; Cantz, T; Baum, C; Schambach, A

    2014-11-01

    Retroviral vectors are versatile gene transfer vehicles widely used in basic research and gene therapy. Mutation of retroviral integrase converts these vectors into transient, integration-deficient gene delivery vehicles associated with a high degree of biosafety. We explored the option to use integration-deficient retroviral vectors to achieve transient ectopic expression of transcription factors, which is considered an important tool for induced cell fate conversion. Stepwise optimization of the retroviral episome transfer as exemplified for the transcription factor Oct4 enabled to improve both expression magnitude and endurance. Long terminal repeat-driven ?-retroviral vectors were identified as the most suitable vector architecture. Episomal expression was enhanced by epigenetic modifiers, and Oct4 activity was increased following fusion to a minimal transactivation motif of herpes simplex virus VP16. Based on kinetic analyses, we identified optimal time intervals for repeated vector administration and established prolonged expression windows of choice. Providing proof-of-concept, episomal transfer of Oct4 was potent to mediate conversion of human fibroblasts stably expressing Klf4, Sox2 and c-Myc into induced pluripotent stem cells, which were mainly free of residual Oct4 vector integration. This study provides evidence for suitability of retroviral episome transfer of transcription factors for cell fate conversion, allowing the generation of distinct patient- or disease-specific cell types. PMID:25102011

  14. Effect of Plant and Environmental Factors on ALS-resistant Gene Transfer from ClearfieldTM Rice to Red Rice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imazethapyr-resistant gene from ClearfieldTM (CL) rice varieties transfers through pollen flow to red rice (Oryza sativa L.), a noxious weed in rice production in southern states. Factors which affect gene transfer rate include, but are not limited to, plant and environmental factors. Thus, we aimed...

  15. EFFECT OF 137Cs ON THE TRANSFER OF NUTRIENT ELEMENTS AND ON GROWTH OF KALMI (Ipomoea aquatica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHAH MOHAMMAD ULLAH; MUNMUN AKTAR; ALEYA BEGUM; SATTAR MOLLAH

    Ullah, S. M., Aktar, M.,Begum, A., Mollah, S. and Mamun, S. A. 2009. Effect of 137 Cs on the transfer of the different nutrient elements from soil to plant body and to observe the dry weights of roots and shoots of Kalmi. The average dry weight production of Kalmi (roots and shoots) in the three soil series was reduced about

  16. AAV-mediated factor IX gene transfer to skeletal muscle in patients with severe hemophilia B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine S. Manno; Amy J. Chew; Sylvia Hutchison; Peter J. Larson; Roland W. Herzog; Valder R. Arruda; Shing Jen Tai; Margaret V. Ragni; Arthur Thompson; Margareth Ozelo; Linda B. Couto; Debra G. B. Leonard; Frederick A. Johnson; Alan McClelland; Ciaran Scallan; Erik Skarsgard; Alan W. Flake; Mark A. Kay; Katherine A. High; Bertil Glader

    2003-01-01

    Hemophilia B is an X-linked coagulopathy caused by absence of functional coagula- tion factor IX (F.IX). Previously, we estab- lished an experimental basis for gene transfer as a method of treating the dis- ease in mice and hemophilic dogs through intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector ex- pressing F.IX. In this study we investi- gated the safety

  17. Determination of magnetic form factors for organic charge-transfer salts: A first-principles investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvat-Pujol, Francesc; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valentí, Roser

    2014-07-01

    Organic charge-transfer salts show a variety of complex phases ranging from antiferromagnetic long-range order, spin liquid, bad metal, or even superconductivity. A powerful method to investigate magnetism is spin-polarized inelastic neutron scattering. However, such measurements have often been hindered in the past by the small size of available crystals as well as by the fact that the spin in these materials is distributed over molecular rather than atomic orbitals, and good estimates for the magnetic form factors are missing. By considering Wannier functions obtained from density-functional theory calculations, we derive magnetic form factors for a number of representative organic molecules. Compared to Cu2+, the form factors |F(q)|2 fall off more rapidly as function of q, reflecting the fact that the spin density is very extended in real space. Form factors |F(q)|2 for TMTTF, BEDT-TTF, and (BEDT-TTF)2 have anisotropic and nonmonotonic structures.

  18. Strategic factors in the development of the National Technology Transfer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, Jonathan F.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    Broad consensus among industry and government leaders has developed over the last decade on the importance of applying the U.S. leadership in research and development (R&D) to strengthen competitiveness in the global marketplace, and thus enhance national prosperity. This consensus has emerged against the backdrop of increasing economic competition, and the dramatic reduction of military threats to national security with the end of the Cold War. This paper reviews the key factors and considerations that shaped - and continue to influence - the development of the Regional Technoloty Transfer Centers (RTTC) and the National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC). Also, the future role of the national network in support of emerging technology policy initiatives will be explored.

  19. Factors That Favor and Inhibit Transition of Community College Transfers to Four-Year Teacher Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Judith A.; Cortez, Andrea T.; Barbour, Frederic L.

    This study identified factors that impeded the smooth transition of transfer students into their final 2 years of teacher education, contrasting their experiences with that of native students. Researchers developed a moderator's guide and conducted six 90-minute focus groups at two state universities with native and community college transfer

  20. First Measurements of Form Factors of Pion, Kaon, Proton, and Hyperons for the Highest Timelike Momentum Transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Kamal K.

    2014-11-01

    Results of recent precision measurements of the electromagnetic form factors of the pion, kaon, proton, and the hyperons, ?0, ?0, ?+, ??, ?0, ??, at large timelike momentum transfers are presented. Evidence is found for diquark correlations in ?0, ?0 hyperons.

  1. The single-breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide and respiratory symptoms in a Norwegian community sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Welle; G. E. Eide; P. S. Bakke; A. Gulsvik

    1999-01-01

    Relationship between the single-breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide and res- piratory symptoms in a Norwegian community sample. I. Welle, G.E. Eide, P.S. Bakke, A. Gulsvik. #ERS Journals Ltd 1999. ABSTRACT: Reduced single-breath transfer factors of the lung for carbon monoxide are seen in a number of conditions. The hypothesis of the present study was that self- reported respiratory symptoms

  2. Selection of terrestrial transfer factors for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Y.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1983-01-01

    A parameter value for a radioecological assessment model is not a single value but a distribution of values about a central value. The sources that contribute to the variability of transfer factors to predict foodchain transport of radionuclides are enumerated. Knowledge of these sources, judgement in interpreting the available data, consideration of collateral information, and established criteria that specify the desired level of conservatism in the resulting predictions are essential elements when selecting appropriate parameter values for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides. 39 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  4. Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

    2005-10-04

    {sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

  5. An antibody to lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor prevents transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Uncertainty regarding pathogenic mechanisms has been a major impediment to effective prevention and treatment for human neurologic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, tropical spastic paraparesis, and AIDS demyelinating disease. Here, we implicate lymphotoxin (LT) (tumor necrosis factor beta [TNF-beta]) and TNF-alpha in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of an autoimmune demyelinating disease. In this communication, we report that treatment of recipient mice with an antibody that neutralizes LT and TNF-alpha prevents transfer of clone-mediated EAE. LNC-8, a myelin basic protein-specific T cell line, produces high levels of LT and TNF-alpha after activation by concanavalin A, antibody to the CD-3 epsilon component of the T cell receptor, or myelin basic protein presented in the context of syngeneic spleen cells. LNC-8 cells transfer clinical signs of EAE. When LNC-8 recipient mice were also treated with TN3.19.12, a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes LT and TNF-alpha, the severity of the transferred EAE was reduced, while control antibodies did not alter the disease. The effect of anti-LT/TNF-alpha treatment was long lived and has been sustained for 5 mo. These findings suggest that LT and TNF-alpha and the T cells that produce them play an important role in EAE. PMID:2212948

  6. Neutron spectroscopic factors of 55Ni hole-states from (p,d) transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanetullaev, A.; Tsang, M. B.; Lynch, W. G.; Lee, Jenny; Bazin, D.; Chan, K. P.; Coupland, D.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M.; Rogers, A. M.; Sun, Z. Y.; Youngs, M.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.; Famiano, M.; Hudan, S.; Shapira, D.; Peters, W. A.; Barbieri, C.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Horoi, M.; Otsuka, T.; Suzuki, T.; Utsuno, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Spectroscopic information has been extracted on the hole-states of 55Ni, the least known of the quartet of nuclei (55Ni, 57Ni, 55Co and 57Cu), one nucleon away from 56Ni, the N=Z=28 double magic nucleus. Using the H1(Ni56,d)Ni55 transfer reaction in inverse kinematics, neutron spectroscopic factors, spins and parities have been extracted for the f7/2, p3/2 and the s1/2 hole-states of 55Ni. These new data provide a benchmark for large basis calculations that include nucleonic orbits in both the sd and pf shells. State of the art calculations have been performed to describe the excitation energies and spectroscopic factors of the s1/2 hole-state below Fermi energy.

  7. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of Pu and Am in soil and on soil-to-plant transfer of Pu and Am in a pine forest in SW Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Outola

    2003-01-01

    The effect of industrial pollution on the behavior of plutonium and americium was evaluated in a pine forest in the vicinity of a Cu-Ni smelter in SW Finland. Soil and vegetation were sampled at distances of 0.5, 2, 4 and 8 km from the smelter. The vertical distribution of plutonium and americium was studied in litter, organic layer and mineral

  8. Friction factor and heat transfer of nanofluids containing cylindrical nanoparticles in laminar pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianzhong; Xia, Yi; Ku, Xiaoke

    2014-10-01

    Numerical simulations of polyalphaolefins-Al2O3 nanofluids containing cylindrical nanoparticles in a laminar pipe flow are performed by solving the Navier-Stokes equation with term of cylindrical nanoparticles, the general dynamic equation for cylindrical nanoparticles, and equation for nanoparticle orientation. The distributions of particle number and volume concentration, the friction factor, and heat transfer are obtained and analyzed. The results show that distributions of nanoparticle number and volume concentration are non-uniform across the section, with larger and smaller values in the region near the pipe center and near the wall, respectively. The non-uniformity becomes significant with the increase in the axial distance from the inlet. The friction factor decreases with increasing Reynolds number. The relationships between the friction factor and the nanoparticle volume concentration as well as particle aspect ratio are dependent on the Reynolds number. The Nusselt number of nanofluids, directly proportional to the Reynolds number, particle volume concentration, and particle aspect ratio, is higher near the pipe entrance than at the downstream locations. The rate of increase in Nusselt number at lower particle volume concentration is more than that at higher concentration. Finally, the expressions of friction factor and Nusselt number as a function of particle volume concentration, particle aspect ratio, and Reynolds number are derived based on the numerical data.

  9. Laminar heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of carbon nano tube/water nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Rathnakumar, P; Mayilsamy, K; Suresh, S; Murugesan, P

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of CNT/water nanofluid through a circular tube fitted with helical screw tape inserts with constant heat flux under laminar flow condition. Nanofluids of 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions are prepared by two step method. Thermo-physical properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity are measured by using KD2 thermal property analyzer and Brooke field cone and plate viscometer respectively. From the measurements, it is found that the viscosity increase is substantially higher than the increase in the thermal conductivity. The helical screw tape insets with twist ratios Y = 3, 2.44 and 1.78 are used to study the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics under laminar flow in the Reynolds number range of 520-2500. It is observed that, in a plain tube, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number for 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of nanofluids compared to pure water is 15% and 32% respectively. With the use of inserts, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number corresponding to twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 are obtained as 8%, 16% and 4.6% for 0.1% volume fraction of nanofluid and 5%, 4% and 12% for 0.2% volume fraction of nanofluid when compared with water in plain tube. Thermal performance factor evaluation revealed that the values at all Reynolds number for all twist ratios and both concentration of CNT nanofluid are greater than unity which indicates that helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios considered are feasible in terms of energy saving in laminar flow. PMID:24745238

  10. Transfer of elements relevant to radioactive waste from soil to five boreal plant species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Päivi Roivainen; Sari Makkonen; Toini Holopainen; Jukka Juutilainen

    2011-01-01

    In long-term safety assessment models for radioactive waste disposal, uptake of radionuclides by plants is an important process with possible adverse effects in ecosystems. Cobalt-60, 59,63Ni, 93Mo, and 210Pb are examples of long-living radionuclides present in nuclear waste. The soil-to-plant transfer of stable cobalt, nickel, molybdenum and lead and their distribution across plant parts were investigated in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus),

  11. Factors affecting success of embryo collection and transfer in large dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Chebel, R C; Demétrio, D G B; Metzger, J

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate factors that affected the success of embryo transfer programs in large dairy herds. Non-lactating donor cows produced a larger number of ova/embryos (P<0.01) and viable embryos (P<0.01) than lactating cows. The interaction between season and donor class was correlated with the proportion of ova/embryos classified as fertilized (P=0.03), because lactating donors had fewer fertilized ova in the summer. There was no correlation between 305-day mature equivalent milk yield and response to superstimulation. Although the interval between superstimulation protocols was correlated with the number of ova/embryos (P=0.03), there was no correlation with the number of viable embryos. Pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET) in heifer recipients was correlated with embryo quality grade (P<0.01), season (P=0.04), and whether embryos were fresh or frozen/thawed (P<0.01). Lactating recipient cows tended to have a lower rate of P/ET during the summer (P=0.12 to P=0.08). Synchronization protocols tended to be (P=0.06; Herd 1) or were (P=0.02; Herd 2) correlated with P/ET. Lactating cows receiving vitrified IVF embryos had a lower (P=0.01) P/ET than those receiving fresh IVF embryos, especially in the summer (P=0.09). Milk yield was not correlated with P/ET. The use of heat abatement systems is critical to improve embryo production and P/ET. Synchronization protocols that optimized synchrony of ovulation may increase fertility of recipient cows and eliminate the need for estrous detection. PMID:18023856

  12. In Vivo and In Vitro studies on transfer factor with a protein antigen system 

    E-print Network

    Kelleher, Peter Joseph

    1975-01-01

    ) have also reported such transfers. Turk (79) reported obtaining transfer but later stated (80) that what he had observed were nonspecific reactions. Burger and Jeter (13) reported obtaining a material that would passively transfer delayed... at 56 C for 30 minutes. Using basi- cally the same procedures Burger, Cosine, and Hinricha (12) have achieved success in transfer of sensitivity in rabbits while Rosenfeld and Dressier (72) have performed the experiments in guinea pigs. Much...

  13. An Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Academic Success of Transfer Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Moore, Donna Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Attrition is a growing concern among higher education institutions. Student retention has long been viewed as a measure of institutional effectiveness. The number of transfer students, particularly those who seek entry into postsecondary education by transfer from a two-year to a four-year institution, continues to increase. However, transfer

  14. Measurements of the Proton Elastic-Form-Factor Ratio mupGEp\\/GMp at Low Momentum Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ron; J. Glister; B. Lee; K. Allada; W. Armstrong; J. Arrington; A. Beck; F. Benmokhtar; B. L. Berman; W. Boeglin; E. Brash; A. Camsonne; J. Calarco; J. P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; J. Dumas; C. Dutta; R. Feuerbach; A. Freyberger; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; R. Gilman; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C. E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; Y. Ilieva; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; H. Kang; A. Kelleher; E. Khrosinkova; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; J. J. Lerose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; S. May-Tal Beck; E. McCullough; D. Meekins; M. Meziane; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; B. E. Norum; Y. Oh; M. Olson; M. Paolone; K. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; M. Potokar; R. Pomatsalyuk; I. Pomerantz; A. Puckett; V. Punjabi; X. Qian; Y. Qiang; R. Ransome; M. Reyhan; J. Roche; Y. Rousseau; A. Saha; A. J. Sarty; B. Sawatzky; E. Schulte; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; R. Shneor; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; J. Song; R. Sparks; R. Subedi; S. Strauch; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; X. Zhan; X. Zhu

    2007-01-01

    High-precision measurements of the proton elastic form-factor ratio, mupGEp\\/GMp, have been made at four-momentum transfer, Q2, values between 0.2 and 0.5GeV2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement,

  15. Stem Cell Factor, Interleukin3, and Interleukin6 Promote Retroviral-Mediated Gene Transfer Into Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry D. Luskey; Margery Rosenblatt; Kristina Zsebo; David A. Williams

    The efficiency of retroviral-mediated gene transfer into hema- topoietic stem cells (HSC) is dependent on the survival and self-renewal of HSC in vitro during retroviral infection. We have examined the effect of prestimulation of bone marrow with various cytokines, including the product of the Steel gene, Steel factor or stem cell factor (SCF) (the ligand for the c-kit receptor) on

  16. Evaluation of thermophysical properties, friction factor, and heat transfer of alumina nanofluid flow in tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sanjib

    Various thermophysical properties, fluid flow parameter and heat transfer characteristics were measured for nanofluid with 6% volume concentration of solid Al2O3 nanoparticles in water. Thermal conductivity measurements showed that there is a definite enhancement in thermal conductivity of the nanofluid compared to that of water. At 7°C, the enhancement was 16% which decreased to 6.96% at 50°C. The viscosity measurements of the 6% volume concentration Al2O 3/water nanofluid showed that its viscosity is higher by a factor of 1.25 to 10.24 than the viscosity of water. Also the measurements of the viscosity of different volume concentration of Al2O3/water nanofluid showed that, the viscosity decreases as the volume concentration decreases. The plot between the shear stress and strain rate for the 6% volume concentration Al2O3/water nanofluid showed that it is a Newtonian fluid for the range of strain rate between 6-122 s-1. Several readings of viscosity were taken by subjecting the nanofluid to heating and cooling cycle. It was found that above 62.65°C, the 6% volume concentration Al2O3/water nanofluid experiences an irrecoverable increase in viscosity and when cooled from beyond this temperature, a hysteresis effect on the viscosity is seen. The friction factor results for laminar flow for the 6% volume concentration Al2O3/water nanofluid showed that it matches the value given by the Hagen-Poiseulle equation (f = 64/Re ). The transition from laminar flow to turbulent was found to occur at a Reynolds number of approximately 1500. The convective heat transfer results were in agreement with that proposed by the Lienhard correlation (Lienhard and Lienhard, 2008). For fully developed laminar flow, the Nusselt number under constant heat flux condition was found to be within ±7% of 4.36. In the laminar flow regime, the Nusselt numbers for thermally developing flow were within ±10% of the value calculated from the Lienhard correlation.

  17. Calculation of rate constants for asymmetric charge transfer, and their effect on relative sensitivity factors in glow discharge mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annemie Bogaerts; Krassimir A. Temelkov; Nikolay K. Vuchkov; Renaat Gijbels

    2007-01-01

    For this paper, we have calculated the rate coefficients for asymmetric charge transfer between Ar+ ions and all elements of interest in analytical glow discharges, based on a semi-classical approach. These values were then used to make predictions on the relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) in glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) (VG9000 discharge cell) for various elements. The RSFs were calculated

  18. Visualization of two transfer RNAs trapped in transit during elongation factor G-mediated translocation.

    PubMed

    Ramrath, David J F; Lancaster, Laura; Sprink, Thiemo; Mielke, Thorsten; Loerke, Justus; Noller, Harry F; Spahn, Christian M T

    2013-12-24

    During protein synthesis, coupled translocation of messenger RNAs (mRNA) and transfer RNAs (tRNA) through the ribosome takes place following formation of each peptide bond. The reaction is facilitated by large-scale conformational changes within the ribosomal complex and catalyzed by elongtion factor G (EF-G). Previous structural analysis of the interaction of EF-G with the ribosome used either model complexes containing no tRNA or only a single tRNA, or complexes where EF-G was directly bound to ribosomes in the posttranslocational state. Here, we present a multiparticle cryo-EM reconstruction of a translocation intermediate containing two tRNAs trapped in transit, bound in chimeric intrasubunit ap/P and pe/E hybrid states. The downstream ap/P-tRNA is contacted by domain IV of EF-G and P-site elements within the 30S subunit body, whereas the upstream pe/E-tRNA maintains tight interactions with P-site elements of the swiveled 30S head. Remarkably, a tight compaction of the tRNA pair can be seen in this state. The translocational intermediate presented here represents a previously missing link in understanding the mechanism of translocation, revealing that the ribosome uses two distinct molecular ratchets, involving both intra- and intersubunit rotational movements, to drive the synchronous movement of tRNAs and mRNA. PMID:24324168

  19. Gene Electro Transfer of Plasmid Encoding Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor for Enhanced Expression and Perfusion in the Ischemic Swine Heart

    PubMed Central

    Navare, Sagar; Stratton, Michael; Murray, Len; Li, Fanying

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia can damage heart muscle and reduce the heart's pumping efficiency. This study used an ischemic swine heart model to investigate the potential for gene electro transfer of a plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor for improving perfusion and, thus, for reducing cardiomyopathy following acute coronary syndrome. Plasmid expression was significantly greater in gene electro transfer treated tissue compared to injection of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor alone. Higher gene expression was also seen in ischemic versus non-ischemic groups with parameters 20 Volts (p<0.03), 40 Volts (p<0.05), and 90 Volts (p<0.05), but not with 60 Volts (p<0.09) while maintaining a pulse width of 20 milliseconds. The group with gene electro transfer of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor had increased perfusion in the area at risk compared to control groups. Troponin and creatine kinase increased across all groups, suggesting equivalent ischemia in all groups prior to treatment. Echocardiography was used to assess ejection fraction, cardiac output, stroke volume, left ventricular end diastolic volume, and left ventricular end systolic volume. No statistically significant differences in these parameters were detected during a 2-week time period. However, directional trends of these variables were interesting and offer valuable information about the feasibility of gene electro transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor in the ischemic heart. The results demonstrate that gene electro transfer can be applied safely and can increase perfusion in an ischemic area. Additional study is needed to evaluate potential efficacy. PMID:25545364

  20. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome, A Genetically Determined Cellular Immunologic Deficiency: Clinical and Laboratory Responses to Therapy with Transfer Factor*

    PubMed Central

    Levin, A. S.; Spitler, L. E.; Stites, D. P.; Fudenberg, H. H.

    1970-01-01

    Patients with diseases associated with defects in cellular immunity, such as the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, characteristically have severe recurrent infections and usually succumb to overwhelming infection at an early age. This communication describes a patient with this syndrome, defective delayed hypersensitivity by skin tests and by in vitro lymphocyte response, who was treated with dialysate of peripheral blood leukocytes (transfer factor). After treatment, the clinical status of the patient improved dramatically, concomitant with the development of delayed hypersensitivity to antigens to which the donor was sensitive. In vitro tests after transfer indicated that the patient's lymphocytes, when stimulated by specific antigen, produced migration inhibitory factor without concomitant DNA synthesis. These observations dissociate skin test sensitivity and activity of migration inhibitory factor from in vitro blastogenesis. Further, the response to phytohemagglutinin remained diminished before and after therapy. While these findings represent only an individual case, the climical results suggest that investigation of the use of transfer factor appears warranted in the therapy of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and other genetically-determined diseases associated with impaired cellular immunity. Images PMID:5289024

  1. Matrix-fracture transfer shape factor for modeling flow of a compressible fluid in dual-porosity media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, Ehsan; Hassanzadeh, Hassan

    2011-05-01

    The matrix-fracture transfer shape factor is one of the important parameters in the modeling of fluid flow in fractured porous media using a dual-porosity concept. Warren and Root [36] introduced the dual-porosity concept and suggested a relation for the shape factor. There is no general relationship for determining the shape factor for a single-phase flow of slightly compressible fluids. Therefore, different studies reported different values for this parameter, as an input into the flow models. Several investigations have been reported on the shape factor for slightly compressible fluids. However, the case of compressible fluids has not been investigated in the past. The focus of this study is, therefore, to find the shape factor for the single-phase flow of compressible fluids (gases) in fractured porous media. In this study, a model for the determination of the shape factor for compressible fluids is presented; and, the solution of nonlinear gas diffusivity equation is used to derive the shape factor. The integral method and the method of moments are used to solve the nonlinear governing equation by considering the pressure dependency of the viscosity and isothermal compressibility of the fluid. The approximate semi-analytical model for the shape factor presented in this study is verified using single-porosity, fine-grid, numerical simulations. The dependency of the shape factor on the gas specific gravity, pressure and temperature are also investigated. The theoretical analysis presented improves our understanding of fluid flow in fractured porous media. In addition, the developed matrix-fracture transfer shape factor can be used as an input for modeling flow of compressible fluids in dual-porosity systems, such as naturally fractured gas reservoirs, coalbed methane reservoirs and fractured tight gas reservoirs.

  2. Verification of radionuclide transfer factors to domestic-animal food products, using indigenous elements and with emphasis on iodine.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-11-01

    Recent reviews have established benchmark values for transfer factors that describe radionuclide transfer from plants to animal food product such as milk, eggs and meat. They also illustrate the paucity of data for some elements and some food products. The present study quantified transfer data using indigenous elements measured in dairy, poultry and other livestock farms in Canada. Up to 62 elements are reported, with particular emphasis on iodine (I) because of the need to accurately assess the behaviour of (129)I from disposal of nuclear fuel waste. There was remarkable agreement with the literature values, and for many elements the present study involved many more observations than were previously available. Perhaps the most important observation was that product/substrate concentration ratios (CR) were quite consistent across species, whereas the traditional fractional transfer factors (TF, units of d kg(-1) or d L(-1)) necessarily vary with body mass (feed intake). This suggests that for long-term assessments, it may be advisable to change the models to use CR rather than TF. PMID:20621399

  3. Lymphocyte transformation, IgE and T-cells in eczema vaccinatum treated with transfer factor. A case report.

    PubMed

    Dahl, B; Thestrup-Pedersen, K; Ellegaard, J; Zachariae, H

    1975-01-01

    Transfer factor (TF) was given to intensify the cell-mediated immune reactions in an atopic patient with generalized vaccinia. The patient showed marked reactivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes to stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen, but also in nonstimulated cultures. However, later tests with mitogen stimulation of lymphocytes indicated a defective cellular defence mechanism. The addition of autologous plasma to lymphocyte cultures depressed the reactivity of PHA-stimulation considerably. Initially, the patient also showed a normal T-lymphocyte count in peripheral blood, but six months after her vaccinia, extremely high serum IgE levels and a decreased percentage of T-lymphocytes was observed. Although an evaluation of the clinical effect of transfer factor injection is difficult, it should be noted that the patient's temperature immediately fell to normal, and her general health improved following treatment. PMID:50689

  4. Proton electromagnetic form factor ratio at high momentum transfer via recoil polarization in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Puckett

    2008-01-01

    Experiment E04-108 in Hall C at Jefferson Lab measured the ratio of the proton's electric (GE) and magnetic (GM) form factors using the recoil polarization technique at three different values of squared four-momentum transfer Q^2--5.2, 6.8, and 8.5 GeV^2. Data taking was completed in June 2008, and analysis of the data is underway. Two new detectors were built by the

  5. Visualization of Pit1 Transcription Factor Interactions in the Living Cell Nucleus by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard N. Day

    1998-01-01

    The pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1 forms dimers when interacting with specific DNA elements and has been shown to associate with several other nuclear proteins. Recently, tech- niques have become available that allow visualiza- tion of protein-protein interactions as they occur in single living cells. In this study, the technique of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mi- croscopy was used to

  6. Role of the nonmagnetic layer in determining the Landé g -factor in a spin-transfer system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-S. Lee; E. Vescovo; C.-C. Kao; J.-M. Beaujour; A. D. Kent; H. Jang; J.-Y. Kim; J.-H. Park; J. H. Shim

    2009-01-01

    The microscopic origin of the Landé g -factor in two ferromagnetic\\/nonmagnetic (FM\\/NM) bilayer systems-Co\\/Cu and Ni\\/Pd-has been investigated using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, resonant magnetic reflectivity, and band calculations. The FM\\/NM bilayer represents the building block of any complete spin-transfer structure (FM1\\/NM\\/FM2). The valence electronic structure is profoundly altered over a finite length across the FM\\/NM interface. A considerable charge

  7. Inhibition of Accelerated Graft Arteriosclerosis by Gene Transfer of Soluble Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor1 in Rat Aortic Transplants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wensheng Luo; Ailian Liu; Yong Chen; Hyung M. Lim; Jennifer Marshall-Neff; James H. Black; William Baldwin; Ralph H. Hruban; Susan C. Stevenson; Peter Mouton; Alan Dardik; Barbara J. Ballermann

    2010-01-01

    Objective—Because increased fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) and FGF receptor (FGFR) expression correlate with the development of accelerated graft arteriosclerosis in transplanted human hearts, this study sought to determine whether local gene transfer of soluble FGFR-1, capable of binding both FGF-1 and FGF-2, could blunt the development of accelerated graft arteriosclerosis in the rat aortic transplant model. Methods and Results—A construct

  8. Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q2=3.5GeV2 by polarization transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Punjabi; C. F. Perdrisat; K. A. Aniol; F. T. Baker; J. Berthot; P. Y. Bertin; W. Bertozzi; A. Besson; L. Bimbot; W. U. Boeglin; E. J. Brash; D. Brown; J. R. Calarco; L. S. Cardman; Z. Chai; C.-C. Chang; J.-P. Chen; E. Chudakov; S. Churchwell; E. Cisbani; D. S. Dale; R. De Leo; A. Deur; B. Diederich; J. J. Domingo; M. B. Epstein; L. A. Ewell; K. G. Fissum; A. Fleck; H. Fonvieille; S. Frullani; J. Gao; F. Garibaldi; A. Gasparian; G. Gerstner; S. Gilad; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; V. Gorbenko; A. Green; J.-O. Hansen; C. R. Howell; G. M. Huber; M. Iodice; C. W. de Jager; S. Jaminion; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; W. Kahl; J. J. Kelly; M. Khayat; L. H. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; E. Lakuriki; G. Laveissière; J. J. Lerose; M. Liang; R. A. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; G. J. Lolos; R. Macri; R. Madey; S. Malov; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; J. I. McIntyre; R. L. Meer; R. Michaels; B. D. Milbrath; J. Y. Mougey; S. K. Nanda; E. A. Offermann; Z. Papandreou; L. Pentchev; G. G. Petratos; N. M. Piskunov; R. I. Pomatsalyuk; D. L. Prout; G. Quéméner; R. D. Ransome; B. A. Raue; Y. Roblin; R. Roche; G. Rutledge; P. M. Rutt; A. Saha; T. Saito; A. J. Sarty; T. P. Smith; P. Sorokin; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; K. Takahashi; J. A. Templon; L. Todor; P. E. Ulmer; G. M. Urciuoli; P. Vernin; B. Vlahovic; H. Voskanyan; K. Wijesooriya; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; R. J. Woo; F. Xiong; G. D. Zainea; Z.-L. Zhou

    2005-01-01

    The ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors, GEp\\/GMp, was obtained by measuring Pt and Pl, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic e-->p-->ep-->reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5GeV2. In the single-photon exchange approximation, GEp\\/GMp is directly proportional to Pt\\/Pl. The simultaneous measurement of Pt and Pl in a

  9. Factors affecting conception rates following artificial insemination or embryo transfer in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Demetrio, D G B; Santos, R M; Demetrio, C G B; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that may affect conception rates (CR) following artificial insemination (AI) or embryo transfer (ET) in lactating Holstein cows. Estrous cycling cows producing 33.1 +/- 7.2 kg of milk/d received PGF2alpha injections and were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 groups (AI or ET). Cows detected in estrus (n = 387) between 48 and 96 h after the PGF2alpha injection received AI (n = 227) 12 h after detection of estrus or ET (n = 160) 6 to 8 d later (1 fresh embryo, grade 1 or 2, produced from nonlactating cows). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 28 and 42 d after estrus, and embryonic loss occurred when a cow was pregnant on d 28 but not pregnant on d 42. Ovulation, conception, and embryonic loss were analyzed by a logistic model to evaluate the effects of covariates [days in milk (DIM), milk yield, body temperature (BT) at d 7 and 14 post-AI, and serum concentration of progesterone (P4) at d 7 and 14 post-AI] on the probability of success. The first analysis included all cows that were detected in estrus. The CR of AI and ET were different on d 28 (AI, 32.6% vs. ET, 49.4%) and 42 (AI, 29.1% vs. ET, 38.8%) and were negatively influenced by high BT (d 7) and DIM. The second analysis included only cows with a corpus luteum on d 7. Ovulation rate was 84.8% and was only negatively affected by DIM. Conception rates of AI and ET were different on d 28 (AI, 37.9% vs. ET, 59.4%) and 42 (AI, 33.8% vs. ET, 46.6%) and were negatively influenced by high BT (d 7). The third analysis included only ovulating cows that were 7 d postestrus. Conception rates of AI and ET were different on d 28 (AI, 37.5% vs. ET, 63.2%) and 42 (AI, 31.7% vs. ET, 51.7%) and were negatively influenced by high BT (d 7). There was a positive effect of serum concentration of P4 and a negative effect of milk production on the probability of conception for the AI group but not for the ET group. The fourth analysis was embryonic loss (AI, 10.8% vs. ET, 21.5%). The transfer of fresh embryos is an important tool to increase the probability of conception of lactating Holstein cows because it can bypass the negative effects of milk production and low P4 on the early embryo. The superiority of ET vs. AI is more evident in high-producing cows. High BT measured on d 7 had a negative effect on CR and embryonic retention. PMID:17954747

  10. Influence of chemical and biological factors on trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants in the northwater polynya marine food web.

    PubMed

    Fisk, A T; Hobson, K A; Norstrom, R J

    2001-02-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta 15N) were measured in zooplankton (6 species), a benthic invertebrate (Anonyx nugax), Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), seabirds (6 species), and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) collected in 1998 in the Northwater Polynya to examine effects of biological and chemical factors on trophic transfer of POPs in an Arctic marine food web. Strong positive relationships were found between recalcitrant POP concentrations (lipid corrected) and trophic level based on stable isotopes of nitrogen, providing clear evidence of POP biomagnification in Arctic marine food webs. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs), derived from the slope of the POP--trophic level relationship, provided an overall magnification factor for the food web but over and underestimated biomagnification factors (BMFs) based on predator--prey concentrations in poikilotherms (fish) and homeotherms (seabirds and mammals), respectively. Greater biomagnification in homeotherms was attributed to their greater energy requirement and subsequent feeding rates. Within the homeotherms, seabirds had greater BMFs than ringed seals, consistent with greater energy demands in birds. Scavenging from marine mammal carcasses and accumulation in more contaminated winter habitats were considered important variables in seabird BMFs. Metabolic differences between species resulted in lower than expected BMFs, which would not be recognized in whole food web trophic level--POP relationships. The use of sigma POP groups, such as sigma PCB, is problematic because FWMFs and BMFs varied considerably between individual POPs. FWMFs of recalcitrant POPs had a strong positive relationship with log octanol--water partition coefficient (Kow). Results of this study show the utility of using delta 15N to characterize trophic level and trophic transfer of POPs but highlight the effects of species and chemical differences on trophic transfer of POPs that can be overlooked when a single magnification factor is applied to an entire food web. PMID:11349285

  11. Overlapping binding sites of the frataxin homologue assembly factor and the heat shock protein 70 transfer factor on the Isu iron-sulfur cluster scaffold protein.

