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1

Cs-137 soil to plant transfer factors derived from pot experiments and field studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soil to plant transfer factors (TF) of (sup 137)Cs for different crop plants were determined in pot experiments, in outdoor experiments with plastic containers of 50 l volume, and in field studies. In all cases the soil contamination with (sup 137)Cs resu...

O. Horak M. H. Gerzabek K. Mueck

1989-01-01

2

Variation in transfer factors for stochastic models: Soil-to-plant transfer  

SciTech Connect

The scientific literature is a good source of information about soil-to-plant transfer, usually documented as mean concentration ratios. It does not provide, however, good information about variation in concentration ratio values, because most studies are done with limited numbers of crops and soils. Fortunately, a suitably large and diverse database is available from the International Union of Radioecologists that can be used to investigate variation. It has a total of over 7,000 concentration ratio values for over 22 elements. This paper reports on analysis of the geometric standard deviations obtained from the database. We assert that geometric standard deviation values are comparable and transferable among elements, so that geometric standard deviations calculated from large databases can be applied to other elements when there is a paucity of data. For a fully generic situation, where neither crops nor soil types are known, the geometric standard deviations is typically about 6. This implies a 1,300-fold range to encompass 95% of the data. For concentration ratios obtained for crops of interest on a specific site, the geometric standard deviation values are much lower, about 1.5. This still implies a fivefold range to encompass 95% of the data. Other values of geometric standard deviations for intermediate levels of information are provided. These estimates of geometric standard deviation are important to and appropriate for stochastic simulations of the impacts of soil contamination on crops and subsequent food chains. They are also important to the inclusivity of concentration ratios value distributions for unusual but perhaps important crops and settings. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G. [AECL Whiteshell Labs., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

1997-05-01

3

Predicting soil to plant transfer of radiocesium using soil characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is presented that dynamically estimates the radiocesium activity in herbage from readily available soil parameters. Three key properties underlying the bioavailability of radiocesium in soils were estimated in the model: the labile radiocesium distribution coefficient (k{sub dl}), the solution K{sup +} concentration ([m{sub K}]), and the radiocesium concentration factor. These were determined as functions of the soil clay

J. P. Absalom; S. D. Young; N. M. J. Crout; A. G. Gillett; A. F. Nisbet; R. F. M. Woodman; E. Smolders

1999-01-01

4

Predicting soil to plant transfer of radiocesium using soil characteristics  

SciTech Connect

A model is presented that dynamically estimates the radiocesium activity in herbage from readily available soil parameters. Three key properties underlying the bioavailability of radiocesium in soils were estimated in the model: the labile radiocesium distribution coefficient (k{sub dl}), the solution K{sup +} concentration ([m{sub K}]), and the radiocesium concentration factor. These were determined as functions of the soil clay content and exchangeable K status. The effect of time on radiocesium fixation was described by two first-order decay equations. The model was initially parameterized using radiocesium uptake data from a ryegrass pot trial. Without further parameterization, the model was then tested for a wide range of soil and crop combinations using a database of published and unpublished information from a variety of sources and covering contamination time periods of 0.5--11 years. Model predictions of activity concentrations in crops were in generally good agreement with observed values.

Absalom, J.P.; Young, S.D.; Crout, N.M.J.; Gillett, A.G. [Univ. of Nottingham, Loughborough (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences] [Univ. of Nottingham, Loughborough (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences; Nisbet, A.F.; Woodman, R.F.M. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)] [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Smolders, E. [K.U. Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Lab. of Soil Fertility and Soil Biology] [K.U. Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Lab. of Soil Fertility and Soil Biology

1999-04-15

5

Soil-to-plant transfer factors of radioactive Ca, Sm and Pd isotopes: critical assessment of the use of analogies to derive best-estimates from existing non-specific data.  

PubMed

(45)Ca, (151)Sm and (107)Pd are three radionuclides present in low to intermediate in activity radioactive wastes for which no soil-to-plant Transfer Factors (TF) values are available to be used in biosphere models for Ecological Risk Assessment. In the absence of specific radioecological studies, this work reviews and analyzes the existing literature for stable isotopes of Pd, Sm and Ca in order to derive best estimates for TF values that could be used as Transfer Factors. Alternative methods of extrapolation are also critically assessed. The values have been classified according to climatic zone, plant class and soil type for each element. The overall geometric mean TF values (for all plants and conditions) was calculated as 8.4E-02 for Pd, for which the value of radioRu in TRS-472 is also available. The mean TF for Sm was 4.2E-04. This value was lower than the TF values for radioactive Ce that are proposed as alternative values for Sm in TRS-472. The former may be relevant for long term assessments and the latter could possibly used to describe the short term (151)Sm post-release behaviour. The mean value for Ca is 2.3E-01 but varies considerably among plants of a given class due to the variety of plant Ca uptake behaviors. Alternatively, to limit this variability, Ca data content for dry plant matter, as analyzed using the phylogenetic method, could be used to derive TF values if the conservation of isotopic ratio of (45)Ca to stable Ca in soils and in plants hypothesis is taken into account. The TF for Ca in sub-tropical zones is 10-fold lower than in temperate zones. There is a lot of data available about exchangeable Ca in soil, which mean that we could calculate an available TF. The analysis shows that Ca bioavailability is also a key factor within transfer. PMID:24956582

Henner, Pascale; Hurtevent, Pierre; Thiry, Yves

2014-10-01

6

Estimation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of radiocesium in 99 wild plant species grown in arable lands 1 year after the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident.  

PubMed

One year after the deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant (A formal name is Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station) in March 2011, radiocesium (¹³?Cs, ¹³?Cs) concentrations ([Cs]) were comprehensively investigated in the wild plants of 99 species most of which were annual or summer green perennial herbs and started to grow from April 2012 at the heavily contaminated fields of paddy (three study sites) and upland (one study site) in Fukushima Prefecture. The survey was conducted three times (April, July and October) in the year. In each site, soils (soil cores of 5-cm depth) and plants (aerial shoots) were collected for determination of [Cs] on a dry weight basis, and then the transfer factor (TF) of radiocesium from soil to plant ([Cs]plant/[Cs]soil) was estimated in each species. The [Cs] values of both soils and plants largely varied. However, some species exhibited relatively high TF values (more than 0.4) (e.g., Athyrium yokoscense, Dryopteris tokyoensis, and Cyperus brevifolius), while others exhibited almost negligible values (less than 0.01) (e.g., Salix miyabeana, Humulus scandens, and Elymus tsukushiensis). In addition, judging from the 11 species grown in both paddy and upland fields, TF values were generally higher in the paddy fields. The estimation of phytoextraction efficiency of soil radiocesium by weed communities in the paddy fields suggests that the weed community is not a practical candidate for phytoremediation technique. PMID:24346655

Yamashita, Jun; Enomoto, Takashi; Yamada, Masao; Ono, Toshiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Sonoda, Shoji; Yamamoto, Yoko

2014-01-01

7

Accumulation and soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides in the Nile Delta coastal black sand habitats.  

PubMed

The radionuclide content was estimated in the soil of three black sand habitats in the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, namely, sand mounds and coastal sand planes and dunes. In addition, a total of 14 heavy minerals found in the soils were characterized. The soil to plant transfer of uranium and thorium was tested on three black sand species, namely, Cakile maritima Scop., Senecio glaucus L. and Rumex Pictus Forssk. The transfer of thorium and uranium radionuclides from the soil to plant is complex process that is subjected to many variables; among which are the organic matter and clay content of the soil, the type of radionuclides and plant species. The study revealed a strong negative relationship between uranium and thorium uptake by S. glaucus and R. pictus and the clay and organic matter content of soil. Concentration of thorium in the soil has a negative correlation with soil-to-plant transfer factor. The study results suggest the possibility of using black sand species for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radioactive elements. The potentiality of S. glaucus as phytoremediator of radionuclides polluted soils is greater than R. pictus which in turn outweigh C. maritima. PMID:21598782

Hegazy, A K; Emam, M H

2011-02-01

8

Soil to plant transfer of radionuclides: predicting the fate of multiple radioisotopes in plants.  

PubMed

Predicting soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides is restricted by the range of species for which concentration ratios (CRs) have been measured. Here the radioecological utility of meta-analyses of phylogenetic effects on alkali earth metals will be explored for applications such as 'gap-filling' of CRs, the identification of sentinel biomonitor plants and the selection of taxa for phytoremediation of radionuclide contaminated soils. REML modelling of extensive CR/concentration datasets shows that the concentrations in plants of Ca, Mg and Sr are significantly influenced by phylogeny. Phylogenetic effects of these elements are shown here to be similar. Ratios of Ca/Mg and Ca/Sr are known to be quite stable in plants so, assuming that Sr/Ra ratios are stable, phylogenetic effects and estimated mean CRs are used to predict Ra CRs for groups of plants with few measured data. Overall, there are well quantified plant variables that could contribute significantly to improving predictions of the fate radioisotopes in the soil-plant system. PMID:24011856

Willey, Neil J

2014-07-01

9

Comparative Analysis Of 226Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transfer of 226Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeiriça uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean 226Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of 226Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for 226Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, 226Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1).

Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

2008-08-01

10

Factors associated with the suppressiveness of sugarcane soils to plant-parasitic nematodes.  

PubMed

Observations in three Australian sugarcane fields suggested that the soil just under the trash blanket (the covering of crop residue that remains on the soil surface after crops are harvested) was suppressive to plant-parasitic nematodes. Roots were concentrated in this upper layer of soil but plant-parasitic nematode populations were relatively low and roots showed few signs of nematode damage. Root biomass was much lower 15 cm further down the soil profile, where root health was poor and populations of plant-parasitic nematodes were 3-5 times higher than near the soil surface. A bioassay in which Radopholus similis (a nematode that does not occur in sugarcane soils) was inoculated into heat-sterilized and untreated soils, confirmed that biological factors were limiting nematode populations in some of the soils, with soil from 0-2 cm much more suppressive than soil from 15-17 cm. Surface soil from one site was highly suppressive, as only 16% of R. similis recoverable from heated soil were retrieved from this soil after 8 days. Numerous soil chemical, biochemical, and biological properties were measured, and non-linear regression analysis identified two major groups of factors that were significantly associated with suppressiveness. One group reflected the amount of organic matter in soil (total C, total N, and labile C) and the other was associated with the size of the free-living nematode community (total numbers of free-living nematodes, and numbers of plant associates, bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, and carnivores). These results suggested that suppressiveness was biologically mediated and was sustained by C inputs from crop residues and roots. Since nematode-trapping fungi in the test soils could not be quantified using traditional dilution plating methods, their possible role as suppressive agents was assessed by generating TRFLP profiles with Orbiliales-specific primers, and by sequencing cloned PCR products. Although the molecular data were obtained from a limited number of samples, the level of suppression was significantly correlated to the number of Orbiliales clone groups and was also related to the number of Orbiliales species and TRFs, suggesting that this group of fungi may have been one of the suppressive factors operating in the test soils. PMID:23431051

Stirling, Graham R; Rames, Emily; Stirling, A Marcelle; Hamill, Sharon

2011-09-01

11

Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of 137Cs in soil and the soil-to-plant transfer in a pine forest in SW Finland.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of radiocaesium in soil and on its transfer from soil to plants. The study was started in September 2000 in four Scots pine stands located at distances of 0.5, 2, 4 and 8 km along a transect running SE from the Cu-Ni smelter at Harjavalta in SW Finland. Annual emissions from the smelter in 1990 were 80 t of Cu, 31 t of Ni and 9000 t of SO(2), and in 1999 these were 5.9, 0.8 and 3400 t, respectively. At each site, soil profiles were sampled with a corer, and samples were separated into litter (L), organic soil layer (O) and mineral soil layers (B, E). Mushrooms, lichens (Cladina spp. and Cetraria islandica), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) plants were collected at each site, except at a distance of 0.5 km, where only mushrooms were available. In the organic soil layer, 137Cs activity decreased from 8000 Bq/m(2) at a distance of 8 km from the smelter to 1500 Bq/m(2) at a distance of 0.5 km; in litter, 137Cs concentration increased from 6300 Bq/m(2) at 8 km to 14000 Bq/m(2) at 0.5 km. 137Cs activity concentration decreased significantly in plants, mushrooms and lichens as the pollution load increased. In lichens, 137Cs activity decreased from 910 Bq/kg at 8 km to 170 Bq/kg at 2 km, while in lingonberry it decreased from 1470 to 20 Bq/kg and in crowberry from 310 to 20 Bq/kg. Aggregated transfer factors for 137Cs decreased in a similar way in lingonberry from 7.6x10(-2) m(2)/kg at 8 km to 7.7x10(-4) m(2)/kg at 2 km and in crowberry from 1.6x10(-2) to 7.9x10(-4) m(2)/kg. PMID:12606162

Outola, Iisa; Pehrman, Reijo; Jaakkola, Timo

2003-03-01

12

Comparative Analysis Of {sup 226}Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions  

SciTech Connect

The transfer of {sup 226}Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeirica uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, {sup 226}Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1)

Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J. [Nuclear and Technological Institute/Department of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

2008-08-07

13

ASSESSMENT OF METAL TRANSFER FACTOR UNDER IRRIGATION WITH TREATED MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of the optimum transfer factor (TF) of heavy metals from soil to plant is of vital importance, because TF is an indicator of heavy metal mobility in soils and a factor that quantifies the existing differences in the bioavailability of metals to plants. Optimum heavy metal transfer factors were found multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA), under the effect

Ioannis K. Kalavrouziotis; Prodromos Koukoulakis; Eirini Kostakioti

14

The Transfer of Dissolved Cs-137 from Soil to Plants  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly maturing plants were grown simultaneously at the same experimental sites under natural conditions at the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Roots of the plants were side by side in the soil. During two seasons we selected samples of the plants and of the soils several times every season. Content of Cs-137 in the plant and in the soil solution extracted from the samples of soils was measured. Results of measurements of the samples show that, for the experimental site, Cs-137 content in the plant varies with date of the sample selection. The plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio depends strongly on the date of selection and also on the type of soil. After analysis of the data we conclude that Cs-137 plant uptake is approximately proportional to the content of dissolved Cs-137 in the soil per unit of volume, and the plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio for the soil is approximately proportional to the soil moisture. (authors)

Prorok, V.V.; Melnichenko, L.Yu. [Department of Physics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 2, build. 1 Acad. Glushkov prospect, Kyiv-680 MSP (Ukraine); Mason, C.F.V. [Research Applications Corporation, 148 Piedra Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Ageyev, V.A.; Ostashko, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 47 Nauky prospect, Kyiv-680 MSP (Ukraine)

2006-07-01

15

Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by radionuclide releases) of waste disposal facilities and decommissioning sites.

Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

2007-10-01

16

Radium-226 transfer factor from soils to crops and its simple estimation method using uranium and barium concentrations.  

PubMed

Radium-226 ((226)Ra) should be assessed to determine the safety of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and transuranic wastes. Among the environmental transfer parameters that have been used in mathematical models for the environmental safety assessment, soil-to-plant transfer factor (F(v)) is of importance; it is defined as the plant/soil concentration ratio. Reported F(v) data for (226)Ra are still limited due to the low concentration of (226)Ra in plants in the natural environment. In this study, we collected F(v) of (226)Ra (F(v)-Ra) for crops and then applied a statistical approach to estimate F(v)-Ra instead of directly measuring the radionuclide. We found high correlations between (226)Ra and U concentrations in soils (because (226)Ra is a progeny in the (238)U series), and between (226)Ra and Ba concentrations in plants (because they are chemically similar in plant uptake). Using U in soil and Ba in plant values, we could estimate F(v)-Ra with good accuracy; the difference between estimated and measured F(v)-Ra values was a factor of 1.2 on average for crops. The method could estimate F(v)-Ra for the soil-to-plant systems where (226)Ra and Ba concentrations in soil are within the normal range, e.g. 8-100 Bq kg(-1)-dry for (226)Ra and 84-960 mg kg(-1)-dry for Ba. PMID:19501875

Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

2009-09-01

17

Soil-to-plant transfer of carbon-14 for environmental assessment of radioactive waste repositories  

SciTech Connect

Transport of {sup 14}C through soil was studied by applying {sup 14}C tracers to soils in outdoor lysimeters. The tracers were applied as either carbonate or organic PCB to either the top or bottom of undisturbed cores of two different soil types. The carbonate tracer moved rapidly through the soil, probably in a vapor phase. The PCB was much less mobile. One of the soil types was more acidic with a low concentration of native carbonates, and {sup 14}C transport was more rapid through this soil than through the less acidic, high-carbonate soil. We calculated solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) for {sup 14}C-carbonate of 6 and 1.2 mL/g for the two soils, respectively. Plant uptake of {sup 14}C applied as carbonate or as PCB was measured from two soil types in outdoor lysimeters. The carbonate was rapidly volatilized from both soils. The plant/soil concentration ratio (CR) for {sup 14}C-carbonate was 0.7 for the more acidic soil and 1.3 for the less acidic soil, on a dry weight basis. 41 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Sheppard, M.I.; Sheppard, S.C.; Amiro, B.D.; Schwartz, W.J.; Hawkins, J.L.; Thibault, D.H.

1990-08-01

18

Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To begin the validation process for the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Thailand, research replicating Holton, Bates, and Ruona's study (2000) was conducted in Thailand. The LTSI was administered to 1,029 employees. Exploratory factor analysis and MANOVA were used to identify factors. A factor structure almost identical to that of…

Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

2005-01-01

19

Transfer factors of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil (Andosol) to crops.  

