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1

Is the Transfer Factor a Relevant Tool to Assess the Soil-to-Plant Transfer of Radionuclides under Field Conditions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

nuclides. The field experiments are mostly making use of the fallout products naturally incorporated in the field The radiological impact of radionuclides released to the terrestrial soil by infiltration, bioturbation, and other mixing pro- environment is usually predicted with mathematical models in which the transfer of radionuclides from soil to the plant is described with cesses. The fallout products are

T. Centofanti; R. Penfield; A. Albrecht; S. Pellerin; H. Flühler; E. Frossard

2005-01-01

2

sup 60 Co, (sup 63)Ni and (sup 94)Nb soil-to-plant transfer in pot experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soil-to-plant transfer factors for (sup 60)Co, (sup 63)Ni and (sup 94)Nb were obtained via pot experiments with a Dystric Cambisol and a Calcic Chernozem, both from Lower Austria. Investigated plants were greenrape (Brassica napus oleifera L.), bean (Phas...

M. H. Gerzabek S. A. Mohamad K. Mueck O. Horak

1995-01-01

3

Soil-to-plant transfer of 137Cs related to its geochemical partitioning in Oxisols of tropical areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differences in 137Cs soil-to-plant transfer for two types of soils under tropical climatic conditions are discussed with reference to pedology and geochemical partitioning. Using acid oxisol soils with low exchangeable K contents, transfer factor (Tf) values ranged from 0.18 to 0.41 for black beans. Basic oxisol with normal exchangeable K contents presented lower Tf values: 0.06 to 0.11. These values were higher than mean values reported by IUR for 137Cs for beans under temperate climate: 0.03. Results of sequential extraction showed 137Cs weakly bound to soil components and underline the importance of Fe oxides in the control of 137Cs availability.

Wasserman, Maria Angélica M.

4

Element interactions and soil properties affecting the soil-to-plant transfer of six elements relevant to radioactive waste in boreal forest.  

PubMed

Cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), uranium (U), and zinc (Zn) are among the elements that have radioactive isotopes in radioactive waste. Soil-to-plant transfer is a key process for possible adverse effects if these radionuclides are accidentally released into the environment. The present study aimed at investigating factors affecting such transfer in boreal forest. The plant species studied were blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). Regression analyses were carried out to investigate the effects of the chemical composition and physical properties of soil on the soil-to-leaf/needle concentration ratios of Co, Mo, Ni, Pb, U and Zn. Soil potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) concentrations were the most important factors affecting the soil-to-plant transfer of the elements studied. Soil clay and organic matter contents were found to significantly affect plant uptake of Mo, Pb and U. Knowledge of the effects of these factors is helpful for interpretation of the predictions of radioecological models describing soil-to-plant transfer and for improving such models. PMID:22130976

Roivainen, Päivi; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

2011-12-01

5

Ermittlung praxisbezogener Transferfaktoren fuer (sup 137)Cs und (sup 90)Sr aus dem Fallout des Reaktorunfalles in Tschernobyl. (Investigations on (sup 137)Cs and (sup 90)Sr soil-to-plant transfer from soils contaminated by Chernobyl fallout).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiological models use transfer factors to describe the movement of radionuclides in ecosystems. One of the most important factors is the soil-to-plant transfer value: TF = (Bq/kg plant-fresh weight)/(Bq/kg soil-dry weight). In the present paper results ...

C. Artner M. H. Gerzabek O. Horak K. Muech

1991-01-01

6

Soil-to-plant halogens transfer studies 2. Root uptake of radiochlorine by plants.  

PubMed

Long-term field experiments have been carried out in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in order to determine the parameters governing radiochlorine (36Cl) transfer to plants from four types of soil, namely, podzoluvisol, greyzem, and typical and meadow chernozem. Radiochlorine concentration ratios (CR) in radish roots (15+/-10), lettuce leaves (30+/-15), bean pods (15+/-11) and wheat seed (23+/-11) and straw (210+/-110) for fresh weight of plants were obtained. These values correlate well with stable chlorine values for the same plants. One year after injection, 36Cl reached a quasi-equilibrium with stable chlorine in the agricultural soils and its behavior in the soil-plant system mimicked the behavior of stable chlorine (this behavior was determined by soil moisture transport in the investigated soils). In the absence of intensive vertical migration, more than half of 36Cl activity in arable layer of soil passes into the radish, lettuce and the aboveground parts of wheat during a single vegetation period. PMID:15607513

Kashparov, V; Colle, C; Zvarich, S; Yoschenko, V; Levchuk, S; Lundin, S

2005-01-01

7

Factors associated with the suppressiveness of sugarcane soils to plant-parasitic nematodes.  

PubMed

Observations in three Australian sugarcane fields suggested that the soil just under the trash blanket (the covering of crop residue that remains on the soil surface after crops are harvested) was suppressive to plant-parasitic nematodes. Roots were concentrated in this upper layer of soil but plant-parasitic nematode populations were relatively low and roots showed few signs of nematode damage. Root biomass was much lower 15 cm further down the soil profile, where root health was poor and populations of plant-parasitic nematodes were 3-5 times higher than near the soil surface. A bioassay in which Radopholus similis (a nematode that does not occur in sugarcane soils) was inoculated into heat-sterilized and untreated soils, confirmed that biological factors were limiting nematode populations in some of the soils, with soil from 0-2 cm much more suppressive than soil from 15-17 cm. Surface soil from one site was highly suppressive, as only 16% of R. similis recoverable from heated soil were retrieved from this soil after 8 days. Numerous soil chemical, biochemical, and biological properties were measured, and non-linear regression analysis identified two major groups of factors that were significantly associated with suppressiveness. One group reflected the amount of organic matter in soil (total C, total N, and labile C) and the other was associated with the size of the free-living nematode community (total numbers of free-living nematodes, and numbers of plant associates, bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, and carnivores). These results suggested that suppressiveness was biologically mediated and was sustained by C inputs from crop residues and roots. Since nematode-trapping fungi in the test soils could not be quantified using traditional dilution plating methods, their possible role as suppressive agents was assessed by generating TRFLP profiles with Orbiliales-specific primers, and by sequencing cloned PCR products. Although the molecular data were obtained from a limited number of samples, the level of suppression was significantly correlated to the number of Orbiliales clone groups and was also related to the number of Orbiliales species and TRFs, suggesting that this group of fungi may have been one of the suppressive factors operating in the test soils. PMID:23431051

Stirling, Graham R; Rames, Emily; Stirling, A Marcelle; Hamill, Sharon

2011-09-01

8

Application of the International Union of Radioecologists soil-to-plant database to Canadian settings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Union of Radioecologists (IUR) has compiled a very large database of soil-to-plant transfer factors. These factors are ratios of the radionuclide concentrations in dry plants divided by the corresponding concentrations in dry soil to a s...

S. C. Sheppard

1995-01-01

9

Soil to plant transfer of 238U, 226Ra and 232Th on a uranium mining-impacted soil from southeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both soil and plant samples of nine different plant species grown in soils from southeastern China contaminated with uranium mine tailings were analyzed for the plant uptake and translocation of 238U, 226Ra and 232Th. Substantial differences were observed in the soil–plant transfer factor (TF) among these radionuclides and plant species. Lupine (Lupinus albus) exhibited the highest uptake of 238U (TF

S. B. Chen; Y. G. Zhu; Q. H. Hu

2005-01-01

10

The Transfer of Dissolved Cs-137 from Soil to Plants  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly maturing plants were grown simultaneously at the same experimental sites under natural conditions at the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Roots of the plants were side by side in the soil. During two seasons we selected samples of the plants and of the soils several times every season. Content of Cs-137 in the plant and in the soil solution extracted from the samples of soils was measured. Results of measurements of the samples show that, for the experimental site, Cs-137 content in the plant varies with date of the sample selection. The plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio depends strongly on the date of selection and also on the type of soil. After analysis of the data we conclude that Cs-137 plant uptake is approximately proportional to the content of dissolved Cs-137 in the soil per unit of volume, and the plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio for the soil is approximately proportional to the soil moisture. (authors)

Prorok, V.V.; Melnichenko, L.Yu. [Department of Physics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 2, build. 1 Acad. Glushkov prospect, Kyiv-680 MSP (Ukraine); Mason, C.F.V. [Research Applications Corporation, 148 Piedra Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Ageyev, V.A.; Ostashko, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 47 Nauky prospect, Kyiv-680 MSP (Ukraine)

2006-07-01

11

Transfer factors of polonium from soil to parsley and mint.  

PubMed

Transfer factors of (210)Po from soil to parsley and mint have been determined. Artificial polonium isotope ((208)Po) was used as a tracer to determine transfer factor of Po from soil to plant in pot experiments. Two plant growing systems were used for this study namely, an outdoor system and a sheltered system by a polyethylene tent. (208)Po and (210)Po were determined in soil and different parts of the studied plants (stem and leaf), using alpha spectroscopy. The results have shown that there was a clear uptake of (208)Po by roots to leaves and stems of both plants. Higher values of transfer factors using the (210)Po activity concentrations than the (208)Po activity concentration were observed. Transfer factors of (210)Po from soil to parsley varied between 20 × 10?² and 50 × 10?² and 22 × 10?³ and 67 × 10?³ in mint, while (208)Po transfer factors varied between 4 × 10?² and 12 × 10?² for parsley and 10 × 10?² and 22 × 10?² in mint. Transfer factors of Po were higher in those plants grown in the sheltered system than in the open system; about 75% of Po was transferred from atmosphere to parsley parts using the two systems. Ratios of transferred Po from soil to mint stem and leaf in the sheltered system were higher by 2 times from those in the open system. PMID:20833456

Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Eadan, Z; Amin, Y

2010-09-15

12

Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling  

SciTech Connect

A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

2003-07-20

13

Knockout, Transfer and Spectroscopic Factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As derived quantities rather than observables, spectroscopic factors extracted from fits to data are model dependent. The main source of uncertainty is the choice of binding potential, but other factors such as adequate modeling of the reaction mechanism, the Perey effect, choice of distorting nuclear potentials etc. can also play a significant role. Recently, there has been some discussion of apparent discrepancies in spectroscopic factors derived from knockout reactions compared to those obtained from low-energy direct reactions. It should be possible to reconcile these discrepancies and we explore this prospect by attempting to describe the ^10Be(d,t)^9Be data of Nucl. Phys. A157, 305 (1970) using the ^10Be/^9Be form factors from a recent knockout study, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 162502 (2011). The influence of such factors as choice of distorting potentials and multi-step reactions paths will be explored.

Kemper, Kirby; Keeley, Nicholas; Rusek, Krzysztof

2011-10-01

14

Factors Affecting Motivation to Transfer Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of trainees (n=88) in a competency-based occupational safety and health training program found that environmental factors (opportunities to use skills, peer/supervisor support, and supervisor sanctions) were most influential on motivation to transfer training. Training attitudes may be affected by prior experiences when the use of…

Seyler, Dian L.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Burnett, Michael F.; Carvalho, Manuel A.

1998-01-01

15

What factors determine placental glucose transfer kinetics??  

PubMed Central

Introduction Transfer of glucose across the human placenta is directly proportional to maternal glucose concentrations even when these are well above the physiological range. This study investigates the relationship between maternal and fetal glucose concentrations and transfer across the placenta. Methods Transfer of d-glucose, 3H-3-o-methyl-d-glucose (3H-3MG) and 14C-l-glucose across the isolated perfused human placental cotyledon was determined for maternal and fetal arterial d-glucose concentrations between 0 and 20 mmol/l. Results Clearance of 3H-3MG or 14C-l-glucose was not affected by maternal or fetal d-glucose concentrations in either circulation. Discussion Based on the arterial glucose concentrations and the reported KM for GLUT1, the transfer of d-glucose and 3H-3MG would be expected to show signs of saturation as d-glucose concentrations increased but this did not occur. One explanation for this is that incomplete mixing of maternal blood and the rate of diffusion across unstirred layers may lower the effective concentration of glucose at the microvillous membrane and subsequently at the basal membrane. Uncertainties about the affinity of GLUT1 for glucose, both outside and inside the cell, may also contribute to the difference between the predicted and observed kinetics. Conclusion These factors may therefore help explain why the observed and predicted kinetics differ and they emphasise the importance of understanding the function of transport proteins in their physiological context. The development of a computational model of glucose transfer may improve our understanding of how the determinants of placental glucose transfer interact and function as a system.

Day, P.E.; Cleal, J.K.; Lofthouse, E.M.; Hanson, M.A.; Lewis, R.M.

2013-01-01

16

Seasonal variation of soil-to-plant transfer of K and fallout sup 134,137 Cs in peatland vegetation  

SciTech Connect

For three plants from a peat bog (Trichophorum caespitosum, Molinia coerulea, Calluna vulgaris) the concentration of 137Cs, the ratio 137Cs:134Cs, and stable K was determined in intervals of about 14 d from June to November 1987. The results show that for two grasses, Trichophorum caespitosum and Molinia coerulea (which have only perennial roots but sprout every year while the old leaves wither), the concentration of 137Cs decreased considerably during the growing season (1800-240, respectively, 4000-320 Bq kg-1 dry weight). A remarkably similar behavior was observed for the seasonal variability of K and radiocesium in the two grass species, which resulted in a nearly constant ratio of 137Cs:K during the year. In contrast, for the evergreen plant Calluna vulgaris (heather) which was contaminated surficially by the Chernobyl fallout, the concentrations of K and 137Cs were rather constant during 1987 (leaves about 10,000; stems about 5000 Bq kg-1 dry weight), even though radiocesium was taken up by the leaves and transported within the plant. For the two grasses, the plant:soil concentration ratios (CR) were obtained separately for total 137Cs, 137Cs from the global fallout, and Chernobyl-derived 137Cs. The CR of 137Cs from the global fallout decreased for Trichophorum caespitosum from 1.9 in the spring to 0.08 in the autumn, and for Chernobyl-derived 137Cs from 1.4 to 0.2. For Molinia coerulea, a similar behavior was observed. Possible reasons for the seasonal variability of the CR values and the different behavior of 137Cs from the global fallout and from the Chernobyl debris are discussed.

Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W. (Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.))

1989-10-01

17

Studies of transport pathways of Th, rare earths, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to plants and farm animals. Progress report, April 1, 1985-February 28, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The field study is to assess the soil-to-plant and soil-to-animal concentration factors of the naturally occurring radionuclides /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, /sup 232/Th, /sup 230/Th, and /sup 228/Th, as well as of the light rare earth elements (REE), La, Ce and Nd. Farms situated near the center of a deeply weathered alkalic intrusive known as the Pocos de Caldas (PC) plateau were selected for study because of their proximity (i.e., within a few kilometers) to what may be the largest single near-surface deposit of Th (approx.30,000 tonnes) and REE's (>100,000 tonnes) situated near the summit of a hill (the Morro do Ferro (MF)). An ancillary field study is being conducted in Orange County, New York, where a local cattleman has permitted sampling members of the herd as well as soil and feeds which are all grown on the premises. Vegetable samples and soil have also been analyzed from five additional farms in Orange County, NY. 64 refs., 25 figs., 45 tabs.

Linsalata, P.

1986-02-01

18

Measurement of transfer factor during constant exhalation.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--Transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) was measured by a new method based on analysis of the ratio of the concentrations of carbon monoxide to an inert gas (methane) relative to lung volume during a constant exhalation. Since this new technique is based solely upon exhalation, anomalies associated with inspiration and breath holding do not affect results. Additionally, because prolonged breath holding is not required, measurements can readily be made in dyspnoeic patients. METHODS--Exhalation TLCO (TLCO,ex) was compared with the standard (Jones and Meade) 10 second breath holding TLCO (TLCO,bh) in 100 consecutive patients. Patients did not practise the exhalation manoeuvre prior to testing. RESULTS--The comparative results were very close; mean difference (bias) +/- standard deviation (precision) was 0.05 (0.84) mmol/min/kPa. The relation was equally strong in patients with severe pulmonary disease; for patients with FEV1 < 1.51 the mean difference was 0.21 (0.80) mmol/min/kPa. CONCLUSIONS--Since the results were essentially identical between the techniques, it seems that comparable pathophysiological factors affect TLCO during breath holding and constant exhalation. Constant exhalation may therefore be a useful alternative to the breath holding technique for clinical measurement of TLCO.

Wilson, A F; Hearne, J; Brenner, M; Alfonso, R

1994-01-01

19

Tempered endoscopy for real groups II: spectral transfer factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second of three papers reinterpreting old theorems in endoscopy, or L-indistinghuishability, for real groups in terms of the canonical transfer factors of Langlands and Shelstad. The a priori de…nition of those factors provides an explicit geometric transfer theorem. The present paper introduces a parallel de…nition for spectral transfer factors. The author uses various simple properties of these

D. Shelstad

20

Organizational and Cultural Factors Affecting International Transfer of Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the results of a study of a global company that examined the effect of training design and work environment on the transfer of human resources development training. Presents a model of international transfer of training and discusses organizational factors and cultural differences that affected the transfer of training. (LRW)|

Lim, Doo H.

1999-01-01

21

Factors Affecting Training Transfer: Participants' Motivation to Transfer Training, Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article investigates factors that motivate participants in learning and training activities to transfer skills, knowledge and attitude from the learning setting to the workplace. Based on training transfer theories hypothesized by Holton (1996), one of the major theories that affect an organization's learning is motivation to transfer

Alawneh, Muhammad K.

2008-01-01

22

Inhalation Transfer Factors for Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate routine health risk assessments, we develop the concept of an inhalation transfer factor (ITF). The ITF is defined as the pollutant mass inhaled by an exposed individual per unit pollutant mass emitted from an air pollution source. A cumulative population inhalation transfer factor (PITF) is also defined to describe the total fraction of an emitted pollutant inhaled by

Alvin C. K. Lai; Tracy L. Thatcher; William W. Nazaroff

2000-01-01

23

An Exploration of Viral Transfer Efficiency Factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viruses exist on common household surfaces and persist on them (Abad 1994, Rusin 2002). In addition to this, they are able to transfer from surface to surface, and when in contact with humans, can cause illness. In a previous study, we were able to test out the transfer efficiencies of three different phages. Transfer efficiency is defined as follows: Transfer Efficiency: Phage recovered from surface 2 / (Phage recovered from surface 2 + Phage recovered from surface 1) The phages tested have similar size and shape, but vary in isoelectric points and route of infection (Maier 2000). Preliminary studies have suggested that the transfer efficiencies for each phage may be different. Because of this, we are investigating what is the cause of this difference in phage transfer. Two possibilities for these differences are the phage's properties and the cotton tip swab elution from each surface. Using the statistical method known as the student t-test and the experimental methods for phage elution and a double agar overlay phage enumeration, we examined whether the cotton tip swab elution was responsible for phage transfer differences.

Tamayo, F. J.; Julian, T.; Boehm, A.

2008-12-01

24

Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium  

SciTech Connect

Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site.

Blanchard, A.

1999-07-28

25

Racial and Cultural Factors and Learning Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Baldwin and Ford (1988) specifically include learner characteristics as one of three key inputs into the learning transfer process but infrequently (actually almost never) has race, ethnicity, or culture been included as a variable when describing trainee characteristics. For the most part one is left to speculate as to the potential influence…

Closson, Rosemary

2013-01-01

26

Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Charge and Excitation Transfer  

SciTech Connect

We report the and/or state of several subprojects of our DOE sponsored research on Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Electron and Excitation Transfer: (1) Construction of an ultrafast Ti:sapphire amplifier. (2) Mediation of electronic interactions in host-guest molecules. (3) Theoretical models of electrolytes in weakly polar media. (4) Symmetry effects in intramolecular excitation transfer.

Piotr Piotrowiak

2004-09-28

27

A Compendium of Transfer Factors for Agricultural and Animal Products  

SciTech Connect

Transfer factors are used in radiological risk assessments to estimate the amount of radioactivity that could be present in a food crop or organism based on the calculated concentration in the source medium (i.e., soil or animal feed). By calculating the concentration in the food, the total intake can be estimated and a dose calculated as a result of the annual intake. This report compiles transfer factors for radiological risk assessments, using common food products, including meats, eggs, and plants. Transfer factors used were most often selected from recommended values listed by national or international organizations for use in radiological food chain transport calculations. Several methods of estimation and extrapolation were used for radionuclides not listed in the primary information sources. Tables of transfer factors are listed by element and information source for beef, eggs, fish, fruit, grain, leafy vegetation, milk, poultry, and root vegetables.

Staven, Lissa H.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rhoads, Kathleen; Strenge, Dennis L.

2003-06-02

28

Distinguishing Between Knowledge Transfer and Technology Transfer Activities: The Role of Key Organizational Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge transfer and technology transfer are often used interchangeably and while both knowledge transfer and technology transfer are highly interactive activities, they serve different purposes. Knowledge transfer implies a broader, more inclusive construct that is directed more toward understanding the \\

Shanthi Gopalakrishnan; Michael D. Santoro

2004-01-01

29

Chlorophyll a Franck-Condon factors and excitation energy transfer  

SciTech Connect

The Franck-Condon factors for the S{sub 1}(Q{sub y}) {leftrightarrow} S{sub 0} electronic transition of chlorophyll (Chl) molecules are important for understanding excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes. Currently, there are two sets of Chl a Frank-Condon factors for over 40 modes, one determined by spectral hole burning and the other by fluorescence line narrowing. Those obtained by the latter spectroscopy are, on average, a factor of 30 times smaller than the hole burning values. Nonline-narrowed fluorescence results for the light-harvesting complex 2 of photosystem 2 at 4.2 K are presented that agree quite well with the hole burning but not the fluorescence line narrowing values.

Pieper, J. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Physics]|[Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Voigt, J. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Physics; Small, G.J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-04-01

30

Factors influencing the acceptance of toenail-to-fingernail transfer.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to determine the factors influencing the acceptance of toenail-to-fingernail transfer. A total of 240 patients were divided into four groups according to severity of nail injury. Half (expensed informed [EI] group) were informed about the expenses (about $9,000) before the interview; the other half were not informed (the expense not-informed [ENI] group). The participants were asked to answer yes or no to the question "If you lose your fingernail and it can be reconstructed by transferring your toenail like this figure, will you undergo surgery? If you want it or not, please choose the reason for your choice." In the EI group, 68.3% accepted the surgery. In the ENI group, 85.0% accepted the surgery. There was a significant difference between the EI and ENI groups (p = 0.002). In the EI group, the age of the surgery acceptance group (36.9 ± 11.8) was significantly lower (p = 0.004) than that of the surgery rejection group (44.5 ± 15.5). The young age group wished to accept the surgery irrespective of the expenses, yet the old age group hesitated to have surgery when informed about the expenses. We think the risk acceptance for toenail-to-fingernail transfer mostly depends upon the expense. PMID:22711202

Ki, Sae Hwi; Kang, Hyung Joo; Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan

2012-06-18

31

Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret ( Mustela putorius furo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females is a foundational strategy for a number of assisted reproductive technologies, including cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In an attempt to develop efficient ET in domestic ferrets, factors affecting development of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts in the oviduct or uterus was evaluated in recipient nulliparous

Ziyi Li; Xingshen Sun; Juan Chen; Gregory H. Leno; John F. Engelhardt

2006-01-01

32

Success factors for students transferring into undergraduate engineering degree programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative pilot study designed to ask transfer students about their transfer experiences and develop practices that will increase transfer student success and retention is being conducted. When completed, this qualitative study will include a series of three interviews occurring at three major epochs during a transfer student's first year of study in an undergraduate engineering degree program. The study

Michael F. Anderson; Lance C. Perez; David Jones; Carmen Zafft

2011-01-01

33

AIDS and transfer factor: myths, certainties and realities.  

PubMed

At the end of the 20th century, the triumph of biology is as indisputable as that of physics was at the end of the 19th century, and so is the might of the inductive thought. Virtually all diseases have been seemingly conquered and HIV, the cause of AIDS, has been fully described ten years after the onset of the epidemic. However, the triumph of biological science is far from being complete. The toll of several diseases, such as cancer, continues to rise and the pathogenesis of AIDS remains elusive. In the realm of inductive science, the dominant paradigm can seldom be challenged in a frontal attack, especially when it is apparently successful, and only what Kuhn calls "scientific revolutions" can overthrow it. Thus, it is hardly surprising that the concept of transfer factor is considered with contempt, and the existence of the moiety improbable: over forty years after the introduction of the concept, not only its molecular structure remains unknown, but also its putative mode of action contravenes dogmas of both immunology and molecular biology. And when facts challenge established dogmas, be in religion, philosophy or science, they must be suppressed. Thus, results of heterodox research become henceforth nisi-i.e., valid unless cause is shown for rescinding them, because they challenge the prevalent paradigm. However, when observations pertain to lethal disorders, their suppression in the name of dogmas may become criminal. Because of the failure of medical science to manage the AIDS pandemic, transfer factor, which has been successfully used for treating or preventing viral infections, may today overcome a priori prejudice and rejection more swiftly. In science, as in life, certainties always end up by dying, and Copernicus' vision by replacing that of Ptolemy. PMID:8993753

Viza, D

1996-01-01

34

Transfer of Drug Resistance to Myxococcus from Bacteria Carrying Drug-resistance Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Resistance to chloramphenicol was successfully transferred from strains of Escherichia coli carrying R factors representative of compatibility groups F, W, S and N to strains of Myxococcus xanthus and M. fulvus. Resistance to kanamycin was transferred from an R factor in group S, and to neomycin from an R factor of group P. Myxobacterial strains differed in their capacity

J. H. Parish

1975-01-01

35

Student Perceptions of Factors Contributing to Community-College-to-University Transfer Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transfer process includes areas such as academic preparation and advisement, transfer evaluation, financial aid, and psychosocial factors. A descriptive, exploratory method was employed to capture the perceptions of a transfer student cohort regarding their experiences in transitioning from lower division community college enrollment to…

Gard, Dwight R.; Paton, Valerie; Gosselin, Kevin

2012-01-01

36

Student Perceptions of Factors Contributing to Community-College-to-University Transfer Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfer process includes areas such as academic preparation and advisement, transfer evaluation, financial aid, and psychosocial factors. A descriptive, exploratory method was employed to capture the perceptions of a transfer student cohort regarding their experiences in transitioning from lower division community college enrollment to upper-division, baccalaureate work. Using semistructured interviews within a focus group setting, and a follow-up survey,

Dwight R. Gard; Valerie Paton; Kevin Gosselin

2012-01-01

37

Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

2012-01-01

38

Student Perceptions of Factors Contributing to Community-College-to-University Transfer Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The transfer process includes areas such as academic preparation and advisement, transfer evaluation, financial aid, and psychosocial factors. A descriptive, exploratory method was employed to capture the perceptions of a transfer student cohort regarding their experiences in transitioning from lower division community college enrollment to…

Gard, Dwight R.; Paton, Valerie; Gosselin, Kevin

2012-01-01

39

Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter\\/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that

S. C. Sheppard; J. M. Long; B. Sanipelli

2010-01-01

40

Complementary arrangements of organizational factors and outcomes of negotiated transfer price  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since internal transfers of intermediate products between divisions of firms take place under a wide range of organizational factors and their arrangement, understanding transfer pricing involves a consideration of how these factors are arranged; that is, do they complement or fit with each other or not. The current research experimentally investigates the impact of complementarity of sourcing (internal versus external)

Dipankar Ghosh

2000-01-01

41

The role of individual and training design factors on training transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to highlight the role of individual and training design factors on training transfer. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A review of the literature is conducted, and this review highlights a dual role of perceived content validity in the form of increasing self-efficacy and the role of trainees' reaction. The study suggests that transfer design factors

Muhammad Awais Bhatti; Sharan Kaur

2010-01-01

42

Factors affecting mass transfer limited biodegradation in saturated porous media.  

PubMed

Microbial degradation rates in the subsurface are not only limited by the physiological capacity of the organisms, but also by inefficient supply of nutrients to the microbes. Although mass transfer limitation of biodegradation in the subsurface has been postulated for years, experimental evidence is still scarce. In the column experiments described here, diffusive transport of 4-nitroanisole from the bulk solution to cells of Rhodococcus opacus strain AS2 immobilized on glass beads or sand appeared to be responsible for the slow transformation rates observed. Assuming steady state, we applied a coupled transformation/transport equation to these data (Best equation) and apparent bead-related mass transfer coefficients were found to increase in proportion to the surface area covered with bacteria. This implies that mass transfer coefficients for individual cells remained constant. In an idealized oligotrophic environment where cells are only loosely clustered and do not shield each other, we would therefore expect biodegradation rates to be independent from the longitudinal distribution of the total biomass along a given flow path. Moreover, apparent mass transfer coefficients increased with the grain size of the column fillings, but did not change upon varying the flow rate. With a limiting external transport step, overall transformation fluxes do not become saturated at concentrations as low as predicted for Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics. Mass transfer limitation thus offers a justification for the common assumption that biodegradation rates in the subsurface follow first order kinetics in a wide concentration range. PMID:11475163

Simoni, S F; Schäfer, A; Harms, H; Zehnder, A J

2001-07-01

43

Two-Nucleon Transfer Reactions with Form Factor Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The theory of two-nucleon transfer reactions is considered. Nuclear reactions are considered with triton or exp 3 He particles which are used as projectiles in stripping reactions and as detected particles in pick-up reactions. In each channel we have a f...

A. Osman

1980-01-01

44

Perceptions of Training-Related Factors and Personal Variables as Predictors of Transfer Implementation Intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of factors influence the outcomes of computer skills training and the likelihood of successful transfer. The first empirical test of a conceptual model of training transfer sought to explain how trainees' perceptions of various in-training transfer-enhancing activities such as overlearning, fidelity, stimulus variability, principles-meaningfulness, self-management activities, relapse prevention, and goal setting would predict the self-efficacy and implementation intentions

M. Anthony Machin; Gerard J. Fogarty

2003-01-01

45

WILL THIS COMMUNITY COLLEGE TRANSFER STUDENT SUCCEED? FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSFER STUDENT PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the academic performance of students who transferred from a suburban community college to a private, moderately selective urban university. The purpose was to determine if certain easily ascertainable student characteristics and academic behaviors at the community college would be associated with degree persistence and completion at the university. Results indicated that the best predictor of academic

Barbara K. Townsend; Nancy McNerny; Allen Arnold

1993-01-01

46

The Influence of Transfer System Factors and Training Elapsed Time on Transfer in a Healthcare Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Organizations and other sponsors of training face increasing pressure to demonstrate the value or impact of their training programs on individual and organizational performance. A critical element in the validation of training effectiveness is the permanent transfer of learned knowledge, skills, and behaviors to the workplace. The generalization…

Mihalko, Beverly J.

2010-01-01

47

PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING, PHASE I. QUARTERLY REPORT 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 3-MONTH STATUS REPORT WAS MADE ON THE ACTIVITIES PURSUED IN PHASE 1 OF A LARGER 10-YEAR PROJECT DEALING WITH THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING. REPORTS OF ONGOING PROJECTS AND THEIR CURRENT STATUS WERE PRESENTED. THEY INCLUDED (1) A STUDY OF THE TRANSFER EFFECTS OF WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONS TO TASK…

STOLUROW, LAWRENCE M.

48

Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

Diggs, Byron Kenneth

2011-01-01

49

Factors and perceptions that influence women's decisions to have a single embryo transferred  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify factors that inhibit or promote the adoption of single embryo transfer (SET). A cohort of 163 women patients receiving IVF\\/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment, comprising 87 women choosing SET and 63 women choosing double embryo transfer (DET), were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The data were compared using logistic regression analysis. Confidence in

S de Lacey; M Davies; G Homan; N Briggs; RJ Norman

2007-01-01

50

Biochemist'S View of the Mediators of Cellular Immunity, with Special Reference to Transfer Factor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of attempts to fractionate tumor-specific transfer factor by two chromatographic procedures that differ greatly in their basic separation principles have been presented. The behavior of the TF in these separation procedures led to the suggesti...

G. D. Novelli

1975-01-01

51

Simulation of a Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles with Power Factor Correction  

SciTech Connect

Wireless power transfer has been a popular topic of recent research. Most research has been done to address the limitations of coil-to-coil efficiency. However, little has been done to address the problem associated with the low input power factor with which the systems operate. This paper details the steps taken to analyze a wireless power transfer system from the view of the power grid under a variety of loading conditions with and without power factor correction.

Pickelsimer, Michael C [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL

2012-01-01

52

Transfer of incompatibility factors between stocks of Nasonia (= Mormoniella) vitripennis.  

PubMed

The stock of Nasonia vitripennis marked by the nuclear eye color mutation "tinged" (ti) shows nonreciprocal cytoplasmic incompatibility with wild-type (+) strains. Homogenates prepared from ti female pupae and injected into + female pupae caused 39% of the recipients to acquire the incompatibility characteristics of the ti donors. When eggs obtained from ti females were fragmented and injected into + female pupae, or when the ti egg cytoplasm was injected into chick eggs and yolk sac homogenates were subsequently injected into + female pupae, 28% of the recipients acquired ti-type incompatibility characteristics. Results from passage of the egg cytoplasm through 0.23-microns millipore filters showed successful transfer of the incompatibility and suggest that the incompatibility system in N. vitripennis has two components: a bacterium and a smaller agent. PMID:8463711

Williams, E H; Fields, S; Saul, G B

1993-03-01

53

Factors of Knowledge Transfer in Global Production Network: In View of a Developing Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, global production network (GPN) has become one of the new figures of the globalization tide. It opens an opportunity window for developing countries to learn from GPN. The paper proposes a 2-stage model describing the factors of knowledge transfer from global production flagships (GPF) to its participants in developing countries. In the first stage, there are two factors

Xiaobo Wu; Guannan Xu; Zhenzhen Pei

2006-01-01

54

The Regulation of Colicin Synthesis and Colicin Factor Transfer in Escherichia coli K 12  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Cells of Escherichia coli, newly infected with the colicin I factor (colI), showed an enhanced efficiency of transfer of this factor (HFC), and were also more likely to undergo lethal colicin synthesis, than were stably colicinogenic cells. Up to 20% of the cells of stably colI+ strains were induced to produce colicin by ultraviolet irradiation, and from such irradiated

MARILYN MONK; R. C. Clowes

1964-01-01

55

The reverse transfer student: A growing factor in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study purposes were (a) to identify factors associated with academic performance of students enrolled at a four-year university and a two-year community college; and (b) to determine if students who (1) dropped out of a four-year university, (2) entered a two-year community college, and then (3) returned to the same four-year institution improved in academic performance. The 195 undergraduate subjects

Jack Brimm; C. M. Achilles

1976-01-01

56

Transfer students in STEM majors: Gender differences in the socialization factors that influence academic and social adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were (a) to examine the socialization factors of community college transfer students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM); (b) to examine the socialization factors that impact the academic and social adjustment of community college transfer students in STEM majors; and (c) to understand how female community college transfer students describe their overall socialization experiences

Dimitra Lynette Jackson

2010-01-01

57

GUS expression in blueberry (Vaccinium spp.): factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several factors were investigated for their influence on the transfer of an intron-containing ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene into blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) leaf explants during the early stages of Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer, including days of cocultivation, strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, explant age and genotype. The number of GUS-expressing leaf zones and calli were counted immediately and 2 weeks after cocultivation,\\u000a respectively, to

X. Cao; Q. Liu; L. J. Rowland; F. A. Hammerschlag

1998-01-01

58

Environmental Factors Influencing Gene Transfer Agent (GTA) Mediated Transduction in the Subtropical Ocean  

PubMed Central

Microbial genomic sequence analyses have indicated widespread horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, an adequate mechanism accounting for the ubiquity of HGT has been lacking. Recently, high frequencies of interspecific gene transfer have been documented, catalyzed by Gene Transfer Agents (GTAs) of marine ?-Proteobacteria. It has been proposed that the presence of bacterial genes in highly purified viral metagenomes may be due to GTAs. However, factors influencing GTA-mediated gene transfer in the environment have not yet been determined. Several genomically sequenced strains containing complete GTA sequences similar to Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA, type strain) were screened to ascertain if they produced putative GTAs, and at what abundance. Five of nine marine strains screened to date spontaneously produced virus-like particles (VLP's) in stationary phase. Three of these strains have demonstrated gene transfer activity, two of which were documented by this lab. These two strains Roseovarius nubinhibens ISM and Nitratireductor 44B9s, were utilized to produce GTAs designated RnGTA and NrGTA and gene transfer activity was verified in culture. Cell-free preparations of purified RnGTA and NrGTA particles from marked donor strains were incubated with natural microbial assemblages to determine the level of GTA-mediated gene transfer. In conjunction, several ambient environmental parameters were measured including lysogeny indicated by prophage induction. GTA production in culture systems indicated that approximately half of the strains produced GTA-like particles and maximal GTA counts ranged from 10–30% of host abundance. Modeling of GTA-mediated gene transfer frequencies in natural samples, along with other measured environmental variables, indicated a strong relationship between GTA mediated gene transfer and the combined factors of salinity, multiplicity of infection (MOI) and ambient bacterial abundance. These results indicate that GTA-mediated HGT in the marine environment with the strains examined is favored during times of elevated bacterial and GTA abundance as well as in areas of higher salinity.

McDaniel, Lauren D.; Young, Elizabeth C.; Ritchie, Kimberly B.; Paul, John H.

2012-01-01

59

[The biological activity of the transfer factor induced by bacterial antigens].  

PubMed

Today's statement of transfer factor, an immunostimulator derived from leukocytes which enhances antiinfectious immunity, is observed in the review. Basic biological, physical and chemical characteristics of the transfer factor, its possible action mechanisms, and laboratory and clinical methods of use to cure infectious fungal (Candida, Coccidium), invasive (schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, cryptosporidiosis), viral (varicella zoster, ophthalmic herpes, Herpes simplex types 1 and 2, H. zoster, H. simplex ceratitis, genital herpes, human herpes virus type 6, postherpetic neuritis, hepatitis B, AIDS), and bacterial infections (Mycobacterium leprae, M. tuberculosis, M. fortuitum, Salmonella cholerae suis, S. dublin, S. Virchov, Brucella abortus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, bacterial sepsis, Staphylococcus) are described. PMID:9480022

Liubchenko, T A; Holeva, O H; Kholodna, L S; Smirnov, V V; Vershyhora, A Iu

60

Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers  

SciTech Connect

We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-{beta}) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sanchez; Perez, Javier [Lab. de Bioquimica Muscular, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion, C.P.14389, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garcia, M. N. Jimenez; Lopez, M. A. Jimenez [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas Instituto Politecnico Nacional, C.P. 07340, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Espindola, M. E. Sanchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernandez, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F. [Esc. Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez [Depto. de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Ap. Post. 14-740, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

2008-08-11

61

Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-?) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sánchez; Pérez, Javiér; García, M. N. Jiménez; López, M. A. Jiménez; Espíndola, M. E. Sánchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernández, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez

2008-08-01

62

Soil-plant-animal transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines: A case study from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food chain models are essential tools to assess risks of soil contamination in view of product quality including fodder crops and animal products. Here we link soil to plant transfer (SPT) models for potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, U and Zn with models describing accumulation in animal organs. Current EU standards

S. M. Rodrigues; M. E. Pereira; A. C. Duarte; P. F. A. M. Römkens

2012-01-01

63

Factors affecting the transfer of technology from industry\\/university cooperatives to sponsoring companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illuminates the technology-transfer process by identifying the factors affecting the implementation decisions of\\u000a sponsor companies with regard to eight projects conducted at two industry\\/university cooperative-research centers. Telephone\\u000a interviews with corporate-sponsor representatives provided the data. The factors reported most often as influential in the\\u000a decision of whether or not to use research results were relevance of the project, researcher's

Jean Russo; Roy C. Herrenkohl

1990-01-01

64

Effects of Pollutions and Environmental Factors on the Performance of Hydrophobic Transference of Silicone Rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at the problem that silicone rubber (SIR) is used in different environmental areas in China, present paper reports the hydrophobicity transference of SIR affected by pollutions and environmental factors. Kieselguhr and kaolin were used as artificial pollutions, and then the hydrophobicity of SIR was found to be affected by the content of soluble salts, and non-soluble pollutions. According to

HaiFeng Gao; Zhidong Jia; Jie Yang; Zhicheng Guan

2006-01-01

65

The Role of Individual and Training Design Factors on Training Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the role of individual and training design factors on training transfer. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature is conducted, and this review highlights a dual role of perceived content validity in the form of increasing self-efficacy and the role of trainees' reaction. The study…

Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan

2010-01-01

66

DEVELOPMENT OF AN AIR-TO-LEAF VAPOR PHASE TRANSFER FACTOR FOR DIOXINS AND FURANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Results of an experiment in which grass was grown in a greenhouse and outdoors, and in soils of different concentration levels of dioxins and furans, were used in a modeling exercise to derive an air-to-leaf vapor phase transfer factor. The purpose of the experiment was to under...

67

Factors Contributing to the Upward Transfer of Baccalaureate Aspirants Beginning at Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined factors associated with the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, a sequential logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict bachelor's degree-seeking community…

Wang, Xueli

2012-01-01

68

Factors Contributing to the Upward Transfer of Baccalaureate Aspirants Beginning at Community Colleges. WISCAPE Working Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incorporating the psychological perspective, this study examines factors associated with the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, the study tests a logistic regression model to predict…

Wang, Xueli

2010-01-01

69

Analysis of Influencing Factors of Heat Transfer Performance of Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer performance of heat pipe heat exchanger affected by many factors, such as the opening temperature of the heat pipe, the rate of fluid-filled, the physical nature of liquid refrigerant, the work temperature of tube, angle, tube spacing, tube length, hot and cold fluid flow and wind speed. The above-mentioned parameters can not be measured because of Test conditions,

Zhang Jie; Ren Yan; Zhang Lihong; Liang Huimin

2009-01-01

70

PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING, PHASE I. QUARTERLY REPORTS 2 AND 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE TRANSFER OF TRAINING WERE STUDIED BY USE OF PROGRAMED SELF-INSTRUCTION USING TEACHING MACHINES. THIS MEDIUM WAS CHOSEN BECAUSE IT PROVIDES LABORATORY-LIKE CONDITIONS SUCH AS STABILIZED METHODS, AND STIMULUS CONTROL INCLUDING CONTROL OF TEACHER PERSONALITY, PLUS A STEP-BY-STEP RECORD OF THE…

STOLUROW, LAWRENCE M.

71

PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING, PHASE I. QUARTERLY REPORT 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A STATUS REPORT WAS MADE OF THE ACTIVITIES PURSUED IN A 3-MONTH PORTION OF PHASE 1 OF A LARGER 10-YEAR PROJECT PLANNED TO STUDY THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING BY USE OF PROGRAMED SELF-INSTRUCTION PRESENTED BY TEACHING MACHINES. THIS MEDIUM WAS CHOSEN BECAUSE IT PROVIDES LABORATORY-LIKE CONDITIONS SUCH…

STOLUROW, LAWRENCE M.

72

Uptake of Radionuclides from Soil. Determination of Transfer Factors for Practical Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments to determine the transfer factors for the radionuclides exp 90 Sr, exp 139 Cs, exp 60 Co, and exp 54 Mn have been carried out at Juelich research centre since June 1978. A temporary soil contamination caused by an accident (radionuclides enter...

F. Fuehr

1979-01-01

73

The Role of Individual and Training Design Factors on Training Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the role of individual and training design factors on training transfer. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature is conducted, and this review highlights a dual role of perceived content validity in the form of increasing self-efficacy and the role of trainees' reaction. The study…

Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan

2010-01-01

74

Factors Contributing to the Upward Transfer of Baccalaureate Aspirants Beginning at Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined factors associated with the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, a sequential logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict bachelor's degree-seeking community…

Wang, Xueli

2012-01-01

75

Electromagnetic form factors of pseudoscalar mesons at low momentum transfer in quantum chromodynamics  

SciTech Connect

The finite-energy sum-rule technique and the generalized operator expansion are used to determine the behavior of the electromagnetic form factors of ..pi../sup +/, K/sup +/, and K/sup 0/ mesons at small momentum transfer < or approx. =0.7 GeV/sup 2/ in quantum chromodynamics.