    PubMed

    Manicki, Mateusz; Majewska, Julia; Ciesielski, Szymon; Schilke, Brenda; Blenska, Anna; Kominek, Jacek; Marszalek, Jaroslaw; Craig, Elizabeth A; Dutkiewicz, Rafal

    2014-10-31

    In mitochondria FeS clusters, prosthetic groups critical for the activity of many proteins, are first assembled on Isu, a 14-kDa scaffold protein, and then transferred to recipient apoproteins. The assembly process involves interaction of Isu with both Nfs1, the cysteine desulfurase serving as a sulfur donor, and the yeast frataxin homolog (Yfh1) serving as a regulator of desulfurase activity and/or iron donor. Here, based on the results of biochemical experiments with purified wild-type and variant proteins, we report that interaction of Yfh1 with both Nfs1 and Isu are required for formation of a stable tripartite assembly complex. Disruption of either Yfh1-Isu or Nfs1-Isu interactions destabilizes the complex. Cluster transfer to recipient apoprotein is known to require the interaction of Isu with the J-protein/Hsp70 molecular chaperone pair, Jac1 and Ssq1. Here we show that the Yfh1 interaction with Isu involves the PVK sequence motif, which is also the site key for the interaction of Isu with Hsp70 Ssq1. Coupled with our previous observation that Nfs1 and Jac1 binding to Isu is mutually exclusive due to partially overlapping binding sites, we propose that such mutual exclusivity of cluster assembly factor (Nfs1/Yfh1) and cluster transfer factor (Jac1/Ssq1) binding to Isu has functional consequences for the transition from the assembly process to the transfer process, and thus regulation of the biogenesis of FeS cluster proteins. PMID:25228696

  12. Biotic interactions modify the transfer of cesium-137 in a soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Clémentine; Scheifler, Renaud; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hubert, Philippe; Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2008-08-01

    The present study investigated the possible influence of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata on the transfer of cesium-137 ((137)Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Standardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence of earthworms caused a two- to threefold increase in (137)Cs concentrations in snails. Transfer was low in earthworms as well as in snails, with transfer factors (TFs) lower than 3.7 x 10(-2). Activity concentrations were higher in earthworms (2.8- 4.8 Bq/kg dry mass) than in snails (<1.5 Bq/kg). In the second experiment, microcosms were used to determine the contribution of soil and lettuce in the accumulation of (137)Cs in snails. Results suggest that the contribution of lettuce and soil is 80 and 20%, respectively. Microcosms also were used to study the influence of earthworms on (137)Cs accumulation in snail tissues in the most ecologically relevant treatment (soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web). In this case, soil-to-plant transfer was high, with a TF of 0.8, and was not significantly modified by earthworms. Conversely, soil-to-snail transfer was lower (TF, approximately 0.1) but was significantly increased in presence of earthworms. Dose rates were determined in the microcosm study with the EDEN (elementary dose evaluation for natural environment) model. Dose rates were lower than 5.5 x 10(-4) mGy/d, far from values considered to have effects on terrestrial organisms (1 mGy/d). PMID:18266477

  13. Nonviral Retrograde Gene Transfer of Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Improves Neuropathic Pain-related Phenomena in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchihara, Toyokazu; Ogata, Sho; Nemoto, Koichi; Okabayashi, Takatoshi; Nakanishi, Kuniaki; Kato, Naoki; Morishita, Ryuichi; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Uenoyama, Maki; Suzuki, Shinya; Amako, Masatoshi; Kawai, Toshiaki; Arino, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury occasionally causes chronic neuropathic pain with hyperalgesia and allodynia. However, its treatment is difficult. Here, we used a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in rats to investigate the effects on experimental neuropathic pain of the human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene delivered into the nervous system by retrograde axonal transport following its repeated intramuscular transfer, using liposomes containing the hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ). CCI (control) rats exhibited marked mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, and decreased blood flow in sciatic nerve and hind paw. All these changes were significantly reversed by HGF gene transfer. In the sciatic nerve in HGF-treated rats, the size-frequency distributions for myelinated and unmyelinated axons each showed a rightward shift, the number of myelinated axons >5 µm in diameter was significantly increased, and the mean diameter of unmyelinated axons was significantly increased (versus CCI rats). Levels of P2X3, P2X4, and P2Y1 receptor mRNAs, and of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) mRNAs, were elevated in the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia and/or sciatic nerve by CCI, and these levels were decreased by HGF gene transfer. These results may point toward a potential new treatment strategy for chronic neuropathic pain in this model. PMID:18941443

  14. CFD analysis of heat transfer and friction factor charaterstics in a circular tube fitted with horizontal baffles twisted tape inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Bakar Mohamad, Abu

    2013-12-01

    Swirl/vortex flow generator is an important form of passive augmentation techniques. Twisted-tape is one of the most important members of this form which is used extensively in different type heat exchangers. This paper reports the effect of twisted tape inserts on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in circular tube under constant heat flux and laminar flow conditions using CFD simulation. Plain twisted tape inserts with twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91) and baffled twisted tape inserts with twist ratio (y = 2.93) have been used for the simulation using Fluent version 6.3.26. The results obtained by simulation matched with the literature correlations for plain tube with the discrepancy of less than ± 8% for Nusselt number and ± 6.25% for friction factor. The results have also revealed that the heat transfer in term of the Nusselt number enhanced with increases of Reynolds number, decreases of twist ratio and baffle insert. Among the various twist ratios, the twisted tape with twist ratio of y=2.93 and baffle is offered a maximum heat transfer enhancement.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGIES AND PRELIMINARY TRANSFER FACTOR DATA FOR ESTIMATION OF DERMAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental efforts and experimental data are described that focused on quantifying the transfer of particles on a mass basis from indoor surfaces to human skin. Methods were developed that utilized a common fluorescein-tagged Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a possible surrogate ...

  16. Factors Influencing Behavior and Transferability of Habitat Models for a Benthic Stream Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K EVIN N. L EFTWICH

    1997-01-01

    We examined the predictive power and transferability of habitat-based models by comparing associations of tangerine darter Percina auruntiaca and stream habitat at local and regional scales in North Fork Holston River (NFHR) and Little River, Virginia. Our models correctly predicted the presence or absence of tangerine darters in NFHR for 64% (local model) and 78% (regional model) of the sampled

  17. Factors affecting stepladder stability during a lateral weight transfer: A study in healthy young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing-Shiang Yang; James A. Ashton-Miller

    2005-01-01

    A fall from a stepladder is often initiated by a loss of lateral stability. An inverted pendulum model of the human, validated by experiment, was used to determine the feasible range of whole-body center of mass (COM) states for which weight can be transferred laterally on a ladder tread without a ladder rail losing contact with the ground (“no lift-off”

  18. Transfer Rates of Texas Hispanic Community College Students to 4-Year Institutions: Selected Institutional Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klement, Emily Conrady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental, quantitative study was to determine how well selected institutional characteristics explain the variance in Hispanic community college students' transfer rates to 4-year institutions. Due to the rapidly growing Texas Hispanic population, understanding challenges to their educational attainment has become…

  19. Parental Modeling, Reinforcement, and Information Transfer: Risk Factors in the Development of Child Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisak, Brian, Jr.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review and a conceptual integration of research examining the potential role of learning from parents in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, research in this area is discussed within the framework of three specific mechanisms: parental modeling, information transfer, and…

  20. Impact of plant and environmental factors on ALS-resistant gene transfer rate from ClearfieldTM rice to red rice biotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen-mediated transfer of ALS-resistant gene from ClearfieldTM (CL) rice to red rice can affect the population dynamics and long-term management of red rice. To mitigate gene flow, it is important to understand the plant and environmental factors which affect gene transfer rate. This experiment ai...

  1. Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q2 = 3.5 GeV2 by polarization transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vina Punjabi; Konrad Aniol; F. Baker; J. Berthot; Martine Bertin; William Bertozzi; Auguste Besson; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Edward Brash; Daniel Brown; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Zhengwei Chai; C. Chang; Jian-ping Chen; Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; Evaristo Cisbani; Daniel Dale; Raffaele De Leo; Alexandre Deur; Brian Diederich; John Domingo; Martin Epstein; Lars Ewell; Kevin Fissum; A. Fleck; Helene Fonvieille; Salvatore Frullani; Juncai Gao; Franco Garibaldi; Ashot Gasparian; Gerstner; Shalev Gilad; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Alphonza Green; Jens-ole Hansen; Calvin Howell; Garth Huber; Mauro Iodice; Cornelis De Jager; Stephanie Jaminion; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; W. Kahl; J. J. Kelly; M. Khayat; L. H. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; E. Lakuriki; G. Lavessiere; J. J. LeRose; M. Liang; R. A. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; G. J. Lolos; R. Macri; R. Madey; S. Malov; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; J. I. McIntyre; R. Michaels; B. D. Milbrath; J. Y. Mougey; S. K. Nanda; E. A. J. M. Offermann; Z. Papandreou; L. Pentchev; C. F. Perdrisat; G. G. Petratos; N. M. Piskunov; R. I. Pomatsalyuk; D. L. Prout; G. Quemener; R. D. Ransome; B. A. Raue; Y. Roblin; R. Roche; G. Rutledge; P. M. Rutt; A. Saha; T. Saito; A. J. Sarty; T. P. Smith; P. Sorokin; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; K. Takahashi; J. A. Templon; L. Todor; P. E. Ulmer; G. M. Urciuoli; P. Vernin; B. Vlahovic; H. Voskanyan; K. Wijesooriya; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; R. J. Woo; F. Xiong; G. D. Zainea; Z.-L. Zhou

    2003-01-01

    The ratio of the proton's elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub Ep}\\/G{sub Mp}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub â}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic {rvec e}p â e{rvec p} reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV². In the single photon exchange approximation, the ratio G{sub Ep}\\/G{sub

  2. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of tissue factor pathway inhibitor induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Fu; Zhaoying Zhang; Gaigai Zhang; Yue Liu; Ying Cao; Jinfeng Yu; Jing Hu; Xinhua Yin

    2008-01-01

    Objective  To investigate the pro-apoptotic effect of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) gene transfer mediated by adenovirus on\\u000a vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Rat VSMCs were infected with recombinant adenovirus containing either the TFPI (Ad-TFPI) or LacZ (Ad-LacZ) gene or DMEM in vitro.\\u000a TFPI expression was detected by ELISA. Apoptosis of VSMCs was determined by electron microscopy and flow cytometry. The expression

  3. Identification and quantification of factors affecting neonatal immunological transfer in dairy calves in the UK.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, J A; Grove-White, D H; Royal, M D; Smith, R F

    2015-06-13

    The object of the study was to quantify the prevalence of failure of passive transfer in UK dairy farms and to identify variables that had a significant impact on the rate of immunological transfer. In a six-month study of 444 calvings from seven UK dairy farms, 26 per cent of calves failed to receive adequate immunoglobulin transfer as judged by a plasma total protein (pTP) concentration less than 5.6?g/dl. Colostrum immunoglobulin concentration, indirectly measured using Brix refractometry, showed wide variations with samples ranging from 10.3 to 34.7 Brix units. Thirty-seven per cent of samples were below the suggested cut-off Brix score for colostrum quality of 22 per cent. Potential associations between covariates and plasma protein concentration were investigated using multiple linear regression models. The covariate with the greatest impact on the pTP concentration was the farm on which the calf was born (P<0.05). A significant but small association was demonstrated between colostrum immunoglobulin concentration and calf pTP concentration (P<0.01). Multiple linear regression models suggested that the time of colostrum collection after calving, parity of the dam, and the individual farm were associated with the Brix measurements (P<0.05). This study suggested that veterinary review of colostrum protocols on farm with emphasis on prompt collection and dosing after calving remains a simple and effective measure to improve passive transfer and thus calf health on UK dairy farms. PMID:25861824

  4. Factors limiting adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into human lung and pancreatic cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pearson, A S; Koch, P E; Atkinson, N; Xiong, M; Finberg, R W; Roth, J A; Fang, B

    1999-12-01

    Adenoviral vectors are a widely used means of gene transfer. However, transgene expression after adenoviral administration varies among different carcinoma cell lines. We hypothesized that this variation is attributable, in part, to the presence of cell surface molecules involved in adenoviral infection. To test this, we first assessed adenovirus-mediated transgene expression in four human lung carcinoma cell lines and four human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines in terms of luciferase activities and found it to vary from 4.8 x 10(4) to 6.1 x 10(7) relative light units/microg of protein. Then, to determine whether the molecules involved in the entry of adenovirus into host cells were responsible for this variation, we evaluated the expression of alpha(v)beta5, alpha(v), beta3, alpha5, and beta1 integrins and that of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) in these cell lines. Statistical analysis revealed that the levels of beta3 were associated with the levels of transgene expression. Blocking analysis showed that adenovirus-mediated gene transfer could be blocked by antibodies against these six molecules but not by the antibodies against alpha2 or alpha3 integrins, thus suggesting that the integrins alphavbeta5, alpha(v), beta3, alpha5, and beta1 and CAR molecules could limit adenovirus-mediated gene transfer when their levels fell below a certain threshold. Furthermore, cells expressing low levels of beta3 and resistant to conventional adenoviral vectors were susceptible to a vector containing the heparin-binding domain in its fiber, thus suggesting that redirecting vectors to receptors other than CAR may bypass the integrin pathway. These findings may have implications for improving the efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer and developing novel adenoviral vectors. PMID:10632362

  5. Parental Modeling, Reinforcement, and Information Transfer: Risk Factors in the Development of Child Anxiety?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Fisak Jr.; Amie E. Grills-Taquechel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review and a conceptual integration of research examining the potential\\u000a role of learning from parents in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, research in this area is discussed within\\u000a the framework of three specific mechanisms: parental modeling, information transfer, and parental reinforcement of anxious\\/avoidant\\u000a behavior. Implications of the research in

  6. Dialysable leukocyte extracts (transfer factor) augment nonspecifically keyhole limpet haemocyanin and horseshoe crab haemocyanin skin reactivity in unimmunized human recipients.

    PubMed

    Ashorn, R G; Vandenbark, A A; Acott, K M; Krohn, K J

    1986-02-01

    Dialysable leukocyte extracts (DLE) may induce marked changes in the immune expression of human recipients. It is unclear whether the conversion of skin reactivity by DLE is due to a donor-related specific transfer factor or to an antigen nonspecific augmenting factor which enhances a preexisting low-level response in DLE recipients. In this study, DLE from immunized and unimmunized human and calf donors or saline was administered to 88 medical students. The recipient population demonstrated minimal background responses to the test antigens keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and horseshoe crab haemocyanin (HCH). The results indicate that the DLE preparations from both immunized and unimmunized donors significantly stimulated skin reactivity but not in vitro responses to both KLH and HCH in the recipient population. The results suggest that these DLE preparations contain an immunologically nonspecific augmentor, which stimulates a preexisting low-level response in the unimmunized population to become a clearly observable skin reaction. PMID:3952468

  7. Transfer students in STEM majors at a Midwestern University: Academic and social involvement factors that influence student success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Carlos

    There is soon-to-be a shortage of qualified U.S. workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As a result, many science-related jobs are being filled by technically-skilled foreign workers. If the U.S wants to maintain its global economic leadership, then it must ensure a continuous growth of highly-trained individuals in STEM disciplines. Therefore, American institutions of higher education, including community colleges, must identify potential factors that contribute to the lack of interest in STEM majors, as well as the low rate of success of students who enter STEM majors but struggle to finish their degrees. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceptions of community college transfer students who are pursuing bachelor degrees in STEM majors at Iowa State University (ISU). What were their transfer experiences and what influenced their academic success in STEM. Participants were encouraged to share their transfer experiences while at the community college as well as their experiences on the ISU campus. They were also asked about their level of academic involvement, their relationships with faculty, and their participation in peer group activities prior to and after transferring. The research design included both quantitative and qualitative components, which provided an in-depth look at the experiences of STEM non-engineering and engineering students. Quantitative data include students' background characteristics, demographic information, and college activities at the community college and ISU. Qualitative data were used to illuminate students' overall transfer experience and their successful journey in STEM fields. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed a better understanding of the strategies students put into practice once they transfer from a community college to a four-year institution in pursuit of a STEM bachelor's degree. The results of this study suggest that there is an association among the background characteristics, community college experiences, university experiences, and the overall adjustment and cumulative GPA of transfer students from STEM non-engineering and engineering majors. In addition, students reported how their early experiences in science and mathematics inspired them to pursue a career in STEM. Even though students chose to go into STEM areas at the community college and university level due to prior interest, the role of academic advisors and faculty were crucial to the adjustment process. Thus, it is vital for academic advisors and faculty to assist students in researching the transfer process to four-year institutions because students need to understand why this is essential to their academic and social adjustment process. The results indicate that it is important to encourage students to interact inside and outside the classroom with other students and instructors. Also, students should become more involved in academic and social groups since these are important factors in enhancing their academic and social adjustment.

  8. Processing and transfer of epidermal growth factor in developing rat jejunum and ileum

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, R.K.; Koldovsky, O.; Korc, M.; Pollack, P.F.; Wright, S.; Davis, T.P. (Univ. of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Using everted sac technique we demonstrated the transfer of {sup 125}I-mEGF across the jejunal and ileal walls of suckling, weanling and adult rats. The transfer by the suckling rat jejunum and ileum was significantly inhibited by the presence of dinitrophenol and sodium azide or by the replacement of sodium with potassium or choline, RP-HPLC analysis detected carboxy-terminal processing of {sup 125}I-mEGF in suckling and adult rat jejunum and ileum. Suckling rat jejunum produced {sup 125}I-des(53)mEGF and {sup 125}I-des(49-53)mEGF, whereas {sup 125}I-des(48-53)mEGF was detected in suckling rat ileum or adult rat jejunum and ileum. All three forms of {sup 125}I-mEGF bound to anti-EGF antibody and EGF receptors. The receptor binding of {sup 125}I-des(53)mEGF was higher than that of {sup 125}I-mEGF, but those of {sup 125}I-des(49-53)mEGF and {sup 125}I-des(48-53)mEGF were greatly diminished. Results indicate a carboxy-terminal processing of mouse EGF during uptake and transfer in the small intestine of developing and adult rats, and the resulting products showed altered receptor binding. An identical amino acid sequence of the C-terminal pentapeptide of eGF from mouse, human and possibly rat may suggest a biological significance of C-terminal processing of EGF in the small intestine.

  9. Heat transfer of ERF in a flat channel taking dissipative factor into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhaniok, A. A.; Korobko, E. V.; Bedik, N. A.

    2009-02-01

    The results of an investigation of rheophysical properties of a thermally stable dielectric controllable heat carrier — electrorheological fluid on the basis of hydrated aluminum oxide in the form of pseudo benit, are presented. Considering the obtained experimental data, we have received and discuss the numerical solution of a conjugated problem of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a flat channel of ERF, the flow curve of which is described by a modified Bulkley-Herschel model. It is shown that the electrorheological effect results in the increase of an average over the channel length Nusselt number up to 17 %.

  10. Transforming Growth Factor ? Neutralization within Cardiac Allografts by Decorin Gene Transfer Attenuates Chronic Rejection1

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Susan M.; Lu, Guanyi; Wood, Sherri C.; Bishop, D. Keith

    2011-01-01

    Chronic allograft rejection (CR) is the leading cause of late graft failure following organ transplantation. CR is a progressive disease, characterized by deteriorating graft function, interstitial fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy and occlusive neointima development. TGF?, known for its immunosuppressive qualities, plays a beneficial role in the transplant setting by maintaining alloreactive T cells in a hyporesponsive state, but has also been implicated in promoting graft fibrosis and CR. In the mouse vascularized cardiac allograft model, transient depletion of CD4+ cells promotes graft survival but leads to CR, which is associated with intragraft TGF? expression. Decorin, an extracellular matrix protein, inhibits both TGF? bioactivity and gene expression. In this study, gene transfer of decorin into cardiac allografts was employed to assess the impact of intragraft TGF? neutralization on CR, systemic donor-reactive T cell responses, and allograft acceptance. Decorin gene transfer and neutralization of TGF? in cardiac allografts significantly attenuated interstitial fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy and improved graft function, but did not result in systemic donor-reactive T cell responses. Thus, donor-reactive T and B cells remained in a hyporesponsive state. These findings indicate that neutralizing intragraft TGF? inhibits the cytokine's fibrotic activities, but does not reverse its beneficial systemic immunosuppressive qualities. PMID:19917705

  11. A transferable, beta-naphthoflavone-inducible, hyperpolarizing factor is synthesized by native and cultured porcine coronary endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Popp, R; Bauersachs, J; Hecker, M; Fleming, I; Busse, R

    1996-01-01

    1. The vascular endothelium releases a hyperpolarizing factor (endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, EDHF) tentatively identified as a cytochrome P450-derived arachidonic acid metabolite. However, there is still controversy concerning its transferability and identity. We designed a bioassay system for assessing EDHF release in which the membrane potential was recorded in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells located downstream from donor endothelial cells. 2. Under combined nitric oxide (NO) synthase and cyclo-oxygenase blockade with NG-nitro-L-arginine (100 mumol l-1) and diclofenac (10 mumol l-1), the superfusate from bradykinin (30 mumol l-1)-stimulated, cultured porcine coronary endothelial cells induced a distinct hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization. Direct application of bradykinin to the smooth muscle cells resulted solely in membrane depolarization. Similar results were obtained using bradykinin-stimulated porcine coronary arteries as donor. 3. Single-channel current measurements suggest that this EDHF-induced hyperpolarization was elicited by the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels. 4. Increasing the transmural pressure within the donor segment significantly enhanced the duration, but not the amplitude of the hyperpolarization induced by the effluate from bradykinin-stimulated donor segments. 5. Inhibition of P450 oxygenase activity with clotrimazole (3 mumol l-1) or 17-octadecynoic acid (3 mumol l-1) abolished EDHF release from the coronary endothelium, while the P450-derived arachidonic acid metabolite, 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, induced a hyperpolarization of detector smooth muscle cells almost identical to that induced by EDHF. Moreover, induction of P450 activity by beta-naphthoflavone (3 mumol l-1, 48 h), significantly increased the bradykinin-induced release of EDHF. 6. These findings suggest that the vascular endothelium releases a transferable hyperpolarizing factor, chemically distinct from NO and prostacyclin, in response to agonists and mechanical stimulation. This beta-naphthoflavone-inducible EDHF appears to be a cytochrome P450-derived metabolite of arachidonic acid, which elicits hyperpolarization by activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels. PMID:9003555

  12. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  13. Near Threshold Neutral Pion Electroproduction at High Momentum Transfers and Generalized Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Puneet Khetarpal, Paul Stoler, Inna Aznauryan, Valery Kubarovsky

    2013-04-01

    We report the measurement of near threshold neutral pion electroproduction cross sections and the extraction of the associated structure functions on the proton in the kinematic range $Q^2$ from 2 to 4.5 GeV$^2$ and W from 1.08 to 1.16 GeV. These measurements allow us to access the dominant pion-nucleon s-wave multipoles $E_{0+}$ and $S_{0+}$ in the near-threshold region. In the light-cone sum-rule framework (LCSR), these multipoles are related to the generalized form factors $G_1^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$ and $G_2^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$. The data are compared to these generalized form factors and the results for $G_1^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$ are found to be in good agreement with the LCSR predictions, but the level of agreement with $G_2^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$ is poor.

  14. Ribosomal Proteins of Escherichia coli that Stimulate Stringent-Factor-Mediated Pyrophosphoryl Transfer in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Christiansen; Knud H. Nierhaus

    1976-01-01

    Guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphate, (p)ppGpp, can be synthesized in vitro in a reaction containing only the enzyme (stringent factor), salts, and substrates (nonribosomal system). This reaction is greatly stimulated upon addition of methanol (methanol system) or by ribosomes, mRNA, and tRNA (ribosome system). Here we show that several ribosomal proteins alone stimulate the synthesis of (p)ppGpp in the presence of

  15. Development of a general equation to determine the transfer factor feed-to-meat for radiocesium on the basis of the body mass of domestic animals

    SciTech Connect

    Nalezinski, S.; Ruehm, W.; Wirth, E. [Institut fuer STrahlenhygiene, Neuherberg/Oberschleibheim (Germany)

    1996-05-01

    Transfer factors from feed to meat (5{sub {integral}}), taken from literature for monogastric animals and ruminants have been correlated to their corresponding animal body mass (m{sub b}). Taking all data into account, a close relationship between both transfer factor and body mass becomes evident, yielding a regression function of (T{sub {integral}} = 8.0 x m{sub b}{sup {minus}0.91}) (r = -0.97). For monogastric animals (including poultry), the corresponding relationships are T{sub {integral}} = 1.9 x m{sub b}{sup {minus}0.72} (r = 0.78). The equations offer the opportunity to estimate the transfer factor for individual animals more precisely taking individual body masses into account. They are of interest for animals, on which no or only poor data concerning radiocesium transfer factors are available. The determination of radiocesium transfer factors are reduced to a simple weighing process. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Trichostatin A specifically improves the aberrant expression of transcription factor genes in embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kimiko; Oikawa, Mami; Kamimura, Satoshi; Ogonuki, Narumi; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Nakano, Toru; Abe, Kuniya; Ogura, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Although mammalian cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been established in various species, the low developmental efficiency has hampered its practical applications. Treatment of SCNT-derived embryos with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can improve their development, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. To address this question, we analysed gene expression profiles of SCNT-derived 2-cell mouse embryos treated with trichostatin A (TSA), a potent HDAC inhibitor that is best used for mouse cloning. Unexpectedly, TSA had no effect on the numbers of aberrantly expressed genes or the overall gene expression pattern in the embryos. However, in-depth investigation by gene ontology and functional analyses revealed that TSA treatment specifically improved the expression of a small subset of genes encoding transcription factors and their regulatory factors, suggesting their positive involvement in de novo RNA synthesis. Indeed, introduction of one of such transcription factors, Spi-C, into the embryos at least partially mimicked the TSA-induced improvement in embryonic development by activating gene networks associated with transcriptional regulation. Thus, the effects of TSA treatment on embryonic gene expression did not seem to be stochastic, but more specific than expected, targeting genes that direct development and trigger zygotic genome activation at the 2-cell stage. PMID:25974394

  17. Role of chemical and ecological factors in trophic transfer of organic chemicals in aquatic food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.W.; Gobas, F.A.P.C. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada). School of Resource and Environmental Management); Haffner, G.D. (Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada))

    1999-06-01

    Trophic transfer of chlorinated organic contaminants was investigated in an aquatic community composed of zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish. Biomagnification, measured as the increase in lipid-based chemical concentrations in predator over that in prey, was observed for high-K[sub OW] chemicals (log K[sub OW] > 6.3). Low-K[sub OW] chemicals (log K[sub OW] < 5.5) did not biomagnify in the food web, and chemicals with log K[sub OW] between 5.5 and 6.3 showed some evidence of biomagnification. Trophic level differences in chemical accumulation in the food web could not be attributed to bioconcentration into increasing trophic levels with increasing lipid levels, as no relationship was observed between trophic position and lipid content of organisms. Plots of contaminant-ordinated principal component scores in component space predicted the detailed diets of the species examined. It is concluded that (1) trophic interactions play a crucial role in the distribution of high-K[sub OW] chemicals but not for low-K[sub OW] chemicals and that (2) contaminant distributions provide a means to determine structure in aquatic communities.

  18. Some Characteristics of the Resistance Transfer Factor (RTF) Episome as Determined by Inactivation with Tritium, P32, and Gamma Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Robert B.; Ginoza, Herbert S.

    1966-01-01

    The resistance transfer factor (RTF) episome was studied by measuring its inactivation by Co60 gamma radiation, by incorporated P32, and by tritium incorporated as tritium-labeled thymine. The D37 for Co60 irradiation was 7 to 9 × 104 rad. Growth of the bacteria harboring the RTF in BUdR (bromouracil deoxyriboside) increased the sensitivity of the RTF to the gamma radiation. The RTF was markedly inactivated by tritium after growth of the host (thymine requiring) bacteria in tritium-labeled thymine, thus further establishing the presence of thymine in the genome of the RTF. Assuming the efficiency of inactivation by P32 to be 10%, the phosphorus content of the RTF was estimated to be about 2 × 105 P atoms/episome. The data suggest the RTF contains double stranded DNA with a molecular weight of the order of 3 to 8 × 107. PMID:5335449

  19. Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the H?2(e?,e'n)H1 Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geis, E.; Kohl, M.; Ziskin, V.; Akdogan, T.; Arenhövel, H.; Alarcon, R.; Bertozzi, W.; Booth, E.; Botto, T.; Calarco, J.; Clasie, B.; Crawford, C. B.; Degrush, A.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fatemi, R.; Filoti, O.; Franklin, W.; Gao, H.; Gilad, S.; Hasell, D.; Karpius, P.; Kolster, H.; Lee, T.; Maschinot, A.; Matthews, J.; McIlhany, K.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R. G.; Rapaport, J.; Redwine, R. P.; Seely, J.; Shinozaki, A.; Širca, S.; Sindile, A.; Six, E.; Smith, T.; Steadman, M.; Tonguc, B.; Tschalaer, C.; Tsentalovich, E.; Turchinetz, W.; Xiao, Y.; Xu, W.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, Z.; Zwart, T.

    2008-07-01

    We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form factor ratio GEn/GMn was extracted from the beam-target vector asymmetry AedV at four-momentum transfers Q2=0.14, 0.20, 0.29, and 0.42(GeV/c)2.

  20. A potential screening factor for accumulation of cholesteyl ester transfer protein deficiency in East Asia: Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Shinji

    2014-04-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-deficiency manifests a unique plasma lipoprotein profile without other apparent symptoms. It is highly common in East Asia while rather rare anywhere else. A potential environmental screening factor(s) may therefore contribute to this eccentric distribution, such as its selective advantage against a regional illness, most likely an infectious disease, in relation to plasma lipoproteins. Blood flukes use the host plasma lipoproteins as nutrient sources through the lipoprotein receptor-like systems. Its Asian-specific species, Schistosoma (S) japonicum, which has been endemic in East Asia, takes up cholesteryl ester (CE) from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for the embryonation of their eggs to miracidia, a critical step of the hepatic pathogenesis of this parasite, but poorly from HDL of CETP-deficiency. CD36-related protein (CD36RP) was cloned from the adults and the eggs of S. japonicum, with 1880-bp encoding 506 amino-acid residues exhibiting the CD36 domains and two transmembrane regions. Its extracellular domain selectively bound human HDL but neither LDL nor CETP-deficiency HDL, and the antibody against the extracellular domain suppressed the selective HDL-CE uptake and embryonation of the eggs. When infected with S. japonicum, wild-type mice developed less hepatic granulomatosis than CETP-transgenic mice by the ectopic egg embryonation. CD36RP is thus a candidate receptor of S. japonicum to facilitate uptake of HDL-CE necessary for egg embryonation. Abnormal HDL caused by CETP-deficiency retards this process and thereby protects the patients from development of hepatic lesions. S. japonicum infection is a potential screening factor for high prevalence of CETP deficiency in East Asia. PMID:24388961

  1. Electromagnetic structure of the proton, pion, and kaon by high-precision form factor measurements at large timelike momentum transfers.

    PubMed

    Seth, Kamal K; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Bonvicini, G

    2013-01-11

    The electromagnetic structure of the lightest hadrons, proton, pion, and kaon is studied by high-precision measurements of their form factors for the highest timelike momentum transfers of |Q2|=s=14.2 and 17.4??GeV2. Data taken with the CLEO-c detector at sqrt[s]=3.772 and 4.170 GeV, with integrated luminosities of 805 and 586??pb(-1), respectively, have been used to study e+ e- annihilations into ?+ ?-, K+ K-, and pp. The dimensional counting rule prediction that at large Q2 the quantity Q2F(Q2) for pseudoscalar mesons is nearly constant, and should vary only weakly as the strong coupling constant ?S(Q2) is confirmed for both pions and kaons. However, the measurements are in strong quantitative disagreement with the predictions of the existing quantum chromodynamics-based models. For protons, it is found that the timelike form factors continue to remain nearly twice as large as the corresponding spacelike form factors measured in electron elastic scattering, in significant violation of the expectation of their equality at large Q2. Further, in contrast to pions and kaons, a significant difference is observed between the values of the corresponding quantity |Q4|G(M)(|Q2|)/?(p) for protons at |Q2|=14.2 and 17.4??GeV2. The results suggest the constancy of |Q2|G(M)(|Q2|)/?(p), instead, at these large |Q2|. PMID:23383892

  2. Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the H-->2(e-->,e'n)H1 Reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Geis; M. Kohl; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhövel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. Degrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart

    2008-01-01

    We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form

  3. Expression of Human Factor IX in Rabbit Hepatocytes by Retrovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer: Potential for Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna Armentano; Arthur R. Thompson; Gretchen Darlington; Savio L. C. Woo

    1990-01-01

    Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. We report the

  4. Factors that affect transfer of the IncI1 ?-lactam resistance plasmid pESBL-283 between E. coli strains.

    PubMed

    Händel, Nadine; Otte, Sarah; Jonker, Martijs; Brul, Stanley; ter Kuile, Benno H

    2015-01-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria worldwide presents a major health threat to human health care that results in therapy failure and increasing costs. The transfer of resistance conferring plasmids by conjugation is a major route by which resistance genes disseminate at the intra- and interspecies level. High similarities between resistance genes identified in foodborne and hospital-acquired pathogens suggest transmission of resistance conferring and transferrable mobile elements through the food chain, either as part of intact strains, or through transfer of plasmids from foodborne to human strains. To study the factors that affect the rate of plasmid transfer, the transmission of an extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) plasmid from a foodborne Escherichia coli strain to the ?-lactam sensitive E. coli MG1655 strain was documented as a function of simulated environmental factors. The foodborne E. coli isolate used as donor carried a CTX-M-1 harboring IncI1 plasmid that confers resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics. Cell density, energy availability and growth rate were identified as factors that affect plasmid transfer efficiency. Transfer rates were highest in the absence of the antibiotic, with almost every acceptor cell picking up the plasmid. Raising the antibiotic concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) resulted in reduced transfer rates, but also selected for the plasmid carrying donor and recombinant strains. Based on the mutational pattern of transconjugant cells, a common mechanism is proposed which compensates for fitness costs due to plasmid carriage by reducing other cell functions. Reducing potential fitness costs due to maintenance and expression of the plasmid could contribute to persistence of resistance genes in the environment even without antibiotic pressure. Taken together, the results identify factors that drive the spread and persistence of resistance conferring plasmids in natural isolates and shows how these can contribute to transmission of resistance genes through the food chain. PMID:25830294

  5. Trace element mobility and transfer to vegetation within the Ethiopian Rift Valley lake areas.

    PubMed

    Kassaye, Yetneberk A; Skipperud, Lindis; Meland, Sondre; Dadebo, Elias; Einset, John; Salbu, Brit

    2012-10-26

    To evaluate critical trace element loads in native vegetation and calculate soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs), 11 trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb and Mn) have been determined in leaves of 9 taxonomically verified naturally growing terrestrial plant species as well as in soil samples collected around 3 Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes (Koka, Ziway and Awassa). The Cr concentration in leaves of all the plant species was higher than the "normal" range, with the highest level (8.4 mg per kg dw) being observed in Acacia tortilis from the Lake Koka area. Caper species (Capparis fascicularis) and Ethiopian dogstooth grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) from Koka also contained exceptionally high levels of Cd (1 mg per kg dw) and Mo (32.8 mg per kg dw), respectively. Pb, As and Cu concentrations were low in the plant leaves from all sites. The low Cu level in important fodder plant species (Cynodon aethiopicus, Acacia tortilis and Opuntia ficus-indicus) implies potential deficiency in grazing and browsing animals. Compared to the Canadian environmental quality guideline and maximum allowable concentration in agricultural soils, the total soil trace element concentrations at the studied sites are safe for agricultural crop production. Enrichment factor was high for Zn in soils around Lakes Ziway and Awassa, resulting in moderate to high transfer of Zn to the studied plants. A six step sequential extraction procedure on the soils revealed a relatively high mobility of Cd, Se and Mn. Strong association of most trace elements with the redox sensitive fraction and mineral lattice was also confirmed by partial redundancy analysis. TF (mg per kg dw plants/mg per kg dw soil) values based on the total (TF(total)) and mobile fractions (TF(mobile)) of soil trace element concentrations varied widely among elements and plant species, with the averaged TF(total) and TF(mobile) values ranging from 0.01-2 and 1-60, respectively. Considering the mobile fraction in soils should be available to plants, TF(mobile) values could reflect trace elements transfer to plants in the most realistic way. However, the present study indicates that TF(total) values also reflect the transfer of elements such as Mn, Cd and Se to plants more realistically than TF(mobile) values did. PMID:22907177

  6. Factoring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr Clark

    2012-10-31

    Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

  7. BASELINE PARAMETER UPDATE FOR HUMAN HEALTH INPUT AND TRANSFER FACTORS FOR RADIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Coffield, T; Patricia Lee, P

    2007-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to update parameters utilized in Human Health Exposure calculations and Bioaccumulation Transfer Factors utilized at SRS for Performance Assessment modeling. The reason for the update is to utilize more recent information issued, validate information currently used and correct minor inconsistencies between modeling efforts performed in SRS contiguous areas of the heavy industrialized central site usage areas called the General Separations Area (GSA). SRS parameters utilized were compared to a number of other DOE facilities and generic national/global references to establish relevance of the parameters selected and/or verify the regional differences of the southeast USA. The parameters selected were specifically chosen to be expected values along with identifying a range for these values versus the overly conservative specification of parameters for estimating an annual dose to the maximum exposed individual (MEI). The end uses are to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data and maintain it via review of any future issued national references to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released. These reviews are to be added to this document by revision.

  8. Development of a Cell-Based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Reporter for Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, R H; Steenblock, E R; Camarero, J A

    2007-03-22

    We report the construction of a cell-based fluorescent reporter for anthrax lethal factor (LF) protease activity using the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). This was accomplished by engineering an Escherichia coli cell line to express a genetically encoded FRET reporter and LF protease. Both proteins were encoded in two different expression plasmids under the control of different tightly controlled inducible promoters. The FRET-based reporter was designed to contain a LF recognition sequence flanked by the FRET pair formed by CyPet and YPet fluorescent proteins. The length of the linker between both fluorescent proteins was optimized using a flexible peptide linker containing several Gly-Gly-Ser repeats. Our results indicate that this FRET-based LF reporter was readily expressed in E. coli cells showing high levels of FRET in vivo in the absence of LF. The FRET signal, however, decreased 5 times after inducing LF expression in the same cell. These results suggest that this cell-based LF FRET reporter may be used to screen genetically encoded libraries in vivo against LF.

  9. Proton electromagnetic form factor ratio at high momentum transfer via recoil polarization in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckett, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    Experiment E04-108 in Hall C at Jefferson Lab measured the ratio of the proton's electric (GE) and magnetic (GM) form factors using the recoil polarization technique at three different values of squared four-momentum transfer Q^2--5.2, 6.8, and 8.5 GeV^2. Data taking was completed in June 2008, and analysis of the data is underway. Two new detectors were built by the collaboration to carry out this experiment. A large solid-angle electromagnetic calorimeter was used to detect elastically scattered electrons in coincidence with scattered protons detected by the Hall C High Momentum Spectrometer (HMS). The calorimeter allowed a clean rejection of the significant inelastic backgrounds present at such high Q^2. A new Focal Plane Polarimeter (FPP) was installed in the HMS detector hut to measure the polarization of the scattered proton. After a brief overview of the experiment, the present status of the analysis will be discussed.

  10. Expression of human factor IX in rabbit hepatocytes by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer: Potential for gene therapy of hemophilia B

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.R. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA) Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA (USA)); Darlington, G. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA)); Armentano, D.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1990-08-01

    Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. The authors report the construction of an N2-based recombinant retroviral vector, NCMVFIX, for efficient transfer and expression of human factor IX cDNA in primary rabbit hepatocytes. In this construct the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter directs the expression of factor IX. Hepatocytes were isolated from 3-week-old New Zealand White rabbits, infected with the recombinant virus, and analyzed for secretion of active factor IX. The infected rabbit hepatocytes produced human factor IX that is indistinguishable from enzyme derived from normal human plasma. The recombinant protein is sufficiently {gamma}-carboxylated and is functionally active in clotting assays. These results establish the feasibility of using infected hepatocytes for the expression of this protein and are a step toward the goal of correcting hemophilia B by hepatic gene transfer.