PubMed

In order to obtain soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil to agricultural crops, we carried out radiotracer experiments. The mean values of TFs (on a wet weight basis) of radioiodine from Andosol to edible parts of crops were as follows: water dropwort, 0.24; lettuce, 0.00098; onion, 0.0011; radish, 0.0044; turnip, 0.0013 and eggplant, 0.00010. The mean value of the TFs of radioiodine for edible parts of wheat (on a dry weight basis) was 0.00015. We also studied the distributions of iodine in crops. There was a tendency for the TFs of leaves to be higher than those of tubers, fruits and grains. A very high TF was found for water dropwort, because this plant was cultivated under a waterlogged condition, in which iodine desorbed from soil into soil solution with a drop in the Eh value. The data obtained in this study should be helpful to assess the long-lived 129I (half life: 1.57 x 10(7) yr) pathway related to the fuel cycle. PMID:12841595

Ban-Nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

2003-03-01

20

Factors Affecting Motivation to Transfer Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of trainees (n=88) in a competency-based occupational safety and health training program found that environmental factors (opportunities to use skills, peer/supervisor support, and supervisor sanctions) were most influential on motivation to transfer training. Training attitudes may be affected by prior experiences when the use of training…

Seyler, Dian L.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Burnett, Michael F.; Carvalho, Manuel A.

1998-01-01

21

Some factors affecting ink transfer in gravure printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors affect the print quality and ink transfer. These are either machine factors, paper factors, or Ink factors. The aim of this work was to find out to what extent are the amount of ink transferred influenced by the previously mentioned factors. Atomic absorption was used for quantitatively measuring the amount of ink transferred. Copper phthalocyanine pigment was chosen.

S. Elsayad; F. Morsy; S. El-Sherbiny; E. Abdou

2002-01-01

22

Immunocompetence and transfer factor therapy in uveitis.  

PubMed Central

A study of the clinical course of 20 patients with uveitis treated with transfer factor is reported. Twelve (60%) of the patients were initially immunoincompetent on screening. Eight of the 12 changed to an immunocompetent status after treatment and could either decrease or discontinue their anti-inflammatory drugs. Five had a statistically significant improvement in visual acuity. One of the 8 initially immunocompetent patients had a statistically significant visual improvement, and 2 decreased or discontinued all drugs, while 3 increased their drugs.

Abramson, A; Khan, A; Tate, G W; Martin, R G; Hill, N O

1980-01-01

23

What factors determine placental glucose transfer kinetics??  

PubMed Central

Introduction Transfer of glucose across the human placenta is directly proportional to maternal glucose concentrations even when these are well above the physiological range. This study investigates the relationship between maternal and fetal glucose concentrations and transfer across the placenta. Methods Transfer of d-glucose, 3H-3-o-methyl-d-glucose (3H-3MG) and 14C-l-glucose across the isolated perfused human placental cotyledon was determined for maternal and fetal arterial d-glucose concentrations between 0 and 20 mmol/l. Results Clearance of 3H-3MG or 14C-l-glucose was not affected by maternal or fetal d-glucose concentrations in either circulation. Discussion Based on the arterial glucose concentrations and the reported KM for GLUT1, the transfer of d-glucose and 3H-3MG would be expected to show signs of saturation as d-glucose concentrations increased but this did not occur. One explanation for this is that incomplete mixing of maternal blood and the rate of diffusion across unstirred layers may lower the effective concentration of glucose at the microvillous membrane and subsequently at the basal membrane. Uncertainties about the affinity of GLUT1 for glucose, both outside and inside the cell, may also contribute to the difference between the predicted and observed kinetics. Conclusion These factors may therefore help explain why the observed and predicted kinetics differ and they emphasise the importance of understanding the function of transport proteins in their physiological context. The development of a computational model of glucose transfer may improve our understanding of how the determinants of placental glucose transfer interact and function as a system.

Day, P.E.; Cleal, J.K.; Lofthouse, E.M.; Hanson, M.A.; Lewis, R.M.

2013-01-01

24

Seasonal variation of soil-to-plant transfer of K and fallout sup 134,137 Cs in peatland vegetation  

SciTech Connect

For three plants from a peat bog (Trichophorum caespitosum, Molinia coerulea, Calluna vulgaris) the concentration of 137Cs, the ratio 137Cs:134Cs, and stable K was determined in intervals of about 14 d from June to November 1987. The results show that for two grasses, Trichophorum caespitosum and Molinia coerulea (which have only perennial roots but sprout every year while the old leaves wither), the concentration of 137Cs decreased considerably during the growing season (1800-240, respectively, 4000-320 Bq kg-1 dry weight). A remarkably similar behavior was observed for the seasonal variability of K and radiocesium in the two grass species, which resulted in a nearly constant ratio of 137Cs:K during the year. In contrast, for the evergreen plant Calluna vulgaris (heather) which was contaminated surficially by the Chernobyl fallout, the concentrations of K and 137Cs were rather constant during 1987 (leaves about 10,000; stems about 5000 Bq kg-1 dry weight), even though radiocesium was taken up by the leaves and transported within the plant. For the two grasses, the plant:soil concentration ratios (CR) were obtained separately for total 137Cs, 137Cs from the global fallout, and Chernobyl-derived 137Cs. The CR of 137Cs from the global fallout decreased for Trichophorum caespitosum from 1.9 in the spring to 0.08 in the autumn, and for Chernobyl-derived 137Cs from 1.4 to 0.2. For Molinia coerulea, a similar behavior was observed. Possible reasons for the seasonal variability of the CR values and the different behavior of 137Cs from the global fallout and from the Chernobyl debris are discussed.

Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W. (Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.))

1989-10-01

25

Soil-to-root vegetable transfer factors for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (88)Y in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) are of fundamental importance in assessing the environmental impact due to the presence of radioactivity in soil and agricultural crops. Tapioca and sweet potato, both root crops, are popular foodstuffs for a significant fraction of the Malaysian population, and result in intake of radionuclides. For the natural field conditions experienced in production of these foodstuffs, TFs and the annual effective dose were evaluated for the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and for the anthropogenic radionuclide (88)Y, the latter being a component of fallout. An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptake. For soil samples from all study locations other than the experimental field, it has been shown that these contain the artificial radionuclide (88)Y, although the uptake of (88)Y has only been observed in the roots of the plant Manihot esculenta (from which tapioca is derived) grown in mining soil. The estimated TFs for (226)Ra and (232)Th for tapioca and sweet potato are very much higher than that reported by the IAEA. For all study areas, the annual effective dose from ingestion of tapioca and sweet potato are estimated to be lower than the world average (290 ?Sv y(-1)). PMID:24814722

Asaduzzaman, Kh; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Y M; Bradley, D A; Mahat, R H; Nor, R M

2014-09-01

26

Knowledge and Technology Transfer: Levels and Key Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current literature on knowledge and technology transfer (Appropriability Model, Dissemination Model, and Knowledge Utilization Model), describe the process of transfer in details, but has limitation in terms of their application in contemporary high-tech industries since most studies have not provided plausible explanation on levels and factors affecting transfer of knowledge and\\/or technology. To overcome these limitations, the four levels

Tae Kyung Sung; David V. Gibson

27

Transfer of Radionuclides K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226 from Mining Soil to Sawi (Japanese Mustard)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uptake of naturally occurring thorium, radium and potassium by sawi (Japanese Mustard) from disused tin mining was studied. Both soil and sawi sample were collected from a vegetable farm located 15 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the farm has been operating for 22 years on a disused tin mining. By using a gamma spectroscopy system, the transfers of radionuclides from soil to plants were investigated. The highest values of radionuclides in the soil was K-40 which is 52.8 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 6.51 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 18.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of radionuclides in the sawi sample shows higher values as compared to the soil sample. The highest values of radionuclides in the sawi were K-40 which is 446 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 17.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 65.2 Bq kg-1. The concentration of radionuclides in soils and plants can be used for the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) were calculated and observed to be 2.68 for radium-226, 3.52 for thorium-232 and the highest which is 3.97 for potassium-40.

Hariandra, M.; Amin, Y. M.

2008-05-01

28

Inhalation Transfer Factors for Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate routine health risk assessments, we develop the concept of an inhalation transfer factor (ITF). The ITF is defined as the pollutant mass inhaled by an exposed individual per unit pollutant mass emitted from an air pollution source. A cumulative population inhalation transfer factor (PITF) is also defined to describe the total fraction of an emitted pollutant inhaled by

Alvin C. K. Lai; Tracy L. Thatcher; William W. Nazaroff

2000-01-01

29

An Exploration of Viral Transfer Efficiency Factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viruses exist on common household surfaces and persist on them (Abad 1994, Rusin 2002). In addition to this, they are able to transfer from surface to surface, and when in contact with humans, can cause illness. In a previous study, we were able to test out the transfer efficiencies of three different phages. Transfer efficiency is defined as follows: Transfer Efficiency: Phage recovered from surface 2 / (Phage recovered from surface 2 + Phage recovered from surface 1) The phages tested have similar size and shape, but vary in isoelectric points and route of infection (Maier 2000). Preliminary studies have suggested that the transfer efficiencies for each phage may be different. Because of this, we are investigating what is the cause of this difference in phage transfer. Two possibilities for these differences are the phage's properties and the cotton tip swab elution from each surface. Using the statistical method known as the student t-test and the experimental methods for phage elution and a double agar overlay phage enumeration, we examined whether the cotton tip swab elution was responsible for phage transfer differences.

Tamayo, F. J.; Julian, T.; Boehm, A.

2008-12-01

30

Racial and Cultural Factors and Learning Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baldwin and Ford (1988) specifically include learner characteristics as one of three key inputs into the learning transfer process but infrequently (actually almost never) has race, ethnicity, or culture been included as a variable when describing trainee characteristics. For the most part one is left to speculate as to the potential influence…

Closson, Rosemary

2013-01-01

31

Knowledge transfer in alliances: determinant factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Resource-and knowledge-based authors claim that firms should focus on the creation and accumulation of knowledge-based competencies in order to yield long-term survival. Several authors have emphasized the added value of alliance relationships in the knowledge development and learning processes of organizations. Over the past decades, thanks to the opportunities provided by the inter-firm co-operations for knowledge transfer, knowledge

Hamid Mazloomi Khamseh; Dominique R. Jolly

2008-01-01

32

Considering factors beyond transfer of conceptual knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One thread in education research has been to investigate whether and in what ways students ``transfer'' conceptual knowledge from one context to another. We argue that in understanding students' reasoning across contexts, it can additionally be productive to attend to their epistemological framing. We present a case study of one student (Will), whose reasoning on two similarly structured approximation problems does not draw on pieces of conceptual knowledge across contexts in a manner that experts might view as productive. We further show that attending to Will's epistemological framing aids our understanding of why he draws on different types of knowledge on the two problems.

Kuo, Eric; Champney, Danielle; Little, Angela

2013-01-01

33

Neutron electric form factor at large momentum transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the recent, high-precision data for elastic electron scattering from protons and deuterons, at relatively large momentum transfer Q2, we determine the neutron electric form factor up to Q2 = 3.5 GeV2. The values obtained from the data (in the framework of the nonrelativistic impulse approximation) are larger than commonly assumed and are in good agreement with the Gari-Krümpelmann parametrization of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors.

Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Rekalo, M. P.

2001-07-01

34

Improve the university technology transfer: Factors and framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovation has been more accepted by many countries as a driver for socioeconomic development. National economic success is ever more determined by a country's effectiveness in mobilizing and utilizing knowledge. University technology transfer activities are increasingly important as a source of regional economic development and revenue for the university. This study presents an analysis of the factors influencing the technology

Jin-fu Wang; Hong rui Cao

2010-01-01

35

Growth factor regulation of growth factor production by multiple gene transfer to chondrocytes  

PubMed Central

Of the many classes of molecules regulated by growth factors, growth factors themselves are not well investigated. We tested the hypothesis that combinations of endogenous growth factors interactively regulate the production of other growth factors. Growth factors have therapeutic potential for articular cartilage repair, and gene transfer is a promising approach to growth factor delivery. We tested the hypothesis using adult bovine articular chondrocytes treated with combinations of cDNAs encoding insulin-like growth factor I, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and protein-7, transforming growth factor ?1, and fibroblast growth factor 2. We found that these growth factor transgenes regulated each other’s growth factor production. This regulation ranged from stimulation to inhibition. Regulation by multiple transgenes was not predictable from the regulatory actions of the individual transgenes. Such interactions may be important for the selection of growth factor genes for cell-based therapies, including articular cartilage repair.

SHI, SHUILIANG; MERCER, SCOTT; ECKERT, GEORGE J.; TRIPPEL, STEPHEN B.

2014-01-01

36

Transcervical embryo transfer as a risk factor for ectopic pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the ease and timing of transcervical ET as risk factors for ectopic pregnancy (EP) after IVF.Design: Retrospective study.Setting: University-based IVF program in the United Kingdom.Patient(s): Eighteen consecutively seen patients with an EP after IVF and 314 patients with an intrauterine pregnancy after transcervical ET performed during the same period.Intervention(s): Additional manipulation with a transfer catheter or the

Piotr Lesny; Stephen R Killick; John Robinson; Stephen D Maguiness

1999-01-01

37

Keratinocyte growth factor promotes melanosome transfer to keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Melanogenesis and melanosome transfer from the melanocytes to the neighboring keratinocytes are induced by ultraviolet radiation and modulated by autocrine and paracrine factors. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF/fibroblast growth factor (FGF)7) is a paracrine mediator of human keratinocyte growth and differentiation. We evaluated the influence of KGF on melanosome transfer in co-cultures of keratinocytes and melanocytes. Immunofluorescence analysis using anti-tyrosinase and anti-human cytokeratin antibodies, phagocytic assays using fluorescent latex beads, and ultrastructural analysis indicated that KGF is able to induce melanosome transfer acting only on the recipient keratinocytes and as a consequence of a general role of KGF in the promotion of the phagocytic process. Inhibition of proteinase-activated receptor-2, to block the Rho-dependent phagocytic pathway, or of the Src family tyrosine kinases, to inhibit the Rac-dependent pathway, showed that KGF promotes phagocytosis through both mechanisms. Increased expression of the KGF receptor (KGFR) on the keratinocytes by transfection led to increased phagocytosis of latex beads following KGF treatment, suggesting that the KGF effect is directly mediated by KGFR expression and activation. Moreover, confocal microscopic analysis revealed that KGFR localize in phagosomes during KGF-induced phagocytosis, suggesting a direct role of the receptor in regulating both the early steps of uptake and the intracellular traffic of the phagosomes. PMID:16354189

Cardinali, Giorgia; Ceccarelli, Simona; Kovacs, Daniela; Aspite, Nicaela; Lotti, Lavinia Vittoria; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Picardo, Mauro

2005-12-01

38

Distinguishing Between Knowledge Transfer and Technology Transfer Activities: The Role of Key Organizational Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge transfer and technology transfer are often used interchangeably and while both knowledge transfer and technology transfer are highly interactive activities, they serve different purposes. Knowledge transfer implies a broader, more inclusive construct that is directed more toward understanding the \\

Shanthi Gopalakrishnan; Michael D. Santoro

2004-01-01

39

Neutron spectroscopic factors of Ni isotopes from transfer reactions  

SciTech Connect

177 neutron spectroscopic factors for nickel isotopes have been extracted by performing a systematic analysis of the angular distributions measured from (d,p) transfer reactions. A subset of the extracted spectroscopic factors are compared to predictions of large-basis shell models in the full pf model space using the GXPF1A effective interaction, and the (f{sub 5/2},p{sub 3/2},p{sub 1/2},g{sub 9/2}) model space using the JJ4PNA interaction. For ground states, the predicted spectroscopic factors using the GXPF1A effective interaction in the full pf model space agree very well with the experimental values, while predictions based on several other effective interactions and model spaces are about 30% higher than the experimental values. For low-energy excited states (<3.5 MeV), the agreement between the extracted spectroscopic factors and shell model calculations is not better than a factor of two.

Lee, Jenny; Tsang, M. B.; Lynch, W. G.; Horoi, M.; Su, S. C. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859 (United States); Physics Department, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China)

2009-05-15

40

Consistency in Quenching of ``Absolute'' Spectroscopic Factors from Transfer Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strengths of single-particle transitions in (e,e'p) knockout reactions on closed-shell nuclei are lower than expected,footnotetextG. J. Kramer et al., Nucl. Phys. A679, 267 (2001). due to limitations of the mean-field description imposed by correlations. This quenching of single-particle strength by ˜0.5 appeared to be a general property of nuclei from ^16O to ^208Pb. In our work, the combined sums of neutron-adding and neutron-removing strengths from (d,p) and (p,d) transfer reactions on four Ni isotopes yield very similar quenching factors of ˜0.53 (varying by ˜10% with reasonable choices of optical-model parameters).footnotetextJ. P. Schiffer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 022501 (2012). Recently, spectroscopic overlaps between ^4He and ^3He were extracted from GFMC calculations.footnotetextI. Brida et al., Phys. Rev. C 84, 024319 (2011). With these, our data on (?,^3He) and (^3He,?) on the Ni isotopes yields ˜0.62. Additional data for proton transfer on Ni and transfer on other nuclei are also being analyzed. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the U.K. Science and Technology Facilities Council.

Schiffer, J. P.; Kay, B. P.; Freeman, S. J.