Krasulin, A.B.; Matveev, V.A.; Chetyrkin, K.G.

1985-03-10

76

Evolution of the cutinase gene family: Evidence for lateral gene transfer of a candidate Phytophthora virulence factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral gene transfer (LGT) can facilitate the acquisition of new functions in recipient lineages, which may enable them to colonize new environments. Several recent publications have shown that gene transfer between prokaryotes and eukaryotes occurs with appreciable frequency. Here we present a study of interdomain gene transfer of cutinases – well documented virulence factors in fungi – between eukaryotic plant

Lassaad Belbahri; Gautier Calmin; Felix Mauch; Jan O. Andersson

2008-01-01

77

Attitudes Toward Making a Transfer: Factors Related to Reenlistment Intentions, Over-All Satisfaction, Attitude Toward Future Moves, and an Analysis of Qualitative Data Relevant to Transfer Attitudes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Survey and interview data were collected from a sample of 143 NCO's who had recently been notified that they would be transferred to a new assignment. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected concerning six research questions: what factors relevan...

J. B. Shaw C. D. Fisher R. W. Woodman

1983-01-01

78

134Cs transfer factors to green gram and soybean as influenced by waste mica.  

PubMed

Greenhouse pot culture experiment was carried out to study the (134)Cs transfer factors from soils to green gram and soybean as influenced by waste mica application (@ 0, 10, 20, 40 g mica kg(-1) soil) and compared with muriate of potash (MOP) application (0.17 g kg(-1) soil). For the study, the soils were contaminated with (134)Cs radionuclide @ 37 kBq kg(-1) soil. The shoot biomass and K uptake by crops were significantly improved with waste mica application (@ 40 g kg(-1) soil). Compared to control, waste mica and MOP application significantly improved the yield, K content in plant and its uptake. Amongst the soils, crops grown in vertisol recorded higher shoot biomass compared to inceptisol and ultisol. Irrespective of the treatments, higher (134)Cs transfer factors were seen in ultisol (0.30) as compared to inceptisol (0.16) and vertisol (0.13). It was observed that higher the K concentration in soil and plant, lowered (134)Cs transfer to green gram and soybean. The study recommended that waste mica @ 20 g kg(-1) would be useful for checking the (134)Cs transfer factors from soils to green gram and soybean. PMID:22115435

Sreenivasa Chari, M; Manjaiah, K M; Sachdev, P; Sachdev, M S

2011-10-28

79

The ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on several hypotheses about the process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, the onflow around the solute granule is figured out by the Navier-Stocks equation. In combination with the Higbie’s solute infiltration model, the link between the mass-transfer coefficient and the velocity of flow is found. The mass-transfer coefficient with the ultrasonical effect is compared with that without the ultrasonical effect, and then a new parameter named the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient is brought forward, which describes the mathematical model of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction process enhanced by ultrasonic. The model gives out the relationships among the ultrasonical power, the ultrasonical frequency, the radius of solute granule and the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient. The results calculated by this model fit well with the experimental data, including the extraction of Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Oil (CLSO) and Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Ester (CLSE) from coix seeds and the extraction of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) from the alga by means of the ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (USFE) and the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) respectively. This proves the rationality of the ultrasonic-enhanced factor model. The model provides a theoretical basis for the application of ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical fluid extraction technique.

Luo, Benyi; Lu, Yigang

2008-10-01

80

Recoil Polarization Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio to High Momentum Transfer  

SciTech Connect

The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electronnucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer Q2 between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large f momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their kinematics, including their scattering angles and momenta, and the position of the interaction vertex. A proton polarimeter measured the polarization of the recoiling protons by measuring the azimuthal asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons scattered in CH2 analyzers. The scattered electron was detected in a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter in order to suppress inelastic backgrounds. The measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the scattered proton is directly proportional to the ratio of form factors GpE=GpM. The measurements reported in this thesis took place at Q2 =5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV2, and represent the most accurate measurements of GpE in this Q2 region to date.

Andrew Puckett

2010-02-01

81

Social factors that impact women's practice of breast self-examination : A challenge to the transfer of training literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the qualitative study was to understand how social factors might help or hinder the training transfer process. Specifically, this qualitative research looked at the meanings a group of women attached to social factors that might influence their practice of breast self-exam. Implications for transfer of training are suggested.

Patricia A. London; Daniele D. Flannery

2004-01-01

82

Update on the evaluation of different correlations for the flow friction factor and heat transfer of Stirling engine regenerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is intended to update the overview of different correlations for the friction factor and heat transfer of Stirling engine regenerators given by the Oscillating-Flow Regenerator Test Rig data. For that purpose the data was recalculated using the general applicable set of equations for Reynolds number, friction factor, pressure drop, Nusselt number and heat transfer area. Based on these

Bernd Thomas; Deborah Pittman

2000-01-01

83

Strand Transfer and Elongation of HIV-1 Reverse Transcription Is Facilitated by Cell Factors In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Recent work suggests a role for multiple host factors in facilitating HIV-1 reverse transcription. Previously, we identified a cellular activity which increases the efficiency of HIV-1 reverse transcription in vitro. Here, we describe aspects of the activity which shed light on its function. The cellular factor did not affect synthesis of strong-stop DNA but did improve downstream DNA synthesis. The stimulatory activity was isolated by gel filtration in a single fraction of the exclusion volume. Velocity-gradient purified HIV-1, which was free of detectable RNase activity, showed poor reverse transcription efficiency but was strongly stimulated by partially purified cell proteins. Hence, the cell factor(s) did not inactivate an RNase activity that might degrade the viral genomic RNA and block completion of reverse transcription. Instead, the cell factor(s) enhanced first strand transfer and synthesis of late reverse transcription suggesting it stabilized the reverse transcription complex. The factor did not affect lysis of HIV-1 by Triton X-100 in the endogenous reverse transcription (ERT) system, and ERT reactions with HIV-1 containing capsid mutations, which varied the biochemical stability of viral core structures and impeded reverse transcription in cells, showed no difference in the ability to be stimulated by the cell factor(s) suggesting a lack of involvement of the capsid in the in vitro assay. In addition, reverse transcription products were found to be resistant to exogenous DNase I activity when the active fraction was present in the ERT assay. These results indicate that the cell factor(s) may improve reverse transcription by facilitating DNA strand transfer and DNA synthesis. It also had a protective function for the reverse transcription products, but it is unclear if this is related to improved DNA synthesis.

Warrilow, David; Warren, Kylie; Harrich, David

2010-01-01

84

Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries.  

PubMed

The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29Lkg(-1) in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85Lkg(-1) for whole, small-bodied fish. The logCRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were approximately 4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts. PMID:20619514

Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

2010-07-08

85

The influencing factor of in vitro fertilization and embryonic transfer in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to explore the influencing factors of ova in vitro fertilization (IVF) and transfer of the fertilized ova into the oviduct of recipient hens. The efficiency of fertilization was compared using three aspects: (i) the different time of ova collection and transfer, (ii) egg-laying period of recipient hen; and (iii) semen volume. The following results are observed: 72%, 40% and 0% of ova were found in ovarian sac in 30?40?min, 50?60?min and more than 90?min post-oviposition, respectively; 20%, 18%, 14% and 5.8% of ova were fertilized with 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0?ml semen, respectively; and 33% and 100% of healthy chickens were hatched from fertile ova with 0.1 and 0.5?ml of semen, respectively. All oocytes obtained from ovary and mid-oviduct were unfertilized. Embryos were transferred into recipient hens 30?min?±?10?min post-oviposition, and 70% of shelled eggs were produced. There were no eggs produced in the other transfer times. This demonstrated that live chicken can be obtained by IVF of ova collected shortly after oviposition. It was important that the ovum was transferred into the oviduct infundibulum of recipient hens immediately or shortly after oviposition. PMID:22913565

Li, B C; Li, W; Chen, H; Zhang, Yn; Zhang, Z T; Wang, X Y; Gao, B; Dou, T C; Wang, K H

2012-08-23

86

Cargo capacity of phages and plasmids and other factors influencing horizontal transfers of prokaryote transposable elements  

PubMed Central

Horizontal transfer of transposable elements (TEs) plays a key role in prokaryote genome evolution. Most TEs do not encode the enzymatic machinery allowing them to transfer between host cells and it is widely assumed in the literature that horizontal transfer of prokaryote TEs is mediated by other mobile genetic elements such as phages and plasmids. In a recent study, we have shown that phages are less tolerant to insertion sequences (IS, the most frequent class of prokaryote TEs) and therefore have a lower cargo capacity than plasmids. Consequently, while our analysis confirmed the crucial role of plasmids as efficient vehicles of IS horizontal transfer, we concluded that phages are unlikely to efficiently shuttle IS elements between prokaryotes. Here, we discuss whether or not the distribution pattern observed for IS elements in phages and plasmids also holds for other TEs, such as transposons and mobile introns. We also further explore various factors that may impact the relative capacity of phages and plasmids to mediate TE horizontal transfer among prokaryotes.

Leclercq, Sebastien; Gilbert, Clement; Cordaux, Richard

2012-01-01

87

An Overview of Potential Factors for Effective Telemedicine Transfer to Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of core factors mitigating effective transfer of TeleMedicine to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a capability for improving the extremely poor state of healthcare delivery systems in that region of the world. Using specific examples of TeleMedicine applications, such as in TeleRadiology and health education, the paper highlights the importance of TeleMedicine in SSA. It then

Peter Meso; Victor Wacham A. Mbarika; Sanjay Prakash Sood

2009-01-01

88

Factors influencing efficiency and reproducibility of polybrene-assisted gene transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic investigation of factors influencing the efficiency of polybrene-assisted gene transfer for both transient and stable foreign gene expression was carried out utilizing NIH 3T3 fibroblasts as prototypic recipients for the plasmid expression vectors pSV2cat and pSV2neo. While transfection cocktail composition and cell density, in addition to polybrene exposure conditions and exogenous DNA concentration, each played an important role,

Rémy J. Aubin; Michael Weinfeld; Malcolm C. Paterson

1988-01-01

89

Factors associated with transfer of training in workplace e-learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of factors associated with e-learning, particularly computer attitudes and usability, on transfer of training in workplace e-learning courses. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study relied on quantitative data obtained from four online survey questionnaires. The sample of this study was 47 learners who took either one soft-skill e-learning course or

Ji-Hye Park; Tim Wentling

2007-01-01

90

Transfer of RP4 and R68.45 factors to Rhizobium.  

PubMed

Two R factor were introduced by conjugation into Rhizobium trifolii and Rhizobium meliloti strains at a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-6). Plasmids RP4 from Escherichia coli J53 and R68.45 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO.25 were maintained stably in Rhizobium hosts and could be retransferred to other Rhizobium recipients. Some of the transconjugants were able to mobilize chromosome and transfer his or met genes in intra-, and interspecies matings. PMID:92171

Kowalczuk, E; Lorkiewicz, Z

1979-01-01

91

Transcriptional regulation of human microsomal triglyceride transfer protein by hepatocyte nuclear factor-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) catalyzes the assembly of triglyceride (TG)-rich apolipopro- tein B-containing liver (e.g., VLDL) and intestinal (e.g., chy- lomicron) lipoproteins. The human MTP gene promoter is reported here to associate in vivo with endogenous hepato- cyte nuclear factor-4 ? (HNF-4 ? ) and to be transactivated or transsuppressed by overexpressed or by dominant negative HNF-4 ? ,

Vered Sheena; Rachel Hertz; Janna Nousbeck; Ina Berman; Judith Magenheim; Jacob Bar-Tana

2004-01-01

92

Adenoviral Gene Transfer Is Inhibited by Soluble Factors in Malignant Pleural Effusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct in vivo gene delivery is a prerequisite for many gene therapy strategies; however, efficacy has been limited by a lack of therapeutic gene transfer. In studying intrapleural ma- lignancy as a model for the gene therapy of non-small cell lung cancer, we previously identified soluble chondroitin sul- fate-proteoglycans\\/glycosaminoglycans (CS-PG\\/GAGs) in ma- lignant pleural effusions (MPE) as factors that inhibit

Raj K. Batra; Steven M. Dubinett; Bradley W. Henkle; Sherven Sharma; Brian K. Gardner

2000-01-01

93

AAV-mediated factor IX gene transfer to skeletal muscle in patients with severe hemophilia B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemophilia B is an X-linked coagulopathy caused by absence of functional coagula- tion factor IX (F.IX). Previously, we estab- lished an experimental basis for gene transfer as a method of treating the dis- ease in mice and hemophilic dogs through intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector ex- pressing F.IX. In this study we investi- gated the safety

Catherine S. Manno; Amy J. Chew; Sylvia Hutchison; Peter J. Larson; Roland W. Herzog; Valder R. Arruda; Shing Jen Tai; Margaret V. Ragni; Arthur Thompson; Margareth Ozelo; Linda B. Couto; Debra G. B. Leonard; Frederick A. Johnson; Alan McClelland; Ciaran Scallan; Erik Skarsgard; Alan W. Flake; Mark A. Kay; Katherine A. High; Bertil Glader

2003-01-01

94

Adenovirus-Mediated Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene Transfer Prevents Lethal Liver Failure in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has a potent antiapoptotic effect on hepatocytes in d-galactosamine (d-GalN)\\/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rats. Here, we report that adenovirus mediated HGF gene transfer into liver prevents liver failure and reduces mortality of rats treated with d-GalN\\/LPS. Fisher 344 rats, which were given intraperitoneal injections of pAxCAHGF 48 h before, were treated with d-GalN\\/LPS. Serum ALT in the HGF

Takahiro Nomi; Goshi Shiota; Masato Isono; Kenzo Sato; Hironaka Kawasaki

2000-01-01

95

Regulation of articular chondrocyte aggrecan and collagen gene expression by multiple growth factor gene transfer.  

PubMed

Gene transfer is a promising approach to the delivery of chondrotrophic growth factors to promote cartilage repair. It is unlikely that a single growth factor transgene will optimally regulate these cells. The aim of this study was to identify those growth factor transgene combinations that optimally regulate aggrecan, collagen type II and collagen type I gene expression by articular chondrocytes. We delivered combinations of the transgenes encoding fibroblast growth factor-2, insulin-like growth factor I, transforming growth factor beta1, bone morphogenetic protein-2, and/or bone morphogenetic protein-7 and assessed chondrocyte responses by measuring changes in the expression of aggrecan, type II collagen and type I collagen genes. These growth factor transgenes differentially regulated the magnitude and time course of all three-matrix protein genes. In concert, the transgenes regulated matrix gene expression in an interactive fashion that ranged from synergistic to inhibitory. Maximum stimulation of aggrecan (16-fold) and type II collagen (35-fold) expression was with the combination of IGF-I, BMP-2, and BMP-7 transgenes. The results indicate that the optimal choice of growth factor genes for cell-based cartilage repair cannot be predicted from observations of individual transgenes. Rather, such gene therapy will require an empirically based selection of growth factor gene combinations. PMID:22180348

Shi, Shuiliang; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

2011-12-16

96

Direct phylogenetic evidence for lateral transfer of elongation factor-like gene.  

PubMed

Genes encoding elongation factor-like (EFL) proteins, which show high similarity to elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha), have been found in phylogenetically distantly related eukaryotes. The sporadic distribution of "EFL-containing" lineages within "EF-1alpha-containing" lineages indirectly, but strongly, suggests lateral gene transfer as the principal driving force in EFL evolution. However, one of the most critical aspects in the above hypothesis, the donor lineages in any putative cases of lateral EFL gene transfer, remained unclear. In this study, we provide direct evidence for lateral transfer of an EFL gene through the analyses of 10 diatom EFL genes. All diatom EFL homologues tightly clustered in phylogenetic analyses, suggesting acquisition of the exogenous EFL gene early in diatom evolution. Our survey additionally identified Thalassiosira pseudonana as a eukaryote bearing EF-1alpha and EFL genes and secondary EFL gene loss in Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the complete genome of which encodes only the EF-1alpha gene. Most importantly, the EFL phylogeny recovered a robust grouping of homologues from diatoms, the cercozoan Bigelowiella natans, and the foraminifer Planoglabratella opecularis, with the diatoms nested within the Bigelowiella plus Planoglabratella (Rhizaria) grouping. The particular relationships recovered are further consistent with two characteristic sequence motifs. The best explanation of our data analyses is an EFL gene transfer from a foraminifer to a diatom, the first case in which the donor-recipient relationship was clarified. Finally, based on a reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR assay and the genome information of Thalassiosira and Phaeodactylum, we propose the loss of elongation factor function in Thalassiosira EF-1alpha. PMID:18458344

Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji; Sako, Yoshihiko

2008-05-05

97

In vivo transfer and expression of a human epidermal growth factor gene accelerates wound repair.  

PubMed Central

This report details the transfer of a human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) expression plasmid to porcine partial-thickness wound keratinocytes by particle-mediated DNA transfer (Accell). After gene transfer an external sealed fluid-filled wound chamber was used to protect the wound, provide containment of the exogenous DNA and expressed peptide, and permit sampling of the wound fluid. Analysis of wound fluid for hEGF and total protein, an indicator of reformation of the epithelial barrier, showed that wounds bombarded with the hEGF plasmid exhibited a 190-fold increase in EGF concentration and healed 20% (2.1 days) earlier than the controls. EGF concentrations in wound fluid persisted over the entire 10-day monitored period, decreasing from 200 pg/ml to 25 pg/ml over the first 5 days. Polymerase chain reaction results showed that plasmid DNA was present in the wound for at least 30 days. These findings demonstrate the possible utility of in vivo gene transfer to enhance epidermal repair. Images

Andree, C; Swain, W F; Page, C P; Macklin, M D; Slama, J; Hatzis, D; Eriksson, E

1994-01-01

98

The orientational freedom of molecular probes. The orientation factor in intramolecular energy transfer.  

PubMed Central

The measurement of the efficiency of Förster long-range resonance energy transfer between donor (D) and acceptor (A) luminophores attached to the same macromolecular substrate can be used to estimate the D-A separation, R. If the D and A transition dipoles sample all orientations with respect to the substrate (the isotropic condition) in a time short compared with the transfer time (the dynamic averaging condition), the average orientation factor less than K2 greater than is 2/3. If the isotropic condition is not satisfied but the dynamic averaging condition is, upper and lower bounds for less than K2 greater than, and thus R, may be obtained from observed D and A depolarizations, and these limits may be further narrowed if the transfer depolarization is also known. This paper offers experimental protocols for obtaining this reorientational information and presents contour plots of less than K2 greater than min and less than K2 greater than max as functions of generally observable depolarizations. This permits an uncertainty to be assigned to the determined value of R. The details of the D and A reoreintational process need not be known, but the orientational distributions are assumed to have at least approximate axial symmetry with respect to a stationary substrate. Average depolarization factors are derived for various orientational distribution functions that demonstrate the effects of various mechanisms for reorientation of the luminophores. It is shown that in general the static averaging regime does not lend itself to determinations of R.

Dale, R E; Eisinger, J; Blumberg, W E

1979-01-01

99

Application of angiogenic factors for therapy of erectile dysfunction: Protein and DNA transfer of VEGF 165 into the rat penis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo establish a laboratory animal model for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transfer in the rat penis to invent a curative therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). Vascular insufficiency is a common pathomechanism of ED. Previous investigations have shown neovascularization of ischemic organs after gene transfer of VEGF.

Martin Burchardt; Tatjana Burchardt; Aristotelis G. Anastasiadis; Ralph Buttyan; Alexandre de la Taille; Ahmad Shabsigh; Jorge Frank; Ridwan Shabsigh

2005-01-01

100

Transferfaktoren Boden-Pflanze fuer I-129 und Weidebewuchs. (Soil-plant-transfer factors for I-129 and pasture vegetation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The transfer factors for soil/plant, I-129 and I-127 and pasture vegetation have been measured with soils developed by wethering of granite, jura and cretaceous formations. Greenhouse (Karlsruhe) and field experiments (Munich) have been performed using ly...

A. Haisch H. Schuettelkopf

1993-01-01

101

In vitro studies during long term oral administration of specific transfer factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

153 patients suffering from recurrent pathologies, i.e. viral infections (keratitis, keratouveitis, genital and labial herpes)\\u000a uveitis, cystitis, and candidiasis were treated with in vitro produced transfer factor (TF) specific for HSV-1\\/2, CMV and\\u000a Candida albicans. The cell-mediated immunity of seropositive patients to HSV-1\\/2 and\\/or CMV viruses was assessed using the\\u000a leucocyte migration inhibition test (LMT) and lymphocyte stimulation test (LST)

Giancarlo Pizza; Caterina De Vinci; Vittorio Fornarola; Aldopaolo Palareti; Olavio Baricordi; Dimitri Viza

1996-01-01

102

Selection of terrestrial transfer factors for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides  

SciTech Connect

A parameter value for a radioecological assessment model is not a single value but a distribution of values about a central value. The sources that contribute to the variability of transfer factors to predict foodchain transport of radionuclides are enumerated. Knowledge of these sources, judgement in interpreting the available data, consideration of collateral information, and established criteria that specify the desired level of conservatism in the resulting predictions are essential elements when selecting appropriate parameter values for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides. 39 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

Ng, Y.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

1983-01-01

103

Irreversible heavy chain transfer to hyaluronan oligosaccharides by tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6.  

PubMed

The covalent transfer of heavy chains (HCs) from inter-?-inhibitor (I?I) to hyaluronan (HA) via the protein product of tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) forms the HC-HA complex, a pathological form of HA that promotes the adhesion of leukocytes to HA matrices. The transfer of HCs to high molecular weight (HMW) HA is a reversible event whereby TSG-6 can shuffle HCs from one HA molecule to another. Therefore, HMW HA can serve as both an HC acceptor and an HC donor. In the present study, we show that transfer of HCs to low molecular weight HA oligosaccharides is an irreversible event where subsequent shuffling does not occur, i.e. HA oligosaccharides from 8 to 21 monosaccharide units in length can serve as HC acceptors, but are unable to function as HC donors. We show that the HC-HA complex is present in the synovial fluid of mice subjected to systemic and monoarticular mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HA oligosaccharides can be used, with TSG-6, to irreversibly shuffle HCs from pathological, HMW HC-HA to HA oligosaccharides, thereby restoring HC-HA matrices from the inflamed joint to their normal state, unmodified with HCs. This process was also effective for HC-HA in the synovial fluid of human rheumatoid arthritis patients (in vitro). PMID:23166324

Lauer, Mark E; Glant, Tibor T; Mikecz, Katalin; DeAngelis, Paul L; Haller, F Michael; Husni, M Elaine; Hascall, Vincent C; Calabro, Anthony

2012-11-19

104

Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

{sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

2005-10-04

105

Comments on unhappiness factors in simultaneous transfer DWBA description of (t, p) and (p, t) reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite-range one-step (simultaneous) transfer DWBA calculations have been carried out for (t, p) and (p, t) reactions involving some light-and medium-heavy nuclei with closed shells + 2 valence neutrons. A Tang-Herndon triton was used as well as realistic nuclear overlap functions generated by a sturmian procedure from a Schrödinger equation for two interacting particles in an external potential. The effect of the latter is to enhance cross section magnitudes by factors of 2-3, some of this enhancement being due to use of a density-dependent effective two-body interaction. Compared with data considerable unhappiness (underprediction) factors, however, remain. This finding is at variance with results reported recently by other authors.

Kunz, P. D.; Vaagen, J. S.; Bang, J. M.; Nilsson, B. S.

1982-04-01

106

PIPE. Heat Transfer and Friction-Factor Methods Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes 3d Rough  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional roughened internally enhanced tubes have been shown to be one of the most energy efficient for turbulent, forced convection applications. However, there is only one prediction method presented in the open literature and that is restricted to three-dimensional sand-grain roughness. Other roughness types are being proposed: hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. There are no validated heat-transfer and friction-factor prediction methods for these different roughness shapes that can be used in the transition and fully rough region. This program calculates the Nusselt number and friction factor values, for a broad range of three-dimensional roughness types such as hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. Users of this program are heat-exchangers designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.

Taylor, R.P.; Hodge, B.K. [Mississippi State University, MS (United States)

1992-02-01

107

Recipient cell nuclear factors are required for reprogramming by nuclear transfer  

PubMed Central

Nuclear transfer allows the reprogramming of somatic cells to totipotency. The cell cycle state of the donor and recipient cells, as well as their extent of differentiation, have each been cited as important determinants of reprogramming success. Here, we have used donor and recipient cells at various cell cycle and developmental stages to investigate the importance of these parameters. We found that many stages of the cell cycle were compatible with reprogramming as long as a sufficient supply of essential nuclear factors, such as Brg1, were retained in the recipient cell following enucleation. Consistent with this conclusion, the increased efficiency of reprogramming when using donor nuclei from embryonic cells could be explained, at least in part, by reintroduction of embryonic nuclear factors along with the donor nucleus. By contrast, cell cycle synchrony between the donor nucleus and the recipient cell was not required at the time of transfer, as long as synchrony was reached by the first mitosis. Our findings demonstrate the remarkable flexibility of the reprogramming process and support the importance of nuclear transcriptional regulators in mediating reprogramming.

Egli, Dieter; Eggan, Kevin

2010-01-01

108

Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Is Dependent on Compatible Mitochondrial DNA and Reprogramming Factors  

PubMed Central

Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) involves the transfer of a nucleus or cell from one species into the cytoplasm of an enucleated oocyte from another. Once activated, reconstructed oocytes can be cultured in vitro to blastocyst, the final stage of preimplantation development. However, they often arrest during the early stages of preimplantation development; fail to reprogramme the somatic nucleus; and eliminate the accompanying donor cell's mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in favour of the recipient oocyte's genetically more divergent population. This last point has consequences for the production of ATP by the electron transfer chain, which is encoded by nuclear and mtDNA. Using a murine-porcine interspecies model, we investigated the importance of nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility on successful development. Initially, we transferred murine fetal fibroblasts into enucleated porcine oocytes, which resulted in extremely low blastocyst rates (0.48%); and failure to replicate nuclear DNA and express Oct-4, the key marker of reprogramming. Using allele specific-PCR, we detected peak levels of murine mtDNA at 0.14±0.055% of total mtDNA at the 2-cell embryo stage and then at ever-decreasing levels to the blastocyst stage (<0.001%). Furthermore, these embryos had an overall mtDNA profile similar to porcine embryos. We then depleted porcine oocytes of their mtDNA using 10 µM 2?,3?-dideoxycytidine and transferred murine somatic cells along with murine embryonic stem cell extract, which expressed key pluripotent genes associated with reprogramming and contained mitochondria, into these oocytes. Blastocyst rates increased significantly (3.38%) compared to embryos generated from non-supplemented oocytes (P<0.01). They also had significantly more murine mtDNA at the 2-cell stage than the non-supplemented embryos, which was maintained throughout early preimplantation development. At later stages, these embryos possessed 49.99±2.97% murine mtDNA. They also exhibited an mtDNA profile similar to murine preimplantation embryos. Overall, these data demonstrate that the addition of species compatible mtDNA and reprogramming factors improves developmental outcomes for iSCNT embryos.

Jiang, Yan; Kelly, Richard; Peters, Amy; Fulka, Helena; Dickinson, Adam; Mitchell, Daniel A.; St. John, Justin C.

2011-01-01

109

Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications  

SciTech Connect

Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

2013-01-01

110

Conjugative transfer of the Lactococcus lactis sex factor and pRS01 plasmid to Enterococcus faecalis.  

PubMed

The low G+C gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis harbours two highly similar conjugative elements: an integrative and conjugative element called sex factor and the pRS01 plasmid. Originally, it was believed that the host range of the sex factor was limited to L. lactis subspecies. Here, it is reported that pTRK28 cointegrates of a spectinomycin-marked L. lactis sex factor and of the pRS01 conjugative plasmid can be transferred from L. lactis to Enterococcus faecalis. These results demonstrate the conjugative transfer of these elements to other bacterial species. Furthermore, it is reported that Ll.LtrB, a mobile group II intron carried by both elements, can invade its recognition site upon pRS01 conjugative transfer to E. faecalis. PMID:17263841

Belhocine, Kamila; Mandilaras, Victoria; Yeung, Bonnie; Cousineau, Benoit

2007-01-30

111

Isolation and Characterization of cLV25, a Bacteroides fragilis Chromosomal Transfer Factor Resembling Multiple Bacteroides sp. Mobilizable Transposons  

PubMed Central

Horizontal DNA transfer contributes significantly to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in Bacteroides fragilis. To further our understanding of DNA transfer in B. fragilis, we isolated and characterized a new transfer factor, cLV25. cLV25 was isolated from B. fragilis LV25 by its capture on the nonmobilizable Escherichia coli-Bacteroides shuttle vector pGAT400?BglII. Similar to other Bacteroides sp. transfer factors, cLV25 was mobilized in E. coli by the conjugative plasmid R751. Using Tn1000 mutagenesis and deletion analysis of cLV25, two mobilization genes, bmgA and bmgB, were identified, whose predicted proteins have similarity to DNA relaxases and mobilization proteins, respectively. In particular, BmgA and BmgB were homologous to MocA and MocB, respectively, the two mobilization proteins of the B. fragilis mobilizable transposon Tn4399. A cis-acting origin of transfer (oriT) was localized to a 353-bp region that included nearly all of the intergenic region between bmgB and orf22 and overlapped with the 3? end of orf22. This oriT contained a putative nic site sequence but showed no significant similarity to the oriT regions of other transfer factors, including Tn4399. Despite the lack of sequence similarity between the oriTs of cLV25 and Tn4399, a mutation in the cLV25 putative DNA relaxase, bmgA, was partially complemented by Tn4399. In addition to the functional cross-reaction with Tn4399, a second distinguishing feature of cLV25 is that predicted proteins have similarity to proteins encoded not only by Tn4399 but by several Bacteroides sp. transfer factors, including NBU1, NBU2, CTnDOT, Tn4555, and Tn5520.

Bass, Kathleen A.; Hecht, David W.

2002-01-01

112

Transfer of elements relevant to radioactive waste from soil to five boreal plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In long-term safety assessment models for radioactive waste disposal, uptake of radionuclides by plants is an important process with possible adverse effects in ecosystems. Cobalt-60, 59,63Ni, 93Mo, and 210Pb are examples of long-living radionuclides present in nuclear waste. The soil-to-plant transfer of stable cobalt, nickel, molybdenum and lead and their distribution across plant parts were investigated in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus),

Päivi Roivainen; Sari Makkonen; Toini Holopainen; Jukka Juutilainen

2011-01-01

113

Internalization of nerve growth factor by pheochromocytoma PC12 cells: absence of transfer to the nucleus  

SciTech Connect

The intracellular distribution of /sup 125/I-labeled nerve growth factor (NGF) in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells was studied by quantitative electron microscopic (EM) autoradiography and by subcellular fractionation. PC12 cells were grown as monolayer cultures in medium supplemented with serum in the presence of /sup 125/I-NGF. EM autoradiography showed that /sup 125/I-NGF was localized at the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic compartments but did not accumulate in the nuclear chromatin or in the nuclear membrane compartment of cells analyzed after 1 hr and 1, 2, and 8 d of incubation with /sup 125/I-NGF. /sup 125/I-NGF also was not detected in nuclear subcellular fractions prepared from cells grown in serum-supplemented medium either in suspension for 1 d or in monolayer cultures for 1 to 8 d. In contrast, and in confirmation of the results of Yankner and Shooter, about 60% of the cell-bound /sup 125/I-NGF was found in the nuclear pellet after cell fractionation if the cells had been kept previously in suspension for 1 d in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.2% glucose, 0.1% bovine serum albumin, and /sup 125/I-NGF. The ultrastructure of PC12 cells grown under such conditions, however, revealed signs of varying degrees of damage. Autoradiography of the nuclear pellet from these cells showed the grains to be located mainly over damaged nuclei or over cell debris between nuclei. It is concluded that NGF, after binding to specific receptors at the plasma membrane, is transferred to membrane-confined cytoplasmic compartments but does not have to be transferred further to the nuclear membrane or to the nuclear chromatin as a prerequisite for its physiological action.

Rohrer, H.; Schaefer, T.; Korsching, S.; Thoenen, H.

1982-06-01

114

Factors affecting success of embryo collection and transfer in large dairy herds.  

PubMed

Our objective was to evaluate factors that affected the success of embryo transfer programs in large dairy herds. Non-lactating donor cows produced a larger number of ova/embryos (P<0.01) and viable embryos (P<0.01) than lactating cows. The interaction between season and donor class was correlated with the proportion of ova/embryos classified as fertilized (P=0.03), because lactating donors had fewer fertilized ova in the summer. There was no correlation between 305-day mature equivalent milk yield and response to superstimulation. Although the interval between superstimulation protocols was correlated with the number of ova/embryos (P=0.03), there was no correlation with the number of viable embryos. Pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET) in heifer recipients was correlated with embryo quality grade (P<0.01), season (P=0.04), and whether embryos were fresh or frozen/thawed (P<0.01). Lactating recipient cows tended to have a lower rate of P/ET during the summer (P=0.12 to P=0.08). Synchronization protocols tended to be (P=0.06; Herd 1) or were (P=0.02; Herd 2) correlated with P/ET. Lactating cows receiving vitrified IVF embryos had a lower (P=0.01) P/ET than those receiving fresh IVF embryos, especially in the summer (P=0.09). Milk yield was not correlated with P/ET. The use of heat abatement systems is critical to improve embryo production and P/ET. Synchronization protocols that optimized synchrony of ovulation may increase fertility of recipient cows and eliminate the need for estrous detection. PMID:18023856

Chebel, R C; Demétrio, D G B; Metzger, J

2007-11-19

115

Using Contextual Factors Analysis to Explain Transfer of Least Common Multiple Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer of learning to new or different contexts has always been a chief concern of education because unlike training for a specific job, education must establish skills without knowing exactly how those skills might be called upon. Research on transfer can be difficult, because it is often superficially unclear why transfer occurs or, more frequently, does not, in a particular

Philip I. Pavlik Jr; Michael Yudelson; Kenneth R. Koedinger

2011-01-01

116

Factors Associated with Bachelor Degree Attainment by Community College Transfer Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of the community college as preparation for transfer to four-year institutions and bachelor degree attainment continues to be a critical means of access to higher learning for students from diverse backgrounds. What variables distinguish community college transfers to four-year institutions who earn a bachelor degree from transfers who do not…

Mourad, Roger; Hong, JiHee

2011-01-01

117

Environmental Factors Influencing Gene Transfer Agent (GTA) Mediated Transduction in the Subtropical Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial genomic sequence analyses have indicated widespread horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, an adequate mechanism accounting for the ubiquity of HGT has been lacking. Recently, high frequencies of interspecific gene transfer have been documented, catalyzed by Gene Transfer Agents (GTAs) of marine ?-Proteobacteria. It has been proposed that the presence of bacterial genes in highly purified viral metagenomes may be

Lauren D. McDaniel; Elizabeth C. Young; Kimberly B. Ritchie; John H. Paul

2012-01-01

118

Role of the nonmagnetic layer in determining the Lande g-factor in a spin transfer system  

SciTech Connect

The microscopic origin of the Lande g-factor in two ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic (FM/NM) bilayer systems-Co/Cu and Ni/Pd-has been investigated using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, resonant magnetic reflectivity, and band calculations. The FM/NM bilayer represents the building block of any complete spin-transfer structure (FM1/NM/FM2). The valence electronic structure is profoundly altered over a finite length across the FM/NM interface. A considerable charge transfer takes place from the NM to the FM material. This results in an enhancement of the orbital-to-spin magnetic moment ratio in the FM layer and an induced magnetic polarization in the NM layer. Both effects turn out to be crucial for a correct understanding of the g-factor in spin-transfer systems.

Lee, J.S.; Vescovo, E.; Kao, C.C.; Beaujour, J. M.; Kent, A.D.; Jang, H.; Kim, J.Y; Park, J. H., Shim, J. H.

2009-11-02

119

Measurements of the meson-photon transition form factors of light pseudoscalar mesons at large momentum transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the CLEO II detector, we have measured the differential cross sections for exclusive two-photon production of light pseudoscalar mesons pi0, eta, and eta'. From our measurements we have obtained the form factors associated with the electromagnetic transitions gamma*gamma-->meson. We have measured these form factors in the momentum transfer ranges from 1.5 to 9, 20, and 30 GeV2 for pi0,

J. Gronberg; T. S. Hill; R. Kutschke; D. J. Lange; S. Menary; R. J. Morrison; H. N. Nelson; T. K. Nelson; C. Qiao; J. D. Richman; D. Roberts; A. Ryd; M. S. Witherell; R. Balest; B. H. Behrens; W. T. Ford; J. Roy; J. G. Smith; J. P. Alexander; C. Bebek; B. E. Berger; K. Berkelman; K. Bloom; D. G. Cassel; H. A. Cho; D. M. Coffman; D. S. Crowcroft; M. Dickson; P. S. Drell; K. M. Ecklund; R. Ehrlich; R. Elia; A. D. Foland; P. Gaidarev; R. S. Galik; B. Gittelman; S. W. Gray; D. L. Hartill; B. K. Heltsley; P. I. Hopman; J. Kandaswamy; P. C. Kim; D. L. Kreinick; T. Lee; Y. Liu; G. S. Ludwig; J. Masui; J. Mevissen; N. B. Mistry; C. R. Ng; E. Nordberg; M. Ogg; J. R. Patterson; D. Peterson; D. Riley; A. Soffer; B. Valant-Spaight; C. Ward; M. Athanas; P. Avery; C. D. Jones; M. Lohner; C. Prescott; J. Yelton; J. Zheng; G. Brandenburg; R. A. Briere; Y. S. Gao; D. Y.-J. Kim; R. Wilson; H. Yamamoto; T. E. Browder; F. Li; Y. Li; J. L. Rodriguez; T. Bergfeld; B. I. Eisenstein; J. Ernst; G. E. Gladding; G. D. Gollin; R. M. Hans; E. Johnson; I. Karliner; M. A. Marsh; M. Palmer; M. Selen; J. J. Thaler; K. W. Edwards; A. Bellerive; R. Janicek; D. B. Macfarlane; K. W. McLean; P. M. Patel; A. J. Sadoff; R. Ammar; P. Baringer; A. Bean; D. Besson; D. Coppage; C. Darling; R. Davis; N. Hancock; S. Kotov; I. Kravchenko; N. Kwak; S. Anderson; Y. Kubota; M. Lattery; S. J. Lee; J. J. O'neill; S. Patton; R. Poling; T. Riehle; V. Savinov; A. Smith; M. S. Alam; S. B. Athar; Z. Ling; A. H. Mahmood; H. Severini; S. Timm; F. Wappler; A. Anastassov; S. Blinov; J. E. Duboscq; K. D. Fisher; D. Fujino; K. K. Gan; T. Hart; K. Honscheid; H. Kagan; R. Kass; J. Lee; M. B. Spencer; M. Sung; A. Undrus; R. Wanke; A. Wolf; M. M. Zoeller; B. Nemati; S. J. Richichi; W. R. Ross; P. Skubic; M. Bishai; J. Fast; E. Gerndt; J. W. Hinson; N. Menon; D. H. Miller; E. I. Shibata; I. P. Shipsey; M. Yurko; L. Gibbons; S. Glenn; S. D. Johnson; Y. Kwon; S. Roberts; E. H. Thorndike; C. P. Jessop; K. Lingel; H. Marsiske; M. L. Perl; D. Ugolini; R. Wang; X. Zhou; T. E. Coan; V. Fadeyev; I. Korolkov; Y. Maravin; I. Narsky; V. Shelkov; J. Staeck; R. Stroynowski; I. Volobouev; J. Ye; M. Artuso; A. Efimov; F. Frasconi; M. Gao; M. Goldberg; D. He; S. Kopp; G. C. Moneti; S. Schuh; T. Skwarnicki; S. Stone; G. Viehhauser; X. Xing; J. Bartelt; S. E. Csorna; V. Jain; S. Marka; R. Godang; K. Kinoshita; I. C. Lai; P. Pomianowski; S. Schrenk; G. Bonvicini; D. Cinabro; R. Greene; L. P. Perera; G. J. Zhou; B. Barish; M. Chadha; S. Chan; G. Eigen; J. S. Miller; C. O'grady; M. Schmidtler; J. Urheim; A. J. Weinstein; F. Würthwein; D. M. Asner; D. W. Bliss; G. Masek; H. P. Paar; S. Prell; M. Sivertz; V. Sharma

1998-01-01

120

Stem Cell Factor, Interleukin3, and Interleukin6 Promote Retroviral-Mediated Gene Transfer Into Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of retroviral-mediated gene transfer into hema- topoietic stem cells (HSC) is dependent on the survival and self-renewal of HSC in vitro during retroviral infection. We have examined the effect of prestimulation of bone marrow with various cytokines, including the product of the Steel gene, Steel factor or stem cell factor (SCF) (the ligand for the c-kit receptor) on

Barry D. Luskey; Margery Rosenblatt; Kristina Zsebo; David A. Williams

121

Cleavage of ? repressor and synthesis of RecA protein induced by transferred UV-damaged F sex factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer of a UV-damaged F sex factor to a recipient ? lysogen induces prophage ? development. Under these conditions RecA protein synthesis was induced and ? repressor cleaved, as observed upon direct induction, that is, when the recipient ? lysogen was directly exposed to UV-light. The efficiency of induction of RecA protein synthesis in recipient bacteria which had received an

P. L. Moreau; J. V. Pelico; R. Devoret

1982-01-01

122

Molecular characterization of spontaneous and growth-factor-augmented chondrogenesis in periosteum–bone tissue transferred into a joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilineage potential of progenitor cells from periosteum is well established, but conditions for differentiation within their native niche are unclear. We evaluated at cellular and molecular levels whether chondrogenesis of periosteal progenitor cells is promoted spontaneously or by growth-factor mixture (GFM) application when transferring periosteum–bone cylinders into cartilage defects. Osteochondral defects in the patellar groove of minipigs were filled with

Martin Jung; Tobias Gotterbarm; Annette Gruettgen; Simona Berardi Vilei; Steffen Breusch; Wiltrud Richter

2005-01-01

123

Calculation of rate constants for asymmetric charge transfer, and their effect on relative sensitivity factors in glow discharge mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this paper, we have calculated the rate coefficients for asymmetric charge transfer between Ar+ ions and all elements of interest in analytical glow discharges, based on a semi-classical approach. These values were then used to make predictions on the relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) in glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) (VG9000 discharge cell) for various elements. The RSFs were calculated

Annemie Bogaerts; Krassimir A. Temelkov; Nikolay K. Vuchkov; Renaat Gijbels

2007-01-01

124

Hispanic Student Success: Factors Influencing the Persistence and Transfer Decisions of Latino Community College Students Enrolled in Developmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of a set of theoretically-derived predictor variables on the persistence and transfer of Hispanic community college students. Early models of student persistence have been validated primarily among 4-year college students. While the constructs have been well-established, the relationships of those relevant factors

Crisp, Gloria; Nora, Amaury

2010-01-01

125

A Study on the Transfer of Iron in Soil–Plant–Animal Continuum Under Semi-arid Environmental Conditions in Sargodha, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation on the iron (Fe) transfer from soil to plant and in turn to animal (cows), as a function of sampling\\u000a periods was conducted at the Livestock Experimental Station Sargodha, Pakistan which falls under semi-arid conditions. Although\\u000a the iron transfer from soil to forage increased consistently, the forage Fe content decreased progressively with increase\\u000a in sampling period. Highest

Zafar Iqbal Khan; Muhammad Ashraf; Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar; Nasra Raza; Kafeel Ahmad; Nudrat Aisha Akram

126

Simple Estimation of F?rster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Orientation Factor Distribution in Membranes  

PubMed Central

Because of its acute sensitivity to distance in the nanometer scale, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has found a large variety of applications in many fields of chemistry, physics, and biology. One important issue regarding the correct usage of FRET is its dependence on the donor-acceptor relative orientation, expressed as the orientation factor ?2. Different donor/acceptor conformations can lead to ?2 values in the 0 ? ?2 ? 4 range. Because the characteristic distance for FRET, R0, is proportional to (?2)1/6, uncertainties in the orientation factor are reflected in the quality of information that can be retrieved from a FRET experiment. In most cases, the average value of ?2 corresponding to the dynamic isotropic limit ( = 2/3) is used for computation of R0 and hence donor-acceptor distances and acceptor concentrations. However, this can lead to significant error in unfavorable cases. This issue is more critical in membrane systems, because of their intrinsically anisotropic nature and their reduced fluidity in comparison to most common solvents. Here, a simple numerical simulation method for estimation of the probability density function of ?2 for membrane-embedded donor and acceptor fluorophores in the dynamic regime is presented. In the simplest form, the proposed procedure uses as input the most probable orientations of the donor and acceptor transition dipoles, obtained by experimental (including linear dichroism) or theoretical (such as molecular dynamics simulation) techniques. Optionally, information about the widths of the donor and/or acceptor angular distributions may be incorporated. The methodology is illustrated for special limiting cases and common membrane FRET pairs.