  11. Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Characteristics in a Circular Tube Fitted with V-Cut Twisted Tape Inserts

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5?cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5?cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration. PMID:24078795

  12. Soil-to-soybean transfer of (99)Tc and its underground distribution in differently contaminated upland soils.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon; Kim, In-Gyu

    2014-06-01

    Pot experiments were performed in a greenhouse to investigate the soil-to-soybean transfer of (99)Tc in two different upland soils labeled with (99)TcO4(-) in two contrasting ways. One was to mix the soil with a (99)TcO4(-) solution 26 d before sowing (pre-sowing deposition: PSD), and the other was to apply the solution onto the soil surface 44 d after sowing (growing-period deposition: GPD). The soil-to-plant transfer was quantified with the transfer factor (TF, ratio of the plant concentration to the average of at-planting and at-harvest soil concentrations) or the aggregated transfer factor (TFag, ratio of the plant concentration to the deposition density). For both the depositions, the transfer of (99)Tc to aerial parts decreased in the order of leaf > stem > pod > seed. TF values (dimensionless) from the PSD were 0.22 and 0.27 (no statistically significant difference) for mature dry seeds in the respective soils, whereas a 600-fold higher value occurred for dry leaves. The post-harvest concentrations of the PSD (99)Tc in the top 20 cm soils as a whole were about half the initial concentrations. Around 25% of the total applied activity remained in the GPD soils after the harvest. The post-harvest depth profiles of the GPD (99)Tc in the two soils showed similar patterns of logarithmic activity decrease with increasing soil depths. Only 1.5-4.3% of the total applied activity was removed through the harvested biomass (seeds, pods and stems), and it was estimated that a great part of the total pant uptake returned to the soil through the fallen leaves. TFag values (m(2) kg(-1)) were about 2-4 times higher for the GPD than for the PSD. This finding and generally high root uptake of Tc may indicate that the use of empirical deposition time-dependent TFag data is particularly important for predicting the plant concentrations of Tc after its growing-period deposition. PMID:24556176

  13. Soil-to-Crop Transfer Factors of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides and Stable Elements for Long-Term Dose Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, S.; Tagami, K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    A soil-to-crop transfer factor, TF, is a key parameter that directly affects the internal dose assessment for the ingestion pathway, however, obtaining TFs of various long-lived radionuclides occurred during operation of nuclear power plants is difficult because most of them could not be found in natural environments. In this study, therefore, we collected crops and their associated soils throughout Japan and measured more than 50 elements to obtain TFs under equilibrium conditions. The TFs were calculated for 42 elements (Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Sn, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tl, Pb, Th and U) from their concentrations in both crop and soil samples. The TF is defined as the concentration of an isotope in a crop (in Bq/kg or mg/kg dry weight) divided by the concentration of the isotope in soil (in Bq.kg or mg/kg dry weight). Probability distributions of TFs for 62 upland field crops were usually log-normal type so that geometric means (GMs) were calculated. The values for the elements of interest from the viewpoint of long-term dose assessment were 2.5E-02 for Se, 7.9E-02 for Sr, 3.1E-03 for Cs, 4.2E-04 for Th and 4.6E-04 for U. Leafy vegetable showed the highest TFs for all the elements among the crop groups. It was clear that these data were usually within the 95% confidence limits of TFs compiled by IAEA in Technical Report Series 364. (authors)

  14. In-Hospital Mortality among Rural Medicare Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: The Influence of Demographics, Transfer, and Health Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muus, Kyle J.; Knudson, Alana D.; Klug, Marilyn G.; Wynne, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Context/Purpose: Most rural hospitals can provide medical care to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, but a need for advanced cardiac care requires timely transfer to a tertiary hospital. There is little information on AMI in-hospital mortality predictors among rural transfer patients. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective analyses on…

  15. Factors influencing the efficiency of generating genetically engineered pigs by nuclear transfer: multi-factorial analysis of a large data set

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using genetically engineered donor cells is currently the most widely used strategy to generate tailored pig models for biomedical research. Although this approach facilitates a similar spectrum of genetic modifications as in rodent models, the outcome in terms of live cloned piglets is quite variable. In this study, we aimed at a comprehensive analysis of environmental and experimental factors that are substantially influencing the efficiency of generating genetically engineered pigs. Based on a considerably large data set from 274 SCNT experiments (in total 18,649 reconstructed embryos transferred into 193 recipients), performed over a period of three years, we assessed the relative contribution of season, type of genetic modification, donor cell source, number of cloning rounds, and pre-selection of cloned embryos for early development to the cloning efficiency. Results 109 (56%) recipients became pregnant and 85 (78%) of them gave birth to offspring. Out of 318 cloned piglets, 243 (76%) were alive, but only 97 (40%) were clinically healthy and showed normal development. The proportion of stillborn piglets was 24% (75/318), and another 31% (100/318) of the cloned piglets died soon after birth. The overall cloning efficiency, defined as the number of offspring born per SCNT embryos transferred, including only recipients that delivered, was 3.95%. SCNT experiments performed during winter using fetal fibroblasts or kidney cells after additive gene transfer resulted in the highest number of live and healthy offspring, while two or more rounds of cloning and nuclear transfer experiments performed during summer decreased the number of healthy offspring. Conclusion Although the effects of individual factors may be different between various laboratories, our results and analysis strategy will help to identify and optimize the factors, which are most critical to cloning success in programs aiming at the generation of genetically engineered pig models. PMID:23688045

  16. Experimental Heat Transfer Coefficients and Friction Factors in a Rib-Roughened Leading-Edge Cooling Cavity of a Gas Turbine Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Peter

    A gas turbine airfoil contains multiple coolant passageways. These passages usually have rib roughened wall surfaces in order to increase the heat transfer from the blade to the cooling air. Auxiliary power and compressed air is very valuable in a gas turbine, therefore low pumping power requirements are crucial. The thermal performance of three different coolant channel geometries with three different rib sizes was investigated. Heat transfer calculations were performed for Reynolds numbers ranging from 6,000 to 40,000. The performance characteristics were calculated through the use of the convective heat transfer coefficient and the friction factor. In this study, the most desirable characteristics are a high heat transfer coefficient and minimal pumping power requirements. The thermal performance of each case was determined by comparing the average Nusselt numbers to the friction factor ratio. The resulting value was then plotted against the Reynolds number for each case. The trending data indicated thermal efficiency decreases with an increasing Reynolds number for all cases. The picture data shows increased thermal efficiency at larger distances from the nose portion of the cavity. In addition, thermal efficiency was higher at the half distance of the rib pitch while areas close to the ribs saw a lower thermal efficiency. The following experimental data will show that Rig 2 and 3 are the most thermally efficient geometries, with Rig 2 requiring lower pumping power and Rig 3 having a higher average Nusselt number.

  17. Convective Heat Transfer Steady Thermal Stress and Effect Factors in a ZrO2\\/FGM\\/Ti6Al4V Composite EFBF Plate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yangjian Xu; Daihui Tu; Wei Wei

    2009-01-01

    A finite element model is constructed to analyze the steady thermal stress and effect factors in a ZrO2\\/FGM\\/Ti-6Al-4V composite EFBF plate under convective heat transfer boundary. From numerical calculation, when hmacra=hmacrb=1, T0=Ta =300 K and Tb=1 800 K, the stress distributions in the plate were obtained. The numerical results show that compared with h2= 2 mm the tensile stress of

  18. Retroviral transfer and expression of human MDR1 in a murine haemopoietic stem cell line does not alter factor dependence, growth or differentiation characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CM Heyworth; D Gagen; KG Edington; LJ Fairbairn

    2002-01-01

    In view of the recent report of a myeloproliferative syndrome in mice that had received an MDR-1-transduced haemopoietic graft, we have investigated the potential effects of MDR-1 expression on primitive haemopoietic cell growth and differentiation. Retroviral gene transfer was used to achieve exogenous expression of either MDR-1 or truncated nerve growth factor receptor (tNGFR) in the multipotent murine haemopoietic progenitor

  19. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 binding element within the promoter of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP )g ene is crucial for MTTP basal expression and insulin responsiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wo-Shing Au; Liwei Lu; Chung-Man Yeung; Ching-Chiu Liu; Oscar G Wong; Lihui Lai; Hsiang-fu Kung; Marie C Lin

    Insulin inhibits the transcription of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), which plays a pivotal role in lipoprotein assembly and secretion. Here, we provide evidence that a hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 binding element (HNF1A element) within the MTTP promoter serves as a novel negative insulin-responsive element. Deletion\\/mutation mapping of the MTTP gene promoter identified a modified HNF1A element that is

  20. A Measurement of the neutron electric form factor at very large momentum transfer using polaried electrions scattering from a polarized helium-3 target

    SciTech Connect

    Aidan Kelleher

    2010-10-01

    Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. Of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q{sup 2} and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized {sup 3}He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. G{sup n}{sub E} was measured to be 0.0242 ± 0.0020(stat) ± 0.0061(sys) and 0.0247 ± 0.0029(stat) ± 0.0031(sys) at Q{sup 2} = 1.7 and 2.5 GeV{sup 2}, respectively.

  1. Gene transfer to the rat kidney in vivo and ex vivo using an adenovirus vector: factors influencing transgene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Fujishiro; Shin-ichi Takeda; Yuichi Takeno; Koichi Takeuchi; Yukiyo Ogata; Masafumi Takahashi; Yoji Hakamata; Takashi Kaneko; Takashi Murakami; Takashi Okada; Keiya Ozawa; Kohei Hashizume; Eiji Kobayashi

    2005-01-01

    Background. The characteristics of adenovirus- mediated gene transfer into the kidney are not well examined. We studied the effects of contact time and temperature on adenovirus-mediated transgene expres- sion in rat kidneys, using catheter-based in vivo gene transfer and a rat renal transplant model ex vivo. Methods. An adenovirus vector containing the lucif- erase (Ad-Luc) or b-galactosidase (Ad-LacZ) gene was

  2. Antitumor effect of nuclear factor-?B decoy transfer by mannose-modified bubble lipoplex into macrophages in mouse malignant ascites.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yusuke; Kawakami, Shigeru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Maruyama, Kazuo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    Patients with malignant ascites (MAs) display several symptoms, such as dyspnea, nausea, pain, and abdominal tenderness, resulting in a significant reduction in their quality of life. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a crucial role in MA progression. Because TAMs have a tumor-promoting M2 phenotype, conversion of the M2 phenotypic function of TAMs would be promising for MA treatment. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a master regulator of macrophage polarization. Here, we developed targeted transfer of a NF-?B decoy into TAMs by ultrasound (US)-responsive, mannose-modified liposome/NF-?B decoy complexes (Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes) in a mouse peritoneal dissemination model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. In addition, we investigated the effects of NF-?B decoy transfection into TAMs on MA progression and mouse survival rates. Intraperitoneal injection of Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure transferred the NF-?B decoy into TAMs effectively. When the NF-?B decoy was delivered into TAMs by this method in the mouse peritoneal dissemination model, mRNA expression of the Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in TAMs was decreased significantly. In contrast, mRNA levels of Th1 cytokines (IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-?, and IL-6) were increased significantly. Moreover, the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor in ascites was suppressed significantly, and peritoneal angiogenesis showed a reduction. Furthermore, NF-?B decoy transfer into TAMs significantly decreased the ascitic volume and number of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in ascites, and prolonged mouse survival. In conclusion, we transferred a NF-?B decoy efficiently by Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes with US exposure into TAMs, which may be a novel approach for MA treatment. PMID:24850474

  3. Effect of nitrogen, potassium and humic acid on ( 134 )Cs transfer factors to wheat from tropical soils in Neubauer growth units.

    PubMed

    Sandeep, S; Manjaiah, K M; Sachdev, P; Sachdev, M S

    2009-02-01

    A Neubauer plantlet experiment was carried out using Inceptisol (Typic Haplustept) and Vertisol (Typic Chromustert) soils contaminated with 134Cs at 74 kBq kg(-1) soil to study the transfer factor to wheat crop (Triticum aestivum) as influenced by four levels of humic acid (100, 200, 300, 400 mg HA kg(-1) soil), potassium and NH4-N (36.4, 54.5, 72.7 and 90.9 mg K or NH4 kg(-1) soil) under tropical climate. The biomass yield and K uptake by wheat were significantly improved in Vertisol with NH4-N and K application. The potassium application significantly increased the potassium concentration in wheat plants. The increase in the levels of each of the treatments dramatically improved the yield, K content and K uptake parameters, irrespective of the soils. The 134Cs transfer factors, irrespective of the treatments were observed to be higher in Vertisols as compared to Inceptisols. Among the treatments, the effect of HA was significantly greater than that of K and NH4-N application in Inceptisol, however, in Vertisols both HA and NH4-N were observed to be superior as compared to K application. With each increment in the levels of the treatments, a significantly lowered TF value was found, higher in Inceptisols (56.3%) than Vertisols (48.5%). Comparison of treatments indicates that in general higher potassium concentration in plant drastically lowered radiocesium transfer to wheat. Neubauer plant culture study, a rapid laboratory experimental model based on simple soil-plant system was quite clearly brought out the potential effectiveness of N, K and HA on soil-to-wheat transfer of radiocesium. Such screening technique needs to be extended to cover wider crop species, different climatic conditions and factors governing/modifying the mobility of radiocesium in soil and its absorption by crop plants. PMID:18259886

  4. Effect of Nuclear Factor ?B Inhibition on Serotype 9 Adeno-Associated Viral (AAV9) Minidystrophin Gene Transfer to the mdx Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Reay, Daniel P; Niizawa, Gabriela A; Watchko, Jon F; Daood, Molly; Reay, Ja’Nean C; Raggi, Eugene; Clemens, Paula R

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy studies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have focused on viral vector-mediated gene transfer to provide therapeutic protein expression or treatment with drugs to limit dystrophic changes in muscle. The pathological activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling pathway has emerged as an important cause of dystrophic muscle changes in muscular dystrophy. Furthermore, activation of NF-?B may inhibit gene transfer by promoting inflammation in response to the transgene or vector. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of pathological NF-?B activation in muscle would complement the therapeutic benefits of dystrophin gene transfer in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Systemic gene transfer using serotype 9 adeno-associated viral (AAV9) vectors is promising for treatment of preclinical models of DMD because of vector tropism to cardiac and skeletal muscle. In quadriceps of C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx/J (mdx) mice, the addition of octalysine (8K)–NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO)-binding domain (8K-NBD) peptide treatment to AAV9 minidystrophin gene delivery resulted in increased levels of recombinant dystrophin expression suggesting that 8K-NBD treatment promoted an environment in muscle tissue conducive to higher levels of expression. Indices of necrosis and regeneration were diminished with AAV9 gene delivery alone and to a greater degree with the addition of 8K-NBD treatment. In diaphragm muscle, high-level transgene expression was achieved with AAV9 minidystoophin gene delivery alone; therefore, improvements in histological and physiological indices were comparable in the two treatment groups. The data support benefit from 8K-NBD treatment to complement gene transfer therapy for DMD in muscle tissue that receives incomplete levels of transduction by gene transfer, which may be highly significant for clinical applications of muscle gene delivery. PMID:22231732

  5. Study of complement regulatory factor H based on Forster resonance energy transfer and investigation of disease-linked genetic variants 

    E-print Network

    Pechtl, Isabell C.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma protein complement factor H (fH, 155 kDa) regulates the activity of the alternative pathway of complement activation. Factor H is monomeric, and its 20 CCP modules are arranged in a predominantly elongated ...

  6. Experimental Analysis of the Single-Phase Heat Transfer and Friction Factor inside the Horizontal Internally Micro-Fin Tube

    E-print Network

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    Internally Micro-Fin Tube H. K. Tam*,1 , L. M. Tam1,2 , W. W. Chu1 1 Department of Electromechanical transfer, internally micro-fin tubes are widely used in commercial HVAC applications. It is commonly with the data of a plain tube. From the results, the transition from laminar to turbulent was clearly

  7. Assessing Student Expertise in Introductory Physics with Isomorphic Problems. II. Effect of Some Potential Factors on Problem Solving and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandralekha; Singh

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of isomorphic problem pairs (IPPs) to assess introductory physics students' ability to solve and successfully transfer problem-solving knowledge from one context to another in mechanics. We call the paired problems "isomorphic" because they require the same physics principle to solve them. We analyze written…

  8. Examining Factors Affecting Beginning Teachers' Transfer of Learning of ICT-Enhanced Learning Activities in Their Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agyei, Douglas D.; Voogt, Joke

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers' transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by "learning technology by collaborative design" in their final year of…

  9. Measurements of heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in rib-roughened channels simulating leading-edge cavities of a modern turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Li, T. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Spring, S.D. [GE Aircraft Engines, Lynn, MA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Leading edge cooling cavities in modern gas turbine blades play an important role in maintaining the leading edge temperature at levels consistent with air foil design life. These cavities often have a complex cross-sectional shape to be compatible with the external contour of the blade at the leading edge. A survey of many existing geometries shows that, for analytical as well as experimental analyses, such cavities can be simplified in shape by a four-sided polygon with one curved side similar to the leading edge curvature, a rectangle with one semicircular side (often the smaller side) or a trapezoid, the smaller base of which is replaced by a semicircle. Furthermore, to enhance the heat transfer coefficient in these cavities, they are mostly roughened on three sides with ribs of different geometries. Experimental data on friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in such cavities are rare if not nonexistent. A liquid crystal technique was used in this experimental investigation to measure heat transfer coefficients in six test sections representing the leading-edge cooling cavities. Both straight and tapered ribs were configured on the two opposite sidewalls in a staggered arrangement with angles of attack to the mainstream flow, {alpha}, of 60 and 90 deg. The ribs on the curved surface were of constant cross section with an angle of attack 90 deg to the flow. Heat transfer measurements were performed on the straight sidewalls, as well as on the round surface adjacent to the blade leading edge. Effects such as rib angle of attack to the mainstream flow and constant versus tapered rib cross-sectional areas were also investigated. Nusselt numbers, friction factors, and thermal performances are reported for nine rib geometries in six test sections.

  10. Factoring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Taylor

    2010-10-19

    In this lesson we will explore prime numbers and factors A prime number has only two factors, 1 and itself. The Greek scholar, Eratosthenes of Cyrene lived from approximately 275 to 195 BC. He is know for being the first to have computed the size of the Earth and served as the director of the famous library in

  11. Factorize

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students find factor pairs for a given number and then create a rectangle with those dimensions on a coordinate plane. This activity allows students to explore factorizations of numbers and how they relate to rectangles with that number as an area. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  12. Technology Transfer Issues and a New Technology Transfer Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hee Jun

    2009-01-01

    The following are major issues that should be considered for efficient and effective technology transfer: conceptions of technology, technological activity and transfer, communication channels, factors affecting transfer, and models of transfer. In particular, a well-developed model of technology transfer could be used as a framework for…

  13. Factors influencing the energetics of electron and proton transfers in proteins. What can be learned from calculations?

    PubMed Central

    Gunner, M.R.; Mao, Junjun; Song, Yifan; Kim, Jinrang

    2009-01-01

    A protein structure should provide the information needed to understand its observed properties. Significant progress has been made in developing accurate calculations of acid/base and oxidation/reduction reactions in proteins. Current methods and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed. The distribution and calculated ionization states in a survey of proteins is described, showing that a significant minority of acidic and basic residues are buried in the protein and that most of these remain ionized. The electrochemistry of heme and quinones are considered. Proton transfers in bacteriorhodopsin and coupled electron and proton transfers in photosynthetic reaction centers, 5-coordinate heme binding proteins and cytochrome c oxidase are highlighted as systems where calculations have provided insight into the reaction mechanism. PMID:16905113

  14. Prediction of heat transfer coefficients and friction factors for evaporation of R-134a flowing inside corrugated tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laohalertdecha, S.; Aroonrat, K.; Dalkilic, A. S.; Mahian, O.; Kaewnai, S.; Wongwises, S.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, experimental and simulation studies of the evaporation heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of R-134a flowing through corrugated tubes are conducted. The test section is a horizontal counter-flow concentric tube-in-tube heat exchanger 2.0 m in length. A smooth tube and corrugated tubes with inner diameters of 8.7 mm are used as the inner tube. The outer tube is made from a smooth copper tube with an inner diameter of 21.2 mm. The corrugation pitches used in this study are 5.08, 6.35, and 8.46 mm. Similarly, the corrugation depths are 1, 1.25, and 1.5 mm, respectively. The results show that the maximum heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop obtained from the corrugated tube are up to 22 and 19 % higher than those obtained from the smooth tube, respectively. In addition, the average difference of the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop between the simulation model and experimental data are about 10 and 15 %, respectively.

  15. Insulin-like growth factor-1 prevents miR-122 production in neighbouring cells to curtail its intercellular transfer to ensure proliferation of human hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sudarshana; Bhattacharyya, Suvendra N.

    2014-01-01

    miRNAs are 20–22 nt long post-transcriptional regulators in metazoan cells that repress protein expression from their target mRNAs. These tiny regulatory RNAs follow tissue and cell-type specific expression pattern, aberrations of which are associated with various diseases. miR-122 is a liver-specific anti-proliferative miRNA that, we found, can be transferred via exosomes between human hepatoma cells, Huh7 and HepG2, grown in co-culture. Exosomal miR-122, expressed and released by Huh7 cells and taken by miR-122 deficient HepG2 cells, was found to be effective in repression of target mRNAs and to reduce growth and proliferation of recipient HepG2 cells. Interestingly, in a reciprocal process, HepG2 secretes Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) that decreases miR-122 expression in Huh7 cells. Our observations suggest existence of a reciprocal interaction between two different hepatic cells with distinct miR-122 expression profiles. This interaction is mediated via intercellular exosome-mediated miR-122 transfer and countered by a reciprocal IGF1-dependent anti-miR-122 signal. According to our data, human hepatoma cells use IGF1 to prevent intercellular exosomal transfer of miR-122 to ensure its own proliferation by preventing expression of growth retarding miR-122 in neighbouring cells. PMID:24813441

  16. Long-Term Expression of Human Coagulation Factor VIII and Correction of Hemophilia A after in vivo Retroviral Gene Transfer in Factor VIII-Deficient Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Vandendriessche; Veerle Vanslembrouck; Inge Goovaerts; Hans Zwinnen; Marie-Line Vanderhaeghen; Desire Collen; Marinee K. L. Chuah

    1999-01-01

    Hemophilia A is caused by a deficiency in coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and predisposes to spontaneous bleeding that can be life-threatening or lead to chronic disabilities. It is well suited for gene therapy because a moderate increase in plasma FVIII concentration has therapeutic effects. Improved retroviral vectors expressing high levels of human FVIII were pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus

  17. First measurement of the electromagnetic form factor of the neutral kaon at a large momentum transfer and the effect of SU(3) breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Kamal K.; Dobbs, S.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Bonvicini, G.

    2014-03-01

    At large momentum transfers the photon interacts with the charges and spins of the constituent partons in a hadron. It is expected that the neutral kaon can acquire finite electromagnetic form factors because its wave function is affected by the order of magnitude difference between the mass of the strange quark and that of the down quark, or flavor SU(3) breaking. We report on the first measurement of the form factor of neutral kaons at the large timelike momentum transfer of |Q2|=17.4 GeV by measuring the cross section for e+e-?KSKL at ?{s}=4.17 GeV using CLEO-c data with an integrated luminosity of 586 pb-1. We obtain F(17.4 GeV)=5.3×10-3, with a 90% C.L. interval of (2.9-8.2)×10-3. This is nearly an order of magnitude smaller than F(17.4 GeV)=(44±1)×10-3, and indicates that the effect of SU(3) breaking is small. In turn, this makes it unlikely that the recently observed strong violation of the pQCD prediction, F(|Q2|)/F(|Q2|)=f?2/fK2, which is based on the assumption of similar wave functions for the pions and kaons, can be attributed to SU(3) breaking alone.

  18. Assessment of selenium food chain transfer and critical exposure factors for avian wildlife species: Need for site-specific data

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.J. [Kennecott Utah Copper, Magna, UT (United States); Brix, K.V.; Cothern, K.A.; Tear, L.M.; Cardwell, R.D.; Toll, J.E. [Parametrix, Inc., Kirkland, WA (United States); Fairbrother, A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Observations of selenium poisoning in Belews Lake, NC in the mid-1970s and Kesterson Reservoir, CA in the mid-1980s precipitated a large number of selenium studies. Numerous authors have evaluated the potential for selenium to cause ecologically significant effects via food chain transfer in aquatic ecosystems, especially wetlands. Additionally, bioaccumulation models have been proposed for estimating selenium concentrations in food chains and water that should not be exceeded in order to avoid reproductive effects in avian and aquatic species. The current national chronic ambient water quality criterion (WQC) for protection of aquatic life is 5 {micro}g/L. Scientists with the US Fish and Wildlife Service have recommended setting the ambient water quality criterion at 2 {micro}g/L for both aquatic and wildlife protection.

  19. Improving plant drought, salt, and freezing tolerance by gene transfer of a single stress-inducible transcription factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mie Kasuga; Qiang Liu; Setsuko Miura; Kazuo Shinozaki; Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki

    1999-01-01

    Plant productivity is greatly affected by environmental stresses such as drought, salt loading, and freezing. We reported previously that a cis -acting promoter element, the dehydration response element (DRE), plays an important role in regulating gene expression in response to these stresses. The transcription factor DREB1A specifically interacts with the DRE and induces expression of stress tolerance genes. We show

  20. Development and Characterization of Transcription Factor Gene-Derived Microsatellite (TFGM) Markers in Medicago truncatula and Their Transferability in Leguminous and Non-Leguminous Species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxian; Jia, Xitao; Liu, Zhimin; Zhang, Zhengshe; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Zhipeng; Xie, Wengang

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are critical adaptor molecules that regulate many plant processes by controlling gene expression. The recent increase in the availability of TF data has made TFs a valuable resource for genic functional microsatellite marker development. In the present study, we developed TF gene-derived microsatellite (TFGM) markers for Medicago truncatula and assessed their cross-species transferability. A total of 203 SSRs were identified from 1467 M. truncatula TF coding sequences, 87.68% of which were trinucleotide repeats, followed by mono- (4.93%) and hexanucleotide repeats (1.48%). Further, 142 TFGM markers showed a high level of transferability to the leguminous (55.63%-85.21%) and non-leguminous (28.17%-50.00%) species. Polymorphisms of 27 TFGM markers were evaluated in 44 alfalfa accessions. The allele number per marker ranged from two to eight with an average of 4.41, and the PIC values ranged from 0.08 to 0.84 with an average of 0.60. Considering the high polymorphism, these TFGM markers developed in our study will be valuable for genetic relationship assessments, marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies in leguminous and non-leguminous species. PMID:25988608

  1. Determination of nicotine in tobacco with second-order spectra data of charge-transfer complex in ethanol-water binary solvents processed by parallel factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shuqin; Liao, Lifu; Xiao, Xilin; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Du, Nan; Du, Jiangfeng

    2010-05-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of nicotine in mixtures without pre-separation has been proposed. Nicotine could react with 2,4-dinitrophenol through a charge-transfer reaction to form a colored complex. The second-order data from the visible absorption spectra of the complex in a series of ethanol-water binary solvents with various water volume fractions could be expressed as the combination of two bilinear data matrices. With the bilinear model, the second-order spectra data of mixtures containing nicotine and other interferents could be analysed by using second-order calibration algorithms, and the determination of nicotine in the mixtures could be achieved. The algorithm used here was parallel factor analysis. The method has been successfully used to determine nicotine in tobacco samples with satisfactory results.

  2. Influence of smoking habits on change in carbon monoxide transfer factor over 10 years in middle aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A; Joyce, H; Hopper, L; Pride, N B

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emphysema is associated with a reduction in carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (TLCO/VA), but little is known about the evolution of changes in TLCO/VA in middle aged smokers at risk of developing chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS: TLCO/VA (single breath method) was measured on two occasions 10 years apart in 122 middle aged men. RESULTS: Initially TLCO/VA averaged 97% predicted in never smokers (n = 42, mean age 37.2 years), 99% predicted in ex-smokers (n = 21, mean age 41.9 years), and 85% predicted in those who smoked over 15 cigarettes a day (n = 42, mean age 42.0 years). Mean rates of decrease in TLCO/VA over 10 years, however, were similar in the three groups, so that differences between smokers and non-smokers did not increase during the 10 years. Seventeen men (mean age 40.9 years) who initially were smokers became sustained ex-smokers within two years of the first measurement; in these men mean absolute values of TLCO/VA rose, averaging 89% predicted at the first assessment but 102% predicted 10 years later. CONCLUSION: By the age of about 40 years TLCO/VA was lower in smokers than in never smokers but this difference did not increase over the following 10 years. Sustained ex-smokers had values similar to those of never smokers even when TLCO/VA was known to have been reduced while they were smoking. Changes in TLCO/VA associated with stopping smoking were considerably larger than could be explained by carbon monoxide back pressure, indicating that mechanisms other than irreversible increase in the size of terminal air spaces underlie the lower values in smokers. To detect emphysema in smokers it is necessary to use reference equations that take account of current smoking. PMID:8493623

  3. Accelerated adhesion of grafted skin by laser-induced stress wave-based gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Kazuya; Sato, Shunichi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2009-11-01

    Gene therapy using wound healing-associated growth factor gene has received much attention as a new strategy for improving the outcome of tissue transplantation. We delivered plasmid DNA coding for human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) to rat free skin grafts by the use of laser-induced stress waves (LISWs); autografting was performed with the grafts. Systematic analysis was conducted to evaluate the adhesion properties of the grafted tissue; angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and reepithelialization were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and reperfusion was measured by laser Doppler imaging as a function of time after grafting. Both the level of angiogenesis on day 3 after grafting and the increased ratio of blood flow on day 4 to that on day 3 were significantly higher than those in five control groups: grafting with hHGF gene injection alone, grafting with control plasmid vector injection alone, grafting with LISW application alone, grafting with LISW application after control plasmid vector injection, and normal grafting. Reepithelialization was almost completed on day 7 even at the center of the graft with LISW application after hHGF gene injection, while it was not for the grafts of the five control groups. These findings demonstrate the validity of our LISW-based HGF gene transfection to accelerate the adhesion of grafted skins.

  4. Properties of F? Factor Deoxyribonucleic Acid Transferred from Ultraviolet-Irradiated Donors: Photoreactivation in the Recipient and the Influence of recA, recB, recC, and uvr Genes

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Ronald S.

    1971-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated Escherichia coli K-12 F lac+ donors transfer damaged F? factors when mated with female cells. Exposure of the zygotes to white light after mating can cause the photoreactivation of the damaged transferred F? factors. In so far as the photoreactivation is specific for pyrimidine dimers, these experiments indicate the presence of UV-induced dimers in the transferred F? factor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). These damaged F? factors are remarkably stable in recA recipients, having a half-life for susceptibility to photoreactivation of 1.5 to 2 hr. This is judged by the formation of Lac+ colonies, all of which are male secondary donors. In crosses with wild type and uvrA, recB, or recC mutant recipients, however, the Lac+ colonies are predominantly recombinants and photoreactivation is not detected. The extent of DNA synthesis resulting from transfer of F? episomes from irradiated donors suggests that a complementary strand is formed on the damaged template. Photoreactivation behavior and sedimentation properties are used to deduce properties of such damaged episomes. We conclude that the complementary strand is discontinuous directly opposite dimers in the transferred strand. This structure may be an intermediate in the recombinational event sequence in Rec+ recipients. PMID:4928004

  5. The Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the $^{2}\\vec{\\rm H}(\\vec{\\rm e},{\\rm e}'{\\rm n}){\\rm p}$ Reaction

    E-print Network

    E. Geis; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhoevel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. DeGrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; M. Kohl; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; A. Shinozaki; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; E. Six; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart

    2008-04-08

    We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form factor ratio $G^{n}_{E}/G^{n}_{M}$ was extracted from the beam-target vector asymmetry $A_{ed}^{V}$ at four-momentum transfers $Q^{2}=0.14$, 0.20, 0.29 and 0.42 (GeV/c)$^{2}$.

  6. Production of transgenic goats expressing human coagulation factor IX in the mammary glands after nuclear transfer using transfected fetal fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Amiri Yekta, Amir; Dalman, Azam; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Shahverdi, Abdol Hossein; Fakheri, Rahman; Vazirinasab, Hamed; Daneshzadeh, Mohammad Taghi; Vojgani, Mahdi; Zomorodipour, Alireza; Fatemi, Nayeralsadat; Vahabi, Zeinab; Mirshahvaladi, Shahab; Ataei, Fariba; Bahraminejad, Elmira; Masoudi, Najmehsadat; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Gourabi, Hamid

    2013-02-01

    There are growing numbers of recombinant proteins that have been expressed in milk. Thus one can consider the placement of any gene of interest under the control of the regulatory elements of a milk protein gene in a dairy farm animal. Among the transgene introducing techniques, only nuclear transfer (NT) allows 100 % efficiency and bypasses the mosaicism associated with counterpart techniques. In this study, in an attempt to produce a transgenic goat carrying the human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) transgene, goat fetal fibroblasts were electroporated with a linearized marker-free construct in which the transgene was juxtaposed to ?-casein promoter designed to secret the recombinant protein in goat milk. Two different lines of transfected cells were used as donors for NT to enucleated oocytes. Two transgenic goats were liveborn. DNA sequencing of the corresponding transgene locus confirmed authenticity of the cloning procedure and the complementary experiments on the whey demonstrated expression of human factor IX in the milk of transgenic goats. In conclusion, our study has provided the groundwork for a prosperous and promising approach for large-scale production and therapeutic application of hFIX expressed in transgenic goats. PMID:22869287

  7. Enhancement of innate immune system in monocot rice by transferring the dicotyledonous elongation factor Tu receptor EFR.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fen; Wang, Huiqin; Wang, Shanzhi; Jiang, Wendi; Shan, Changlin; Li, Bin; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Shiyong; Sun, Wenxian

    2015-07-01

    The elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) receptor (EFR) in cruciferous plants specifically recognizes the N-terminal acetylated elf18 region of bacterial EF-Tu and thereby activates plant immunity. It has been demonstrated that Arabidopsis EFR confers broad-spectrum bacterial resistance in the EFR transgenic solanaceous plants. Here, the transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Zhonghua 17) and cell cultures with constitutive expression of AtEFR were developed to investigate whether AtEFR senses EF-Tu and thus enhances bacterial resistance in the monocot plants. We demonstrated that the Xanthomonas oryzae-derived elf18 peptide induced oxidative burst and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the AtEFR transgenic rice cells and plants, respectively. Pathogenesis-related genes, such as OsPBZ1, were upregulated dramatically in transgenic rice plant and cell lines in response to elf18 stimulation. Importantly, pretreatment with elf18 triggered strong resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae in the transgenic plants, which was largely dependent on the AtEFR expression level. These plants also exhibited enhanced resistance to rice bacterial brown stripe, but not to rice fungal blast. Collectively, the results indicate that the rice plants with heterologous expression of AtEFR recognize bacterial EF-Tu and exhibit enhanced broad-spectrum bacterial disease resistance and that pattern recognition receptor-mediated immunity may be manipulated across the two plant classes, dicots and monocots. PMID:25358295

  8. Stable gene transfer and expression of human blood coagulation factor IX after intramuscular injection of recombinant adeno-associated?virus

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Roland W.; Hagstrom, J. Nathan; Kung, Szu-Hoo; Tai, Shing Jen; Wilson, James M.; Fisher, Krishna J.; High, Katherine A.