2013-04-01

41

Embryonic factors affecting outcome from single cryopreserved embryo transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple pregnancy minimization by single embryo transfer is becoming more prevalent, but is less common in the case of cryopreserved embryos. This study defines embryonic characteristics in single cryopreserved embryo transfers associated with success rates equivalent to those achieved when transferring two cryopreserved embryos. In a retrospective analysis of 6916 cryopreserved day-2 embryo transfer procedures, transfer of two cryopreserved embryos

David H Edgar; Janell Archer; John McBain; Harold Bourne

2007-01-01

42

Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret ( Mustela putorius furo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females is a foundational strategy for a number of assisted reproductive technologies, including cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In an attempt to develop efficient ET in domestic ferrets, factors affecting development of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts in the oviduct or uterus was evaluated in recipient nulliparous

Ziyi Li; Xingshen Sun; Juan Chen; Gregory H. Leno; John F. Engelhardt

2006-01-01

43

Soil-to-crop transfer factors of tellurium.  

PubMed

Stable tellurium (Te) concentrations in 148 sets of agricultural soil and associated crop samples were measured in this study to obtain soil-to-crop transfer factor (TF) of Te. We used a recently developed simple method that applies digestion of samples with aqua regia and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to measure low Te levels in these samples. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of Te in soil and crops were 75?gkg(-1)-dry (range: 15-850?gkg(-1)-dry) and 1.8?gkg(-1)-dry (range: 0.1-120?gkg(-1)-dry), respectively; the Te concentration range was significantly wider in crops than in soil. Using these data, we calculated TFs and obtained their range from 1.3×10(-3) to 1.1×10(-1). The GM of TF for upland field crops was calculated to be 2.0×10(-2) and for brown rice was 3.1×10(-2); all crop types had the similar GMs of their TF values. Data comparison for TF of Te was carried out with six elements, which are present in anionic forms in soil environment like Te is, i.e. P, Br, As, Se, Mo, and I. TFs of Te and I showed the highest correlation factor for upland field crops by t-test (r=0.577, p<0.001), but no correlation was found for brown rice. We considered it likely that different water management practices in upland fields and paddy fields affected the Te transfer from soil to crops. PMID:24997965

Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

2014-09-01

44

Escape factors in zero-dimensional radiation-transfer codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several zero-dimensional non-LTE radiation-transfer codes are in common use within the laser-plasma community (for example, RATION, FLY, FLYCHK and GALAXY). These codes are capable of generating calculated emission spectra for a plasma of given density and temperature in the presence of a radiation field. Although dimensionless in nature, these codes can take into account the coupling of radiation and populations by use of the escape factor method, and in this sense the codes incorporate the finite size of the plasma of interest in two ways - firstly in the calculation of the effect of the radiation on the populations and secondly when using these populations to generate a spectrum. Different lengths can be used within these two distinct operations, though it has not been made clear what these lengths should be. We submit that the appropriate length to use for the calculation of populations in such zero-dimensional codes is the mean chord of the system, whilst when calculating the spectrum the appropriate length is the size of the plasma along the line of sight. Indeed, for specific plasma shapes using the appropriate escape factors it can be shown that this interpretation agrees with analytic results. However, this is only the case if the correct escape factor is employed: use of the Holstein escape factor (which is in widely distributed versions of the codes mentioned above) is found to be significantly in error under most conditions. We also note that for the case where a plasma is close to coronal equilibrium, some limited information concerning the shape of the plasma can be extracted merely from the ratio of optically thick to optically thin lines, without the need for any explicit spatial resolution.

Phillips, G. J.; Wark, J. S.; Kerr, F. M.; Rose, S. J.; Lee, R. W.

2008-04-01

45

Structural factors influencing the intramolecular charge transfer and photoinduced electron transfer in tetrapyrazinoporphyrazines.  

PubMed

A series of unsymmetrical tetrapyrazinoporphyrazines (TPyzPzs) from the group of azaphthalocyanines with one peripherally attached amino substituent (donor) were synthesized, and their photophysical properties (fluorescence quantum yield and singlet oxygen quantum yield) were determined. The synthesized TPyzPzs were expected to undergo intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) as the main pathway for deactivating their excited states. Several structural factors were found to play a critical role in ICT efficiency. The substituent in the ortho position to the donor center significantly influences the ICT, with tert-butylsulfanyl and butoxy substituents inducing the strongest ICTs, whereas chloro, methyl, phenyl, and hydrogen substituents in this position reduce the efficiency. The strength of the donor positively influences the ICT efficiency and correlates well with the oxidation potential of the amines used as the substituents on the TPyzPz as follows: n-butylamine < N,N-diethylamine < aniline < phenothiazine. The ICT (with conjugated donors and acceptors) in the TPyzPz also proved to be much stronger than a photoinduced electron transfer in which the donor and the acceptor are connected through an aliphatic linker. PMID:24509513

Novakova, Veronika; Hladík, Petr; Filandrová, Tereza; Zajícová, Ivana; Krepsová, Veronika; Miletin, Miroslav; Len?o, Juraj; Zimcik, Petr

2014-03-21

46

Indications, usage, and dosage of the transfer factor.  

PubMed

The transfer factor (TF) was described in 1955 by S. Lawrence. In 1992 Kirkpatrick characterized the specific TF at molecular level. The TF is constituted by a group of numerous molecules, of low molecular weight, from 1.0 to 6.0 kDa. The 5 kDa fraction corresponds to the TF specific to antigens. There are a number of publications about the clinical indications of the TF for diverse diseases, in particular those where the cellular immune response is compromised or in those where there is a deficient regulation of the immune response. In this article we present our clinical and basic experiences, especially regarding the indications, usage and dosage of the TF. Our group demonstrated that the TF increases the expression of IFN-gamma and RANTES, while decreases the expression of osteopontine. Using animal models we have worked with M. tuberculosis, and with a model of glioma with good therapeutic results. In the clinical setting we have worked with herpes zoster, herpes simplex type I, herpetic keratitis, atopic dermatitis, osteosarcoma, tuberculosis, asthma, post-herpetic neuritis, anergic coccidioidomycosis, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, mucocutaneous candidiasis, pediatric infections produced by diverse pathogen germs, sinusitis, pharyngitis, and otits media. All of these diseases were studied through protocols which main goals were to study the therapeutic effects of the TF, and to establish in a systematic way diverse dosage schema and time for treatment to guide the prescription of the TF. PMID:18297853

Berrón-Pérez, Renato; Chávez-Sánchez, Raúl; Estrada-García, Iris; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara; Cortez-Gómez, Rudyard; Serrano-Miranda, Ernestina; Ondarza-Aguilera, Rodolfo; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Pineda Olvera, Benjamín; Jiménez-Martínez, María del Carmen; Portugués, Abraham; Rodríguez, Azucena; Cano, Laura; Pacheco, Pedro Urcino; Barrientos, Javier; Chacón, Rommel; Serafín, Jeannet; Mendez, Patricia; Monges, Abelardo; Cervantes, Edgar; Estrada-Parra, Sergio

2007-01-01

47

Frozen embryo transfers: implications of clinical and embryological factors on the pregnancy outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Frozen embryo transfers are characterized by impaired pregnancy outcome and increased incidence of pregnancy loss as compared with fresh IVF\\/ICSI embryo transfers. In this study, we performed a retro- spective analysis of clinical and embryological factors that potentially influence the outcome of frozen embryo trans- fer. METHODS: We reviewed the outcome of 1242 frozen embryo transfers with respect to

Andres Salumets; Anne-Maria Suikkari; Sirpa Mäkinen; Helle Karro; Anu Roos; Timo Tuuri

48

Student Perceptions of Factors Contributing to Community-College-to-University Transfer Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transfer process includes areas such as academic preparation and advisement, transfer evaluation, financial aid, and psychosocial factors. A descriptive, exploratory method was employed to capture the perceptions of a transfer student cohort regarding their experiences in transitioning from lower division community college enrollment to…

Gard, Dwight R.; Paton, Valerie; Gosselin, Kevin

2012-01-01

49

Factors Affecting Transfer of "Traditional" Community College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While increasing demands on time and resources compete for attention with the transfer function of community colleges, the goal of providing the first two years of education on the pathway to a baccalaureate degree is still an important mission. The research reported here examines the determinants of successful traditional transfer students. The…

Eddy, Pamela L.; Christie, Ray; Rao, Michael

2006-01-01

50

Transferring R&D knowledge: the key factors affecting knowledge transfer success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a study of knowledge transfer within more than 15 industries, across three forms of governance, and between both domestic and international R&D partners, knowledge transfer success was found to be associated with several key variables, and to hinge upon (a) both R&D units’ understanding where the desired knowledge resides within the source, (b) the extent to which the

Jeffrey L. Cummings; Bing-Sheng Teng

2003-01-01

51

Factors affecting phenol transfer through polydimethylsiloxane composite membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polydimethylsiloxane composite membrane was employed for the separation of phenol and sodium chloride in synthetic wastewater. The major operational parameters affecting phenol transfer through this composite membrane were screened by the orthogonal array and range analysis. The results showed that the significance of parameters on the permeate flux followed the order of phenol concentration, membrane skin layer thickness, recirculation rate,

Mao-Sung Lee; Chihpin Huang; Kueir-Rarn Lee; Jill R. Pan; Wang-Kuan Chang

2008-01-01

52

Perceptions of Training-Related Factors and Personal Variables as Predictors of Transfer Implementation Intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of factors influence the outcomes of computer skills training and the likelihood of successful transfer. The first empirical test of a conceptual model of training transfer sought to explain how trainees' perceptions of various in-training transfer-enhancing activities such as overlearning, fidelity, stimulus variability, principles-meaningfulness, self-management activities, relapse prevention, and goal setting would predict the self-efficacy and implementation intentions

M. Anthony Machin; Gerard J. Fogarty

2003-01-01

53

Transitioning Transfer Students: Interactive Factors that Influence First-Year Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the diverse patterns of interactive factors that influence transfer students' first-year retention at a midsize four-year university. The population for this study consisted of five cohorts totaling 1,713 full-time, degree-seeking transfer students. Sequential sets of logistic regression analyses on blocks of variables were…

Luo, Mingchu; Williams, James E.; Vieweg, Bruce

2007-01-01

54

Simulation of a wireless power transfer system for electric vehicles with power factor correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless power transfer has been a popular topic of recent research. Most research has been done to address the limitations of coil-to-coil efficiency. However, little has been done to address the problem associated with the low input power factor with which the systems operate. This paper details the steps taken to analyze a wireless power transfer system from the view

Michael Pickelsimer; Leon Tolbert; Burak Ozpineci; John M. Miller

2012-01-01

55

Technology Transfer and Sustainability - Adapting Factors: Culture, Physical Environment, and Geographical Location  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the development and sustenance of a community, state, or nation, the advancement of technology is vital for survival; here, the need for technology transfer arises and becomes a critical landmark. There are adapting factors in the process of technology transfer that must be addressed to ensure successful technological developments and their continued progress and sustainability. Focused on the successful

Rashed M. Al-Thawwad

56

Endothelial Progenitor Cell Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Transfer for Vascular Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Previous studies have established that bone marrow- derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are present in the systemic circulation. In the current study, we investigated the hypothesis that gene transfer can be used to achieve phenotypic modulation of EPCs. Methods and Results—In vitro, ex vivo murine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 164 gene transfer augmented EPC proliferative activity and enhanced adhesion

Hideki Iwaguro; Jun-ichi Yamaguchi; Christoph Kalka; Satoshi Murasawa; Haruchika Masuda; Shin-ichiro Hayashi; Marcy Silver; Tong Li; Jeffrey M. Isner; Takayuki Asahara

2010-01-01

57

Selection of Terrestrial Transfer Factors for Radioecological Assessment Models and Regulatory Guides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A parameter value for a radioecological assessment model is not a single value but a distribution of values about a central value. The sources that contribute to the variability of transfer factors to predict foodchain transport of radionuclides are enume...

Y. C. Ng F. O. Hoffman

1983-01-01

58

Transfer Factor in vitro: Chromatography of Components that Enhance Antigen Induced Lymphocyte Proliferation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dialysable transfer factor (TF-D) was prepared from human buffy coat cells and chromatographed on Sephadex G-25 and DEAE cellulose. Column fraction pools enhanced in vitro lymphocyte proliferation induced by the antigen streptokinase-streptodornase. In co...

L. A. Andron, M. S. Ascher

1976-01-01

59

Simulation of a Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles with Power Factor Correction  

SciTech Connect

Wireless power transfer has been a popular topic of recent research. Most research has been done to address the limitations of coil-to-coil efficiency. However, little has been done to address the problem associated with the low input power factor with which the systems operate. This paper details the steps taken to analyze a wireless power transfer system from the view of the power grid under a variety of loading conditions with and without power factor correction.

Pickelsimer, Michael C [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL

2012-01-01

60

Risk factors for death and emergency transfer in acute and subacute inpatient rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare the risk of death or emergy transfer (ET) to an acute care hospital for acute and subacute rehabilitation inpatients, to identify risk factors, and to determine whether the risk factors vary by level of care.Design: Proportional hazards regression analysis of retrospective cohort data. Explanatory variables included level of care, age, sex, medical stability at admission, and diagnosis.Setting:

Raymond E. Wright; Noel Rao; Richard M. Smith; Richard F. Harvey

1996-01-01

61

The Isovector Form Factor of the Proton from at Low Momentum Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAMPLE experiment measures the parity-violating (PV) asymmetry in low momentum transfer backward angle electron scattering from deuterium and hydrogen. Experiments were conducted at the MIT Bates Linear Accelerator Center, where the PV asymmetries in electron-deuteron and electron-proton scattering were measured at a momentum transfer of 0.09 (GeV/c)^2. From these measurements both the strange quark contribution to the nucleon magnetic form factor and the isovector axial form factor of the proton can be determined. An updated analysis of these measurements is in agreement with theoretical predictions of the isovector axial form factor. More recently a measurement of the PV asymmetry in electron-deuteron scattering at a momentum transfer of 0.04 (GeV/c)^2 has been completed. The asymmetry measured in this experiment is also consistent with the theoretical predictions of the isovector axial form factor of the proton.

Hasty, Richard

2004-05-01

62

Zinc transfer from transcription factor IIIA fingers to thionein clusters.  

PubMed Central

The rapid induction of thionein (apometallothionein) by many endogenous stimuli such as steroid hormones, cytokines, and second messengers suggests that this cysteine-rich, metal binding protein participates in an as yet undefined role in cellular regulatory processes. This study demonstrates with DNA and RNA binding assays and in vitro transcription measurements that thionein suppresses the binding of the Xenopus laevis zinc finger transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA) to 5S RNA and to the 5S RNA gene and abrogates the capacity of TFIIIA to initiate the RNA polymerase III-catalyzed synthesis of 5S RNA. The effect is reversed by the addition of zinc and is not observed in the TFIIIA-independent transcription of a tRNA gene by the same RNA polymerase. In view of the strong tendency of thionein to complex posttransition metals such as zinc, one effect of its enhanced synthesis in vivo could be to reduce the intracellular disposability of zinc and thus modulate the actions of zinc-dependent enzymes and proteins, most notably those of the zinc finger transcription factors. Images

Zeng, J; Vallee, B L; Kagi, J H

1991-01-01

63

[Modelling of radiocaesium soil-plant transfer].  

PubMed

Existing methods of predicting of radiocaesium transfer from soil to plants was critcally reviewed. The analysis of radiocaesium behavior in the system "soil solid phase/pore solution/plant" was carried out. Equations for calculation of radiocaesium uptake by plants as a function of soil properties were obtained and tested using the reported experimental data. Key soil parameters which natural variability and estimation difficulty are the main sources of prediction uncertainty were identified. PMID:15287268

Bulgakov, A A; Shkuta, O V

2004-01-01

64

Kaon semi-leptonic form factor at zero momentum transfer in finite volume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Chiral Perturbation Theory, we obtain the kaon semi-leptonic vector form factor in finite volume at a generic momentum transfer, q 2, up to one-loop order. At first we confirm the lattice observation that the contribution of the heavy pseudo-Goldstone boson in the finite-volume corrections at zero momentum transfer is unimportant. We then evaluate the form factor at q 2 = 0 numerically and compare our results with the present lattice data. It turns out that our ChPT results are comparable with the lattice data to some extent. The formula for the finite-volume corrections obtained for the form factor at momentum transfer q 2 provides a tool for lattice data in order to extrapolate at large lattice size.

Ghorbani, Karim; Ghorbani, Hossein

2013-10-01

65

Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-?) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sánchez; Pérez, Javiér; García, M. N. Jiménez; López, M. A. Jiménez; Espíndola, M. E. Sánchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernández, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez

2008-08-01

66

Environmental Factors Influencing Gene Transfer Agent (GTA) Mediated Transduction in the Subtropical Ocean  

PubMed Central

Microbial genomic sequence analyses have indicated widespread horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, an adequate mechanism accounting for the ubiquity of HGT has been lacking. Recently, high frequencies of interspecific gene transfer have been documented, catalyzed by Gene Transfer Agents (GTAs) of marine ?-Proteobacteria. It has been proposed that the presence of bacterial genes in highly purified viral metagenomes may be due to GTAs. However, factors influencing GTA-mediated gene transfer in the environment have not yet been determined. Several genomically sequenced strains containing complete GTA sequences similar to Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA, type strain) were screened to ascertain if they produced putative GTAs, and at what abundance. Five of nine marine strains screened to date spontaneously produced virus-like particles (VLP's) in stationary phase. Three of these strains have demonstrated gene transfer activity, two of which were documented by this lab. These two strains Roseovarius nubinhibens ISM and Nitratireductor 44B9s, were utilized to produce GTAs designated RnGTA and NrGTA and gene transfer activity was verified in culture. Cell-free preparations of purified RnGTA and NrGTA particles from marked donor strains were incubated with natural microbial assemblages to determine the level of GTA-mediated gene transfer. In conjunction, several ambient environmental parameters were measured including lysogeny indicated by prophage induction. GTA production in culture systems indicated that approximately half of the strains produced GTA-like particles and maximal GTA counts ranged from 10–30% of host abundance. Modeling of GTA-mediated gene transfer frequencies in natural samples, along with other measured environmental variables, indicated a strong relationship between GTA mediated gene transfer and the combined factors of salinity, multiplicity of infection (MOI) and ambient bacterial abundance. These results indicate that GTA-mediated HGT in the marine environment with the strains examined is favored during times of elevated bacterial and GTA abundance as well as in areas of higher salinity.