Loura, Luis M. S.

2012-01-01

127

Simple Estimation of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Orientation Factor Distribution in Membranes.  

PubMed

Because of its acute sensitivity to distance in the nanometer scale, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has found a large variety of applications in many fields of chemistry, physics, and biology. One important issue regarding the correct usage of FRET is its dependence on the donor-acceptor relative orientation, expressed as the orientation factor k(2). Different donor/acceptor conformations can lead to k(2) values in the 0 ? k(2) ? 4 range. Because the characteristic distance for FRET, R(0), is proportional to (k(2))1/6, uncertainties in the orientation factor are reflected in the quality of information that can be retrieved from a FRET experiment. In most cases, the average value of k(2) corresponding to the dynamic isotropic limit ( = 2/3) is used for computation of R(0) and hence donor-acceptor distances and acceptor concentrations. However, this can lead to significant error in unfavorable cases. This issue is more critical in membrane systems, because of their intrinsically anisotropic nature and their reduced fluidity in comparison to most common solvents. Here, a simple numerical simulation method for estimation of the probability density function of k(2) for membrane-embedded donor and acceptor fluorophores in the dynamic regime is presented. In the simplest form, the proposed procedure uses as input the most probable orientations of the donor and acceptor transition dipoles, obtained by experimental (including linear dichroism) or theoretical (such as molecular dynamics simulation) techniques. Optionally, information about the widths of the donor and/or acceptor angular distributions may be incorporated. The methodology is illustrated for special limiting cases and common membrane FRET pairs. PMID:23203123

Loura, Luís M S

2012-11-19

128

Transient field g factor measurement on radioactive ^100Pd(2^+1) via ? transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

^100Pd has four proton holes in the g9/2 and four neutrons in the d5/2 orbitals around the N = Z =50 shell closures and is therefore a suitable candidate for studying single particle effects in the nuclear wave function. The ? transfer from a carbon target to an energetic beam of ^96Ru close to the Coulomb barrier has been used to populate the 2^+1 state in radioactive ^100Pd via the reaction ^12C(^96Ru,^8Be)^100Pd. ^96Ru beams of 343 MeV were provided by the Yale WNSL accelerator. The two ? particles from the breakup of ^8Be and the carbon ions which Coulomb excited the Ru projectiles were detected in a Si detector in coincidence with the ? rays recorded in four Ge Clover detectors. Angular correlations and precessions have been measured via the transient field technique. Preliminary data yield the first measurement of the g factors of the 2^+1 state in ^100Pd and of the 4^+1 state in ^96Ru. )

Benczer-Koller, Noemie; Speidel, Karl-Heinz; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Gürdal, G. Ülhan; Ahn, Tan; Casperson, Robert; Chevrier, Raphaël; Heinz, Andreas; Ilie, Gabriele; Radeck, Desiree; Smith, Mallory; Williams, Elizabeth

2010-02-01

129

Persistent expression of factor VIII in vivo following nonprimate lentiviral gene transfer  

PubMed Central

Hemophilia A is a clinically important coagulation disorder caused by the lack or abnormality of plasma coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). Gene transfer of the FVIII cDNA to hepatocytes using lentiviral vectors is a potential therapeutic approach. We investigated the efficacy of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)–based vectors in targeting hepatocytes and correcting FVIII deficiency in a hemophilia A mouse model. Several viral envelope glycoproteins were screened for efficient FIV vector pseudotyping and hepatocyte transduction. The GP64 glycoprotein from baculovirus Autographa californica multinuclear polyhedrosis virus pseudo-typed FIV efficiently and showed excellent hepatocyte tropism. The GP64-pseudotyped vector was stable in the presence of human or mouse complement. Inclusion of a hybrid liver-specific promoter (murine albumin enhancer/human ?1-antitrypsin promoter) further enhanced transgene expression in hepatocytes. We generated a GP64-pseudotyped FIV vector encoding the B domain–deleted human FVIII coding region driven by the liver-specific promoter, with 2 beneficial point mutations in the A1 domain. Intravenous vector administration conferred sustained FVIII expression in hemophilia A mice for several months without the generation of anti–human FVIII antibodies and resulted in partial phenotypic correction. These findings demonstrate the utility of GP64-pseudotyped FIV lentiviral vectors for targeting hepatocytes to correct disorders associated with deficiencies of secreted proteins.

Kang, Yubin; Xie, Litao; Tran, Diane Thi; Stein, Colleen S.; Hickey, Melissa; Davidson, Beverly L.; McCray, Paul B.

2005-01-01

130

Intercellular transfer of tissue factor via the uptake of tumor-derived microvesicles.  

PubMed

Coagulation proteins play a critical role in numerous aspects of tumor biology. Cancer cells express tissue factor (TF), the protein that initiates blood clotting, which frequently correlates with processes related to cell aggressiveness, including primary tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. It has been demonstrated that TF gets incorporated into tumor-derived microvesicles (MVs), a process that has been correlated with cancer-associated thrombosis. Here, we describe the exchange of TF-bearing MVs between breast cancer cell lines with different aggressiveness potential. The highly invasive and metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells displayed higher surface levels of functional TF compared with the less aggressive MCF-7 cells. MVs derived from MDA-MB-231 cells were enriched in TF and accelerated plasma coagulation, but MCF-7 cell-derived MVs expressed very low levels of TF. Incubating MCF-7 cells with MDA-MB-231 MVs significantly increased the TF activity. This phenomenon was not observed upon pretreatment of MVs with anti-TF or annexin-V, which blocks phosphatidylserine sites on the surface of MVs. Our data indicated that TF-bearing MVs can be transferred between different populations of cancer cells and may therefore contribute to the propagation of a TF-related aggressive phenotype among heterogeneous subsets of cells in a tumor. PMID:23993901

Lima, Luize G; Leal, Ana Carolina; Vargas, Gabriele; Porto-Carreiro, Isabel; Monteiro, Robson Q

2013-08-03

131

Imaging Erg and Jun transcription factor interaction in living cells using fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses  

SciTech Connect

Physical interactions between transcription factors play important roles in modulating gene expression. Previous in vitro studies have shown a transcriptional synergy between Erg protein, an Ets family member, and Jun/Fos heterodimer, members of the bZip family, which requires direct Erg-Jun protein interactions. Visualization of protein interactions in living cells is a new challenge in biology. For this purpose, we generated fusion proteins of Erg, Fos, and Jun with yellow and cyan fluorescent proteins, YFP and CFP, respectively. After transient expression in HeLa cells, interactions of the resulting fusion proteins were explored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy (FRET) in fixed and living cells. FRET between YFP-Erg and CFP-Jun was monitored by using photobleaching FRET and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Both techniques revealed the occurrence of intermolecular FRET between YFP-Erg and CFP-Jun. This is stressed by loss of FRET with an YFP-Erg version carrying a point mutation in its ETS domain. These results provide evidence for the interaction of Erg and Jun proteins in living cells as a critical prerequisite of their transcriptional synergy, but also for the essential role of the Y371 residue, conserved in most Ets proteins, in this interaction.

Camuzeaux, Barbara [UMR 8526CNRS/Institut Pasteur de Lille/Universite de Lille2, Institut de Biologie de Lille, BP 447, 1 rue Calmette, 59021 Lille cedex (France); Spriet, Corentin [Service d'Imagerie Cellulaire Fonctionnelle, FRC3 CNRS, Institut de Biologie de Lille, BP 447, 1 rue Calmette, 59021 Lille cedex (France); Heliot, Laurent [Service d'Imagerie Cellulaire Fonctionnelle, FRC3 CNRS, Institut de Biologie de Lille, BP 447, 1 rue Calmette, 59021 Lille cedex (France); Coll, Jean [UMR 8527CNRS/Institut Pasteur de Lille/Universite de Lille2, Institut de Biologie de Lille, BP 447, 1 rue Calmette, 59021 Lille cedex (France); Duterque-Coquillaud, Martine [UMR 8526CNRS/Institut Pasteur de Lille/Universite de Lille2, Institut de Biologie de Lille, BP 447, 1 rue Calmette, 59021 Lille cedex (France)]. E-mail: martine.duterque@ibl.fr

2005-07-15

132

"A Hand Hold for a Little Bit": Factors Facilitating the Success of Community College Transfer Students to a Large Research University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To understand factors affecting the academic and social integration of community college transfer students, we interviewed 19 students who transferred to one state's large Research-Extensive university. We inquired about the transfer process, efforts of the university to orient and assist them, and perceptions of the university versus the…

Townsend, Barbara K.; Wilson, Kristin

2006-01-01

133

Slow electron transfer rates for fluorinated cobalt porphyrins: electronic and conformational factors modulating metalloporphyrin ET.  

PubMed

The electron transfer (ET) properties of a series of closely related cobalt porphyrins, [2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octafluoro-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrinato]cobalt, CoF(28)TPP, [2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octafluoro-5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl)porphyrinato]cobalt, CoF(8)TPP, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrinato]cobalt, CoF(20)TPP, and [5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinato]cobalt, CoTPP, were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, cyclic voltammetric digital simulation, in situ UV-vis and IR spectroelectrochemistry, kinetic ET studies, bulk electrolysis, (19)F NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and molecular modeling. In benzonitrile containing 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF(6)) as supporting electrolyte, the ET rate constants for the Co(2+/3+) redox couples were found to be strongly substituent dependent; the heterogeneous ET rate constant (k(el)) varied by a factor of 10(4), and the ET self-exchange rate constants (k(ex)) varied over 7 orders of magnitude for the compounds studied. The remaining observed ring oxidation and metal and ring reduction events exhibited nearly identical k(el) values for all compounds. UV-vis and IR spectroelectrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and (19)F NMR spectroscopic studies support attribution of different ET rates to widely varying inner sphere reorganization energies (lambda(i)) for these closely related compounds. Structural and semiempirical (PM3) studies indicate that the divergent kinetic behavior of CoTPP, CoF(8)TPP, CoF(20)TPP, and CoF(28)TPP first oxidations arises mainly from large nuclear reorganization energies primarily associated with core contraction and dilation. Taken together, these studies provide rational design principles for modulating ET rate constants in cobalt porphyrins over an even larger range and provide strategies for similar manipulation of ET rates in other porphyrin-based systems: substituents that lower C-C, C-N, and N-M vibrational frequencies or minimize porphyrin orbital overlap with the metal-centered orbital undergoing a change in electron population will increase k(ET). The heme ruffling apparent in electron transfer proteins such as cytochrome c is interpreted as nature's exploitation of this design strategy. PMID:12971774

Sun, Haoran; Smirnov, Valeriy V; DiMagno, Stephen G

2003-09-22

134

Analysis of the sequence and gene products of the transfer region of the F sex factor.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial conjugation results in the transfer of DNA of either plasmid or chromosomal origin between microorganisms. Transfer begins at a defined point in the DNA sequence, usually called the origin of transfer (oriT). The capacity of conjugative DNA transfer is a property of self-transmissible plasmids and conjugative transposons, which will mobilize other plasmids and DNA sequences that include a compatible oriT locus. This review will concentrate on the genes required for bacterial conjugation that are encoded within the transfer region (or regions) of conjugative plasmids. One of the best-defined conjugation systems is that of the F plasmid, which has been the paradigm for conjugation systems since it was discovered nearly 50 years ago. The F transfer region (over 33 kb) contains about 40 genes, arranged contiguously. These are involved in the synthesis of pili, extracellular filaments which establish contact between donor and recipient cells; mating-pair stabilization; prevention of mating between similar donor cells in a process termed surface exclusions; DNA nicking and transfer during conjugation; and the regulation of expression of these functions. This review is a compendium of the products and other features found in the F transfer region as well as a discussion of their role in conjugation. While the genetics of F transfer have been described extensively, the mechanism of conjugation has proved elusive, in large part because of the low levels of expression of the pilus and the numerous envelope components essential for F plasmid transfer. The advent of molecular genetic techniques has, however, resulted in considerable recent progress. This summary of the known properties of the F transfer region is provided in the hope that it will form a useful basis for future comparison with other conjugation systems.

Frost, L S; Ippen-Ihler, K; Skurray, R A

1994-01-01

135

Conjugative transfer of the Lactococcus lactis chromosomal sex factor promotes dissemination of the Ll.LtrB group II intron.  

PubMed

The Ll.LtrB group II intron from the low-G+C gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis was the first bacterial group II intron shown to splice and mobilize in vivo. This retroelement interrupts the relaxase gene (ltrB) of three L. lactis conjugative elements: plasmids pRS01 and pAH90 and the chromosomal sex factor. Conjugative transfer of a plasmid harboring a segment of the pRS01 conjugative plasmid including the Ll.LtrB intron allows dissemination of Ll.LtrB among L. lactis strains and lateral transfer of this retroelement from L. lactis to Enterococcus faecalis. Here we report the dissemination of the Ll.LtrB group II intron among L. lactis strains following conjugative transfer of the native chromosomally embedded L. lactis sex factor. We demonstrated that Ll.LtrB dissemination is highly variable and often more efficient from this integrative and conjugative element than from an engineered conjugative plasmid. Cotransfer among L. lactis strains of both Ll.LtrB-containing elements, the conjugative plasmid and the sex factor, was detected and shown to be synergistic. Moreover, following their concurrent transfer, both mobilizable elements supported the spread of their respective copies of the Ll.LtrB intron. Our findings explain the unusually high efficiency of Ll.LtrB mobility observed following conjugation of intron-containing plasmids. PMID:15659671

Belhocine, Kamila; Yam, Karen K; Cousineau, Benoit

2005-02-01

136

Experimental methodologies and preliminary transfer factor data for estimation of dermal exposures to particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental efforts and experimental data that focused on quantifying the transfer of particles on a mass basis from indoor surfaces to human skin are described. Methods that utilized a common fluorescein-tagged Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a possible surrogate for housedust and a uniform surface dust deposition chamber to permit estimation of particle mass transfer for selected dust size fractions

CHARLES E RODES; J RANDALL NEWSOME; ROBERT W VANDERPOOL; JEFFREY T ANTLEY; ROBERT G LEWIS

2001-01-01

137

University technology transfer: A conceptual model of impacting factors and phased process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive review of literature on university technology transfer. The success of nations depends on how efficient research can be translated into commercial products. Universities play a key role in this. There are two major areas that need to be understood to build an efficient technology transfer mechanisms. First are the characteristics of each university. The literature

Jisun Kim; Tugrul U. Daim; Timothy R. Anderson

2009-01-01

138

External and Institutional Factors Affecting Community College Student-Transfer Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was conducted to identify the environmental conditions and relationships between external and institutional conditions that have a significant effect upon student transfer activity. A sample of 78 colleges in 15 states were selected from institutions participating in a national transfer project; 42% were located in Texas or California.…

Banks, Debra L.

139

Evaluation in Practice: Identifying Factors for Improving Transfer of Training in Technical Domains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed a method to evaluate the transfer of training in technical domains and evaluated the use of the method with four trainees learning tank maintenance in the Netherlands army. Findings show that data from various sources and several levels of the training process can provide important information about the transfer of training. (SLD)|

Barnard, Yvonne F.; Veldhuis, Gerard J.; van Rooij, John C. G. M.

2001-01-01

140

Molecular orientation of factor VIIIa on the phospholipid membrane surface determined by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.  

PubMed

F (Factor) VIIIa binds to phospholipid membranes during formation of the FXase complex. Free thiols from cysteine residues of isolated FVIIIa A1 and A2 subunits and the A3 domain of the A3C1C2 subunit were labelled with PyMPO maleimide {1-(2-maleimidylethyl)-4-[5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-oxazol-2-yl]pyridinium methanesulfonate} or fluorescein (fluorescence donors). Double mutations of the A3 domain (C2000S/T1872C and C2000S/D1828C) were also produced to utilize Cys(1828) and Cys(1872) residues for labelling. Labelled subunits were reacted with complementary non-labelled subunits to reconstitute FVIIIa. Octadecylrhodamine incorporated into phospholipid vesicles was used as an acceptor for distance measurements between FVIII residues and membrane surface by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The results of the present study indicate that a FVIII axis on a plane that intersects the approximate centre of each domain is orientated with a tilt angle of ~30-50° on the membrane surface. This orientation predicted the existence of contacts mediated by residues 1713-1725 in the A3 domain in addition to a large area of contacts within the C domains. FVIII variants where Arg(1719) or Arg(1721) were mutated to aspartate showed a >40-fold reduction in membrane affinity. These results identify possible orientations for FVIIIa bound to the membrane surface and support a new interaction between the A3 domain and the membrane probably mediated in part by Arg(1719) and Arg(1721). PMID:23521092

Wakabayashi, Hironao; Fay, Philip J

2013-06-01

141

Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome, A Genetically Determined Cellular Immunologic Deficiency: Clinical and Laboratory Responses to Therapy with Transfer Factor*  

PubMed Central

Patients with diseases associated with defects in cellular immunity, such as the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, characteristically have severe recurrent infections and usually succumb to overwhelming infection at an early age. This communication describes a patient with this syndrome, defective delayed hypersensitivity by skin tests and by in vitro lymphocyte response, who was treated with dialysate of peripheral blood leukocytes (transfer factor). After treatment, the clinical status of the patient improved dramatically, concomitant with the development of delayed hypersensitivity to antigens to which the donor was sensitive. In vitro tests after transfer indicated that the patient's lymphocytes, when stimulated by specific antigen, produced migration inhibitory factor without concomitant DNA synthesis. These observations dissociate skin test sensitivity and activity of migration inhibitory factor from in vitro blastogenesis. Further, the response to phytohemagglutinin remained diminished before and after therapy. While these findings represent only an individual case, the climical results suggest that investigation of the use of transfer factor appears warranted in the therapy of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and other genetically-determined diseases associated with impaired cellular immunity. Images

Levin, A. S.; Spitler, L. E.; Stites, D. P.; Fudenberg, H. H.

1970-01-01

142

Transfer of 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb from soils to tree and shrub species in a Mediterranean area.  

PubMed

The soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium isotopes ((238)U and (234)U), (230)Th, (226)Ra, and (210)Pb were studied in a disused uranium mine located in the Extremadura region in the south-west of Spain. The plant samples included trees (Quercus ilex, Quercus suber, and Eucalyptus cameldulensis) and one shrub (Cytisus multiflorus). All of them are characteristic of Mediterranean environments. The activity concentrations in leaves and fruit were determined for the tree species at different stages of growth. For the shrub, the total above-ground fraction was considered in three seasons. For old leaves and fruit, the highest activity concentrations were found in Eucalyptus cameldulensis for all the radionuclides studied, except in the case of (230)Th that presented similar activity concentrations in all of the tree species studied. In every case, the transfer to fruit was less than the transfer to leaves. In the shrub, the results depended on the season of sampling, with the highest value obtained in spring and the lowest in autumn. Important correlations were obtained for (238)U and (226)Ra between the activity ratio in soils with that in leaves or fruit. PMID:20153657

Blanco Rodríguez, P; Vera Tomé, F; Lozano, J C; Pérez Fernández, M A

2010-02-06

143

Matrix-fracture transfer shape factor for modeling flow of a compressible fluid in dual-porosity media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The matrix-fracture transfer shape factor is one of the important parameters in the modeling of fluid flow in fractured porous media using a dual-porosity concept. Warren and Root [36] introduced the dual-porosity concept and suggested a relation for the shape factor. There is no general relationship for determining the shape factor for a single-phase flow of slightly compressible fluids. Therefore, different studies reported different values for this parameter, as an input into the flow models. Several investigations have been reported on the shape factor for slightly compressible fluids. However, the case of compressible fluids has not been investigated in the past. The focus of this study is, therefore, to find the shape factor for the single-phase flow of compressible fluids (gases) in fractured porous media. In this study, a model for the determination of the shape factor for compressible fluids is presented; and, the solution of nonlinear gas diffusivity equation is used to derive the shape factor. The integral method and the method of moments are used to solve the nonlinear governing equation by considering the pressure dependency of the viscosity and isothermal compressibility of the fluid. The approximate semi-analytical model for the shape factor presented in this study is verified using single-porosity, fine-grid, numerical simulations. The dependency of the shape factor on the gas specific gravity, pressure and temperature are also investigated. The theoretical analysis presented improves our understanding of fluid flow in fractured porous media. In addition, the developed matrix-fracture transfer shape factor can be used as an input for modeling flow of compressible fluids in dual-porosity systems, such as naturally fractured gas reservoirs, coalbed methane reservoirs and fractured tight gas reservoirs.

Ranjbar, Ehsan; Hassanzadeh, Hassan

2011-05-01

144

Verification of radionuclide transfer factors to domestic-animal food products, using indigenous elements and with emphasis on iodine.  

PubMed

Recent reviews have established benchmark values for transfer factors that describe radionuclide transfer from plants to animal food product such as milk, eggs and meat. They also illustrate the paucity of data for some elements and some food products. The present study quantified transfer data using indigenous elements measured in dairy, poultry and other livestock farms in Canada. Up to 62 elements are reported, with particular emphasis on iodine (I) because of the need to accurately assess the behaviour of (129)I from disposal of nuclear fuel waste. There was remarkable agreement with the literature values, and for many elements the present study involved many more observations than were previously available. Perhaps the most important observation was that product/substrate concentration ratios (CR) were quite consistent across species, whereas the traditional fractional transfer factors (TF, units of d kg(-1) or d L(-1)) necessarily vary with body mass (feed intake). This suggests that for long-term assessments, it may be advisable to change the models to use CR rather than TF. PMID:20621399

Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

2010-11-01

145

The ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on several hypotheses about the process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, the onflow around the solute granule\\u000a is figured out by the Navier-Stocks equation. In combination with the Higbie’s solute infiltration model, the link between\\u000a the mass-transfer coefficient and the velocity of flow is found. The mass-transfer coefficient with the ultrasonical effect\\u000a is compared with that without the ultrasonical

Benyi Luo; Yigang Lu

2008-01-01

146

[The progress of research on the influencing factor of nuclear transfer].  

PubMed

Nuclear transfer (NT) is a new cloning technology developed in recent years. NT methods consist of electrofusion, NT mediated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and microinjection. The success of somatic nuclear transfer depends on the source of donor nucleus, developmental stage of recipient cytoplasts, cell cycle synchrony of donor nucleus. Different methods of harvesting cells have effect on the efficiency of NT. The somatic nucleus will be reprogrammed after NT and will restore a totipotent state in order to undergo development. PMID:19813635

Zhou, Zhujuan; Zheng, Jian

2009-08-01

147

Evidence for factors regulating transfer cell-specific expression in maize endosperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In maize, a layer of basal endosperm cells adjacent to the pedicel is modified for a function in solute transfer. Three genes specifically expressed in this region, termed the basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL-2 to -4), were isolated by differential hybridization. BETL-2 to -4 are coordinately expressed in early and mid-term endosperm development, but are absent at later stages. BETL-2

Gregorio Hueros; Joaquin Royo; Monika Maitz; Francesco Salamini; Richard D. Thompson

1999-01-01

148

A SWI/SNF-like factor from chicken liver that disrupts nucleosomes and transfers histone octamers in cis and trans.  

PubMed

ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors have been implicated in nuclear processes involving DNA. Here we report partial purification and characterization of an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activity from chicken liver. Nuclear extract from chicken liver was fractionated chromatographically to enrich proteins immunoreacting to antibodies against components of human SWI/SNF, namely BRG1, BAF170, BAF155, and BAF57. Immunoreactivity to these antibodies elutes with a mass of about 2MDa on Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration, suggesting that they constitute a SWI/SNF-like complex (SLC). The SLC displays three chromatin-remodeling activities, viz. nucleosome disruption, octamer transfer, and nucleosome sliding (octamer transfer in cis). We further show that components of SLC, as revealed by immunoreactivity to the above antibodies, display a dynamic nucleocytoplasmic distribution and colocalize with RNA polymerase II in the liver nuclei. This report contributes to the understanding of phylogenetic generality of chromatin remodeling factors in eukaryotes. PMID:12745251

Panigrahi, Anil K; Tomar, Raghuvir S; Chaturvedi, Madan M

2003-06-01

149

Determination of the Astrophysical S(E) Factors or Rates for Radiative Capture Reaction with One Nucleon Transfer Reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiative capture reaction plays an important role in nuclear astrophysics. We have indirectly measured the astrophysical S(E) factors for some proton capture reactions and reaction rates for several neutron capture reactions with one nucleon transfer reactions at HI-13 tandem accelerator in recent years. Some of them are compiled into IAEA EXFOR database and JINA REACLIB project, and used in the network calculations of Big Bang nucleosynthesis and type-I X-ray bursts.

Li, Zhihong; Guo, Bing; Li, Yunju; Su, Jun; Li, Ertao; Bai, Xixiang; Wang, Youbao; Zeng, Sheng; Wang, Baoxiang; Yan, Shengquan; Li, Zhichang; Liu, Jiancheng; Lian, Gang; Jin, Sunjun; Liu, Xin; Liu, Weiping

2012-06-01

150

Skeletal muscle regeneration after insulin-like growth factor I gene transfer by recombinant Sendai virus vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We scrutinized the applicability and efficacy of Sendai virus (SeV) vectors expressing either LacZ or human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I) in gene transfer into skeletal muscle. Seven days after the intramuscular injection of LacZ\\/SeV X-gal labeled myofibers were demonstrated in rat anterior tibialis muscle with\\/without bupivacaine treatment and the transgene expression persisted up to 1 month after injection. Recombinant hIGF-I

A Shiotani; M Fukumura; M Maeda; X Hou; M Inoue; T Kanamori; S Komaba; K Washizawa; S Fujikawa; T Yamamoto; C Kadono; K Watabe; H Fukuda; K Saito; Y Sakai; Y Nagai; J Kanzaki; M Hasegawa

2001-01-01

151

Conjugative Transfer of the Lactococcus lactis Chromosomal Sex Factor Promotes Dissemination of the Ll.LtrB Group II Intron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ll.LtrB group II intron from the low-GC gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis was the first bacterial group II intron shown to splice and mobilize in vivo. This retroelement interrupts the relaxase gene (ltrB) of three L. lactis conjugative elements: plasmids pRS01 and pAH90 and the chromosomal sex factor. Conjugative transfer of a plasmid harboring a segment of the pRS01 conjugative

Kamila Belhocine; Karen K. Yam; Benoit Cousineau

2005-01-01

152

Selective Energy Transfer Between Quantum Dots and Gold Nanoparticles for Detection of Multiple Mutations in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective energy transfer between quantum dots and gold nanoparticles was used to simultaneously detect mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. We functionalized the surface of gold nanoparticles and green and red-emitting quantum dots using four different probe DNAs that were designed to be perfect complementary to in-frame deletion mutation in exon 19 or L858 R point mutation in

Hosub Lee; Ahreum Kim; Taegyeong Kang; Sang-Woo Joo; So Yeong Lee; Kyong-Ah Yoon; Kangtaek Lee

2012-01-01

153

Measurements of the Proton Elastic-Form-Factor Ratio ?pGEp/GMp at Low Momentum Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-precision measurements of the proton elastic form-factor ratio, ?pGEp/GMp, have been made at four-momentum transfer, Q2, values between 0.2 and 0.5GeV2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to GEp being smaller than expected.

Ron, G.; Glister, J.; Lee, B.; Allada, K.; Armstrong, W.; Arrington, J.; Beck, A.; Benmokhtar, F.; Berman, B. L.; Boeglin, W.; Brash, E.; Camsonne, A.; Calarco, J.; Chen, J. P.; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E.; Coman, L.; Craver, B.; Cusanno, F.; Dumas, J.; Dutta, C.; Feuerbach, R.; Freyberger, A.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilman, R.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Hyde, C. E.; Ibrahim, H.; Ilieva, Y.; de Jager, C. W.; Jiang, X.; Jones, M. K.; Kang, H.; Kelleher, A.; Khrosinkova, E.; Kuchina, E.; Kumbartzki, G.; Lerose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Markowitz, P.; May-Tal Beck, S.; McCullough, E.; Meekins, D.; Meziane, M.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Norum, B. E.; Oh, Y.; Olson, M.; Paolone, M.; Paschke, K.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Piasetzky, E.; Potokar, M.; Pomatsalyuk, R.; Pomerantz, I.; Puckett, A.; Punjabi, V.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Ransome, R.; Reyhan, M.; Roche, J.; Rousseau, Y.; Saha, A.; Sarty, A. J.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Shneor, R.; Širca, S.; Slifer, K.; Solvignon, P.; Song, J.; Sparks, R.; Subedi, R.; Strauch, S.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Wang, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Zhan, X.; Zhu, X.

2007-11-01

154

The Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio mu(p) G**p(E)/G**p(M) at Low Momentum Transfer  

SciTech Connect

High precision measurements of the proton elastic form factor ratio have been made at four-momentum transfers, Q^2, between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV^2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q^2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to GEp being smaller than the dipole parameterization.

G. Ron; J. Glister; B. Lee; K. Allada; W. Armstrong; J. Arrington; A. Beck; F. Benmokhtar; B.L. Berman; W. Boeglin; E. Brash; A. Camsonne; J. Calarco; J. P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; J. Dumas; C. Dutta; R. Feuerbach; A. Freyberger; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; R. Gilman; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; Y. Ilieva; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; A. Kelleher; E. Khrosinkova; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; J. J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; S. May-Tal Beck; E. McCullough; D. Meekins; M. Meziane; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; B.E. Norum; Y. Oh; M. Olson; M. Paolone; K. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; M. Potokar; R. Pomatsalyuk; I. Pomerantz; A. Puckett; V. Punjabi; X. Qian; Y. Qiang; R. Ransome; M. Reyhan; J. Roche; Y. Rousseau; A. Saha; A.J. Sarty; B. Sawatzky; E. Schulte; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; R. Shneor; S. ? Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; J. Song; R. Sparks; R. Subedi; S. Strauch; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; X. Zhan; X. Zhu

2007-11-01

155

Embryo quality and transcervical technique are not the limiting factors in donkey embryo transfer outcome.  

PubMed

Embryo transfer (ET) in the donkey resulted in a very low recipient pregnancy rates. The aim of these studies was to investigate if nonsurgical transfer techniques or donkey embryo quality affect donkey recipient pregnancy failure. In Study 1, the impact of transfer technique was investigated by evaluating if cervical catheterization is associated with prostaglandin release and suppression of luteal function and if donkey recipients would become pregnant after nonsurgical transfer of horse embryos. Four jennies, from 5 to 8 d after ovulation, were submitted to a sham transcervical ET and to evaluation of PGFM and progesterone plasma concentrations. Five 8 d horse embryos were nonsurgically transferred into synchronized donkey recipients (HD). Cervical stimulation caused a transient PGF(2?) release in two of four jennies in the absence of a significant decrease in progesterone plasma concentration. All transferred horse embryos resulted in pregnancies in the jenny recipients. In Study 2, donkey embryo viability was investigated by 1.2 meters, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of 10 embryos and by the transfer of 6 and 12 donkey embryos in synchronized mare (DH) and donkey (DD) recipients, respectively, of known fertility. The estimated proportion of dead cells in DAPI stained embryos was 0.9% (range 0-3.9%) and below what is considered normal (20%) for horse embryos. Three of six and six of 12 of the DH and DD ETs, respectively resulted in pregnancies at 14 and 25 d (50%), a higher pregnancy rate than previously reported after DD ET. The overall results of this study suggest that the transcervical technique for ET and donkey embryo viability are not the reasons for the low pregnancy rates that have previously been described in donkey recipients, and that nonsurgical ET in donkeys can result in acceptable results. PMID:22056016

Panzani, D; Rota, A; Crisci, A; Kindahl, H; Govoni, N; Camillo, F

2011-11-04

156

Factors Affecting Persistence of Undergraduate Students in a Fisheries and Wildlife Program: Transfer Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Transfer students are of recognized importance to postsecondary education and every year feed thousands of students into natural resources programs across America. This influx of students can have a sustaining effect on many academic programs, including fisheries and wildlife programs, which are suffering from a nation-wide decrease in interest…

Wolter, Bjorn H. K.; Millenbah, Kelly F.; Montgomery, Robert A.; Schneider, James W.

2011-01-01

157

Effect of artificial roughness on heat transfer and friction factor in a solar air heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convective heat transfer coefficient between absorber plate and air in a flat-plate solar air heater can be enhanced by providing the absorber plate with artificial roughness. An investigation of fully developed turbulent flow in a solar air heater duct with small diameter protrusion wires on the absorber plate has been carried out and expressions for prediction of average Stanton number

B. N. Prasad; J. S. Saini

1988-01-01

158

Illustration-Dependence as a Factor in Transfer of Prose Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the relative transfer value of imposed and induced visual images in relation to level of textual materials' illustration-dependence, 108 seventh grade students read textbook excerpts written at four levels of illustration dependence under four visual imagery conditions. The four levels of illustration dependence were high, moderate,…

Hayes, David A.; Readence, John E.

159

Factors Influencing Transfer of Responsibility-Based Physical Activity Program Goals into Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate what influences the transfer of responsibility-based physical activity program goals into classrooms. Participants were the two boys and three girls (age range 9-11) who had participated in the program one to three semesters, with at least an 80% attendance rate. Data were collected from individual…

Lee, Okseon; Martinek, Tom

2012-01-01

160

Learning Factors Transfer Analysis: Using Learning Curve Analysis to Automatically Generate Domain Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a novel method to create a quantitative model of an educational content domain of related practice item-types using learning curves. By using a pairwise test to search for the relationships between learning curves for these item-types, we show how the test results in a set of pairwise transfer relationships that can be…

Pavlik, Philip I. Jr.; Cen, Hao; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

2009-01-01

161

Factors Influencing Transfer of Responsibility-Based Physical Activity Program Goals into Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate what influences the transfer of responsibility-based physical activity program goals into classrooms. Participants were the two boys and three girls (age range 9-11) who had participated in the program one to three semesters, with at least an 80% attendance rate. Data were collected from individual…

Lee, Okseon; Martinek, Tom

2012-01-01

162

Factors leading to the success and failure of complex technology transfer programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report represents the efforts of a small but diverse study group, all of whose members have had experience in the design, operation, and evaluation of complex technology-transfer programs. It was not the intent of this group to analyze in depth the prospects and design possibilities for a national energy extension service (EES). Rather, it was an attempt to capture

1977-01-01

163

Neutron Form Factors from Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering Ration Experiments at Very Low Momentum Transfer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of the ratio of the elastic electron-deuteron scattering cross section to the elastic electron-proton scattering cross section were made for low momentum transfers. Augmented by the work of Topping these data span a range of (q sup 2) from 0....

R. W. Berard T. J. Traverso

1973-01-01

164

Flexible Flight Vehicle Transfer Function Factors for Use in Autopilot Preliminary Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a series of charts of forward-loop transfer function poles and zeroes for a general flight vehicle having both rigid and elastic longitudinal degrees of freedom. These charts allow an assessment to be made, early in the design of an a...

A. G. Fonda F. J. Trueh

1964-01-01

165

CTF\\/NF1 transcription factors act as potent genetic insulators for integrating gene transfer vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene transfer-based therapeutic approaches have greatly benefited from the ability of some viral vectors to efficiently integrate within the cell genome and ensure persistent transmission of newly acquired transgenes to the target cell progeny. However, integration of provirus has been associated with epigenetic repercussions that may influence the expression of both the transgene and cellular genes close to vector integration

A Gaussin; U Modlich; C Bauche; N J Niederländer; A Schambach; C Duros; A Artus; C Baum; O Cohen-Haguenauer; N Mermod

2012-01-01

166

Heat transfer and friction factor correlations for a solar air heater duct roughened artificially with multiple v-ribs  

SciTech Connect

The use of artificial roughness on the underside of the absorber plate is an effective and economic way to improve the thermal performance of a solar air heater. Several experimental investigations, involving different types of roughness elements, have been carried out to improve the heat transfer from the absorber plate to air flowing in solar air heaters. This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to study the effect of multiple v-rib roughness on heat transfer coefficient and friction factor in an artificially roughened solar air heater duct. The experiment encompassed Reynolds number (Re) from 2000 to 20000, relative roughness height (e/D) values of 0.019-0.043, relative roughness pitch (P/e) range of 6-12, angle of attack ({alpha}) range of 30-75 and relative roughness width (W/w) range of 1-10. Extensive experimentation has been conducted to collect data on heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a rectangular duct roughened with multiple v-ribs. Using these experimental data, correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of roughness geometry and flow parameters have been developed. (author)

Hans, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, PAU, Ludhiana (Punjab) 141004 (India); Saini, R.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (UA) 247667 (India); Saini, J.S. [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (UA) 247667 (India)

2010-06-15

167

611. Nonviral Gene Transfer of Factor VII as Alternative Treatment for Hemophilia A  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major problem for clinical treatment of hemophilia A using factor replacement therapy is the high frequency formation of inhibitory antibodies against factor VIII. This problem is also predicted to occur following strategies currently aimed at targeted genetic correction of this disease. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) has been successfully used as an effective alternative treatment for hemophilia patients who

Steven C. Chen; Daniel Greenberg; Peiqing Ye; Earl W. Davie; Carol H. Miao

2005-01-01

168

HSV-mediated gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor to dorsal root ganglia prevents diabetic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

We examined the utility of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector-mediated gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a mouse model of diabetic neuropathy. A replication-incompetent HSV vector with VEGF under the control of the HSV ICP0 promoter (vector T0VEGF) was constructed. T0VEGF expressed and released VEGF from primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro, and following subcutaneous inoculation in the foot, expressed VEGF in DRG and nerve in vivo. At 2 weeks after induction of diabetes, subcutaneous inoculation of T0VEGF prevented the reduction in sensory nerve amplitude characteristic of diabetic neuropathy measured 4 weeks later, preserved autonomic function measured by pilocarpine-induced sweating, and prevented the loss of nerve fibers in the skin and reduction of neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P in DRG neurons of the diabetic mice. HSV-mediated transfer of VEGF to DRG may prove useful in treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

Chattopadhyay, M; Krisky, D; Wolfe, D; Glorioso, JC; Mata, M; Fink, DJ

2005-01-01

169

Assessing metal bioaccumulation in aquatic environments: The inverse relationship between bioaccumulation factors, trophic transfer factors and exposure concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioaccumulation potential in aquatic biota is typically expressed using ratios of chemical concentrations in organism tissue (typically whole body) relative to chemical exposure concentrations, such as bioconcentration factors (BCFs). Past reviews of metal BCFs for aquatic biota, which account for water-only exposures, have shown that BCFs are often highly variable between organisms and generally inversely related to exposure concentration. This

David K. DeForest; Kevin V. Brix; William J. Adams

2007-01-01

170

Mass Transfer: a Deciding Factor for the Multiplicity of an Event in Deep Inelastic Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermediate stage of the three and four-pronged events is investigated in the reaction 208Pb+ 197Au at beam energy 11.67 MeV/u. Multiprong events are analysed numerically using an empirical mass-dependent velocity-range relation. Using the measured three-dimensional coordinates of correlated tracks, it is possible to determine the quantities such as mass transfer and total kinetic energy loss. These quantities are then used to study the intermediate stage of the reaction. It has been observed that mass transfer and total kinetic energy loss at the first step of the reaction decides the multiplicity of an event at the second stage of the sequential fission process.

Tabassum, Nasir; Baluch J., J.; Khan U., E.; Khattak N., F.; Shahzad I., M.

2006-10-01

171

Bacteroides fragilis Transfer Factor Tn5520: the Smallest Bacterial Mobilizable Transposon Containing Single Integrase and Mobilization Genes That Function in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many bacterial genera, including Bacteroides spp., harbor mobilizable transposons, a class of transfer factors that carry genes for conjugal DNA transfer and, in some cases, antibiotic resistance. Mobilizable transposons are capable of inserting into and mobilizing other, nontransferable plasmids and are implicated in the dissem- ination of antibiotic resistance. This paper presents the isolation and characterization of Tn5520, a new

GAYATRI VEDANTAM; THOMAS J. NOVICKI; DAVID W. HECHT

1999-01-01

172

Parental Modeling, Reinforcement, and Information Transfer: Risk Factors in the Development of Child Anxiety?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review and a conceptual integration of research examining the potential\\u000a role of learning from parents in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, research in this area is discussed within\\u000a the framework of three specific mechanisms: parental modeling, information transfer, and parental reinforcement of anxious\\/avoidant\\u000a behavior. Implications of the research in

Brian Fisak Jr.; Amie E. Grills-Taquechel

2007-01-01

173

Role of chemical and ecological factors in trophic transfer of organic chemicals in aquatic food webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trophic transfer of chlorinated organic contaminants was investigated in an aquatic community composed of zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish. Biomagnification, measured as the increase in lipid-based chemical concentrations in predator over that in prey, was observed for high-K[sub OW] chemicals (log K[sub OW] > 6.3). Low-K[sub OW] chemicals (log K[sub OW] < 5.5) did not biomagnify in the food web,

Ronald W. Russell; Frank A. P. C. Gobas; G. Douglas Haffner

1999-01-01

174

Factors motivating transfer pricing choices of Japanese and United States transnational corporations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to prior findings, Japanese transnational corporations (TNCs) seem to have changed their preferences for international transfer pricing methods from cost-based to market-based and negotiated methods. Use of negotiated methods is supported by the Japanese preference for collectivism and consensus.The significant risk of an audit of U.S. TNCs by both the U.S. Internal Revenue Service and the Japanese National Tax

Susan C. Borkowski

1997-01-01

175

Bacterial ? 2 -macroglobulins: colonization factors acquired by horizontal gene transfer from the metazoan genome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Invasive bacteria are known to have captured and adapted eukaryotic host genes. They also readily acquire colonizing genes\\u000a from other bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Closely related species such as Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter hepaticus, which exploit different host tissues, share almost none of their colonization genes. The protease inhibitor ?2-macroglobulin provides a major metazoan defense against invasive bacteria, trapping

Aidan Budd; Stephanie Blandin; Elena A Levashina; Toby J Gibson

2004-01-01

176

Use of insulin-like growth factor-1 to improve post-transfer survival of bovine embryos produced in vitro.  