    1997-01-01

    We sought to determine whether intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing human factor IX (hF.IX) could direct expression of therapeutic levels of the transgene in experimental animals. High titer (1012–1013 vector genomes/ml) rAAV expressing hF.IX was prepared, purified, and injected into hindlimb muscles of C57BL/6 mice and Rag 1 mice. In the immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice, immunofluorescence staining of muscle harvested 3 months after injection demonstrated the presence of hF.IX protein, and PCR analysis of muscle DNA was positive for AAV DNA, but no hF.IX was detected in mouse plasma. Further studies showed that these mice had developed circulating antibodies to hF.IX. In follow-up experiments in Rag 1 mice, which carry a mutation in the recombinase activating gene-1 and thus lack functional B and T cells, similar results were seen on DNA analysis of muscle, but these mice also demonstrated therapeutic levels (200–350 ng/ml) of F.IX in the plasma. The time course of F.IX expression demonstrates that levels gradually increase over a period of several weeks before reaching a plateau that is stable 6 months after injection. In other experiments we demonstrate colocalization of hF.IX and collagen IV in intersitial spaces between muscle fibers. Collagen IV has recently been identified as a F.IX-binding protein; this finding explains the unusual pattern of immunofluorescent staining for F.IX shown in these experiments. Thus rAAV can be used to direct stable expression of therapeutic levels of F.IX after intramuscular injection and is a feasible strategy for treatment of patients with hemophilia B. PMID:9159155

  9. Transfer factors and effective half-lives of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in different environmental sample types obtained from Northern Finland: case Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Koivurova, Matias; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kallio, Antti

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima NPP accident caused a small but detectable cesium fallout in northern Finland, of the order of 1 Bq/m(2). This fallout transferred further to soil, water, flora and fauna. By using modern HPGe detector systems traces of (134)Cs from the Fukushima fallout were observed in various samples of biota. In northern Finland different types of environmental samples such as reindeer meat, berries, fish, lichens and wolf were collected during 2011-2013. The observed (134)Cs concentrations varied from 0.1 Bq/kg to a few Bq/kg. By using the known (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio observed in Fukushima fallout the increase of the Fukushima accident to the (137)Cs concentrations was found to vary from 0.06 % to 6.9 % depending on the sample type. The aggregated transfer factors (Tag) and effective half-lives (Teff) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also determined and then compared with known values found from earlier studies which are calculated based on the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Generally, the Tag and Teff values determined in this study were found to agree with the values found in the earlier studies. The Teff values were sample-type specific and were found to vary from 0.91 to 2.1 years for (134)Cs and the estimates for (137)Cs ranged between 1.6 and 19 years. Interestingly, the ground lichens had the longest Teff whereas the beard lichen had the shortest. In fauna, highest Tag values were determined for wolf meat ranging between 1.0 and 2.2 m(2)/kg. In flora, the highest Tag values were determined for beard lichens, ranging from 1.9 m(2)/kg to 3.5 m(2)/kg. PMID:25935505

  10. The Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the $^{2}\\\\vec{\\\\rm H}(\\\\vec{\\\\rm e},{\\\\rm e}'{\\\\rm n}){\\\\rm p}$ Reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Geis; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhoevel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. DeGrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; M. Kohl; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart

    2008-01-01

    We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form

  11. Transfer of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of three papers presented at a symposium on transfer of training moderated by Gene Roth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Validation of a Transfer Climate Instrument" (Reid A. Bates et al.) reports a study that attempted to validate Rouiller and Goldstein's (1993) eight-factor

  12. Circadian Regulation of Intestinal Lipid Absorption by Apolipoprotein AIV Involves Forkhead Transcription Factors A2 and O1 and Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyue; Munshi, Mohamed Khalid; Iqbal, Jahangir; Queiroz, Joyce; Sirwi, Alaa Ahmed; Shah, Shrenik; Younus, Abdullah; Hussain, M. Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    We have shown previously that Clock, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), and nocturnin are involved in the circadian regulation of intestinal lipid absorption. Here, we clarified the role of apolipoprotein AIV (apoAIV) in the diurnal regulation of plasma lipids and intestinal lipid absorption in mice. Plasma triglyceride in apoAIV?/? mice showed diurnal variations similar to apoAIV+/+ mice; however, the increases in plasma triglyceride at night were significantly lower in these mice. ApoAIV?/? mice absorbed fewer lipids at night and showed blunted response to daytime feeding. To explain reasons for these lower responses, we measured MTP expression; intestinal MTP was low at night, and its induction after food entrainment was less in apoAIV?/? mice. Conversely, apoAIV overexpression increased MTP mRNA in hepatoma cells, indicating transcriptional regulation. Mechanistic studies revealed that sequences between ?204/?775 bp in the MTP promoter respond to apoAIV and that apoAIV enhances expression of FoxA2 and FoxO1 transcription factors and their binding to the identified cis elements in the MTP promoter at night. Knockdown of FoxA2 and FoxO1 abolished apoAIV-mediated MTP induction. Similarly, knockdown of apoAIV in differentiated Caco-2 cells reduced MTP, FoxA2, and FoxO1 mRNA levels, cellular MTP activity, and media apoB. Moreover, FoxA2 and FoxO1 expression showed diurnal variations, and their expression was significantly lower in apoAIV?/? mice. These data indicate that apoAIV modulates diurnal changes in lipid absorption by regulating forkhead transcription factors and MTP and that inhibition of apoAIV expression might reduce plasma lipids. PMID:23729668

  13. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 binding element within the promoter of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) gene is crucial for MTTP basal expression and insulin responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Au, Wo-Shing; Lu, Liwei; Yeung, Chung-Man; Liu, Ching-Chiu; Wong, Oscar G; Lai, Lihui; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Lin, Marie C

    2008-10-01

    Insulin inhibits the transcription of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), which plays a pivotal role in lipoprotein assembly and secretion. Here, we provide evidence that a hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 binding element (HNF1A element) within the MTTP promoter serves as a novel negative insulin-responsive element. Deletion/mutation mapping of the MTTP gene promoter identified a modified HNF1A element that is crucial to the negative insulin effect. Chimeric promoter containing this HNF1A element and minimal TEAD1 promoter also responded negatively toward insulin treatment. Gel shift assay demonstrated that HNF1A but not HNF1B binds to this element. Enforced expression of HNF1A was sufficient to reconstitute the negative insulin responsiveness of MTTP promoter in TM4SF1 myocytes that are HNF1A negative. Furthermore, replacing this element with consensus HNF1A element preserved the negative insulin response, suggesting that negative insulin responsiveness is a generic characteristic of HNF1A element. Given that many genes implicated in diabetes contain HNF1A element, the potential regulation of these genes by insulin via HNF1A element may provide important clues for the manifestation and treatment of diabetic metabolic syndromes. PMID:18697801

  14. The structure of a ring-opened proliferating cell nuclear antigen–replication factor C complex revealed by fluorescence energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhihao; Yoder, Bonita L.; Burgers, Peter M. J.; Benkovic, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous proteins that function in DNA metabolic pathways are known to interact with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The important function of PCNA in stimulating various cellular activities requires its topological linkage with DNA. Loading of the circular PCNA onto duplex DNA requires the activity of a clamp-loader [replication factor C (RFC)] complex and the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. The mechanistic and structural details regarding PCNA loading by the RFC complex are still developing. In particular, the positive identification of a long-hypothesized structure of an open clamp–RFC complex as an intermediate in loading has remained elusive. In this study, we capture an open yeast PCNA clamp in a complex with RFC through fluorescence energy transfer experiments. We also follow the topological transitions of PCNA in the various steps of the clamp-loading pathway through both steady-state and stopped-flow fluorescence studies. We find that ATP effectively drives the clamp-loading process to completion with the formation of the closed PCNA bound to DNA, whereas ATP?S cannot. The information derived from this work complements that obtained from previous structural and mechanistic studies and provides a more complete picture of a eukaryotic clamp-loading pathway using yeast as a paradigm. PMID:16476998

  15. Variability of 137Cs and 40K soil-to-fruit transfer factor in tropical lemon trees during the fruit development period.

    PubMed

    Velasco, H; Cid, A S; Anjos, R M; Zamboni, C B; Rizzotto, M; Valladares, D L; Juri Ayub, J

    2012-02-01

    In this investigation we evaluate the soil uptake of (137)Cs and (40)K by tropical plants and their consequent translocation to fruits, by calculating the soil-to-fruit transfer factors defined as F(v) = [concentration of radionuclide in fruit (Bq kg(-1) dry mass)/concentration of radionuclide in soil (Bq kg(-1) dry mass in upper 20 cm)]. In order to obtain F(v) values, the accumulation of these radionuclides in fruits of lemon trees (Citrus limon B.) during the fruit growth was measured. A mathematical model was calibrated from the experimental data allowing simulating the incorporation process of these radionuclides by fruits. Although the fruit incorporates a lot more potassium than cesium, both radionuclides present similar absorption patterns during the entire growth period. F(v) ranged from 0.54 to 1.02 for (40)K and from 0.02 to 0.06 for (137)Cs. Maximum F(v) values are reached at the initial time of fruit growth and decrease as the fruit develops, being lowest at the maturation period. As a result of applying the model a decreasing exponential function is derived for F(v) as time increases. The agreement between the theoretical approach and the experimental values is satisfactory. PMID:22115437

  16. Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q{sup 2}=3.5 GeV{sup 2} by polarization transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Punjabi, V. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States); Perdrisat, C.F.; Gerstner, G.; Pentchev, L.; Rutledge, G.; Strauch, S.; Wijesooriya, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States); Aniol, K.A.; Epstein, M.B.; Margaziotis, D.J. [California State University, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90032 (United States); Baker, F.T.; Templon, J.A. [University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States); Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Besson, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Jaminion, S.; Laveissiere, G. [Universite Blaise Pascal/CNRS-IN2P3, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Bertozzi, W.; Chai, Z. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [and others

    2005-05-01

    The ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub l}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic e{sup {yields}}p{yields}ep{sup {yields}}reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. In the single-photon exchange approximation, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} is directly proportional to P{sub t}/P{sub l}. The simultaneous measurement of P{sub t} and P{sub l} in a polarimeter reduces systematic uncertainties. The results for G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} show a systematic decrease with increasing Q{sup 2}, indicating for the first time a definite difference in the distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. The data have been reanalyzed and their systematic uncertainties have become significantly smaller than those reported previously.

  17. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake

    E-print Network

    technical libraries include all open literature items, such as books, journal articles, transactions. The NUREG series comprises (1) technical and administrative reports and books prepared by the staff (NUREG electronically access NUREG-series publications and other NRC records at NRC's Public Electronic Reading Room

  18. Theories supporting transfer of training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siriporn Yamnill; Gary N. McLean

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews theories and conceptual frameworks necessary to describe three factors affecting transfer of training. This information helps HRD pro- fessionals understand why people wish to change their performance after attending a training program, what training design contributes to people's ability to transfer skills successfully, and what kind of organizational environment supports the transfer. This article also provides HRD

  19. Vibrational mode and collision energy effects on reaction of H{sub 2}CO{sup +} with C{sub 2}H{sub 2}: Charge state competition and the role of Franck-Condon factors in endoergic charge transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jianbo; Van Devener, Brian; Anderson, Scott L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2005-11-22

    The effects of collision energy (E{sub col}) and six different H{sub 2}CO{sup +} vibrational states on the title reaction have been studied over the center-of-mass E{sub col} range from 0.1 to 2.6 eV, including measurements of product ion recoil velocity distributions. Ab initio and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations were used to examine the properties of complexes and transition states that might be important in mediating the reaction. Reaction is largely direct, despite the presence of multiple deep wells on the potential surface. Five product channels are observed, with a total reaction cross section at the collision limit. The competition among the major H{sub 2}{sup +} transfer, hydrogen transfer, and proton transfer channels is strongly affected by E{sub col} and H{sub 2}CO{sup +} vibrational excitation, providing insight into the factors that control competition and charge state 'unmixing' during product separation. One of the more interesting results is that endoergic charge transfer appears to be controlled by Franck-Condon factors, implying that it occurs at large inter-reactant separations, contrary to the expectation that endoergic reactions should require intimate collisions to drive the necessary energy conversion.

  20. Influence of tube-entrance configuration on average heat-transfer coefficients and friction factors for air flowing in an Inconel tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowdermilk, Warren H; Grele, Milton D

    1950-01-01

    A heat-transfer investigation was conducted with air flowing through an electrically heated Inconel tube having either a long-approach or a right-angle-edge entrance, an inside diameter of 0.402 inch, and a length of 24 inches over a range of Reynolds numbers up to 375,000 and average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 2000 degrees R. Good correlation of heat-transfer data was obtained for both entrances, which substantiates work previously reported. A fair correlation of friction data was obtained for both entrances. The entrance configuration had little effect on the average heat-transfer and friction coefficients.

  1. Desensitization in vitro: the role of T-suppressor cells, T-suppressor factor and T-acceptor cells in the inhibition of the passive transfer of contact sensitivity to picryl chloride by exposure to antigen in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zembala, M.; Asherson, G. L.; Colizzi, V.; Watkins, Madeleine C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper investigates desensitization in vitro, e.g. the inhibition of the transfer of contact sensitivity to picryl chloride by incubation of the passive transfer population with picrylated spleen cells. It asks whether desensitization is based on the same T-suppressor circuit which is responsible for the inhibition of passive transfer by antigen-specific T-suppressor factor (TsF). In this circuit, the T-suppressor cell which acts at the efferent stage (Ts-eff) makes TsF. This TsF depresses contact sensitivity indirectly by arming a T-acceptor cell (Tacc). The armed Tacc, when exposed to antigen (picrylated spleen cells), liberates a non-specific inhibitor which blocks the transfer of contact sensitivity. The three elements of this T-suppressor circuit occur in nylon wool-purified T cells prepared from the lymph nodes and spleens of mice four days after immunization with picryl chloride. This population transfers contact sensitivity and can be desensitized in vitro. It contains Ts-eff which can be isolated by panning (adherence) on picrylated albumin and detected by their ability to inhibit passive transfer. The 24 hr supernatant of cultures of these cells contains TsF. Finally the population contains Tacc which appear in the spleen 2 days after immunization and virtually disappear by 10 days. Further experiments demonstrated that the Ts-eff and the Tacc were not merely present but actually required for desensitization in vitro. Immune cells depleted of both Ts-eff (by panning on picrylated albumin) and Tacc (by arming with anti-oxazolone TsF and panning on oxazolonated albumin) cannot be desensitized. To restore desensitization both Ts-eff and Tacc must be added back. The Ts-eff were characterized as cyclophosphamide resistant, adult thymectomy sensitive cells (Cyr, ATxs), which adhered to antigen and were produced only by specific immunization. The Tacc were characterized as Cys, ATxs cells which adhered to antigen only after arming with antigen-specific T-suppressor factor and were produced after immunization with an unrelated contact sensitizer, `oxazolone'. It was concluded that desensitization in vitro was due to the interaction of two distinct T cells: the T-suppressor cell which acts at the efferent stage of the contact sensitivity reaction and the T-acceptor cell which becomes armed with the specific T-suppressor factor produced by the Ts-eff. PMID:6216199

  2. Transfer Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Stephen Pollock

    2011-01-01

    In statistical time-series analysis, signal processing and control engineering, a transfer function is a mathematical relationship between a numerical input to a dynamic system and the resulting output. The theory of transfer functions describes how the input\\/output relationship is affected by the structure of the transfer function. The theory of the transfer functions of linear time-invariant (LTI) systems has been

  3. Combined factor V leiden (G1691A) and prothrombin (G20210A) genotyping by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction using fluorescent resonance energy transfer hybridization probes on the Rotor-Gene 2000.

    PubMed

    Ameziane, Nejma; Lamotte, Maryse; Lamoril, Jérôme; Lebret, Dominique; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Kaiser, Thomas; de Prost, Dominique

    2003-06-01

    Several methods have been developed to detect common single point mutations in the factor V and prothrobin genes that are risk factors for thrombophilia. Most are based on PCR followed by restriction enzyme digestion and electrophoresis (RFLP), but gel analysis has certain limitations, and alternative detection methods, including real-time PCR, have therefore been developed. In this study we developed and evaluated a combined factor V Leiden and prothrombin (G20210A) genotyping method based on multiplex real-time PCR with fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) hybridization probes on the Rotor-Gene 2000. Two hundred subjects were screened for the two mutations. The FRET assay clearly discriminated among wild-type, homozygous and heterozygous status for the two mutations, and the results were in full agreement with those of the RFLP assay. This robust FRET probe-based assay also has a higher throughput capacity than conventional methods, handling up to 72 samples in 90 min. PMID:12945887

  4. Pragmatic Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele

    1992-01-01

    Attempting to clarify the concept of pragmatic transfer, this article proposes as a basic distinction Leech/Thomas' dichotomy of sociopragmatics versus pragmalinguistics, presenting evidence for transfer at both levels. Issues discussed include pragmatic universals in speech act realization, conditions for pragmatic transfer, communicative…

  5. SOLID-LIQUID PHASE TRANSFER CATALYZED SYNTHESIS OF CINNAMYL ACETATE-KINETICS AND ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE REACTION IN A BATCH REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis has an advantage of carrying out reaction between two immiscible substrates, one in solid phase and the other in liquid phase, with high selectivity and at relatively low temperatures. In this study we investigated the synthesis ci...

  6. Hydrodynamics-Based Transfer of Human Apolipoprotein AI Gene to Mice: Study of Factors Affecting the Efficiency and Duration of Gene Expression in the Mouse Liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. N. Akifiev; E. B. Dizhe; A. M. Efremov; D. A. Mogilenko; G. N. Oleinikova; I. A. Lapikov; O. Yu. Zhdanova; O. V. Kidgotko; S. V. Orlov; A. P. Perevozchikov

    2004-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein A-I gene (apoA-I) inserted into a plasmid expression vector was transferred in vivo into C57Bl\\/6 mice using hydrodynamic injections into the tail vein. Two types of plasmid expression vectors were used: (1) pCMVcapoAI which contained cDNA of apoA-I driven by the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) early gene promoter and (2) pAlg, which contained a genomic locus of intron-containing apoA-I

  7. Heat Transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students explore heat transfer and energy efficiency using the context of energy efficient houses. They gain a solid understanding of the three types of heat transfer: radiation, convection and conduction, which are explained in detail and related to the real world. They learn about the many ways solar energy is used as a renewable energy source to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses and operating costs. Students also explore ways in which a device can capitalize on the methods of heat transfer to produce a beneficial result. They are given the tools to calculate the heat transferred between a system and its surroundings.

  8. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid in a circular pipe under laminar flow with wire coil inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekar, M.; Suresh, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India); Chandra Bose, A. [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India)

    2010-02-15

    In this paper, fully developed laminar flow convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated horizontal tube with and without wire coil inserts is presented. For this purpose, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of 43 nm size were synthesized, characterized and dispersed in distilled water to form stable suspension containing 0.1% volume concentration of nanoparticles. The Nusselt number in the fully developed region were measured and found to increase by 12.24% at Re = 2275 for plain tube with nanofluid compared to distilled water. Two wire coil inserts made of stainless steel with pitch ratios 2 and 3 were used which increased the Nusselt numbers by 15.91% and 21.53% respectively at Re = 2275 with nanofluid compared to distilled water. The better heat transfer performance of nanofluid with wire coil insert is attributed to the effects of dispersion or back-mixing which flattens the temperature distribution and make the temperature gradient between the fluid and wall steeper. The measured pressure loss with the use of nanofluids is almost equal to that of the distilled water. The empirical correlations developed for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of Reynolds/Peclet number, pitch ratio and volume concentration fits with the experimental data within {+-}15%. (author)

  9. Astrophysical S factor for the radiative capture (12)N(p,gamma)(13)O determined from the (14)N((12)N,(13)O)(13)C proton transfer reaction 

    E-print Network

    Banu, A.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.; Zhai, Y.; Carstoiu, F.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.

    2009-01-01

    E )1/2] dE ) . Here NA is Avogadro?s number, ? represents the reduced mass of the system, E is the energy in the center of mass, S(E) is the total astrophysical S factor, and EG is the Gamow energy (not to be confused with the maximum... of the Gamow peak, see Ref. [24]). Given the variation of the astrophysical S factor with energy in Fig. 8, we found it sufficient to carry the numerical integration over energy up to an upper limit of 2000 keV. The result for the total reaction rate...

  10. The impact of spermatic vein ligation on the male factor in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer and its relation to testosterone levels before and after operation.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi, J; Dicker, D; Feldberg, D; Shelef, M; Goldman, G A; Goldman, J

    1989-03-01

    Criteria for improved semen quality after varicocele operations are not clear, as they do not express sperm fertilization capacity, its most important qualification. Twenty-two couples, 12 with mechanical female infertility (group I) and 10 with normal female fertility (group II), in whom the husband had subfertile semen in the presence of varicocele, and who had failed preoperative in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) attempts, were readmitted for the IVF-ET procedure following the repair of varicocele. In group I, a 20% pregnancy rate was achieved after the operation, while no pregnancies occurred before surgery. In group II, four pregnancies (40%) were achieved after operation. Plasma testosterone (T) levels demonstrated a significant increase in 50% of the patients in both groups after surgery, resulting in a concurrent improved fertilization, cleavage, and pregnancy rates. PMID:2920846

  11. Nitrogen supply as a factor influencing photoinhibition and photosynthetic acclimation after transfer of shade-grown Solanum dulcamara to bright light.

    PubMed

    Ferrar, P J; Osmond, C B

    1986-09-01

    We have compared the ability of shadegrown clones of Solamum dulcamara L. from shade and sun habitats to acclimate to bright light, as a function of nitrogen nutrition before and after transfer to bright light. Leaves of S. dulcamara grown in the shade with 0.6 mM NO 3 (-) have similar photosynthetic properties as leaves of plants grown with 12.0 mM NO 3 (-) . When transferred to bright light for 1-2 d the leaves of these plants show substantial photoinhibition which is characterized by about 50% decrease in apparent quantum yield and a reduction in the rate of photosynthesis in air at light saturation. Photoinhibition of leaf photosynthesis is associated with reduction in the variable component of low-temperature fluorescence emission, and with loss of in-vitro electron transport, especially of photosystem II-dependent processes.We find no evidence for ecotypic differentiation in the potential for photosynthetic acclimation among shade and sun clones of S. dulcamara, or of differentiation with respect to nitrogen requirements for acclimation. Recovery from photoinhibition and subsequent acclimation of photosynthesis to bright light only occurs in leaves of plants provided with 12.0 mM NO 3 (-) . In these, apparent quantum yield is fully restored after 14 d, and photosynthetic acclimation is shown by an increase in light-saturated photosynthesis in air, of light-and CO2-saturated photosynthesis, and of the initial slope of the CO2-response curve. The latter changes are highly correlated with changes in ribulose-bisphosphate-carboxylase activity in vitro. Plants supplied with 0.6 mM NO 3 (-) show incomplete recovery of apparent quantum yield after 14 d, but CO2-dependent leaf photosynthetic parameters return to control levels. PMID:24232334

  12. Interfacial Electron Transfer Dynamics for [Ru(bpy)2((4,4?-PO3H2)2bpy)]2+ Sensitized TiO2 in a Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrosynthesis Cell: Factors Influencing Efficiency and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Wenjing; Brennaman, Kyle M; Concepcion, Javier J; Jurss, Jonah W.; Hoertz, Paul G; Luo, Hanlin; Chen, Chuncheng; Hanson, Kenneth G.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Nanosecond laser flash photolysis and photocurrent measurements have been used to investigate use of [(Ru(bpy){sub 2}(4,4?-(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}){sub 2}bpy)]{sup 2+} attached to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle films, TiO{sub 2}?Ru{sup II}, in a dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell (DSPEC) configuration for H{sub 2} production. In these experiments, laser flash excitation of TiO{sub 2}?Ru{sup II} and rapid injection lead to TiO{sub 2}(e?)?Ru{sup III} with subsequent TiO{sub 2}(e?)?Ru{sup III} ? TiO{sub 2}?Ru{sup II} back electron transfer monitored on the nsec time scale with and without added triethanolamine (TEOA) and deprotonated ethylenediaminetetraacetic tetra-anion (EDTA{sup 4?}) as irreversible electron transfer donors. With added TEOA or EDTA{sup 4?}, a competition exists between back electron transfer and scavenger oxidation with the latter leading to H{sub 2} production in the photoelectrosynthesis cell. Reduction of TiO{sub 2}(e?)?Ru{sup III} by both TEOA and EDTA{sup 4?} occurs with k{sub D} ? 10{sup 6} M{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}. EDTA{sup 4?} is a more efficient scavenger by a factor of ?3 because of a more favorable partition equilibrium between the film and the external solution. Its increased scavenger efficiency appears in incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements, in electron collection efficiencies (?{sub coll}), and in photocurrent measurements with H{sub 2} production. Evaluation of electron collection efficiencies by transient current measurements gave ?{sub coll} ? 24% for TEOA and ? 70% for EDTA{sup 4?}. The dynamics of back electron transfer are minimized, and collection efficiencies, photocurrents, and hydrogen production are maximized by application of a positive applied bias consistent with the results of I?V measurements. A pH dependent plateau is reached at ?0 V at pH = 4.5 (EDTA{sup 4?}) and at ? ?0.4 V at pH 6.7 (TEOA). The difference is qualitatively consistent with the influence of pH on electron population in trap states below the conduction band and the role they play in back electron transfer. The excitation dependence of IPCE measurements matches the spectrum of TiO{sub 2}?Ru{sup II} with IPCE values ?3 times higher for EDTA{sup 4?} than for TEOA as noted above. Absorbed photon-to-current efficiency (APCE) values are light-intensity dependent because of the effect of multiple injection events and the influence of increasing trap site electron densities on back electron transfer. The key to efficient H{sub 2} production is minimizing back electron transfer. Application of a sufficiently positive potential relative to E{sub CB} for TiO{sub 2} accelerates loss of electrons from the film in competition with back electron transfer allowing for H{sub 2} production with efficiencies approaching 14.7% under steady-state irradiation.

  13. Training Transfer: An Integrative Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lisa A.; Hutchins, Holly M.

    2007-01-01

    Given the proliferation of training transfer studies in various disciplines, we provide an integrative and analytical review of factors impacting transfer of training. Relevant empirical research for transfer across the management, human resource development (HRD), training, adult learning, performance improvement, and psychology literatures is…

  14. Therapeutic efficacy of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B-Fc delivered by nonviral gene transfer in a mouse model of osteolytic osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Lamoureux, François; Picarda, Gaëlle; Rousseau, Julie; Gourden, Clothilde; Battaglia, Séverine; Charrier, Céline; Pitard, Bruno; Heymann, Dominique; Rédini, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary bone tumor that develops mainly during youth, the median age of diagnosis being 18 years old. Despite improvement in osteosarcoma treatment, survival rate is only 30% after 5 years for patients with pulmonary metastases at diagnosis. This warrants exploration of new therapeutic options. The anti-bone resorption molecule Receptor Activator of NF-?B (RANK) is very promising as it may block the vicious cycle between bone resorption and tumor proliferation that takes place during tumor development in bone site. Experimental design The cDNA encoding murine RANK-Fc (mRANK-Fc) was administered by gene transfer using an amphiphilic polymer in a mouse model of osteolytic osteosarcoma. Clinical and bone micro-architecture parameters were assessed by radiography and micro-CT analyses. In vitro experiments were designed to determine the mechanism of action of RANK-Fc on tumor cell proliferation (XTT assays), apoptosis (caspase activation), cell cycle distribution (FACS analysis), or gene expression (RT-PCR). Results RANK-Fc was effective in preventing the formation of osteolytic lesions associated with osteosarcoma development, in reducing the tumor incidence, the local tumor growth and the lung metastases dissemination leading to a 3.9-fold augmentation of mice survival 28 days after implantation. On the contrary, mRANK-Fc did not prevent the development of non osseous tumor nodules, suggesting that bone environment is necessary for mRANK-Fc therapeutic efficacy. Furthermore, mRANK-Fc has no dire ct activity on osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Conclusion mRANK-Fc exerts an indirect inhibitory effect on osteosarcoma progression through inhibition of bone resorption. PMID:18852142

  15. A survey of attitudes and factors associated with successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge transfer in an older population most likely to witness cardiac arrest: design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    Vaillancourt, Christian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Brehaut, Jamie C; Osmond, Martin; Charette, Manya L; Wells, George A; Stiell, Ian G

    2008-01-01

    Background Overall survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rarely exceed 5%. While bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can increase survival for cardiac arrest victims by up to four times, bystander CPR rates remain low in Canada (15%). Most cardiac arrest victims are men in their sixties, they usually collapse in their own home (85%) and the event is witnessed 50% of the time. These statistics would appear to support a strategy of targeted CPR training for an older population that is most likely to witness a cardiac arrest event. However, interest in CPR training appears to decrease with advancing age. Behaviour surrounding CPR training and performance has never been studied using well validated behavioural theories. Methods/Design The overall goal of this study is to conduct a survey to better understand the behavioural factors influencing CPR training and performance in men and women 55 years of age and older. The study will proceed in three phases. In phase one, semi-structured qualitative interviews will be conducted and recorded to identify common categories and themes regarding seeking CPR training and providing CPR to a cardiac arrest victim. The themes identified in the first phase will be used in phase two to develop, pilot-test, and refine a survey instrument based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In the third phase of the project, the final survey will be administered to a sample of the study population over the telephone. Analyses will include measures of sampling bias, reliability of the measures, construct validity, as well as multiple regression analyses to identify constructs and beliefs most salient to seniors' decisions about whether to attend CPR classes or perform CPR on a cardiac arrest victim. Discussion The results of this survey will provide valuable insight into factors influencing the interest in CPR training and performance among a targeted group of individuals most susceptible to witnessing a victim in cardiac arrest. The findings can then be applied to the design of trials of various interventions designed to promote attendance at CPR classes and improve CPR performance. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00665288 PMID:18986547

  16. Transfer of the Amino-Terminal Nuclear Envelope Targeting Domain of Human MX2 Converts MX1 into an HIV-1 Resistance Factor

    PubMed Central

    Moncorgé, Olivier; Bauby, Hélène; Doyle, Tomas; Barclay, Wendy S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) protein of humans has been identified recently as an interferon (IFN)-inducible inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that acts at a late postentry step of infection to prevent the nuclear accumulation of viral cDNA (C. Goujon et al., Nature 502:559–562, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12542; M. Kane et al., Nature 502:563–566, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12653; Z. Liu et al., Cell Host Microbe 14:398–410, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2013.08.015). In contrast, the closely related human MX1 protein, which suppresses infection by a range of RNA and DNA viruses (such as influenza A virus [FluAV]), is ineffective against HIV-1. Using a panel of engineered chimeric MX1/2 proteins, we demonstrate that the amino-terminal 91-amino-acid domain of MX2 confers full anti-HIV-1 function when transferred to the amino terminus of MX1, and that this fusion protein retains full anti-FluAV activity. Confocal microscopy experiments further show that this MX1/2 fusion, similar to MX2 but not MX1, can localize to the nuclear envelope (NE), linking HIV-1 inhibition with MX accumulation at the NE. MX proteins are dynamin-like GTPases, and while MX1 antiviral function requires GTPase activity, neither MX2 nor MX1/2 chimeras require this attribute to inhibit HIV-1. This key discrepancy between the characteristics of MX1- and MX2-mediated viral resistance, together with previous observations showing that the L4 loop of the stalk domain of MX1 is a critical determinant of viral substrate specificity, presumably reflect fundamental differences in the mechanisms of antiviral suppression. Accordingly, we propose that further comparative studies of MX proteins will help illuminate the molecular basis and subcellular localization requirements for implementing the noted diversity of virus inhibition by MX proteins. IMPORTANCE Interferon (IFN) elicits an antiviral state in cells through the induction of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). The human MX2 protein has been identified as a key effector in the suppression of HIV-1 infection by IFN. Here, we describe a molecular genetic approach, using a collection of chimeric MX proteins, to identify protein domains of MX2 that specify HIV-1 inhibition. The amino-terminal 91-amino-acid domain of human MX2 confers HIV-1 suppressor capabilities upon human and mouse MX proteins and also promotes protein accumulation at the nuclear envelope. Therefore, these studies correlate the cellular location of MX proteins with anti-HIV-1 function and help establish a framework for future mechanistic analyses of MX-mediated virus control. PMID:24899177

  17. Investigations of Spectroscopic Factors and Sum Rules from the Single Neutron Transfer Reaction 111Cd(overrightarrow {{d}} ,p)112Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Krücken, R.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2014-03-01

    Cadmium isotopes have been presented for decades as excellent examples of vibrational nuclei, with low-lying levels interpreted as multi-phonon quadrupole, octupole, and mixed-symmetry states. A large amount of spectroscopic data has been obtained through various experimental studies of cadmiumisotopes. In the present work, the 111Cd(overrightarrow {{d}} ,p)112Cd reaction was used to investigate the single-particle structure of the 112Cd nucleus. A 22 MeV beam of polarized deuterons was obtained at the Maier-Leibnitz laboratory in Garching, Germany. The reaction ejectiles were momentum analyzed using a Q3D spectrograph, and 130 levels have been identified up to 4.2 MeV of excitation energy. Using DWBA analysis with optical model calculations, spin-parity assignments have been made for observed levels, and spectroscopic factors have been extracted from the experimental angular distributions of differential cross section and analyzing power. In this high energy resolution investigation, many additional levels have been observed compared with the previous (d,p) study using 8 MeV deuterons [1]. There were a total of 44 new levels observed, and the parity assignments of 34 levels were improved.

  18. Effects of recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated CD151 gene transfer on the expression of rat vascular endothelial growth factor in ischemic myocardium.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hairong; Tan, Jiahua; Yin, Qi'nan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of cluster of differentiation (CD) 151 on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ischemic myocardium by the injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector carrying the human CD151 gene. A rat acute myocardial infarction model was established, and rAAV-CD151 was injected into the ischemic myocardium. Four weeks later, the ischemic myocardium was removed in order to detect the expression of exogenous CD151 mRNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the expression of CD151 and VEGF was detected by western blot analysis to evaluate the effect of CD151 overexpression on VEGF expression. Four weeks after injection of the vector, exogenous CD151 mRNA was expressed in the myocardial tissues of the CD151 group, whereas it was not detected in sham surgery, model control or rAAV-green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene-treated groups. The expression levels of CD151 protein were significantly higher in the CD151 group compared with those in the other three groups (P<0.05). The VEGF expression level in the CD151 group was higher compared with those in the control and GFP groups (P>0.05). These results indicate that rAAV-CD151 effectively transfects rat myocardial tissues, and may promote angiogenesis of the ischemic myocardium, improve left ventricular function and increase VEGF expression to improve ventricular function. PMID:25452800

  19. Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio From Elastic e + p -> e + p Scattering at Momentum Transfer Q^2 = 2.5, 5.2, 6.7 and 8.5 (GeV/c)^2

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur Mkrtchyan

    2012-05-31

    Among the fundamental observables of nucleon structure, electromagnetic form factors are a crucial benchmark for modern calculations describing the strong interaction dyna mics of the nucleon's quark constituents. Electromagnetic probes are traditionally preferered to the hadronic beams. The electromagnetic interaction is a powerful tool for investigating the nucleon structure since it is well understood and it reveals observables that can be directly interpreted in terms of the current carried by the quarks. Elastic scattering leads to the form factors that describe the spatial charge a nd current distributions inside the nucleon. The reaction mechanism is assumed to be one photon exchange, the electromagnetic interaction is exactly calculable in QED, and one can safely extract the information on the hadronic vertex. The most important feature of early measurements of proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} with recoil polarization technique at Q{sup 2} up to 5.6 (GeV/c){sup 2} is the sharp decline of the ratio with Q{sup 2} increases, indicating that G{sub E}{sup p} falls much faster than G{sub M}{sup p}. This contradicts to data obtained by Rosenbluth separation method. An intriguing question was whether G{sub E}{sup p} will continue to decrease or become constant when Q{sup 2} increases. New set of measurements of proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} at Q{sup 2} = 2.5, 5.2, 6.7 and 8.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} have been conducted at JLab Hall C using {approx}85% longitudinally polarized electron elastic scattering from unpolarized hydrogen target. Recoil protons were detected in the HMS magnetic spectrometer with the standard detector package, combined with newly installed trigger scintillators and Focal Plane Polarimeter. The BigCal electromagnetic calorimeter (1744 channel) have been used for electron detection. Data obtained in this experiment show that G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} ratio continued to drop with Q{sup 2} and may cross 'zero' at Q{sup 2} > 10-15 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Intensive theoretical and experimental efforts over the past decade have aimed at explaining the discrepancy between data for the proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} obtained from cross section and polarization measurements. It was assumed that the two photon exchange contribution might be responsible for difference of G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} ratio obtained by Rosenbluth separation method and recoil polarization technique. The kinematical dependence of polarization transfer observables in elastic electron-proton scattering at Q{sup 2} = 2.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} have been used in search of effects of 2{gamma} contribution. For a wide range of values of the virtual photon polarization {epsilon} ({epsilon} = 0.15, 0.63, and 0.77), the proton form factor ratio and longitudinal polarization transfer component were measured with statistical uncertainties of {+-}0.01 and {+-}0.005, respectively. Our data provide significant constraints on models of nucleon structure.

  20. Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Animal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been adopted for use by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for use in transferring animals for research transferring the animal) Recipient: (name of laboratory/institution receiving the animal) The Provider agrees

  1. Dynamic transfer 1 DYNAMIC TRANSFER

    E-print Network

    Zollman, Dean

    : Dynamic transfer N. Sanjay Rebello Physics Department, 116 Cardwell Hall, Kansas State University Physics Department, 116 Cardwell Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506. Phone: (785) 532 1619@rit.edu Paula V. Engelhardt Physics Department, 116 Cardwell Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506

  2. Pleural thickening and gas transfer in asbestosis.

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, W O; Musk, A W; Glancy, J J

    1983-01-01

    Anomalies in the ratio of transfer factor to effective alveolar volume as an indicator of pulmonary gas exchange in cases of asbestosis may be related to diffuse pleural thickening. To examine the effect of pleural disease on gas transfer the plain chest radiographs of patients with asbestosis were assessed by two observers for profusion of parenchymal opacities and extent of pleural disease and the results were related to lung function. In 30 cases of category 1 profusion of parenchymal abnormality (according to the ILO international classification of radiographs for pneumoconiosis) transfer factor was independent of the degree of pleural thickening. The ratio of transfer factor to effective alveolar volume correlated directly with the degree of pleural thickening as alveolar volume fell with increasing severity of pleural disease. The results indicate that correcting transfer factor for alveolar volume does not provide an accurate reflection of severity of diffuse parenchymal fibrosis in patients with asbestosis and even minor pleural disease. PMID:6623418

  3. Nonadiabatic anharmonic electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P P

    2013-03-28

    The effect of an inner sphere, local mode vibration on an electron transfer is modeled using the nonadiabatic transition probability (rate) expression together with both the anharmonic Morse and the harmonic oscillator potential. For an anharmonic inner sphere mode, a variational analysis uses harmonic oscillator basis functions to overcome the difficulties evaluating Morse-model Franck-Condon overlap factors. Individual matrix elements are computed with the use of new, fast, robust, and flexible recurrence relations. The analysis therefore readily addresses changes in frequency and/or displacement of oscillator minimums in the different electron transfer states. Direct summation of the individual Boltzmann weighted Franck-Condon contributions avoids the limitations inherent in the use of the familiar high-temperature, gaussian form of the rate constant. The effect of harmonic versus anharmonic inner sphere modes on the electron transfer is readily seen, especially in the exoergic, inverted region. The behavior of the transition probability can also be displayed as a surface for all temperatures and values of the driving force/exoergicity ? = -?G. The temperature insensitivity of the transfer rate is clearly seen when the exoergicity equals the collective reorganization energy (? = ?(s)) along a maximum ln?(w) vs. ? ridge of the surface. The surface also reveals additional regions for ? where ln?(w) appears to be insensitive to temperature, or effectively activationless, for some kinds of inner sphere contributions. PMID:23556710

  4. Heat Transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Leslie Van (Montgomery Blair High School)

    2006-04-01

    In this inquiry activity students explore how heat transfers from one substance to another This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2006 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  5. The transfer of analytical procedures.