McDaniel, Lauren D.; Young, Elizabeth C.; Ritchie, Kimberly B.; Paul, John H.

2012-01-01

67

Factors influencing the transfer of oil from contaminated surfaces to surface sample media  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the effect of surface concentration, contact time, and contact pressure on the transfer (collection) of oil from a contaminated surface to wipe sample media as described by the Washburn equation and contributes to the understanding of the transfer mechanisms. The mass of oil transferred from a contaminated work surface to a clean surface was found to be controlled by several factors including: the mass of contaminant on the surface (concentration); the length of time the clean surface is in contact with the contaminated surface (contact time); and the force with which the clean surface contacts the contaminated surface (contact pressure). The current lack of knowledge with respect to the influence of sampling parameters on the transfer of a liquid contaminant to surface sample media make the interpretation of surface sample results difficult at best. A factorial study was designed in which the effect of three surface concentrations, three contact times, and three contact pressures were investigated. This study demonstrated that with increasing either the contact time or contact pressure the mass of oil transferred to the porous sample media (filter papers) increased until a plateau in transfer was reached. A maximum contact time and pressure were found at which there was no longer a statistically significant increase in the mass of oil transferred to the porous sample media as either of these two parameters were increased. These results indicate that contact time and pressure have a significant effect on the transfer of oil to porous sample media. In addition, the composition of the sample media is an equally important factor in oil transfer. Therefore, when using surface sampling methods to determine the mass of contaminant on a work surface the composition of the collection media as well as the contact time and contact pressure must be specified.

McArthur, B.R.

1992-01-01

68

Measurements of heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in passages rib-roughened on all walls  

SciTech Connect

A liquid crystal technique was used to measure heat transfer coefficients in twelve test sections with square and trapezoidal cross-sectional areas representing blade midchord cooling cavities in a modern gas turbine. Full-length ribs were configured on suction side as well as pressure side walls while half-length ribs were mounted on partition walls between adjacent cooling cavities. Ribs were in staggered arrangements with a nominal blockage ratio of 22% and an angle of attack to the mainstream flow, {alpha}, of 90 deg. Heat transfer measurements were performed on the roughened walls with full-length as well as half-length ribs. Nusselt numbers, friction factors, and thermal performances of all geometries are compared. The most important conclusion of this study is that the roughening of the partition walls enhances the heat transfer coefficients on those walls but, more importantly, enhances heat transfer coefficients on the primary walls considerably.

Taslim, M.E.; Li, T. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Spring, S.D. [GE Aircraft Engines, Lynn, MA (United States)

1998-07-01

69

Soil-plant-animal transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines: A case study from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food chain models are essential tools to assess risks of soil contamination in view of product quality including fodder crops and animal products. Here we link soil to plant transfer (SPT) models for potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, U and Zn with models describing accumulation in animal organs. Current EU standards

S. M. Rodrigues; M. E. Pereira; A. C. Duarte; P. F. A. M. Römkens

2012-01-01

70

Factors affecting the transfer of technology from industry\\/university cooperatives to sponsoring companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illuminates the technology-transfer process by identifying the factors affecting the implementation decisions of\\u000a sponsor companies with regard to eight projects conducted at two industry\\/university cooperative-research centers. Telephone\\u000a interviews with corporate-sponsor representatives provided the data. The factors reported most often as influential in the\\u000a decision of whether or not to use research results were relevance of the project, researcher's

Jean Russo; Roy C. Herrenkohl

1990-01-01

71

396. Factors Affecting Retroviral Gene Transfer to Human CD34+ Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer is a useful technology in studying the biology of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as well as in developing gene therapy products for a variety of human diseases. One of the most important factors determining the success of these studies is the number of HSCs receiving the gene of interest. We tested various parameters for their influences on

Youngtae Hong; Seungshin Yu; Sujeong Kim; Joonggon Kim; Sunyoung Kim

2004-01-01

72

Success factors in technology transfer to SME’s: Rundu woodwork common facility center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it has been argued that the diffusion of modern technology has far reaching impact on the economy, on quality of life and on the environment particularly in developing countries. However, there has been little emphasis on the factors and systems that promote and\\/or impede technology transfer in terms of contributions to economic wealth creation through improved technical application. The

H. M. Ashekele; K. Matengu

2008-01-01

73

The Role of Individual and Training Design Factors on Training Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the role of individual and training design factors on training transfer. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature is conducted, and this review highlights a dual role of perceived content validity in the form of increasing self-efficacy and the role of trainees' reaction. The study…

Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan

2010-01-01

74

An effective scaling frequency factor method for harmonic vibrational frequencies: The factors’ transferability problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of the so-called effective scaling frequency factor method, ESFF, for scaling of harmonic theoretical frequencies is analyzed and compared with the well-known SQM method. A training set of 30 molecules (660 experimental frequencies) has been used to optimize a set of 11 scaling factors. Results point towards somewhat lower RMS deviation with respect to the experimental values obtained with

Piotr Borowski; Aleksandra Drzewiecka; Manuel Fernández-Gómez; Maria Paz Fernández-Liencres; Tomás Peña Ruiz

2008-01-01

75

In vivo transfer of an R factor within the lower gastro-intestinal tract of sheep.  

PubMed Central

The transfer of an R factor from donor E. coli introduced into the rumen of adult sheep to strains of the coliform microflora resident post rumen in the lower gastro-intestinal tract was found to be greatly increased when the animals were subjected to a short period of starvation (ca. 24-48 h). This also resulted in coliform organisms containing the resistance determinants of the R factor being excreted for much longer periods, sometimes for months afterwards. As no antibiotic treatment was given to the animals during these experiments, possession of the R factor should have conferred no selective advantages on the host cells and other plasmids could possibly be transferred similarly in vivo in sheep or other ruminants and perhaps also within the gut of monogastric animals.

Smith, M. G.

1977-01-01

76

Attitudes Toward Making a Transfer: Factors Related to Reenlistment Intentions, Over-All Satisfaction, Attitude Toward Future Moves, and an Analysis of Qualitative Data Relevant to Transfer Attitudes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Survey and interview data were collected from a sample of 143 NCO's who had recently been notified that they would be transferred to a new assignment. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected concerning six research questions: what factors relevan...

J. B. Shaw C. D. Fisher R. W. Woodman

1983-01-01

77

Factors that determine the efficiency of HIV-1 strand transfer initiated at a specific site.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 employs strand transfer for recombination between two viral genomes. We have previously provided evidence that strand transfer proceeds by an invasion-mediated mechanism in which a DNA segment on the original RNA template is invaded by a second RNA template at a gap site. The initial RNA-DNA hybrid then expands until the DNA is fully transferred. Ribonuclease H (RNase H) cleavages and nucleocapsid protein (NC) were required for long-distance propagation of the hybrid. Evaluation was performed on a unique substrate, with a short gap serving as a precreated invasion site. In our current work, this substrate provided an opportunity for us to test what factors influence a specific invasion site to support transfer, and to distinguish factors that influence invasion site creation from those that impact later steps. RNase H can act in a polymerization-dependent or polymerization-independent mode. Polymerization-dependent and polymerization-independent RNase H were found to be important in creating efficiently used invasion sites in the primer-donor complex, with or without NC. Propagation and terminus transfer steps, emanating from a precreated invasion site in the presence of NC, were stimulated by polymerization-dependent, but not polymerization-independent, RNase H. RNase H can carry out primary and secondary cleavages during synthesis. While both modes of cleavage promoted invasion, only primary cleavage promoted propagation in the presence of NC in our system. These observations suggest that once invasion is initiated at a short gap, it can propagate through an adjacent region interrupted only by nicks, with help by NC. We considered the possibility that propagation solely by strand exchange was a significant contributor to transfers. However, it did not promote transfer even if synthetic progress of reverse transcriptase was intentionally slowed, consistent with strand exchange by random walk in which rate declines precipitously with distance. PMID:19853618

Rigby, Sean T; Van Nostrand, Keith P; Rose, April E; Gorelick, Robert J; Mathews, David H; Bambara, Robert A

2009-12-11

78

Scale-model charge-transfer technique for measuring enhancement factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Determination of aircraft electric field enhancement factors is crucial when using airborne field mill (ABFM) systems to accurately measure electric fields aloft. SRI used the scale model charge transfer technique to determine enhancement factors of several canonical shapes and a scale model Learjet 36A. The measured values for the canonical shapes agreed with known analytic solutions within about 6 percent. The laboratory determined enhancement factors for the aircraft were compared with those derived from in-flight data gathered by a Learjet 36A outfitted with eight field mills. The values agreed to within experimental error (approx. 15 percent).

Kositsky, J.; Nanevicz, J. E.

1991-01-01

79

Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plant and distribution to the different plant compartments studied in cultures of carrots (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and cucumbers (Cucumis Sativus).  

PubMed

A vegetation study was carried out to investigate the carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from soil mixed with contaminated sewage sludge to potato, carrot, and cucumber plants. Analysis was done by liquid-extraction using acetonitrile with dispersive SPE cleanup and subsequent HPLC-MS/MS. In order to assess the transfer potential from soil, transfer factors (TF) were calculated for the different plant compartments: TF = [PFC](plant (wet substance))/[PFC](soil (dry weight)). The highest TF were found for the vegetative plant compartments with average values for PFOS below those for PFOA: cucumber, 0.17 (PFOS), 0.88 (PFOA); potato, 0.36 (PFOS), 0.40 (PFOA); carrot, 0.38 (PFOS), 0.53 (PFOA). Transfer of PFOA and PFOS into potato peelings (average values of TF: PFOA 0.03, PFOS 0.04) exceeded the carryover to the peeled tubers (PFOA 0.01, PFOS < 0.01). In carrots, this difference did not occur (average values of TF: PFOA 0.04, PFOS 0.04). Transfer of PFOS into the unpeeled cucumbers was low and comparable to that of peeled potatoes (TF < 0.01). For PFOA, it was higher (TF: 0.03). PMID:21905714

Lechner, Mareike; Knapp, Holger

2011-10-26

80

The ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on several hypotheses about the process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, the onflow around the solute granule is figured out by the Navier-Stocks equation. In combination with the Higbie’s solute infiltration model, the link between the mass-transfer coefficient and the velocity of flow is found. The mass-transfer coefficient with the ultrasonical effect is compared with that without the ultrasonical effect, and then a new parameter named the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient is brought forward, which describes the mathematical model of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction process enhanced by ultrasonic. The model gives out the relationships among the ultrasonical power, the ultrasonical frequency, the radius of solute granule and the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient. The results calculated by this model fit well with the experimental data, including the extraction of Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Oil (CLSO) and Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Ester (CLSE) from coix seeds and the extraction of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) from the alga by means of the ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (USFE) and the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) respectively. This proves the rationality of the ultrasonic-enhanced factor model. The model provides a theoretical basis for the application of ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical fluid extraction technique.

Luo, Benyi; Lu, Yigang

2008-10-01

81

Recoil Polarization Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio to High Momentum Transfer  

SciTech Connect

The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electronnucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer Q2 between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large f momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their kinematics, including their scattering angles and momenta, and the position of the interaction vertex. A proton polarimeter measured the polarization of the recoiling protons by measuring the azimuthal asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons scattered in CH2 analyzers. The scattered electron was detected in a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter in order to suppress inelastic backgrounds. The measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the scattered proton is directly proportional to the ratio of form factors GpE=GpM. The measurements reported in this thesis took place at Q2 =5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV2, and represent the most accurate measurements of GpE in this Q2 region to date.

Andrew Puckett

2010-02-01

82

Survey of literature on convective heat transfer coefficients and recovery factors for high atmosphere thermometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat transfer phenomena of rarefied gas flows is discussed based on a literature survey of analytical and experimental rarefied gas dynamics. Subsonic flows are emphasized for the purposes of meteorological thermometry in the high atmosphere. The heat transfer coefficients for three basic geometries are given in the regimes of free molecular flow, transition flow, slip flow, and continuum flow. Different types of heat phenomena, and the analysis of theoretical and experimental data are presented. The uncertainties calculated from the interpolation rule compared with the available experimental data are discussed. The recovery factor for each geometry in subsonic rarefied flows is also given.

Chung, S.

1973-01-01

83

Strand Transfer and Elongation of HIV-1 Reverse Transcription Is Facilitated by Cell Factors In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Recent work suggests a role for multiple host factors in facilitating HIV-1 reverse transcription. Previously, we identified a cellular activity which increases the efficiency of HIV-1 reverse transcription in vitro. Here, we describe aspects of the activity which shed light on its function. The cellular factor did not affect synthesis of strong-stop DNA but did improve downstream DNA synthesis. The stimulatory activity was isolated by gel filtration in a single fraction of the exclusion volume. Velocity-gradient purified HIV-1, which was free of detectable RNase activity, showed poor reverse transcription efficiency but was strongly stimulated by partially purified cell proteins. Hence, the cell factor(s) did not inactivate an RNase activity that might degrade the viral genomic RNA and block completion of reverse transcription. Instead, the cell factor(s) enhanced first strand transfer and synthesis of late reverse transcription suggesting it stabilized the reverse transcription complex. The factor did not affect lysis of HIV-1 by Triton X-100 in the endogenous reverse transcription (ERT) system, and ERT reactions with HIV-1 containing capsid mutations, which varied the biochemical stability of viral core structures and impeded reverse transcription in cells, showed no difference in the ability to be stimulated by the cell factor(s) suggesting a lack of involvement of the capsid in the in vitro assay. In addition, reverse transcription products were found to be resistant to exogenous DNase I activity when the active fraction was present in the ERT assay. These results indicate that the cell factor(s) may improve reverse transcription by facilitating DNA strand transfer and DNA synthesis. It also had a protective function for the reverse transcription products, but it is unclear if this is related to improved DNA synthesis.

Warrilow, David; Warren, Kylie; Harrich, David

2010-01-01

84

Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries.  

PubMed

The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29Lkg(-1) in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85Lkg(-1) for whole, small-bodied fish. The logCRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were approximately 4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts. PMID:20619514

Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

2010-11-01

85

Friction factor and heat transfer coefficient of R134a liquid flow in mini-channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an experimental study of friction factor and heat transfer coefficient for a vertical liquid up-flow of R134a. A flat aluminium multiport extruded tube composed of 11 parallel rectangular channels (3.28mm×1.47 mm) with hydraulic diameter of 2.01 mm was used. Mass flux ranges from 28 to 800 kgm?2s?1 and heat flux from 0.84 to 22 kWm?2. Working pressure

Bruno Agostini; Barbara Watel; André Bontemps; Bernard Thonon

2002-01-01

86

Turbulent flow heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of shrouded fin arrays with uninterrupted fins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed to study the fully developed turbulent flow heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of shrouded, rectangular cross-sectioned longitudinal fin arrays with uninterrupted fins subjected to a uniform heat flux boundary condition at the fin base. The inter-fin spacing was varied from 9.3 to 53 mm, the fin height from 0 to 40 mm, and the fin tip-to-shroud

S. P. Sukhatme

1995-01-01

87

The control region of the F sex factor DNA transfer cistrons: Restriction mapping and DNA cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A restriction endonuclease map of EcoRI fragment f6 of F sex factor DNA was constructed and aligned with pre-existing physical and genetic maps. Results of genetic complementation tests and analysis of proteins synthesized in minicells from PstI and BglI1 sub-fragment clones, or from a specific BglII fragment deletion, have allowed mapping of the locations of the origin of DNA transfer

Russell Thompson; Mark Achtman

1978-01-01

88

AAV-mediated factor IX gene transfer to skeletal muscle in patients with severe hemophilia B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemophilia B is an X-linked coagulopathy caused by absence of functional coagula- tion factor IX (F.IX). Previously, we estab- lished an experimental basis for gene transfer as a method of treating the dis- ease in mice and hemophilic dogs through intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector ex- pressing F.IX. In this study we investi- gated the safety

Catherine S. Manno; Amy J. Chew; Sylvia Hutchison; Peter J. Larson; Roland W. Herzog; Valder R. Arruda; Shing Jen Tai; Margaret V. Ragni; Arthur Thompson; Margareth Ozelo; Linda B. Couto; Debra G. B. Leonard; Frederick A. Johnson; Alan McClelland; Ciaran Scallan; Erik Skarsgard; Alan W. Flake; Mark A. Kay; Katherine A. High; Bertil Glader

2003-01-01

89

CLINICAL STUDY OF A PATIENT WITH LUPUS VULGARIS BEFORE AND AFTER INJECTION OF DIALYZABLE TRANSFER FACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the clinical improvement and acquisition of tuberculin skin-test sensitivity by a tuberculin-negative, drug-resistant patient with lupus vulgaris after a single injection of dialyzable transfer factor (TFd) from a tuberculin-positive healthy donor. The patient's lymphocytes showed a slight response to tuberculin in the leukocyte migration inhibition test and in the lymphocyte transformation test before TFd injection. The acquisition

Maija Horsmasheimo; Kai Krohn; Martti Virolainen

1977-01-01

90

EFFECT OF 137Cs ON THE TRANSFER OF NUTRIENT ELEMENTS AND ON GROWTH OF KALMI (Ipomoea aquatica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ullah, S. M., Aktar, M.,Begum, A., Mollah, S. and Mamun, S. A. 2009. Effect of 137 Cs on the transfer of the different nutrient elements from soil to plant body and to observe the dry weights of roots and shoots of Kalmi. The average dry weight production of Kalmi (roots and shoots) in the three soil series was reduced about

SHAH MOHAMMAD ULLAH; MUNMUN AKTAR; ALEYA BEGUM; SATTAR MOLLAH

91

Coulomb-hadron phase factor and spin phenomena in a wide region of transfer momenta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of calculating the Coulomb-hadron phase factor to second Born order with allowance for the hadron form factor is presented. A new form of the total phase factor of the electromagnetic-hadron interference is obtained for a wide region of transfer momenta up to the diffraction dip domain. The factor is calculated with a realistic hadron scattering amplitude and, as a result, additional contributions to the analyzing power AN and double spin correlation parameter ANN owing to the electromagnetic-hadron interference are determined in the whole diffraction dip domain of high-energy elastic hadron scattering. The energy dependence of these effects is examined, including the region of BNL RHIC energies.