PubMed

Use of in vitro produced embryos in commercial settings is limited by alterations in embryo function that result in reduced embryo and fetal survival and increased fetal, placental and neonatal abnormalities. One potential strategy to improve the efficiency of in vitro embryo production systems is to modify embryo culture conditions to more closely mimic embryo physiology in vivo. The milieu of the reproductive tract contains various growth factors and regulatory molecules which can regulate embryonic development. One of these molecules, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), has been reported to have beneficial effects on bovine embryo development in vitro. Addition of IGF-1 to embryo culture can increase pregnancy and calving rates in lactating dairy cows. However, recent research indicates that such an effect is only observed when recipients are heat-stressed. In non-heat stressed animals, IGF-1 treatment does not affect conceptus length or interferon-tau secretion; thus, it is not likely that IGF-1 promotes embryo survival by blocking the luteolytic cascade. On the other hand, IGF-1 treatment can alter the relative abundance of certain developmentally important transcripts. Such differences may be important to improve embryo survival during heat stress. Further research into the effect of IGF-1 on gene expression and DNA methylation are warranted. Results indicate that modification of embryo culture with a growth factor can affect embryo survival after transfer. It is important that future research evaluating modifications to embryo culture also includes experiments involving transfer of embryos to recipients. Such experiments are important to demonstrate that proposed modifications actually improve post-transfer embryonic survival. PMID:17524471

Block, J

2007-05-23

177

Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q2 = 3.5 GeV2 by polarization transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ratio of the proton's elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub Ep}\\/G{sub Mp}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub â}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic {rvec e}p â e{rvec p} reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV². In the single photon exchange approximation, the ratio G{sub Ep}\\/G{sub

Vina Punjabi; Konrad Aniol; F. Baker; J. Berthot; Martine Bertin; William Bertozzi; Auguste Besson; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Edward Brash; Daniel Brown; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Zhengwei Chai; C. Chang; Jian-ping Chen; Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; Evaristo Cisbani; Daniel Dale; Raffaele De Leo; Alexandre Deur; Brian Diederich; John Domingo; Martin Epstein; Lars Ewell; Kevin Fissum; A. Fleck; Helene Fonvieille; Salvatore Frullani; Juncai Gao; Franco Garibaldi; Ashot Gasparian; Gerstner; Shalev Gilad; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Alphonza Green; Jens-ole Hansen; Calvin Howell; Garth Huber; Mauro Iodice; Cornelis De Jager; Stephanie Jaminion; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; W. Kahl; J. J. Kelly; M. Khayat; L. H. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; E. Lakuriki; G. Lavessiere; J. J. LeRose; M. Liang; R. A. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; G. J. Lolos; R. Macri; R. Madey; S. Malov; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; J. I. McIntyre; R. Michaels; B. D. Milbrath; J. Y. Mougey; S. K. Nanda; E. A. J. M. Offermann; Z. Papandreou; L. Pentchev; C. F. Perdrisat; G. G. Petratos; N. M. Piskunov; R. I. Pomatsalyuk; D. L. Prout; G. Quemener; R. D. Ransome; B. A. Raue; Y. Roblin; R. Roche; G. Rutledge; P. M. Rutt; A. Saha; T. Saito; A. J. Sarty; T. P. Smith; P. Sorokin; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; K. Takahashi; J. A. Templon; L. Todor; P. E. Ulmer; G. M. Urciuoli; P. Vernin; B. Vlahovic; H. Voskanyan; K. Wijesooriya; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; R. J. Woo; F. Xiong; G. D. Zainea; Z.-L. Zhou

2003-01-01

178

The influence of heat-transfer factors on results of the thermal optimization of solar power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies of the thermal regimes of tower-type solar power plants have indicated that there exist optimal relations between concentrations of solar radiation and the temperature of the heat-carrying fluid in the receiver in the case of which the thermal efficiency of the plant is maximal. This paper examines the role of heat-transfer factors in the thermal optimization of tower-type plants. Computational models are compared, and attention is given to the stability of operating regimes and to the effect of heat-conducting walls.

Tepliakov, D. I.; Aparisi, R. R.

179

Human impact on late-Holocene sediment transfers: typology, controlling factors and scaling issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the course of the Holocene, humans have impacted the sediment dynamics of hillslopes, river channels and even global river systems, mostly with ever-increasing intensity. However, there is no clear one on one relation between the intensity of human presence (population density) and the magnitude of impact on sediment transfers. Several thresholds have to be crossed for coupling between the various landscape elements in a river catchment to occur, ensuring that anthropogenic landscape disturbances impact larger spatial systems; moreover, these thresholds vary between regions. Furthermore, the nature of human interaction is important as well. Land use change can be considered the most important human impact controlling sediment transfers in the landscape in the past. Nowadays, and depending on the spatial scale, technical interventions are more important not only for sediment flux but also for channel behaviour and morphology. These artificial structures may either couple or decouple the various subsystems of a river catchment. Apart from land use change and engineering practices, humans have also impacted sediment delivery and fluvial morphology indirectly through interventions (or non-interventions) in the complex ecosystem of rivers and floodplains. Overall, the complexity of human impact on fluvial systems has clearly increased through time, making unravelling this impact from current-day sediment archives and predicting the impact of future human disturbances on river and sediment behaviour a major challenge. The construction of multi-temporal sediment budgets and the application of distributed geomorphic models are two tools that can provide a solution to these challenges. Several of these aspects of the human impact on sediment dynamics will be illustrated by case studies from a variety of environments in Belgium, Turkey and the USA, along with some global considerations of sediment transfers.

Verstraeten, G.; Notebaert, B.; Dusar, B.; Poesen, J.; Govers, G.; Paulissen, E.; de Laet, V.; Waelkens, M.

2009-04-01

180

Processing and transfer of epidermal growth factor in developing rat jejunum and ileum  

SciTech Connect

Using everted sac technique we demonstrated the transfer of {sup 125}I-mEGF across the jejunal and ileal walls of suckling, weanling and adult rats. The transfer by the suckling rat jejunum and ileum was significantly inhibited by the presence of dinitrophenol and sodium azide or by the replacement of sodium with potassium or choline, RP-HPLC analysis detected carboxy-terminal processing of {sup 125}I-mEGF in suckling and adult rat jejunum and ileum. Suckling rat jejunum produced {sup 125}I-des(53)mEGF and {sup 125}I-des(49-53)mEGF, whereas {sup 125}I-des(48-53)mEGF was detected in suckling rat ileum or adult rat jejunum and ileum. All three forms of {sup 125}I-mEGF bound to anti-EGF antibody and EGF receptors. The receptor binding of {sup 125}I-des(53)mEGF was higher than that of {sup 125}I-mEGF, but those of {sup 125}I-des(49-53)mEGF and {sup 125}I-des(48-53)mEGF were greatly diminished. Results indicate a carboxy-terminal processing of mouse EGF during uptake and transfer in the small intestine of developing and adult rats, and the resulting products showed altered receptor binding. An identical amino acid sequence of the C-terminal pentapeptide of eGF from mouse, human and possibly rat may suggest a biological significance of C-terminal processing of EGF in the small intestine.

Rao, R.K.; Koldovsky, O.; Korc, M.; Pollack, P.F.; Wright, S.; Davis, T.P. (Univ. of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson (USA))

1990-11-01

181

Hepatocyte growth factor/Met gene transfer in cardiac stem cells--potential for cardiac repair  

PubMed Central

The adult heart has been recently recognized as a self-renewing organ that contains a pool of committed resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) and cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). These adult CSCs and CPCs can be induced by cytokines and growth factors to migrate, differentiate, and proliferate in situ and potentially replace lost cardiomyocytes. Ligand-receptor systems, such as the tyrosine kinase receptor mesenchymal–epithelial transition factor (Met) and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), are potential candidates for boosting migration, engraftment and commitment of CSCs. Here, we discuss the possible application of HGF/Met gene therapy to enhance the ability of CSCs to promote myocardial regeneration.

Rokosh, Gregg; De Caterina, Raffaele; Bolli, Roberto

2013-01-01

182

Hepatocyte growth factor/Met gene transfer in cardiac stem cells--potential for cardiac repair.  

PubMed

The adult heart has been recently recognized as a self-renewing organ that contains a pool of committed resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) and cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). These adult CSCs and CPCs can be induced by cytokines and growth factors to migrate, differentiate, and proliferate in situ and potentially replace lost cardiomyocytes. Ligand-receptor systems, such as the tyrosine kinase receptor mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (Met) and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), are potential candidates for boosting migration, engraftment and commitment of CSCs. Here, we discuss the possible application of HGF/Met gene therapy to enhance the ability of CSCs to promote myocardial regeneration. PMID:20393738

Madonna, Rosalinda; Rokosh, Gregg; De Caterina, Raffaele; Bolli, Roberto

2010-07-01

183

Transforming Growth Factor ? Neutralization within Cardiac Allografts by Decorin Gene Transfer Attenuates Chronic Rejection1  

PubMed Central

Chronic allograft rejection (CR) is the leading cause of late graft failure following organ transplantation. CR is a progressive disease, characterized by deteriorating graft function, interstitial fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy and occlusive neointima development. TGF?, known for its immunosuppressive qualities, plays a beneficial role in the transplant setting by maintaining alloreactive T cells in a hyporesponsive state, but has also been implicated in promoting graft fibrosis and CR. In the mouse vascularized cardiac allograft model, transient depletion of CD4+ cells promotes graft survival but leads to CR, which is associated with intragraft TGF? expression. Decorin, an extracellular matrix protein, inhibits both TGF? bioactivity and gene expression. In this study, gene transfer of decorin into cardiac allografts was employed to assess the impact of intragraft TGF? neutralization on CR, systemic donor-reactive T cell responses, and allograft acceptance. Decorin gene transfer and neutralization of TGF? in cardiac allografts significantly attenuated interstitial fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy and improved graft function, but did not result in systemic donor-reactive T cell responses. Thus, donor-reactive T and B cells remained in a hyporesponsive state. These findings indicate that neutralizing intragraft TGF? inhibits the cytokine's fibrotic activities, but does not reverse its beneficial systemic immunosuppressive qualities.

Faust, Susan M.; Lu, Guanyi; Wood, Sherri C.; Bishop, D. Keith

2011-01-01

184

Evidence for factors regulating transfer cell-specific expression in maize endosperm.  

PubMed

In maize, a layer of basal endosperm cells adjacent to the pedicel is modified for a function in solute transfer. Three genes specifically expressed in this region, termed the basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL-2 to -4), were isolated by differential hybridization. BETL-2 to -4 are coordinately expressed in early and mid-term endosperm development, but are absent at later stages. BETL-2 to -4 coding sequences all predict small (< 100 amino acids), secreted, cysteine-rich polypeptides which lack close relatives in current database accessions. BETL-3 and BETL-1 display some sequence similarities with each other and to plant defensins. BETL-2 to -4 promoter regions were isolated and compared, revealing the presence of a promoter-proximal microsatellite repeat as the most highly conserved sequence element in each sequence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) showed that specific BETL-2 to -4 promoter fragments competed for binding to the same DNA-binding activity in nuclear extracts prepared from maize endosperm. Although BETL-2 to -4 are only expressed in basal endosperm cells, the DNA-binding activities detected were of two types: distal endosperm-specific, or present in both basal and distal endosperm extracts. On the basis of these findings, a model to account for the coordinate regulation of BETL genes in endosperm cells is proposed. PMID:10598106

Hueros, G; Royo, J; Maitz, M; Salamini, F; Thompson, R D

1999-10-01

185

High-momentum transfer behaviour of nucleon form factors from chiral invariant Lagrangians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have evaluated the behaviour of the isovector and isoscalar form factors F1(q2) and F2(q2) for large q2 using a chiral invariant Lagrangian to second and third order in perturbation theory. The results depend upon the specific model chosen in this lower-order approximation, but when the effects of higher-order terms are included, the results are in agreement with the usual dipole fit to the electric and magnetic form factors.

Martin, T. P.; Taylor, J. G.

1970-12-01

186

Cytofectin Amine Head Group Modification and Degree of Liposome Pegylation: Factors Influencing Gene Transfer  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of liposome-mediated gene transfer methods hinges, in part, on the nature of the interaction between the DNA cargo and the liposomes. Here we have examined the effect of quaternization of the cytofectin cationic head group on this interaction and the effect of concentration of the biocompatible, protective polymer polyethylene glycol2000 (PEG2000) on transfection activity. Thus 3?[N-(N’,N’-dimethylaminopropane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol (Chol-T) and 3?[N-(N’,N’,N’-trimethylammonium propane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol iodide (Chol-Q), differing only in the degree of head group methylation, have been formulated into liposomes with polyethylene glycol2000-distearoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine (DSPE PEG2000) and the neutral co-lipid dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). Their DNA-binding characteristics have been determined and the gene transfer capabilities of resulting lipoplexes have been examined in HEK 293 human embryonic kidney cells. Quaternary ammonium Chol-Q liposomes were found to bind DNA more avidly than their tertiary amine Chol-T counterparts. The inclusion of PEG2000 in liposome formulations resulted in an increase in the optimal liposome-DNA binding ratio. Chol-T liposomes promoted transgene activity levels 5 times greater than those obtained with Chol-Q lipoplexes. Furthermore, a drop in transfection activity of only 17% was noted on increase of liposome pegylation from 2 to 5 mole percent. The study's findings suggest that strong association between cationic liposomes and DNA may lead to reduced levels of transfection activity as a result of poor release of nucleic acid after cellular uptake.

Daniels, Aliscia; Noor-Mahomed, Naeema; Singh, Moganavelli; Ariatti, M.

2011-01-01

187

An Exploratory, Scoping Study into the Human Factors Issues of Transferring Medical Capability into Community Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Population of the western world is ageing. Medical capability is increasingly being moved into the community. The interaction of these two factors has implications for safety and usability of medical products and of the systems which will support healthcare in the community. This study aims to explore the issues of systems of healthcare and medical products from the point

Claire Munro

188

Factors influencing ALS-resistant gene transfer from CL (tm) rice to red rice.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red rice (Oryza sativa L.) is hard to control due to its genetic similarity to cultivated rice. Herbicide-resistant Clearfield ™ (CL) rice now offers an excellent option for red rice control. However, sustainability of CL technology at the producers’ level will be dictated by various factors. Promi...

189

Transferring disease management and health promotion programs to other countries: critical success factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Governments and health service providers around the world are under pressure to improve health outcomes while containing rising healthcare costs. In response to such challenges, many regions have implemented services that have been successful in other countries—but 'import- ing' initiatives has many challenges. This article summar- izes factors found to be critical to the success of adapting a US

PEJMAN AZARMINA; GRAHAM PRESTWICH; JOEL ROSENQUIST; DEBBIE SINGH

2008-01-01

190

Low cholesteryl ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein activities are the factors making tree shrew and beijing duck resistant to atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tree shrew and beijing duck are regarded as animal models resistant to atherosclerosis (AS). This study was carried out to discover the potential mechanism. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from healthy men and male animals. Plasma lipid profile and activities of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) were measured, compared and analyzed in human, tree

Hui-rong Liu; Gang Wu; Bing Zhou; Bao-sheng Chen

2010-01-01

191

Measurement of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factors via the Spin Transfer Reaction  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of the electromagnetic form factors of the proton has been measured at the Jefferson Laboratory at Q{sup 2} values ranging from 0.5 GeV{sup 2} up to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. The experiment used the recently commissioned Hall A Focal Plane Polarimeter (FPP) to measure the polarization of the recoiling proton in elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons on a liquid hydrogen target.

Gilles Quemener; Mark K. Jones; Charles F. Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

1999-08-01

192

Gene Transfer of Transforming Growth Factor1 to the Rat Peritoneum: Effects on Membrane Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term peritoneal dialysis is limited by physio- logic changes in the peritoneum that lead to ultrafiltration failure. To determine the role of profibrotic cytokines in the alteration of peritoneal transport, a rodent model of transform- ing growth factor- (TGF-)-mediated peritoneal fibrosis was established. An adenoviral vector driving the active form of TGF-1 (AdTGF1) was administered intraperitoneally, and peritoneal structure and

PETER J. MARGETTS; MARTIN KOLB; TOM GALT; CATHERINE M. HOFF; TY R. SHOCKLEY; JACK GAULDIE

2001-01-01

193

14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid represents a transferable endothelium-dependent relaxing factor in bovine coronary arteries.  

PubMed

Bradykinin causes arterial relaxation and hyperpolarization, which is mediated by a transferable endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). In coronary arteries, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are involved in the EDHF response. However, the role of EETs as transferable mediators of EDHF-dependent relaxation remains poorly defined. Two small bovine coronary arteries were cannulated and perfused in tandem in the presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, nitro-L-arginine (30 micromol/L), and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 micromol/L). Luminal perfusate from donor arteries with intact endothelium perfused endothelium-denuded detector arteries. Detector arteries were constricted with U46619 and diameters were monitored. Bradykinin (10 nmol/L) added to detector arteries did not induce dilation (5+/-2%), whereas bradykinin addition to donor arteries dilated detector arteries by 26.5+/-7% (P<0.05). These dilations were blocked by donor artery endothelium removal and detector artery treatment with the EET-selective antagonist, 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-monoenoic acid (14,15-EEZE; 10 micromol/L, -5+/-6%) but not 14,15-EEZE treatment of donor arteries (20+/-5%). 14,15-EET (0.1 to 10 micromol/L) added to detector arteries induced maximal dilations of 82+/-5% that were inhibited 50% by detector artery treatment with 14,15-EEZE (32+/-12%) but not donor artery treatment with 14,15-EEZE. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis verified the presence of 14,15-EET in the perfusate from an endothelium-intact but not denuded artery. These results show that bradykinin stimulates donor artery 14,15-EET release that dilates detector arteries. 14,15-EEZE blocked the donor artery, endothelium-dependent, bradykinin-induced relaxations, and attenuated relaxations to 14,15-EET. These results suggest that EETs are transferable EDHFs in coronary arteries. PMID:15699460

Gauthier, Kathryn M; Edwards, Erik M; Falck, John R; Reddy, Dendi S; Campbell, William B

2005-02-07

194

Dose conversion factors and linear energy transfer for irradiation of thin blood layers with low-energy X rays  

SciTech Connect

For irradiation of thin samples of biological material with low-energy X rays, conversion of measured air kerma, free in air to average absorbed dose to the sample is necessary. In the present paper, conversion factors from measured air kerma to average absorbed dose in thin blood samples are given for four low-energy X-ray qualities (14-50 kVp). These factors were obtained by Monte Carlo simulation of a practical sample holder. Data for different thicknesses of the blood and backing layer are presented. The conversion factors are found to depend strongly on the thicknesses of the blood layer and backing layer. In radiobiological work, knowledge of linear energy transfer (LET) values for the radiation quality used is often required. Track-averaged LET values for low-energy X rays are presented in this work. It is concluded that the thickness of the sample does not influence the LET value appreciably, indicating that for all radiobiological purposes this value can be regarded as a constant throughout the sample. Furthermore, the large difference between the LET value for a 50 kV spectrum found in this work and the value given in ICRU Report 16 is pointed out. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Verhaegen, F.; Seuntjens, J. [Univ. of Gent (Belgium)

1994-01-01

195

Transference and "the rebbe" idiographic and nomothetic factors in the psychoanalysis of lubavitch chassidim.  

PubMed

The Lubavitch Chassidim are one of several ultra-orthodox groups within Judaism. Their central focus is on their leader or Rebbe, who is seen as not only the possessor of all wisdom but also having supernatural powers. In working therapeutically with Lubavitch, one needs to distinguish if the beliefs of the individual are unique to them or reflect the belief system of the community. If the former, then it obviously needs to be analyzed. If the latter, then it is seen as an identification with the group and reflective of the need for group cohesion and often a regulator of self-esteem. The following article demonstrates these factors. PMID:23824957

Schulman, Martin A; Kaplan, Ricki S

2013-12-01

196

Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor Gene Transfer Suppresses Tumorigenicity of a Murine Adenocarcinoma In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We haveinvestigated theeffect ofgranulocytecolony-stimulating factor(G-CSF)deliveryatthe siteoftumor growth by transducing, viaretroviral vector,thehuman (hu)G-CSF geneinto thecolonadenocarcinomaC-26andassayingtheability oftransducedcellstoformtumorswhen injectedintosyngeneicmice.As acontrol,thesametumor cellswereinfected withretroviruses engineeredtotransducean unrelatedgene,thehuman nervegrowth factorreceptor, orcarry theneomycin resistance geneonly.Only cellstransducedwith thehuG-CSF were unableto developtumors,althoughhuG-CSF was expressedand producedatlow levelasestimatedby bothRNA analysis andenzyme-linkedimmunosorbentassay,indicating thatG-CSF canexert anantitumoreffect ataphysiological dose.Implication ofG-CSF asmediatoroftumorinhibition was provenby reversingthenontumorigenicphenotypeofG-CSF-expressingcellswith anti- huG-CSF monoclonalantibodyinjected atthetumor site .No tumorswereformedby injecting C-26infected cells

Mario P. Colombo; Giuliana Ferrari; Antonella Stoppacciaro; S Mariella Parenza; Monica Rodolfo; Fulvio Mavilio; Giorgio Parmiani

197

Development of a general equation to determine the transfer factor feed-to-meat for radiocesium on the basis of the body mass of domestic animals  

SciTech Connect

Transfer factors from feed to meat (5{sub {integral}}), taken from literature for monogastric animals and ruminants have been correlated to their corresponding animal body mass (m{sub b}). Taking all data into account, a close relationship between both transfer factor and body mass becomes evident, yielding a regression function of (T{sub {integral}} = 8.0 x m{sub b}{sup {minus}0.91}) (r = -0.97). For monogastric animals (including poultry), the corresponding relationships are T{sub {integral}} = 1.9 x m{sub b}{sup {minus}0.72} (r = 0.78). The equations offer the opportunity to estimate the transfer factor for individual animals more precisely taking individual body masses into account. They are of interest for animals, on which no or only poor data concerning radiocesium transfer factors are available. The determination of radiocesium transfer factors are reduced to a simple weighing process. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Nalezinski, S.; Ruehm, W.; Wirth, E. [Institut fuer STrahlenhygiene, Neuherberg/Oberschleibheim (Germany)

1996-05-01

198

Nonlinear Digital Back Propagation compensator for coherent optical OFDM based on factorizing the Volterra Series Transfer Function.  

PubMed

We introduce an efficient and accurate nonlinear compensator (NLC) for digital back-propagation (DBP) of coherent optical OFDM receivers, based on a factorization procedure for the Volterra Series Transfer Function (VSTF) with 3N degrees of freedom for N frequency samples. The O(N2) nonlinear compensation complexity of generic Volterra evaluation (normalized per-subcarrier) is reduced to 28 + 6logN. Our analysis and simulations indicate that this NLC system outperforms previous VSTF-based non-linear compensation methods. Compared to a most recent VSTF-based method, the new method incurs 52% extra computational complexity in return for improved nonlinear tolerance of ~2 dB for the particular analyzed link. PMID:23736568

Shulkind, Gal; Nazarathy, Moshe

2013-06-01

199

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Pinus pinea L. cotyledons: an assessment of factors influencing the efficiency of uidA gene transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is the first report of a protocol for transfer and expression of foreign chimeric genes into cotyledons excised\\u000a from Pinus pinea L. embryos. Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 harbouring the plasmid p35SGUSint was more infective than LBA4404 or C58 GV3850, as determined by the percentage of\\u000a cotyledons showing uidA expression. Factors which significantly affected the T-DNA transfer included: (1) preinduction

J. M. Humara; M. López; R. J. Ordás

1999-01-01

200

Measurements of the Nucleon Form-Factors at Large Momentum Transfers  

SciTech Connect

New measurements of the electric GE(Q2) and magnetic GM(Q2) form factors of the nucleons are reported. The proton data cover the Q2 range from 1.75 to 8.83 (GeV/c)2 and the neutron data from 1.75 to 4.00 (GeV/c)2, more than doubling the range of previous data. Scaled by the dipole fit, GD(Q2), the results forGMp(Q2) /¿pGD(Q2) decrease smoothly from 1.05 to 0.92, while GEp(Q2)/GD(Q2)is consistent with unity. The preliminary results for GMn(Q2) /¿nGD(Q2) are consistent with unity, while GEn is consistent with zero at all values of Q2.

L Andivahis; Peter Bosted; Allison Lung; Linda Stuart; Jonas Alster; Raymond Arnold; C. Chang; Frank Dietrich; William Dodge; R Gearhart; Javier Gomez; Keith Griffioen; William Hicks; Charles Hyde-Wright; Cynthia Keppel; Sebastian Kuhn; Jechiel Lichtenstadt; Rory Miskimen; Gerald Peterson; Gerassimos Petratos; Stephen Rock; Sayed Rokni; Willis Sakumoto; Michael Spengos; Ken Swartz; L. Tao

1992-07-26

201

Effect of Neutralizing Sera on Factor X-Mediated Adenovirus Serotype 5 Gene Transfer?  

PubMed Central

The deployment of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-based vectors is hampered by preexisting immunity. When such vectors are delivered intravenously, hepatocyte transduction is mediated by the hexon-coagulation factor X (FX) interaction. Here, we demonstrate that human sera efficiently block FX-mediated cellular binding and transduction of Ad5-based vectors in vitro. Neutralizing activity correlated well with the ability to inhibit Ad5-mediated liver transduction, suggesting that prescreening patient sera in this manner accurately predicts the efficacy of Ad5-based gene therapies. Neutralization in vitro can be partially bypassed by pseudotyping with Ad45 fiber protein, indicating that a proportion of neutralizing antibodies are directed against the Ad5 fiber.

Parker, Alan L.; Waddington, Simon N.; Buckley, Suzanne M. K.; Custers, Jerome; Havenga, Menzo J. E.; van Rooijen, Nico; Goudsmit, Jaap; McVey, John H.; Nicklin, Stuart A.; Baker, Andrew H.

2009-01-01

202

Human transfer factor in vitro. II. Augmentation of the secretion of leucocyte migration inhibitory factor (LIF) by leucocyte dialysate and by its components L-serine and glycine.  

PubMed Central

The effect of human transfer factor (TF) or its components L-serine and/or glycine in tuberculin (PPD), or leucoagglutinin (LA) induced leucocyte migration inhibitory factor (LIF) secretion was studied. Augmentation of LIF secretion was seen with low concentration ( = 0.078 g/l) of TF when lymphocytes were cultured in minimum essential medium for suspension cultures (MEM-S), a culture medium lacking L-serine and glycine. High concentrations (0.3125-5.0 g/l dry weight) of TF were inhibitory in MEM-S. In RPMI 1640, a culture medium containing L-serine and glycine, TF was either inhibitory or had no effect. The combination of L-serine and glycine, at concentrations equivalent or lower than the optimum of TF, had an augmenting effect on LIF secretion identical to that of TF, but no inhibition at higher concentrations was seen. The results indicate that human TF contains components which have suppressive or augmenting effects on LIF secretion in vitro. The augmenting effect may be mainly due to L-serine and glycine and thus not related to TF's activity in vivo.

Ashorn, R G; Rasanen, L; Marnela, K M; Krohn, K J

1979-01-01

203

Contrasting effects of in vitro fertilization and nuclear transfer on the expression of mtDNA replication factors.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is normally only inherited through the oocyte. However, nuclear transfer (NT), the fusion of a donor cell with an enucleated oocyte, can transmit both donor cell and recipient oocyte mtDNA. mtDNA replication is under the control of nuclear-encoded replication factors, such as polymerase gamma (POLG) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). These are first expressed during late preimplantation embryo development. To account for the persistence of donor cell mtDNA, even when introduced at residual levels (mtDNA(R)), we hypothesized that POLG and TFAM would be upregulated in intra- and interspecific (ovine-ovine) and intergeneric (caprine-ovine) NT embryos when compared to in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos. For the intra- and interspecific crosses, PolGA (catalytic subunit), PolGB (accessory subunit), and TFAM mRNA were expressed at the 2-cell stage in both nondepleted (mtDNA(+)) and mtDNA(R) embryos with protein being expressed up to the 16-cell stage for POLGA and TFAM. However, at the 16-cell stage, there was significantly more PolGA expression in the mtDNA(R) embryos compared to their mtDNA(+) counterparts. Expression for all three genes first matched IVF embryos at the blastocyst stage. In the intergeneric model, POLG was upregulated during preimplantation development. Although these embryos did not persist further than the 16+-cell stage, significantly more mtDNA(R) embryos reached this stage. However, the vast majority of these embryos were homoplasmic for recipient oocyte mtDNA. The upreglation in mtDNA replication factors was most likely due to the donor cells still expressing these factors prior to NT. PMID:17507682

Bowles, Emma J; Lee, Joon-Hee; Alberio, Ramiro; Lloyd, Rhiannon E I; Stekel, Dov; Campbell, Keith H S; St John, Justin C

2007-05-16

204

The electric form factor of the neutron at low momentum transfers as measured at Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic form factors are characteristic signatures of the electromagnetic properties of hadronic matter. The more precisely we can measure these values, the more powerful becomes the predictability of our theory. The proton's form factors ( GpE,GpM ) have been measured remarkably well compared to the neutron. While the Magnetic form factor of the neutron is reasonably well known, the Electric Form Factor still retains difficulties due to its small magnitude and the relative inefficiency of detecting neutral particles. The lack of a pure neutron source is another obstacle. Although we are in pursuit of the elastic form factors, the two-nucleon system of deuterium has been shown to be a worthy target for extracting data on the structure of nucleons as well as properties of few-body hadronic systems. Data from unpolarized cross section measurements have proven insufficient for extracting GnE , but polarized scattering from a polarized Deuterium target has been shown to be well suited for determination of GnE . The double polarization observables of a vector polarized Deuterium target and polarized electron beam is proportional to the product of the electric and magnetic form factors of the neutron. The Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) has been developed specifically to measure the scattering of a polarized electron beam off a vector and tensor polarized deuterium target and thus fulfills our needs for extracting GnE . The Bates accelerator provides a high-duty polarized electron beam stored in the South Hall Ring (SHR) that is passing through an internal target of both vector and tensor polarized monatomic deuterium as well as polarized monatomic hydrogen provided by an Atomic Beam Source (ABS). A large acceptance detector, BLAST, has been installed to measure several scattering reactions including the directly applicable H2? e?,e'n p reaction. This work summarizes the experimental investigations of the extraction of GnE from the BLAST data. Points were extracted at four values of four-momentum transfers (Q2 = 0.14, 0.20, 0.29, 0.41 GeV 2). The world's data and the new BLAST data were fit to determine GnE to +/-5.8% from 0 < Q2 < 1.8 GeV2. The best fit includes model dependent contributions from a low Q2 bump and a smooth dipole term. A second fit is shown using a model independent sum of gaussians in order to provide a more reliable determination of the uncertainty of the world's measurement of GnE from double polarized scattering.

Geis, Eugene J.

205

Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the H?2(e?,e'n)H1 Reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form factor ratio GEn/GMn was extracted from the beam-target vector asymmetry AedV at four-momentum transfers Q2=0.14, 0.20, 0.29, and 0.42(GeV/c)2.

Geis, E.; Kohl, M.; Ziskin, V.; Akdogan, T.; Arenhövel, H.; Alarcon, R.; Bertozzi, W.; Booth, E.; Botto, T.; Calarco, J.; Clasie, B.; Crawford, C. B.; Degrush, A.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fatemi, R.; Filoti, O.; Franklin, W.; Gao, H.; Gilad, S.; Hasell, D.; Karpius, P.; Kolster, H.; Lee, T.; Maschinot, A.; Matthews, J.; McIlhany, K.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R. G.; Rapaport, J.; Redwine, R. P.; Seely, J.; Shinozaki, A.; Širca, S.; Sindile, A.; Six, E.; Smith, T.; Steadman, M.; Tonguc, B.; Tschalaer, C.; Tsentalovich, E.; Turchinetz, W.; Xiao, Y.; Xu, W.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, Z.; Zwart, T.

2008-07-01

206

Assessing student expertise in introductory physics with isomorphic problems. II. Effect of some potential factors on problem solving and transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper explores the use of isomorphic problem pairs (IPPs) to assess introductory physics studentsâ ability to solve and successfully transfer problem-solving knowledge from one context to another in mechanics. The paired problems are âisomorphicâ because they require the same physics principle to solve them. We analyze written responses, individual discussions for a range of isomorphic problems, and potential factors that may help or hinder transfer of problem-solving skills from one problem in a pair to the other. When quantitative and conceptual questions were paired and given back to back, students who answered both questions in the IPP often performed better on the conceptual questions than those who answered the corresponding conceptual questions only. Although students often took advantage of the quantitative counterpart to answer a conceptual question of an IPP correctly, when only given the conceptual question, students seldom tried to convert it into a quantitative question, solve it, and then reason about the solution conceptually. Even in individual interviews when students who were given only conceptual questions had difficulty and the interviewer explicitly encouraged them to convert the conceptual question into the corresponding quantitative problem by choosing appropriate variables, a majority of students were reluctant and preferred to guess the answer to the conceptual question based upon their gut feeling. Misconceptions associated with friction in some problems were so robust that pairing them with isomorphic problems not involving friction did not help students discern their underlying similarities. Alternatively, from the knowledge-in-pieces perspective, the activation of the knowledge resource related to friction was so strongly and automatically triggered by the context, which is outside the conscious control of the student, that students did not look for analogies with paired problems or other aids that may be present.

Singh, Chandralekha

2008-09-24

207

Elastic electron-deuteron scattering and the electric neutron form factor at four-momentum transfers 5 fm-2 < q2 < 14 fm-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross section for elastic electron-deuteron scattering was measured for ten four-momentum transfers squared in the range 5fm-2factors was determined. The experimental values are compared with theoretical predictions including relativistic corrections. Different deuteron wave functions and different parametrizations for the electric neutron form factor GEN were

S. Galster; H. Klein; J. Moritz; K. H. Schmidt; D. Wegener; J. Bleckwenn

1971-01-01

208

Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) gene mutations in women with unexplained infertility and recurrent failure of implantation after IVF and embryo transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) plays a central role in the control of implantation. We undertook this study to investigate the prevalence of LIF gene alterations in women with unexplained infertility and with recurrent failure of implantation after in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and embryo transfer. Patients and Methods: Forty five women with recurrent failure of implantation after IVF (group A),

Thomas Steck; Ralf Giess; Marc W Suetterlin; Monika Bolland; Stephanie Wiest; Uwe G Poehls; Johannes Dietl

2004-01-01

209

Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of laminar flow through a circular tube fitted with regularly spaced helical screw-tape inserts  

SciTech Connect

Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with full-length helical screw element of different twist ratio, and helical screw inserts with spacer length 100, 200, 300 and 400mm have been studied with uniform heat flux under laminar flow condition. The experimental data obtained are verified with those obtained from plain tube published data. The effect of spacer length on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor, and the effect of twist ratio on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor have been presented separately. The decrease in Nusselt number for the helical twist with spacer length is within 10% for each subsequent 100mm increase in spacer length. The decrease in friction factor is nearly two times lower than the full length helical twist at low Reynolds number, and four times lower than the full length helical twist at high Reynolds number for all twist ratio. The regularly spaced helical screw inserts can safely be used for heat transfer augmentation without much increase in pressure drop than full length helical screw inserts. (author)

Sivashanmugam, P.; Suresh, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015, Tamil Nadu (India)

2007-02-15

210

Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of forced circulation solar water heater system fitted with helical twisted tapes  

SciTech Connect

Experimental investigation of heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance of twisted tape solar water heater with various twist ratios has been conducted and the results are compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions with Reynolds number varied from 3000 to 23,000. Experimental data from plain tube collector is validated with the fundamental equations and found that the discrepancy is less than {+-}5.35% and {+-}8.80% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Correlations have been developed for Nusselt number and friction factor with various twist ratios (Y = 3, 4, 5, 6) and are compared with the experimental values. Results conclude that, heat transfer and pressure drop are higher in twisted tape collector compared to the plain one. Among the various twist ratios, the minimum twist ratio 3 is found to enhance the heat transfer and pressure drop due to swirl generation. As the twist ratio increases, the swirl generation decreases and minimizes the heat transfer and friction factor. (author)

Jaisankar, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oxford Engineering College, Tiruchirappalli 620009, Tamil Nadu (India); Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India)

2009-11-15

211

78. Regulation of Immune Responses Against Factor VIII Following Nonviral Gene Transfer in Hemophilia A and FOXP3 Transgenic Mouse Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of naked DNA gene transfer as a novel approach to the treatment of hemophilia A has been limited by the formation of inhibitory antibodies against factor VIII (FVIII). Approximately 25–30% of hemophilia A patients produce inhibitory antibodies in response to FVIII protein replacement therapy. Potential gene therapy techniques used to treat hemophilia A have also resulted in a

Benjamin R. Harmeling; Steven Ziegler; Troy Torgerson; Liping Chen; Hans D. Ochs; David J. Rawlings; Carol H. Miao

2006-01-01

212

Expression of Human Factor IX in Rabbit Hepatocytes by Retrovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer: Potential for Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. We report the

Donna Armentano; Arthur R. Thompson; Gretchen Darlington; Savio L. C. Woo

1990-01-01

213

Post-fusion treatment with MG132 increases transcription factor expression in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of post-fusion treatment of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) oocytes with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 on maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity, nuclear remodeling, embryonic development, and gene expression of cloned pig embryos. Immediately after electrofusion, SCNT oocytes were treated with MG132 and/or caffeine for 2 hr, vanadate for 0.5 hr, or vanadate for 0.5 hr followed by MG132 for 1.5 hr. Of the MG132 concentrations tested (0-5 microM), the 1 microM concentration showed a higher rate of blastocyst formation (25.9%) than 0 (14.2%), 0.5 (16.9%), and 5 microM (16.9%). Post-fusion treatment with MG132, caffeine, and both MG132 and caffeine improved blastocyst formation (22.1%, 21.4%, and 24.4%, respectively), whereas vanadate treatment inhibited blastocyst formation (6.5%) compared to the control (11.1%). When examined 2 hr after fusion and 1 hr after activation, MPF activity remained at a higher (P < 0.05) level in SCNT oocytes that were treated post-fusion with caffeine and/or MG132, but it was decreased by vanadate. The rate of oocytes showing premature chromosome condensation was not altered by MG132 but was decreased by vanadate treatment. In addition, formation of single pronuclei was increased by MG132 compared to control and vanadate treatment. MG132-treated embryos showed increased expression of POU5F1, DPPA2, DPPA3, DPPA5, and NDP52l1 genes compared to control embryos. Our results demonstrate that post-fusion treatment of SCNT oocytes with MG132 prevents MPF degradation and increases expression of transcription factors in SCNT embryos, which are necessary for normal development of SCNT embryos. PMID:19813265

You, Jinyoung; Lee, Joohyeong; Kim, Jinyoung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Eunsong

2010-02-01

214

Trace element mobility and transfer to vegetation within the Ethiopian Rift Valley lake areas.  

PubMed

To evaluate critical trace element loads in native vegetation and calculate soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs), 11 trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb and Mn) have been determined in leaves of 9 taxonomically verified naturally growing terrestrial plant species as well as in soil samples collected around 3 Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes (Koka, Ziway and Awassa). The Cr concentration in leaves of all the plant species was higher than the "normal" range, with the highest level (8.4 mg per kg dw) being observed in Acacia tortilis from the Lake Koka area. Caper species (Capparis fascicularis) and Ethiopian dogstooth grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) from Koka also contained exceptionally high levels of Cd (1 mg per kg dw) and Mo (32.8 mg per kg dw), respectively. Pb, As and Cu concentrations were low in the plant leaves from all sites. The low Cu level in important fodder plant species (Cynodon aethiopicus, Acacia tortilis and Opuntia ficus-indicus) implies potential deficiency in grazing and browsing animals. Compared to the Canadian environmental quality guideline and maximum allowable concentration in agricultural soils, the total soil trace element concentrations at the studied sites are safe for agricultural crop production. Enrichment factor was high for Zn in soils around Lakes Ziway and Awassa, resulting in moderate to high transfer of Zn to the studied plants. A six step sequential extraction procedure on the soils revealed a relatively high mobility of Cd, Se and Mn. Strong association of most trace elements with the redox sensitive fraction and mineral lattice was also confirmed by partial redundancy analysis. TF (mg per kg dw plants/mg per kg dw soil) values based on the total (TF(total)) and mobile fractions (TF(mobile)) of soil trace element concentrations varied widely among elements and plant species, with the averaged TF(total) and TF(mobile) values ranging from 0.01-2 and 1-60, respectively. Considering the mobile fraction in soils should be available to plants, TF(mobile) values could reflect trace elements transfer to plants in the most realistic way. However, the present study indicates that TF(total) values also reflect the transfer of elements such as Mn, Cd and Se to plants more realistically than TF(mobile) values did. PMID:22907177

Kassaye, Yetneberk A; Skipperud, Lindis; Meland, Sondre; Dadebo, Elias; Einset, John; Salbu, Brit

2012-08-21

215

Development of a Cell-Based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Reporter for Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor Protease  

SciTech Connect

We report the construction of a cell-based fluorescent reporter for anthrax lethal factor (LF) protease activity using the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). This was accomplished by engineering an Escherichia coli cell line to express a genetically encoded FRET reporter and LF protease. Both proteins were encoded in two different expression plasmids under the control of different tightly controlled inducible promoters. The FRET-based reporter was designed to contain a LF recognition sequence flanked by the FRET pair formed by CyPet and YPet fluorescent proteins. The length of the linker between both fluorescent proteins was optimized using a flexible peptide linker containing several Gly-Gly-Ser repeats. Our results indicate that this FRET-based LF reporter was readily expressed in E. coli cells showing high levels of FRET in vivo in the absence of LF. The FRET signal, however, decreased 5 times after inducing LF expression in the same cell. These results suggest that this cell-based LF FRET reporter may be used to screen genetically encoded libraries in vivo against LF.

Kimura, R H; Steenblock, E R; Camarero, J A

2007-03-22

216

Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q2 = 3.5 GeV2 by polarization transfer  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of the proton's elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic {rvec e}p {yields} e{rvec p} reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. In the single photon exchange approximation, the ratio G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} is directly proportional to the ratio P{sub t}/P{sub {ell}}. The simultaneous measurement of P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}} in a polarimeter reduces systematic uncertainties. The results for the ratio G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} show a systematic decrease with increasing Q{sup 2}, indicating for the first time a definite difference in the distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. The data have been reanalyzed and systematic uncertainties have become significantly smaller than previously published results.

Vina Punjabi; Konrad Aniol; F. Baker; J. Berthot; Martine Bertin; William Bertozzi; Auguste Besson; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Edward Brash; Daniel Brown; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Zhengwei Chai; C. Chang; Jian-ping Chen; Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; Evaristo Cisbani; Daniel Dale; Raffaele De Leo; Alexandre Deur; Brian Diederich; John Domingo; Martin Epstein; Lars Ewell; Kevin Fissum; A. Fleck; Helene Fonvieille; Salvatore Frullani; Juncai Gao; Franco Garibaldi; Ashot Gasparian; Gerstner; Shalev Gilad; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Alphonza Green; Jens-ole Hansen; Calvin Howell; Garth Huber; Mauro Iodice; Cornelis De Jager; Stephanie Jaminion; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; W. Kahl; J.J. Kelly; M. Khayat; L.H. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; E. Lakuriki; G. Lavessiere; J.J. LeRose; M. Liang; R.A. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; G.J. Lolos; R. Macri; R. Madey; S. Malov; D.J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; J.I. McIntyre; R.L.J. van der Meer; R. Michaels; B.D. Milbrath; J.Y. Mougey; S.K. Nanda; E.A.J.M. Offermann; Z. Papandreou; L. Pentchev; C.F. Perdrisat; G.G. Petratos; N.M. Piskunov; R.I. Pomatsalyuk; D.L. Prout; G. Quemener; R.D. Ransome; B.A. Raue; Y. Roblin; R. Roche; G. Rutledge; P.M. Rutt; A. Saha; T. Saito; A.J. Sarty; T.P. Smith; P. Sorokin; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; K. Takahashi; J.A. Templon; L. Todor; P.E. Ulmer; G.M. Urciuoli; P. Vernin; B. Vlahovic; H. Voskanyan; K. Wijesooriya; B.B. Wojtsekhowski; R.J. Woo; F. Xiong; G.D. Zainea; Z.-L. Zhou

2003-05-01

217

Silver nanoparticle-enhanced fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor for human platelet-derived growth factor-BB detection.  