    PubMed

    Ermer, J; Limberger, M; Lis, K; Wätzig, H

    2013-11-01

    Analytical method transfers are certainly among the most discussed topics in the GMP regulated sector. However, they are surprisingly little regulated in detail. General information is provided by USP, WHO, and ISPE in particular. Most recently, the EU emphasized the importance of analytical transfer by including it in their draft of the revised GMP Guideline. In this article, an overview and comparison of these guidelines is provided. The key to success for method transfers is the excellent communication between sending and receiving unit. In order to facilitate this communication, procedures, flow charts and checklists for responsibilities, success factors, transfer categories, the transfer plan and report, strategies in case of failed transfers, tables with acceptance limits are provided here, together with a comprehensive glossary. Potential pitfalls are described such that they can be avoided. In order to assure an efficient and sustainable transfer of analytical procedures, a practically relevant and scientifically sound evaluation with corresponding acceptance criteria is crucial. Various strategies and statistical tools such as significance tests, absolute acceptance criteria, and equivalence tests are thoroughly descibed and compared in detail giving examples. Significance tests should be avoided. The success criterion is not statistical significance, but rather analytical relevance. Depending on a risk assessment of the analytical procedure in question, statistical equivalence tests are recommended, because they include both, a practically relevant acceptance limit and a direct control of the statistical risks. However, for lower risk procedures, a simple comparison of the transfer performance parameters to absolute limits is also regarded as sufficient. PMID:23978903

  6. Electrochemical charge transfer at a metallic electrode: a simulation study 

    E-print Network

    Pounds, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Part I Electrochemical charge transfer at a metallic electrode: a simulation study The factors which affect the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer at a metallic electrode in the context of Marcus theory are ...

  7. Efficient and Robust Radiance Transfer for Probeless Photorealistic Augmented Reality

    E-print Network

    Sen, Pradeep

    interaction between real and virtual objects is a key factor for photorealistic Augmented Reality (AREfficient and Robust Radiance Transfer for Probeless Photorealistic Augmented Reality Lukas Gruber transfer computations for probeless light estimation in Augmented Reality. (Left) Aug- mented Reality based

  8. Mass transfer andMass transfer and Mass transfer andMass transfer and

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    eknik Mass transfer andMass transfer and arationste Mass transfer andMass transfer and separationSepa Massöverföring och separationsteknikMassöverföring och separationsteknik ("MÖF("MÖF--ST")ST") 4 erföringo 6. Mass transfer and convection6. Mass transfer and convection Massöve Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi Universityy

  9. Mass transfer andMass transfer and Mass transfer andMass transfer and

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    eknik Mass transfer andMass transfer and arationste Mass transfer andMass transfer and separationSepa Massöverföring och separationsteknikMassöverföring och separationsteknik ("MÖF("MÖF--ST")ST") 4 erföringo 8. Mass transfer8. Mass transfer with chemical reactionwith chemical reaction Massöve with chemical reactionwith

  10. Shape factors in conductive heat transfer 

    E-print Network

    Faulkner, Richard Campbell

    1954-01-01

    , the use of iron filings in conjunction with an electromagnet, and the use of a condenser constructed in the 1Q shape of the body to be stud. ied. For the case of the condens- Bx' he showed tha't: AC = 4rrC, Ce e Capacitance of Condenser, Cxc P C... Configurations Investigated. Parellel Planes, Concentric Cg3. 1nders, Spheres . . 15 XXX Iv Effective Circuit, , Diagratu. Equipment and Jlfaterials. 22 VX Shape Pactor 0-2 Shape Pactor 0-2 Shape Pactox' 1-2 Shape tactor 1-2 Shape Shape Shape Pactor...

  11. Shape factors in conductive heat transfer

    E-print Network

    Faulkner, Richard Campbell

    1954-01-01

    Vs L 2/9, ; Ll/9, O. 166V. . . . . 54 XL Vs L 2/Do, L /D 0. 250Q. L Vs L. /9; L /9 0. 5555. . . . . 56 LX Vs L /9 ; Ll/9 0. 3. 667. . . . . 5V LXI Vs L 2/9, ; Ll/9 O. 25OO. . . . . 52 XXII Pactox 1-2 Vs L 2/9 ; L /9 0, 5555, LXV abactor 1-2 Vs Ll/9...: q e -k(~)ZT hT q = Heat flow, Btu/Hr k = Thexmal conductivity, -Btu Jk ~ Lrea, ZtB I ~ length of. heat flow path& Jt 6 T = Temperatux e di f f er ence, dp. R Resistance, (op Zt)pt. ln othex simple cases, such as the cylinder and, the sphex...

  12. Load transfer mechanism in carbon nanotube ropes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Qian; Rodney S. Ruoff

    2003-01-01

    We used molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics to study the nature of load transfer in a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundle consisting of seven (10,10) SWCNTs: one core tube surrounded by six tubes on the perimeter. The surface tension and the inter-tube corrugation are identified as the two factors that contribute to load transfer. The surface tension effectively acts

  13. Heat transfer to turbine blading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priddy, W. J.; Bayley, F. J.

    This paper reports the most recent results of a continuing research program studying the factors determining the distribution of heat transfer to turbine blading. It is particularly concerned with the effects of mainstream turbulence parameters, including intensity and frequency of disturbance. A suggested correlation based on an earlier theoretical study (Ishigaki, 1971) shows clearly how different regions of the blade surface react to the perturbations in the mainstream flow. It is clear that laminar-turbulent transition for the blade boundary layer is crucial to this reaction and the large amount of heat transfer data from the present program is used to examine transition criteria in steady flows.

  14. Variation of distribution factors with loading Ross Baldick

    E-print Network

    Baldick, Ross

    1 Variation of distribution factors with loading Ross Baldick Abstract--Power transfer distribution distribution factors, shift factors. I. INTRODUCTION An (incremental) power transfer distribution factor (PTDF factors depend on the op- erating point and topology of an electric power system. However, it is known

  15. DE PAUL UNIVERSITY MATH AND SCIENCE DEGREES FOR TRANSFER STUDENTS

    E-print Network

    Schaefer, Marcus

    DE PAUL UNIVERSITY MATH AND SCIENCE DEGREES FOR TRANSFER STUDENTS College of Liberal Arts and more. But one single factor can give you the edge: the school's commitment to transfer students. That's where our expertise comes in. DePaul welcomes transfer students; they make up almost half

  16. Transfer of Training: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian D. Blume; J. Kevin Ford; Timothy T. Baldwin; Jason L. Huang

    2010-01-01

    Although transfer of learning was among the very first issues addressed by early psychologists, the extant literature remains characterized by inconsistent measurement of transfer and significant variability in findings. This article presents a meta-analysis of 89 empirical studies that explore the impact of predictive factors (e.g., trainee characteristics, work environment, training interventions) on the transfer of training to different tasks

  17. Beyond Access: Explaining Socioeconomic Differences in College Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Pfeffer, Fabian T.

    2009-01-01

    Reducing socioeconomic differences in college transfer requires understanding how and why parental education, occupational class, and family income are associated with changing colleges. Building on prior studies of traditional community college transfer, the authors explore relationships between those factors and two types of transfer among…

  18. University Technology Transfer: Do Incentives, Management, and Location Matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Friedman; Jonathan Silberman

    2003-01-01

    University technology transfer activities are increasingly important as a source of regional economic development and revenue for the university. We use regression analysis, a two-stage model and the most recent data to examine the determinants of technology transfer. Our analysis strongly support four factors, not previously examined in the literature, enhancing university technology transfer: greater rewards for faculty involvement in

  19. Applying Transfer in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Karen; Foley, Jeffrey M.; Kaiser, Leann M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the chapters in this issue, the authors have cited various definitions for learning transfer. For educators, in its simplest form, transfer of learning occurs when students put to practical use the knowledge and skills they gained in the classroom (near transfer). Chapter 1 defines near transfer and then goes into detail on the levels…

  20. Probability of Detection Demonstration Transferability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Propellant Tank Penetrant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Probability of Detection (POD) Assessment (NESC activity) has surfaced several issues associated with liquid penetrant POD demonstration testing. This presentation lists factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. Initial testing will address the liquid penetrant inspection technique. Some of the factors to be considered in this task are crack aspect ratio, the extent of the crack opening, the material and the distance between the inspection surface and the inspector's eye.

  1. Mechanisms of metal ion-coupled electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ohkubo, Kei; Morimoto, Yuma

    2012-06-28

    Redox inactive metal ions acting as Lewis acids can control electron transfer from electron donors (D) to electron acceptors (A) by binding to radical anions of electron acceptors which act as Lewis bases. Such electron transfer is defined as metal ion-coupled electron transfer (MCET). Mechanisms of metal ion-coupled electron transfer are classified mainly into two pathways, i.e., metal ion binding to electron acceptors followed by electron transfer (MB/ET) and electron transfer followed by metal ion binding to the resulting radical anions of electron acceptors (ET/MB). In the former case, electron transfer and the stronger binding of metal ions to the radical anions occur in a concerted manner. Examples are shown in each case to clarify the factors to control MCET reactions in both thermal and photoinduced electron-transfer reactions including back electron-transfer reactions. PMID:22596095

  2. Analysis of insertion mutants in the Escherichia coli fertility factor F transfer genes: traY, traQ, trbA, trbB and artA

    E-print Network

    Kathir, Pushpa Rani

    1989-01-01

    in maxicells. Flac derivatives carrying kan insertions in ~tra and traY, and pOX38 derivatives carrying insertions in trbA, trbB and artA were then constructed by in vivo recombination. After the structure of these derivatives was confirmed, their transfer... to restore a normal phenotype. My results showed that a kan insertion in the Nsii site of tra(Z eliminated Flee transfer, pilus expression, and F-pilin synthesis; such mutations were not polar and could be complemented by clones that carried only ~tra...

  3. Electron Transfer versus Proton Transfer in Gas-Phase Ion/Ion Reactions of Polyprotonated Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Harsha P.; He, Min; Chrisman, Paul A.; Pitteri, Sharon J.; Hogan, Jason M.; Hodges, Brittany D. M.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    The ion/ion reactions of several dozen reagent anions with triply protonated cations of the model peptide KGAILKGAILR have been examined to evaluate predictions of a Landau–Zener-based model for the likelihood for electron transfer. Evidence for electron transfer was provided by the appearance of fragment ions unique to electron transfer or electron capture dissociation. Proton transfer and electron transfer are competitive processes for any combination of anionic and cationic reactants. For reagent anions in reactions with protonated peptides, proton transfer is usually significantly more exothermic than electron transfer. If charge transfer occurs at relatively long distances, electron transfer should, therefore, be favored on kinetic grounds because the reactant and product channels cross at greater distances, provided conditions are favorable for electron transfer at the crossing point. The results are consistent with a model based on Landau–Zener theory that indicates both thermodynamic and geometric criteria apply for electron transfer involving polyatomic anions. Both the model and the data suggest that electron affinities associated with the anionic reagents greater than about 60–70 kcal/mol minimize the likelihood that electron transfer will be observed. Provided the electron affinity is not too high, the Franck–Condon factors associated with the anion and its corresponding neutral must not be too low. When one or the other of these criteria is not met, proton transfer tends to occur essentially exclusively. Experiments involving ion/ion attachment products also suggest that a significant barrier exists to the isomerization between chemical complexes that, if formed, lead to either proton transfer or electron transfer. PMID:16144411

  4. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    SciTech Connect

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José, E-mail: jsdehesa@upv.es

    2014-06-15

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  5. The speed of knowledge transfer within multinational enterprises: the role of social capital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiun-Shiu Chen; Al S. Lovvorn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The success of knowledge transfer very much depends on a company's ability to effectively manage their knowledge transfer process. The purpose of this paper is to argue that a critical component in understanding knowledge transfer in the international arena is the speed of that knowledge transfer (and those factors that influence that speed) within a multinational enterprise (MNE).

  6. Study on the Influence Mechanism of Social Capital to Informal Knowledge Transfer among

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Individuals Zhihong Li; Tao Zhu

    Informal knowledge transfer among individuals is a crucial section of organization knowledge management. Informal knowledge transfer among individuals exists in the social relationships. After summarizing the theories of knowledge management, this paper proposed that knowledge transfer opportunities, motives and capacity are the decisive influential factors to informal knowledge transfer among individuals. Based on the theoretical perspective of social capital, and

  7. Journal of Enhanced Heat Transfer, 19 (5): 457476 (2012) EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HEAT

    E-print Network

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    2012-01-01

    Journal of Enhanced Heat Transfer, 19 (5): 457­476 (2012) EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HEAT microfin tubes, most of the heat transfer and friction factor studies were focused on the turbulent region. However, there is a lack of information about the heat transfer and friction factor behavior of microfin

  8. Heat Transfer Guest Editorial

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Journal of Heat Transfer Guest Editorial We are indeed delighted in bringing out this special issue was showcased in diverse areas such as traditional heat and mass transfer, lab-on-chip, sensors, biomedical applica- tions, micromixers, fuel cells, and microdevices. Selected papers in the field of heat transfer

  9. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  10. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  11. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  12. Transferring learning from faculty development to the classroom.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kim Z

    2014-12-01

    This study’s purpose was to better understand the transfer of learning by uncovering how various factors supported the integration of health information technology knowledge and skills gleaned from the Health Resources and Services Administration–funded faculty development programs into nursing education curricula. Through interviews with 20 participants from four programs, this study confirmed the importance of findings related to faculty, program, and work environment characteristics for supporting successful transfer of learning and substantiates a variety of other transfer-of-learning research. New or seldom discussed supportive individual characteristics were found, including leadership abilities, lifelong learning, ability to recognize limitations, persistence, creativity, and risk taking. The importance of networking, diversity of perspectives, postconference support, and teams in program designs were found to positively influence transfer. The variety of supportive factors and barriers in the participants’ work environments strengthens the assertions that transfer may be context dependent. Findings provided insight for recommendations to improve learning transfer. PMID:25494191

  13. Factor Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Math Playground

    2009-07-29

    This virtual manipulative allows students to find the prime factorization of numbers by completing factor trees. Then they may use a venn diagram to sort the prime factors to find the greatest common factor and the least common multiple.

  14. Factor Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this online activity, the learner finds the prime factorization of composite numbers by building factor trees. A second level includes finding the greatest common factor and the least common multiple by sorting factors using a Venn Diagram.

  15. Heat transfer in bundles of finned tubes in crossflow

    SciTech Connect

    Stasiulevicius, J.; Skrinska, A.; Zukauskas, A.; Hewitt, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides correlations of heat transfer and hydraulic data for bundles of finned tubes in crossflow at high Reynolds numbers. Results of studies of the effectiveness of the fin, local, and mean heat transfer coefficients are presented. The effect of geometric parameters of the fins and of the location of tubes in the bundle on heat transfer and hydraulic drag are described. The resistance of the finned tube bundles under study and other factors are examined.

  16. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-03-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool. 6 figures.

  17. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA); Barbanti, Giancarlo (Cupertino, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  18. Calculating proper transfer prices

    SciTech Connect

    Dorkey, F.C. (Meliora Research Associates, Rochester, NY (United States)); Jarrell, G.A. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  19. Information transfer in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1988-01-01

    An informal overview is given of the work in progress and the planned work in the area of information transfer that specifically addresses human factors issues in National Airspace System (NAS). The issues of how weather information will be displayed on the flight deck, the development of appropriate decision making technology, and digital datalink transmission are also briefly discussed.

  20. Technology transfer utilizing automated knowledge acquisition tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald L. Atkinson

    1990-01-01

    An application for expert systems that takes advantage of their capability to improve productivity and carry out technology transfer is described. There is a vast need for routine reporting on the evaluation of the capability of weapon systems to withstand the effects of nuclear weapons. Six expert systems have been developed which demonstrated productivity improvements by a factor to 10

  1. Maximizing profits in international technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straube, W.

    1974-01-01

    Maximum profit can be introduced into international technology transfer by observing the following: (1) ethical and open dealing between the parties; (2) maximum knowledge of all facts concerning the technology, the use of the technology, the market, competition, prices, and alternatives; (3) ability to coordinate exports, service, support activities, licensing and cross licensing; and (4) knowledgeable people which put these factors together.

  2. X-ray transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J.I.

    1992-03-01

    The computational techniques for treating radiative transfer in general, and x-ray transfer in particular, are reviewed, with emphasis on the difficult problems associated with systems that are not in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Some special aspects of x-ray transfer are mentioned. The computer code ALTAIR, developed at LLNL to solve such problems, is described briefly, with an example of x-ray fluorescence in a Seyfert galaxy. Some of the prospects for experimental tests of x-ray radiative transfer theory are considered.

  3. Settled Cryogenic Propellant Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; Sakla, Steve; Wall, John; Hopkins, Josh; Saks, Greg; Duffey, Jack; Chato, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant transfer can significantly benefit NASA s space exploration initiative. LMSSC parametric studies indicate that "Topping off" the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) in LEO with approx.20 mT of additional propellant using cryogenic propellant transfer increases the lunar delivered payload by 5 mT. Filling the EDS to capacity in LEO with 78 mT of propellants increases the delivered payload by 20 mT. Cryogenic propellant transfer is directly extensible to Mars exploration in that it provides propellant for the Mars Earth Departure stage and in-situ propellant utilization at Mars. To enable the significant performance increase provided by cryogenic propellant transfer, the reliability and robustness of the transfer process must be guaranteed. By utilizing low vehicle acceleration during the cryogenic transfer the operation is significantly simplified and enables the maximum use of existing, reliable, mature upper stage cryogenic-fluid-management (CFM) techniques. Due to settling, large-scale propellant transfer becomes an engineering effort, and not the technology development endeavor required with zero-gravity propellant transfer. The following key CFM technologies are all currently implemented by settling on both the Centaur and Delta IV upper stages: propellant acquisition, hardware chilldown, pressure control, and mass gauging. The key remaining technology, autonomous rendezvous and docking, is already in use by the Russians, and must be perfected for NASA whether the use of propellant transfer is utilized or not.

  4. Nonparametric Transfer Function Models

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun M.; Chen, Rong; Yao, Qiwei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a class of nonparametric transfer function models is proposed to model nonlinear relationships between ‘input’ and ‘output’ time series. The transfer function is smooth with unknown functional forms, and the noise is assumed to be a stationary autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) process. The nonparametric transfer function is estimated jointly with the ARMA parameters. By modeling the correlation in the noise, the transfer function can be estimated more efficiently. The parsimonious ARMA structure improves the estimation efficiency in finite samples. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are investigated. The finite-sample properties are illustrated through simulations and one empirical example. PMID:20628584

  5. Analytic Couple Modeling Introducing Device Design Factor, Fin Factor, Thermal Diffusivity Factor, and Inductance Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    A set of convenient thermoelectric device solutions have been derived in order to capture a number of factors which are previously only resolved with numerical techniques. The concise conversion efficiency equations derived from governing equations provide intuitive and straight-forward design guidelines. These guidelines allow for better device design without requiring detailed numerical modeling. The analytical modeling accounts for factors such as i) variable temperature boundary conditions, ii) lateral heat transfer, iii) temperature variable material properties, and iv) transient operation. New dimensionless parameters, similar to the figure of merit, are introduced including the device design factor, fin factor, thermal diffusivity factor, and inductance factor. These new device factors allow for the straight-forward description of phenomenon generally only captured with numerical work otherwise. As an example a device design factor of 0.38, which accounts for thermal resistance of the hot and cold shoes, can be used to calculate a conversion efficiency of 2.28 while the ideal conversion efficiency based on figure of merit alone would be 6.15. Likewise an ideal couple with efficiency of 6.15 will be reduced to 5.33 when lateral heat is accounted for with a fin factor of 1.0.

  6. Preserving transfer independence among individuals with spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Nyland; P Quigley; C Huang; J Lloyd; J Harrow; A Nelson

    2000-01-01

    Study design: Literature review.Objectives: Upper extremity (UE) joint degeneration, particularly at the shoulder, detrimentally influences functional independence, quality of life, cardiovascular disease risk, and life expectancy of individuals following spinal cord injury (SCI). This review (1) describes UE use for transfers among individuals with SCI; (2) describes contributing factors associated with UE joint degeneration and loss of transfer independence; (3)

  7. Critical context and international intrafirm best-practice transfers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adva Dinur; Robert D. Hamilton III; Andrew C. Inkpen

    2009-01-01

    The sharing and transfer of knowledge and best practices across the organization have long been recognized as a critical driver of a firm's capabilities and performance. In fact, Gupta and Govindarajan (1991) maintained that MNCs exist primarily because of their superior ability to transfer knowledge internally relative to the ability of markets. This paper examines factors that influence the success

  8. Bioinformatic detection of horizontally transferred DNA in bacterial genomes

    E-print Network

    Hammerton, James

    of antibiotic resistance genes or virulence factors [2]. Although HGT has been shown to be widespread across in the Salmonella lineage indicated that ancient horizontally transferred gene sequences tended to share a greater horizontal gene transfer. This research area continues to face controversy, but is becoming more critical

  9. Automatic tank gauges can be used for custody transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei

    1989-01-01

    Automatic tank gauging systems (ATG's) can be used effectively for volume measurements for custody transfers of liquids because they can offer better repeatability of measurements, and they can reduce human measurement errors. However, users must be aware of the factors affecting the installed accuracy which could disqualify the ATG installation for custody transfer measurements. Also, approvals may be needed, in

  10. Succession: Measuring transfer of code and developer productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audris Mockus

    2009-01-01

    Code ownership transfer or succession is a crucial ingredient in open source code reuse and in offshoring projects. Measuring succession can help understand factors that affect the success of such transfers and suggest ways to make them more efficient. We pro- pose and evaluate several methods to measure succes- sion based on the chronology and traces of developer activities. Based

  11. Heat transfer enhancement of copper nanofluid with acoustic cavitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Zhou

    2004-01-01

    Heat transfer characteristics of copper nanofluids with and without acoustic cavitation were investigated experimentally. The effects of such factors as acoustical parameters, nanofluid concentration and fluid subcooling on heat transfer enhancement around a heated horizontal copper tube were discussed in detail. The results indicated that the copper nanoparticles and acoustic cavitation had profound and significant influence on heat transport in

  12. Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Learning Transfer System Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Bookter, Annette I.; Yamkovenko, V. Bogdan

    2007-01-01

    The Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) was developed to identify a select set of factors with the potential to substantially enhance or inhibit transfer of learning to the work environment. It has undergone a variety of validation studies, including construct, criterion, and crosscultural studies. However, the convergent and divergent…

  13. Heat transfer in high-current thermal batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. C. Kreiger

    1992-01-01

    Heat transfer studies at the Harry Diamond Laboratories are summarized and applied to a 100 A thermal battery that will be used for vehicular propulsion. The gas atmosphere in the thermal insulation is a major factor affecting the heat transfer. The remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) thermal battery was designed to serve as a silent energy source for a propeller-driven missile

  14. Boiling helium heat transfer characteristics in narrow cooling channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nishi; T. Ando; T. Hiyama; T. Kato; S. Shimamoto

    1983-01-01

    For design of a stable superconducting magnet with pool cooling method, the size of the cooling channel is one of the important factors to determine its overall current density. The authors measured the steady state boiling helium heat transfer characteristics in a 600 mm long vertical cooling channel. The result shows that heat transfer characteristics in film boiling region do

  15. Adenoviral transfer of murine oncostatin M elicits periosteal bone apposition in knee joints of mice, despite synovial inflammation and up-regulated expression of interleukin-6 and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand.

    PubMed

    de Hooge, Alfons S K; van de Loo, Fons A J; Bennink, Miranda B; de Jong, Diana S; Arntz, Onno J; Lubberts, Erik; Richards, Carl D; vandDen Berg, Wim B

    2002-05-01

    Oncostatin M (OSM) has been described as a bone-remodeling factor either stimulating osteoblast activity or osteoclast formation in vitro. To elucidate the in vivo effect of OSM on bone remodeling, we injected an adenoviral vector encoding murine OSM in knee joints of mice. OSM strongly induced interleukin (IL)-6 gene expression, a known mediator of osteoclast development. We investigated the OSM effect in wild-type and IL-6-deficient mice and found a similar degree of OSM-induced joint inflammation. Within the first week of inflammation, the periosteum along the femur and tibia increased in cell number and stained positive for the osteoblast marker alkaline phosphatase. At these sites bone apposition occurred in both strains as demonstrated by Goldner and Von Kossa staining. In vitro OSM enhanced the effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on osteoblast differentiation. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) and its receptor, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK), in the periosteum but osteoclasts were not detected at sites of bone apposition. Induced mRNA expression for the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand inhibitor osteoprotegerin probably controlled osteoclast development during OSM overexpression. Our results show that OSM favors bone apposition at periosteal sites instead of resorption in vivo. This effect was not dependent on or inhibited by IL-6. PMID:12000725

  16. Factoring with the Factor Tree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Interactive Math Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny

    2011-01-01

    This Java applet presents a composite number, and prompts you to factor it -- one step at a time. Enter one factor, prime or another composite; the applet calculates the remaining factor, and branches two boxes below any composite factor so that you may proceed factoring until you obtain the full factorization into primes, which the applet colors in green. Click the "Repeat problem" button to see that different factor trees for a given number still result in the same prime factorization.

  17. Disability and Type/Level of Offense Committed by Juveniles Transferred versus Not Transferred to the Adult Court System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Julie C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two groups of males in Arizona Department of Corrections (ADJC) custody with regard to three factors. The first group consisted of youth sentenced to ADJC who later received criminal charges for which they were transferred to the adult court system, ("Transferred" group), and the second group involved youth…

  18. Transfer of nir calibration model for determining fiber content in flax; effects of transfer samples and standardization procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transfer of a calibration model for determining fiber content in flax stem was accomplished between two near-infrared spectrometers, which are the same brand but require a standardization. In this paper, three factors including: transfer sample set, spectral type, and standardization method wer...

  19. Bioheat Transfer Valvano, page 1 Bioheat Transfer

    E-print Network

    Engineering The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712-1084 IV. TISSUE THERMAL TRANSPORT PROPERTIES A phenomenological mechanisms including conduction, convection, radiation, metabolism, evaporation, and phase change Transfer Valvano, page 2 microcomputer-based instrument. When the initial tissue temperature is just below

  20. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    E-print Network

    A. A. Rangelov; H. Suchowski; Y. Silberberg; N. V. Vitanov

    2010-10-30

    We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  1. Electron transfer in quinoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor L. Davidson

    2004-01-01

    Soluble quinoprotein dehydrogenases oxidize a wide range of sugar, alcohol, amine, and aldehyde substrates. The physiological electron acceptors for these enzymes are not pyridine nucleotides but are other soluble redox proteins. This makes these enzymes and their electron acceptors excellent systems with which to study mechanisms of long-range interprotein electron transfer reactions. The tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ)-dependent methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) transfers

  2. Technology Transfer at Motorola

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor R. Basili; Michael Daskalantonakis; Robert H. Yacobellis

    1994-01-01

    While developing a formal software-review process, a working group at Motorola devised a technology-transfer model that is built on process packages, each one targeted to a different user group. Their model allows for tailoring, makes training and consulting widely available, and relies on champions. The approach helps development organizations focus on the technology they really need, devise solutions, and transfer

  3. Transfer Study Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    Longitudinal data are presented relating to Bakersfield College (BC) students who transferred to public four-year colleges and universities. Highlighted findings include the following: (1) first-time transfers from BC to the California State University and College (CSUC) system increased by 19.4% from fall 1987 to fall 1988, the highest since the…

  4. Biologic bypass with the use of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of the complementary deoxyribonucleic acid for vascular endothelial growth factor 121 improves myocardial perfusion and function in the ischemic porcine heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Mack; Shailen R. Patel; Eric A. Schwarz; Pat Zanzonico; Rebecca T. Hahn; Arzu Ilercil; Richard B. Devereux; Stanley J. Goldsmith; Timothy F. Christian; Timothy A. Sanborn; Imre Kovesdi; Neil Hackett; O. Wayne Isom; Ronald G. Crystal; Todd K. Rosengart

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic mediator, can be delivered to targeted tissues by means of a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) vector. We hypothesized that direct administration of Ad vector expressing the VEGF121 complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (AdGVVEGF121.10) into regions of ischemic myocardium would enhance collateral vessel formation and improve regional perfusion and function. Methods: Yorkshire swine underwent thoracotomy

  5. Form factors: Experimental Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mark

    2004-10-01

    A review of experiments which measured nucleon electromagnetic form factors since the early 1990's will be presented. Before 1990, the form factors were predominantly extracted from elastic electron-proton and electron-deuteron cross section measurements. The lack of a free neutron target made measurement of the neutron form factors much more difficult than the proton form factors. New facilities and experimental techniques were needed to make precision measurement of the neutron form factor and extend precision measurement of the proton electric form factor to four-momentum transfer squared, Q^2, greater than 1 GeV^2. New accelerator facilities, such as Mainz Microtron and Jefferson Lab Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator, have produced high current and high duty factor electron beams with large polarizations. The high-duty factor beam made precision coincidence experiments feasible for quasi-free scattering on deuteron. Using the polarized electron beam, experiments measured the recoil polarization of the outgoing nucleon in elastic electron-proton scattering and quasi-free electron-deuteron scattering and were able to extract the electric form factor. Advances in polarized deuteron and helium targets have facilitated beam-target asymmetry measurements from which neutron form factors can be extracted. Theoretical advances have enabled understanding of knockout of the neutron in electron-deuteron scattering and quasi-free electron-^3He scattering. Using these calculations, kinematics are selected which maximize the sensitivity to neutron form factor while minimizing the effects of the reaction mechanism which are calculable in the theory. All these advances have combined to improve the precision and expand the Q^2 range of our knowledge of nucleon electromagnetic form factors. The data provides a strong baseline for testing theoretical models of the nucleon structure.

  6. Mass transfer during drop formation in the presence of interfacial turbulence in the liquid-liquid systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Nakaike; T. Mizukoshi; T. Aonuma; T. Tadaki

    1983-01-01

    The mass transfer rate during the drop formation in the presence of interfacial turbulence was investigated. The interfacial turbulence increases the mass transfer rate. The empirical equation was obtained for the enhancement factor of the mass transfer rate which is defined as the ratio of the overall mass transfer coefficient in the presence of interfacial turbulence to the estimated value

  7. International Student Advisor's Transfer Report (Transfer to Texas Tech University)

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    International Student Advisor's Transfer Report (Transfer to Texas Tech University) Section One (to: _______________________ Semester Last Attended ________ Semester intended to transfer to Texas Tech University: Fall _____ Spring Tech University. Student's Signature __________________________ Date

  8. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01

    The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow ...

  9. Förster energy transfer induced random lasing at unconventional excitation wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadak Alee, K.; Barik, Sabyasachi; Mujumdar, Sushil

    2013-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate efficient lasing from a Rhodamine-nanoscatterer random laser when pumped with unconventional wavelengths, at which the absorption of Rhodamine is negligible. Förster-type energy transfer was realized by using Coumarin molecules as donors. Explicit time-resolved spectroscopy provided direct evidence for the nonradiative transfer with ˜48% efficiency. We obtained lasing at reduced thresholds by a factor of over 3 and increased amplification rates by a factor of ˜4 in the Förster regime, even in samples with sub-diffusive disorder strength. We characterize the efficacy of the Förster transfer induced lasing over a range of unconventional wavelengths for the Rh-based system.

  10. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    E-print Network

    Diaz-Rubio, Ana; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated.

  11. Tendon lengthening and transfer.

    PubMed

    Fitoussi, F; Bachy, M

    2015-02-01

    Tendon lengthening and transfer are usually indicated for certain neuromuscular disorders, peripheral or central nerve injury, congenital disorder or direct traumatic or degenerative musculotendinous lesion. In musculotendinous lengthening, technique depends on muscle anatomy, degree of correction required, and the need to avoid excessive loss of force. Lengthening within the muscle or aponeurosis is stable. In the tendon, however, it may provide greater gain but is not stable and requires postoperative immobilization to avoid excessive lengthening. Tendon transfer consists in displacing a muscle's tendon insertion in order to restore function. The muscle to be transferred is chosen according to strength, architecture and course, contraction timing, intended direction, synergy and the joint moment arm to be restored. Functions to be restored have to be prioritized, and alternatives to transfer should be identified. The principles of tendon transfer require preoperative assessment of the quality of the tissue through which the transfer is to pass and of the suppleness of the joints concerned. During the procedure, transfer tension should be optimized and the neurovascular bundle should be protected. The method of fixation, whether tendon-to-bone or tendon-to-tendon suture, should be planned according to local conditions and the surgeon's experience. PMID:25572471

  12. Numerical Radiative Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Operator Perturbation: 1. Survey of operator perturbation methods W. Kalkofen; 2. Line formation in expanding atmospheres: multilevel calculations using approximate lambda operators W. R. Hamann; 3. Stellar atmospheres in non-LTE: model construction and line formation calculations using approximate lambda operators K. Werner; 4. Acceleration of convergence L. H. Auer; 5. Line formation in a time-dependent atmosphere W. Kalkofen; 6. Iterative solution of multilevel transfer problems Eugene H. Avrett and Rudolf Loeser; 7. An algorithm for the simultaneous solution of thousands of transfer equations under global constraints Lawrence S. Anderson; 8. Operator perturbation for differential equations W. Kalkofen; Part II. Polarised Radiation: 9. A gentle introduction to polarised radiative transfer David E. Rees; 10. Non-LTE polarised radiative transfer in special lines David E. Rees and Graham A. Murphy; 11. Transfer of polarised radiation using 4x4 matrices E. Landi Degli'Innocenti; 12. Radiative transfer in the presence of strong magnetic fields A. A. van Ballegooijen; 13. An integral operator technique of radiative transfer in spherical symmetry A. Peraiah; 14. Discrete ordinate matrix method M. Schmidt and R. Wehrse.

  13. Heat transfer in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbach, T.

    1985-04-01

    The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

  14. Heat transfer in pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbach, T.

    1985-01-01

    The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

  15. The Role of Teams, Culture, and Capacity in the Transfer of Organizational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Leyland M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Transferring organizational practices requires an understanding not only of what is being transferred but also of what is needed to ensure that the transfer is successful. In line with this thinking, the purpose of this study is to examine three factors that are crucial parts of this mechanism: use of teams, culture, and capacity.…

  16. Transfer Readiness: A Case Study of Former Santa Monica College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Benson, Brenda; Geltner, Peter B.; Steinberg, Steven K.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the motivating factors that led to research and collaboration efforts to uncover issues pertaining to transfer students at Santa Monica College (SMC) (California). Reports on SMC's five-year research project, which involved querying transfer students about their experience. The answers helped SMC adjust its curriculum, modify transfer

  17. Beyond Access: Explaining Socioeconomic Differences in College Transfer. WISCAPE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Pfeffer, Fabian T.

    2008-01-01

    Reducing socioeconomic differences in college transfer requires a better understanding of how and why parental education, occupational class, and family income are associated with changing colleges. Building on prior studies of traditional community college transfer we explore relationships between those factors and two types of transfer among…

  18. A Tale of Two Terms: Exploring Differences between Spring and Fall Transfer Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlick, Renee A.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to explore what factors contribute to transfer student success and attempted to create a model using logistic regression to help predict likeliness of transfer student success. Using a sample that included all students who transferred to Colorado State University from a regionally accredited US institution between fall 2007 and…

  19. Ames Lab 101: Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory Associate Laboratory Director, Sponsored Research Administration, Debra Covey discusses technology transfer. Covey also discusses Ames Laboratory's most successful transfer, lead-free solder.

  20. Ames Lab 101: Technology Transfer

    ScienceCinema

    Covey, Debra

    2012-08-29

    Ames Laboratory Associate Laboratory Director, Sponsored Research Administration, Debra Covey discusses technology transfer. Covey also discusses Ames Laboratory's most successful transfer, lead-free solder.

  1. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was developed to identify critical input parameters to assess dietary intake of young children. The model was used as a framework for understanding important factors in data collection and analysis. Factors incorporated included transfer efficiencies of pest...

  2. Mississippi Technology Transfer Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Mississippi Technology Transfer Center at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., was officially dedicated in 1987. The center is home to several state agencies as well as the Center For Higher Learning.

  3. Investment casting heat transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Powell, Adam C., IV

    2004-12-15

    Calculate temperature profile and Biot number in mixed conduction and convection/radiation heat transfer from liquid metal through a ceramic mold to the environment, and suggest a design change to reduce the probability of shattering due to thermal stress.