Selyugin, O. V.

1999-10-01

92

Soil-to-plant and soil-to-grain transfer of 137 Cs in field-grown maize hybrids during two contrasting seasons: assessing the phenotypic variability and its genetic component  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field-grown maize hybrids were assessed for variability in 137Cs accumulation in vegetative parts of young and mature maize shoots and grains during 2 years with contrasting climatic conditions.\\u000a Trials were carried out at different sites in the Tula region of Russia, which is characterized by a highly homogenous soil\\u000a classified as Luvic Chernozem according to FAO\\/UNESCO, and average contamination levels of

Katharina Schneider; Vladimir K. Kuznetzov; Natalia I. Sanzharova; Ulrike Kanter; Klara M. Telikh; Marija S. Khlopuk

2008-01-01

93

Effect of the technological and agronomical factors on pigment transfer during olive oil extraction.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the transfer of the chloroplast pigment fractions during the virgin olive oil extraction process, in relation to different factors: the ripening stage of the olive fruits, the irrigation water applied to the olive tree, and the addition of natural microtalc (NMT) during the oil extraction process. Results showed that the percentage of chloroplast pigments transferred from the olive paste to the oil increases with the ripening of the olive fruit (raw material). An excess of the water irrigation applied to the olive tree shows a reduction in the biosynthesis of chloroplast pigments in olive fruits, which is reflected in a low concentration in the virgin oils. Furthermore, the percentage of pigment transfer from the olive paste to the oil during the extraction process is reduced by irrigation, mainly of the chlorophyll fraction. The addition of NMT during the malaxation step produced an increase in the percentage of the total pigments transferred from the olive paste to the oil, in relation to nonaddition. PMID:17579426

Criado, Maria N; Romero, Maria P; Motilva, Maria J

2007-07-11

94

100% classification accuracy considered harmful: the normalized information transfer factor explains the accuracy paradox.  

PubMed

The most widely spread measure of performance, accuracy, suffers from a paradox: predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy. Despite optimizing classification error rate, high accuracy models may fail to capture crucial information transfer in the classification task. We present evidence of this behavior by means of a combinatorial analysis where every possible contingency matrix of 2, 3 and 4 classes classifiers are depicted on the entropy triangle, a more reliable information-theoretic tool for classification assessment. Motivated by this, we develop from first principles a measure of classification performance that takes into consideration the information learned by classifiers. We are then able to obtain the entropy-modulated accuracy (EMA), a pessimistic estimate of the expected accuracy with the influence of the input distribution factored out, and the normalized information transfer factor (NIT), a measure of how efficient is the transmission of information from the input to the output set of classes. The EMA is a more natural measure of classification performance than accuracy when the heuristic to maximize is the transfer of information through the classifier instead of classification error count. The NIT factor measures the effectiveness of the learning process in classifiers and also makes it harder for them to "cheat" using techniques like specialization, while also promoting the interpretability of results. Their use is demonstrated in a mind reading task competition that aims at decoding the identity of a video stimulus based on magnetoencephalography recordings. We show how the EMA and the NIT factor reject rankings based in accuracy, choosing more meaningful and interpretable classifiers. PMID:24427282

Valverde-Albacete, Francisco J; Peláez-Moreno, Carmen

2014-01-01

95

100% Classification Accuracy Considered Harmful: The Normalized Information Transfer Factor Explains the Accuracy Paradox  

PubMed Central

The most widely spread measure of performance, accuracy, suffers from a paradox: predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy. Despite optimizing classification error rate, high accuracy models may fail to capture crucial information transfer in the classification task. We present evidence of this behavior by means of a combinatorial analysis where every possible contingency matrix of 2, 3 and 4 classes classifiers are depicted on the entropy triangle, a more reliable information-theoretic tool for classification assessment. Motivated by this, we develop from first principles a measure of classification performance that takes into consideration the information learned by classifiers. We are then able to obtain the entropy-modulated accuracy (EMA), a pessimistic estimate of the expected accuracy with the influence of the input distribution factored out, and the normalized information transfer factor (NIT), a measure of how efficient is the transmission of information from the input to the output set of classes. The EMA is a more natural measure of classification performance than accuracy when the heuristic to maximize is the transfer of information through the classifier instead of classification error count. The NIT factor measures the effectiveness of the learning process in classifiers and also makes it harder for them to “cheat” using techniques like specialization, while also promoting the interpretability of results. Their use is demonstrated in a mind reading task competition that aims at decoding the identity of a video stimulus based on magnetoencephalography recordings. We show how the EMA and the NIT factor reject rankings based in accuracy, choosing more meaningful and interpretable classifiers.

Valverde-Albacete, Francisco J.; Pelaez-Moreno, Carmen

2014-01-01

96

Compilation of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways and the suggested default values for the RESRAD code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ongoing development and revision of the RESRAD computer code at Argonne National Laboratory requires update of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways. Default values for these transfer factors used in publis...

Y. Y. Wang B. M. Biwer C. Yu

1993-01-01

97

Examining the Factor Structure and Predictive Ability of the German-Version of the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this research is to examine the construct and predictive ability of a German version of the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (GLTSI), an instrument designed to assess a constellation of 16 factors known to influence the transfer of training in work settings. Design/methodology/approach: The survey data for this study was…

Bates, Reid; Kauffeld, Simone; Holton, Elwood F., III

2007-01-01

98

Selection of terrestrial transfer factors for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides  

SciTech Connect

A parameter value for a radioecological assessment model is not a single value but a distribution of values about a central value. The sources that contribute to the variability of transfer factors to predict foodchain transport of radionuclides are enumerated. Knowledge of these sources, judgement in interpreting the available data, consideration of collateral information, and established criteria that specify the desired level of conservatism in the resulting predictions are essential elements when selecting appropriate parameter values for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides. 39 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

Ng, Y.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

1983-01-01

99

An investigation on friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in a rectangular duct with surface roughness  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation on the fully developed heat transfer and friction factor characteristics has been made in rectangular ducts\\u000a with one-side roughened by five different shapes. The effects of rib shape geometries as well as Reynolds numbers are examined.\\u000a The rib height-to-duct hydraulic diameter, pitch-to-height ratio, and aspect ratio of channel width to height are fixed ate\\/De=0.0476,P\\/e=8, andW\\/H=2.33, respectively. To understand

Soo Whan Ahn; Kang Pil Son

2002-01-01

100

Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1993-10-01

101

Effects of transforming growth factor-beta1 and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 gene transfer on Achilles tendon healing.  

PubMed

Repaired Achilles tendons typically take weeks before they are strong enough to handle physiological loads. Gene therapy is a promising treatment for Achilles tendon defects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histological/biomechanical effects of Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165)) gene transfer on Achilles tendon healing in rabbits. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs) were transduced with adenovirus carrying human TGF-beta1 cDNA (Ad-TGF-beta1), human VEGF(165) cDNA (Ad-VEGF(165)), or both (PIRES-TGF-beta1/VEGF(165)) Viruses, no cDNA (Ad-GFP), and the BMSCs without gene transfer and the intact tendon were used as control. BMSCs were surgically implanted into the experimentally injured Achilles tendons. TGF-beta1 distribution, cellularity, nuclear aspect ratio, nuclear orientation angle, vascular number, collagen synthesis, and biomechanical features were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. The TGF-beta1 and TGF beta 1/VEGF(165) co-expression groups exhibited improved parameters compared with other groups, while the VEGF(165) expression group had a negative impact. In the co-expression group, the angiogenesis effects of VEGF(165) were diminished by TGF-beta1, while the collagen synthesis effects of TGF-beta1 were unaltered by VEGF(165). Thus treatment with TGF-beta1 cDNA-transduced BMSCs grafts is a promising therapy for acceleration and improvement of tendon healing, leading to quicker recovery and improved biomechanical properties of Achilles tendons. PMID:19389474

Hou, Yu; Mao, ZeBin; Wei, XueLei; Lin, Lin; Chen, LianXu; Wang, HaiJun; Fu, Xin; Zhang, JiYing; Yu, Changlong

2009-07-01

102

An antibody to lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor prevents transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis  

PubMed Central

Uncertainty regarding pathogenic mechanisms has been a major impediment to effective prevention and treatment for human neurologic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, tropical spastic paraparesis, and AIDS demyelinating disease. Here, we implicate lymphotoxin (LT) (tumor necrosis factor beta [TNF-beta]) and TNF-alpha in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of an autoimmune demyelinating disease. In this communication, we report that treatment of recipient mice with an antibody that neutralizes LT and TNF-alpha prevents transfer of clone-mediated EAE. LNC-8, a myelin basic protein-specific T cell line, produces high levels of LT and TNF-alpha after activation by concanavalin A, antibody to the CD-3 epsilon component of the T cell receptor, or myelin basic protein presented in the context of syngeneic spleen cells. LNC-8 cells transfer clinical signs of EAE. When LNC-8 recipient mice were also treated with TN3.19.12, a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes LT and TNF-alpha, the severity of the transferred EAE was reduced, while control antibodies did not alter the disease. The effect of anti-LT/TNF-alpha treatment was long lived and has been sustained for 5 mo. These findings suggest that LT and TNF-alpha and the T cells that produce them play an important role in EAE.

1990-01-01

103

Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region.  

PubMed

Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of (137)Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the (137)Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10(-1) and 1.8 × 10(-1) for (137)Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of (137)Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10(-2) d L(-1) and 4.6 × 10(-2) d L(-1), respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10(-2) d L(-1) for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10(-3) d L(-1) for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of (137)Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for (137)Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content ((40)K and stable K) in the soil and grass were also studied. In order to estimate the ingestion dose accurate data of the dietary habits of the population was necessary and this data was collected through a well planned demographic survey. The internal doses to a child due to the ingestion of (137)Cs along with the milk of the local cows and from the dairy farm were found to be 0.29 ?Sv y(-1) and 0.04 ?Sv y(-1),while that to an adult were 0.39 ?Sv y(-1) and 0.05 ?Sv y(-1), respectively. PMID:23685702

Karunakara, N; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Rao, Chetan; Sudeep Kumara, K; Dileep, B N; Ravi, P M

2013-10-01

104

Detachment factors for enhanced carrier to carrier transfer of CHO cell lines on macroporous microcarriers.  

PubMed

In this publication different detachment factors were tested for enhancing carrier to carrier transfer for scale-up of macroporous microcarrier based bioprocesses. Two Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, CHO-K1 and a genetically engineered CHO-K1 derived cell line (CHO-MPS), producing recombinant human Arylsulfatase B, were examined. The cells were grown on Cytoline 1microcarriers (Amersham Biosciences, Uppsala, Sweden) in protein-free and chemically defined medium respectively. Fully colonised microcarriers were used at passage ratios of approximately 1:10 for carrier to carrier transfer experiments. To accelerate the colonisation of the non-colonised, freshly added microcarriers the detachment reagents trypsin, papain, Accutasetrade mark (PAA, Linz, Austria), heparin and dextransulphate were used. Both cell lines showed good results with trypsin, Accutase and dextransulphate (Amersham Biosciences, Uppsala, Sweden), while papain failed to enhance carrier to carrier transfer in comparison to the non-treated reference. The maximum growth rate of cells on microcarriers with 2% dextransulphate in the medium was 0.25 +/- 0.02d(-1) and 0.27 +/- 0.03d(-1) for the CHO-MPS and CHO-K1, respectively. TheCHO-K1 grew best after detachment with trypsin (mu = 0.36 +/- 0.03d(-1)). This indicates, that one of the key parameters for carrier to carrier transfer is the uniform distribution of cells on the individual carriers during the initial phase. When this distribution can be improved, growth rate increases, resulting in a faster and more stable process. PMID:19003302

Landauer, K; Dürrschmid, M; Klug, H; Wiederkum, S; Blüml, G; Doblhoff-Dier, O

2002-05-01

105

Job/Work Environment Factors Influencing Training Transfer within a Human Service Agency: Some Indicative Support for Baldwin and Ford's Transfer Climate Construct.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews 6 months after 14 social services employees participated in inservice training identified job and work environment factors that impede transfer of training: short duration, lack of time and opportunity to practice, minimal supervisor support, and the perception that such training was more for personal development than application to the…

Clarke, Nicholas

2002-01-01

106

Statistical iterative reconstruction using fast optimization transfer algorithm with successively increasing factor in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical iterative reconstruction exhibits particularly promising since it provides the flexibility of accurate physical noise modeling and geometric system description in transmission tomography system. However, to solve the objective function is computationally intensive compared to analytical reconstruction methods due to multiple iterations needed for convergence and each iteration involving forward/back-projections by using a complex geometric system model. Optimization transfer (OT) is a general algorithm converting a high dimensional optimization to a parallel 1-D update. OT-based algorithm provides a monotonic convergence and a parallel computing framework but slower convergence rate especially around the global optimal. Based on an indirect estimation on the spectrum of the OT convergence rate matrix, we proposed a successively increasing factor- scaled optimization transfer (OT) algorithm to seek an optimal step size for a faster rate. Compared to a representative OT based method such as separable parabolic surrogate with pre-computed curvature (PC-SPS), our algorithm provides comparable image quality (IQ) with fewer iterations. Each iteration retains a similar computational cost to PC-SPS. The initial experiment with a simulated Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) system shows that a total 40% computing time is saved by the proposed algorithm. In general, the successively increasing factor-scaled OT exhibits a tremendous potential to be a iterative method with a parallel computation, a monotonic and global convergence with fast rate.

Xu, Shiyu; Zhang, Zhenxi; Chen, Ying

2014-03-01

107

Single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide in an asymptomatic population of never smokers.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Data on reference values of transfer factor variables in general populations of asymptomatic never smokers are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between test variables and age, height, haemoglobin concentration and carboxyhaemoglobin concentration. METHODS: Measurements of single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO) were obtained for a randomly selected sample of never smokers in north western Europe who were 18-73 years old and had no respiratory symptoms or disorders. Two recordings of TLCO with a ratio of inspiratory vital capacity to forced vital capacity of greater than 0.09 were obtained by standardised techniques for 304 subjects. RESULTS: The measurement errors expressed as a percentage of the common mean value of TLCO, volume adjusted TLCO (KCO), and alveolar volume (VA) were 4.5%, 4.2%, and 2.4% respectively. Multiple linear regressions showed sex specific effects of height and age on TLCO, and, in addition, of haemoglobin and carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations on KCO. VA was associated with height but not with age. The 5th and 95th centiles for TLCO and KCO in men and women were between 78% and 82% and between 120% and 127%, respectively, of predicted values when age and height were taken into account. CONCLUSION: Reference equations and normal values for transfer test variables in a large healthy population of never smokers are described in relation to age, height, and haemoglobin concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations and KCO in a population of never smoking men and women.

Gulsvik, A; Bakke, P; Humerfelt, S; Omenaas, E; Tosteson, T; Weiss, S T; Speizer, F E

1992-01-01

108

Factors associated with transfers from healthcare facilities among readmitted older adults with chronic illness.  