PubMed

A silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-enhanced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensing system is designed for the sensitive detection of human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). Fluorophore-functionalized aptamers and quencher-carrying strands hybridized in duplex are coupled with streptavidin (SA)-functionalized nanoparticles to form a AgNP-enhanced FRET sensor. The resulting sensor shows lower background fluorescence intensity in the duplex state due to the FRET effect between fluorophores and quenchers. Upon the addition of PDGF-BB, the quencher-carrying strands (BHQ-2) of the duplex are displaced leading to the disruption of the FRET effect. As a result, the fluorescent intensity of the fluorophore-aptamer within the proximity of the AgNP is increased. When compared to the gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based FRET and bare FRET sensors, the AgNP-based FRET sensor showed remarkable increase in fluorescence intensity, target specificity, and sensitivity. Results also show versatility of the AgNP in the enhancement of sensitivity and selectivity of the FRET sensor. In addition, a good linear response was obtained when the PDGF-BB concentrations are in the ranges of 100-500 and 6.2-50 ng/mL with the detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL. PMID:23531211

Li, Hui; Wang, Min; Wang, Chongzhi; Li, Wei; Qiang, Weibing; Xu, Danke

2013-04-10

218

Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 inhibits gallbladder carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene in several types of cancers, but its role in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is yet to be determined. In the present study, TFPI-2 expression in GBC tissues was examined, and its inhibitory activities against GBC growth were evaluated in vitro and in vivo after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of TFPI-2 (Ad5-TFPI-2) was constructed to restore the expression of TFPI-2 in GBC cell lines (GBC-SD, SGC-996, NOZ) and xenograft tumors. Immunohistochemical staining showed that TFPI-2 was significantly downregulated in GBC tissue specimens. Ad5-TFPI-2 could significantly inhibit GBC growth both in vitro and in vivo. Apoptosis analysis and western blotting assay demonstrated that Ad5-TFPI-2 could induce the apoptosis of both GBC cell lines and tissues by promoting the activities of cytochrome c, Bax, caspase-3 and -9 and suppressing Bcl-2 activity. These data indicated that TFPI-2 acts as a tumor suppressor in GBC, and may have a potential role in gene therapy for GBC. PMID:22320835

Qin, Yiyu; Zhang, Shenglai; Gong, Wei; Li, Jiyu; Jia, Jianguang; Quan, Zhiwei

2012-03-04

219

AAV-mediated gene transfer of human pigment epithelium-derived factor inhibits Lewis lung carcinoma growth in mice  

PubMed Central

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is the most potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in the mammalian eye, and mechanisms through which PEDF exerts its antitumour activity have recently been defined. The aim of our research was to evaluate the ability of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated transfer of human PEDF to inhibit Lewis lung carcinoma (LCC) cell growth. Intratumoural injection of AAV-PEDF caused significant reduction of the tumour volume and prolonged the survival time of mice bearing LLC cells, which were associated with decreased microvessel density and increased apoptosis in the tumours. AAV vectors represent a very promising tool for cancer gene therapy. No noticeable toxicity concerning AAV was detected as inferred from monitoring changes in animal body weight as well as basic organ structure and histological morphology, and by analyzing mouse liver and kidney function. Our findings indicate that AAV-mediated PEDF gene expression may offer an active approach to inhibit LLC growth and that treatment with AAV-PEDF may provide a promising therapeutic strategy in lung cancer treatment.

HE, SHA-SHA; SHI, HUA-SHAN; YIN, TAO; LI, YONG-XIA; LUO, SHUN-TAO; WU, QIN-JIE; LU, LIAN; WEI, YU-QUAN; YANG, LI

2012-01-01

220

Improving plant drought, salt and freezing tolerance by gene transfer of a single stress-inducible transcription factor.  

PubMed

Plant productivity is greatly affected by environmental stresses such as drought, salt loading and freezing. We reported that a cis-acting promoter element, the dehydration response element (DRE), plays an important role in regulating gene expression in response to these stresses in Arabidopsis. The transcription factor DREB1A specifically interacts with the DRE and induces expression of stress tolerance genes. We show here that overexpression of the cDNA encoding DREB1A in transgenic Arabidopsis plants activated the expression of many of theses stress tolerance genes under normal growing conditions and resulted in improved tolerance to drought, salt loading and freezing. However, use of the strong constitutive 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter to drive expression of DREB1A also resulted in severe growth retardation under normal growing conditions. In contrast, expression of DREB1A from the stress-inducible rd29A promoter gave rise to minimal effects on plant growth while providing an even greater tolerance to stress conditions than did expression of the gene from the CaMV promoter. As the DRE-related regulatory element is not limited to Arabidopsis the DREB1A cDNA and the rd29A promoter may be useful for improving the stress tolerance of agriculturally important crops by gene transfer. PMID:11387979

Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K; Shinozaki, K

2001-01-01

221

[Characteristics and influence factors of the energy consumption and pollutant discharge of municipal solid waste transfer stations in Beijing].  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated characteristics and influence factors of energy consumption and pollutant discharge (ECPD) of municipal solid waste transfer stations (MSW TSs) in Beijing by assessing four parameters including the amount of waste recycled, leachate production, water consumption and electricity consumption, based on three years' average data of MSW TSs in Beijing obtained through field investigations from 2009 to 2011. Meanwhile, integral performances of the stations with and without garbage sorting capacities (Sorting TS and Compressing TS) were also analyzed. Results showed that MSW TSs in Beijing differ greatly. For each ton of MSW, masses of waste recycled, leachate productions, water consumptions and electricity consumptions generally fall in the ranges of 12.9 kg x t(-1), 5.8-49.0 kg x t(-1), 40. 3-156.7 kg x t(-1) and 1.75-5.60 kWh x t(-1), respectively. Despite overall the higher energy consumption and more pollutant discharge than Compressing TS, Sorting TS could achieve waste reduction and reuse by recycling part of the municipal solid wastes, as well as the optimization of process by sorting wastes into different ingredients for corresponding waste disposal plants, which could reduce heavy burdens of landfills and extend their lifespans. PMID:23947070

Wang, Zhao; Li, Zhen-Shan; Feng, Ya-Bin; Jiao, An-Ying; Xue, An

2013-06-01

222

Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Characteristics in a Circular Tube Fitted with V-Cut Twisted Tape Inserts  

PubMed Central

Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5?cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5?cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration.

Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

2013-01-01

223

Numerical investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in a circular tube fitted with v-cut twisted tape inserts.  

PubMed

Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5?cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5?cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration. PMID:24078795

Salman, Sami D; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Takriff, Mohd S; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

2013-09-01

224

Vascular endothelial growth factor-B gene transfer exacerbates retinal and choroidal neovascularization and vasopermeability without promoting inflammation  

PubMed Central

Purpose The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-B in the eye is poorly understood. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of overexpression of VEGF-B via adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene transfer on ocular angiogenesis, inflammation, and the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Methods Three recombinant AAV vectors were prepared, expressing the 167 (AAV-VEGF-B167) or 186 amino acid isoform (AAV-VEGF-B186) of VEGF-B or the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene (AAV-GFP). Approximately 1×109 viral genome copies of AAV-VEGF-B167, AAV-VEGF-B186, or AAV-GFP were intraocularly injected. The efficacy of the gene transfer was assessed by directly observing GFP, by immunohistochemistry, or by real-time PCR. A leukostasis assay using fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Concanavalin A was used to evaluate inflammation. The BRB was assessed using a quantitative assay with 3H-mannitol as a tracer. Retinal neovascularization (NV) was assessed at postnatal day 17 in oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy after intravitreal injection of AAV-VEGF-B in left eyes and AAV-GFP in right eyes at postnatal day 7. Two weeks after injection of AAV vectors, choroidal NV was generated by laser photocoagulation and assessed 2 weeks later. Results GFP expression was clearly demonstrated, primarily in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and outer retina, 1–6 weeks after delivery. mRNA expression levels of VEGF-B167 and VEGF-B186 were 5.8 and 12 fold higher in the AAV-VEGF-B167- and AAV-VEGF-B186-treated groups, respectively. There was no evidence of an inflammatory response or vessel abnormality following injection of the vectors in normal mice; however, VEGF-B increased retinal and choroidal neovascularization. AAV-VEGF-B186, but not AAV-VEGF-B167, enhanced retinal vascular permeability. Conclusions VEGF-B overexpression promoted pathological retinal and choroidal NV and BRB breakdown without causing inflammation, which is associated with the progression of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, showing that these complications are not dependent on inflammation. VEGF-B targeting could benefit antiangiogenic therapy.

Zhong, Xiufeng; Huang, Hu; Shen, Jikui; Zacchigna, Serena; Zentilin, Lorena; Giacca, Mauro

2011-01-01

225

Deuterium fractionation factor for unhydrated hydronium ion: deuterium isotope effects on proton-transfer equilibria in acetonitrile  

SciTech Connect

Spectrophotometric measurements of pK/sub a/ (dissociation constants) values for three N,N-dimethylanilinium ion indicators have been made in CH/sub 3/CN-H/sub 2/O and CH/sub 3/CN-D/sub 2/O solvent mixtures throughout the range of water content from a mole fraction of 1.00 down to a mole fraction of 3 x 10/sup -4/. The three indicator bases were N,N-dimethyl-p-nitroaniline, N,N-dimethyl-3,5-dinitro-4-toluidine, and 4-chloro-N,N-dimethyl-2,6-dinitroaniline. The observed H/sub 2/O/D/sub 2/O isotope effects on the pK/sub a/ values allow estimation of the value of l/sub 1/, the deuterium fractionation factor relative to L/sub 2/O for unhydrated L/sub 3/O/sup +/ (where L = H or D) in CH/sub 3/CN; that value is near 0.79. (Compare l = 0.69 for L/sub 3/O/sup +/ in L/sub 2/O.) This observation implies that if, as has commonly been assumed, the low value of l in liquid L/sub 2/O results from strong hydrogen bonding of L/sub 3/O/sup +/ to three L/sub 2/O molecules, then hydrogen bonding of L/sub 3/O/sup +/ to CH/sub 3/CN molecules in liquid CH/sub 3/CN is almost as effective in weakening the force field experienced by the three fractionated L's in L/sub 3/O/sup +/ as is hydrogen bonding to L/sub 2/O molecules in liquid L/sub 2/O. The observation that l/sub 1/ is significantly less than 1.0 also supports the contention that the absence of an H/sub 2/O/D/sub 2/O kinetic isotope effect on methyl transfer to L/sub 2/O in CH/sub 3/CN implies that no significant L/sub 2/O-CH/sub 3/ bond is present in the transition state and thus that the activation process for those methyl transfers is predominantly a fluctuation in solvent polarization. 31 references, 3 figures.

Kurz, J.L.; Myers, M.T.; Ratcliff, K.M.

1984-09-19

226

Expression of human factor IX in rabbit hepatocytes by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer: Potential for gene therapy of hemophilia B  

SciTech Connect

Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. The authors report the construction of an N2-based recombinant retroviral vector, NCMVFIX, for efficient transfer and expression of human factor IX cDNA in primary rabbit hepatocytes. In this construct the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter directs the expression of factor IX. Hepatocytes were isolated from 3-week-old New Zealand White rabbits, infected with the recombinant virus, and analyzed for secretion of active factor IX. The infected rabbit hepatocytes produced human factor IX that is indistinguishable from enzyme derived from normal human plasma. The recombinant protein is sufficiently {gamma}-carboxylated and is functionally active in clotting assays. These results establish the feasibility of using infected hepatocytes for the expression of this protein and are a step toward the goal of correcting hemophilia B by hepatic gene transfer.

Thompson, A.R. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA) Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA (USA)); Darlington, G. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA)); Armentano, D.; Woo, S.L.C.

1990-08-01

227

Analysis of linear energy transfers and quality factors of charged particles produced by spontaneous fission neutrons from 252Cf and 244Pu in the human body.  

PubMed

Absorbed doses, linear energy transfers (LETs) and quality factors of secondary charged particles in organs and tissues, generated via the interactions of the spontaneous fission neutrons from (252)Cf and (244)Pu within the human body, were studied using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHITS) coupled with the ICRP Reference Phantom. Both the absorbed doses and the quality factors in target organs generally decrease with increasing distance from the source organ. The analysis of LET distributions of secondary charged particles led to the identification of the relationship between LET spectra and target-source organ locations. A comparison between human body-averaged mean quality factors and fluence-averaged radiation weighting factors showed that the current numerical conventions for the radiation weighting factors of neutrons, updated in ICRP103, and the quality factors for internal exposure are valid. PMID:22908356

Endo, Akira; Sato, Tatsuhiko

2012-08-19

228

In-Hospital Mortality among Rural Medicare Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: The Influence of Demographics, Transfer, and Health Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context/Purpose: Most rural hospitals can provide medical care to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, but a need for advanced cardiac care requires timely transfer to a tertiary hospital. There is little information on AMI in-hospital mortality predictors among rural transfer patients. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective analyses on…

Muus, Kyle J.; Knudson, Alana D.; Klug, Marilyn G.; Wynne, Joshua

2011-01-01

229

Gene transfer of multidrug resistance into a factor-dependent human hematopoietic progenitor cell line: in vivo model for genetically transferred chemoprotection.  

PubMed

To develop a rapid preclinical in vivo model to study gene transfer into human hematopoietic progenitor cells, MO-7e cells (CD-34+, c-kit+) were infected with multidrug resistance (MDR1)-containing retroviruses and then transplanted into nonobese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient mice (NOD SCID). MO-7e cells infected with a retrovirus encoding the human MDR1 cDNA showed integration, transcription, and expression of the transfered MDR1 gene. This resulted in a 20-fold increase in the resistance of MO-7e cells to paclitaxel in vitro. The expression of the MDR1 gene product was stable over a 6-month period in vitro without selection in colchicine. MO-7e and MDR1-infected MO-7e cells were transplanted into NOD SCID mice to determine whether MDR1 could confer drug resistance in vivo. A sensitive polymerase chain reaction method specific for human sequences was developed to quantitate the level of human cell engraftment in NOD SCID bone marrow (BM) cells. The percentage of human DNA in BM cells from MO-7e-transplanted mice was 10.9% and decreased to 0.7% in mice treated with paclitaxel. The percentage of human DNA in infected-MO-7e transplanted mice was 7.6% and that level was unchanged in mice treated with paclitaxel. These results show that expression of the MDR1 gene in human hematopoietic progenitor cells can confer functional drug resistance in an in vivo model. PMID:8639888

Schwarzenberger, P; Spence, S; Lohrey, N; Kmiecik, T; Longo, D L; Murphy, W J; Ruscetti, F W; Keller, J R

1996-04-01

230

137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors  

SciTech Connect

Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

2007-07-17

231

Soil-to-Crop Transfer Factors of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides and Stable Elements for Long-Term Dose Assessment  

SciTech Connect

A soil-to-crop transfer factor, TF, is a key parameter that directly affects the internal dose assessment for the ingestion pathway, however, obtaining TFs of various long-lived radionuclides occurred during operation of nuclear power plants is difficult because most of them could not be found in natural environments. In this study, therefore, we collected crops and their associated soils throughout Japan and measured more than 50 elements to obtain TFs under equilibrium conditions. The TFs were calculated for 42 elements (Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Sn, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tl, Pb, Th and U) from their concentrations in both crop and soil samples. The TF is defined as the concentration of an isotope in a crop (in Bq/kg or mg/kg dry weight) divided by the concentration of the isotope in soil (in Bq.kg or mg/kg dry weight). Probability distributions of TFs for 62 upland field crops were usually log-normal type so that geometric means (GMs) were calculated. The values for the elements of interest from the viewpoint of long-term dose assessment were 2.5E-02 for Se, 7.9E-02 for Sr, 3.1E-03 for Cs, 4.2E-04 for Th and 4.6E-04 for U. Leafy vegetable showed the highest TFs for all the elements among the crop groups. It was clear that these data were usually within the 95% confidence limits of TFs compiled by IAEA in Technical Report Series 364. (authors)

Uchida, S.; Tagami, K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba (Japan)

2007-07-01

232

(137)Cs inter-plant concentration ratios provide a predictive tool for coral atolls with distinct benefits over transfer factors.  

PubMed

Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR) [Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in coral atoll tree food crops/Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume] can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict (137)Cs concentration in tree food crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact that tree roots naturally integrate (137)Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of (137)Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in (137)Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log-normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD)=1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSDs of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD=1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10-20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples. PMID:17904254

Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F; Bogen, Kenneth T; Conrado, Cynthia L; Kehl, Steven R

2007-09-27

233

Molecular cloning of a xylosyltransferase that transfers the second xylose to O-glucosylated epidermal growth factor repeats of notch.  

PubMed

The extracellular domain of Notch contains epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats that are extensively modified with different O-linked glycans. O-Fucosylation is essential for receptor function, and elongation with N-acetylglucosamine, catalyzed by members of the Fringe family, modulates Notch activity. Only recently, genes encoding enzymes involved in the O-glucosylation pathway have been cloned. In the Drosophila mutant rumi, characterized by a mutation in the protein O-glucosyltransferase, Notch signaling is impaired in a temperature-dependent manner, and a mouse knock-out leads to embryonic lethality. We have previously identified two human genes, GXYLT1 and GXYLT2, encoding glucoside xylosyltransferases responsible for the transfer of xylose to O-linked glucose. The identity of the enzyme further elongating the glycan to generate the final trisaccharide xylose-xylose-glucose, however, remained unknown. Here, we describe that the human gene C3ORF21 encodes a UDP-xylose:?-xyloside ?1,3-xylosyltransferase, acting on xylose-?1,3-glucose?1-containing acceptor structures. We have, therefore, renamed it XXYLT1 (xyloside xylosyltransferase 1). XXYLT1 cannot act on a synthetic acceptor containing an ?-linked xylose alone, but requires the presence of the underlying glucose. Activity on Notch EGF repeats was proven by in vitro xylosylation of a mouse Notch1 fragment recombinantly produced in Sf9 insect cells, a bacterially expressed EGF repeat from mouse Notch2 modified in vitro by Rumi and Gxylt2 and in vivo by co-expression of the enzyme with the Notch1 fragment. The enzyme was shown to be a typical type II membrane-bound glycosyltransferase localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:22117070

Sethi, Maya K; Buettner, Falk F R; Ashikov, Angel; Krylov, Vadim B; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Haltiwanger, Robert S; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Bakker, Hans

2011-11-23

234

Evaluation of the gauge factor for single-walled carbon nanonets on the flexible plastic substrates by nano-transfer-printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-transfer-printing (nTP) is increasingly used for the micro-fabrication of nanoscale materials onto flexible plastic substrates. This paper reports a nTP process for single-walled carbon nanonets (SWCNNs) for use in strain sensors. Traditional SWCNNs grown on a silicon substrate by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition (ACCVD) can serve as strain-sensing elements in strain sensors and nano-electromechanical system (NEMS) sensors, but ACCVD is not well suited to the task. To improve SWCNN fabrication, this work deposits a parylene-C thin film on SWCNNs for transfer-printing onto flexible plastic substrates with polyimide tape. Quantification of the fabricated SWCNN strain-sensing ability (gauge factor) is performed by comparing two specimens with different pattern features and substrates. The gauge factor is measured by tensile testing. SWCNN density variations relative to the observed gauge factors are discussed. Results show that SWCNN gauge factors range from 1.46 to 8.22, depending on the substrate and pattern width. It is further observed that the gauge factor of the presented SWCNN thin film increases when the width of the SWCNN decreases to the low micro-dimensions, i.e. below 40 µm, indicating a significant scaling factor.

Hsu, C. C.; Chao, R. M.; Liu, C. W.; Liang, Steven Y.

2011-07-01

235

Factors influencing the evaluation of an external heat transfer coefficient to be applied to Stirling engine heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of gas flow, large temperature gradients, and gas dissociation on the heat transfer from combustion gases to tube banks is discussed. Some general conclusions concerning Stirling engine heater design are presented.

J. E. Bennethum

1978-01-01

236

A compilation of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways and the suggested default values for the RESRAD code  

SciTech Connect

The ongoing development and revision of the RESRAD computer code at Argonne National Laboratory requires update of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways. Default values for these transfer factors used in published radiological assessment reports are compiled and compared with values used in RESRAD. The differences among the reported default values used in different radiological assessment codes and reports are also discussed. In data comparisons, values used in more recent reports are given more weight because more recent experimental work tends to be conducted under better-defined laboratory or field conditions. A new default value is suggested for RESRAD if one of the following conditions is met: (1) values used in recent reports are an order of magnitude higher or lower than the default value currently used in RESRAD, or (2) the same default value is used in several recent radiological assessment reports.

Wang, Y.Y.; Biwer, B.M.; Yu, C.

1993-08-01

237

Comparative Analysis of Response-factor and Finite-volume based Methods for predicting Heat and Moisture Transfer through Porous Building Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the now well-known building energy simulation programs use the response factor method developed in the early 1970s by Stephenson and Mitalas. These are TRNSYS, EnergyPlus, Blast, and DOE-2, to name but a few. Others, such as PowerDomus, ESP-r, and BSim, perform finite-volume or finite-difference calculations to solve the heat and mass transfer through the building envelope. These two

Marc Abadie; Nathan Mendes

2006-01-01

238

Origin and direction of replication of the drug resistance plasmid R100.1 and of a resistance transfer factor derivative in synchronized cultures.  

PubMed Central

The origin and direction of replication of the resistance plasmid R100.1 and its resistance transfer factor derivative, pAR132, were studied by electron microscopy autoradiography of partially denatured molecules and partial denaturation mapping of replicative intermediates. Results of these studies indicate the existence of an origin of replication at 8.8 kilobases on the R100 map. Replication from this origin in cultures synchronized for initiation of replication is predominantly unidirectional in a single direction. Images

Silver, L; Chandler, M; de la Tour, E B; Caro, L

1977-01-01

239

Antagonism of platelet-derived growth factor by perivascular gene transfer attenuates adventitial cell migration after vascular injury: new tricks for old dogs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration of adventitial fibroblasts con- tributes to vascular remodeling after angioplasty. This study has used perivascular gene transfer of a truncated platelet-derived growth factor PDGF receptor (PDG- FXR) to investigate whether antagonism of PDGF sig- naling alters adventitial cell migration after balloon injury in rat carotid arteries. Adenoviruses coordinating expression of -galactosidase (LacZ) and PDGFXR or LacZ and green fluorescent

Chandike M. Mallawaarachchi; Peter L. Weissberg; Richard C. M. Siow

2006-01-01

240

Reconstitution of defective cellular immunity with foetal thymus and dialysable transfer factor. Long-term studies in a patient with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.  

PubMed Central

Extensive studies of a 9-year-old boy with recurrent pulmonary infections and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disclosed a severe defect in cell-mediated immunity but normal humoral immune responses. These immunological defects were not improved by initial treatment with transfer factor. After receiving a foetal thymus transplant the patient developed positive delayed-type skin tests, could be sensitized with chlorodinitrobenzene, and showed progressive improvement of in vitro lymphocyte functions including spontaneous formation of rosettes with sheep erythrocytes and positive responses to phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin A and allogeneic leucocytes. Moreover, lymph node cellularity increased, especially in the thymus-dependent zones. Though the in vitro responses persisted for over 1 year, skin tests became unreactive at 38 weeks. However, in contrast to the pre-transplant experience transfer factor was now effective in inducing positive skin tests. These studies provide a chronological account of the effect of the thymus on expression of lymphocyte-mediated immune responses in man and suggest that thymus-derived cells are required for acquisition of transfer factor-induced cellular immunity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 6

Kirkpatrick, C H; Ottenson, E A; Smith, T K; Wells, S A; Burdick, J F

1976-01-01

241

Measurements of the proton elastic-form-factor ratio mu pG p E/G p M at low momentum transfer.  

PubMed

High-precision measurements of the proton elastic form-factor ratio, mu pG p E/G p M, have been made at four-momentum transfer, Q2, values between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to G p E being smaller than expected. PMID:18233135

Ron, G; Glister, J; Lee, B; Allada, K; Armstrong, W; Arrington, J; Beck, A; Benmokhtar, F; Berman, B L; Boeglin, W; Brash, E; Camsonne, A; Calarco, J; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Coman, L; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; Dumas, J; Dutta, C; Feuerbach, R; Freyberger, A; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilman, R; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Ilieva, Y; de Jager, C W; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Kang, H; Kelleher, A; Khrosinkova, E; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Markowitz, P; May-Tal Beck, S; McCullough, E; Meekins, D; Meziane, M; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Norum, B E; Oh, Y; Olson, M; Paolone, M; Paschke, K; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Pomatsalyuk, R; Pomerantz, I; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R; Reyhan, M; Roche, J; Rousseau, Y; Saha, A; Sarty, A J; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Shneor, R; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Song, J; Sparks, R; Subedi, R; Strauch, S; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zhan, X; Zhu, X

2007-11-13

242

Technology Transfer Issues and a New Technology Transfer Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The following are major issues that should be considered for efficient and effective technology transfer: conceptions of technology, technological activity and transfer, communication channels, factors affecting transfer, and models of transfer. In particular, a well-developed model of technology transfer could be used as a framework for…

Choi, Hee Jun

2009-01-01

243

Supernatant protein factor, which stimulates the conversion of squalene to lanosterol, is a cytosolic squalene transfer protein and enhances cholesterol biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Squalene epoxidase, a membrane-associated enzyme that converts squalene to squalene 2,3-oxide, plays an important role in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. In 1957, Bloch and colleagues identified a factor from rat liver cytosol termed “supernatant protein factor (SPF),” which promotes the squalene epoxidation catalyzed by rat liver microsomes with oxygen, NADPH, FAD, and phospholipid [Tchen, T. T. & Bloch, K. (1957) J. Biol. Chem. 226, 921–930]. Although purification of SPF by 11,000-fold was reported, no information is so far available on the primary structure or biological function of SPF. Here we report the cDNA cloning and expression of SPF from rat and human. The encoded protein of 403 amino acids belongs to a family of cytosolic lipid-binding/transfer proteins such as ?-tocopherol transfer protein, cellular retinal binding protein, yeast phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (Sec14p), and squid retinal binding protein. Recombinant SPF produced in Escherichia coli enhances microsomal squalene epoxidase activity and promotes intermembrane transfer of squalene in vitro. SPF mRNA is expressed abundantly in the liver and small intestine, both of which are important sites of cholesterol biosynthesis. SPF is expressed significantly in isolated hepatocytes, but the expression level was markedly decreased after 48 h of in vitro culture. Moreover, SPF was not detectable in most of the cell lines tested, including HepG2 and McARH7777 hepatomas. Transfection of SPF cDNA in McARH7777 significantly stimulated de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. These data suggest that SPF is a cytosolic squalene transfer protein capable of regulating cholesterol biosynthesis.

Shibata, Norihito; Arita, Makoto; Misaki, Yuko; Dohmae, Naoshi; Takio, Koji; Ono, Teruo; Inoue, Keizo; Arai, Hiroyuki

2001-01-01

244

Bacteroides fragilis transfer factor Tn5520: the smallest bacterial mobilizable transposon containing single integrase and mobilization genes that function in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Many bacterial genera, including Bacteroides spp., harbor mobilizable transposons, a class of transfer factors that carry genes for conjugal DNA transfer and, in some cases, antibiotic resistance. Mobilizable transposons are capable of inserting into and mobilizing other, nontransferable plasmids and are implicated in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. This paper presents the isolation and characterization of Tn5520, a new mobilizable transposon from Bacteroides fragilis LV23. At 4,692 bp, it is the smallest mobilizable transposon reported from any bacterial genus. Tn5520 was captured from B. fragilis LV23 by using the transfer-deficient shuttle vector pGAT400DeltaBglII. The termini of Tn5520 contain a 22-bp imperfect inverted repeat, and transposition does not result in a target site repeat. Tn5520 also demonstrates insertion site sequence preferences characterized by A-T-rich nucleotide sequences. Tn5520 has been sequenced in its entirety, and two large open reading frames whose predicted protein products exhibit strong sequence similarity to recombinase-integrase enzymes and mobilization proteins, respectively, have been identified. The transfer, mobilization, and transposition properties of Tn5520 have been studied, revealing that Tn5520 mobilizes plasmids in both B. fragilis and Escherichia coli at high frequency and also transposes in E. coli. PMID:10198023

Vedantam, G; Novicki, T J; Hecht, D W

1999-04-01

245

Bacteroides fragilis Transfer Factor Tn5520: the Smallest Bacterial Mobilizable Transposon Containing Single Integrase and Mobilization Genes That Function in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Many bacterial genera, including Bacteroides spp., harbor mobilizable transposons, a class of transfer factors that carry genes for conjugal DNA transfer and, in some cases, antibiotic resistance. Mobilizable transposons are capable of inserting into and mobilizing other, nontransferable plasmids and are implicated in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. This paper presents the isolation and characterization of Tn5520, a new mobilizable transposon from Bacteroides fragilis LV23. At 4,692 bp, it is the smallest mobilizable transposon reported from any bacterial genus. Tn5520 was captured from B. fragilis LV23 by using the transfer-deficient shuttle vector pGAT400?BglII. The termini of Tn5520 contain a 22-bp imperfect inverted repeat, and transposition does not result in a target site repeat. Tn5520 also demonstrates insertion site sequence preferences characterized by A-T-rich nucleotide sequences. Tn5520 has been sequenced in its entirety, and two large open reading frames whose predicted protein products exhibit strong sequence similarity to recombinase-integrase enzymes and mobilization proteins, respectively, have been identified. The transfer, mobilization, and transposition properties of Tn5520 have been studied, revealing that Tn5520 mobilizes plasmids in both B. fragilis and Escherichia coli at high frequency and also transposes in E. coli.

Vedantam, Gayatri; Novicki, Thomas J.; Hecht, David W.

1999-01-01

246

Investigation of twisted tape inserted solar water heaters—heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer in a solar water heater could be enhanced by means of twisted tapes, inserted inside the fluid flow tubes, which induce swirl flow and act as turbulence promoters. Experimental investigations for a solar water heater with twisted tape inserts having twist pitch to tube diameter ratio ranging from 3–12 have been carried out for varying mass flow rates.

A Kumar; B. N Prasad

2000-01-01

247

Electronic and nuclear factors in intramolecular charge and excitation transfer processes. [Annual report], October 1992--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

A qualitative discussion is given of initial work on the following topics: intramolecular triplet excitation transfer bands, donor-- bridge--acceptor systems with a tethered ion, and depolarization of transient microwave conductivity. A number of special compounds were synthesized, such as spiranes, 2,6-diamino-dihydroanthracene precursor, and para-amino-nitro-biphenyl and -terphenyl.

Piotrowiak, P.

1993-12-31

248

Assessing Student Expertise in Introductory Physics with Isomorphic Problems. II. Effect of Some Potential Factors on Problem Solving and Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we explore the use of isomorphic problem pairs (IPPs) to assess introductory physics students' ability to solve and successfully transfer problem-solving knowledge from one context to another in mechanics. We call the paired problems "isomorphic" because they require the same physics principle to solve them. We analyze written…

Chandralekha; Singh

2008-01-01

249

Preparing the next generation for the family business: relational factors and knowledge transfer in mother-to-daughter succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family businesses (FBs) are one of the dominant entrepreneurial forces in today's global economy. In keeping with their desire to see their business survive and prosper over the long-term, most FB owners design an exit strategy for themselves that will eventually transfer ownership and control of the firm to their offspring. A pivotal issue in successful intergenerational succession is ensuring

Nancy Higginson

250

Factoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

Clark, Mr

2012-10-31

251

Targeted gene transfer of human hepatocyte growth factor into rat skin by the use of laser-induced stress waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We successfully delivered therapeutic gene, Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), to rat skin in vivo. The level of hHGF protein increased by the application of LISWs when compared with that of control samples without LISW application.

Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Ashida, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Obara, Minoru

2006-03-01

252

Gene Therapy for Hemophilia B: Aav-Mediated Transfer of The Gene for Coagulation Factor IX to Human Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hemophilia B is an X-linked bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of coagulation factor IX. In its severe form, the disease\\u000a results in spontaneous bleeding as well as bleeding following surgery or trauma, and is clinically indistinguishable from\\u000a hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency). The major morbidity of the disease is the chronic arthropathy of hemophilia that develops\\u000a following spontaneous hemorrhage

Peter J. Larson; Katherine A. High

253

Long-Term Expression of Human Coagulation Factor VIII and Correction of Hemophilia A after in vivo Retroviral Gene Transfer in Factor VIII-Deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemophilia A is caused by a deficiency in coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and predisposes to spontaneous bleeding that can be life-threatening or lead to chronic disabilities. It is well suited for gene therapy because a moderate increase in plasma FVIII concentration has therapeutic effects. Improved retroviral vectors expressing high levels of human FVIII were pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus

Thierry Vandendriessche; Veerle Vanslembrouck; Inge Goovaerts; Hans Zwinnen; Marie-Line Vanderhaeghen; Desire Collen; Marinee K. L. Chuah

1999-01-01

254

Clinical practice of embryo transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, several embryo transfer methods are considered, together with factors involved in achieving an effective transfer. The approach most used is transcervical intrauterine transfer. This is described in detail, together with the many variables influencing success, e.g. technical ability and training of personnel, catheter choice, value of a previous ‘dummy transfer’ and the need to minimize trauma during

RS Pasqualini; CJ Quintans

2002-01-01

255

Gene transfer of human hepatocyte growth factor by the use of nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We successfully delivered a therapeutic vector construct, which carries hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene, to rat skin in vivo. After HGF expression vector had been intradermally injected to rat skin, LISWs were generated by irradiating the laser target put on the rat skin with nanosecond pulses from the second harmonics (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Concentration of HGF protein increased by a factor of four by the application of LISWs when compared with that of control samples without LISW application. We also investigated the effects of LISWs on the integrity of plasmid DNA.

Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Hasegawa, Makoto; Ashida, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Obara, Minoru

2006-05-01

256

Experimental and CFD studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a tube equipped with modified twisted tape inserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigations on the friction factor, Nusselt number and thermal–hydraulic performance of a tube equipped with the classic and three modified twisted tape inserts. The results showed that the Nusselt number and performance of the jagged insert were higher than other ones. Maximum increase of 31% and 22% were observed in the

Masoud Rahimi; Sayed Reza Shabanian; Ammar Abdulaziz Alsairafi

2009-01-01

257

Enhanced angiogenesis in grafted skins by gene transfer of human hepatocyte growth factor using laser-induced stress waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We delivered a therapeutic gene, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), to skin grafts of rats using laser-induced stress waves (LISWs) with the objective of enhancing their adhesion. The density and uniformity of neovascularities were enhanced significantly in the grafted skins that were transfected using LISWs, suggesting the efficacy of this method to improve the outcome of skin transplantation.

Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Obara, Minoru

2007-03-01

258

Human factors on the midway knowledge transfer and research opportunities for safety in the carnival and theme park domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amusement devices are a familiar category of equipment used within the tourism sector to entertain and amuse the public. Safe use of amusement devices requires that the device be in good condition, be operated correctly, be used by appropriate patrons, and be used appropriately. These prerequisites incorporate a range of opportunities to apply existing human factors knowledge, and to conduct

Kathryn Woodcock

2009-01-01

259

Improving plant drought, salt, and freezing tolerance by gene transfer of a single stress-inducible transcription factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant productivity is greatly affected by environmental stresses such as drought, salt loading, and freezing. We reported previously that a cis -acting promoter element, the dehydration response element (DRE), plays an important role in regulating gene expression in response to these stresses. The transcription factor DREB1A specifically interacts with the DRE and induces expression of stress tolerance genes. We show

Mie Kasuga; Qiang Liu; Setsuko Miura; Kazuo Shinozaki; Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki

1999-01-01

260

[Caregiving relatives of people with dementia: which factors influence the transfer from home-care to nursing home?].  

PubMed

Recent research on institutionalization of family members with dementia has shown caregiving-need, caregiver's burden and role conflicts as important influence factors. However, current knowledge is still superficial because most studies used highly aggregated indicators. Logistic regression was used to explore whether differentiated measures of caregiving-needs, caregiver-burden and role conflicts were risk factors for institutionalization of demented elderly people (N=373). A greater distance between households, increased need in housekeeping, a higher income, increased caregiver-burden and low self-evaluation of caregiving-quality are related to an increase in chance for institutionalization. A constant need for supervision and lack of social appreciation are associated with a smaller chance. The results illustrate the dilemma of many caregiving relatives. A future enhancement of the given regression model by including prior decline in caregiving-burden is discussed. PMID:23027390

Oliva Y Hausmann, Andrés; Schacke, Claudia; Zank, Susanne

2012-10-01

261

Therapeutic Angiogenesis Following Arterial Gene Transfer of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in a Rabbit Model of Hindlimb Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasmid phVEGF165, expressing the 165-amino-acid isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an endothelial cell specific mitogen, was applied to the polymer coating of an angioplasty balloon and delivered percutaneously to the iliac artery of rabbits in which the femoral artery had been excised to cause hindlimb ischemia. Site-specific transfection of phVEGF165resulted in augmented development of collateral vessels documented

Satoshi Takeshita; Lawrence Weir; Dongfen Chen; Lu P. Zheng; Reimer Riessen; Christophe Bauters; James F. Symes; Napoleone Ferrara; Jeffrey M. Isner

1996-01-01

262

Molecular tissue engineering: Applications for modulation of mesenchymal stem cells proliferation by transforming growth factor ? 1 gene transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) gene transfection on the proliferation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the mechanism was investigated\\u000a to provide basis for accelerating articular cartilage repairing using molecular tissue engineering technology. TGF-?1 gene at different doses was transduced into the rat bone marrow-derived MSCs to examine the effects of TGF-?1 gene transfection on

Guo Xiaodong; Du Jingyuan; Zheng Qixin; Liu Yong; Duan Deyu; Wu Yongchao

2001-01-01

263

Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation of blackgram: An assessment of factors influencing the efficiency of uidA gene transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying a binary vector pCAMBIA2301, which contains a neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and a ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) interrupted with an intron, was used for transformation of Vigna mungo cotyledonary node explants. Various factors such as preculture and wounding of explants, manipulations in inoculation and\\u000a co-cultivation conditions were found to play a significant role in influencing

R. Saini; P. K. Jaiwal

2007-01-01

264

Induction of focal angiogenesis through adenoviral vector mediated vascular endothelial cell growth factor gene transfer in the mature mouse brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent endothelial cell mitogen and morphogen, which stimulates angiogenesis\\u000a in a wide variety of tissues and lesions in vivo. In this study, we applied adenoviral vector delivered human VEGF165 cDNA to develop focal non-tumor angiogenesis in the mature mouse brain. Seventy-two adult CD-1 mice underwent AdhVEGF, AdlacZ, and saline injection for up to

Guo-Yuan Yang; Bin Xu; Tomoki Hashimoto; Madeleine Huey; Thomas Chaly Jr.; Rong Wen; William L. Young

2003-01-01

265

HSV-mediated transfer of interleukin-10 reduces inflammatory pain through modulation of membrane tumor necrosis factor alpha in spinal cord microglia.  

PubMed

To dissect the molecular basis of the neuroimmune response associated with the genesis of inflammatory (nociceptive) pain, we constructed a herpes simplex virus-based gene transfer vector to express the antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), and used it to examine the effect of IL-10 expression in activated microglial cells in vitro, and in inflammatory pain in vivo. IL-10 reduced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and decreased the expression of full-length membrane spanning tumor necrosis factor-alpha (mTNFalpha) following lipopolysaccharide stimulation of microglia in vitro. IL-10 also reduced intracellular cleavage of mTNFalpha and release of the soluble cleavage product sTNFalpha. Similar effects on TNFalpha expression were observed when the cells were pretreated with a p38 MAPK inhibitor. In animals, injection of a dilute solution of formalin in the skin resulted in an increase in mTNFalpha in spinal dorsal horn, without detectable sTNFalpha. Local release of IL-10 achieved by gene transfer reduced the number of spontaneous flinches in the early and delayed phases of the formalin test of inflammatory pain. The effect of IL-10 on nocisponsive behavior correlated with a block in phosphorylation of p38 and reduced expression of 26 kDa mTNFalpha in spinal microglia. The results emphasize the key role played by membrane TNFalpha in the spinal neuroimmune response in pain caused by peripheral inflammation. PMID:18033311

Zhou, Z; Peng, X; Hao, S; Fink, D J; Mata, M

2007-11-22

266

A fluorescent nanoprobe based on graphene oxide fluorescence resonance energy transfer for the rapid determination of oncoprotein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).  

PubMed

Oncoprotein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most critical growth factors that regulates tumor growth and division. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is also an important biomarker for different diseases and clinical disorders. Herein, we propose a graphene oxide (GO) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based aptasensor for rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of VEGF in homogeneous solution. The fluorescent dye-labeled anti-VEGF aptamer is adsorbed on the surface of GO via ?-? interaction between the flat planar GO sheets and the ring structures in the nucleobases, which results in the fluorescence quenching of the dye due to the highly effective FRET from the dye to GO. Upon recognition and binding with the target VEGF, it specifically forms a VEGF/aptamer complex and then release from the GO surface, leading to the restoration of fluorescence signal of the dye. This GO-based sensing platform exhibits high sensitivity and specificity toward VEGF versus other proteins, with the detection limits corresponding to 2.5×10(-10) M. The sensitivity of this new type of aptamer-based assay is at least one order of magnitude higher than that of conventional homogeneous optical assays. Moreover, the application of this nanosensor for human serum sample analysis is also demonstrated. The GO/aptamer-based assay approach holds great promise as a general platform for detection of a variety of target molecules. PMID:24160878

Wang, Sheng-E; Si, Shihui

2013-11-01

267

Improved measurement of labile proton concentration-weighted chemical exchange rate (kws) with experimental factor-compensated and T1-normalized quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI  

PubMed Central

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI enables measurement of dilute CEST agents and microenvironment properties such as pH and temperature, holding great promise for in vivo applications. However, because of confounding concomitant RF irradiation and relaxation effects, the CEST-weighted MRI contrast may not fully characterize the underlying CEST phenomenon. We postulated that the accuracy of quantitative CEST MRI could be improved if the experimental factors (labeling efficiency and RF spillover effect) were estimated and taken into account. Specifically, the experimental factor was evaluated as a function of exchange rate and CEST agent concentration ratio, which remained relatively constant for intermediate RF irradiation power levels. Hence, the experimental factors can be calculated based on the reasonably estimated exchange rate and labile proton concentration ratio, which significantly improved quantification. The simulation was confirmed with Creatine phantoms of serially varied concentration titrated to the same pH, whose reverse exchange rate (kws) was found to be linearly correlated with the concentration. In summary, the proposed solution provides simplified yet reasonably accurate quantification of the underlying CEST system, which may help guide the ongoing development of quantitative CEST MRI.

Wu, Renhua; Liu, Charng-Ming; Liu, Philip K; Sun, Phillip Zhe

2012-01-01

268

Ozone and NO2 air-mass factors for zenith-sky spectrometers: Intercomparison of calclations with different radiative transfer models  

SciTech Connect

An intercomparison between results from the different radiative transfer models used to calculate air-mass factors (AMFs) at twilight is presented. The comparison was made for ozone AMFs at 510 nm and for NO2 AMFs at 440 nm. Vertical profiles were specified. Results are presented firstly for calculations in a pure Rayleigh atmosphere, then including background aerosols. Relative differences between calculated AMFs from different models cause relative errors in vertical columns of ozone and NO2 measured by zenith-sky spectrometers. For commonly used averages over solar zenith angles, these relative errors are +/- 2.3% in the vertical column of ozone and +/- 1.1% in the vertical column of NO2. Refinements to the calculations, suggested by intercomparison, should reduce these errors to +/- 1.0% for ozone and +/- 0.5% for NO2.