  4. Intercellular Transfer of Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, E Y; Babenko, V A; Silachev, D N; Zorova, L D; Khryapenkova, T G; Savchenko, E S; Pevzner, I B; Zorov, D B

    2015-05-01

    Recently described phenomenon of intercellular transfer of mitochondria attracts the attention of researchers in both fundamental science and translational medicine. In particular, the transfer of mitochondria results in the initiation of stem cell differentiation, in reprogramming of differentiated cells, and in the recovery of the lost mitochondrial function in recipient cells. However, the mechanisms of mitochondria transfer between cells and conditions inducing this phenomenon are studied insufficiently. It is still questionable whether this phenomenon exists in vivo. Moreover, it is unclear, how the transfer of mitochondria into somatic cells is affected by the ubiquitination system that, for example, is responsible for the elimination of "alien" mitochondria of the spermatozoon in the oocyte during fertilization. Studies on these processes can provide a powerful incentive for development of strategies for treatment of mitochondria-associated pathologies and give rise a new avenue for therapeutic approaches based on "mitochondrial transplantation". PMID:26071771

  5. Adaptive transfer functions

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, J.R. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA))

    1991-01-01

    This paper details the approach and methodology used to build adaptive transfer functions in a feed-forward Back-Propagation neural network, and provides insight into the structure dependent properties of using non-scaled analog inputs. The results of using adaptive transfer functions are shown to outperform conventional architectures in the implementation of a mechanical power transmission gearbox design expert system knowledge base. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Computational heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaluria, Yogesh; Torrance, Kenneth E.

    Numerical approaches to heat-transfer problems are examined in an introductory text for senior and graduate engineering students. The emphasis is on the application of physical criteria in selecting the computational method. Chapters are devoted to the mathematics of the governing equations, finite differences, and finite elements; the simulation of transport processes; numerical methods for convective and radiative heat transfer; and combined modes and process applications. Graphs, diagrams, flow charts, problems, tables of material parameters, and sample computer programs are provided.

  7. Symbolic Transfer Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniek, Matthäus; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    We propose to estimate transfer entropy using a technique of symbolization. We demonstrate numerically that symbolic transfer entropy is a robust and computationally fast method to quantify the dominating direction of information flow between time series from structurally identical and nonidentical coupled systems. Analyzing multiday, multichannel electroencephalographic recordings from 15 epilepsy patients our approach allowed us to reliably identify the hemisphere containing the epileptic focus without observing actual seizure activity.

  8. Shielded cells transfer automation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J J

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures.

  9. Resonant transfer and excitation by crystal channeling

    SciTech Connect

    Feagin, J.M. (Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Freiburg, 7800 Freiburg (Gemany)); Wanser, K.H. (Department of Physics, California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, California (USA))

    1991-10-01

    A transition amplitude for resonant transfer and excitation (RTE) in a crystal channel is derived and compared with observations of Belkacem {ital et} {ital al}. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 380 (1990)) of titanium ions channeled in a thin gold crystal. Using a one-dimensional tight-binding model of the gold lattice, the RTE cross section is shown to be proportional to the Compton profile of {ital atomic} gold multiplied by a crystal-structure factor, analogous to multislit interference of light with diffraction. It is suggested that Belkacem {ital et} {ital al}. observed a single (principal) maximum with a very narrow width determined by the crystal's Fermi energy. It is found that the observed shift in the RTE peak, relative to that expected for a quasifree crystal electron, can be accounted for by a change in the Coulomb energy of the transferred electron caused by the highly charged impurity'' ion prior to transfer.

  10. A correlation for mass transfer coefficients in elbows

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Shirazi, S.A.; Shadley, J.R.; Rybicki, E.F.; Dayalan, E. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Mass transfer can have a significant effect on corrosion rates depending on the solution chemistry and flow conditions. Therefore, knowledge of the distribution of mass transfer coefficients along the flow geometry can be useful in determining the severity of corrosion rates in situations where mass transfer is a factor. In this investigation, mass transfer in 90 elbows was examined. A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code was used to model the flow in an elbow and compute mass transfer coefficients. Results were compared to available experimental data to verify the model. Although the number of variables involved in corrosion process is large, only two dimensionless parameters, namely, the flow Reynolds number and the Schmidt number are important for characterizing the mass transfer process. Mass transfer in elbows is also influenced by elbow geometry parameters such as the elbow radius to pipe diameter ratio (r/D). Based on these three dimensionless parameters, mass transfer between the elbow wall and the fluid was simulated and a correlation was developed to predict the maximum elbow mass transfer coefficient as a function of the flow Reynolds number, the Schmidt number and the elbow r/D. This investigation was motivated by a need to predict mass transfer coefficients in elbows for use in conjunction with a comprehensive model for calculating CO{sub 2} corrosion rates in oil and gas pipelines.

  11. Proceedings of Heat Transfer 2003: ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Proceedings of Heat Transfer 2003: ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference Las Vegas, Nevada, USA July 21-23, 2003 HT2003-47449 HEAT TRANSFER FROM A MOVING AND EVAPORATING MENISCUS ON A HEATED SURFACE meniscus with complete evaporation of water without any meniscus break-up. The experimental heat transfer

  12. Factors influencing total dietary exposures of young children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G G AKLAND; E D PELLIZZARI; Y HU; M ROBERDS; C A ROHRER; J O LECKIE; M R BERRY

    2000-01-01

    A deterministic model was developed to identify the critical input parameters needed to assess dietary intakes of young children. The model was used as a framework for understanding the important factors in data collection and data analysis. Factors incorporated into the model included transfer efficiencies of pesticide from surfaces to food, transfer efficiencies of pesticide from surfaces to hands to

  13. The role of the University Licensing Office in transferring intellectual property to industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Universities in the US have a significant impact on business through the transfer of technology. This transfer of technology takes various forms, including faculty communications, faculty consulting activities, and the direct transfer of technology through the licensing of patents, copyrights, and other intellectual property to industry. The topics discussed include the following: background of the MIT Technology Licensing Office (TLO), goals of the MIT TLO, MIT's technology transfer philosophy, and important factors for success in new company formation.

  14. Investigation of flow and heat transfer of nanofluid in microchannel with variable property approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Mostafa; Dehghan, Maziar

    2013-12-01

    Laminar flow and heat transfer of water-Al2O3 nanofluid under constant heat flux have been investigated numerically. Single-phase with temperature dependant effective properties has been assumed for fluid. Enhancement in heat transfer and increase in friction factor have been obtained by the use of nanofluid. Heat transfer enhancement is more obvious by the use of variable properties. Also, effects of temperature variation on nanofluid heat transfer are greater than the pure water.

  15. Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastedo, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

  16. Short duration heat transfer measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Arts; C. Camci

    1985-01-01

    Shock tunnels, blowdown cascades, and isentropic light piston compression tubes used to study heat transfer and aerodynamic phenomena in turbine components are described. Thin film heat transfer gages, calorimeter gages, and optical measurements methods are presented. Compression tube investigations of convective heat transfer on a flat plate, with and without film cooling; and convective heat transfer on a high pressure

  17. Medical technologies in developing countries: Issues of technology development, transfer, diffusion and use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Bonair; Patricia Rosenfield; Karin Tengvald

    1989-01-01

    The difficulties experienced in transfer of medical technology to developing countries are aggravated by partial and incomplete understanding of the cultural, social, economic, and institutional factors affecting technology development, transfer, dissemination and use. In this paper, it is argued that a more dynamic and comprehensive approach is needed for the analysis of these factors. Such an approach would provide the

  18. Senescent cells communicate via intercellular protein transfer.

    PubMed

    Biran, Anat; Perelmutter, Meirav; Gal, Hilah; Burton, Dominick G A; Ovadya, Yossi; Vadai, Ezra; Geiger, Tamar; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2015-04-15

    Mammalian cells mostly rely on extracellular molecules to transfer signals to other cells. However, in stress conditions, more robust mechanisms might be necessary to facilitate cell-cell communications. Cellular senescence, a stress response associated with permanent exit from the cell cycle and the development of an immunogenic phenotype, limits both tumorigenesis and tissue damage. Paradoxically, the long-term presence of senescent cells can promote tissue damage and aging within their microenvironment. Soluble factors secreted from senescent cells mediate some of these cell-nonautonomous effects. However, it is unknown whether senescent cells impact neighboring cells by other mechanisms. Here we show that senescent cells directly transfer proteins to neighboring cells and that this process facilitates immune surveillance of senescent cells by natural killer (NK) cells. We found that transfer of proteins to NK and T cells is increased in the murine preneoplastic pancreas, a site where senescent cells are present in vivo. Proteomic analysis and functional studies of the transferred proteins revealed that the transfer is strictly dependent on cell-cell contact and CDC42-regulated actin polymerization and is mediated at least partially by cytoplasmic bridges. These findings reveal a novel mode of intercellular communication by which senescent cells regulate their immune surveillance and might impact tumorigenesis and tissue aging. PMID:25854920

  19. Direct transfer of graphene onto flexible substrates

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Luiz G. P.; Song, Yi; Zeng, Tingying; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Kong, Jing; Araujo, Paulo T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the direct transfer via lamination of chemical vapor deposition graphene onto different flexible substrates. The transfer method investigated here is fast, simple, and does not require an intermediate transfer membrane, such as polymethylmethacrylate, which needs to be removed afterward. Various substrates of general interest in research and industry were studied in this work, including polytetrafluoroethylene filter membranes, PVC, cellulose nitrate/cellulose acetate filter membranes, polycarbonate, paraffin, polyethylene terephthalate, paper, and cloth. By comparing the properties of these substrates, two critical factors to ensure a successful transfer on bare substrates were identified: the substrate’s hydrophobicity and good contact between the substrate and graphene. For substrates that do not satisfy those requirements, polymethylmethacrylate can be used as a surface modifier or glue to ensure successful transfer. Our results can be applied to facilitate current processes and open up directions for applications of chemical vapor deposition graphene on flexible substrates. A broad range of applications can be envisioned, including fabrication of graphene devices for opto/organic electronics, graphene membranes for gas/liquid separation, and ubiquitous electronics with graphene. PMID:24127582

  20. Direct transfer of graphene onto flexible substrates.

    PubMed

    Martins, Luiz G P; Song, Yi; Zeng, Tingying; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Kong, Jing; Araujo, Paulo T

    2013-10-29

    In this paper we explore the direct transfer via lamination of chemical vapor deposition graphene onto different flexible substrates. The transfer method investigated here is fast, simple, and does not require an intermediate transfer membrane, such as polymethylmethacrylate, which needs to be removed afterward. Various substrates of general interest in research and industry were studied in this work, including polytetrafluoroethylene filter membranes, PVC, cellulose nitrate/cellulose acetate filter membranes, polycarbonate, paraffin, polyethylene terephthalate, paper, and cloth. By comparing the properties of these substrates, two critical factors to ensure a successful transfer on bare substrates were identified: the substrate's hydrophobicity and good contact between the substrate and graphene. For substrates that do not satisfy those requirements, polymethylmethacrylate can be used as a surface modifier or glue to ensure successful transfer. Our results can be applied to facilitate current processes and open up directions for applications of chemical vapor deposition graphene on flexible substrates. A broad range of applications can be envisioned, including fabrication of graphene devices for opto/organic electronics, graphene membranes for gas/liquid separation, and ubiquitous electronics with graphene. PMID:24127582

  1. Convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of Cu-water nanofluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Li; Yimin Xuan

    2002-01-01

    An experimental system is built to investigate convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of the nanofluid in a tube.\\u000a Both the convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of Cu-water nanofluid for the laminar and turbulent flow\\u000a are measured. The effects of such factors as the volume fraction of suspended nanoparticles and the Reynolds number on the\\u000a heat transfer and

  2. Factor Oracles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maxime Crochemore; Lucian Ilie; Emine Seid-hilmi

    2006-01-01

    The factor oracle is a relatively new data structure for the set of factors of a string which has been introduced by Allauzen,\\u000a Crochemore, and Raffinot in 1999. It may recognize non-factors (hence the name “oracle”) but its implementational simplicity\\u000a and experimental behaviour are stunning; factor oracle based string matching has been conjectured optimal on average. However,\\u000a its structure is

  3. Factor Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

    2009-07-22

    The Factor Game engages students in a contest in which winning strategies involve distinguishing between numbers with many factors and numbers with few factors. Students are then guided through an analysis of game strategies and introduced to the definitions of prime and composite numbers.

  4. Tech transfer outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Liebetrau, S. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This document provides an informal summary of the conference workshop sessions. Tech Transfer Outreach '' was originally designed as an opportunity for national laboratory communications and technology transfer staff to become better acquainted and to discuss matters of mutual interest. When DOE field office personnel asked if they could attend, and then when one of our keynote speakers became a participant in the discussions, the actual event grew in importance. The conference participants--the laboratories and DOE representatives from across the nation--worked to brainstorm ideas. Their objective: identify ways to cooperate for effective (and cost-effective) technology transfer outreach. Thus, this proceedings is truly a product of ten national laboratories and DOE, working together. It candidly presents the discussion of issues and the ideas generated by each working group. The issues and recommendations are a consensus of their views.

  5. Departmental technology transfer update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Roger A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is the following: to provide the perspective of the Department of Energy (DOE); emphasize new and emerging initiatives; and address unresolved issues that might impact successful program implementation. The approach is the following: to provide a brief overview of DOE, its R&D, and its technology transfer assets; to briefly describe the evolution of DOE's enhanced technology transfer program; to report on specific progress and achievements over the past year--as the spring board for our current and future plans; to present our near and longer term plans; and to survey the remaining issues and the resolution process.

  6. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  7. Transferring Technology to Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfenbarger, J. Ken

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology transfer processes in which JPL has been involved to assist in transferring the technology derived from aerospace research and development to industry. California Institute of Technology (CalTech), the organization that runs JPL, is the leading institute in patents for all U.S. universities. There are several mechanisms that are available to JPL to inform industry of these technological advances: (1) a dedicated organization at JPL, National Space Technology Applications (NSTA), (2) Tech Brief Magazine, (3) Spinoff magazine, and (4) JPL publications. There have also been many start-up organizations and businesses from CalTech.

  8. Thermal transfer recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Fukushima, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Shinozuka, M.; Seikohsha, K. K. Suwa

    1988-08-01

    The recording media consist of more than or one coloring layer and a layer containing a flame retardant to ensure noncombustibility and good thermal transfer. Thus, a PET film was coated on a side with a compound containing Vylon 290 (polyester resin), AFR-1021 (decabromodiphenyl oxide) 8 and Polysafe 60 (Sb oxide), and coated on the other side with a compound containing carnauba wax, HNP-9 (paraffin wax), EV-410 (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer), and Cu phthalocyanine to give a thermal transfer recording medium which showed good noncombustibility and antiblocking properties, and provided high quality images.

  9. Technology transfer within the government

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Carissa Bryce

    1992-01-01

    The report of a workshop panel concerned with technology transfer within the government is presented. The suggested subtopics for the panel were as follows: (1) transfer from non-NASA U.S. government technology developers to NASA space missions/programs; and (2) transfer from NASA to other U.S. government civil space mission programs. Two presentations were made to the panel: Roles/Value of Early Strategic Planning Within the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to Facilitate Later Technology Transfer To and From Industry; and NOAA Satellite Programs and Technology Requirements. The panel discussion addresses the following major issues: DOD/NASA cooperation; alternative mechanisms for interagency communication and interactions; current technology transfer relationships among federal research agencies, and strategies for improving this transfer; technology transfer mechanisms appropriate to intragovernment transfer; the importance of industry as a technology transfer conduit; and measures of merit.

  10. Muscle transfers involving the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Guettler, Joseph H; Basamania, Carl J

    2006-01-01

    Muscle transfer provides a viable treatment option for several difficult problems involving the shoulder. Muscle transfer is often the only alternative to a salvage procedure such as shoulder fusion, and whereas salvage procedures provide pain relief at the cost of function, muscle transfer can provide pain relief while retaining acceptable function. The five most commonly encountered shoulder problems for which muscle transfer can be utilized are subscapularis rupture, irreparable rotator cuff tear, deltoid injury and dysfunction, trapezial paralysis, and serratus anterior scapular winging. Although numerous muscle transfer procedures have been described, the following procedures have proven the most reliable and are the focus of this article: 1) transfer of the pectoralis major for subscapularis rupture, 2) transfer of the latissimus dorsi for irreparable rotator cuff tears, 3) latissimus dorsi transfer for deltoid injury or dysfunction, 4) modified Eden-Lange procedure for trapezial paralysis, and 5) modified Marmor-Bechtol pectoralis major transfer for serratus anterior scapular winging. PMID:16603110

  11. The magnetic form factor of the neutron

    E-print Network

    E. E. W. Bruins

    1996-11-16

    A review of neutron form factor measurements is given. We focus on recent measurements of the neutron magnetic form factor $G_M^n$, and discuss in detail our measurements of this quantity at momentum transfers Q^2=0.1-0.6 (GeV/c)^2.

  12. Glycolipid transfer proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rhoderick E.; Mattjus, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Glycolipid transfer proteins (GLTPs) are small (24 kD), soluble, ubiquitous proteins characterized by their ability to accelerate the intermembrane transfer of glycolipids in vitro. GLTP specificity encompasses both sphingoid- and glycerol-based glycolipids, but with a strict requirement that the initial sugar residue be beta-linked to the hydrophobic lipid backbone. The 3D protein structures of GLTP reveal liganded structures with unique lipid binding modes. The biochemical properties of GLTP action at the membrane surface have been studied rather comprehensively, but the biological role of GLTP remains enigmatic. What is clear is that GLTP differs distinctly from other known glycolipid-binding proteins, such as nonspecific lipid transfer proteins, lysosomal sphingolipid activator proteins, lectins, lung surfactant proteins as well as other lipid binding/transfer proteins. Based on the unique conformational architecture that targets GLTP to membranes and enables glycolipid binding, GLTP is now considered the prototypical and founding member of a new protein superfamily in eukaryotes. PMID:17320476

  13. Horizontal Gene Transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Citizendium

    This Citizendium article offers a comprehensive review of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Topics include main features of HGT in nature, HGT in prokaryotes, HGT in eukaryotes, history and discovery of HGT, and decoding the tree of life from genomes scrambled by HGT. The image-rich text includes a list of related articles, a bibliography and external links of interest.

  14. Understanding Energy Transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Understanding Energy Transfer is a graduate-level professional development course designed for middle school teachers to enhance understanding and teaching of physical science. In two sessions, you will investigate physical science topics using hands-on activities and online resources including video segments, interactive activities, readings, and other multimedia materials. These resources are drawn from Teachers' Domain, WGBH's digital library service.

  15. Unemployment and immiserizing transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid Beladi

    1990-01-01

    This paper reexamines the welfare effects of international transfers in a two country model in the presence of unemployment which is generated by an exogenously specified real minimum wage rate. In this context we have found the necessary conditions for the occurrence of paradoxical as well as normal results on employment as well as welfare.

  16. Decal transfer microfabrication

    DOEpatents

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Childs, William Robert

    2004-10-19

    A method of making a microstructure includes forming a pattern in a surface of a silicon-containing elastomer, oxidizing the pattern, contacting the pattern with a substrate; and bonding the oxidized pattern and the substrate such that the pattern and the substrate are irreversibly attached. The silicon-containing elastomer may be removably attached to a transfer pad.

  17. Heat Transfer Technical Brief

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Debjyoti

    % higher heat flux at Leidenfrost point (film boiling regime) compared to control experiments. HoweverJournal of Heat Transfer Technical Brief Pool Boiling Experiments on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube with verti- cally aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) "forests" and were used for pool boiling

  18. Somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Wilmut; N. Beaujean; P. A. de Sousa; A. Dinnyes; T. J. King; L. A. Paterson; D. N. Wells; L. E. Young

    2002-01-01

    Cloning by nuclear transfer from adult somatic cells is a remarkable demonstration of developmental plasticity. When a nucleus is placed in oocyte cytoplasm, the changes in chromatin structure that govern differentiation can be reversed, and the nucleus can be made to control development to term.

  19. Enhanced Condensation Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, John Winston

    The paper gives some personal observations on various aspects of enhanced condensation heat transfer. The topics discussed are external condensation (horizontal low-finned tubes and wire-wrapped tubes), internal condensation (microfin tubes and microchannels) and Marangoni condensation of binary mixtures.

  20. Instance Transfer Learning with Multisource Dynamic TrAdaBoost

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Since the transfer learning can employ knowledge in relative domains to help the learning tasks in current target domain, compared with the traditional learning it shows the advantages of reducing the learning cost and improving the learning efficiency. Focused on the situation that sample data from the transfer source domain and the target domain have similar distribution, an instance transfer learning method based on multisource dynamic TrAdaBoost is proposed in this paper. In this method, knowledge from multiple source domains is used well to avoid negative transfer; furthermore, the information that is conducive to target task learning is obtained to train candidate classifiers. The theoretical analysis suggests that the proposed algorithm improves the capability that weight entropy drifts from source to target instances by means of adding the dynamic factor, and the classification effectiveness is better than single source transfer. Finally, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has higher classification accuracy. PMID:25152906

  1. Auto-disable syringes for immunization: issues in technology transfer.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, J S; Milstien, J B

    1999-01-01

    WHO and its partners recommend the use of auto-disable syringes, "bundled" with the supply of vaccines when donor dollars are used, in all mass immunization campaigns, and also strongly advocate their use in routine immunization programmes. Because of the relatively high price of auto-disable syringes, WHO's Technical Network for Logistics in Health recommends that activities be initiated to encourage the transfer of production technology for these syringes as a means of promoting their use and enhancing access to the technology. The present article examines factors influencing technology transfer, including feasibility, corporate interest, cost, quality assurance, intellectual property considerations, and probable time frames for implementation. Technology transfer activities are likely to be complex and difficult, and may not result in lower prices for syringes. Guidelines are offered on technology transfer initiatives for auto-disable syringes to ensure the quality of the product, the reliability of the supply, and the feasibility of the technology transfer activity itself. PMID:10680248

  2. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  3. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost-effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  4. Symbolic local information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Haruna, T.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, the permutation-information theoretic approach has been used in a broad range of research fields. In particular, in the study of high-dimensional dynamical systems, it has been shown that this approach can be effective in characterizing global properties, including the complexity of their spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we show that this approach can also be applied to reveal local spatiotemporal profiles of distributed computations existing at each spatiotemporal point in the system. J. T. Lizier et al. have recently introduced the concept of local information dynamics, which consists of information storage, transfer, and modification. This concept has been intensively studied with regard to cellular automata, and has provided quantitative evidence of several characteristic behaviors observed in the system. In this paper, by focusing on the local information transfer, we demonstrate that the application of the permutation-information theoretic approach, which introduces natural symbolization methods, makes the concept easily extendible to systems that have continuous states. We propose measures called symbolic local transfer entropies, and apply these measures to two test models, the coupled map lattice (CML) system and the Bak-Sneppen model (BS-model), to show their relevance to spatiotemporal systems that have continuous states. In the CML, we demonstrate that it can be successfully used as a spatiotemporal filter to stress a coherent structure buried in the system. In particular, we show that the approach can clearly stress out defect turbulences or Brownian motion of defects from the background, which gives quantitative evidence suggesting that these moving patterns are the information transfer substrate in the spatiotemporal system. We then show that these measures reveal qualitatively different properties from the conventional approach using the sliding window method, and are also robust against external noise. In the BS-model, we demonstrate that these measures can provide novel insight to the model, featuring how symbolic local information transfer is related to the dynamical properties of the elements involved in a spatiotemporal dynamics.

  5. SEVIS TRANSFER RELEASE FORM (Transfer from Texas Tech University)

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    SEVIS TRANSFER RELEASE FORM (Transfer from Texas Tech University) Date: _________________ 1. Name: _______________________________________________________________ Family name First name Middle initial 2. Texas Tech Student ID number school? _______ NOTE TO STUDENT: Once the SEVIS record release date passes, Texas Tech University

  6. Factor Findings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jamie Piecora

    2000-01-01

    In this lesson, students first create factor posters for a variety of different numbers that will be displayed in the classroom to be utilized as a resource throughout the school year. They make discoveries about factors using color tiles, represent their discoveries using graph paper, and display their information on poster board as find factors of an assigned number. The plan includes a list of materials, questions, assessment options, and extensions.

  7. Long-Distance Transfer and Routing of Static Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    Carles Navau; Jordi Prat-Camps; Oriol Romero-Isart; J. Ignacio Cirac; Alvaro Sanchez

    2014-09-02

    We show how the static magnetic field of a finite source can be transferred and routed to arbitrary long distances. This is achieved by using transformation optics, which results in a device made of a material with a highly anisotropic magnetic permeability. We show that a simplified version of the device, made by a superconducting-ferromagnet hybrid, also leads to an excellent transfer of the magnetic field. The latter is demonstrated with a proof-of-principle experiment where a ferromagnet tube coated with a superconductor improves the transfer of static magnetic fields with respect to conventional methods by a 400\\% factor over distances of 14cm.

  8. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  9. Resources, framing, and transfer p. 1 Resources, framing, and transfer

    E-print Network

    Hammer, David

    of activating resources, a language with an explicitly manifold view of cognitive structure. In this chapter, we.), Transfer of Learning: Research and Perspectives[working title]. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing between active transfer involving metacognition and passive transfer that "just happens"; helps to explain

  10. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer

    E-print Network

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01

    The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow and reverse-flow TDTH...

  11. Relative Transfer Function Identification Using Convolutive Transfer Function Approximation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronen Talmon; Israel Cohen; Sharon Gannot

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a relative transfer function (RTF) identification method for speech sources in reverberant environments. The proposed method is based on the convolutive transfer function (CTF) approximation, which enables to represent a linear convolution in the time domain as a linear convolution in the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) domain. Unlike the restrictive and commonly used multiplicative transfer

  12. View factors between APT target components

    SciTech Connect

    Kidman, R.B.

    1998-07-01

    In a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in the accelerator production of tritium (APT) target/blanket, radiation heat transfer determines the temperature of the target components. Radiation heat-transfer analysis can only proceed if accurate component-to-component view factors are available. The authors describe and demonstrate the numerical method used to compute the view factors (also called angle factors, configuration factors, and shape factors) between complicated objects. The method is verified on simple objects that have analytic solutions, and then it is used to predict the view factors between the target components of the accelerator production of tritium target/blanket. The method is practical, easy to apply, and can accommodate difficult levels of realism.

  13. The current status of equine embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Squires, E L; McCue, P M; Vanderwall, D

    1999-01-01

    The use of embryo transfer in the horse has increased steadily over the past two decades. However, several unique biological features as well as technical problems have limited its widespread use in the horse as compared with that in the cattle industry. Factors that affect embryo recovery include the day of recovery, number of ovulations, age of the donor and the quality of sire's semen. Generally, embryo recoveries are performed 7 or 8 d after ovulation unless the embryos are to be frozen, in which case recovery is performed 6 d after ovulation. Most embryos are recovered from single-ovulating mares. Because there is no commercially available hormonal preparation for inducing multiple ovulation in the horse, equine pituitary extract has been used to increase the number of ovulations in treated mares, but FSH of ovine or porcine origin is relatively ineffective in inducing multiple ovulation in the mare. Factors shown to affect pregnancy rates after embryo transfer include method of transfer, synchrony of the donor and recipient, embryo quality, and management of the recipient. One of the major improvements in equine embryo transfer over the last several years is the ability to store embryos at 5 degrees C and thus ship them to a centralized station for transfer into recipient mares. Embryos are collected by practitioners on the farm, cooled to 5 degrees C in a passive cooling unit and shipped to an embryo transfer station without a major decrease in fertility. However, progress in developing techniques for freezing equine embryos has been slow. Currently, only small, Day-6 equine embryos can be frozen with reasonable success. Additional studies are needed to refine the techniques for freezing embryos collected from mares 7 or 8 d after ovulation. Demand for the development of assisted reproductive techniques in the horse has increased dramatically. Collection of equine oocytes by transvaginal, ultrasound-guided puncture and the transfer of these oocytes into recipients is now being used to produce pregnancies from donors that had previously been unable to provide embryos. In vitro fertilization, however, has been essentially unsuccessful in the horse. One alternative to in vitro fertilization that has shown promise is intracytoplasmic sperm injection. However, culture conditions for in vitro-produced embryos appear to be inadequate. The continued demand for assisted reproductive technology will likely result in the further development of techniques that are suitable for use in the horse. PMID:10729065

  14. Faculty Positions Heat Transfer and

    E-print Network

    Faculty Positions Heat Transfer and Thermal/Energy Sciences Naval Postgraduate School Monterey-track faculty position at the assistant professor level in the areas of Heat Transfer and Thermal/Fluid Sciences

  15. Dual Transfer Learning Mingsheng Long

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wei

    methods. Keywords Transfer Learning, Cross-Domain Classifi- cation, Dual Transfer Learning, Nonnegative. It is widely applied to cross-domain classification, cluster- ing, and information retrieval problems. The key

  16. Heat transfer variations of bicycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Brühwiler, P A; Buyan, M; Huber, R; Bogerd, C P; Sznitman, J; Graf, S F; Rösgen, T

    2006-09-01

    Bicycle helmets exhibit complex structures so as to combine impact protection with ventilation. A quantitative experimental measure of the state of the art and variations therein is a first step towards establishing principles of bicycle helmet ventilation. A thermal headform mounted in a climate-regulated wind tunnel was used to study the ventilation efficiency of 24 bicycle helmets at two wind speeds. Flow visualization in a water tunnel with a second headform demonstrated the flow patterns involved. The influence of design details such as channel length and vent placement was studied, as well as the impact of hair. Differences in heat transfer among the helmets of up to 30% (scalp) and 10% (face) were observed, with the nude headform showing the highest values. On occasion, a negative role of some vents for forced convection was demonstrated. A weak correlation was found between the projected vent cross-section and heat transfer variations when changing the head tilt angle. A simple analytical model is introduced that facilitates the understanding of forced convection phenomena. A weak correlation between exposed scalp area and heat transfer was deduced. Adding a wig reduces the heat transfer by approximately a factor of 8 in the scalp region and up to one-third for the rest of the head for a selection of the best ventilated helmets. The results suggest that there is significant optimization potential within the basic helmet structure represented in modern bicycle helmets. PMID:16882634

  17. Predicting outcomes of rectus femoris transfer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Reinbolt, Jeffrey A.; Fox, Melanie D.; Schwartz, Michael H.; Delp, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    Rectus femoris transfer surgery is a common treatment for stiff knee gait in children with cerebral palsy. Unfortunately, the improvement in knee motion after surgery is inconsistent. There is great interest in understanding the causes of stiff knee gait and determining predictors of improved knee motion after surgery. This study demonstrates that it is possible to predict whether or not a patient’s knee motion will improve following rectus femoris transfer surgery with greater than 80% accuracy. A predictive model was developed that requires only a few preoperative gait analysis measurements, already collected as a routine part of treatment planning. Our examination of 62 patients before and after rectus femoris transfer revealed that a combination of hip power, knee power, and knee flexion velocity at toe-off correctly predicted postoperative outcome for 80% of cases. With the addition of two more preoperative measurements, hip flexion and internal rotation, prediction accuracy increased to nearly 88%. Other combinations preoperative gait analysis measurements also predicted outcomes with high accuracy. These results provide insight into factors related to positive outcomes and suggest that predictive models provide a valuable tool for determining indications for rectus femoris transfer. PMID:19411175

  18. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  19. Nuclear transfer in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Hee; Maalouf, Walid E

    2015-01-01

    Ruminants were the first mammalian species to be cloned successfully by nuclear transplantation. Those experiments were designed to multiply high merit animals (Willadsen, Nature 320(6057):63-65, 1986; Prather et al., Biol Reprod 37(4):859-866, 1987; Wilmut et al., Nature 385(6619):810-813, 1997). Since then, cloning has provided us with a vast amount of knowledge and information on the reprogramming ability of somatic cells to different cell types which became an important basis for stem cell research and human medicine. Nowadays, the goals of most nuclear transfer work vary widely but in most cases the micromanipulation procedures remain the same. However, differences between species require different technical considerations. In this chapter, we describe in detail somatic cell nuclear transfer which is the foremost method for cloning ruminants with specific reference to sheep and cattle. PMID:25287336

  20. Measuring Information Transfer

    E-print Network

    Thomas Schreiber

    2000-01-19

    An information theoretic measure is derived that quantifies the statistical coherence between systems evolving in time. The standard time delayed mutual information fails to distinguish information that is actually exchanged from shared information due to common history and input signals. In our new approach, these influences are excluded by appropriate conditioning of transition probabilities. The resulting transfer entropy is able to distinguish driving and responding elements and to detect asymmetry in the coupling of subsystems.

  1. Plastic container bagless transfer

    DOEpatents

    Tibrea, Steven L.; D'Amelio, Joseph A.; Daugherty, Brent A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus are provided for transferring material from an isolated environment into a storage carrier through a conduit that can be sealed with a plug. The plug and conduit can then be severed to provide a hermetically sealed storage carrier containing the material which may be transported for storage or disposal and to maintain a seal between the isolated environment and the ambient environment.

  2. Mass transfer andMass transfer and Mass transfer andMass transfer and

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    99 Gradients driving forcesGradients driving forces /1/1Gradients, driving forcesGradients, driving forces /1/1 d Heat Heat flux h" (W/m2), T1 Heat conductivity T'1 local and overall heat transfer. Diffusion coefficient D = Dwater vapour in air ~ T3/2 water vapour in air = at 298 K: 2.60×10-5 m2/s S IDBL

  3. Student Transfer Matrix, Fall 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    The Student Transfer Matrix provides data on the numbers of students transferring from Oklahoma public and private institutions of higher education to other Oklahoma institutions, using data from receiving institutions. Among the highlights are: the number of students who transferred to four-year and two-year institutions remained steady at 57.8…

  4. Bakersfield College Transfer Study Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Dave

    Data relating to the characteristics and performance of Bakersfield College (BC) students who transferred to public four-year colleges and universities in California were gathered from the transfer institutions and analyzed. Study findings included the following: (1) first-time transfers from BC to the California State University and College…

  5. Assessing Software Engineering Technology Transfer

    E-print Network

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    analyze these examples and provide conclusions and suggestions of how the practice of technology transferAssessing Software Engineering Technology Transfer within NASA Marvin V. Zelkowitz Institute 20742 November, 1994 #12;Abstract Technology transfer is of crucial concern to both government

  6. Monovalent cations transfer through isolated human amnion: a new pharmacological model.

    PubMed

    Bara, M; Guiet-Bara, A; Durlach, J

    1985-04-01

    Transfer of monovalent cation through the isolated human amnion consists of different factors: paracellular, coupling, ATPase dependent cellular transfer, leak cellular transfer. Understanding this transfer permits testing of the action of various substances. Physiological substances (Mg, taurine) increase ionic transfer and there is a vicarious effect between Mg and taurine. The tocolytic agents MgSO4 and ethanol do not exhibit a good effect on the transfer: decrease with ethanol; equality between entry and exit fluxes with MgSO4. On the other hand, amphotericin B increases mother-to-fetus transfer. Polluting metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As) dramatically reduce exchanges and almost completely inhibit amnion permeability. Ingestion of ethanol also exhibits a dramatic effect on the exchange between mother and fetus through the amnion. Study of ionic transfer in vitro can be considered a pharmacological model to investigate the modifications of mother-fetus exchanges by various substances. PMID:4021652

  7. Analysis of radial fin assembly heat transfer with dehumidification

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario, L.; Rahman, M.M. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this paper is the analysis of heat transfer in a radial fin assembly during the process of dehumidification. An individual finned tube geometry is a reasonable representation of heat exchangers used in air conditioning. The condensation process involves both heat and mass transfer and the cooling takes place by the removal of sensible as well as latent heat. The ratio of sensible to total heat is an important quantity that defines the heat transfer process during a dehumidifier operation. A one-dimensional model for heat transfer in the fin and the heat exchanger block is developed to study the effects of condensation on the fin surface. The combined heat and mass transfer process is modeled by incorporating the ratio of sensible to total heat in the formulation. The augmentation of heat transfer due to fin was established by comparing heat transfer rate with and without fins under the same operating conditions. Numerical calculations were carried out to study the effects of relative humidity and dry bulb temperature of the incoming air, and cold fluid temperature inside the coil on the performance of the heat exchanger. Results were compared to those published for rectangular fin under humid condition showed excellent agreement when the present model was used to compute that limiting condition. It was found that the heat transfer rate increased with increment in both dry bulb temperature and relative humidity of the air. The augmentation factor, however, decreased with increment in relative humidity and the dry bulb temperature.

  8. AIDS and transfer factor: Myths, certainties and realities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitri Viza

    1996-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, the triumph of biology is as indisputable as that of physics was at the end of the 19th century,\\u000a and so is the might of the inductive thought. Virtually all diseases have been seemingly conquered and HIV, the cause of AIDS,\\u000a has been fully described ten years after the onset of the epidemic.

  9. Technology transfer initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, Wayne; Schroer, Bernard J.; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) technology transfer activities with the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the period of April 1993 through December 1993. Early in 1993, the MSFC/TUO and UAH conceived of the concept of developing stand-alone, integrated data packages on MSFC technology that would serve industrial needs previously determined to be critical. Furthermore, after reviewing over 500 problem statements received by MSFC, it became obvious that many of these requests could be satisfied by a standard type of response. As a result, UAH has developed two critical area response (CAR) packages: CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) replacements and modular manufacturing and simulation. Publicity included news releases, seminars, articles and conference papers. The Huntsville Chamber of Commerce established the Technology Transfer Subcommittee with the charge to identify approaches for the Chamber to assist its members, as well as non-members, access to the technologies at the federal laboratories in North Alabama. The Birmingham Chamber of Commerce has expressed interest in establishing a similar technology transfer program. This report concludes with a section containing a tabulation of the problem statements, including CAR packages, submitted to MSFC from January 1992 through December 1993.