PubMed

Objective Because chronic illness accounts for a considerable proportion of Australian healthcare expenditure, there is a need to identify factors that may reduce hospital readmissions for patients with chronic illness. The aim of the present study was to examine a range of factors potentially associated with transfer from healthcare facilities among older adults readmitted to hospital within a large public health service in Melbourne, Australia. Methods Data on readmitted patients between June 2006 and June 2011 were extracted from hospital databases and medical records. Adopting a retrospective case-control study design, a sample of 51 patients transferred from private residences was matched by age and gender with 55 patients transferred from healthcare facilities (including nursing homes and acute care facilities). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to compare the two groups, and to determine associations between 46 variables and transfer from a healthcare facility. Results Univariate analysis indicated that patients readmitted from healthcare facilities were significantly more likely to experience relative socioeconomic advantage, disorientation on admission, dementia diagnosis, incontinence and poor skin integrity than those readmitted from a private residence. Three of these variables remained significantly associated with admission from healthcare facilities after multivariate analysis: relative socioeconomic advantage (odds ratio (OR) 11.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.62-48.77), incontinence (OR 7.18; 95% CI 1.19-43.30) and poor skin integrity (OR 18.05; 95% CI 1.85-176.16). Conclusions Older adults with chronic illness readmitted to hospital from healthcare facilities are significantly more likely to differ from those readmitted from private residences in terms of relative socioeconomic advantage, incontinence and skin integrity. The findings direct efforts towards addressing the apparent disparity in management of patients admitted from a facility as opposed to a private residence. What is known about the topic? Older adults with chronic disease require ongoing medical care in both community and healthcare settings. They may frequently require emergency admission to hospital for management of exacerbations of their chronic disease. Previous Australian research has found that transfer from a healthcare facility may be associated with likelihood of readmission among older adults. What does this paper add? This research addresses the shortage of research on the link between transfer from a healthcare facility and likelihood of readmission within Australia. Older adults with chronic illness readmitted to hospital from healthcare facilities were found to be significantly more likely to differ from those readmitted from private residences in terms of relative socioeconomic advantage, incontinence and skin integrity. What are the implications for practitioners? The findings may be used to identify older readmitted patients with chronic diagnoses at greater risk of presenting with poor skin integrity or incontinence, and direct efforts towards addressing the apparent disparity in management of patients admitted from facilities as opposed to private residences. Sound discharge planning and clear channels of communication between healthcare facilities are particularly important for patients transferred between facilities. PMID:24670934

Islam, Tasneem; O'Connell, Beverly; Hawkins, Mary

2014-06-01

109

Laminar heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of carbon nano tube/water nanofluids.  

PubMed

This paper presents an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of CNT/water nanofluid through a circular tube fitted with helical screw tape inserts with constant heat flux under laminar flow condition. Nanofluids of 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions are prepared by two step method. Thermo-physical properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity are measured by using KD2 thermal property analyzer and Brooke field cone and plate viscometer respectively. From the measurements, it is found that the viscosity increase is substantially higher than the increase in the thermal conductivity. The helical screw tape insets with twist ratios Y = 3, 2.44 and 1.78 are used to study the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics under laminar flow in the Reynolds number range of 520-2500. It is observed that, in a plain tube, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number for 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of nanofluids compared to pure water is 15% and 32% respectively. With the use of inserts, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number corresponding to twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 are obtained as 8%, 16% and 4.6% for 0.1% volume fraction of nanofluid and 5%, 4% and 12% for 0.2% volume fraction of nanofluid when compared with water in plain tube. Thermal performance factor evaluation revealed that the values at all Reynolds number for all twist ratios and both concentration of CNT nanofluid are greater than unity which indicates that helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios considered are feasible in terms of energy saving in laminar flow. PMID:24745238

Rathnakumar, P; Mayilsamy, K; Suresh, S; Murugesan, P

2014-03-01

110

Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Is Dependent on Compatible Mitochondrial DNA and Reprogramming Factors  

PubMed Central

Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) involves the transfer of a nucleus or cell from one species into the cytoplasm of an enucleated oocyte from another. Once activated, reconstructed oocytes can be cultured in vitro to blastocyst, the final stage of preimplantation development. However, they often arrest during the early stages of preimplantation development; fail to reprogramme the somatic nucleus; and eliminate the accompanying donor cell's mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in favour of the recipient oocyte's genetically more divergent population. This last point has consequences for the production of ATP by the electron transfer chain, which is encoded by nuclear and mtDNA. Using a murine-porcine interspecies model, we investigated the importance of nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility on successful development. Initially, we transferred murine fetal fibroblasts into enucleated porcine oocytes, which resulted in extremely low blastocyst rates (0.48%); and failure to replicate nuclear DNA and express Oct-4, the key marker of reprogramming. Using allele specific-PCR, we detected peak levels of murine mtDNA at 0.14±0.055% of total mtDNA at the 2-cell embryo stage and then at ever-decreasing levels to the blastocyst stage (<0.001%). Furthermore, these embryos had an overall mtDNA profile similar to porcine embryos. We then depleted porcine oocytes of their mtDNA using 10 µM 2?,3?-dideoxycytidine and transferred murine somatic cells along with murine embryonic stem cell extract, which expressed key pluripotent genes associated with reprogramming and contained mitochondria, into these oocytes. Blastocyst rates increased significantly (3.38%) compared to embryos generated from non-supplemented oocytes (P<0.01). They also had significantly more murine mtDNA at the 2-cell stage than the non-supplemented embryos, which was maintained throughout early preimplantation development. At later stages, these embryos possessed 49.99±2.97% murine mtDNA. They also exhibited an mtDNA profile similar to murine preimplantation embryos. Overall, these data demonstrate that the addition of species compatible mtDNA and reprogramming factors improves developmental outcomes for iSCNT embryos.

Jiang, Yan; Kelly, Richard; Peters, Amy; Fulka, Helena; Dickinson, Adam; Mitchell, Daniel A.; St. John, Justin C.

2011-01-01

111

Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer is dependent on compatible mitochondrial DNA and reprogramming factors.  

PubMed

Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) involves the transfer of a nucleus or cell from one species into the cytoplasm of an enucleated oocyte from another. Once activated, reconstructed oocytes can be cultured in vitro to blastocyst, the final stage of preimplantation development. However, they often arrest during the early stages of preimplantation development; fail to reprogramme the somatic nucleus; and eliminate the accompanying donor cell's mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in favour of the recipient oocyte's genetically more divergent population. This last point has consequences for the production of ATP by the electron transfer chain, which is encoded by nuclear and mtDNA. Using a murine-porcine interspecies model, we investigated the importance of nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility on successful development. Initially, we transferred murine fetal fibroblasts into enucleated porcine oocytes, which resulted in extremely low blastocyst rates (0.48%); and failure to replicate nuclear DNA and express Oct-4, the key marker of reprogramming. Using allele specific-PCR, we detected peak levels of murine mtDNA at 0.14±0.055% of total mtDNA at the 2-cell embryo stage and then at ever-decreasing levels to the blastocyst stage (<0.001%). Furthermore, these embryos had an overall mtDNA profile similar to porcine embryos. We then depleted porcine oocytes of their mtDNA using 10 µM 2',3'-dideoxycytidine and transferred murine somatic cells along with murine embryonic stem cell extract, which expressed key pluripotent genes associated with reprogramming and contained mitochondria, into these oocytes. Blastocyst rates increased significantly (3.38%) compared to embryos generated from non-supplemented oocytes (P<0.01). They also had significantly more murine mtDNA at the 2-cell stage than the non-supplemented embryos, which was maintained throughout early preimplantation development. At later stages, these embryos possessed 49.99±2.97% murine mtDNA. They also exhibited an mtDNA profile similar to murine preimplantation embryos. Overall, these data demonstrate that the addition of species compatible mtDNA and reprogramming factors improves developmental outcomes for iSCNT embryos. PMID:21556135

Jiang, Yan; Kelly, Richard; Peters, Amy; Fulka, Helena; Dickinson, Adam; Mitchell, Daniel A; St John, Justin C

2011-01-01

112

An analytical model of view factors for radiation heat transfer in planar and tubular solid oxide fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiant heat transfer plays an important role in the distribution of cell temperature and current density in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The objective of this paper is to introduce a mathematical model of view factors for radiation heat exchange in an in-house longitudinally distributed SOFC model. A differential view factor model is first developed for planar and tubular SOFC

Cheng Bao; Ningsheng Cai; Eric Croiset

2011-01-01

113

Roche-lobe filling factor of mass-transferring red giants: the PIONIER view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the PIONIER visitor instrument that combines the light of the four Auxiliary Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer, we precisely measure the diameters of several symbiotic and related stars: HD 352, HD 190658, V1261 Ori, ER Del, FG Ser, and AG Peg. These diameters - in the range of 0.6-2.3 milli-arcsec - are used to assess the filling factor of the Roche lobe of the mass-losing giants and provide indications on the nature of the ongoing mass transfer. We also provide the first spectroscopic orbit of ER Del, based on CORAVEL and HERMES/Mercator observations. The system is found to have an eccentric orbit with a period of 5.7 years. In the case of the symbiotic star FG Ser, we find that the diameter changes by 13% over the course of 41 days, while the observations of HD 352 are indicative of an elongation. Both these stars are found to have a Roche filling factor close to 1, as is most likely the case for HD 190658 as well, while the three other stars have factors below 0.5-0.6. Our observations reveal the power of interferometry for the study of interacting binary stars; the main limitation in our conclusions is the poorly known distances of the objects. Table 7 and Figs. 9-18 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Boffin, H. M. J.; Hillen, M.; Berger, J. P.; Jorissen, A.; Blind, N.; Le Bouquin, J. B.; Miko?ajewska, J.; Lazareff, B.

2014-04-01

114

[Measurement of pulmonary transfer factor using the CO rebreathing method of gas mixtures].  

PubMed

The measurement of transfer factor of the lung with CO rebreathing method (TLcoRB) is presented by slightly modified method of Clark et al. The measurements were performed in 32 healthy subjects and in 24 patients with restrictive or obstructive ventilatory defect and compared with the values of TLcoSB. TLcoRB was in all examined persons cca 30% lower than TLcoSB. Contrary to that Kco in healthy subjects was the same in both methods while the values of KcoRB in patients were slightly lower than KcoSB. It is concluded that measurement of TLco rebreathing method is suitable for routine use. The measurement of TLcoRB may be performed also in patients with severely decreased ventilatory capacity and even at patient's bed. In specialised laboratories for lung function test TLcoRB should be used as parallel method in routine work. PMID:2636407

Zimic, D; Bizjak, M; Stangl, B

1989-01-01

115

Modification of an impulse-factoring orbital transfer technique to account for orbit determination and maneuver execution errors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has previously been developed to satisfy terminal rendezvous and intermediate timing constraints for planetary missions involving orbital operations. The method uses impulse factoring in which a two-impulse transfer is divided into three or four impulses which add one or two intermediate orbits. The periods of the intermediate orbits and the number of revolutions in each orbit are varied to satisfy timing constraints. Techniques are developed to retarget the orbital transfer in the presence of orbit-determination and maneuver-execution errors. Sample results indicate that the nominal transfer can be retargeted with little change in either the magnitude (Delta V) or location of the individual impulses. Additonally, the total Delta V required for the retargeted transfer is little different from that required for the nominal transfer. A digital computer program developed to implement the techniques is described.

Kibler, J. F.; Green, R. N.; Young, G. R.; Kelly, M. G.

1974-01-01

116

Hispanic Student Success: Factors Influencing the Persistence and Transfer Decisions of Latino Community College Students Enrolled in Developmental Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of a set of theoretically-derived predictor variables on the persistence and transfer of Hispanic\\u000a community college students. Early models of student persistence have been validated primarily among 4-year college students.\\u000a While the constructs have been well-established, the relationships of those relevant factors remain unexamined among community\\u000a college transfer students, and specifically, among Hispanic students enrolled

Gloria Crisp; Amaury Nora

2010-01-01

117

Conjugative transfer of the Lactococcus lactis sex factor and pRS01 plasmid to Enterococcus faecalis.  

PubMed

The low G+C gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis harbours two highly similar conjugative elements: an integrative and conjugative element called sex factor and the pRS01 plasmid. Originally, it was believed that the host range of the sex factor was limited to L. lactis subspecies. Here, it is reported that pTRK28 cointegrates of a spectinomycin-marked L. lactis sex factor and of the pRS01 conjugative plasmid can be transferred from L. lactis to Enterococcus faecalis. These results demonstrate the conjugative transfer of these elements to other bacterial species. Furthermore, it is reported that Ll.LtrB, a mobile group II intron carried by both elements, can invade its recognition site upon pRS01 conjugative transfer to E. faecalis. PMID:17263841

Belhocine, Kamila; Mandilaras, Victoria; Yeung, Bonnie; Cousineau, Benoit

2007-04-01

118

Polarization Factors and Spin-Transfer Torque in Magnetic Tunneling Junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions having small RA enhance the prospect of 2-terminal memory elements using spin transfer for writing and TMR for reading. Using Bardeen theory, I find a sufficient condition for the existence of the tunnel-effective polarization factors which I-V experiments support. The mere presence of an ideal crystalline slab within the barrier suffices, regardless of electron structure and atomic disorder within the magnets and interface regions. I find the moment-coplanar torque density L_R=(h/4? e)P_LJ_0sin ? acting on a right magnet with applied voltage V. Here, P_L(V) and P_R(V) are the polarization factors of the left and right magnets, and J_0(V) is the mean current density in the conventional expression J=J_0(1+P_LP_Rs ? ). This connection between LR and J may aid laboratory exploration of junction technology for current-driven switching by study of J(V,? ) prior to the difficult fabrication of pillars having submicron dimensions.

Slonczewski, John

2004-03-01

119

Plasmid Transfer of Plasminogen K1-5 Reduces Subcutaneous Hepatoma Growth by Affecting Inflammatory Factors  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that plasminogen K1-5 (PlgK1-5) directly affects tumour cells and inflammation. Therefore, we analysed if PlgK1-5 has immediate effects on hepatoma cells and inflammatory factors in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, effects of plasmid encoding PlgK1-5 (pK1-5) on Hepa129, Hepa1-6, and HuH7 cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation as well as VEGF and TNF-alpha expression and STAT3-phosphorylation were investigated. In vivo, tumour growth, proliferation, vessel density, and effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression were examined following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, pK1-5 halved cell viability; cell death was increased by up to 15% compared to the corresponding controls. Proliferation was not affected. VEGF, TNF-alpha, and STAT3-phosphorylation were affected following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, ten days after treatment initiation, pK1-5 reduced subcutaneous tumour growth by 32% and mitosis by up to 77% compared to the controls. Vessel density was reduced by 50%. TNF-alpha levels in tumour and liver tissue were increased, whereas VEGF levels in tumours and livers were reduced after pK1-5 treatment. Taken together, plasmid gene transfer of PlgK1-5 inhibits hepatoma (cell) growth not only by reducing vessel density but also by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, and triggering inflammation.

Koch, Lea A.; Strassburg, Christian P.; Raskopf, Esther

2014-01-01

120

Bacterial ?2-macroglobulins: colonization factors acquired by horizontal gene transfer from the metazoan genome?  

PubMed Central

Background Invasive bacteria are known to have captured and adapted eukaryotic host genes. They also readily acquire colonizing genes from other bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Closely related species such as Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter hepaticus, which exploit different host tissues, share almost none of their colonization genes. The protease inhibitor ?2-macroglobulin provides a major metazoan defense against invasive bacteria, trapping attacking proteases required by parasites for successful invasion. Results Database searches with metazoan ?2-macroglobulin sequences revealed homologous sequences in bacterial proteomes. The bacterial ?2-macroglobulin phylogenetic distribution is patchy and violates the vertical descent model. Bacterial ?2-macroglobulin genes are found in diverse clades, including purple bacteria (proteobacteria), fusobacteria, spirochetes, bacteroidetes, deinococcids, cyanobacteria, planctomycetes and thermotogae. Most bacterial species with bacterial ?2-macroglobulin genes exploit higher eukaryotes (multicellular plants and animals) as hosts. Both pathogenically invasive and saprophytically colonizing species possess bacterial ?2-macroglobulins, indicating that bacterial ?2-macroglobulin is a colonization rather than a virulence factor. Conclusions Metazoan ?2-macroglobulins inhibit proteases of pathogens. The bacterial homologs may function in reverse to block host antimicrobial defenses. ?2-macroglobulin was probably acquired one or more times from metazoan hosts and has then spread widely through other colonizing bacterial species by more than 10 independent horizontal gene transfers. yfhM-like bacterial ?2-macroglobulin genes are often found tightly linked with pbpC, encoding an atypical peptidoglycan transglycosylase, PBP1C, that does not function in vegetative peptidoglycan synthesis. We suggest that YfhM and PBP1C are coupled together as a periplasmic defense and repair system. Bacterial ?2-macroglobulins might provide useful targets for enhancing vaccine efficacy in combating infections.

Budd, Aidan; Blandin, Stephanie; Levashina, Elena A; Gibson, Toby J

2004-01-01

121

Factors Associated with Bachelor Degree Attainment by Community College Transfer Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of the community college as preparation for transfer to four-year institutions and bachelor degree attainment continues to be a critical means of access to higher learning for students from diverse backgrounds. What variables distinguish community college transfers to four-year institutions who earn a bachelor degree from transfers who do not…

Mourad, Roger; Hong, JiHee

2011-01-01

122

Evaluation of thermophysical properties, friction factor, and heat transfer of alumina nanofluid flow in tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various thermophysical properties, fluid flow parameter and heat transfer characteristics were measured for nanofluid with 6% volume concentration of solid Al2O3 nanoparticles in water. Thermal conductivity measurements showed that there is a definite enhancement in thermal conductivity of the nanofluid compared to that of water. At 7°C, the enhancement was 16% which decreased to 6.96% at 50°C. The viscosity measurements of the 6% volume concentration Al2O 3/water nanofluid showed that its viscosity is higher by a factor of 1.25 to 10.24 than the viscosity of water. Also the measurements of the viscosity of different volume concentration of Al2O3/water nanofluid showed that, the viscosity decreases as the volume concentration decreases. The plot between the shear stress and strain rate for the 6% volume concentration Al2O3/water nanofluid showed that it is a Newtonian fluid for the range of strain rate between 6-122 s-1. Several readings of viscosity were taken by subjecting the nanofluid to heating and cooling cycle. It was found that above 62.65°C, the 6% volume concentration Al2O3/water nanofluid experiences an irrecoverable increase in viscosity and when cooled from beyond this temperature, a hysteresis effect on the viscosity is seen. The friction factor results for laminar flow for the 6% volume concentration Al2O3/water nanofluid showed that it matches the value given by the Hagen-Poiseulle equation (f = 64/Re ). The transition from laminar flow to turbulent was found to occur at a Reynolds number of approximately 1500. The convective heat transfer results were in agreement with that proposed by the Lienhard correlation (Lienhard and Lienhard, 2008). For fully developed laminar flow, the Nusselt number under constant heat flux condition was found to be within ±7% of 4.36. In the laminar flow regime, the Nusselt numbers for thermally developing flow were within ±10% of the value calculated from the Lienhard correlation.