Sarkissian, A.; Roscoe, H.K.; Fish, D.; Van Roozendael, M.; Gil, M.; Chen, H.B.; Wang, P.; Pommereau, J.P.; Lenoble, J. [BAS, Cambridge (United Kingdom)]|[UCAM, Cambridge (United Kingdom)]|[IASB, Brussels (Belgium)]|[INTA, Madrid (Spain)]|[LOA, Villeneuve d`Ascq (France)]|[SA (France)

1995-05-01

269

Determination of nicotine in tobacco with second-order spectra data of charge-transfer complex in ethanol-water binary solvents processed by parallel factor analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of nicotine in mixtures without pre-separation has been proposed. Nicotine could react with 2,4-dinitrophenol through a charge-transfer reaction to form a colored complex. The second-order data from the visible absorption spectra of the complex in a series of ethanol-water binary solvents with various water volume fractions could be expressed as the combination of two bilinear data matrices. With the bilinear model, the second-order spectra data of mixtures containing nicotine and other interferents could be analysed by using second-order calibration algorithms, and the determination of nicotine in the mixtures could be achieved. The algorithm used here was parallel factor analysis. The method has been successfully used to determine nicotine in tobacco samples with satisfactory results.

Gao, Shuqin; Liao, Lifu; Xiao, Xilin; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Du, Nan; Du, Jiangfeng

2010-05-01

270

Accelerated adhesion of grafted skin by laser-induced stress wave-based gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gene therapy using wound healing-associated growth factor gene has received much attention as a new strategy for improving the outcome of tissue transplantation. We delivered plasmid DNA coding for human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) to rat free skin grafts by the use of laser-induced stress waves (LISWs); autografting was performed with the grafts. Systematic analysis was conducted to evaluate the adhesion properties of the grafted tissue; angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and reepithelialization were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and reperfusion was measured by laser Doppler imaging as a function of time after grafting. Both the level of angiogenesis on day 3 after grafting and the increased ratio of blood flow on day 4 to that on day 3 were significantly higher than those in five control groups: grafting with hHGF gene injection alone, grafting with control plasmid vector injection alone, grafting with LISW application alone, grafting with LISW application after control plasmid vector injection, and normal grafting. Reepithelialization was almost completed on day 7 even at the center of the graft with LISW application after hHGF gene injection, while it was not for the grafts of the five control groups. These findings demonstrate the validity of our LISW-based HGF gene transfection to accelerate the adhesion of grafted skins.

Aizawa, Kazuya; Sato, Shunichi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

2009-11-01

271

An Adeno-Associated Virus-Based Intracellular Sensor of Pathological Nuclear Factor-?B Activation for Disease-Inducible Gene Transfer  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of resident cells by NF-?B activating cytokines is a central element of inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). This disease-mediated NF-?B activation could be used to drive transgene expression selectively in affected cells, using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer. We have constructed a series of AAV vectors expressing GFP under the control of different promoters including NF-?B -responsive elements. As an initial screen, the vectors were tested in vitro in HEK-293T cells treated with TNF-?. The best profile of GFP induction was obtained with a promoter containing two blocks of four NF-?B -responsive sequences from the human JCV neurotropic polyoma virus promoter, fused to a new tight minimal CMV promoter, optimally distant from each other. A therapeutical gene, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) cDNA under the control of serotype 1-encapsidated NF-?B -responsive AAV vector (AAV-NF) was protective in senescent cultures of mouse cortical neurons. AAV-NF was then evaluated in vivo in the kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy, a major neurological disorder with a central pathophysiological role for NF-?B activation. We demonstrate that AAV-NF, injected in the hippocampus, responded to disease induction by mediating GFP expression, preferentially in CA1 and CA3 neurons and astrocytes, specifically in regions where inflammatory markers were also induced. Altogether, these data demonstrate the feasibility to use disease-activated transcription factor-responsive elements in order to drive transgene expression specifically in affected cells in inflammatory CNS disorders using AAV-mediated gene transfer.

Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Vermoesen, Katia; Melas, Catherine; Pythoud, Catherine; Levivier, Marc; De Witte, Olivier; Luthi-Carter, Ruth; Clinkers, Ralph; Tenenbaum, Liliane

2013-01-01

272

Motivational Influences on Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Both transfer and motivation are important constructs accompanied by extensive bodies of literature. However, there is a lack of integration of the 2 constructs. This article analyzes the potential indirect influence of motivational factors on transfer by reviewing studies that examine the influence of motivation on cognitive processes related to…

Pugh, Kevin J.; Bergin, David A.

2006-01-01

273

Credit risk transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive summary Techniques for transferring credit risk, such as financial guarantees and credit insurance, have been a long-standing feature of financial markets. In the past few years, however, the range of credit risk transfer (CRT) instruments and the circumstances in which they are used have widened considerably. A number of factors have contributed to this growth, including: greater focus by

2003-01-01

274

Transfer form  

Cancer.gov

06/06 Transfer Investigational Agent Form This form is to be used for an intra-in stitutional transfer, one transfer/form. Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis National Cancer Institute National Institutes of

275

Factorize  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps students explore the relationship between area and multiplication. First, users are asked to input all factor pairs of a given number. Then, selecting each of those factor pairs, the user draws the respective rectangular array by clicking and dragging across a grid. Options include the use of the commutative property (e.g., user must enter both 2x4 and 4x2 for factors of 8 and represent them with different arrays), entering a number of the user's own choice, and an optional scoring feature allowing the user to keep track of the number correct.

2004-01-01

276

Accelerated adhesion of grafted skins by laser-induced stress wave-based gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our previous study, we delivered plasmid DNA coding for human hepatocyto growth factor (hHGF) to rat skin grafts based on laser-induced stress wave (LISW), by which production of CD31-positive cells in the grafted skins was found to be enhanced, suggesting improved angiogenesis. In this study, we validated the efficacy of this method to accelerate adhesion of grafted skins; reperfusion and reepithelialization in the grafted skins were examined. As a graft, dorsal skin of a rat was exsected and its subcutaneous fat was removed. Plasmid DNA expression vector for hHGF was injected into the graft; on its back surface a laser target with a transparent sheet for plasma confinement was placed, and irradiated with three nanosecond laser pulses at a laser fluence of 1.2 J/cm2 (532 nm; spot diameter, 3 mm) to generate LISWs. After the application of LISWs, the graft was transplanted onto its donor site. We evaluated blood flow by laser Doppler imaging and analyzed reepithelialization based on immunohistochemistry as a function of postgrafting time. It was found that both reperfusion and reepithelialization were significantly enhanced for the grafts with gene transfection than for normal grafts; reepithelialization was completed within 7 days after transplantation with the transfected grafts. These findings demonstrate that adhesion of grafted skins can be accelerated by delivering HGF gene to the grafts based on LISWs.

Aizawa, Kazuya; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

2009-02-01

277

Technology-Transfer Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A workshop was held to generate a better understanding of the many diverse factors and steps involved in the technology transfer process. The introductory presentations reviewed relevant theories, addressed the importance of planning for the process, and ...

1982-01-01

278

Comparison of Passively Transferred Antibodies in Bighorn and Domestic Lambs Reveals One Factor in Differential Susceptibility of These Species to Mannheimia haemolytica-Induced Pneumonia ?  

PubMed Central

Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes fatal bronchopneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin is the primary virulence factor of this organism. BHS are more susceptible to developing fatal pneumonia than the related species Ovis aries (domestic sheep [DS]). In BHS herds affected by pneumonia, lamb recruitment is severely impaired for years subsequent to an outbreak. We hypothesized that a lack of maternally derived antibodies (Abs) against M. haemolytica provides an immunologic basis for enhanced susceptibility of BH lambs to population-limiting pneumonia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the titers of Abs directed against M. haemolytica in the sera of BH and domestic lambs at birth through 12 weeks of age. Results revealed that BH lambs had approximately 18-fold lower titers of Ab against surface antigens of M. haemolytica and approximately 20-fold lower titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs than domestic lambs. The titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the serum and colostrum samples of BH ewes were approximately 157- and 50-fold lower than those for domestic ewes, respectively. Comparatively, the higher titers of parainfluenza 3 virus-neutralizing Abs in the BH lambs ruled out the possibility that these BHS had an impaired ability to passively transfer Abs to their lambs. These results suggest that lower levels of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the sera of BH ewes, and resultant low Ab titers in their lambs, may be a critical factor in the poor lamb recruitment in herds affected by pneumonia.

Herndon, Caroline N.; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Knowles, Donald P.; Call, Douglas R.; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

2011-01-01

279

A Multi-Site Study for Detection of the Factor V (Leiden) Mutation from Genomic DNA Using a Homogeneous Invader Microtiter Plate Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Assay  

PubMed Central

The goal of this multicenter study was to evaluate the second-generation Invader technology for detecting the factor V (Leiden) mutation directly from genomic DNA of different sample types. Invader assay results were compared with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) analysis. The Invader assay is a PCR-independent methodology that uses a microtiter plate format. In the assay, a specific upstream Invader oligonucleotide and a downstream probe hybridize in tandem to a complementary DNA template and form a partially overlapping structure. The Cleavase VIII enzyme recognizes and cuts this structure to release the 5? flap of the probe. This flap then serves as an Invader oligonucleotide to direct cleavage of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe in a second invasive cleavage reaction. Cleavage of this FRET probe results in the generation of a fluorescent signal. The results of the Invader assay were 99.5% concordant with the PCR-based methods. Of the 372 samples tested once, only two gave discordant results (one from operator error and one from unknown causes), but were concordant on retesting. These results indicate that a simple microtiter plate-based Invader assay can reliably genotype clinical patient samples for the factor V (Leiden) point mutation directly from genomic DNA without prior target amplification.

Ledford, Marlies; Friedman, Kenneth D.; Hessner, Martin J.; Moehlenkamp, Cynthia; Williams, Thomas M.; Larson, Richard S.

2000-01-01

280

Transient blockade of the inducible costimulator pathway generates long-term tolerance to factor VIII after nonviral gene transfer into hemophilia A mice  

PubMed Central

Formation of inhibitory antibodies is a common problem encountered in clinical treatment for hemophilia. Human factor VIII (hFVIII) plasmid gene therapy in hemophilia A mice also leads to strong humoral responses. We demonstrate that short-term therapy with an anti-ICOS monoclonal antibody to transiently block the inducible costimulator/inducible costimulator ligand (ICOS/ICOSL) signaling pathway led to sustained tolerance to hFVIII in hFVIII plasmid–treated hemophilia A mice and allowed persistent, high-level FVIII functional activity (100%-300% of normal). Anti-ICOS treatment resulted in depletion of ICOS+CD4+ T cells and activation of CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs in the peripheral blood, spleen, and lymph nodes. CD4+ T cells from anti-ICOS–treated mice did not proliferate in response to hFVIII stimulation and produced high levels of regulatory cytokines, including interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-?. Moreover, CD4+CD25+ Tregs from tolerized mice adoptively transferred dominant tolerance in syngeneic hFVIII plasmid-treated hemophilia A mice and reduced the production of antibodies against FVIII. Anti-ICOS–treated mice tolerized to hFVIII generated normal primary and secondary antibody responses after immunization with the T-dependent antigen, bacteriophage ?x 174, indicating maintenance of immune competency. Our data indicate that transient anti-ICOS monoclonal antibody treatment represents a novel single-agent immunomodulatory strategy to overcome the immune responses against transgene product after gene therapy.

Peng, Baowei; Ye, Peiqing; Blazar, Bruce R.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Rawlings, David J.; Ochs, Hans D.

2008-01-01

281

Production of transgenic goats expressing human coagulation factor IX in the mammary glands after nuclear transfer using transfected fetal fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

There are growing numbers of recombinant proteins that have been expressed in milk. Thus one can consider the placement of any gene of interest under the control of the regulatory elements of a milk protein gene in a dairy farm animal. Among the transgene introducing techniques, only nuclear transfer (NT) allows 100 % efficiency and bypasses the mosaicism associated with counterpart techniques. In this study, in an attempt to produce a transgenic goat carrying the human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) transgene, goat fetal fibroblasts were electroporated with a linearized marker-free construct in which the transgene was juxtaposed to ?-casein promoter designed to secret the recombinant protein in goat milk. Two different lines of transfected cells were used as donors for NT to enucleated oocytes. Two transgenic goats were liveborn. DNA sequencing of the corresponding transgene locus confirmed authenticity of the cloning procedure and the complementary experiments on the whey demonstrated expression of human factor IX in the milk of transgenic goats. In conclusion, our study has provided the groundwork for a prosperous and promising approach for large-scale production and therapeutic application of hFIX expressed in transgenic goats. PMID:22869287

Amiri Yekta, Amir; Dalman, Azam; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Shahverdi, Abdol Hossein; Fakheri, Rahman; Vazirinasab, Hamed; Daneshzadeh, Mohammad Taghi; Vojgani, Mahdi; Zomorodipour, Alireza; Fatemi, Nayeralsadat; Vahabi, Zeinab; Mirshahvaladi, Shahab; Ataei, Fariba; Bahraminejad, Elmira; Masoudi, Najmehsadat; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Gourabi, Hamid

2012-08-07

282

Stable gene transfer and expression of human blood coagulation factor IX after intramuscular injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus  

PubMed Central

We sought to determine whether intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing human factor IX (hF.IX) could direct expression of therapeutic levels of the transgene in experimental animals. High titer (1012–1013 vector genomes/ml) rAAV expressing hF.IX was prepared, purified, and injected into hindlimb muscles of C57BL/6 mice and Rag 1 mice. In the immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice, immunofluorescence staining of muscle harvested 3 months after injection demonstrated the presence of hF.IX protein, and PCR analysis of muscle DNA was positive for AAV DNA, but no hF.IX was detected in mouse plasma. Further studies showed that these mice had developed circulating antibodies to hF.IX. In follow-up experiments in Rag 1 mice, which carry a mutation in the recombinase activating gene-1 and thus lack functional B and T cells, similar results were seen on DNA analysis of muscle, but these mice also demonstrated therapeutic levels (200–350 ng/ml) of F.IX in the plasma. The time course of F.IX expression demonstrates that levels gradually increase over a period of several weeks before reaching a plateau that is stable 6 months after injection. In other experiments we demonstrate colocalization of hF.IX and collagen IV in intersitial spaces between muscle fibers. Collagen IV has recently been identified as a F.IX-binding protein; this finding explains the unusual pattern of immunofluorescent staining for F.IX shown in these experiments. Thus rAAV can be used to direct stable expression of therapeutic levels of F.IX after intramuscular injection and is a feasible strategy for treatment of patients with hemophilia B.

Herzog, Roland W.; Hagstrom, J. Nathan; Kung, Szu-Hoo; Tai, Shing Jen; Wilson, James M.; Fisher, Krishna J.; High, Katherine A.

1997-01-01

283

DONOR GRAFT INTERFERON REGULATORY FACTOR-1 (IRF-1) GENE TRANSFER WORSENS LIVER TRANSPLANT ISCHEMIA/REPERFUSION INJURY  

PubMed Central

Background Liver ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury is a phenomenon that leads to graft dysfunction following liver transplantation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind this process is crucial to developing strategies to prevent short and long term graft dysfunction. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of the transcription factor, IRF-1, in a model of orthotopic rat liver transplantation. Methods Orthotopic syngeneic LEW rat liver transplantation (OLT) was performed after 18 or 3 hours preservation in cold UW solution. AdIRF-1 or control gene vector (Adnull) was delivered to the liver by donor intravenous pretreatment 4 days before graft harvesting. Uninfected grafts also served as controls. Recipients were sacrificed 1 to 24 hours post-transplantation. Results Rats that underwent OLT with long-term preserved graft (18 hours) displayed increased hepatic nuclear expression of IRF-1 protein at 1 and 3 hours. Rats pre-treated with AdIRF-1 prior to transplantation had increased ALT levels and increased expression of IFN-?, IFN-?, IL-12, and iNOS in short-term period graft(3 hours) when compared with donor livers pre-treated with Adnull. AdIRF-1 pre-treated donor livers also exhibited increased susceptibility to early apoptosis in the transplanted grafts with increased TUNEL staining expression of cleaved caspase-3. Additionally, AdIRF-1 pre-treated donor livers had increased activation of the MAP kinase JNK as compared with Adnull pre-treated donor livers. Conclusions IRF-1 is an important regulator of IR injury after OLT in rats. Targeting of IRF-1 may be a potential strategy to ameliorate ischemic liver injury after transplantation in order to minimize organ dysfunction.

Kim, Kee-Hwan; Dhupar, Rajeev; Ueki, Shinya; Cardinal, Jon; Pan, Pinhua; Cao, Zongxian; Cho, Sung W; Murase, Noriko; Tsung, Allan; Geller, David A

2009-01-01

284

Transfer factors to Whitetail deer: comparison of stomach-content, plant-sample and soil-sample concentrations as the denominator.  

PubMed

A recent study measured transfer factors for 49 elements in hunter-killed Whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), using concentrations in the stomach content as the substrate/denominator to compute muscle/vegetation concentration ratios (CR(m-stomach)) and daily fractional transfer factors (F(f)). Using the stomach content ensured an accurate representation of what the deer ate, except that it was limited in time to the vegetation selected by the animal just before it was killed. Here, two alternatives are considered, one where the feed is represented by samples of 21 different vegetation types that deer may have eaten in the area (CR(m-plant)), and the other is using soil concentration in the region as the denominator (CR(m-soil)). The latter is the formulation used in the ERICA tool, and other sources, for risk assessment to non-human biota. Across elements, (log) concentrations in all the media were highly correlated. The stomach contents had consistently higher ash and rare earth element concentrations than the sampled (and washed) vegetation and this was attributed to soil or dust ingestion. This lends credence to the use of soil-based CR(m-soil) values, despite (or more accurately because of) the inclusive yet gross simplicity of the approach. However, it was clear that variation of CR(m-soil) values was larger than for CR(m-stomach) or CR(m-plant), even if soil load on vegetation was included in the latter values. It was also noted that the variation in CR(m-soil) computed from the product of CR(m-plant) and CR(plant-soil) (where CR(plant-soil) is the plant/soil concentration ratio) was somewhat larger than the variation inherent in CR(m-soil) data. Thus it is reasonable to estimate CR(m-soil) from CR(m-plant) and CR(plant-soil) if observed CR(m-soil) values are not available, but this introduces further uncertainty. PMID:23287432

Sheppard, S C

2012-12-31

285

Theories supporting transfer of training  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews theories and conceptual frameworks necessary to describe three factors affecting transfer of training. This information helps HRD pro- fessionals understand why people wish to change their performance after attending a training program, what training design contributes to people's ability to transfer skills successfully, and what kind of organizational environment supports the transfer. This article also provides HRD

Siriporn Yamnill; Gary N. McLean

2001-01-01

286

Circadian regulation of intestinal lipid absorption by apolipoprotein AIV involves forkhead transcription factors A2 and O1 and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.  

PubMed

We have shown previously that Clock, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), and nocturnin are involved in the circadian regulation of intestinal lipid absorption. Here, we clarified the role of apolipoprotein AIV (apoAIV) in the diurnal regulation of plasma lipids and intestinal lipid absorption in mice. Plasma triglyceride in apoAIV(-/-) mice showed diurnal variations similar to apoAIV(+/+) mice; however, the increases in plasma triglyceride at night were significantly lower in these mice. ApoAIV(-/-) mice absorbed fewer lipids at night and showed blunted response to daytime feeding. To explain reasons for these lower responses, we measured MTP expression; intestinal MTP was low at night, and its induction after food entrainment was less in apoAIV(-/-) mice. Conversely, apoAIV overexpression increased MTP mRNA in hepatoma cells, indicating transcriptional regulation. Mechanistic studies revealed that sequences between -204/-775 bp in the MTP promoter respond to apoAIV and that apoAIV enhances expression of FoxA2 and FoxO1 transcription factors and their binding to the identified cis elements in the MTP promoter at night. Knockdown of FoxA2 and FoxO1 abolished apoAIV-mediated MTP induction. Similarly, knockdown of apoAIV in differentiated Caco-2 cells reduced MTP, FoxA2, and FoxO1 mRNA levels, cellular MTP activity, and media apoB. Moreover, FoxA2 and FoxO1 expression showed diurnal variations, and their expression was significantly lower in apoAIV(-/-) mice. These data indicate that apoAIV modulates diurnal changes in lipid absorption by regulating forkhead transcription factors and MTP and that inhibition of apoAIV expression might reduce plasma lipids. PMID:23729668

Pan, Xiaoyue; Munshi, Mohamed Khalid; Iqbal, Jahangir; Queiroz, Joyce; Sirwi, Alaa Ahmed; Shah, Shrenik; Younus, Abdullah; Hussain, M Mahmood

2013-05-31

287

Defining the Disulfide Bonds of Insulin-like Growth Factor-binding Protein-5 by Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Electron Transfer Dissociation and Collision-induced Dissociation*  

PubMed Central

The six high-affinity insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) comprise a conserved family of secreted molecules that modulate IGF actions by regulating their half-life and access to signaling receptors, and also exert biological effects that are independent of IGF binding. IGFBPs are composed of cysteine-rich amino- (N-) and carboxyl- (C-) terminal domains, along with a cysteine-poor central linker segment. IGFBP-5 is the most conserved IGFBP, and contains 18 cysteines, but only 2 of 9 putative disulfide bonds have been mapped to date. Using a mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategy combining sequential electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) steps, in which ETD fragmentation preferentially induces cleavage of disulfide bonds, and CID provides exact disulfide linkage assignments between liberated peptides, we now have definitively mapped 5 disulfide bonds in IGFBP-5. In addition, in conjunction with ab initio molecular modeling we are able to assign the other 4 disulfide linkages to within a GCGCCXXC motif that is conserved in five IGFBPs. Because of the nature of ETD fragmentation MS experiments were performed without chemical reduction of IGFBP-5. Our results not only establish a disulfide bond map of IGFBP-5 but also define a general approach that takes advantage of the specificity of ETD and the scalability of tandem MS, and the predictive power of ab initio molecular modeling to characterize unknown disulfide linkages in proteins.

Nili, Mahta; Mukherjee, Aditi; Shinde, Ujwal; David, Larry; Rotwein, Peter

2012-01-01

288

Vascular endothelial growth factor response in porcine coronary and peripheral arteries using nonsurgical occlusion model, local delivery, and liposome-mediated gene transfer.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis and arteriogenesis play an important role in advanced vascular occlusive diseases. Whether angiogenesis or arteriogenesis predominate depends on the preexisting collateral vessel network, the type and location of occlusion, and different developmental origin of the arteries. Angiogenesis and arteriogenesis were investigated following vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment in different arteries important in occlusive arterial diseases using a newly developed porcine arterial occlusion model. Porcine coronary and peripheral arteries were occluded interventionally using blinded stent grafts. Gene transfer was performed using a needle injection catheter and cationic lipid DOCSPER as gene carrier. DNA and gene expression in arterial tissue was examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Vessel development was determined by angiography, immunohistochemistry, and measurement of capillary density. The transfected gene and its expression were found 3 months following application. In tissue adjacent to coronary arteries, there was significantly enhanced capillary density but no increase in angiographic score. In contrast, tissue surrounding peripheral arteries demonstrated no enhancement of capillary density but an enhancement in angiographic score. These results demonstrate differential responses to VEGF treatment in coronary and peripheral arteries resulting predominantly in either angiogenesis or arteriogenesis. Further investigation of VEGF signaling pathway is necessary for better understanding of the processes of vascular development, which may have potential impact on the design of cardiovascular therapeutics. PMID:14660085

Pelisek, Jaroslav; Fuchs, Alexandra; Engelmann, Markus G; Shimizu, Masumi; Golda, Adam; Mekkaoui, Choukri; Rolland, Pierre H; Nikol, Sigrid

2003-01-01

289

The structure of a ring-opened proliferating cell nuclear antigen-replication factor C complex revealed by fluorescence energy transfer  

PubMed Central

Numerous proteins that function in DNA metabolic pathways are known to interact with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The important function of PCNA in stimulating various cellular activities requires its topological linkage with DNA. Loading of the circular PCNA onto duplex DNA requires the activity of a clamp-loader [replication factor C (RFC)] complex and the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. The mechanistic and structural details regarding PCNA loading by the RFC complex are still developing. In particular, the positive identification of a long-hypothesized structure of an open clamp–RFC complex as an intermediate in loading has remained elusive. In this study, we capture an open yeast PCNA clamp in a complex with RFC through fluorescence energy transfer experiments. We also follow the topological transitions of PCNA in the various steps of the clamp-loading pathway through both steady-state and stopped-flow fluorescence studies. We find that ATP effectively drives the clamp-loading process to completion with the formation of the closed PCNA bound to DNA, whereas ATP?S cannot. The information derived from this work complements that obtained from previous structural and mechanistic studies and provides a more complete picture of a eukaryotic clamp-loading pathway using yeast as a paradigm.

Zhuang, Zhihao; Yoder, Bonita L.; Burgers, Peter M. J.; Benkovic, Stephen J.

2006-01-01

290

Influence of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 on plasma clearance and transfer of insulin-like growth factors-I and -II from plasma into mammary-derived lymph and milk of goats.  

PubMed

Plasma clearance of insulin-like growth factors-I and -II (IGF-I and -II) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) from lactating goats (n = 4) was determined following a single intravenous injection of the corresponding 125I-labelled human protein. Transfer of these proteins out of the vascular space was monitored by their subsequent appearance in mammary-derived lymph and milk. Clearance of 125I-IGFBP-2 from circulation was 0.37 +/- 0.06 ml/min/kg, which is markedly greater than that of 125I-IGF-I or -II (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 ml/min/kg respectively). This was also reflected in longer elimination half-lives for IGF-I (353 +/- 6 min) and -II (254 +/- 8 min) compared with IGFBP-2 (110 +/- 9 min). Three hours after injection of the 125I-labelled protein, the plasma:lymph ratio of trichloroacetic acid-precipitable radioactivity was 1.54 +/- 0.04, 3.3 +/- 0.6 and 4.1 +/- 0.4 for IGFBP-2, IGF-I and -II respectively. The form of 125I-IGFBP-2 in lymph was not different from that of plasma. Elevation of plasma concentrations of IGFBP-2 by its intravenous infusion significantly decreased plasma half-life of both IGF-I and -II (251 +/- 8 and 198 +/- 7 min respectively). Although the amount and rate of transfer of IGF into mammary-derived lymph was decreased slightly by IGFBP-2, concentrations eventually obtained were not different from control. However, secretion of IGFs into milk was significantly reduced by IGFBP-2, particularly in the case of IGF-I. These results are consistent with the ability of all three compounds to cross the vascular endothelium intact and of IGFBP-2 to decrease the uptake of IGF by mammary epithelium and subsequent secretion into milk. IGFBP-2 may well have acted to target plasma IGF towards non-mammary tissues, thus explaining the more rapid plasma clearance of IGFs in the presence of elevated IGFBP-2. PMID:8708553

Prosser, C G; Schwander, J

1996-07-01

291

Pragmatic Transfer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempting to clarify the concept of pragmatic transfer, this article proposes as a basic distinction Leech/Thomas' dichotomy of sociopragmatics versus pragmalinguistics, presenting evidence for transfer at both levels. Issues discussed include pragmatic universals in speech act realization, conditions for pragmatic transfer, communicative…

Kasper, Gabriele

1992-01-01

292

Normal calves produced after transfer of embryos cultured in a chemically defined medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization in Japanese black cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine whether high concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) would have a beneficial effect on bovine embryo development in vitro and to obtain normal calves by using an ovum pick up method and embryo culture in a chemically defined medium. When compared with controls, EGF (100 or 200 ng/ml) or IGF-I (50 or 100 ng/ml) significantly increased the rate of embryos that developed into blastocysts during an 8-day culture after the in vitro fertilization of oocytes obtained from ovaries from a slaughterhouse. IGF-I induced a dose-dependent increase in cell number in both the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm, whereas EGF stimulated proliferation only in the inner cell mass. A combination of EGF (100 ng/ml) and IGF-I (50 ng/ml) produced an additive effect, and embryos developed into blastocysts at a comparatively high rate (27.9%) compared with controls (12.0%). A similar rate of development was achieved using a combination of EGF and IGF-I in the culture of embryos following ovum pick up by ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicular aspiration and in vitro fertilization, and 5 blastocysts that developed after the culture were transferred into uteri; two embryos implanted, and normal calves were born. These results suggest that the combined use of EGF and IGF-I makes bovine embryo culture in a chemically defined medium a practical and useful procedure for producing blastocysts, and its application to embryo culture following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization could be useful for producing normal calves. PMID:22075559

Sakagami, Nobutada; Umeki, Hidenobu; Nishino, Osamu; Uchiyama, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Kyoko; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Kaneko, Etsushi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi

2011-11-11

293

Anti-tumor effect of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of pigment epithelium-derived factor on mouse B16-F10 melanoma  

PubMed Central

Background Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor growth, invasion, and eventually metastasis. Antiangiogenic strategies have been proven to be a promising approach for clinical therapy for a variety of tumors. As a potent inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has recently been studied and used as an anticancer agent in several tumor models. Methods A recombined adenovirus carrying PEDF gene (Ad-PEDF) was prepared, and its expression by infected cells and in treated animals was confirmed with Western blotting and ELISA, respectively. Its activity for inhibiting human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation was tested using the MTT assay. C57BL/6 mice bearing B16-F10 melanoma were treated with i.v. administration of 5 × 108 IU/mouse Ad-PEDF, or 5 × 108 IU/mouse Ad-Null, or normal saline (NS), every 3 days for a total of 4 times. Tumor volume and survival time were recorded. TUNEL, CD31 and H&E stainings of tumor tissue were conducted to examine apoptosis, microvessel density and histological morphology changes. Antiangiogenesis was determined by the alginate-encapsulated tumor cell assay. Results The recombinant PEDF adenovirus is able to transfer the PEDF gene to infected cells and successfully produce secretory PEDF protein, which exhibits potent inhibitory effects on HUVEC proliferation. Through inhibiting angiogenesis, reducing MVD and increasing apoptosis, Ad-PEDF treatment reduced tumor volume and prolonged survival times of mouse bearing B16-F10 melanoma. Conclusion Our data indicate that Ad-PEDF may provide an effective approach to inhibit mouse B16-F10 melanoma growth.

Yang, Li-Ping; Cheng, Ping; Peng, Xing-Chen; Shi, Hua-Shan; He, Wei-Hong; Cui, Feng-Yu; Luo, Shun-Tao; Wei, Yu-Quan; Yang, Li

2009-01-01

294

Applicability of moisture transfer parameters estimated by correlation between Biot number and lag factor (Bi-G correlation) for convective drying of eggplant slices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate values of the moisture transfer parameters are necessary to study heat and mass transfer, particularly for the efficient design of both process and equipment. However, these parameters obtained from empirical equations or analytical solutions of Fick's second diffusion law are generally different from each other. In order to make simulation more accurate and closer to the fact, it is necessary to perform theoretical analysis and test of available empirical equations in literatures. In this work, such efforts were made: firstly, moisture transfer parameters were evaluated by Bi-G correlation; then, the obtained parameters were substituted to Fick's second law of diffusion model, and the model was numerically calculated with convective boundary condition. The results show that although the exponential equation fits the experimental data well, the data predicted from Fick's second law deviate far from the experimental data. This implicates that Bi-G correlation need be further improved to obtain better accurate moisture transfer parameters.

Liu, Xianxi; Hou, Hongying; Chen, Junruo

2013-11-01

295

Comparison of Box-Air-Mass-Factors and Radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) Geometries calculated from different UV\\/visible Radiative Transfer Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a comparison exercise of radiative transfer models (RTM) of various international research groups for Multiple AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) viewing geometry are presented. In contrast to previous comparison exercises, box-air-mass-factors (box-AMFs) for various atmospheric height layers were modelled, which describe the sensitivity of the measurements as a function of altitude. In addition, radiances were calculated

T. Wagner; J. P. Burrows; T. Deutschmann; B. Dix; C. von Friedeburg; U. Frieß; F. Hendrick; K.-P. Heue; H. Irie; H. Iwabuchi; Y. Kanaya; J. Keller; C. A. McLinden; H. Oetjen; E. Palazzi; A. Petritoli; U. Platt; O. Postylyakov; J. Pukite; A. Richter; M. van Roozendael; A. Rozanov; V. Rozanov; R. Sinreich; S. Sanghavi; F. Wittrock

2006-01-01

296

In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of Anthrax AntiProtective Antigen and Anti-Lethal Factor Monoclonal Antibodies after Passive Transfer in a Mouse Lethal Toxin Challenge Model To Define Correlates of Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive transfer of antibody may be useful for preexposure prophylaxis against biological agents used as weapons of terror, such as Bacillus anthracis. Studies were performed to evaluate the ability of anthrax antiprotective antigen (anti-PA) and antilethal factor (anti-LF) neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to protect against an anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) challenge in a mouse model and to identify correlates of

Herman F. Staats; S. Munir Alam; Richard M. Scearce; Shaun M. Kirwan; Julia Xianzhi Zhang; William M. Gwinn; Barton F. Haynes

2007-01-01

297

Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore heat transfer and energy efficiency using the context of energy efficient houses. They gain a solid understanding of the three types of heat transfer: radiation, convection and conduction, which are explained in detail and related to the real world. They learn about the many ways solar energy is used as a renewable energy source to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses and operating costs. Students also explore ways in which a device can capitalize on the methods of heat transfer to produce a beneficial result. They are given the tools to calculate the heat transferred between a system and its surroundings.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

298

Gene therapy for preventing neuronal death using hepatocyte growth factor: in vivo gene transfer of HGF to subarachnoid space prevents delayed neuronal death in gerbil hippocampal CA1 neurons.  

PubMed

To develop a novel strategy to prevent delayed neuronal death (DND) following transient occlusion of arteries, the gene of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a novel neurotrophic factor, was transfected into the subarachnoid space of gerbils after transient forebrain ischemia. Importantly, transfection of HGF gene into the subarachnoid space prevented DND, accompanied by a significant increase in HGF in the cerebrospinal fluid. Prevention of DND by HGF is due to the inhibition of apoptosis through the blockade of bax translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. HGF gene transfer into the subarachnoid space may provide a new therapeutic strategy for cerebrovascular disease. PMID:11509947

Hayashi, K; Morishita, R; Nakagami, H; Yoshimura, S; Hara, A; Matsumoto, K; Nakamura, T; Ogihara, T; Kaneda, Y; Sakai, N

2001-08-01

299

Desensitization in vitro: the role of T-suppressor cells, T-suppressor factor and T-acceptor cells in the inhibition of the passive transfer of contact sensitivity to picryl chloride by exposure to antigen in vitro  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates desensitization in vitro, e.g. the inhibition of the transfer of contact sensitivity to picryl chloride by incubation of the passive transfer population with picrylated spleen cells. It asks whether desensitization is based on the same T-suppressor circuit which is responsible for the inhibition of passive transfer by antigen-specific T-suppressor factor (TsF). In this circuit, the T-suppressor cell which acts at the efferent stage (Ts-eff) makes TsF. This TsF depresses contact sensitivity indirectly by arming a T-acceptor cell (Tacc). The armed Tacc, when exposed to antigen (picrylated spleen cells), liberates a non-specific inhibitor which blocks the transfer of contact sensitivity. The three elements of this T-suppressor circuit occur in nylon wool-purified T cells prepared from the lymph nodes and spleens of mice four days after immunization with picryl chloride. This population transfers contact sensitivity and can be desensitized in vitro. It contains Ts-eff which can be isolated by panning (adherence) on picrylated albumin and detected by their ability to inhibit passive transfer. The 24 hr supernatant of cultures of these cells contains TsF. Finally the population contains Tacc which appear in the spleen 2 days after immunization and virtually disappear by 10 days. Further experiments demonstrated that the Ts-eff and the Tacc were not merely present but actually required for desensitization in vitro. Immune cells depleted of both Ts-eff (by panning on picrylated albumin) and Tacc (by arming with anti-oxazolone TsF and panning on oxazolonated albumin) cannot be desensitized. To restore desensitization both Ts-eff and Tacc must be added back. The Ts-eff were characterized as cyclophosphamide resistant, adult thymectomy sensitive cells (Cyr, ATxs), which adhered to antigen and were produced only by specific immunization. The Tacc were characterized as Cys, ATxs cells which adhered to antigen only after arming with antigen-specific T-suppressor factor and were produced after immunization with an unrelated contact sensitizer, `oxazolone'. It was concluded that desensitization in vitro was due to the interaction of two distinct T cells: the T-suppressor cell which acts at the efferent stage of the contact sensitivity reaction and the T-acceptor cell which becomes armed with the specific T-suppressor factor produced by the Ts-eff.

Zembala, M.; Asherson, G. L.; Colizzi, V.; Watkins, Madeleine C.

1982-01-01

300

Evidence of Multiyear Factor IX Expression by AAV-Mediated Gene Transfer to Skeletal Muscle in an Individual with Severe Hemophilia B  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a phase I study, administration of an AAV2-FIX vector into the skeletal muscle of eight hemophilia B subjects proved safe and achieved local gene transfer and FIX expression for at least 10 months after vector injection, the last time point assessed by muscle biopsy. In hemophilia B dogs we have demonstrated FIX in both muscle biopsies and circulation >4

Haiyan Jiang; Glenn F. Pierce; Margareth C. Ozelo; Erich V. de Paula; Joseph A. Vargas; Peter Smith; Jürg Sommer; Alvin Luk; Catherine S. Manno; Katherine A. High; Valder R. Arruda

2006-01-01

301

Examination of an inverted repeat within the F factor origin of transfer: context dependence of F TraI relaxase DNA specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to conjugative transfer of plasmids, one plasmid strand is cleaved in a site- and strand-specific manner by an enzyme called a relaxase or nickase. In F and related plasmids, an inverted repeat is located near the plasmid strand cleavage site, and others have proposed that the ability of this sequence to form a hairpin when in single-stranded form is

Sarah L. Williams; Joel F. Schildbach

2006-01-01

302

Elevated HDL Cholesterol Is a Risk Factor for Ischemic Heart Disease in White Women When Caused by a Common Mutation in the Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The level of HDL cholesterol is inversely related to the risk of ischemic heart disease. Methods and Results—In 9168 women and men from a general population and 946 women and men with ischemic heart disease (all white), we tested the hypothesis that the Ile405Val mutation in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene (CETP) affects HDL cholesterol levels and the risk

Birgit Agerholm-Larsen; Børge G. Nordestgaard; Rolf Steffensen; Gorm Jensen; Anne Tybjærg-Hansen

2010-01-01

303

Generic approaches to transfer.  

PubMed

A review of methods which have been used to describe and predict transfer of radionuclides in biota was undertaken. The intent was to identify approaches that might prove useful in extending predictive estimates to other organisms and environments. Empirical approaches, such as found in the use of transfer factors, were examined. Kinetic methodologies were also presented. Allometric functions, with their ability to make broad generalizations, were also discussed. Data from several earlier radioecological assessments were tested for their potential utility in developing allometric relationships, with the result implying that such an approach might prove useful. PMID:17869391

Higley, K A; Bytwerk, D P

2007-09-14

304

Factors associated with serum immunoglobulin levels in beef calves from Alberta and Saskatchewan and association between passive transfer and health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Inadequate consumption of colostrum can negatively affect calf health and survival. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations of 935 beef calves from 152 herds in Alberta and Saskatchewan have been described, using radial immunodiffusion. The determinants and health effects of serum IgG concentrations were studied in 601 calves sampled between 2 and 8 days of age. Of these calves, 6% had failure of passive transfer and an additional 10% had marginal passive transfer. Serum IgG concentrations were lower in calves born to a heifer, as a twin, or experiencing dystocia. The odds of both calf death and treatment were increased in calves with serum IgG concentrations below 24 g/L; a threshold notably higher than the 16 g/L usually considered as providing adequate passive transfer. The finding of 1/3 of calves with serum IgG concentrations less than 24 g/L suggests that calfhood treatments and mortality could be decreased by ensuring that high risk calves consume colostrum.

Waldner, Cheryl L.; Rosengren, Leigh B.

2009-01-01

305

Accumulation of heavy metals from contaminated soil to plants and evaluation of soil remediation by vermiculite.  

PubMed

We evaluated the distribution of 15 metal ions, namely Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zn and Zr, in the soil of a contaminated site in Piedmont (Italy). This area was found to be heavily contaminated with Cu, Cr and Ni. The availability of these metal ions was studied using Tessier's sequential extraction procedure: the fraction of mobile species, which potentially is the most harmful for the environment, was much higher than that normally present in unpolluted soils. This soil was hence used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with vermiculite to reduce the availability of the pollutants to two plants, Lactuca sativa and Spinacia oleracea, by pot experiments. The results indicated that the addition of vermiculite significantly reduces the uptake of metal pollutants by plants, confirming the possibility of using this clay in amendment treatments of metal-contaminated soils. The effect of plant growth on metal fractionation in soils was investigated. Finally, the sum of the metal percentages extracted into the first two fractions of Tessier's protocol was found to be suitable in predicting the phytoavailability of most of the pollutants present in the investigated soil. PMID:21055788

Malandrino, Mery; Abollino, Ornella; Buoso, Sandro; Giacomino, Agnese; La Gioia, Carmela; Mentasti, Edoardo

2010-11-04

306

Technology transfer to Saudi Arabia petrochemical industry experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia sought transferring petrochemical technology. The transfer aims to reduce the country's dependence on oil and to utilize national resources more efficiently. To investigate the factors affecting the transfer, conditions related to the technology in question and the receiving entity are analyzed. Multinational corporations play a major role in the transfer process. The research shows that joint venture transfers

A. A. K

1987-01-01

307

Intraocular Gene Transfer of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Prevents Death and Increases Responsiveness of Rod Photoreceptors in the retinal degeneration slow mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several mutations causing both photoreceptor degeneration and malfunction have been identified in humans and animals. Although intraocular injection of trophic factors has been shown to reduce photoreceptor death in a few conditions of rapid photoreceptor loss, it is unclear whether long-term ben- eficial changes in functional properties of affected photorecep- tors can be obtained by treatment with these factors. The

Michel Cayouette; Darren Behn; Michael Sendtner; Pierre Lachapelle; Claude Gravel

1998-01-01

308

Estimating the Impurity Concentration Factor on the Boiling Heat Transfer Surface of a Simulated Steam-Generator Tube-Support-Plate Crevice Using an In Situ High-Temperature Conductivity Measurement Technique  

SciTech Connect

To clarify the concentration behavior of sodium hydroxide, which is a representative impurity in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) secondary water coolant of a heat transfer crevice, an in situ high-temperature aqueous conductivity measurement cell was designed with the simulated tube support plate crevice of a PWR steam generator. The concentration factors of sodium hydroxide were calculated from the results of the conductivity measurement, and the effects of heat flux and solution temperature on the concentration factors were also examined. The conductivities in the crevice were measured in deaerated sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions in a range from 260 to 280 deg. C.The main test results show that the conductivity of high-temperature water increased with an increase of concentration and temperature in the deaerated sodium hydroxide solution and that the conductivity in the tube-tube-support-plate crevice was higher than that of bulk water because of concentrated sodium hydroxide in a crevice. Therefore, this method is applicable to evaluation of the impurity concentration behavior in a crevice. The calculated results of the concentration factor reveal that the factor was {approx}2000 in the range of the heat flux, i.e., the range for the region of a dry and wet condition, and the concentration factors in the sodium hydroxide solutions were lower than those of the field data.

Kawamura, Hirotaka; Hirano, Hideo [Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (Japan)

2000-03-15

309

Training Transfer: An Integrative Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the proliferation of training transfer studies in various disciplines, we provide an integrative and analytical review of factors impacting transfer of training. Relevant empirical research for transfer across the management, human resource development (HRD), training, adult learning, performance improvement, and psychology literatures is…

Burke, Lisa A.; Hutchins, Holly M.

2007-01-01

310

Pulse Combustion: Impinging Jet Heat Transfer Enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for convective heat transfer enhancement is described. The technique involves the use of a pulse combustor to generate a transient jet that impinges on a flat plate. Enhancements in convective heat transfer of a factor of up to 2.5, compared to a steady impinging jet at approximately the same Reynolds number, have been obtained. Heat transfer data

R A. EIBECK; J. O. KELLER; T. T. BRAMLETTE; D. J. SAILOR

1993-01-01

311

Measurements of the Proton Elastic-Form-Factor Ratio {mu}{sub p}G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} at Low Momentum Transfer  

SciTech Connect

High-precision measurements of the proton elastic form-factor ratio, {mu}{sub p}G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p}, have been made at four-momentum transfer, Q{sup 2}, values between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV{sup 2}. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q{sup 2} range the deviation from unity is primarily due to G{sub E}{sup p} being smaller than expected.