  10. Respiratory electron transfer pathways in plant mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Schertl, Peter; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory electron transport chain (ETC) couples electron transfer from organic substrates onto molecular oxygen with proton translocation across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The resulting proton gradient is used by the ATP synthase complex for ATP formation. In plants, the ETC is especially intricate. Besides the “classical” oxidoreductase complexes (complex I–IV) and the mobile electron transporters cytochrome c and ubiquinone, it comprises numerous “alternative oxidoreductases.” Furthermore, several dehydrogenases localized in the mitochondrial matrix and the mitochondrial intermembrane space directly or indirectly provide electrons for the ETC. Entry of electrons into the system occurs via numerous pathways which are dynamically regulated in response to the metabolic state of a plant cell as well as environmental factors. This mini review aims to summarize recent findings on respiratory electron transfer pathways in plants and on the involved components and supramolecular assemblies. PMID:24808901

  11. Electron transfer in weakly interacting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sutin, N.; Brunschwig, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    A recently proposed semiclassical model, in which an electronic transmission coefficient and a nuclear tunneling factor are introduced as corrections to the classical activated-complex expression, is described. The nuclear tunneling corrections are shown to be important only at low temperatures or when the electron transfer is very exothermic. By contrast, corrections for nonadiabaticity may be significant for most outer-sphere reactions of metal complexes. The rate constants for the Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/-Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 3 +/, Ru(NH/sub 3/)/sub 6//sup 2 +/-Ru(NH/sub 3/)/sub 6//sup 3 +/ and Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/-Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 3 +/ electron exchange reactions predicted by the semiclassical model are in very good agreement with the observed values. The implications of the model for optically-induced electron transfer in mixed-valence systems are noted.

  12. Surface heat transfer due to particle impact

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J.; Chen, M.M.; Chao, B.T. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering)

    1989-08-01

    In a fluidized bed of high gas velocities, particle impact on an immersed surface is an important mechanism for heat transfer. The heat exchange between an impacting spherical particle and surface is analyzed by considering (1) the heat conduction through the time varying contact area during the period when the particle is in contact with the surface, and (2) the heat conduction through the surrounding gas during the period when the particle is approaching and rebounding from the surface. For the solid conduction problem, an analytical solution is obtained for small Fourier numbers, and a correction factor is computed numerically to be used for large Fourier numbers. For the gas conduction problem, a solution is obtained by combining three analytical solutions each valid in a certain region of the gas domain. Since heat transfer due to the impact of a stream of falling particles was also measured with a simple experimental set up. 53 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Factor Dazzle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This interactive online game helps students develop fluency with identifying factors while fostering strategic thinking. A student can play against the computer or against a friend on a 6 by 6 grid containing the numbers 1-36. Each player in turn chooses a number from the board, and then the opponent claims all of its remaining proper factors. A player's score is the sum of all the numbers and factors she/he has chosen. When there are no numbers remaining with unclaimed factors, the game ends and the player with the greater total is the winner. This game is part of NCTM's Calculation Nation project (cataloged separately). Users may login as a guest and play against the computer, or register (free) to challenge other players online.

  14. Nucleon Form Factors at JLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mark

    2001-10-01

    At Jefferson Lab, the measurement of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors has been a major focus of the experimental program. The electron beam at Jefferson Lab is available with high current ( ~ 100 ?A) and high polarization ( ~ 80%). With this quality beam, experiments have pushed the precision of the measurements and increased the range of Q^2, the four-momentum transferred squared. A variety of experimental techniques have been used to obtain the nucleon electro-magnetic form factors at Jefferson Lab including the use of polarized targets and recoil polarization. An overview will be given of the various experiments.

  15. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    DOEpatents

    Dobbins, James C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hoover, Mark A. (Idaho Falls, ID); May, Kay W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ross, Maurice J. (Pocatello, ID)

    1990-01-01

    A transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed frame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control.

  16. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, J.C.; Hoover, M.A.; May, K.W.; Ross, M.J.

    1990-01-23

    The patent describes in a manipulator system for use in hazardous environments including a manipulator adapted for reciprocal movement upon a guide device, a transfer platform. It comprises: a bed frame defining a generally horizontal bed projecting outwardly from the manipulator; and frame mounting means securing the bed frame to the manipulator in a generally cantilevered fashion, thereby essentially minimizing the structure necessary to support the platform outwardly of the manipulator while enhancing operator visibility of the platform and the manipulator during use of the manipulator system.

  17. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, J.C.; Hoover, M.A.; May, K.W.; Ross, M.J.

    1988-10-12

    This invention is comprised of a transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed fame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control. 5 figs.

  18. EPA underwrites technology transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency will establish a multi-million dollar corporation at the University of Pittsburgh that will aim to speed up the commercial development of environmental technology. The National Environmental Technology Applications Corporation (NETAC) will be responsible for identifying promising projects underway around the country and helping usher techniques and products into the marketplace.According to EPA administrator Lee Thomas, “NETAC will be a positive force for changing the way government and industry work together in the environmental area. It will provide a new approach that will effectively increase the transfer of pollution control technologies among environmental decision-makers in both government and industry.“

  19. Heat transfer device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkbrenner, R. W. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A heat transfer device is characterized by an hermetically sealed tubular housing including a tubular shell terminating in spaced end plates, and a tubular mesh wick concentrically arranged and operatively supported within said housing. The invention provides an improved wicking restraint formed as an elongated and radially expanded tubular helix concentrically related to the wick and adapted to be axially foreshortened and radially expanded into engagement with the wick in response to an axially applied compressive load. The wick is continuously supported in a contiguous relationship with the internal surfaces of the shell.

  20. CSEM WP 104 Variation of Distribution Factors with Loading

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley. University of

    CSEM WP 104 Variation of Distribution Factors with Loading Ross Baldick September 2002 This paper;Variation of distribution factors with loading Ross Baldick September 13, 2002 Abstract Power transfer distribution factors that more closely relate to thermal and steady-state stability constraints. 1 Introduction

  1. Interline transfer CCD camera

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, M.S.; McCurnin, T.W.; Stump, C.J.; Stradling, G.L.

    1993-12-31

    An interline CCD sensing device for use in a camera system, includes an imaging area sensitive to impinging light, for generating charges corresponding to the intensity of the impinging light. Sixteen independent registers R1 - R16 sequentially receive the interline data from the imaging area, corresponding to the generated charges. Sixteen output amplifiers S1 - S16 and sixteen ports P1 - P16 for sequentially transferring the interline data, one pixel at a time, in order to supply a desired image transfer speed. The imaging area is segmented into sixteen independent imaging segments A1 - A16, each of which corresponds to one register, on output amplifier, and one output port. Each one of the imaging segments A1 - A16 includes an array of rows and columns of pixels. Each pixel includes a photogate area, an interline CCD channel area, and an anti-blooming area. The anti-blooming area is, in turn, divided into an anti-blooming barrier and an anti-blooming drain.

  2. Mars transfer vehicle studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    1993-02-01

    Earth-to-Mars distances vary from 60 to 400 million kilometers over a 14-year cycle. This complicates Mars mission design as a function of calendar time. Stay times at Mars are also strongly driven by opportunities for a return flight path which are within the limits of delta-V associated with practical space vehicles. The biggest difference between Mars and lunar transfer missions is mission time, which grows from a few days for the moon, to as much as a few hundred days for Mars missions. As a result, modules for similarly sized crews must be much larger for Mars missions that for transfer to lunar orbit. Technology challenges for one Mars mission scenario analyzed by Boeing include aerobrakes, propulsion, and life support systems. Mission performance is very sensitive to aerobrake weight fraction and, as a result, there is an incentive to use high performance materials such as advanced composites and thermal protection systems. Lander aerobrake would be used twice (for both planetary capture and descent to the Mars surface), and it would need to survive temperatures up to 3500 degrees.

  3. Inferring Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lassalle, Florent; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer (HGT or LGT) is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. In the presence of HGT events, different fragments of the genome are the result of different evolutionary histories. This can therefore complicate the investigations of evolutionary relatedness of lineages and species. Also, as HGT can bring into genomes radically different genotypes from distant lineages, or even new genes bearing new functions, it is a major source of phenotypic innovation and a mechanism of niche adaptation. For example, of particular relevance to human health is the lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants, leading to the emergence of pathogenic lineages [1]. Computational identification of HGT events relies upon the investigation of sequence composition or evolutionary history of genes. Sequence composition-based ("parametric") methods search for deviations from the genomic average, whereas evolutionary history-based ("phylogenetic") approaches identify genes whose evolutionary history significantly differs from that of the host species. The evaluation and benchmarking of HGT inference methods typically rely upon simulated genomes, for which the true history is known. On real data, different methods tend to infer different HGT events, and as a result it can be difficult to ascertain all but simple and clear-cut HGT events. PMID:26020646

  4. Multi-neutron transfer reactions at sub-barrier energies.

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K. E.

    1998-01-20

    The optimum conditions for multi-neutron transfer have been studied in the system {sup 58}Ni + {sup 124}Sn at bombarding energies at and below the Coulomb barrier. The experiments were performed in inverse kinematics with a {sup 124}Sn beam bombarding a {sup 58}Ni target. The particles were identified with respect to mass and Z in the split-pole spectrograph with a hybrid focal plane detector with mass and Z-resolutions of A/{Delta}A = 150 and Z/{Delta}Z = 70. At all energies the transfer of up to 6 neutrons was observed. The yields for these transfer reactions are found to decrease by about a factor of four for each transferred neutron.

  5. Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Krishen, K.

    1994-05-01

    This is the second volume of papers presented at the Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition held at the Johnson Space Center February 1-3, 1994. Possible technology transfers covered during the conference were in the areas of information access; innovative microwave and optical applications; materials and structures; marketing and barriers; intelligent systems; human factors and habitation; communications and data systems; business process and technology transfer; software engineering; biotechnology and advanced bioinstrumentation; communications signal processing and analysis; medical care; applications derived from control center data systems; human performance evaluation; technology transfer methods; mathematics, modeling, and simulation; propulsion; software analysis and decision tools; systems/processes in human support technology; networks, control centers, and distributed systems; power; rapid development; perception and vision technologies. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for some articles from this meeting.

  6. Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Krishen, K.

    1994-05-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition held at the Johnson Space Center February 1-3, 1994. Possible technology transfers covered during the conference were in the areas of information access; innovative microwave and optical applications; materials and structures; marketing and barriers; intelligent systems; human factors and habitation; communications and data systems; business process and technology transfer; software engineering; biotechnology and advanced bioinstrumentation; communications signal processing and analysis; new ways of doing business; medical care; applications derived from control center data systems; human performance evaluation; technology transfer methods; mathematics, modeling, and simulation; propulsion; software analysis and decision tools systems/processes in human support technology; networks, control centers, and distributed systems; power; rapid development perception and vision technology. Separate abstracts have beem submitted to the database for some articles from this conference.

  7. Single phase forced convection heat transfer in microgeometries -- A review

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, D.K.; Ameel, T.A.; Warrington, R.O. Jr.; Savoie, T.I. [Louisiana Technological Univ., Ruston, LA (United States). Inst. for Micromanufacturing

    1995-12-31

    As the field of microfluids and heat transfer continues to grow, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the mechanisms and fundamental differences involved with heat transfer and fluid flow in microgeometries. This paper presents a summary of the research in the area of single phase convective heat transfer in microtubes and microchannels with applications in devices such as micro heat pumps and heat exchangers that may be used for electronic equipment cooling, in biomedical applications, and potentially for macroscale cooling systems through many parallel configurations. While conclusive evidence is lacking, it appears that the friction factor for flow in microgeometries is less than that predicted by macroscale theory while heat transfer coefficients may increase relative to traditional correlations. The Reynolds analogy also appears to be invalid when the scale of the flow passages is on the order of 100 pm or less.

  8. Reproductive transfer of organochlorines in viviparous surfperch, Ditrema temmincki.

    PubMed

    Oka, Mayuko; Arai, Takaomi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2006-08-01

    To discuss the maternal-fetal transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in viviparous fish, the whole-body burdens of POPs were determined in gravid surfperches from Otsuchi Bay, Japan, and in their fetuses. The concentrations were 2.75-15.5 times higher in the maternal tissue. To compare the characteristics of the maternal-fetal transfer between species with different gestation systems, reports on the striped dolphin and long-finned pilot whales were studied. The transfer rates of POPs in surfperches were 0.6-6.0%, while in marine mammals they were 3.0-9.4%. The difference in transfer rates may derive from the difference in their reproductive systems. On the other hand, as in marine mammals, selective transfer of POPs was seen in surfperches. The transfer rates were higher in less hydrophobic compounds such as dieldrin, and lower in more hydrophobic compounds such as DDTs. A new transfer factor is also discussed which instantly indicates the difference in the concentrations between mother and fetus. PMID:16360249

  9. ADAPTIVELY IMPROVING LONG DISTANCE NETWORK TRANSFERS WITH LOGISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    LaBissoniere, D.; Roche, K.

    2007-01-01

    Long distance data movement is an essential activity of modern computing. However, the congestion control mechanisms in the Internet’s Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) severely limit the bandwidth achieved by long distance data transfers. The throughput of such transfers can be improved by applying the logistical technique of breaking a single long distance transfer into multiple shorter transfers. This technique can result in signifi cantly improved throughput while still respecting the shared nature of the Internet by not attempting to circumvent the TCP congestion controls. This technique has been incorporated into an algorithm which attempts to dynamically schedule transfers for optimal throughput. The algorithm couples graph techniques with real-time latency and bandwidth measurements to discover the best path and adaptively respond to network dynamics. The algorithm shows improvements in speed and fl exibility over standard data transfer methods such as FTP. Specifi c transfers tests performed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and a destination in Sunnyvale, CA show throughput increases by a factor of two.

  10. Air-ground information transfer in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.; Lozito, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System incident data for a two-year period in order to identify the frequency of air-ground information transfer errors and the factors associated with their occurrence. Of the more than 14,000 primary reports received during the 1985 and 1986 reporting period, one out of four reports concerned problems of information transfer between aircraft and ATC. Approximately half of these errors were associated directly or indirectly with aircraft deviations from assigned heading or altitude. The majority of incidents cited some human-system problem such as workload, cockpit distractions, etc., as the primary contributing factor. Improvements in air-ground information transfer using existing and future (e.g., data link) technology are proposed centering on the development and application of user-centered information management principles.

  11. The role of regional knowledge production in university technology transfer: Isolating coevolutionary effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel Hülsbeck; Erik E. Lehmann

    2010-01-01

    The rate and magnitude of university-to-industry-technology-transfer (UITT) is a function not only of university characteristics but also of regional factors. A university's embeddedness in an innovative regional milieu moderates UITT. This necessary balance of the supply side (technology push) and demand side (market pull) of technology transfer has so far neither been systematically addressed in the technology transfer literature nor

  12. Wireless power transfer in the presence of metallic plates: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaofang; Skauli, Torbjo?rn; Skauli, Bjo?rn; Sandhu, Sunil; Catrysse, Peter B.; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate efficient wireless power transfer between two high Q resonators, especially in a complex electromagnetic environment. In the close proximity of metallic plates, the transfer efficiency stays roughly the same as the free space efficiency with proper designs. The experimental data fits well with a coupled theory model. Resonance frequency matching, alignment of the magnetic field, and impedance matching are shown to be the most important factors for efficient wireless power transfer.

  13. Factor Track

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem helps learners improve their knowledge of factors, especially those in the usual multiplication tables, and encourages the problem solving strategy of trial and error. The goal of the game is to go around the track in as few moves as possible, keeping to the rules that a player can move any number of spaces which is a factor of the number the player is on, except 1. There is a "training" track to play on initially to see the rules in action and then a more complicated track for players to use. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, key discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

  14. Development and Testing of Emergency Department Patient Transfer Communication Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Communication problems are a major contributing factor to adverse events in hospitals. The contextual environment in small rural hospitals increases the importance of emergency department (ED) patient transfer communication quality. This study addresses the communication problems through the development and testing of ED quality…

  15. Placental transfer of the actinides and related heavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Sikov, M.R.

    1986-11-01

    A selective literature review dealing with prenatal exposure of animals and humans to actinides and related heavy elements, comparative aspects of placental transfer and fetoplacental distribution are considered. General patterns have been derived from typical quantitative values, and used to compare similarities and dissimilarities, and to examine factors responsible for observed differences. 37 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Heat transfer to blood flow in a small tube.

    PubMed

    Wang, C Y

    2008-04-01

    Blood flow in a small tube (30-1000 mum) can be successfully modeled by the two-fluid model. The fully developed, constant heat flux convective heat transfer problem is studied. The velocity and temperature profiles are determined in closed form. Formulas for friction-factor-Reynolds number product, axial temperature gradient, and Nusselt number are found. PMID:18412512

  17. Preweaning growth characteristics for Brahman-Angus embryo transfer calves

    E-print Network

    Cook, Billy Jack

    1995-01-01

    Effects of factors affecting birth weight and weaning weight of 3-4 Brahman x ;,4 Angus and 3-4 Angus x 14 Brahman embryo transfer calves were analyzed. Data used in this project were collected at the Angleton Research Station. Backcross matings...

  18. Prediction of irregular axisymmetric combustor aerodynamics and convective heat transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. M. Abou-Ellail

    1985-01-01

    A numerical procedure for the prediction of flow and heat transfer in irregular axisymmetric combustion chambers has been developed, in which a set of porosity factors, ranging between 0.0 and 1.0, is assigned to each grid node to simulate blocked regions in the solution domain or at its boundaries. In this procedure, the governing transport equations for mass, momentum, and

  19. Transfer of Mixed Word Identification Training to a Reading Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, John; And Others

    The research reported here was designed to examine a number of factors that findings from verbal learning studies indicate should affect the recall and transfer of word identification materials. Sight word and phonics-based or rule-based learning were investigated in 112 kindergarteners who were identified as nonreaders. Groups were trained on…

  20. Mass and momentum transfer in hollow fibre blood oxygenators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Wickramasinghe; J. D. Garcia; Binbing Han

    2002-01-01

    Mass transfer and friction factor correlations for microporous hollow fibre blood oxygenators (BOs) have been determined experimentally. Water and glycerol water solutions were used as a substitute for blood. The diffusion of oxygen into and out of water and glycerol water solutions has been studied. The liquid stream flowed outside and across bundles of woven hollow fibres while the gas

  1. Action Learning: How Learning Transfers from Entrepreneurs to Small Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karen; Sambrook, Sally A.; Pittaway, Luke; Henley, Andrew; Norbury, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents research with small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) owners who have participated in a leadership development programme. The primary focus of this paper is on learning transfer and factors affecting it, arguing that entrepreneurs must engage in "action" in order to "learn" and that under certain conditions…

  2. Studies of transport pathways of Th, U, rare earths, Ra228, and Ra226 from soil to plants and farm animals: Final progress report, 1983-1988

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linsalata

    1988-01-01

    This report consists of three parts. Part 1 discusses a field study conducted in an area of enhanced, natural radioactivity to assess the soil to edible vegetable concentration ratios (CR = concentration in dry vegetable\\/concentration in dry soil) of Th-232, Th-230, Ra-226, Ra-228, and the light rare earth elements (REE's), La, Ce, and Nd. Twenty-eight soil, and approximately 42 vegetable

  3. Medicaid and Family Wealth Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinkook; Kim, Hyungsoo; Tanenbaum, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines whether the relationship between making familial wealth transfers and becoming a Medicaid recipient sheds light on the current debate about Medicaid estate planning, whereby some elders transfer their assets to their families to qualify for Medicaid. Design and Methods: Using the Health and Retirement Study, we tracked a national sample of community-based elders who did not receive Medicaid at the 1993 baseline interview but became Medicaid recipients during a 10-year time period and examined wealth transfers for these new Medicaid beneficiaries. Results: Among elders aged 70 or older who did not receive Medicaid in 1993, 16.4% became Medicaid recipients over 10 years. Among these new Medicaid recipients, 17.9% transferred their wealth to family members before receiving Medicaid benefits, with an average transfer amount of $8,507 during the 2 years prior to receiving Medicaid benefits. In addition, 15.2% of community-residing elders entered a nursing home during the 10-year period, and 26.3% of these were covered by Medicaid. Of these new Medicaid recipients living in nursing homes, 12.6% transferred wealth to their families in the mean amount of $4,112. Implications: Familial wealth transfers do occur before changes in Medicaid eligibility in a small, but nontrivial, number of cases, but the amount transferred is modest, especially among nursing home residents. This finding implies that policies to reduce Medicaid long-term-care expenditures by limiting such transfers may not be very effective. PMID:16452279

  4. Bayes Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Kass; Adrian E. Raftery

    1995-01-01

    In a 1935 paper and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null is one-half. Although there has been much discussion of

  5. Mass transfer efficiency of a vacuum airlift—Application to water recycling in aquaculture systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertrand Barrut; Jean-Paul Blancheton; Jean-Yves Champagne; Alain Grasmick

    In aquaculture, oxygen transfer and carbon dioxide stripping are the first limiting factors to fish rearing intensification. In this study we measured the O2 and CO2 mass transfer coefficient (KLa) for a vacuum airlift in fresh (<1‰ salinity) and sea water (35‰ salinity) recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The airlift was composed of two concentric tubes: an inner riser tube and

  6. Academic Achievement of Transfer Students Qualifying for EOG Assistance and Non-Qualifying Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, James R.

    Two matched groups of transfer students from low income families were compared in order to determine effects--if any--of non-academic factors on their academic achievement. Transfer students who applied for financial aid at the University of Missouri-Columbia (UMC) financial aids office made up the initial population from which the group samples…

  7. Crosslinguistic Transfer in the Acquisition of Compound Words in Persian-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foroodi-Nejad, Farzaneh; Paradis, Johanne

    2009-01-01

    Crosslinguistic transfer in bilingual language acquisition has been widely reported in various linguistic domains (e.g., Dopke, 1998; Nicoladis, 1999; Paradis, 2001). In this study we examined structural overlap (Dopke, 2000; Muller and Hulk, 2001) and dominance (Yip and Matthews, 2000) as explanatory factors for crosslinguistic transfer in…

  8. Commercializing Academic Research: Resource Effects on Performance of University Technology Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Joshua B.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated factors that may explain differential performance with university technology transfer, the process of transforming research into marketable products. Utilizing multi-source data on 108 universities, a set of internal and external resources were found to be significant predictors of one or more of three technology transfer

  9. Microbial Evolution Is in the Cards: Horizontal Gene Transfer in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagle, Jeanne; Hay, Anthony G.

    2007-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer, the exchange of genetic material between bacteria, is a potentially important factor in the degradation of synthetic compounds introduced to the environment and in the acquisition of other characteristics including antibiotic resistance. This game-based activity illustrates the role of horizontal gene transfer in the…

  10. The Effects of Training Design, Individual Characteristics and Work Environment on Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velada, Raquel; Caetano, Antonio; Michel, John W.; Lyons, Brian D.; Kavanagh, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to gain insight into some of the factors that determine the transfer of training to the work context. The present research examined the relationship between three types of predictors on transfer of training, including training design, individual characteristics and work environment. Data was collected at two points in time from 182…

  11. Mottled chest radiograph and gas transfer defect in chronic liver disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. N. Stanley; D. J. Woodgate

    1972-01-01

    In a prospective study of 170 patients with various types of chronic liver disease, a pulmonary gas transfer defect was found in 20% and mottled shadowing in the chest radiograph in 6%. The presence of these abnormalities was not related to the cause of the liver disease.Reduction of transfer factor in liver disease was not accompanied by a restrictive ventilatory

  12. Transfers of fresh blastocysts and blastocysts cultured from thawed cleavage embryos are associated with fewer miscarriages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueping Alex Wang; Michael Costello; Michael Chapman; Deborah Black; Elizabeth Anne Sullivan

    The literature shows an inconsistent relationship between miscarriage and assisted reproduction treatment factors. This study assessed the association between miscarriage and transfer of fresh or thawed embryos at cleavage\\/blastocyst stages. A population study included 52,874 pregnancies following autologous cycles. The miscarriage rate was compared by groups of transferred embryos (fresh cleavage embryo, fresh blastocyst, thawed cleavage embryo, blastocyst from thawed

  13. Contemporary Research on the Transfer Mission of Community Colleges. UCLA Community College Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal of Research & Practice, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The references in this document provide an overview of empirical studies that draw upon both national survey data and institutional case studies to advance the understanding of the community college transfer mission. Specific themes addressed in the selected references include: (1) factors that influence student transfer opportunities as well as…

  14. ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of Pitch and Roll Static Angle on Lubricant Transfer

    E-print Network

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    static angle on lubricant transfer between a disk and a slider in a hard disk drive. The lubricant Pitch static angle Á Roll static angle Á Hard disk drive 1 Introduction Many factors can affectORIGINAL PAPER Effect of Pitch and Roll Static Angle on Lubricant Transfer Between Disk and Slider

  15. Methane heat transfer investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Future high chamber pressure LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines require copper base alloy main combustion chamber coolant channels similar to the SSME to provide adequate cooling and reusable engine life. Therefore, it is of vital importance to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics and coking thresholds for LNG (94% methane) cooling, with a copper base alloy material adjacent to he fuel coolant. High pressure methane cooling and coking characteristics recently evaluated at Rocketdyne using stainless steel heated tubes at methane bulk temperatures and coolant wall temperatures typical of advanced engine operation except at lower heat fluxes as limited by the tube material. As expected, there was no coking observed. However, coking evaluations need be conducted with a copper base surface exposed to the methane coolant at higher heat fluxes approaching those of future high chamber pressure engines.

  16. Technology transfer 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Technology Transfer 1995 is intended to inform the US industrial and academic sectors about the many opportunities they have to form partnerships with the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the mutual advantage of the individual institutions, DOE, and the nation as a whole. It also describes some of the growing number of remarkable achievements resulting from such partnerships. These partnership success stories offer ample evidence that Americans are learning how to work together to secure major benefits for the nation--by combining the technological, scientific, and human resources resident in national laboratories with those in industry and academia. The benefits include more and better jobs for Americans, improved productivity and global competitiveness for technology-based industries, and a more efficient government laboratory system.

  17. National Technology Transfer Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC) "provides access to federal technology information, technology and market assessment services, technology marketing and assistance in finding strategic partners." The purpose of the Center is to help make "commercialization deals happen" by fostering relationships with federal clients, showcasing technologies and facilitating partnerships between clients and US industry. The technologies showcased here have been assessed by a team of market and technology analysts for their commercial potential. This extensive database of technologies, which largely seems to come from NASA, can be searched by keyword or browsed by category, such as medical devices, communications, software, or aerodynamics. NTTC's services and programs that promote business partnerships are described further on this website.

  18. Three orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace engineering students at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University undertook three design projects under the sponsorship of the NASA/USRA Advanced Space Design Program. All three projects addressed cargo and/or crew transportation between low Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit. Project SPARC presents a preliminary design of a fully reusable, chemically powered aeroassisted vehicle for a transfer of a crew of five and a 6000 to 20000 pound payload. The ASTV project outlines a chemically powered aeroassisted configuration that uses disposable tanks and a relatively small aerobrake to realize propellant savings. The third project, LOCOST, involves a reusable, hybrid laser/chemical vehicle designed for large cargo (up to 88,200 pounds) transportation.

  19. Methane heat transfer investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Future high chamber pressure LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines require copper-base alloy main combustion chamber coolant channels similar to the SSME to provide adequate cooling and resuable engine life. Therefore, it is of vital importance to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics and coking thresholds for LNG (94% methane) cooling, with a copper-base alloy material adjacent to the fuel coolant. High-pressure methane cooling and coking characteristics were recently evaluated using stainless-steel heated tubes at methane bulk temperatures and coolant wall temperatures typical of advanced engine operation except at lower heat fluxes as limited by the tube material. As expected, there was no coking observed. However, coking evaluations need be conducted with a copper-base surface exposed to the methane coolant at higher heat fluxes approaching those of future high chamber pressure engines.

  20. Review of recent measurements of meson and hyperon form factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Kamal K.

    2014-06-01

    A review of recent precision measurements of the electromagnetic form factors of the mesons, pion and kaon, and the hyperons, ?0, ?0, ?+, ?-, ?0, ?-, at large timelike momentum transfers is presented. Evidence is found for diquark correlations in ?0, ?0 hyperons.

  1. Recent and Future Measurements of the Neutron Electric Form Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, Andrei [University of Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)

    2010-08-05

    I review recently conducted measurements of G{sub E}{sup n} as well as precision form factor experiments at high momentum transfer that will be performed with the 11 GeV electron beam at Jefferson Lab.

  2. Dual Space Technology Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowbel, W.; Loutfy, R.

    2009-03-01

    Over the past fifteen years, MER has had several NASA SBIR Phase II programs in the area of space technology, based upon carbon-carbon (C-C) composites. In addition, in November 2004, leading edges supplied by MER provided the enabling technology to reach a Mach 10 record for an air breathing engine on the X-43 A flight. The MER business model constitutes a spin-off of technologies initially by incubating in house, and ultimately creating spin-off stand alone companies. FMC was formed to provide for technology transfer in the area of fabrication of C-C composites. FMC has acquired ISO 9000 and AS9100 quality certifications. FMC is fabricating under AS9100 certification, flight parts for several flight programs. In addition, FMC is expanding the application of carbon-carbon composites to several critical military programs. In addition to space technology transfer to critical military programs, FMC is becoming the world leader in the commercial area of low-cost C-C composites for furnace fixtures. Market penetrations have been accomplished in North America, Europe and Asia. Low-cost, quick turn-around and excellent quality of FMC products paves the way to greatly increased sales. In addition, FMC is actively pursuing a joint venture with a new partner, near closure, to become the leading supplier of high temperature carbon based composites. In addition, several other spin-off companies such as TMC, FiC, Li-Tech and NMIC were formed by MER with a plethora of potential space applications.

  3. Heat Transfer through Rockfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. T.; Pohle, J.; Prikryl, J.

    2004-12-01

    Thermally induced rock stresses at the potential high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, can degrade the drifts, possibly causing rockfall onto the dripshield overlying the emplaced waste packages. Thermal-hydrological processes will be altered by changes in thermal conductivity, ventilation, radiation, and convection resulting from such rockfalls. Determining the effects of collapse materials on repository performance is difficult because heat and mass transfer through the engineered barrier and highly heterogeneous collapse materials is a complex and coupled process. Measurements and estimates of thermal conductivity of intact rock samples from geologic units at Yucca Mountain are available, but collapsed rock will be a mixture of broken rock and air. The purpose of this investigation is to assess the thermal conductivity of crushed tuff from the Topopah Spring lower lithophysal unit at Yucca Mountain and identify the important heat and mass transfer mechanisms in the collapsed rock for the range of conditions expected at a potential geologic HLW repository. A laboratory apparatus was used to directly measure steady-state bulk thermal conductivity of crushed tuff for a range of temperatures up to 197ºC and thermal gradients as large as 990ºC/m. Measured thermal conductivities varied from 0.38 to 0.56 W/m-K. In general, thermal conductivity increased with either increased temperature or increased thermal gradient. This abstract is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the views or regulatory position of the NRC. The NRC staff views expressed herein are preliminary and do not constitute a final judgement of determination of the matters addressed or the acceptability of a license application for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain.

  4. [Transference focused psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Frank; Delaney, Jill C; Renaud, André

    2007-01-01

    Transference focused psychotherapy is a version of psychodynamic psychotherapy that is modified and specialized for patients with borderline personality disorder. It is based on psychoanalytic principles with an emphasis on object relations theory. A fundamental concept in this model is that the organization of an individual's psyche is structured around internalized versions of interpersonal relations. The relationship experiences that are internalized involve a specific representation of the self, a specific representation of the other (the object of the libidinal or aggressive drive) and an intense affect that links them. However, this movement toward integration of the internal representational world does not take place in individuals with borderline personality, who continue to experience life in a way that is based on rigid and extreme views of self and others. The goal of transference focused psychotherapy is to help individuals advance to an integrated internal world through the analysis of the patient's ongoing experience of his or her relationship with the therapist. It is assumed that the analysis of this relationship will bring to light the internal representations of self and other, and the corresponding affects, that are related to unconscious desires and motivations, and that underlie the individual's extreme and discontinuous experience in life. The therapy begins with a specific diagnostic interview and the establishment of a treatment contract with the patient before the psychotherapeutic work begins. The first goal of the therapy is to engage the patient in the process of observing and gaining awareness of the representations of self and other that guide his or her perceptions of the world. The therapy then helps the patient to understand the internal forces that have kept theses representations segregated from each other and to integrate them into a more mature and coherent sense of self and others. PMID:18253659

  5. Learning, Intention to Transfer and Transfer in Executive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpin, Victoria; Eichenberg, Timm; Hayward, Ian; Abraham, Priya

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to understand the relationship between self-reported "intention" to transfer and self-reported "actual" transfer within a population of middle and senior executives on an executive education programme. A secondary objective was to consider the relationship between these qualitative self-reports of…

  6. Transferring Skills, Transferring Students: A Call To Academic Libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Phillips; Thomas A. Atwood

    2010-01-01

    The growing number of transfer students on college and university campuses presents a challenge to academic libraries. For years, these libraries have taught students information literacy skills to enhance their abilities to locate, evaluate, and use information in order to be successful students as well as lifelong learners. At many libraries, both direct from high school and transfer students are

  7. Heat Transfer Derivation of differential equations for heat transfer conduction

    E-print Network

    Veress, Alexander

    Heat Transfer Derivation of differential equations for heat transfer conduction without convection/(hftF). T is the temperature, in C or F. dT=dx is the temperature gradient, in C/m or F/ft. This equation states that the heat sign in the above equation states heat flow is positive in the direction opposite the direction

  8. Transference, Counter-Transference, and Reflexivity in Intercultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Jenna Min

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses the contributions psychoanalytic theory, particularly its concepts of "transference and counter-transference," can make to our understanding of reflexivity in intercultural education (IE). After the introduction, the article is organized into three parts. The first part is a psychoanalytic discussion that focuses on…

  9. Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Channel with Rib-Groove Turbulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaewkohkiat, Y.; Kongkaitpaiboon, V.; Eiamsa-ard, S.; Pimsarn, M.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents the effects of the rib-groove turbulators on the heat transfer and friction characteristics in a rectangular channel. The experiments encompass the Reynolds number range from 1800 to 10,000; pitch ratios (PR = P/e) 6.6-13.3 by using air as the working fluid. The obtained results demonstrate that heat transfer rate in term of Nusselt number (Nu) increases with the increase of Reynolds number, whereas friction factor (f) shows the opposite trend. Both Nusselt number and friction factor increase with decreasing pitch ratio. It is also observed that heat transfer rate and friction factor for the channels with rib-groove turbulators are higher than those for the smooth channel under similar test conditions. In addition, the correlations for heat transfer rate in term of Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor (f) for channel with rib-groove turbulators are also presented.

  10. Applications of aerospace technology in industry. A technology transfer profile: Food technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Food processing and preservation technologies are reviewed, expected technological advances are considered including processing and market factors. NASA contributions to food technology and nutrition are presented with examples of transfer from NASA to industry.

  11. Comparison of Correction Factors for Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers with Segmental or Helical Baffles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Stehlík; J. Nemcanský; D. Kral; L. W. Swanson

    1994-01-01

    Heat transfer and pressure drop correction factors based on the Bell-Delaware method have been compared for an optimized segmental baffle heat exchanger and a helical baffle heat exchanger. In general, the results showed that properly designed helical baffles offer a significant improvement in heat transfer while providing a reduced exchanger pressure drop. The enhancement in heat transfer for helical baffles

  12. Natural transfer of viable microbes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mileikowsky, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Gladman, B.; Horneck, G.; Lindegren, L.; Melosh, J.; Rickman, H.; Valtonen, M.; Zheng, J. Q.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency.

  13. Crab regulation of cross-ecosystem resource transfer by marine foraging fire ants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erica A. Garcia; Mark D. Bertness; Juan Alberti; Brian R. Silliman

    2011-01-01

    Permeability of boundaries in biological systems is regulated by biotic and\\/or abiotic factors. Despite this knowledge, the\\u000a role of biotic factors in regulating resource transfer across ecosystem boundaries has received little study. Additionally,\\u000a little is known about how cross-ecosystem resource transfer affects source populations. We used experiments, observations\\u000a and stable isotopes, to evaluate: (1) the proportion of intertidal-foraging black fire

  14. Thrombopoietin Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Wei

    \\u000a Megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis are the central biological processes of platelet generation. Severe thrombocytopenia is\\u000a a major morbidity and mortality factor in several diseases and represents a significant unmet medical need. Since the discovery\\u000a of thrombopoietin (TPO) as the primary physiological regulator of megakaryopoiesis, a number of therapeutics have been developed\\u000a for thrombocytopenia and been tested in preclinical models and human

  15. Isothermal-Gas-Transfer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Don I.

    1989-01-01

    Isothermal Gas Transfer program (GASXFER) solves variety of problems in which gas or gas mixture transferred between two containers. Special features of program include ease of entering data and ease of obtaining output. Program displays, prints, or graphs complete pressure history of each gas as function of time. Written in Lotus Symphony macrolanguage.