Tiwari, Sanjib

123

Stem Cell Factor, Interleukin3, and Interleukin6 Promote Retroviral-Mediated Gene Transfer Into Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of retroviral-mediated gene transfer into hema- topoietic stem cells (HSC) is dependent on the survival and self-renewal of HSC in vitro during retroviral infection. We have examined the effect of prestimulation of bone marrow with various cytokines, including the product of the Steel gene, Steel factor or stem cell factor (SCF) (the ligand for the c-kit receptor) on

Barry D. Luskey; Margery Rosenblatt; Kristina Zsebo; David A. Williams

124

Contrasting Effects of in Vitro Fertilization and Nuclear Transfer on the Expression of mtDNA Replication Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is normally only inherited through the oocyte. However, nuclear transfer (NT), the fusion of a donor cell with an enucleated oocyte, can transmit both donor cell and recipient oocyte mtDNA. mtDNA replication is under the control of nuclear-encoded replication factors, such as polymerase gamma (POLG) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). These are first expressed during late

Emma J. Bowles; Joon-Hee Lee; Ramiro Alberio; Rhiannon E. I. Lloyd; Dov Stekel; Keith H. S. Campbell; Justin C. St. John

2007-01-01

125

CATALYST EFFECTIVENESS FACTORS UNDER GAS-TO-LIQUID MASS TRANSFER LIMITING REGIME IN LIQUID PHASE METHANOL SYNTHESIS PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness factors of methanol synthesis catalyst were experimentally measured under condition of gas-to-liquid mass transfer limiting regime in the liquid phase methanol synthesis process, where the synthesis catalyst is slurried in an inert liquid phase. The experimental measurements of effectiveness factors were based on an intrinsic methanol synthesis rate per unit mass of catalyst (gmol\\/kg cat.h) which is not

Makarand Gogate; Sunggyu Lee

1994-01-01

126

Measurements of the Proton Elastic-Form-Factor Ratio mupGEp\\/GMp at Low Momentum Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-precision measurements of the proton elastic form-factor ratio, mupGEp\\/GMp, have been made at four-momentum transfer, Q2, values between 0.2 and 0.5GeV2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement,

G. Ron; J. Glister; B. Lee; K. Allada; W. Armstrong; J. Arrington; A. Beck; F. Benmokhtar; B. L. Berman; W. Boeglin; E. Brash; A. Camsonne; J. Calarco; J. P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; J. Dumas; C. Dutta; R. Feuerbach; A. Freyberger; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; R. Gilman; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C. E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; Y. Ilieva; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; H. Kang; A. Kelleher; E. Khrosinkova; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; J. J. Lerose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; S. May-Tal Beck; E. McCullough; D. Meekins; M. Meziane; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; B. E. Norum; Y. Oh; M. Olson; M. Paolone; K. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; M. Potokar; R. Pomatsalyuk; I. Pomerantz; A. Puckett; V. Punjabi; X. Qian; Y. Qiang; R. Ransome; M. Reyhan; J. Roche; Y. Rousseau; A. Saha; A. J. Sarty; B. Sawatzky; E. Schulte; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; R. Shneor; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; J. Song; R. Sparks; R. Subedi; S. Strauch; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; X. Zhan; X. Zhu

2007-01-01

127

Simple Estimation of F?rster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Orientation Factor Distribution in Membranes  

PubMed Central

Because of its acute sensitivity to distance in the nanometer scale, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has found a large variety of applications in many fields of chemistry, physics, and biology. One important issue regarding the correct usage of FRET is its dependence on the donor-acceptor relative orientation, expressed as the orientation factor ?2. Different donor/acceptor conformations can lead to ?2 values in the 0 ? ?2 ? 4 range. Because the characteristic distance for FRET, R0, is proportional to (?2)1/6, uncertainties in the orientation factor are reflected in the quality of information that can be retrieved from a FRET experiment. In most cases, the average value of ?2 corresponding to the dynamic isotropic limit ( = 2/3) is used for computation of R0 and hence donor-acceptor distances and acceptor concentrations. However, this can lead to significant error in unfavorable cases. This issue is more critical in membrane systems, because of their intrinsically anisotropic nature and their reduced fluidity in comparison to most common solvents. Here, a simple numerical simulation method for estimation of the probability density function of ?2 for membrane-embedded donor and acceptor fluorophores in the dynamic regime is presented. In the simplest form, the proposed procedure uses as input the most probable orientations of the donor and acceptor transition dipoles, obtained by experimental (including linear dichroism) or theoretical (such as molecular dynamics simulation) techniques. Optionally, information about the widths of the donor and/or acceptor angular distributions may be incorporated. The methodology is illustrated for special limiting cases and common membrane FRET pairs.

Loura, Luis M. S.

2012-01-01

128

Children's preferences of transfer devices for reconstitution of factors VIII and IX for the treatment of haemophilia.  

PubMed

The past decade has seen the introduction of a number of needleless transfer devices for the reconstitution of coagulation factors. This study investigated the use of four commercially available transfer devices by children with bleeding disorders, and assessed their preferences for the devices. Fifteen children with bleeding disorders requiring prophylactic home treatment with coagulation factors were recruited to the study. The participants tested reconstitution with four dummy transfer devices: BAXJECT, BIOSET, ReFacto R2 and Mix2Vial. Participants did not infuse the factors reconstituted using the devices. Each participant then answered a series of questions on each device; answers were based on a five-point Likert scale and the devices were ranked in order of preference. All participants were able to use the devices within 5 min and 78% of participants ranked all devices as 'fairly easy' or 'very easy' to use. The most popular device was Mix2Vial, which was the most preferred by seven participants (46.7%). BAXJECT was the preferred device of four participants, but was also the least, or least but one, favourite of nine participants. Pre-filled syringe transfer devices, BIOSET and ReFacto R2, were preferred by only 26% of participants. This is the first published study comparing children's preferences for transfer devices. All children were able to manage the devices readily, and Mix2Vial was the preferred device of the majority of participants. Newer, advanced transfer devices offer a user-friendly and more convenient and effective way for children to reconstitute factors. PMID:19016902

Khair, K

2009-01-01

129

Transcription factor plasmid binding modulates microtubule interactions and intracellular trafficking during gene transfer.  

PubMed

For non-viral gene delivery to be successful, plasmids must move through the cytoplasm to the nucleus in order to be transcribed. While the cytoskeletal meshwork acts as a barrier to plasmid DNA movement in the cytoplasm, the microtubule network is required for directed plasmid trafficking to the nucleus. We have shown previously that plasmid-microtubule interactions require cytoplasmic adapter proteins such as molecular motors, transcription factors (TFs) and importins. However, not all plasmid sequences support these interactions to allow movement to the nucleus. We now demonstrate that microtubule-DNA interactions can show sequence specificity with promoters containing binding sites for cyclic AMP response-element binding protein (CREB), including the cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter (CMV(iep)). Plasmids containing CREB-binding sites showed stringent interactions in an in vitro microtubule-binding assay. Using microinjection and real-time particle tracking, we show that the inclusion of TF binding sites within plasmids permits cytoplasmic trafficking of plasmids during gene transfer. We found that CREB-binding sites are bound by CREB in the cytoplasm during transfection, and allow for enhanced rates of movement and subsequent nuclear accumulation. Moreover, small interfering RNA knockdown of CREB prevented this enhanced trafficking. Therefore, TF binding sites within plasmids are necessary for interactions with microtubules and enhance movement to the nucleus. PMID:21716302

Badding, M A; Vaughan, E E; Dean, D A

2012-03-01

130

Persistent expression of factor VIII in vivo following nonprimate lentiviral gene transfer.  

PubMed

Hemophilia A is a clinically important coagulation disorder caused by the lack or abnormality of plasma coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). Gene transfer of the FVIII cDNA to hepatocytes using lentiviral vectors is a potential therapeutic approach. We investigated the efficacy of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based vectors in targeting hepatocytes and correcting FVIII deficiency in a hemophilia A mouse model. Several viral envelope glycoproteins were screened for efficient FIV vector pseudotyping and hepatocyte transduction. The GP64 glycoprotein from baculovirus Autographa californica multinuclear polyhedrosis virus pseudo-typed FIV efficiently and showed excellent hepatocyte tropism. The GP64-pseudotyped vector was stable in the presence of human or mouse complement. Inclusion of a hybrid liver-specific promoter (murine albumin enhancer/human alpha1-antitrypsin promoter) further enhanced transgene expression in hepatocytes. We generated a GP64-pseudotyped FIV vector encoding the B domain-deleted human FVIII coding region driven by the liver-specific promoter, with 2 beneficial point mutations in the A1 domain. Intravenous vector administration conferred sustained FVIII expression in hemophilia A mice for several months without the generation of anti-human FVIII antibodies and resulted in partial phenotypic correction. These findings demonstrate the utility of GP64-pseudotyped FIV lentiviral vectors for targeting hepatocytes to correct disorders associated with deficiencies of secreted proteins. PMID:15886327

Kang, Yubin; Xie, Litao; Tran, Diane Thi; Stein, Colleen S; Hickey, Melissa; Davidson, Beverly L; McCray, Paul B

2005-09-01

131

Dominant Factors in Lubricant Transfer and Accumulation in Slider-Disk Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubricant transfer from disk to slider and lubricant accumulation on slider are very important in designing a stable slider-disk\\u000a interface of ultra-low spacing. In this article, the effects of different parameters on the lubricant transfer and accumulation\\u000a are studied and the reasons behind the effects are explained. Furthermore, the time for the lubricant transfer to reach steady\\u000a state is estimated.

Yansheng Ma; Bo Liu

2008-01-01

132

Factors affecting the levels of protection transferred from mother to offspring following immune challenge  

PubMed Central

Introduction The transfer of antibodies from mother to offspring is key to protecting young animals from disease and can have a major impact on responses to infection and offspring fitness. Such maternal effects also allow young that may be exposed to disease in early life to focus resources on growth and development at this critical period of development. Maternally transferred antibodies are therefore an important source of phenotypic variation in host phenotype as well as influencing host susceptibility and tolerance to infection across generations. It has previously been assumed the transfer of antibodies is passive and invariant and reflects the level of circulating antibody in the mother at the time of transfer. However, whether females may vary in the relative amount of protection transferred to offspring has seldom been explored. Results Here we show that females differ widely in the relative amount of specific blood antibodies they transfer to the embryonic environment (range 9.2%-38.4% of their own circulating levels) in Chinese painted quail (Coturnix chinensis). Relative transfer levels were unrelated to the size of a female’s own immune response. Furthermore, individual females were consistent in their transfer level, both across different stages of their immune response and when challenged with different vaccine types. The amount of antibody transferred was related to female condition, but baseline antibody responses of mothers were not. However, we found no evidence for any trade-offs between the relative amount of antibody transferred with other measures of reproductive investment. Conclusions These results suggest that the relative amount of antibodies transferred to offspring can vary significantly and consistently between females. Levels of transfer may therefore be a separate trait open to manipulation or selection with potential consequences for offspring health and fitness in both wild and domesticated populations.

2014-01-01

133

A Study on the Transfer of Iron in Soil–Plant–Animal Continuum Under Semi-arid Environmental Conditions in Sargodha, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation on the iron (Fe) transfer from soil to plant and in turn to animal (cows), as a function of sampling\\u000a periods was conducted at the Livestock Experimental Station Sargodha, Pakistan which falls under semi-arid conditions. Although\\u000a the iron transfer from soil to forage increased consistently, the forage Fe content decreased progressively with increase\\u000a in sampling period. Highest

Zafar Iqbal Khan; Muhammad Ashraf; Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar; Nasra Raza; Kafeel Ahmad; Nudrat Aisha Akram

134

Slow electron transfer rates for fluorinated cobalt porphyrins: electronic and conformational factors modulating metalloporphyrin ET.  

PubMed

The electron transfer (ET) properties of a series of closely related cobalt porphyrins, [2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octafluoro-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrinato]cobalt, CoF(28)TPP, [2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octafluoro-5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl)porphyrinato]cobalt, CoF(8)TPP, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrinato]cobalt, CoF(20)TPP, and [5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinato]cobalt, CoTPP, were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, cyclic voltammetric digital simulation, in situ UV-vis and IR spectroelectrochemistry, kinetic ET studies, bulk electrolysis, (19)F NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and molecular modeling. In benzonitrile containing 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF(6)) as supporting electrolyte, the ET rate constants for the Co(2+/3+) redox couples were found to be strongly substituent dependent; the heterogeneous ET rate constant (k(el)) varied by a factor of 10(4), and the ET self-exchange rate constants (k(ex)) varied over 7 orders of magnitude for the compounds studied. The remaining observed ring oxidation and metal and ring reduction events exhibited nearly identical k(el) values for all compounds. UV-vis and IR spectroelectrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and (19)F NMR spectroscopic studies support attribution of different ET rates to widely varying inner sphere reorganization energies (lambda(i)) for these closely related compounds. Structural and semiempirical (PM3) studies indicate that the divergent kinetic behavior of CoTPP, CoF(8)TPP, CoF(20)TPP, and CoF(28)TPP first oxidations arises mainly from large nuclear reorganization energies primarily associated with core contraction and dilation. Taken together, these studies provide rational design principles for modulating ET rate constants in cobalt porphyrins over an even larger range and provide strategies for similar manipulation of ET rates in other porphyrin-based systems: substituents that lower C-C, C-N, and N-M vibrational frequencies or minimize porphyrin orbital overlap with the metal-centered orbital undergoing a change in electron population will increase k(ET). The heme ruffling apparent in electron transfer proteins such as cytochrome c is interpreted as nature's exploitation of this design strategy. PMID:12971774

Sun, Haoran; Smirnov, Valeriy V; DiMagno, Stephen G

2003-09-22

135

Conjugative Transfer of the Lactococcus lactis Chromosomal Sex Factor Promotes Dissemination of the Ll.LtrB Group II Intron  

PubMed Central

The Ll.LtrB group II intron from the low-G+C gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis was the first bacterial group II intron shown to splice and mobilize in vivo. This retroelement interrupts the relaxase gene (ltrB) of three L. lactis conjugative elements: plasmids pRS01 and pAH90 and the chromosomal sex factor. Conjugative transfer of a plasmid harboring a segment of the pRS01 conjugative plasmid including the Ll.LtrB intron allows dissemination of Ll.LtrB among L. lactis strains and lateral transfer of this retroelement from L. lactis to Enterococcus faecalis. Here we report the dissemination of the Ll.LtrB group II intron among L. lactis strains following conjugative transfer of the native chromosomally embedded L. lactis sex factor. We demonstrated that Ll.LtrB dissemination is highly variable and often more efficient from this integrative and conjugative element than from an engineered conjugative plasmid. Cotransfer among L. lactis strains of both Ll.LtrB-containing elements, the conjugative plasmid and the sex factor, was detected and shown to be synergistic. Moreover, following their concurrent transfer, both mobilizable elements supported the spread of their respective copies of the Ll.LtrB intron. Our findings explain the unusually high efficiency of Ll.LtrB mobility observed following conjugation of intron-containing plasmids.

Belhocine, Kamila; Yam, Karen K.; Cousineau, Benoit

2005-01-01

136

Conjugative transfer of the Lactococcus lactis chromosomal sex factor promotes dissemination of the Ll.LtrB group II intron.  

PubMed

The Ll.LtrB group II intron from the low-G+C gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis was the first bacterial group II intron shown to splice and mobilize in vivo. This retroelement interrupts the relaxase gene (ltrB) of three L. lactis conjugative elements: plasmids pRS01 and pAH90 and the chromosomal sex factor. Conjugative transfer of a plasmid harboring a segment of the pRS01 conjugative plasmid including the Ll.LtrB intron allows dissemination of Ll.LtrB among L. lactis strains and lateral transfer of this retroelement from L. lactis to Enterococcus faecalis. Here we report the dissemination of the Ll.LtrB group II intron among L. lactis strains following conjugative transfer of the native chromosomally embedded L. lactis sex factor. We demonstrated that Ll.LtrB dissemination is highly variable and often more efficient from this integrative and conjugative element than from an engineered conjugative plasmid. Cotransfer among L. lactis strains of both Ll.LtrB-containing elements, the conjugative plasmid and the sex factor, was detected and shown to be synergistic. Moreover, following their concurrent transfer, both mobilizable elements supported the spread of their respective copies of the Ll.LtrB intron. Our findings explain the unusually high efficiency of Ll.LtrB mobility observed following conjugation of intron-containing plasmids. PMID:15659671

Belhocine, Kamila; Yam, Karen K; Cousineau, Benoit

2005-02-01

137

A new liquid distribution factor and local mass transfer coefficient in a random packed bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid distribution and local mass transfer in a packed bed of 25.4mm metallic Pall rings were investigated. The liquid collecting method and electrochemical technique were used to measure local liquid flow rates and local mass transfer coefficients, respectively. Measurements were carried out at various radial and axial positions in the bed at varied liquid flow rates with three different liquid

T. Dang-Vu; H. D. Doan; A. Lohi; Y. Zhu

2006-01-01

138

University technology transfer: A conceptual model of impacting factors and phased process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive review of literature on university technology transfer. The success of nations depends on how efficient research can be translated into commercial products. Universities play a key role in this. There are two major areas that need to be understood to build an efficient technology transfer mechanisms. First are the characteristics of each university. The literature

Jisun Kim; Tugrul U. Daim; Timothy R. Anderson

2009-01-01

139

External and Institutional Factors Affecting Community College Student-Transfer Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to identify the environmental conditions and relationships between external and institutional conditions that have a significant effect upon student transfer activity. A sample of 78 colleges in 15 states were selected from institutions participating in a national transfer project; 42% were located in Texas or California. The…

Banks, Debra L.