Ron, G.; Piasetzky, E.; Pomerantz, I.; Shneor, R. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Glister, J. [Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada); Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada); Lee, B.; Choi, Seonho; Kang, H.; Oh, Y.; Song, J.; Yan, X. [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747, Korea (Korea, Republic of); Allada, K.; Dutta, C. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States); Armstrong, W.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Yao, H. [Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Arrington, J.; Solvignon, P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Beck, A.; May-Tal Beck, S. [NRCN, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel)] (and others)

2007-11-16

312

Comparative study of selected Brazilian and Nigerian policies to promote the transfer and development of technology: the role of regime and non-regime factors, and some results from the automobile industry, 1967-80  

SciTech Connect

This study is concerned with the policies adopted by Brazil and Nigeria to promote the transfer and development of technology in industry. The objectives are two-fold: (1) to compare and analyze the policies with respect to the automobile industries in the 1967-1980 period; (2) to investigate whether their adoption was solely a function of the different ideological values and issue levels of economic development of the countries, or whether the regimes are solely an expression of the patterns of that development. The study adopted the Comparative Public Policy approach to explore the various hypotheses formulated. The findings showed that Brazil realized more significant results than Nigeria in technology development, while in other areas, such as the curtailment of imports, employment generation, etc., the results are mixed. The study concludes that both regime and industrial development factors influence the variation in the policies, although the regime factor seems to explain more of the variation.

Gusau, B.H.

1985-01-01

313

Protein synthesis in the cotyledons of Pisum sativum L. Protein factors involved in the binding of phenylalanyl-transfer ribonucleic acid to ribosomes*  

PubMed Central

1. Proteinaceous factors contained in a 0.5m-KCl extract of ribosomes from pea cotyledons form a ternary complex at 0°C with [14C]phenylalanyl-tRNA and poly(U). The complex is measured by its quantitative retention on Millipore filters. 2. Complex-assembly is optimal at 5mm-Mg2+ and is independent of GTP and ribosomes. 3. The addition of ribosomes is required to stabilize the complex at 34°C. The complex binds to a puromycin-sensitive site on the ribosome. 4. Soluble factors from the 250000g supernatant of pea cotyledon form a Millipore-retainable complex dependent on GTP and ribosomes. 5. Complex-formation by soluble factors has a Mg2+ optimum of 10–12mm and forms a puromycin-insensitive complex with ribosomes. 6. The function of the ribosomal protein factors and the supernatant fraction in initiation of protein synthesis is discussed.

Wells, Gary N.; Beevers, Leonard

1974-01-01

314

Program Transferability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of program transferability is discussed from a technical point of view. The paper begins by attempting a general characterization of the problem and of the nature and limitations of possible approaches to its solution. An effort is made to iso...

K. Sattley R. E. Millstein S. Marshall

1970-01-01

315

Geo energy research and development: technology transfer  

SciTech Connect

Sandia Geo Energy Programs related to geothermal, coal, oil and gas, and synfuel resources have provided a useful mechanism for transferring laboratory technologies to private industry. Significant transfer of hardware, computer programs, diagnostics and instrumentation, advanced materials, and in situ process understanding has occurred through US/DOE supported programs in the past five years. The text briefly reviews the technology transfer procedures and summarizes 32 items that have been transferred and another 20 technologies that are now being considered for possible transfer to industry. A major factor in successful transfer has been personal interactions between Sandia engineers and the technical staff from private industry during all aspects of the technology development.

Traeger, R.K.

1982-03-01

316

Transfer of Training in Teaching Assistant Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated whether university teaching assistant (TA) training programs utilized transfer of training principles, examining facilitating and inhibiting factors within the work environment of TAs in training, supervisor and peer support, and differences in perceptions of these factors according to TA characteristics. Certain transfer of training…

Notarianni-Girard, Deborah

1999-01-01

317

An epidermal growth factor motif from Del1 protein increases the efficiency of in vivo gene transfer with a non-viral vector.  

PubMed

Increasing the efficiency of gene transfer using non-viral vectors, which have the potential to be safe and economical, would improve upon available options for gene therapy. We previously reported that the third EGF motif of the extracellular matrix protein Del1 (E3) increases the transfection efficiency of non-viral vector methods. Here, we asked if E3 could increase the in vivo transfection efficiency of a polyplex-based approach. To test this, cDNA encoding a heat-stable alkaline phosphatase (AP) was first injected intravenously into mice along with recombinant E3. After 24 h, exogenous AP activity in serum was measured. We found that the introduction of E3 resulted in 50 % more AP activity as compared to the control. We next tested transfection into a tumour explant of SCCKN cells, an oral carcinoma-derived cell line. To do this, a cDNA encoding yellow fluorescent protein was locally injected into a tumour explant, followed by local injection of recombinant E3. Use of E3 increased the number of transfected cells to 2.5 times that of the control. Histochemical staining revealed that E3-induced apoptosis in a tumour explant. The data suggest that E3 might be a useful tool for cancer gene therapy using non-viral vectors. PMID:22782704

Mamiya, Atsushi; Kitano, Hisataka; Takao, Kyoichi; Kokubun, Shinichiro; Komiya, Masamichi; Hidai, Chiaki

2013-06-01

318

Nonadiabatic anharmonic electron transfer.  

PubMed

The effect of an inner sphere, local mode vibration on an electron transfer is modeled using the nonadiabatic transition probability (rate) expression together with both the anharmonic Morse and the harmonic oscillator potential. For an anharmonic inner sphere mode, a variational analysis uses harmonic oscillator basis functions to overcome the difficulties evaluating Morse-model Franck-Condon overlap factors. Individual matrix elements are computed with the use of new, fast, robust, and flexible recurrence relations. The analysis therefore readily addresses changes in frequency and/or displacement of oscillator minimums in the different electron transfer states. Direct summation of the individual Boltzmann weighted Franck-Condon contributions avoids the limitations inherent in the use of the familiar high-temperature, gaussian form of the rate constant. The effect of harmonic versus anharmonic inner sphere modes on the electron transfer is readily seen, especially in the exoergic, inverted region. The behavior of the transition probability can also be displayed as a surface for all temperatures and values of the driving force/exoergicity ? = -?G. The temperature insensitivity of the transfer rate is clearly seen when the exoergicity equals the collective reorganization energy (? = ?(s)) along a maximum ln?(w) vs. ? ridge of the surface. The surface also reveals additional regions for ? where ln?(w) appears to be insensitive to temperature, or effectively activationless, for some kinds of inner sphere contributions. PMID:23556710

Schmidt, P P

2013-03-28

319

Nonadiabatic anharmonic electron transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of an inner sphere, local mode vibration on an electron transfer is modeled using the nonadiabatic transition probability (rate) expression together with both the anharmonic Morse and the harmonic oscillator potential. For an anharmonic inner sphere mode, a variational analysis uses harmonic oscillator basis functions to overcome the difficulties evaluating Morse-model Franck-Condon overlap factors. Individual matrix elements are computed with the use of new, fast, robust, and flexible recurrence relations. The analysis therefore readily addresses changes in frequency and/or displacement of oscillator minimums in the different electron transfer states. Direct summation of the individual Boltzmann weighted Franck-Condon contributions avoids the limitations inherent in the use of the familiar high-temperature, Gaussian form of the rate constant. The effect of harmonic versus anharmonic inner sphere modes on the electron transfer is readily seen, especially in the exoergic, inverted region. The behavior of the transition probability can also be displayed as a surface for all temperatures and values of the driving force/exoergicity ? = -?G. The temperature insensitivity of the transfer rate is clearly seen when the exoergicity equals the collective reorganization energy (? = ?s) along a maximum ln (w) vs. ? ridge of the surface. The surface also reveals additional regions for ? where ln (w) appears to be insensitive to temperature, or effectively activationless, for some kinds of inner sphere contributions.

Schmidt, P. P.

2013-03-01

320

Peptide-matrix-mediated gene transfer of an oxygen-insensitive hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha variant for local induction of angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) constitutes a target in therapeutic angiogenesis. HIF-1alpha functions as a sensor of hypoxia and induces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which then induces angiogenesis. To explore the potential of HIF-1alpha gene therapy in stimulating wound healing, we delivered a gene encoding a stabilized form of HIF-1alpha, lacking the oxygen-sensitive degradation domain, namely HIF-1alpha deltaODD, by using a previously characterized peptide-based gene delivery vector in fibrin as a surgical matrix. The peptide vector consisted of multiple domains: (i) A cysteine-flanked lysine hexamer provided DNA interactions that were stable extracellularly but destabilized intracellularly after reduction of the formed disulfide bonds. This DNA-binding domain was fused to either (ii) a fibrin-binding peptide for entrapment within the matrix or (iii) a nuclear localization sequence for efficient nuclear targeting. The HIF-1alpha deltaODD gene was expressed and translocated to the nucleus under normoxic conditions, leading to up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A165 mRNA and protein levels in vitro. When the peptide-DNA nanoparticles entrapped in fibrin matrices were applied to full-thickness dermal wounds in the mouse (10 microg per wound in 30 microl of fibrin), angiogenesis was increased comparably strongly to that induced by VEGF-A165 protein (1.25 microg per wound in 30 microl of fibrin). However, the maturity of the vessels induced by HIF-1alpha deltaODD was significantly higher than that induced by VEGF-A165 protein, as shown by stabilization of the neovessels with smooth muscle. Nonviral, local administration of this potent angiogenesis-inducing gene by using this peptide vector represents a powerful approach in tissue engineering and therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:16477043

Trentin, Diana; Hall, Heike; Wechsler, Sandra; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

2006-02-13

321

Estimates of the Astrophysical S-Factors for Proton Radiative Capture by 10B and 24Mg Nuclei Using the ANCs from Proton Transfer Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of the direct radiative capture of protons by 10B and 24Mg nuclei at low energies to the astrophysical S-factors in the reactions 10B(p,gamma)11C and 24Mg(p,gamma)25Al have been calculated within the R-matrix formalism by using empirical proton asymptotical normalization coefficients (ANC). The ANCs for bound proton configurations {10B+p} and {24Mg+p} were obtained from the analysis of the reactions (3He,

S. V. Artemov; S. B. Igamov; A. A. Karakhodzhaev; G. K. Nie; R. Yarmukhamedov; E. A. Zaparov; N. Burtebaev; K. E. Rehm

2010-01-01

322

The transfer of analytical procedures.  

PubMed

Analytical method transfers are certainly among the most discussed topics in the GMP regulated sector. However, they are surprisingly little regulated in detail. General information is provided by USP, WHO, and ISPE in particular. Most recently, the EU emphasized the importance of analytical transfer by including it in their draft of the revised GMP Guideline. In this article, an overview and comparison of these guidelines is provided. The key to success for method transfers is the excellent communication between sending and receiving unit. In order to facilitate this communication, procedures, flow charts and checklists for responsibilities, success factors, transfer categories, the transfer plan and report, strategies in case of failed transfers, tables with acceptance limits are provided here, together with a comprehensive glossary. Potential pitfalls are described such that they can be avoided. In order to assure an efficient and sustainable transfer of analytical procedures, a practically relevant and scientifically sound evaluation with corresponding acceptance criteria is crucial. Various strategies and statistical tools such as significance tests, absolute acceptance criteria, and equivalence tests are thoroughly descibed and compared in detail giving examples. Significance tests should be avoided. The success criterion is not statistical significance, but rather analytical relevance. Depending on a risk assessment of the analytical procedure in question, statistical equivalence tests are recommended, because they include both, a practically relevant acceptance limit and a direct control of the statistical risks. However, for lower risk procedures, a simple comparison of the transfer performance parameters to absolute limits is also regarded as sufficient. PMID:23978903

Ermer, J; Limberger, M; Lis, K; Wätzig, H

2013-07-25

323

Disconnecting the Yin and Yang Relation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-Mediated Delivery: A Fully Synthetic, EGFR-Targeted Gene Transfer System Avoiding Receptor Activation  

PubMed Central

Abstract The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is upregulated within a high percentage of solid tumors and hence is an attractive target for tumor-targeted therapies including gene therapy. The natural EGFR ligand epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been used for this purpose, despite the risk of mitogenic effects due to EGFR activation. We have developed a fully synthetic, EGFR-targeted gene delivery system based on PEGylated linear polyethylenimine (LPEI), allowing evaluation of different EGFR-binding peptides in terms of transfection efficiency and EGFR activation. Peptide sequences directly derived from the human EGF molecule enhanced transfection efficiency with concomitant EGFR activation. Only the EGFR-binding peptide GE11, which has been identified by phage display technique, showed specific enhancement of transfection on EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells including glioblastoma and hepatoma, but without EGFR activation. EGFR targeting led to high levels of cell association of fluorescently labeled polyplexes after only 30?min of incubation. EGF pretreatment of cells induced enhanced cellular internalization of all polyplex types tested, pointing at generally enhanced macropinocytosis. EGF polyplexes diminished cell surface expression of EGFR for up to 4?hr, whereas GE11 polyplexes did not. In a clinically relevant orthotopic prostate cancer model, intratumorally injected GE11 polyplexes were superior in inducing transgene expression when compared with untargeted polyplexes.

Schafer, A.; Pahnke, A.; Schaffert, D.; van Weerden, W.M.; de Ridder, C.M.A.; Rodl, W.; Vetter, A.; Spitzweg, C.; Kraaij, R.; Wagner, E.

2011-01-01

324

Technology transfer.  

PubMed

Technology transfer has served the field of biomedical engineering well. Although the process is fraught with obstacles and may appear to be a distraction from more important work in the laboratory, application of technology is crucial to the furthering of the field and to public health in general. A given inventor may not want to take over the administrative tasks of protecting IP, developing a regulatory strategy, and developing a business model, and he or she does not necessarily have to; however, the inventor needs to at least know about the strategies and know there are people to turn to for leadership and guidance outside of the laboratory early in the process. And that can be all an inventor wants to do or can do: to simply turn the invention over to someone else and move on to more research in the hopes that the invention will help improve patients' health and perhaps afford the inventor and the research institution some financial reward. However, in turning an invention over completely, an inventor also loses power over how, for whom, and at what price the invention will be offered, and that is a reason to become more informed about the process, to know what you can ask for, and to stand by your invention's side in whatever capacity you are equipped to do so throughout the entire technology transfer process. PMID:20659836

Rutherford, Jesse Jayne

325

Safety and Feasibility of Catheter-Based Local Intracoronary Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Transfer in the Prevention of Postangioplasty and In-Stent Restenosis and in the Treatment of Chronic Myocardial Ischemia Phase II Results of the Kuopio Angiogenesis Trial (KAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Catheter-based intracoronary vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transfer is a potential treatment for coronary heart disease. However, only limited data are available about local VEGF gene transfer given during angioplasty (PTCA) and stenting. Methods and Results—Patients with coronary heart disease (n103; Canadian Cardiovascular Society class II to III; mean age, 586 years) were recruited in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind

Marja Hedman; Juha Hartikainen; Mikko Syvänne; Joachim Stjernvall; Antti Hedman; Antti Kivelä; Esko Vanninen; Hanna Mussalo; Esa Kauppila; Sakari Simula; Outi Närvänen; Arto Rantala; Keijo Peuhkurinen; Markku S. Nieminen; Markku Laakso; Seppo Ylä-Herttuala

2010-01-01

326

Financial and Operational Impact of a Transfer Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tertiary care hospital established a transfer cen ter to manage the large number of transfer requests from other hospitals in its catchment region. Moti vating factors included occurrence of economic trans fers, medically inappropriate transfers, poor inter facility communication, and a bed shortage.An interdisciplinary task force was convened to design and implement the transfer center, requiring two months from

Edward C. Geehr; Barbara A. Norton; Patricia Whitman; Jane M. Metzger

1991-01-01

327

Soil-plant-animal transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines: a case study from Portugal.  

PubMed

Food chain models are essential tools to assess risks of soil contamination in view of product quality including fodder crops and animal products. Here we link soil to plant transfer (SPT) models for potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, U and Zn with models describing accumulation in animal organs. Current EU standards for food products and acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) for humans were used as critical limits. The combined model is used to assess the impact of soil contamination on animal health, product quality and human health using data from 100 arable fields. Results indicate that 42 existing arable fields near industrial and mining sites are unsuitable for animal grazing in view of food safety due to elevated intake of Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb by cows and sheep. At 10 sites daily intake levels of As by cows exceeded threshold concentrations regarding the quality of animal products. The food chain model also was used inversely to derive soil threshold concentrations in view of EU fodder standards. Calculated threshold levels in soil for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn appear to be in line with those proposed or used in other EU countries. As such the approach applied here can form a conceptual basis for a more harmonized risk assessment strategy regarding the protection of animal and human health. PMID:22208740

Rodrigues, S M; Pereira, M E; Duarte, A C; Römkens, P F A M

2011-10-29

328

Energy Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can a Ping-Pong ball be made to bounce higher without throwing it downward harder? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate energy transference and momentum by simultaneously dropping a Ping-Pong ball sitting directly above a golf ball and measuring the bounce height. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable K-12 national science education standards. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions, and presentation techniques. The content of the activity is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve

2004-01-01

329

Evidence for the transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from soil into biota.  

PubMed

The concentrations of six indicator and co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in soil and associated biota samples collected from a polluted and wasted farmland in southern China. The sum of six indicator PCBs (Nos 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) concentrations in biota samples were proportional to the total amount of PCBs that transferred from soil to the corresponding biota samples, and the sum six indicator PCB congeners in samples were about 20% of the total PCBs, respectively. The ratios of the sum six indicator PCBs and the total PCBs in samples collected in the same area were approximately equal. The sums of six indicator PCBs were proportional to the total PCBs that transferred from soil to plant, while the co-planar PCBs were not. Analysis of individual PCB and PCDD/F congener signatures in soil revealed the original pollutant source after transportation and biodegradation for 14 years using principal component analysis (PCA). The pattern of PCBs in soils and plants could reflect the original pollution source after transportation and biodegradation for 14 years, while the pattern of PCBs in the terrestrial animals could not reflect the primary source. The consumption foods in this region such as foraging chicken eggs, foraging duck eggs, and loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) were highly contaminated, the total toxicity equivalent (TEQ) was up to 784 pg WHO-TEQ/g on basis lipid in foraging chicken eggs. PMID:16574199

Zhao, Xingru; Zheng, Minghui; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Qinghua; Liu, Wenbin

2006-03-06

330

A survey of attitudes and factors associated with successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge transfer in an older population most likely to witness cardiac arrest: design and methodology  

PubMed Central

Background Overall survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rarely exceed 5%. While bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can increase survival for cardiac arrest victims by up to four times, bystander CPR rates remain low in Canada (15%). Most cardiac arrest victims are men in their sixties, they usually collapse in their own home (85%) and the event is witnessed 50% of the time. These statistics would appear to support a strategy of targeted CPR training for an older population that is most likely to witness a cardiac arrest event. However, interest in CPR training appears to decrease with advancing age. Behaviour surrounding CPR training and performance has never been studied using well validated behavioural theories. Methods/Design The overall goal of this study is to conduct a survey to better understand the behavioural factors influencing CPR training and performance in men and women 55 years of age and older. The study will proceed in three phases. In phase one, semi-structured qualitative interviews will be conducted and recorded to identify common categories and themes regarding seeking CPR training and providing CPR to a cardiac arrest victim. The themes identified in the first phase will be used in phase two to develop, pilot-test, and refine a survey instrument based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In the third phase of the project, the final survey will be administered to a sample of the study population over the telephone. Analyses will include measures of sampling bias, reliability of the measures, construct validity, as well as multiple regression analyses to identify constructs and beliefs most salient to seniors' decisions about whether to attend CPR classes or perform CPR on a cardiac arrest victim. Discussion The results of this survey will provide valuable insight into factors influencing the interest in CPR training and performance among a targeted group of individuals most susceptible to witnessing a victim in cardiac arrest. The findings can then be applied to the design of trials of various interventions designed to promote attendance at CPR classes and improve CPR performance. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00665288

Vaillancourt, Christian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Brehaut, Jamie C; Osmond, Martin; Charette, Manya L; Wells, George A; Stiell, Ian G

2008-01-01

331

Improved Survival of Ischemic Cutaneous and Musculocutaneous Flaps after Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Transfer Using Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors  

PubMed Central

A major challenge in reconstructive surgery is flap ischemia, which might benefit from induction of therapeutic angiogenesis. Here we demonstrate the effect of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector delivering vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)165 in two widely recognized in vivo flap models. For the epigastric flap model, animals were injected subcutaneously with 1.5 × 1011 particles of AAV-VEGF at day 0, 7, or 14 before flap dissection. In the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap model, AAV-VEGF was injected intramuscularly. The delivery of AAV-VEGF significantly improved flap survival in both models, reducing necrosis in all treatment groups compared to controls. The most notable results were obtained by administering the vector 14 days before flap dissection. In the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap model, AAV-VEGF reduced the necrotic area by >50% at 1 week after surgery, with a highly significant improvement in the healing process throughout the following 2 weeks. The therapeutic effect of AAV-VEGF on flap survival was confirmed by histological evidence of neoangiogenesis in the formation of large numbers of CD31-positive capillaries and ?-smooth muscle actin-positive arteriolae, particularly evident at the border between viable and necrotic tissue. These results underscore the efficacy of VEGF-induced neovascularization for the prevention of tissue ischemia and the improvement of flap survival in reconstructive surgery.

Zacchigna, Serena; Papa, Giovanni; Antonini, Andrea; Novati, Federico; Moimas, Silvia; Carrer, Alessandro; Arsic, Nikola; Zentilin, Lorena; Visintini, Valentina; Pascone, Michele; Giacca, Mauro

2005-01-01

332

Pretreatment of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene Transfer Mediated by Octaarginine Peptide-Modified Nanoparticles Ameliorates LPS/D-Galactosamine-Induced Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that an octaarginine- and pH-sensitive fusogenic peptide-modified multifunctional envelope-type nano device (R8-GALA-MEND) produces a high level of gene expression in the liver. In this study, we report on an examination of whether this gene delivery system exerts potent hepatoprotective effects against lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced acute liver injury. In vivo-jetPEI™-Gal, a commercially available in vivo transfection reagent, was used as a reference. The systemic administration of the R8-GALA-MEND or in vivo-jetPEI™-Gal showed that the latter was more toxic than the R8-GALA-MEND, indicating that R8-GALA-MEND is a safer system than in vivo-jetPEI™-Gal. Pretreatment with R8-GALA-MEND or in vivo-jetPEI™-Gal loaded with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) pDNA inhibited serum GPT and GOT levels from becoming elevated. However, the survival rate of the mice was significantly enhanced in the case of R8-GALA-MEND, but not for the in vivo-jetPEI™-Gal treatment. These results demonstrate that R8-GALA-MEND has the potential for use in the pretreatment of an acute liver injury.

Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Mizuno, Ryoichi; Ikramy, Khalil A.; Akita, Hidetaka

2012-01-01

333

Pretreatment of hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer mediated by octaarginine peptide-modified nanoparticles ameliorates LPS/D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis.  

PubMed

We previously reported that an octaarginine- and pH-sensitive fusogenic peptide-modified multifunctional envelope-type nano device (R8-GALA-MEND) produces a high level of gene expression in the liver. In this study, we report on an examination of whether this gene delivery system exerts potent hepatoprotective effects against lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced acute liver injury. In vivo-jetPEI(™)-Gal, a commercially available in vivo transfection reagent, was used as a reference. The systemic administration of the R8-GALA-MEND or in vivo-jetPEI(™)-Gal showed that the latter was more toxic than the R8-GALA-MEND, indicating that R8-GALA-MEND is a safer system than in vivo-jetPEI(™)-Gal. Pretreatment with R8-GALA-MEND or in vivo-jetPEI(™)-Gal loaded with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) pDNA inhibited serum GPT and GOT levels from becoming elevated. However, the survival rate of the mice was significantly enhanced in the case of R8-GALA-MEND, but not for the in vivo-jetPEI(™)-Gal treatment. These results demonstrate that R8-GALA-MEND has the potential for use in the pretreatment of an acute liver injury. PMID:22963044

Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Mizuno, Ryoichi; Ikramy, Khalil A; Akita, Hidetaka; Harashima, Hideyoshi

2012-09-10

334

Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio From Elastic e + p -> e + p Scattering at Momentum Transfer Q^2 = 2.5, 5.2, 6.7 and 8.5 (GeV/c)^2  

SciTech Connect

Among the fundamental observables of nucleon structure, electromagnetic form factors are a crucial benchmark for modern calculations describing the strong interaction dyna mics of the nucleon's quark constituents. Electromagnetic probes are traditionally preferered to the hadronic beams. The electromagnetic interaction is a powerful tool for investigating the nucleon structure since it is well understood and it reveals observables that can be directly interpreted in terms of the current carried by the quarks. Elastic scattering leads to the form factors that describe the spatial charge a nd current distributions inside the nucleon. The reaction mechanism is assumed to be one photon exchange, the electromagnetic interaction is exactly calculable in QED, and one can safely extract the information on the hadronic vertex. The most important feature of early measurements of proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} with recoil polarization technique at Q{sup 2} up to 5.6 (GeV/c){sup 2} is the sharp decline of the ratio with Q{sup 2} increases, indicating that G{sub E}{sup p} falls much faster than G{sub M}{sup p}. This contradicts to data obtained by Rosenbluth separation method. An intriguing question was whether G{sub E}{sup p} will continue to decrease or become constant when Q{sup 2} increases. New set of measurements of proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} at Q{sup 2} = 2.5, 5.2, 6.7 and 8.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} have been conducted at JLab Hall C using {approx}85% longitudinally polarized electron elastic scattering from unpolarized hydrogen target. Recoil protons were detected in the HMS magnetic spectrometer with the standard detector package, combined with newly installed trigger scintillators and Focal Plane Polarimeter. The BigCal electromagnetic calorimeter (1744 channel) have been used for electron detection. Data obtained in this experiment show that G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} ratio continued to drop with Q{sup 2} and may cross 'zero' at Q{sup 2} > 10-15 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Intensive theoretical and experimental efforts over the past decade have aimed at explaining the discrepancy between data for the proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} obtained from cross section and polarization measurements. It was assumed that the two photon exchange contribution might be responsible for difference of G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} ratio obtained by Rosenbluth separation method and recoil polarization technique. The kinematical dependence of polarization transfer observables in elastic electron-proton scattering at Q{sup 2} = 2.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} have been used in search of effects of 2{gamma} contribution. For a wide range of values of the virtual photon polarization {epsilon} ({epsilon} = 0.15, 0.63, and 0.77), the proton form factor ratio and longitudinal polarization transfer component were measured with statistical uncertainties of {+-}0.01 and {+-}0.005, respectively. Our data provide significant constraints on models of nucleon structure.

Arthur Mkrtchyan

2012-05-31

335

Intensified heat transfer in pipe with tall baffles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of the heat transfer in pipe with tall baffles is proposed, in conditions of intensified heat transfer. The model\\u000a takes account of various factors for a broad range of Prandtl numbers and Reynolds numbers.

I. E. Lobanov

2011-01-01

336

Trends in Technology Transfer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Various forms of technology transfer in Europe and North America are discussed including research contracts, cooperative research centers, and personnel transfer. Examples of approaches to technology transfer are given and the establishment of personnel transfer is discussed. Preconditions for successful technology transfer in the future are…

Starnick, Jurgen

1988-01-01

337

Effect of Racial\\/Ethnic Composition on Transfer Rates in Community Colleges: Implications for Policy and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines factors associated with community college transfer rates. Regression models are developed using community college data at the institution level. The analyses employ two different definitions of the transfer rate and two different time spans over which to observe transfer behavior. Holding constant other factors expected to influence differences in transfer rates, the results reveal disparities in transfer

Robert Wassmer; Colleen Moore; Nancy Shulock

2004-01-01

338

Modifications of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) in adult cardiocytes by adenoviral gene transfer: differential effects on eIF4F activity and total protein synthesis rates.  

PubMed Central

In adult feline cardiocytes, increases in eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) activity are correlated with accelerated rates of total protein synthesis produced in response to increased load.Adenoviral gene transfer was employed to increase either eIF4F complex formation or the phosphorylation of eIF4E on Ser-209. To simulate load,cardiocytes were electrically stimulated to contract (2 Hz,5 ms pulses). Non-stimulated cardiocytes were used as controls.Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of wild-type eIF4E increased the total eIF4E pool by 120-140% above endogenous levels after 24 h and produced a corresponding increase in eIF4F content.However, it did not accelerate total protein synthesis rates inquiescent cardiocytes; neither did it potentiate the increase produced by contraction. To modify the affinity of eIF4F, cardiocytes were infected with a mutant (eIF4E/W56F) with a decreased binding affinity for the mRNA cap. Overexpression of eIF4E/W56F increased the quantity of eIF4F but the rate of total protein synthesis was decreased inquiescent and contracting cardiocytes. Overexpression of a mutant that blocked eIF4E phosphorylation (eIF4E/S209A) increased the quantity ofeIF4F without any significant effect on total protein synthesis rates in quiescent or contracting cardiocytes. Overexpression of the eIF4Ekinase Mnk-1 increased eIF4E phosphorylation without a corresponding increase in eIF4F complex formation or in the rate of total protein synthesis. We conclude the following: (1) eIF4F assembly is increased by raising eIF4E levels via adenoviral gene transfer; (2) the capbinding affinity of eIF4F is a rate-limiting determinant for total protein synthesis rates; and (3) increases in the quantity of eIF4Falone or in eIF4E phosphorylation are not sufficient to accelerate total protein synthesis rates.

Saghir, A N; Tuxworth , W J; Hagedorn, C H; McDermott, P J

2001-01-01

339

The Future of Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses student transfer from community colleges to universities from three perspectives: 1) How are transfer rates calculated? 2) What are the effects of state and institutional policies on transfer rates? and 3) Why are the transfer rates in some colleges consistently above or below the norm for their state? Each topic is discussed…

Cohen, Arthur M.

2005-01-01

340

Knowledge transfer upon repatriation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a conceptual framework describing important conditions under which personnel transfers result in successful ‘reverse’ knowledge transfer. We argue that effective knowledge transfer occurs when there is a fit between individual readiness to transfer knowledge and organizational receptivity to knowledge. We suggest that, in order to achieve such a fit, multinational enterprises (MNEs) need to match the level

Mila Lazarova; Ibraiz Tarique

2005-01-01

341

Applying Transfer in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Throughout the chapters in this issue, the authors have cited various definitions for learning transfer. For educators, in its simplest form, transfer of learning occurs when students put to practical use the knowledge and skills they gained in the classroom (near transfer). Chapter 1 defines near transfer and then goes into detail on the levels…

Kaminski, Karen; Foley, Jeffrey M.; Kaiser, Leann M. R.

2013-01-01

342

Analogical transfer from a simulated physical system.  

PubMed

Previous research has consistently found that spontaneous analogical transfer is strongly tied to concrete and contextual similarities between the cases. However, that work has largely failed to acknowledge that the relevant factor in transfer is the similarity between individuals' mental representations of the situations rather than the overt similarities between the cases themselves. Across several studies, we found that participants were able to transfer strategies learned from a perceptually concrete simulation of a physical system to a task with very dissimilar content and appearance. This transfer was reflected in better performance on the transfer task when its underlying dynamics were consistent rather than inconsistent with the preceding training task. Our data indicate that transfer in these tasks relies on the perceptual and spatial nature of the training task but does not depend on direct interaction with the system, with participants performing equally well after simply observing the concrete simulation. We argue that participants generated a spatial, dynamic, and force-based mental model while interacting with the training simulation and tended to spontaneously interpret the transfer task according to this primed model. Unexpectedly, our data consistently show that transfer was independent of reported recognition of the analogy between tasks: Although such recognition was associated with better overall performance, it was not associated with better transfer (in terms of applying an appropriate strategy). Together, these findings suggest that analogical transfer between overtly dissimilar cases may be much more common--and much more relevant to our cognitive processing--than is generally assumed. PMID:21299324

Day, Samuel B; Goldstone, Robert L

2011-05-01

343

Nuclear reorganization barriers to electron transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear barrier to electron transfer arises from the need for reorganization of intramolecular and solvent internuclear distances prior to electron transfer. For reactions with relatively small driving force ( normal free-energy region) the nuclear factors and rates increase as intrinsic inner-shell and outer-shell barriers decrease; this is illustrated by data for transition metal complexes in their ground electronic states. By contrast, in the inverted free-energy region, rates and nuclear factors decrease with decreasing intrinsic barriers; this is illustrated by data for the decay of charge-transfer excited states. Several approaches to the evaluation of the outer-shell barrier are explored in an investigation of the distance dependence of the nuclear factor in intramolecular electron-transfer processes.

Sutin, Norman; Brunschwig, Bruce S.; Creutz, Carol; Winkler, Jay R.

344

Nuclear reorganization barriers to electron transfer  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear barrier to electron transfer arises from the need for reorganization of intramolecular and solvent internuclear distances prior to electron transfer. For reactions with relatively small driving force (''normal'' free-energy region) the nuclear factors and rates increase as intrinsic inner-shell and outer-shell barriers decrease; this is illustrated by data for transition metal complexes in their ground electronic states. By contrast, in the inverted free-energy region, rates and nuclear factors decrease with decreasing ''intrinsic'' barriers; this is illustrated by data for the decay of charge-transfer excited states. Several approaches to the evaluation of the outer-shell barrier are explored in an investigation of the distance dependence of the nuclear factor in intramolecular electron-transfer processes. 39 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Sutin, N.; Brunschwig, B.S.; Creutz, C.; Winkler, J.R.

1988-01-01

345

University Technology Transfer: Do Incentives, Management, and Location Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

University technology transfer activities are increasingly important as a source of regional economic development and revenue for the university. We use regression analysis, a two-stage model and the most recent data to examine the determinants of technology transfer. Our analysis strongly support four factors, not previously examined in the literature, enhancing university technology transfer: greater rewards for faculty involvement in

Joseph Friedman; Jonathan Silberman

2003-01-01

346

The heat-transfer crisis in a closed evaporation thermosiphon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine the factors and conditions resulting in pronounced impairment of heat transfer through the cavity of a closed evaporation thermosiphon during the heat-transfer process. We have established the optimum conditions for the utilization of the heat-transfer elements.

N. M. Stoyanov

1969-01-01

347

Barriers to Transfer Student Academic Success and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Transition to College Inventory (TCI) designed to identify patterns of noncognitive factors related to academic performance and persistence was adapted and validated for use with first-year transfer students in a university setting. In this study, 369 entering transfer students were surveyed during Transfer Preview, an orientation program for…

Duggan, Molly H.; Pickering, J. Worth

2008-01-01

348

Photoinduced electron transfer in model systems of photosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Thesis describes Investigations on photoinduced electron transfer (ET) for several compounds, serving as model systems of the natural photosynthesis. In addition, the properties of the systems, e.g. the conformation in solution and the electronic properties of the photoexcited states are treated.Chapter 2 discusses present theories of photoinduced electron transfer. The following factors appear to effect the electron transfer rate

U. Hofstra

1988-01-01

349

In the Trainer's Voice: A Study of Training Transfer Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data were gathered from members of a large professional training organization regarding their practices for supporting training transfer. Transfer factor categories grounded in the literature were used to code the data using content analysis procedures. Commensurate with the transfer literature, results suggest that trainers reported strategies…

Hutchins, Holly M.

2009-01-01

350

Manifestations of sequential electron transfer  

SciTech Connect

An essential feature of efficient photo-initiated charge separation is sequential electron transfer. Charge separation is initiated by photoexcitation of an electron donor followed by rapid electron transfer steps from the excited donor through a series of electron acceptors, so that, after one or two successive steps, charge separation is stabilized by the physical separation between the oxidized donor and reduced acceptor. The prime example of this process is the sequential electron transfer that takes place in the purple photosynthetic bacterial reaction center, resulting in the charge separation between P{sup +} and Q{sub A}{sup -} across a biological membrane. We have developed magnetic resonance tools to monitor sequential electron transfer. We are applying these techniques to study charge separation in natural photo-synthetic systems in order to gain insights into the features of the reaction center proteins that promote efficient charge separation. As we establish what some of these factors are, we are beginning to design artificial photosynthetic systems that undergo photoinduced sequential electron transfer steps.

Thurnauer, M.C.; Tang, J.

1996-05-01

351

Elevated plasma cholesteryl ester transfer in NIDDM: relationships with apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and phospholipid transfer protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lecithin:cholesteryl acyl transferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) are key factors in the esterification of cholesterol and the subsequent transfer of cholesteryl ester from high density lipoproteins (HDL) towards very low and low density lipoproteins (VLDL+LDL). Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) are involved in plasma phospholipid and triglyceride metabolism and also affect

Stephen Riemens; Arie van Tol; Wim Sluiter; Robin Dullaart

1998-01-01

352

Acoustic Emission Transferability using Transfer Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an acoustic emission transferabilit y method in applications of valve leakage rate detection and tool wear monitoring. The met hod aims to transfer the information between AE inspection systems using different types of s ensor and position by relationship which was called a transfer function. The spectrum densi ty function\\/AErms spectra of both wide band (WD) and

Asa PRATEEPASEN; Mantana SRINANG

353

Radionuclide transfer from soil to fruit.  

PubMed

The available literature on the transfer of radionuclides from soil to fruit has been reviewed with the aim of identifying the main variables and processes affecting the behaviour of radionuclides in fruit plants. Where available, data for transfer of radionuclides from soil to other components of fruit plant have also been collected, to help in understanding the processes of translocation and storage in perennial plants. Soil-to-fruit transfer factors were derived from agricultural ecosystems, both from temperate and subtropical or tropical zones. Aggregated transfer factors have also been collected from natural or semi-natural ecosystems. The data concern numerous fruits and various radionuclides. Soil-to-fruit transfer is nuclide specific. The variability for a given radionuclide is first of all ascribable to the different properties of soils. Fruit plant species are very heterogeneous, varying from woody trees and shrubs to herbaceous plants. In temperate areas the soil-to-fruit transfer is higher in woody trees for caesium and in shrubs for strontium. Significant differences between the values obtained in temperate and subtropical and tropical regions do not necessarily imply that they are ascribable to climate. Transfer factors for caesium are higher in subtropical and tropical fruits, while those for strontium, as well as for plutonium and americium, in the same fruits, are lower; these results can be interpreted taking into account different soil characteristics. PMID:11202699

Carini, F

2001-01-01

354

Heat transfer - Denver 1985  

SciTech Connect

This Symposium Series volume contains AIChE-sponsored session papers accepted for presentation at the 23rd National Heat Transfer Conference. The papers are grouped under the headings of: Heat Transfer for Alternate Energy Technologies; Nuclear Plant Degraded Core Cooling; Direct Flux Solar Energy Process; Numerical Methods for Multiphase Flow System and Component Analysis; General Solar Heat Transfer; Thermal Analysis of Steam Generators; Heat Transfer in Glass; Heat and Mass Transfer During Fluidized Bed Combustion; Single- and Two-Phase Process Heat Transfer.

Farukhi, N.M.

1985-01-01

355

Wireless adiabatic power transfer  

SciTech Connect

Research Highlights: > Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. > The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

Rangelov, A.A., E-mail: rangelov@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Department of Physics, Sofia University, James Bourchier 5 blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y. [Department of Physics of Complex System, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Vitanov, N.V. [Department of Physics, Sofia University, James Bourchier 5 blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

2011-03-15

356

Transfer of Training: An Interpretive Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information processing and memorial processes that have been identified by contemporary research as important factors in human learning and cognitive activity are shown to provide a basis for explaining and predicting transfer of training effects. Four major factors are discussed in separate sections: the relationship between retrieval cues and…

Cormier, Stephen M.

357

Electron Transfer versus Proton Transfer in Gas-Phase Ion/Ion Reactions of Polyprotonated Peptides  

PubMed Central

The ion/ion reactions of several dozen reagent anions with triply protonated cations of the model peptide KGAILKGAILR have been examined to evaluate predictions of a Landau–Zener-based model for the likelihood for electron transfer. Evidence for electron transfer was provided by the appearance of fragment ions unique to electron transfer or electron capture dissociation. Proton transfer and electron transfer are competitive processes for any combination of anionic and cationic reactants. For reagent anions in reactions with protonated peptides, proton transfer is usually significantly more exothermic than electron transfer. If charge transfer occurs at relatively long distances, electron transfer should, therefore, be favored on kinetic grounds because the reactant and product channels cross at greater distances, provided conditions are favorable for electron transfer at the crossing point. The results are consistent with a model based on Landau–Zener theory that indicates both thermodynamic and geometric criteria apply for electron transfer involving polyatomic anions. Both the model and the data suggest that electron affinities associated with the anionic reagents greater than about 60–70 kcal/mol minimize the likelihood that electron transfer will be observed. Provided the electron affinity is not too high, the Franck–Condon factors associated with the anion and its corresponding neutral must not be too low. When one or the other of these criteria is not met, proton transfer tends to occur essentially exclusively. Experiments involving ion/ion attachment products also suggest that a significant barrier exists to the isomerization between chemical complexes that, if formed, lead to either proton transfer or electron transfer.

Gunawardena, Harsha P.; He, Min; Chrisman, Paul A.; Pitteri, Sharon J.; Hogan, Jason M.; Hodges, Brittany D. M.; McLuckey, Scott A.

2005-01-01

358

P&G Transfers  

Cancer.gov

Pharmaceutical Management Branch Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, DCTD, NCI Policy and Guidelines for TRANSFER OF DCTD SUPPLIED INVESTIGATIONAL AGENTS Policy: DCTD supplied investigational agents may be transferred within an institution

359

Advanced Cargo Transfer Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the feasibility of the Advanced Cargo Transfer Facility (ACTF). The ACTF would be used to transfer containers from commercial containerships anchored offshore to supply points ashore at an advanced base location. The ACTF is transpor...