  16. Intergovernmental Transfers to Local Governments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Wildasin

    2009-01-01

    Intergovernmental transfers are a major source of finance to local governments. Overall, they are a surprisingly stable and persistent component of the complex system of intergovernmental regulatory and fiscal relations, even as the responsibilities and powers of subnational governments evolve over time. Transfers facilitate local fiscal adjustment to fiscal shocks arising from natural events such as major storms and floods,

  17. Interocular transfer in Octopus vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. A. Muntz

    1961-01-01

    Groups of octopuses were trained on problems involving distortions of original figures, discriminations of different difficulties, and transfer during learning and extinction. The degree of interocular transfer was found to be a function of the animal's performance while using the trained eye. The results confirm and extend results which have been obtained on hens and fish, using different distortions of

  18. Radiative transfer in protoplanetary disks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Pinte; F. Ménard; G. Duchêne

    2006-01-01

    We present a new 3D continuum radiative transfer code, MCFOST, based on a Monte-Carlo method. The reliability and efficiency of the code is tested by comparison with five different radiative transfer codes previously tested by Pascucci et al. (2004), using a 2D disk configuration. When tested against the same disk configuration, no significant difference is found between the temperature and

  19. West Virginia University Transfer Guide

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    standards. Transfer students with fewer than 24 transferable credit hours, must also meet freshman one and forty three credits are selected from the Nine Core areas designed to help WVU students Education Credits (GEC), visit: http://registrar.wvu.edu/current_students/gec_description #12;WVU requires

  20. Nuclear transfer: Progress and quandaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuemei Li; Ziyi Li; Alice Jouneau; Qi Zhou; Jean-Paul Renard

    2003-01-01

    Cloning mammals by nuclear transfer is a powerful technique that is quickly advancing the development of genetically defined animal models. However, the overall efficiency of nuclear transfer is still very low and several hurdles remain before the power of this technique will be fully harnessed. Among these hurdles include an incomplete understanding of biologic processes that control epigenetic reprogramming of

  1. Principles and Guidelines for Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Transfer relationships in British Columbia (BC) are governed by statements which were adopted by the Council in 1993 after consultation with the institutions of the BC Transfer System. Principles and guidelines in this document are based on those formulated by the British Columbia Post-Secondary Coordinating Committee and approved by university…

  2. A universal power transfer curve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Hansen; James McSpadden; James N. Benford

    2005-01-01

    Power transfer between circular apertures at far-field distances is calculated using a widely applicable aperture distribution with adjustable sidelobe ratio. Power transfer efficiency is obtained by integrating the pattern out to the angle subtended by the receiving aperture. Efficiency is parameterized such that a single curve results for each sidelobe ratio, independent of transmit D\\/?, over a range of 5

  3. Sperm-mediated gene transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony W. S. Chan; C. Marc Luetjens; Gerald P. Schatten

    2000-01-01

    Since 1989, a new method for the production of transgenic animals has been available, namely sperm- mediated gene transfer (SMGT), based on the intrinsic ability of sperm cells to bind and internalise exogenous DNA molecules and to transfer them into the oocyte at fertilisation. We first described the SMGT procedure in a small animal model, with high efficiency reported in

  4. Transfer Student MAE Major Curriculums

    E-print Network

    Wang, Deli

    Methods MAE 160 or MAE 131B HSS MAE 101C*- Heat Transfer MAE 155A*- Aerospace Design MAE 155B- Aeronautics Design MAE 101C*- Heat Transfer MAE 156A*- Design Lab I MAE 156B- Design Lab II MAE 150*- Computer 104*- Aerodynamics MAE 142*- Dynamics and Controls HSS TE TE TE HSS MAE 113*- Propulsion TE HSS HSS

  5. ABMA to MSFC Transfer Ceremony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    Major General August Schomburg speaks while Dr. Wernher von Braun listens during the official transfer ceremony of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) to the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on July 1, 1960. The transfer ceremony took place in the front of the ABMA-MSFC joint headquarters, building 4488, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama

  6. ABMA to MSFC Transfer Ceremony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun and Maj. Gen. August Schomburg officiate the official transfer of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) to the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on July 1, 1960. The Official transfer ceremony took place in the front of the ABMA-MSFC joint headquarters, building 4488, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama.

  7. Cooper pair transfer in nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potel, G.; Idini, A.; Barranco, F.; Vigezzi, E.; Broglia, R. A.

    2013-10-01

    The second-order distorted wave Born approximation implementation of two-particle transfer direct reactions which includes simultaneous and successive transfer, properly corrected by non-orthogonality effects, is tested with the help of controlled nuclear structure and reaction inputs against data spanning the whole mass table, and showed to constitute a quantitative probe of nuclear pairing correlations.

  8. Technology Transfer and the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary W.

    The commercialization of university research and the growing importance of technology transfer is examined through discussing and comparing the history of technology transfer and its organization in four major American research universities: University of California, Berkley; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Stanford University; and…

  9. Multinational Firms and Technology Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saggi; Amy Jocelyn Glass

    1999-01-01

    A developing country may attract foreign direct investment (FDI) for (1) technology transfer that increases local firm profits or for (2) wage premiums that benefit workers. The two never occur together but if the country can attract FDI, it is guaranteed either the technology transfer or the greater pay for workers-although those benefits may not be great enough to make

  10. Energy Transfer in Musical Instruments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Engineering K-PhD Program,

    This lesson covers concepts of energy and energy transfer, with a focus on energy transfer in musical instruments. More specifically, students learn the two different ways in which energy can be transferred between a system and its environment. The law of conservation of energy is also described. Example systems are presented (two cars on a track and a tennis ball falling to the ground) and students make predictions and explain the energy transfer mechanisms. The engineering focus becomes clear in the associated activity when students apply the concepts learned in the lesson to design musical instruments. The systems analyzed in the lesson help in discussing how to apply conservation of energy and energy transfer to make things.

  11. Electron transfer statistics and thermal fluctuations in molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Himangshu Prabal; Harbola, Upendra

    2015-02-01

    We derive analytical expressions for probability distribution function (PDF) for electron transport in a simple model of quantum junction in presence of thermal fluctuations. Our approach is based on the large deviation theory combined with the generating function method. For large number of electrons transferred, the PDF is found to decay exponentially in the tails with different rates due to applied bias. This asymmetry in the PDF is related to the fluctuation theorem. Statistics of fluctuations are analyzed in terms of the Fano factor. Thermal fluctuations play a quantitative role in determining the statistics of electron transfer; they tend to suppress the average current while enhancing the fluctuations in particle transfer. This gives rise to both bunching and antibunching phenomena as determined by the Fano factor. The thermal fluctuations and shot noise compete with each other and determine the net (effective) statistics of particle transfer. Exact analytical expression is obtained for delay time distribution. The optimal values of the delay time between successive electron transfers can be lowered below the corresponding shot noise values by tuning the thermal effects.

  12. THE UNLV FOUNDATION MONETARY TRANSFER FORM

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    THE UNLV FOUNDATION MONETARY TRANSFER FORM (Use one form for each account) Date Department Amount Transfer from Foundation Account Name UNLV Foundation Foundation Account Number Transfer to University contributions to this fund were accepted. Multiple Transfer A monetary transfer from the UNLV Foundation

  13. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Dave; Gagliardi, Christopher J.; Hull, Jonathan F; Murphy, Christine Fecenko; Kent, Caleb A.; Westlake, Brittany C.; Paul, Amit; Ess, Daniel H; McCafferty, Dewey Granville; Meyer, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET) describes reactions in which there is a change in both electron and proton content between reactants and products. It originates from the influence of changes in electron content on acid?base properties and provides a molecular-level basis for energy transduction between proton transfer and electron transfer. Coupled electron?proton transfer or EPT is defined as an elementary step in which electrons and protons transfer from different orbitals on the donor to different orbitals on the acceptor. There is (usually) a clear distinction between EPT and H-atom transfer (HAT) or hydride transfer, in which the transferring electrons and proton come from the same bond. Hybrid mechanisms exist in which the elementary steps are different for the reaction partners. EPT pathways such as PhO•/PhOH exchange have much in common with HAT pathways in that electronic coupling is significant, comparable to the reorganization energy with H{sub DA} ~ ?. Multiple-Site Electron?Proton Transfer (MS-EPT) is an elementary step in which an electron?proton donor transfers electrons and protons to different acceptors, or an electron?proton acceptor accepts electrons and protons from different donors. It exploits the long-range nature of electron transfer while providing for the short-range nature of proton transfer. A variety of EPT pathways exist, creating a taxonomy based on what is transferred, e.g., 1e{sup -}/2H{sup +} MS-EPT. PCET achieves “redox potential leveling” between sequential couples and the buildup of multiple redox equivalents, which is of importance in multielectron catalysis. There are many examples of PCET and pH-dependent redox behavior in metal complexes, in organic and biological molecules, in excited states, and on surfaces. Changes in pH can be used to induce electron transfer through films and over long distances in molecules. Changes in pH, induced by local electron transfer, create pH gradients and a driving force for long-range proton transfer in Photosysem II and through other biological membranes. In EPT, simultaneous transfer of electrons and protons occurs on time scales short compared to the periods of coupled vibrations and solvent modes. A theory for EPT has been developed which rationalizes rate constants and activation barriers, includes temperature- and driving force (?G)-dependences implicitly, and explains kinetic isotope effects. The distance-dependence of EPT is dominated by the short-range nature of proton transfer, with electron transfer being far less demanding.Changes in external pH do not affect an EPT elementary step. Solvent molecules or buffer components can act as proton donor acceptors, but individual H2O molecules are neither good bases (pK{sub a}(H{sub 3}O{sup +}) = ?1.74) nor good acids (pK{sub a}(H{sub 2}O) = 15.7). There are many examples of mechanisms in chemistry, in biology, on surfaces, and in the gas phase which utilize EPT. PCET and EPT play critical roles in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of Photosystem II and other biological reactions by decreasing driving force and avoiding high-energy intermediates.

  14. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.

    1983-08-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equations, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. Some discussion is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correlations, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. 155 figs., 92 refs., 9 tabs.

  15. Pseudoscalar meson form factors and decays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Dorokhov

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we discuss few topics related with modern experimental data on the physics of light pseudoscalar mesons. It includes the contribution of the pseudoscalar mesons to the muon anomalous magnetic moment (AMM), $g-2$, the rare decays of light pseudoscalar mesons to lepton pair, the transition form factors of pseudoscalar mesons at large momentum transfer, the pion transversity form

  16. Biomass effects on oxygen transfer in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Germain, E; Nelles, F; Drews, A; Pearce, P; Kraume, M; Reid, E; Judd, S J; Stephenson, T

    2007-03-01

    Ten biomass samples from both municipal and industrial pilot and full scale submerged membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with mixed liquor suspended solids concentrations (MLSS) ranging from 7.2 to 30.2g L(-1) were studied at six air-flow rates (0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3, 4.4 and 6m(3)m(-3)h(-1)). Statistical analyses were applied to identify the relative impacts of the various bulk biomass characteristics on oxygen transfer. Of the biomass characteristics studied, only solids concentration (correlated with viscosity), the carbohydrate fraction of the EPS (EPS(c)) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of the SMP (SMP(COD)) were found to affect the oxygen transfer parameters k(L)a(20) (the oxygen transfer coefficient) and alpha-factor. The relative influence on k(L)a(20) was MLSS>aeration>EPS(c)>SMP(COD) and on alpha-factor was MLSS>SMP(COD)>EPS(c)>aeration. Both k(L)a(20) and alpha-factor increased with increasing aeration and EPS(c) and decreased with increasing MLSS and SMP(COD). MLSS was found to be the main parameter controlling the oxygen transfer. PMID:17217981

  17. The Transfer Functions of Cardiac Tissue during Stochastic Pacing

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Enno; Kucera, Jan P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The restitution properties of cardiac action potential duration (APD) and conduction velocity (CV) are important factors in arrhythmogenesis. They determine alternans, wavebreak, and the patterns of reentrant arrhythmias. We developed a novel approach to characterize restitution using transfer functions. Transfer functions relate an input and an output quantity in terms of gain and phase shift in the complex frequency domain. We derived an analytical expression for the transfer function of interbeat intervals (IBIs) during conduction from one site (input) to another site downstream (output). Transfer functions can be efficiently obtained using a stochastic pacing protocol. Using simulations of conduction and extracellular mapping of strands of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, we show that transfer functions permit the quantification of APD and CV restitution slopes when it is difficult to measure APD directly. We find that the normally positive CV restitution slope attenuates IBI variations. In contrast, a negative CV restitution slope (induced by decreasing extracellular [K+]) amplifies IBI variations with a maximum at the frequency of alternans. Hence, it potentiates alternans and renders conduction unstable, even in the absence of APD restitution. Thus, stochastic pacing and transfer function analysis represent a powerful strategy to evaluate restitution and the stability of conduction. PMID:19134481

  18. Coordinated photoinduced electron and proton transfer in a molecular triad

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, S.C.; Macpherson, A.N.; Lin, S.; Liddell, P.A.; Seely, G.R.; Moore, A.L.; Moore, T.A.; Gust, D. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States))

    1995-02-08

    Excitation of carotenoid-porphyrin-quinone (C-P-Q) triads yields the porphyrin first excited singlet state, which decays by electron transfer to give a C-P[sup [center dot]+]-Q[sup [center dot]-] charge-separated state. Competing with rapid charge recombination is electron transfer from the carotenoid to produce a long-lived C[sup [center dot]+]-P-Q[sup [center dot]-] species. High quantum yields of the final state require tuning of electronic and thermodynamic factors to favor forward electron transfer over charge recombination. Triad 1 illustrates a new strategy for slowing charge recombination based on coupling photoinduced electron transfer to a change in proton chemical potential. The quantum yields and lifetimes of the final charge-separated states in the triads were assessed by monitoring the transient carotenoid radical cation absorptions. The results demonstrate that the yield of charge separation in multicomponent molecular photovoltaics can be increased by a coordinated electron and proton transfer process. It is also interesting that in 1 a substantial fraction of the intramolecular redox potential produced by photoinduced electron transfer is transformed into proton chemical potential. Elaboration of this concept could lead to photoinduced generation of proton motive force in a heterogeneous system. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Dynamical Treatment of Charge Transfer through Duplex Nucleic Acids Containing Modified Adenines

    PubMed Central

    Brancolini, Giorgia; Migliore, Agostino; Corni, Stefano; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Luque, F. Javier; Di Felice, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    We address the issue of whether chemical alterations of nucleobases are an effective tool to modulate charge transfer through DNA molecules. Our investigation uses a multi-level computational approach based on classical molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry. We find yet another evidence that structural fluctuations are a key factor to determine the electronic structure of double-stranded DNA. We argue that the electronic structure and charge transfer ability of flexible polymers is the result of a complex intertwining of various structural, dynamical and chemical factors. Chemical intuition may be used to design molecular wires, but this is not the sole component in the complex charge transfer mechanism through DNA. PMID:24060008

  20. New flow boiling heat transfer model for hydrocarbons evaporating inside horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Zou, X. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, 35, Beijing, 100190 (China); Wang, S. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, 35, Beijing, 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Science, No. 19 YuQuan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China)

    2014-01-29

    Hydrocarbons have high thermodynamic performances, belong to the group of natural refrigerants, and they are the main components in mixture Joule-Thomson low temperature refrigerators (MJTR). New evaluations of nucleate boiling contribution and nucleate boiling suppression factor in flow boiling heat transfer have been proposed for hydrocarbons. A forced convection heat transfer enhancement factor correlation incorporating liquid velocity has also been proposed. In addition, the comparisons of the new model and other classic models were made to evaluate its accuracy in heat transfer prediction.

  1. Phylogeny Poorly Predicts the Utility of a Challenging Horizontally Transferred Gene in Methylobacterium Strains

    PubMed Central

    Michener, Joshua K.; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; Bringel, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer plays a crucial role in microbial evolution. While much is known about the mechanisms that determine whether physical DNA can be transferred into a new host, the factors determining the utility of the transferred genes are less clear. We have explored this issue using dichloromethane consumption in Methylobacterium strains. Methylobacterium extorquens DM4 expresses a dichloromethane dehalogenase (DcmA) that has been acquired through horizontal gene transfer and allows the strain to grow on dichloromethane as the sole carbon and energy source. We transferred the dcmA gene into six Methylobacterium strains that include both close and distant evolutionary relatives. The transconjugants varied in their ability to grow on dichloromethane, but their fitness on dichloromethane did not correlate with the phylogeny of the parental strains or with any single tested physiological factor. This work highlights an important limiting factor in horizontal gene transfer, namely, the capacity of the recipient strain to accommodate the stress and metabolic disruption resulting from the acquisition of a new enzyme or pathway. Understanding these limitations may help to rationalize historical examples of horizontal transfer and aid deliberate genetic transfers in biotechnology for metabolic engineering. PMID:24682326

  2. Phylogeny poorly predicts the utility of a challenging horizontally transferred gene in Methylobacterium strains.

    PubMed

    Michener, Joshua K; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; Bringel, Françoise; Marx, Christopher J

    2014-06-01

    Horizontal gene transfer plays a crucial role in microbial evolution. While much is known about the mechanisms that determine whether physical DNA can be transferred into a new host, the factors determining the utility of the transferred genes are less clear. We have explored this issue using dichloromethane consumption in Methylobacterium strains. Methylobacterium extorquens DM4 expresses a dichloromethane dehalogenase (DcmA) that has been acquired through horizontal gene transfer and allows the strain to grow on dichloromethane as the sole carbon and energy source. We transferred the dcmA gene into six Methylobacterium strains that include both close and distant evolutionary relatives. The transconjugants varied in their ability to grow on dichloromethane, but their fitness on dichloromethane did not correlate with the phylogeny of the parental strains or with any single tested physiological factor. This work highlights an important limiting factor in horizontal gene transfer, namely, the capacity of the recipient strain to accommodate the stress and metabolic disruption resulting from the acquisition of a new enzyme or pathway. Understanding these limitations may help to rationalize historical examples of horizontal transfer and aid deliberate genetic transfers in biotechnology for metabolic engineering. PMID:24682326

  3. Information Transfer Analysis of Spontaneous Low-frequency Fluctuations in Cerebral Hemodynamics and Cardiovascular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katura, Takusige; Tanaka, Naoki; Obata, Akiko; Sato, Hiroki; Maki, Atsushi

    2005-08-01

    In this study, from the information-theoretic viewpoint, we analyzed the interrelation between the spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations around 0.1Hz in the hemoglobin concentration in the cerebral cortex, mean arterial blood pressure and the heart rate. For this analysis, as measures of information transfer, we used transfer entropy (TE) proposed for two-factor systems by Schreiber and intrinsic transfer entropy (ITE) introduced for further analysis of three-factor systems by extending the original TE. In our analysis, information transfer analysis based on both TE and ITE suggests the systemic cardiovascular fluctuations alone cannot account for the cerebrovascular fluctuations, that is, the regulation of the regional cerebral energetic metabolism is important as a candidate of its generation mechanism Such an information transfer analysis seems useful to reveal the interrelation between the elements regulated each other in a complex manner.

  4. Effect of the error in determination of the heat transfer coefficient on the simulation data for heat and mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovskoy, I. G.

    2012-08-01

    In a rigorous way, nonstationary problems of convective heat transfer should be treated in the conjugate statement where the condition of conjugation of the heat transfer medium and the channel wall temperature fields at their interface is used [1-3]. However, the difficulties, such as lack, as a rule, of complete data on the distribution of turbulent momentum and heat transfer coefficients over the channel cross-section, inherent restrictions of the existing models of turbulence, and the geometrical complexity of the solution domain, force researchers to consider an alternative approach where the heat transfer from the moving gas medium to the channel walls is described by the Newton-Richman law [4]. In this case, the local coefficient of convective heat transfer is determined by well-known criterial experimental relations, which are valid for a steady flow of the heat carrier [4, 5]. This simplified approach cannot be rigorously substantiated by invoking the quasistationarity principle or by introducing correction factors, and comparison of numerical and experimental data for evaluating the calculation accuracy is not always possible. An attempt is made to determine the domain of applicability of the simplified approach by evaluating the effect of the error that arises in the estimation of the heat transfer coefficient on the parameters of a convective flow.

  5. Detecting Highways of Horizontal Gene Transfer

    E-print Network

    Bansal, Mukul S.

    In a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event, a gene is transferred between two species that do not have an ancestor-descendant relationship. Typically, no more than a few genes are horizontally transferred between any two ...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1105 - Transfer racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Transfer racks. 63.1105 Section...Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards § 63.1105 Transfer racks. (a) Design requirements...operator shall equip each transfer rack with one of the...

  7. 7 CFR 982.456 - Interhandler transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative...transfers. Each interhandler transfer of hazelnuts pursuant to § 982.56 (a) and... (c) Locations between which the hazelnuts were transferred; (d) Whether...

  8. Heat Transfer: From Hot to Not

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

    Students learn the fundamental concepts of heat transfer and heat of reaction. This includes concepts such as physical chemistry, an equation for heat transfer, and a basic understanding of energy and heat transfer.

  9. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127.319 Navigation...Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1105 - Transfer racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Transfer racks. 63.1105 Section...Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards § 63.1105 Transfer racks. (a) Design requirements...operator shall equip each transfer rack with one of the...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1105 - Transfer racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Transfer racks. 63.1105 Section...Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards § 63.1105 Transfer racks. (a) Design requirements...operator shall equip each transfer rack with one of the...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1105 - Transfer racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Transfer racks. 63.1105 Section...Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards § 63.1105 Transfer racks. (a) Design requirements...operator shall equip each transfer rack with one of the...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1105 - Transfer racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Transfer racks. 63.1105 Section...Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards § 63.1105 Transfer racks. (a) Design requirements...operator shall equip each transfer rack with one of the...

  14. From learning science to teaching science: What transfers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, Danielle Boyd

    As educational researchers and teacher educators, we have the responsibility to help teachers gain the skills and knowledge necessary to provide meaningful learning activities for their students. For elementary school science, this means helping teachers create situations in which children can participate in the practices associated with scientific inquiry. Through the framework of transfer I investigated how a professional development course based on an inquiry-based physics curriculum influenced five elementary teachers teaching practices and identified the factors that led to or hindered this transfer. In this study, evidence of transfer consisted of episodes where the teachers used the ideas learned in the physics course to solve new problems such as transforming activities to be appropriate for their students and responding to unexpected students' ideas. The findings of this study highlight the many different ways that teachers use what they learn in content courses to teach science to elementary children. While some teachers transferred pedagogical practices along with the content, others transformed the content to be useful in already existing pedagogical frameworks, and still others show little or no evidence of transfer. What the teachers transferred depended upon their existing teaching context as well as their prior ideas about teaching science and physics content. Specifically, the findings of this study suggest that the teachers transferred only what they sought from the course. One implication of this study is that the sort of science training we provide teachers can affect far more than just the teachers' conceptual understanding of science and performance on written conceptual exams. Science courses have the potential to impact the sort of science education that K-5 children receive in elementary classrooms in terms of the topics taught but the way that science is represented. An additional implication is that teaching science to teachers in ways that help teachers consider how the content is useful in their classroom may facilitate transfer.

  15. Transfer of Learning: Planning Effective Workplace Education Programs = Transfert d'apprentissage: La Planification de programmes d'education efficaces en milieu de travail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice

    Given the centrality of the topic of transfer of learning to so many areas of workplace education, this discussion paper (in both English and French versions) draws together research results and practical techniques to help practitioners in the field. Part 1 defines transfer of learning. Part 2 describes factors that influence the transfer of…

  16. Inpatient transfer episodes among aged Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Buczko, W

    1993-01-01

    Examination of data derived from Medicare provider analysis and review (MEDPAR) discharge records for 152,337 transfer episodes of aged Medicare beneficiaries indicates that aged Medicare transfer patients have initial stays comparable to non-transfers in terms of length of stay, case-mix intensity, and total charges. During the final part of the transfer episode, however, transfers are clearly more intense cases than non-transfers. Patients treated for stroke or cardiovascular conditions are more likely to be transferred than other Medicare aged inpatients. The transfer episodes examined appear to reflect clinical considerations based primarily on patient need for specialized care. PMID:10135346

  17. MODERN DEVELOPMENTS IN MULTIPHASE FLOW & HEAT TRANSFER

    E-print Network

    Lahey, Richard T.

    MODERN DEVELOPMENTS IN MULTIPHASE FLOW & HEAT TRANSFER "ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS OF FRACTAL and multiphase flow & heat transfer will be stressed. This paper will begin by reviewing some important concepts

  18. Electronic Transfer of School Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Describes the electronic transfer of student records, notably the use of a Web-server named CHARLOTTE sponsored by the National Forum on Education Statistics and an Electronic Data Exchange system named SPEEDE/ExPRESS. (PKP)

  19. TECH TRANSFER BENCHMARKING Alan Thomas

    E-print Network

    Ober, Carole

    " to a different level, like popcorn, when eventually a big winner arrives - big winners are driven there is noise in the data (to some extent due to the "popcorn effect"), tech transfer office performance broadly

  20. Preparing for Transfer Biological Engineering

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Preparing for Transfer Majors: Biological Engineering Chemical Engineering Civil Engineering Information Science, Systems, & Technology Materials Science & Engineering Mechanical Engineering Operations Research & Engineering Science of Earth Systems Minors: Aerospace Engineering Applied Mathematics

  1. Energy transfer in compressible turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bataille, Francoise; Zhou, YE; Bertoglio, Jean-Pierre

    1995-01-01

    This letter investigates the compressible energy transfer process. We extend a methodology developed originally for incompressible turbulence and use databases from numerical simulations of a weak compressible turbulence based on Eddy-Damped-Quasi-Normal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure. In order to analyze the compressible mode directly, the well known Helmholtz decomposition is used. While the compressible component has very little influence on the solenoidal part, we found that almost all of the compressible turbulence energy is received from its solenoidal counterpart. We focus on the most fundamental building block of the energy transfer process, the triadic interactions. This analysis leads us to conclude that, at low turbulent Mach number, the compressible energy transfer process is dominated by a local radiative transfer (absorption) in both inertial and energy containing ranges.

  2. Wireless transfer of electric power

    E-print Network

    Moffatt, Robert Alexander

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I describe the design and construction of a system which can transfer electric power wirelessly. This is accomplished using inductive, near-field, non-radiative coupling between self-resonant copper ...

  3. Analysis of orbital heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buna, T.

    1974-01-01

    Graphical representation of orbital heat balance in form of polar diagrams is obtained from integral expressions of orbital heat transfer whereby quantities of heat are represented as areas swept by ""thermal radii.''

  4. Heat-transfer thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V.; Anderson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal switch maintains temperature of planetary lander, within definite range, by transferring heat. Switch produces relatively large stroke and force, uses minimum electrical power, is lightweight, is vapor pressure actuated, and withstands sterilization temperatures without damage.

  5. Nucleon Form Factors from BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Michael

    2009-08-01

    The BLAST (Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid) experiment has been carried out at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center to study spin-dependent electron scattering from protons and deuterons with small systematic uncertainties. The experiment used a longitudinally polarized, intense electron beam stored in the Bates South Hall Ring in combination with isotopically pure, highly-polarized internal targets of polarized hydrogen and vector- and tensor-polarized deuterium from an atomic beam source. The BLAST data have been used to extract precise results for the elastic form factor ratios GE/GM of the proton and the neutron at low momentum transfer.

  6. Nucleon Form Factors from BLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, Michael [Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668, USA and Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2009-08-04

    The BLAST (Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid) experiment has been carried out at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center to study spin-dependent electron scattering from protons and deuterons with small systematic uncertainties. The experiment used a longitudinally polarized, intense electron beam stored in the Bates South Hall Ring in combination with isotopically pure, highly-polarized internal targets of polarized hydrogen and vector- and tensor-polarized deuterium from an atomic beam source. The BLAST data have been used to extract precise results for the elastic form factor ratios G{sub E}/G{sub M} of the proton and the neutron at low momentum transfer.

  7. Public transfers and marital dissolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigve Tjøtta; Kjell Vaage

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze determinants of marital dissolution, focusing on the alleged influences from public transfers, child\\u000a allowance, and child support awards. We use a Norwegian panel of 2,806 couples with information on public and private transfers\\u000a in cases of divorce. The sample was observed over a 5-year period, with the purpose of registering marital dissolution. We\\u000a find that

  8. Spring 2014 Heat Transfer -2

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Spring 2014 Heat Transfer - 2 A thin electronic chip is in the shape of a square wafer, b = 1 cm surface of the chip with a heat transfer coefficient of h = 100 W/m2 -K. Assume the chip has a uniform per side with a mass of m = 0.3 grams and specific heat of C = 103 J/kg-K. The chip is mounted

  9. Spatial differentiation of land transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-xing Du; Xian-jin Huang; Wen-xia Zhai; Bu-zhuo Peng

    2006-01-01

    The policy of land transfer has greatly influenced the macro economy of China with the commencement of another innovation\\u000a of land use system. Therefore, it is urgent to put forward some rational and feasible suggestions for local government to\\u000a manage the market of land transfer. Moreover, it is important in the field of study on agricultural land use change to

  10. Radiative transfer in protoplanetary disks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Pinte; Francois Menard; Gaspard Duchene

    2006-01-01

    We present a new 3D continuum radiative transfer code, MCFOST, based on a\\u000aMonte-Carlo method. The reliability and efficiency of the code is tested by\\u000acomparison with five different radiative transfer codes previously tested by\\u000aPascucci et al., 2004, using a 2D disk configuration. When tested against the\\u000asame disk configuration, no significant difference is found between the\\u000atemperature and

  11. Tubing for augmented heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Pavlics, P.

    1983-08-01

    The objectives of the program reported were: to determine the heat transfer and friction characteristics on the outside of spiral fluted tubing in single phase flow of water, and to assess the relative cost of a heat exchanger constructed with spiral fluted tubing with one using conventional smooth tubing. An application is examined where an isolation water/water heat exchanger was used to transfer the heat from a gaseous diffusion plant to an external system for energy recovery. (LEW)

  12. QED radiative corrections to impact factors

    E-print Network

    E. A. Kuraev; L. N. Lipatov; T. V. Shishkina

    2000-09-12

    We consider the radiative corrections to the impact factors of electron and photon. According to a generalized eikonal representation the e\\bar e scattering amplitude at high energies and fixed momentum transfers is proportional to the electron form factor. But we show that this representation is violated due to the presence of non-planar diagrams. One loop correction to the photon impact factor for small virtualities of the exchanged photon is obtained using the known results for the cross section of the e\\bar e production at photon-nuclei interactions.

  13. Forster energy transfer in chlorosomes of green photosynthetic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Causgrove, T. P.; Brune, D. C.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Energy transfer properties of whole cells and chlorosome antenna complexes isolated from the green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium limicola (containing bacteriochlorophyll c), Chlorobium vibrioforme (containing bacteriochlorophyll d) and Pelodictyon phaeoclathratiforme (containing bacteriochlorophyll e) were measured. The spectral overlap of the major chlorosome pigment (bacteriochlorophyll c, d or, e) with the bacteriochlorophyll a B795 chlorosome baseplate pigment is greatest for bacteriochlorophyll c and smallest for bacteriochlorophyll e. The absorbance and fluorescence spectra of isolated chlorosomes were measured, fitted to gaussian curves and the overlap factors with B795 calculated. Energy transfer times from the bacteriochlorophyll c, d or e to B795 were measured in whole cells and the results interpreted in terms of the Forster theory of energy transfer.

  14. Transfer zones in listric normal fault systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Shamik

    Listric normal faults are common in passive margin settings where sedimentary units are detached above weaker lithological units, such as evaporites or are driven by basal structural and stratigraphic discontinuities. The geometries and styles of faulting vary with the types of detachment and form landward and basinward dipping fault systems. Complex transfer zones therefore develop along the terminations of adjacent faults where deformation is accommodated by secondary faults, often below seismic resolution. The rollover geometry and secondary faults within the hanging wall of the major faults also vary with the styles of faulting and contribute to the complexity of the transfer zones. This study tries to understand the controlling factors for the formation of the different styles of listric normal faults and the different transfer zones formed within them, by using analog clay experimental models. Detailed analyses with respect to fault orientation, density and connectivity have been performed on the experiments in order to gather insights on the structural controls and the resulting geometries. A new high resolution 3D laser scanning technology has been introduced to scan the surfaces of the clay experiments for accurate measurements and 3D visualizations. Numerous examples from the Gulf of Mexico have been included to demonstrate and geometrically compare the observations in experiments and real structures. A salt cored convergent transfer zone from the South Timbalier Block 54, offshore Louisiana has been analyzed in detail to understand the evolutionary history of the region, which helps in deciphering the kinematic growth of similar structures in the Gulf of Mexico. The dissertation is divided into three chapters, written in a journal article format, that deal with three different aspects in understanding the listric normal fault systems and the transfer zones so formed. The first chapter involves clay experimental models to understand the fault patterns in divergent and convergent transfer zones. Flat base plate setups have been used to build different configurations that would lead to approaching, normal offset and overlapping faults geometries. The results have been analyzed with respect to fault orientation, density, connectivity and 3D geometry from photographs taken from the three free surfaces and laser scans of the top surface of the clay cake respectively. The second chapter looks into the 3D structural analysis of the South Timbalier Block 54, offshore Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico with the help of a 3D seismic dataset and associated well tops and velocity data donated by ExxonMobil Corporation. This study involves seismic interpretation techniques, velocity modeling, cross section restoration of a series of seismic lines and 3D subsurface modeling using depth converted seismic horizons, well tops and balanced cross sections. The third chapter deals with the clay experiments of listric normal fault systems and tries to understand the controls on geometries of fault systems with and without a ductile substrate. Sloping flat base plate setups have been used and silicone fluid underlain below the clay cake has been considered as an analog for salt. The experimental configurations have been varied with respect to three factors viz. the direction of slope with respect to extension, the termination of silicone polymer with respect to the basal discontinuities and overlap of the base plates. The analyses for the experiments have again been performed from photographs and 3D laser scans of the clay surface.

  15. Local nucleation propagation on heat transfer uniformity during subcooled convective boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beom Seok; Yang, Gang Mo; Shin, Sangwoo; Choi, Geehong; Cho, Hyung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Convective boiling heat transfer is an efficient cooling mechanism to dissipate amount of thermal energy by accompanying the phase transition of the working fluids. Particularly, the amount of heat dissipation capacity can be readily extensible by increasing the degree of subcooling due to initial demands requiring for coolant saturation. Under severely subcooled condition of 60°, we investigate boiling heat transfer phenomena regarding spatial heat transfer uniformity and stability on a planar surface. Severe subcooling can induce locally concentrated thermal loads due to poor spatial uniformity of the heat transfer. For reliable cooling, a high degree of spatial uniformity of the heat transfer should be guaranteed with minimized spatial deviation of heat transfer characteristics. Under pre-requisite safeguards below CHF, we experimentally elucidate the principal factors affecting the spatial uniformity of the heat transfer for a flow/thermal boundary layer considering heat transfer domains from a single-phase regime to a fully-developed boiling regime. Based on the local heat transfer evaluation, we demonstrate that full nucleation boiling over the entire heat transfer surface under subcooling conditions is favorable in terms of the uniformity of heat dissipation through the phase-change of the working fluid.

  16. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  17. Optimal filling factor of nanorod lenses for subwavelength imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kosulnikov, Sergey Yu.; Yankovskaya, Elizaveta A. [Department of Photonics and Optoinformatics, St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Kronverkskiy pr., 49, 197101 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Maslovski, Stanislav I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Belov, Pavel A. [Department of Photonics and Optoinformatics, St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Kronverkskiy pr., 49, 197101 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Queen Mary College, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Kivshar, Yuri S. [Department of Photonics and Optoinformatics, St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Kronverkskiy pr., 49, 197101 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Nonlinear Physics Centre, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    We analyze the effect of the filling factor on the imaging performance of metallic nanorod lenses. We observe that thicker nanorods allow lower reflection in the canalization regime and we find optimal values of the filling factor to achieve a transfer function with the characteristics of a perfect lens in a wide range of spatial frequencies.

  18. Gravimagnetic nucleon form-factors in the impact parameter representation

    E-print Network

    O. V. Selyugin; O. V. Teryaev

    2008-10-03

    In the framework of the new t-dependence of the General Parton Distributions (GPDs), which reproduce the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and neutron at small and large momentum transfer, the gravitational form factors of the nucleons and a separate contribution of the quarks to them are obtained.

  19. Hadron form factors using density-density correlators

    E-print Network

    C. Alexandrou; G. Koutsou; H. Neff

    2006-10-05

    Gauge invariant density-density correlators yield detailed information on hadron structure. Hadron deformation and form factors can be extracted for momentum transfers up to about 6 GeV$^2$. We use stochastic techniques and dilution to compute the all to all propagator required for the exact evaluation of density-density correlators. We present first results for the pion form factor.

  20. Collisional Orientation Transfer Faciliated Polarozation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jianmei; Ahmed, E. H.; Beser, B.; Guan, Y.; Lyyra, A. M.; Ashman, S.; Wolfe, C. M.; Huennekens, J.

    2011-06-01

    Collisional orientation transfer facilitated V-type double-resonance polarization spectroscopy technique was applied to study the A-b complex of Rb2 and Cs2. Since spectral congestion makes it difficult to find isolated pump transitions for heavy molecules such as Rb2 and Cs2, this technique significantly enlarges the range of rotational levels that can be observed per vibrational level. Collisional satellite lines with ?J up to 58 were observed in the Rb2 polarization experiment. In the Cs2 experiment, due to weaker Franck-Condon factors, collisional satellite lines with ?JMax equals to 12 were observed. Collisional orientation transfer in polarization spectroscopy was first observed with buffer gas pressure of several hundred Torr. The high pressure led to loss of spectral resolution from collisional broadening. Only 1 to 3 Torr of argon buffer gas pressure was used in our experiments to obtain spectra with much higher resolution. Among the six types of possible probe signals, we assigned and analyzed the signals from the V type excitation scheme. The data was used in the global deperturbation analysis of the A-b complex of both Rb2 and Cs2. H. Salami et al. Phys. Rev. A 80, 022515 (2009) Jianmei Bai et al., Phys. Rev. A, to appear (2011) B. Teets et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 683 (1976) . Okada et al. J. Chem. Phys. 105, 3458 (1996)