G. Bretz

1990-01-01

360

Charter Medical Transfer Set  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Charter Medical Transfer Set. Applicant: Charter Medical, Ltd, Winston-Salem NC 27103. ... Product: Charter Medical Transfer Set. Date: 7/22/2005. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

361

Relative expression of cell growth regulatory genes insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2) and their receptors (IGF-1R and IGF-2R) in somatic cell nuclear transferred (SCNT) and in vitro fertilized (IVF) pre-implantation buffalo embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative mRNA transcript expression of insulin-like growth factors, IGF-1, IGF-2 and their receptors, IGF-1R and IGF-2R, was studied in SCNT and IVF buffalo embryos at different developmental stages using SYBR green with real-time PCR. SCNT embryos were produced by enucleating IVM oocytes and transferring granulosa cells (passage 5) followed by the electrofusion and chemical activation method. IVF embryos were produced

Alok Pandey; Namita Singh; S. C. Gupta; J. S. Rana; Neelam Gupta

2009-01-01

362

Heat transfer science and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a conference on heat transfer. Topics considered at the conference included two-phase flow, freezing, heat flux, natural heat convection, forced heat convection, flow visualization, boiling heat transfer, condensation heat transfer, thermal radiation, heat and mass transfer in porous media, nuclear reaction heat transfer, combustion heat transfer, high-temperature heat transfer, heat exchangers, and industrial

1987-01-01

363

Oxygen transfer into activated sludge with high MLSS concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, tests on the impact of the sludge properties on the oxygen transfer at low and high solids contents are presented. Additional to the oxygen transfer tests, the activated sludge was intensively analysed to examine the changes of the ?-factor in relation to the sludge properties (rheology, EPS, CST, etc.). The ?-factor did strongly decrease in all sludge

J. Krampe; K. Krauth

2003-01-01

364

Transferring Subsidiary Knowledge in the Global Learning Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore organizational factors that affect the transfer of subsidiary knowledge to both parent companies and peer subsidiaries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The hypotheses are tested using multivariate regression, based on a survey of 81 foreign subsidiaries in South Korea. Findings – The findings show that organizational factors that affect the transfer of subsidiary

Yuzhe Miao; Soonkyoo Choe; Jaeyong Song

2011-01-01

365

Viscoelastic fluids: A new challenge in heat transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the current knowledge on the fluid mechanics and heat transfer behavior of viscoelastic aqueous polymer solutions in channel flow is presented. Both turbulent and laminar flow conditions are considered. For fully established turbulent channel flow, it was found that the friction factor, f, and the dimensionless heat transfer factor, j{sub H}, were functions of the Reynolds number

Hartnett

1992-01-01

366

Technology transfer needs assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) technology transfer needs assessment of FY 1990. This effort extends and updates a 1986 needs assessment conducted for the Superfund program and previous ORD studies on Regional research and technology transfer needs. This is the first time a fully coordinated technology transfer needs assessment has

Kovalick; W. W. Jr

1990-01-01

367

Heat transfer - Denver 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Symposium Series volume contains AIChE-sponsored session papers accepted for presentation at the 23rd National Heat Transfer Conference. The papers are grouped under the headings of: Heat Transfer for Alternate Energy Technologies; Nuclear Plant Degraded Core Cooling; Direct Flux Solar Energy Process; Numerical Methods for Multiphase Flow System and Component Analysis; General Solar Heat Transfer; Thermal Analysis of Steam Generators;

Farukhi

1985-01-01

368

Networks for Transfer Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Building stronger networks for transfer student success involves both inter-institutional and intra-institutional collaboration. This article explores successful efforts of the Office of Transfer Services at the University of Central Florida to address three critical components of transfer student success: 1) preparation, which involves the…

Poisel, Mark Allen; Stinard, Charlene A.

2005-01-01

369

Heat-transfer material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present invention concerns heat transfer material used for heat transfer recording, especially heat transfer material providing good recorded images on a substrate of poor surface smoothness, and the images can be corrected by a liftoff correction tape that produces adhesive properties when heated.

Katayama, Masahito; Sato, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Yoshihisa; Asaoka, Masanobu; Fukuda, Tsugihiro

1991-07-01

370

Transfer of cardiovascular forces through the body  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the importance of certain factors involved in the genesis of the ballistocardiogram, the transfer function relating\\u000a the blood flow in the ascending aorta and the velocity ballistocardiogram has been measured in dogs. This complex transfer\\u000a function is determined by the characteristics of the arterial system such as pulse wave velocity, anatomical distribution\\u000a of the blood vessels etc. The

G. Elzinga; N. Westerhof; G. C. van den Bos; P. D. Verdouw

1974-01-01

371

[The importance of transference in Junguian psychotherapy].  

PubMed

Transference is an absolutely natural and spontaneous process which cannot be developed in an artificial and voluntary manner by the therapist. Transference is carried out in a subjective interpersonal relation consisting of a patient and an analyst. Jung will say he feels happy when transference takes place calmly or runs virtually unnoticed and the therapist can then focus on other therapeutic factors that play an important role. One could argue that Jungian psychotherapy consists of two people who get together to try to understand what is happening in the subconscious of one of them. The Jungian therapist is an active therapist who encourages and helps the patient to develop its individuation. PMID:23145374

Scotillo, Irene Alejandra

372

DNA transfer: review and implications for casework.  

PubMed

DNA-bearing cellular material can come to be present on a surface by either direct or indirect transfer. Direct transfer includes contact, but also includes activities within the vicinity of an item that may result in the transfer of DNA directly from an individual without any contact, such as speaking, coughing, and sneezing. Indirect transfer of DNA is when DNA from an individual comes to be on an item via an intermediary surface. It is important to consider indirect transfer in the evaluation of trace DNA in casework. The term 'trace DNA' in this review refers solely to DNA that cannot be attributed to an identifiable body fluid. This review presents and considers data from trace DNA experiments to establish whether the quantity of DNA recovered from a crime stain and/or the quality of a DNA profile obtained can be used to infer the likely mechanism of transfer. The data show that varied results are obtained from apparently similar trace DNA samples, presumably due to the many factors that affect the detection of trace DNA. The nature and effect of these varying factors and the application of the data to casework is considered generally and with specific reference to DNA transfer to skin, DNA beneath fingernails, 'wearer DNA', and various contamination considerations. PMID:23623709

Meakin, Georgina; Jamieson, Allan

2013-04-24

373

Debottlenecking using heat transfer enhancement  

SciTech Connect

Vertical thermosiphon reboilers (VTRs) and multiple-effect evaporators, used widely in the process industries, are difficult to debottleneck. As a result, process engineers usually wind up buying expensive replacement units when they need to increase VTR or multiple-effect-evaporator throughput. Flow in these units depends on the buoyancy created by vaporization. Flowrate is thus linked not only to heat transfer rate, but also to vaporization and frictional and static pressure loss. Since these factors are closely linked, changing one affects the others. In this article, using a simulation model that has been validated against actual reboiler performance data, the authors show how tube inserts can be used to enhance heat transfer and to debottleneck some of these types of units. They conclude the article by working out a sample debottlenecking for a typical feed-forward, multi-effect evaporator operating at low pressure, using the simulation.

Polly, G.T.; Gibbard, I. [Cal Gavin Ltd. Process Intensification Engineering, Inc., Alcester (United Kingdom); Pretty, B. [Veritech, Inc., Reston, VA (United States)

1998-05-01

374

Transferability of interventions in health education: a review  

PubMed Central

Background Health education interventions are generally complex. Their outcomes result from both the intervention itself and the context for which they are developed. Thus, when an intervention carried out in one context is reproduced in another, its transferability can be questionable. We performed a literature review to analyze the concept of transferability in the health education field. Methods Articles included were published between 2000 and 2010 that addressed the notion of transferability of interventions in health education. Articles were analyzed using a standardized grid based on four items: 1) terminology used; 2) factors that influenced transferability; 3) capacity of the research and evaluation designs to assess transferability; and 4) tools and criteria available to assess transferability. Results 43 articles met the inclusion criteria. Only 13 of them used the exact term “transferability” and one article gave an explicit definition: the extent to which the measured effectiveness of an applicable intervention could be achieved in another setting. Moreover, this concept was neither clearly used nor distinguished from others, such as applicability. We highlight the levels of influence of transferability and their associated factors, as well as the limitations of research methods in their ability to produce transferable conclusions. Conclusions We have tried to clarify the concept by defining it along three lines that may constitute areas for future research: factors influencing transferability, research methods to produce transferable data, and development of criteria to assess transferability. We conclude this review with three propositions: 1) a conceptual clarification of transferability, especially with reference to other terms used; 2) avenues for developing knowledge on this concept and analyzing the transferability of interventions; and 3) in relation to research, avenues for developing better evaluation methods for assessing the transferability of interventions.

2012-01-01

375

The transfer of retail formats into developing economies: The example of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this research is the strategy of international format transfer by retailers into developing countries. Transfer strategies are defined in terms of a format change pattern and the factors motivating the format change decision. Earlier studies and anecdotal evidence have indicated that retailers have pursued different format transfer policies. Some retailers transfer their total format unchanged while others

Arieh Goldman

2001-01-01

376

Research on knowledge transfer process and performance evaluation model among supply chain members  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge transfer process model among supply chain members is proposed. The relationship between factors of influencing knowledge transfer and knowledge transfer performance is discussed with the methods of theoretical and quantitative analysis. The results show that the knowledge transfer among supply chain members can be divided into three levels, including between supply chain and external environment, between members of

Yi Jiabin; Fan Lili; Xie Dongmei

2010-01-01

377

Following the Ontario Transfer Student: From College to University Inception. Professional File. Number 31  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What sources and resources do college students utilize to assist them in the transfer process? What factors influence students' transfer decisions? What information do students possess about transfer and of what quality is the transfer information students receive? This investigation interviews students of two-year College of Applied Arts and…

Arnold, Christine Helen

2011-01-01

378

Efficiency and Innovation in Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfer literature includes a variety of seemingly conflicting perspec- tives. Some argue that transfer is rare; others argue that transfer is ubiqui- tous; still others worry that transfer is an unworkable concept. Is the transfer literature filled with inherently contradictory claims, or is there a framework that can help illuminate how and why the varied positions on transfer are

Daniel L. Schwartz; John D. Bransford; David Sears

2005-01-01

379

Comparison of box-air-mass-factors and radiances for Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) geometries calculated from different UV\\/visible radiative transfer models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a comparison exercise of radiative transfer models (RTM) of various international research groups for Multiple AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) viewing geometry are presented. Besides the assessment of the agreement between the different models, a second focus of the comparison was the systematic investigation of the sensitivity of the MAX-DOAS technique under various viewing geometries and

T. Wagner; J. P. Burrows; T. Deutschmann; B. Dix; C. von Friedeburg; U. Frieß; F. Hendrick; K.-P. Heue; H. Irie; H. Iwabuchi; Y. Kanaya; J. Keller; C. A. McLinden; H. Oetjen; E. Palazzi; A. Petritoli; U. Platt; O. Postylyakov; J. Pukite; A. Richter; M. van Roozendael; A. Rozanov; V. Rozanov; R. Sinreich; S. Sanghavi; F. Wittrock

2007-01-01

380

Fuel transfer system  

DOEpatents

A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA); Barbanti, Giancarlo (Cupertino, CA)

1994-01-01

381

Calculating proper transfer prices  

SciTech Connect

This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

Dorkey, F.C. (Meliora Research Associates, Rochester, NY (United States)); Jarrell, G.A. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

1991-01-01

382

Analysis of Transfer Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Transfer lines are common in industries such as food, automotive, electronics, and pharmaceutical, among many others. A transfer\\u000a line is a synchronous production line consisting of several work stations in series integrated into one system by a common\\u000a transfer mechanism and a control system. Each station is a stopping point at which operations (machining, inspection, etc.)\\u000a are performed on the

Tayfur Altiok

383

Decal transfer lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new soft-lithographic method for micropatterning polymeric resists, Decal Transfer Lithography (DTL), is described. This technique is based on the adhesive transfer of elastomeric decal patterns via the engineered adhesion and release properties of a compliant poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) patterning tool. This procedure is capable of transferring micron to sub-micron-sized features with high fidelity over large substrate areas in both open

William Robert Childs

2004-01-01

384

A generalized approach to model oxygen transfer in bioreactors using population balances and computational fluid dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many biological processes, increasing the rate of transport of a limiting nutrient can enhance the rate of product formation. In aerobic fermentation systems, the rate of oxygen transfer to the cells is usually the limiting factor. A key factor that influences oxygen transfer is bubble size distribution. The bubble sizes dictate the available interfacial area for gas–liquid mass transfer.

Kumar M. Dhanasekharan; Jay Sanyal; Anupam Jain; Ahmad Haidari

2005-01-01

385

Impact of Tropical Ecosystem on the Migrational Behavior of K-40, Cs137, Th-232 U-238 in Perennial Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study was conducted to determine the soil to plant transfer factor (TFS–P) of K-40, Cs-137, Th-232 and U-238 in perennial plants from accessible areas of Mumbai, using high-resolution ? spectrometry.\\u000a A total of 50 soil and 150 plants samples were collected from all over the Mumbai region where lithology is dominated by basaltic\\u000a rocks. The mean concentration values

Ajay Kumar; R. K. Singhal; J. Preetha; K. Rupali; U. Narayanan; Sughandhi Suresh; Manish K. Mishra; A. K. Ranade

2008-01-01

386

Convective heat transfer in hypobaric environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between convective heat transfer and barometric pressure (P sub b), specifically, how hypobaric pressure affects the convective heat transfer coefficient (H sub c) is examined. Five environmental conditions were simulated at elevation of 0 (sea level), 1520 m (5000 ft), 3050 m (10,000 ft), 4570 m (15,000 ft), and 6100 m (20,000 ft). In the chamber, constant temperature (30 C) and wind speed (0.5m/s) were maintained. The convective heat transfer coefficient was determined using the naphthalene sublimation technique. Circular naphthalene disks were affixed to six sites on a stationary copper manikin. The amount of naphthalene weight loss through sublimation was translated to H(sub c) using the Chilton-Colburn j-factor analogy between heat and mass transfer. As elevation increases, P(sub b) decreases; H(sub c) should decrease accordingly, pointing to a diminished convective heat transfer mechanism. Hitherto, the relationship between H(sub c) and P(sub b) was thought to be a nonlinear power function. The results showed that convective transfer indeed decreased at higher elevation, but H(sub c) and (sub b) exhibit a linear relationship. A linear relationship was also obtained from a theoretical derivation. These results suggest that in a hypobaric environment, the convective transfer process becomes even more diminished, and the potential convective heat loss is smaller than the original nonlinear theory would predict.

Chang, Stephen Kw.; Gonzalez, Richard R.

1989-07-01

387

Technology Transfer at Motorola  

Microsoft Academic Search

While developing a formal software-review process, a working group at Motorola devised a technology-transfer model that is built on process packages, each one targeted to a different user group. Their model allows for tailoring, makes training and consulting widely available, and relies on champions. The approach helps development organizations focus on the technology they really need, devise solutions, and transfer

Victor R. Basili; Michael Daskalantonakis; Robert H. Yacobellis

1994-01-01

388

Transfer involving deformed nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs.

Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

1985-03-01

389

Strategic Transfer Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research into cost systems has focused on their motivational implications. This paper takes a different approach, by developing a model where two oligopolistic firms strategically select their cost-based transfer prices. Duopoly models frequently assume that firms game on their choice of prices. Product prices, however, are ultimately based on the firms' transfer prices that communicate manufacturing costs to marketing

Michael Alles; Srikant Datar

1998-01-01

390

Transferring Lean into government  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper evaluates the transfer of a Lean approach developed by a global manufacturing and logistics company into a large UK Government department. The purpose of this paper is to examine which tools and techniques are transferred and implemented into the government department together with their impact as viewed by the staff within the department in order to

Zoe Radnor

2010-01-01

391

Heat transfer pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat transfer pipe for use in a heat exchanger such as air conditioner, freezer and boiler is disclosed wherein grooves are formed in the inner wall surface of the pipe, which are by far finer in size than the grooves that have been provided for the purpose of increasing the heat transfer area in general, and slanting relative to

K. Fujie; M. Itoh; T. Innami; H. Kimura; W. Nakayama; T. Yanagida

1977-01-01

392

Microscale Evaporation Heat Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, microscale evaporation heat transfer and capillary phenomena for ultra thin liquid film area are presented. The interface shapes of curved liquid film in rectangular minichannel and in vicinity of liquid-vapor-solid contact line are determined by a numerical solution of simplified conduction through liquid layer. The data of numerical calculation of local heat transfer in rectangular channel and

V. V. Kuznetsov; S. A. Safonov

393

Heat transfer in pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer

T. Burbach

1985-01-01

394

Multicomponent mass transfer  

SciTech Connect

This is an important book on multicomponent mass transfer, meant for readers already acquainted with the theory of mass transfer and the fundamentals of transport phenomena. Part 1, entitled Molecular Diffusion, contains the following chapters: Preliminary Concepts; The Maxwell-Stefan Relations; Fick's Law; Estimation of Diffusion Coefficients; Solution of multicomponent Diffusion Problems: The Linearized Theory; and Solution of Multicomponent Diffusion Problems: Effective Diffusivity Methods. Part 2, entitled Interphase Transfer, contains the following chapters: Mass-Transfer Coefficients; Film Theory; Unsteady-State Mass-Transfer Models; Mass Transfer in Turbulent Flow; and Simultaneous Mass and Energy Transfer. Part 3, entitled Design, contains the following chapters: Multicomponent Distillation: Mass-Transfer Models; Multicomponent Distillation: Efficiency Models; Multicomponent Distillation: A Nonequilibrium Stage Model; and Condensation of Vapor Mixtures. Appendices are provided on matrix algebra, equation-solving and estimation of a thermodynamic derivative matrix. A computer diskette is provided with the book; the examples in Chapters 1--13 are solvable using this diskette and the commercial package Mathcad which the user must obtain. A separate software package, Chemsep, is needed for some of the exercises in Chapter 14.

Taylor, R.; Krishna, R.

1993-01-01

395

Assessing the Transfer Function: Data Exchanges and Transfer Rates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews methods of collecting transfer information. Describes a voluntary effort undertaken by several community colleges and senior institutions in Maryland to exchange data about transfer and community college students. Considers issues involved in defining transfer rates, including transfer goal, transfer program, student course load, and…

Clagett, Craig A.; Huntington, Robin B.

1992-01-01

396

Electron transfer reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the tenure of this contract research was performed on a number of aspects of electron transfer reactions (solvent dynamics including vibrational effects, non-Debye solvent dynamics, early steps in bacterial photosynthesis) and of the use of artificial intelligence searching methods, the latter, in part, as a prelude to our current study of electron transfer reactions in structurally complicated systems such as proteins. Seven Technical Reports were issued during this period, and research on several topics was initiated: the study of the relation between charge transfer absorption and fluorescence spectra and the inverted region, a nonadiabatic/adiabatic coherent mechanism for electron transfers, and electron transfers between two immiscible-liquid phases and between a semiconductor and an electrolyte.

Marcus, R. A.

1989-07-01

397

Ultrasound-guided embryo transfer and the accuracy of trial embryo transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that ultrasound-guided embryo transfer (UG-ET) may improve the outcome in IVF; however, several factors may account for the improvement in pregnancy rate. This study exam- ines the use of ultrasound to determine the accuracy of trial transfer (TT) in preparation for ET. METHODS: Sixty-seven consecutive patients prospectively underwent UG-ET over a 2 month period. Total cavity

Mousa I. Shamonki; Steven D. Spandorfer; Zev Rosenwaks

2005-01-01

398

Tacit knowledge transfer and the knowledge disconnect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to look at some of the factors that influence the transfer of tacit knowledge between two product development partners. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - Research involved the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data was based on 13 interviews with various individuals, representing three companies, charged with integrating external technology. The quantitative

Ted Foos; Gary Schum; Sandra Rothenberg

2006-01-01

399

Social perspectives on technology transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses two books that relate technology transfer to professional communication. Stephen Doheny-Farina (Rhetoric, Innovation Technology: Case Studies in Technology Transfers, MIT Press, 1992) builds an argument for a rhetorical perspective on technology transfer; Frederick Williams and David V. Gibson (Technology Transfer. A Communication Perspective, Sage, 1990) describe the current technology transfer process from a communication perspective. In both

Jane M. Perkins

1993-01-01

400

Degree of handedness affects intermanual transfer of skill learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermanual transfer of skill learning has often been used as a paradigm to study functional specialization and hemispheric\\u000a interactions in relation to handedness. This literature has not evaluated whether degree of handedness impacts learning and\\u000a intermanual transfer. Because handedness scores are related to factors that might influence intermanual transfer, such as\\u000a engagement of the ipsilateral hemisphere during movement (Dassonville et

Cori Chase; Rachael Seidler

2008-01-01

401

Experimental research on heat transfer of pulsating heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental research was conducted to understand heat transfer characteristic of pulsating heat pipe in this paper, and the PHP is made of high quality glass capillary tube. Under different fill ratio, heat transfer rate and many other influence factors, the flow patterns were observed in the start-up, transition and stable stage. The effects of heating position on heat transfer were discussed. The experimental results indicate that no annular flow appears in top heating condition. Under different fill ratios and heat transfer rate, the flow pattern in PHP is transferred from bulk flow to semi-annular flow and annular flow, and the performance of heat transfer is improved for down heating case. The experimental results indicate that the total heat resistant of PHP is increased with fill ratio, and heat transfer rate achieves optimum at filling rate 50%. But for pulsating heat pipe with changing diameters the thermal resistance is higher than that with uniform diameters.

Li, Jia; Yan, Li

2008-06-01

402

Comparisons of power transfer functions and flow transfer functions  

SciTech Connect

Transfer functions may be used to calculate component feedbacks or temperature increments by convolution of the transfer function with the appropriate fractional change in system-quantity. Power-change transfer functions have been reported. The corresponding flow transfer functions for this case, and comparison with the power transfer functions, are reported here. Results of feedback simulation of ramped flow transients using flow transfer functions are also described.

Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

1987-11-15

403

[Countertransference in homoerotic transference].  

PubMed

Until now psychoanalytic training and literature have hardly considered the transference love of homosexual patients. We summarized the scarce literature and related it to the background of our knowledge of heterosexual transference love. The discussion leaves no doubt that, like the heterosexual, homosexual transference love must be read on all levels of psychosexual development instead of reading it on only one and definitely not on an amorphous "preoedipal" level. This is particularly true for the level of the adult homosexual patient, as the case history demonstrates. PMID:7571883

Junkert-Tress, B; Reister, G

1995-01-01

404

Fast multilevel radiative transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of recent advances in the field of numerical radiative transfer relies on approximate operator methods better known in astrophysics as Accelerated Lambda-Iteration (ALI). A superior class of iterative schemes, in term of rates of convergence, such as Gauss-Seidel and Successive Overrelaxation methods were therefore quite naturally introduced in the field of radiative transfer by Trujillo Bueno & Fabiani Bendicho (1995); it was thoroughly described for the non-LTE two-level atom case. We describe hereafter in details how such methods can be generalized when dealing with non-LTE unpolarised radiation transfer with multilevel atomic models, in monodimensional geometry.

Paletou, Frédéric; Léger, Ludovick

2007-01-01

405

Adeno-Associated Virus —Mediated Gene Transfer for Hemophilia B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemophilia is the bleeding diathesis caused by mutations in the gene encoding factor VIII (hemophilia A) or factor IX (hemophilia\\u000a B). Currently, the disease is treated by intravenous infusion of the missing purified clotting factor. The goal of gene transfer\\u000a for treating hemophilia is to achieve sustained expression of factor VIII or factor IX at levels high enough to improve

Katherine A. High

2002-01-01

406

Technology transfer to Saudi Arabia petrochemical industry experience  

SciTech Connect

Saudi Arabia sought transferring petrochemical technology. The transfer aims to reduce the country's dependence on oil and to utilize national resources more efficiently. To investigate the factors affecting the transfer, conditions related to the technology in question and the receiving entity are analyzed. Multinational corporations play a major role in the transfer process. The research shows that joint venture transfers more technology than direct foreign investment. Various economic models of transferring technology are discussed. Using regression analysis, two models are tested. Four variables are involved: investment resources involved in the process, labor, material, and transfer arrangement. Material advantage is the most significant factor in the Saudi case followed by transfer arrangement. Labor shortage slows the transfer. Four major policies are concluded from the study. (1) Additional effort is needed to recruit national workers; the number of expatriate is still large. (2) Carefully planned and implemented R and D program is essential for the transfer to be successful. (3) Starting some final products is due currently. It maximizes value added and it has better marketing conditions. (4) The stage of establishing industrial projects independent of foreign partner is set. The Saudis should have acquired sufficient technical experience to do so.

Al-Ghamdi, A.A.K.

1987-01-01

407

The tendency of individuals to transfer DNA to handled items  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates factors influencing the transfer of DNA to handled objects and the process known as ‘shedding’. Volunteers were recruited to hold sterile plastic tubes using experiments originally designed by Lowe et al. [A. Lowe, C. Murray, J. Whitaker, G. Tully, P. Gill, The propensity of individuals to deposit DNA and secondary transfer of low level DNA from individuals

Matthew Phipps; Susan Petricevic

2007-01-01

408

Transfer of Cadmium from Soil to Vegetable Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted in order to study the transfer of Cd from soil to the vegetable crops namely Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), Lal sak (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and Data sak (Amaranthus spinosis L.). The mean transfer factors (concentration in plant dry weight \\/ concentration in soil dry weight) varied from 2.030 to 6.785 in

M. Z. Hossain; S. M. Ullah; S. A. Ahad; M. B. Ullah

2007-01-01

409

A conceptual framework for transferring research to practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic evaluations of efforts to transfer research-based interventions and procedures into general practice at community drug treatment programs have been limited. However, practical experiences as well as results from studies of technology transfer and organizational behavior in related fields provide a basis for proposing a heuristic model of key factors that influence this process. The successful completion of four stages

D. Dwayne Simpson

2002-01-01

410

Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second volume of papers presented at the Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition held at the Johnson Space Center February 1-3, 1994. Possible technology transfers covered during the conference were in the areas of information access; innovative microwave and optical applications; materials and structures; marketing and barriers; intelligent systems; human factors and habitation; communications and data

Krishen

1994-01-01

411

Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document contains papers presented at the Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition held at the Johnson Space Center February 1-3, 1994. Possible technology transfers covered during the conference were in the areas of information access; innovative microwave and optical applications; materials and structures; marketing and barriers; intelligent systems; human factors and habitation; communications and data systems; business process

Krishen

1994-01-01

412

Maternal transfer of antibodies: raising immuno-ecology issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfer of antibodies from mother to offspring has broad potential implications in evolutionary ecology, from the adaptive value of maternal effects to the role of transgenerational plasticity in host-parasite inter- actions. Recent contributions have addressed key issues such as environmental and genetic factors affecting the amount of antibodies transferred and whether maternal antibodies affect offspring immunity, but little is

Thierry Boulinier; Vincent Staszewski

2008-01-01

413

Intervening to Improve the Transfer to Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evaluation data are reported on a Transfer Support Team (TST) intervention which supports pupils identified as vulnerable during secondary school transfer. Information about school concerns and broader adjustment measures were collected from TST supported pupils on three occasions and from a "typical benchmark group" on two occasions. Factors

Bloyce, Jackie; Frederickson, Norah

2012-01-01

414

Preserving transfer independence among individuals with spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: Literature review.Objectives: Upper extremity (UE) joint degeneration, particularly at the shoulder, detrimentally influences functional independence, quality of life, cardiovascular disease risk, and life expectancy of individuals following spinal cord injury (SCI). This review (1) describes UE use for transfers among individuals with SCI; (2) describes contributing factors associated with UE joint degeneration and loss of transfer independence; (3)

J Nyland; P Quigley; C Huang; J Lloyd; J Harrow; A Nelson

2000-01-01

415

Transferring knowledge about sex and gender : Dutch case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation focuses on the transfer of knowledge about sex and gender from academic research contexts to different societal domains in an effort to acquire a better understanding of how these knowledge transfer processes take place and to gain insight in the factors that impact the integration of this knowledge in society. The main academic field that produces knowledge about

J. A. T. J. M. van der Sanden

2010-01-01

416

Comparative study of phospholipid transfer activities mediated by cholesteryl ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a sequential procedure was set up to separate simultaneously cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), phospholipid transfer protein (PTP), and 1ecithin:choles- terol acyltransferase (LCAT) from human plasma. Subse- quently, phospholipid transfer activities of purified lipid transfer proteins, deprived of LCAT activity, were compared and poten- tial interactions between the two proteins were studied. Phos- pholipid transfer (PT)

Laurent Lapst; Anne Athias; Philippe Gambert; Christian Lallemant

417

76 FR 44761 - Remittance Transfers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD94 Remittance Transfers AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration...The interim final rule adds remittance transfers, as now defined under the Electronic Fund Transfer Act (EFTA), as an example of money...

2011-07-27

418

76 FR 73993 - Remittance Transfers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD94 Remittance Transfers AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration...Act). The final rule adds remittance transfers, as now defined under the Electronic Fund Transfer Act (EFTA), as an example of money...

2011-11-30

419

Robotic Technology Evolution and Transfer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A report concerning technology transfer in the area of robotics is presented in vugraph form. The following topics are discussed: definition of technology innovation and tech-transfer; concepts relevant for understanding tech-transfer; models advanced to ...

N. I. Marzwell

1992-01-01

420

Automatic Microbial Transfer Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus is disclosed for automatically transferring a predetermined amount of inoculated culture from a first container into a second container which has a sterile culture. The containers rest on the top of a pivoted support surface, where a horizont...

J. R. Wilkins S. M. Mills

1973-01-01

421

Broadening Transfer Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broadened opportunity for transfer offers a potential for bolstering sagging enrollments, and increases capacities for accomodating the educational needs of a broader spectrum of a democratic society. (Author/KE)

Dearing, Bruce

1975-01-01

422

Technology transfer quality assurance  

SciTech Connect

The results of research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE are regularly transferred from the laboratory to the private sector. The principal focus of PNL is on environmental research and waste management technology; other programs of emphasis include molecular science research. The technology transfer process is predicated on Quality to achieve its objectives effectively. Total quality management (TQM) concepts and principles readily apply to the development and translation of new scientific concepts into commercial products. The concept of technology transfer epitomizes the TQM tenet of continuous improvement: always striving for a better way to do things and always satisfying the customer. A successful technology transfer process adds value to society by providing new or enhanced processes, products, and services to government and commercial customers, with a guarantee of product pedigree and process validity. 2 refs.

Hood, F.C.

1991-03-01

423

Programming for Transferability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents the results of an investigation of design and documentation techniques used in computer programming in order to develop recommendations and guidelines for easing the transfer of computer programs written for one computing environment...

A. Edwards G. W. Phillips J. E. Fleiss L. Rieder

1972-01-01

424

Investment casting heat transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calculate temperature profile and Biot number in mixed conduction and convection/radiation heat transfer from liquid metal through a ceramic mold to the environment, and suggest a design change to reduce the probability of shattering due to thermal stress.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2004-12-15

425

Transfer Log.xls  

Cancer.gov

ANIMAL TRANSFER LOG Date of Move: ________________ Cage Type C = Auto Water NOTES: B = Water Bottle S = SMZ M = Microisolator ASP # PI GROUP NAME # CAGES [+] ROOM TO DOB COMMENTS STRAIN CODE NEW GROUP NAME NEW ROOM CAGE TYPE PEDIGREE # EAR

426

Pipe Heat Transfer Calculation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a group of computer programs to determine heat transfer of multiple pipe systems as well as to evaluate economics of underground heat distribution systems. ...Software Description: The system is written in the FORTRAN V programming language for im...

1973-01-01

427

Desalination Technology Transfer Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Desalination Technology Transfer Center was established at the West Indies Laboratory of Fairleigh Dickinson University. Surplus equipment from OWRT's facilities in Wilmington, N.C. was moved to St. Croix and installed in specially constructed 30- by 60...

R. Bakish

1978-01-01

428

Visualization of heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of recently published papers which describe new experimental methods for heat transfer visualization or the application of such methods for investigating heat transfer problems is presented. The study of surface flow patterns and wall temperature by the oil-flow technique, the naphthalene sublimation technique, and temperature-sensitive paints is considered. The use of tracer materials to visualize the flow field is discussed, and optical methods of visualizing the field are described, presenting photographic illustrations.

Merzkirch, W.

429

Adaptive transfer functions  

SciTech Connect

This paper details the approach and methodology used to build adaptive transfer functions in a feed-forward Back-Propagation neural network, and provides insight into the structure dependent properties of using non-scaled analog inputs. The results of using adaptive transfer functions are shown to outperform conventional architectures in the implementation of a mechanical power transmission gearbox design expert system knowledge base. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Goulding, J.R. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA))

1991-01-01

430

Symbolic Transfer Entropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to estimate transfer entropy using a technique of symbolization. We demonstrate numerically that symbolic transfer entropy is a robust and computationally fast method to quantify the dominating direction of information flow between time series from structurally identical and nonidentical coupled systems. Analyzing multiday, multichannel electroencephalographic recordings from 15 epilepsy patients our approach allowed us to reliably identify the hemisphere containing the epileptic focus without observing actual seizure activity.

Staniek, Matthäus; Lehnertz, Klaus

2008-04-01

431

Uninterrupted Transfer Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing sophistication in critical telecommunication and other modern computerized equipment requires uninterrupted power. This necessitates an uninterrupted transfer capability between normal and alternate sources of power, such as utility and engine-generator. Such a transfer is easily accomplished between two compatible sources (for example between two sources connected to the same bus feeder) by means of make-before-break techniques. However, when the

David Mascarenhas

1986-01-01

432

Fermilab tevatron transfer line  

SciTech Connect

The Tevatron refrigeration system is described, specifically the design transfer line cross-section. A cross-section and one section Tevatron feed line are illustrated. One pair of Tevatron U-tubes and the transfer line test layout are also illustrated. The fabrication and installation are described. Cooldown and warmup tests are reported with the operation and heat leak measurements given. Current work includes flow instabilities. Preliminary results indicate that heat loads are similar to previous measurements.

Rode, C.; Ferry, R.; Leininger, M.; Makara, J.; Richied, D.; Theilacker, J.

1982-01-01

433

Heat transfer in energy problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of recent research are presented concerning heat transfer in energy problems, including high-temperature heat transfer, high-flux heat transfer, high-performance heat transfer, heat transfer in nonconventional energy (power and propulsion) systems, and novel heat transfer techniques. Topics discussed include studies of full-coverage film cooling, radiative properties of metals and alloys at high temperature, critical heat flux conditions in high-quality boiling systems, heat transfer characteristics of the evaporation of a liquid droplet on heated surfaces, high-performance surfaces for non-boiling heat transfer, and high performance heat transfer surfaces for boiling and condensation. Also examined are high flux heat transfer in gaseous solid suspension flow, nuclear process heat applications of high temperature heat exchange, heat transfer considerations in the use of new energy resources, and high performance mist-cooled condensers for geothermal binary cycle plants. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

Mizushina, T.; Yang, W. J.

434

Heat transfer coefficients for drying in pulsating flows  

SciTech Connect

Pulsating flows generated by a Rijke type combustor are studied for drying of grains and food particles. It is assumed that the velocity fluctuations are the main factor in the enhancement of the drying process. The heat transfer coefficients for drying in vibrating beds are utilized to estimate the heat transfer coefficients of fixed beds in pulsating and permeating flows and are compared to the steady flow heat transfer coefficients obtained for solid porous bodies, after perturbing the main flow. The cases considered are compared to the convective heat transfer coefficients employed in non-pulsating drying.

Fraenkel, S.L. [DEM/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nogueira, L.A.H. [IEM/EFEI, Itajuba, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Carvalho, J.A. Jr.; Costa, F.S. [LCP/INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1998-05-01

435

Luminescence resonance energy transfer  

SciTech Connect

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), in which a fluorescent donor molecule transfers energy via a nonradiative dipole-dipole interaction to an acceptor molecule (which is usually a fluorescent molecule), is a standard spectroscopic technique for measuring distances in the 10-70 Angstrom range. We have used a luminescent europium chelate as donor and an organic dye, CY-5, as acceptor. This luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) has several advantages over the more conventional FRET. The distance at which 50% of the energy is transferred (R[sub 0]) is large, 70 [angstrom]; the donor lifetime is single exponential and long (0.63 ms in H[sub 2]O; 2.5 ms in D[sub 2]O), making lifetime measurements facile and highly accurate; the orientation dependence (k[sup 2]) of energy transfer is minimized by the donor's multiple electronic transitions and long lifetime, limiting uncertainty in the measured distance due to orientation effects to [+-]12% in the worst case; the sensitized emission of the acceptor can be measured with little or no interfering background, yielding a >50-fold improvement in signal to background over standard donor-acceptor pairs and enabling distances several times R[sub 0] to be measured. 13 refs., 4 figs.

Selvin, P.R.; Rana, T.M.; Hearst, J.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1994-06-29

436

Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

Bastedo, Helena

2010-01-01

437

Viscoelastic fluids: A new challenge in heat transfer  

SciTech Connect

A review of the current knowledge on the fluid mechanics and heat transfer behavior of viscoelastic aqueous polymer solutions in channel flow is presented. Both turbulent and laminar flow conditions are considered. For fully established turbulent channel flow, it was found that the friction factor, f, and the dimensionless heat transfer factor, j{sub H}, were functions of the Reynolds number and a dimensionless elasticity value, the Weissenberg number. For Weissenberg values greater than approximately 10 (the critical value) the friction factor was found to be a function only of the Reynolds number; for values less than 10 the friction factor was a function of both Re and Ws. For the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient j{sub H} the corresponding critical Weissenberg value was found to be about 100. The heat transfer reduction is always greater than the friction factor reduction; consequently, the heat transfer per unit pumping power decreases with increasing elasticity. For fully established laminar pipe flow of aqueous polymer solutions, the measured values of the friction factor and dimensionless heat transfer coefficient were in excellent agreement with the values predicted for a power law fluid. For laminar flow in a 2:1 rectangular channel the fully developed friction factor measurements were in agreement with the power law prediction. In contrast, the measured local heat transfer coefficients for aqueous polymer solutions in laminar flow through the 2:1 rectangular duct were two or three times the values predicted for a purely viscous power law fluid. It is hypothesized that these high heat transfer coefficients are due to secondary motions, which come about as a results of the unequal normal stresses occurring in viscoelastic fluids. The anomalous behavior of one particular aqueous polymer solution-namely, polyacrylic acid (Carbopol)-is described in some detail, raising some interesting questions as to how viscoelastic fluids should be classified.

Hartnett, J.P. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (United States))

1992-05-01

438

Consulting as a Strategy for Knowledge Transfer  

PubMed Central

Academic researchers who work on health policy and health services are expected to transfer knowledge to decision makers. Decision makers often do not, however, regard academics’ traditional ways of doing research and disseminating their findings as relevant or useful. This article argues that consulting can be a strategy for transferring knowledge between researchers and decision makers and is effective at promoting the “enlightenment” and “interactive” models of knowledge use. Based on three case studies, it develops a model of knowledge transfer–focused consulting that consists of six stages and four types of work. Finally, the article explores how knowledge is generated in consulting and identifies several classes of factors facilitating its use by decision makers.

Jacobson, Nora; Butterill, Dale; Goering, Paula

2005-01-01

439

Protein motifs that facilitate electron transfer reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intra-protein electron transfer reactions are strongly modified by the unique, heterogeneous environment of each redox cofactor binding site. Ionized side chains and polar groups such as the backbone create static fields. Electron transfer also induces changes in the protein and its surroundings. Reorientation of the solvent water and polar or ionized side chains stabilize each charge state of the cofactor. In addition, changes in protonation state of acidic and basic groups in the protein couple proton motion to electron transfer. All these contributions modify the reaction free energy relative to that found in reference solvents. However, in each protein site different factors are most important. Multi Conformation Continuum Electrostatics calculations identify protein motifs that are important in each protein. Examples from cytochromes and photosynthetic reaction centers will be described. Supported by N.S.F. MCB-9629047.

Gunner, Marilyn

2002-03-01

440

Photoinduced Charge Transfer Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photoinduced charge transfer process is the fundamental process in a photovoltaic system. Organic photovoltaics contain a donor-acceptor molecular system which undergoes photoinduced charge transfer leading to a large dipole moment. Often the charge transfer properties of such donor-acceptor systems are measured in solution. The dipole moments on the solvent molecules creates a reaction field. To simulate this reaction field we adopt an approach similar to the explicit solvent model proposed by Washel and co-workers. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine various possible solvent structures. We use a carotenoid-porphyrin-C60 molecular triad as the light-harvesting system. This molecular triad has a very large dipole moment (153 Debye) in the charge separated state. The resulting solvent structures and the reaction field as a function of temperature will be presented.

Basurto, Luis; Baruah, Tunna; Zope, Rajendra; Rodriguez, Jose

2011-10-01

441

Tech transfer outreach  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an informal summary of the conference workshop sessions. Tech Transfer Outreach '' was originally designed as an opportunity for national laboratory communications and technology transfer staff to become better acquainted and to discuss matters of mutual interest. When DOE field office personnel asked if they could attend, and then when one of our keynote speakers became a participant in the discussions, the actual event grew in importance. The conference participants--the laboratories and DOE representatives from across the nation--worked to brainstorm ideas. Their objective: identify ways to cooperate for effective (and cost-effective) technology transfer outreach. Thus, this proceedings is truly a product of ten national laboratories and DOE, working together. It candidly presents the discussion of issues and the ideas generated by each working group. The issues and recommendations are a consensus of their views.

Liebetrau, S. (ed.)

1992-01-01

442

6.RP Data Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The data transfer rate of an Internet connection is the rate in bytes per second that a file can be transmitted across the connection. Data transfer is...

443

Making behavioral technology transferable  

PubMed Central

The paucity of transferred behavioral technologies is traced to the absence of strategies for developing technology that is transferable, as distinct from strategies for conducting research, whether basic or applied. In the field of engineering, the results of basic research are transformed to candidate technologies that meet standardized criteria with respect to three properties: quantification, repetition, and verification. The technology of vitrification and storage of nuclear waste is used to illustrate the application of these criteria. Examples from behavior analysis are provided, together with suggestions regarding changes in practice that will accelerate the development and application of behavioral technologies.

Pennypacker, H. S.; Hench, Larry L.

1997-01-01

444

Making behavioral technology transferable.  

PubMed

The paucity of transferred behavioral technologies is traced to the absence of strategies for developing technology that is transferable, as distinct from strategies for conducting research, whether basic or applied. In the field of engineering, the results of basic research are transformed to candidate technologies that meet standardized criteria with respect to three properties: quantification, repetition, and verification. The technology of vitrification and storage of nuclear waste is used to illustrate the application of these criteria. Examples from behavior analysis are provided, together with suggestions regarding changes in practice that will accelerate the development and application of behavioral technologies. PMID:22478284

Pennypacker, H S; Hench, L L

1997-01-01

445

Adenoviral Gene Transfer Allows Smad-Responsive Gene Promoter Analyses and Delineation of Type I Receptor Usage of Transforming Growth Factor Family Ligands in Cultured Human Granulosa Luteal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the human ovary, cell growth and differentiation are reg- ulated by members of the TGF- superfamily, including growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9), TGF-, and activin. TGF- and activin are known to signal via Smad3 activation, and we have recently shown the involvement of Smad3 in cellular responses to GDF9. Recent studies with Smad3-defi- cient mice have also indicated a key

Noora Kaivo-Oja; David G. Mottershead; Sabine Mazerbourg; Samu Myllymaa; Sebastien Duprat; Robert B. Gilchrist; Nigel P. Groome; Aaron J. Hsueh; Olli Ritvos

446

The For-Profit Transfer Path: A Comparison of California Community College Transfer Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The results of this study determined that community college students who transfer to for-profit institutions are indeed different from students who follow traditional routes defined as public and non-profit institutions. This study compares the demographic characteristics, academic experiences, and socioeconomic factors of California community…

van Ommeren, Alice

2011-01-01

447

Transfer Velocity Project: Key Findings on Student Transfer in California Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Which factors promote student transfer from California Community Colleges (CCC) to baccalaureate-granting institutions? How do community college practices support this transition? Which student behaviors and characteristics particularly facilitate their movement to four-year colleges and universities? The Research and Planning Group for…

Research and Planning Group for California Community Colleges (RP Group), 2010

2010-01-01

448

Transfer climate in end-user computing : The influence of trainee characteristics and supervisory support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Although end-user computing (EUC) training has received significant attention among academics and practitioners, the effective transfer of trained EUC skills is a relatively neglected issue. Analysis of factors affecting the EUC transfer process will aid in understanding and improving training transfer. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to underscore key trainee characteristics and facets of the work

Nalini Govindarajulu

2009-01-01

449

Multinational corporation planning and the transfer of appropriate technology to less-developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

First a model is contructed that best describes expectations of how multinationals have structured themselves to give attention, Transfer Consideration, to the transfer of appropriate technology to less-developed countries. It is hypothesized that the extent of Transfer Consideration is a function of three interrelated contextual factors. To test the model, the author interviewed, at their respective headquarters, corporate officials of

Mahone; C. E. Jr

1981-01-01

450

Design and Optimization of Circular Magnetic Structures for Lumped Inductive Power Transfer Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solution that enables safe, efficient, and convenient overnight recharging of electric vehicles is needed. Inductive power transfer (IPT) is capable of meeting these needs, however, the main limiting factor is the performance of the magnetic structures (termed power pads) that help transfer power efficiently. These should transfer 2-5 kW with a large air gap and have good toler- ance

Mickel Budhia; Grant A. Covic; John T. Boys