140

Factors analysis influencing knowledge transfer in knowledge association among Harbin enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic changing competing circumstances require Harbin enterprises pay close attention to acquiring the external knowledge. One of the effective approaches to gain the knowledge is to construct knowledge association with the universities and research institutes. Effective knowledge transfer is the base realizing Harbin enterprises to promote core competence. Based on the study on knowledge transfer processes of Harbin enterprises, this

Ma Yan; Ma Jian

2010-01-01

141

Aqueous Al2O3 nanofluids: the important factors impacting convective heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high accuracy, counter flow double pipe heat exchanger system is designed for the measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients with different nanofluids. Both positive and negative enhancement of convective heat transfer of alumina nanofluids are found in the experiments. A modified equation was proposed to explain above phenomena through the physic properties of nanofluids such as thermal conductivity, special heat capacity and viscosity.

Cao, Jianguo; Ding, Yulong; Ma, Caiyun

2014-05-01

142

Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Is Dependent on Compatible Mitochondrial DNA and Reprogramming Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) involves the transfer of a nucleus or cell from one species into the cytoplasm of an enucleated oocyte from another. Once activated, reconstructed oocytes can be cultured in vitro to blastocyst, the final stage of preimplantation development. However, they often arrest during the early stages of preimplantation development; fail to reprogramme the somatic nucleus;

Yan Jiang; Richard Kelly; Amy Peters; Helena Fulka; Adam Dickinson; Daniel A. Mitchell; Justin C. St. John; Joanna Mary Bridger

2011-01-01

143

Assessing dynamic spectral causality by lagged adaptive directed transfer function and instantaneous effect factor.  

PubMed

It is of significance to assess the dynamic spectral causality among physiological signals. Several practical estimators adapted from spectral Granger causality have been exploited to track dynamic causality based on the framework of time-varying multivariate autoregressive (tvMVAR) models. The nonzero covariance of the model's residuals has been used to describe the instantaneous effect phenomenon in some causality estimators. However, for the situations with Gaussian residuals in some autoregressive models, it is challenging to distinguish the directed instantaneous causality if the sufficient prior information about the "causal ordering" is missing. Here, we propose a new algorithm to assess the time-varying causal ordering of tvMVAR model under the assumption that the signals follow the same acyclic causal ordering for all time lags and to estimate the instantaneous effect factor (IEF) value in order to track the dynamic directed instantaneous connectivity. The time-lagged adaptive directed transfer function (ADTF) is also estimated to assess the lagged causality after removing the instantaneous effect. In this study, we first investigated the performance of the causal-ordering estimation algorithm and the accuracy of IEF value. Then, we presented the results of IEF and time-lagged ADTF method by comparing with the conventional ADTF method through simulations of various propagation models. Statistical analysis results suggest that the new algorithm could accurately estimate the causal ordering and give a good estimation of the IEF values in the Gaussian residual conditions. Meanwhile, the time-lagged ADTF approach is also more accurate in estimating the time-lagged dynamic interactions in a complex nervous system after extracting the instantaneous effect. In addition to the simulation studies, we applied the proposed method to estimate the dynamic spectral causality on real visual evoked potential (VEP) data in a human subject. Its usefulness in time-variant spectral causality assessment was demonstrated through the mutual causality investigation of brain activity during the VEP experiments. PMID:24956616

Xu, Haojie; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhu, Shanan; He, Bin

2014-07-01

144

Transcriptional regulation of human microsomal triglyceride transfer protein by hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha.  

PubMed

Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) catalyzes the assembly of triglyceride (TG)-rich apolipoprotein B-containing liver (e.g., VLDL) and intestinal (e.g., chylomicron) lipoproteins. The human MTP gene promoter is reported here to associate in vivo with endogenous hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) and to be transactivated or transsuppressed by overexpressed or by dominant negative HNF-4alpha, respectively. Human MTP (hMTP) transactivation by HNF-4alpha is accounted for by the concerted activity of distal (-83/-70) and proximal (-50/-38) direct repeat 1 elements of the hMTP promoter that bind HNF-4alpha. Transactivation by HNF-4alpha is specifically antagonized by chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter. Transcriptional activation of hMTP by HNF-4alpha is mediated by HNF-4alpha domains engaged in ligand binding and ligand-driven transactivation and is further complemented by HNF-4alpha/HNF-1alpha synergism that involves the HNF-4alpha activation function 1 (AF-1) domain. hMTP transactivation by HNF-4alpha is specifically inhibited by beta,beta-tetramethyl-hexadecanedioic acid acting as an HNF-4alpha antagonist ligand. hMTP transactivation by HNF-4alpha may account for the activation or inhibition of MTP expression and the production of TG-rich lipoproteins by agonist (e.g., saturated fatty acids) or antagonist [e.g., (n-3) PUFA, hypolipidemic fibrates, or Methyl-substituted dicarboxylic acid (Medica) compounds] HNF-4alpha ligands. PMID:15547294

Sheena, Vered; Hertz, Rachel; Nousbeck, Janna; Berman, Ina; Magenheim, Judith; Bar-Tana, Jacob

2005-02-01

145

Quantum dot solar cells: hole transfer as a limiting factor in boosting the photoconversion efficiency.  

PubMed

Semiconductor nanostructures are attractive for designing low-cost solar cells with tunable photoresponse. The recent advances in size- and shape-selective synthesis have enabled the design of quantum dot solar cells with photoconversion efficiencies greater than 5%. To make them competitive with other existing thin film or polycrystalline photovoltaic technologies, it is important to overcome kinetic barriers for charge transfer at semiconductor interfaces. This feature article focuses on the limitations imposed by slow hole transfer in improving solar cell performance and its role in the stability of metal chalcogenide solar cells. Strategies to improve the rate of hole transfer through surface-modified redox relays offer new opportunities to overcome the hole-transfer limitation. The mechanistic and kinetic aspects of hole transfer in quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs), nanowire solar cells (NWSCs), and extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells are discussed. PMID:24669885

Kamat, Prashant V; Christians, Jeffrey A; Radich, James G

2014-05-27

146

A compilation of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways and the suggested default values for the RESRAD code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing development and revision of the RESRAD computer code at Argonne National Laboratory requires update of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways. Default values for these transfer factors used in published radiological assessment reports are compiled and compared with values used in RESRAD. The differences among the reported default values used in different

Y. Y. Wang; B. M. Biwer; C. Yu

1993-01-01

147

An experimental investigation into the effects turbulator profile and spacing have on heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in small cooled turbine airfoils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation is conducted using liquid crystals to study the effects of turbulator profile and spacing on heat transfer coefficient. Friction factors are also measured and both friction factor and heat transfer results for fifteen turbulator geometries are compared. All test configurations position the turbulators on two opposite walls of a rectangular test section in a staggered arrangement with

M. E. Taslim; S. D. Spring

1991-01-01

148

Analysis of the incidence and risk factors associated with ectopic pregnancy following in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.  

PubMed

Ectopic pregnancy is a well known complication of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer. From March 1983 to December 1993, 3000 clinical pregnancies were achieved at Bourn Hall Clinic, including 135 ectopic pregnancies (4.5%). Of these ectopics 20 were heterotopic, eight ovarian, six bilateral tubal and the remainder were singleton tubal pregnancies. The main risk factor identified in the series was a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (P < 0.001). The data also showed that ectopic pregnancy is at present more prevalent among patients in whom tubal damage is the reason for treatment. There was slight statistical evidence (P = 0.05) that patients having ectopic pregnancies received a higher volume of culture medium than those having normal deliveries. There was also an apparent trend (P = 0.07, not significant) that high progesterone/oestradiol ratio on the day of embryo transfer was associated with ectopic pregnancy. There was no statistical evidence of association between ectopic pregnancy and a history of ectopic pregnancy, abortion, still birth, termination of pregnancy, neonatal death, tubal surgery, ovarian stimulation protocol, plasma concentration of oestradiol, luteinizing hormone and progesterone, number of oocytes retrieved, number or quality of embryos transferred, administration of general anaesthesia for embryo transfer, and the number of patent Fallopian tubes. Awareness of the risk factors associated with ectopic pregnancy plays an important part in the early diagnosis of this potentially fatal condition. PMID:7745054

Marcus, S F; Brinsden, P R

1995-01-01

149

Processing and transfer of epidermal growth factor in developing rat jejunum and ileum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using everted sac technique we demonstrated the transfer of ¹²⁵I-mEGF across the jejunal and ileal walls of suckling, weanling and adult rats. The transfer by the suckling rat jejunum and ileum was significantly inhibited by the presence of dinitrophenol and sodium azide or by the replacement of sodium with potassium or choline, RP-HPLC analysis detected carboxy-terminal processing of ¹²⁵I-mEGF in

R. K. Rao; O. Koldovsky; M. Korc; P. F. Pollack; S. Wright; T. P. Davis

1990-01-01

150

A novel metal detector using the quality factor of the secondary coil for wireless power transfer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel foreign-metal detection-system for wireless power transfer (WPT) is described. Foreign metal was heated only when placed between the primary coil and the secondary coil. By having the metal in that position, the quality factor of the secondary coil (Q2) decreased rather than other parameters, so Q2 was a suitable parameter for detecting the metal. We developed s Q2

Shinichi Fukuda; Hiroaki Nakano; Yuji Murayama; Tomomichi Murakami; Osamu Kozakai; Kenichi Fujimaki

2012-01-01

151

Plasmid-based transient human stromal cell-derived factor-1 gene transfer improves cardiac function in chronic heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously demonstrated that transient stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1) improved cardiac function when delivered via cell therapy in ischemic cardiomyopathy at a time remote from acute myocardial infarction (MI) rats. We hypothesized that non-viral gene transfer of naked plasmid DNA-expressing hSDF-1 could similarly improve cardiac function. To optimize plasmid delivery, we tested SDF-1 and luciferase plasmids driven by the

S Sundararaman; T J Miller; J M Pastore; M Kiedrowski; R Aras; M S Penn; Penn

2011-01-01

152

The proton elastic form factor ratio µpG p E\\/G p M at low momentum transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-precision measurements of the proton elastic form factor ratio, µpG p E\\/G p M , have been made at four-momentum transfer, Q2, values between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and si gnificant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the ne

G. Ron; J. Glister; B. Lee; K. Allada; W. Armstrong; J. Arrington; A. Beck; F. Benmokhtar; B. L. Berman; W. Boeglin; E. Brash; A. Camsonne; J. Calarco; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; J. Dumas; C. Dutta; R. Feuerbach; A. Freyberger; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; R. Gilman; D. W. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C. E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; Y. Ilieva; C. W. de Jager; H. Kang; A. Kelleher; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; J. J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; S. May-Tal Beck; E. McCullough; D. Meekins; M. Meziane; E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; B. E. Norum; M. Olson; M. Paolone; K. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; M. Potokar; R. Pomatsalyuk; I. Pomerantz; A. Puckett; V. Punjabi; Y. Qiang; R. Ransome; M. Reyhan; J. Roche; Y. Rousseau; A. J. Sarty; B. Sawatzky; E. Schulte; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; R. Shneor; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; J. Song; R. Sparks; R. Subedi; S. Strauch; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; X. Zhan; X. Zhu

153

The Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio mu(p) G**p(E)/G**p(M) at Low Momentum Transfer  

SciTech Connect

High precision measurements of the proton elastic form factor ratio have been made at four-momentum transfers, Q^2, between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV^2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q^2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to GEp being smaller than the dipole parameterization.

G. Ron; J. Glister; B. Lee; K. Allada; W. Armstrong; J. Arrington; A. Beck; F. Benmokhtar; B.L. Berman; W. Boeglin; E. Brash; A. Camsonne; J. Calarco; J. P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; J. Dumas; C. Dutta; R. Feuerbach; A. Freyberger; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; R. Gilman; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; Y. Ilieva; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; A. Kelleher; E. Khrosinkova; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; J. J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; S. May-Tal Beck; E. McCullough; D. Meekins; M. Meziane; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; B.E. Norum; Y. Oh; M. Olson; M. Paolone; K. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; M. Potokar; R. Pomatsalyuk; I. Pomerantz; A. Puckett; V. Punjabi; X. Qian; Y. Qiang; R. Ransome; M. Reyhan; J. Roche; Y. Rousseau; A. Saha; A.J. Sarty; B. Sawatzky; E. Schulte; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; R. Shneor; S. ? Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; J. Song; R. Sparks; R. Subedi; S. Strauch; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; X. Zhan; X. Zhu

2007-11-01

154

Glial-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer for Parkinson's disease: Anterograde distribution of AAV2 vectors in the primate brain  

PubMed Central

Delivery of neurotrophic factors to treat neurodegenerative diseases has not been efficacious in clinical trials despite their known potency for promoting neuronal growth and survival. Direct gene delivery to the brain offers an approach for establishing sustained expression of neurotrophic factors but is dependent on accurate surgical procedures to target specific anatomical regions of the brain. Serotype-2 adeno-associated viral (AAV2) vectors have been investigated in multiple clinical studies for neurological diseases without adverse effects, however the absence of significant clinical efficacy after neurotrophic factor gene transfer has been largely attributed to insufficient coverage of the target region. Our pre-clinical development of AAV2-glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for Parkinson’s disease involved real-time image guided delivery and optimization of delivery techniques to maximize gene transfer in the putamen. We have demonstrated that AAV2 vectors are anterogradely transported in the primate brain with GDNF expression observed in the substantia nigra after putaminal delivery in both intact and nigrostriatal lesioned primates. Direct midbrain delivery of AAV2-GDNF resulted in extensive anterograde transport to multiple brain regions and significant weight loss.

Kells, Adrian P.; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof S.

2011-01-01

155

Glial-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer for Parkinson's disease: anterograde distribution of AAV2 vectors in the primate brain.  

PubMed

Delivery of neurotrophic factors to treat neurodegenerative diseases has not been efficacious in clinical trials despite their known potency for promoting neuronal growth and survival. Direct gene delivery to the brain offers an approach for establishing sustained expression of neurotrophic factors but is dependent on accurate surgical procedures to target specific anatomical regions of the brain. Serotype-2 adeno-associated viral (AAV2) vectors have been investigated in multiple clinical studies for neurological diseases without adverse effects; however the absence of significant clinical efficacy after neurotrophic factor gene transfer has been largely attributed to insufficient coverage of the target region. Our pre-clinical development of AAV2-glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for Parkinson's disease involved real-time image guided delivery and optimization of delivery techniques to maximize gene transfer in the putamen. We have demonstrated that AAV2 vectors are anterogradely transported in the primate brain with GDNF expression observed in the substantia nigra after putaminal delivery in both intact and nigrostriatal lesioned primates. Direct midbrain delivery of AAV2-GDNF resulted in extensive anterograde transport to multiple brain regions and significant weight loss. PMID:22019719

Kells, Adrian P; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof S

2012-11-01

156

Factors affecting information technology transfer and innovation diffusion in health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfer of electronic mail as a new technology was examined in over 60 academic health centers in the USA by surveying 1,335 individuals. Innovation attributes are important predictors for both the spread of usage (internal diffusion) and depth of usage (infusion) of electronic mail. In addition, organizational and boundary-spanning attributes are significant predictors for diffusion. Ease of use, visibility,

Joan Ash; L. N. Goslin

1997-01-01

157

Factors Influencing Transfer of Responsibility-Based Physical Activity Program Goals into Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate what influences the transfer of responsibility-based physical activity program goals into classrooms. Participants were the two boys and three girls (age range 9-11) who had participated in the program one to three semesters, with at least an 80% attendance rate. Data were collected from individual…

Lee, Okseon; Martinek, Tom

2012-01-01

158

Dependence of radionuclide transfer factor on growth stage for a soil-lettuce plant system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was performed at the Nuclear Power Plant of Garigliano (Caserta, Italy) to study the transfer of radionuclides from a contaminated soil to a lettuce crop and to check the validity of the generally accepted assumption of constant uptake. Measurements of specific activities of 137Cs, 60Co, and 40K were periodically performed by sampling plants during a growth period of

C. Sabbarese; L. Stellato; M. F. Cotrufo; A. D’Onofrio; A. Ermice; C. Lubritto; F. Terrasi; S. Alfieri; G. Migliore

2002-01-01

159

Key Factors in the Transfer of Technology from Universities in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. For the most part, technology transfer from universities in the United States is still not considered to be an efficient process. Reasons for this inefficiency vary, with the most obvious being the dramatically different missions of universities and businesses. Still, universities are viewed as essential sources of innovation for generating and sustaining economic growth. Of special

W. T. Flannery; M. R. Garcia Delgado

2006-01-01

160

Factors Facilitating Student Transfer from 2-Year to 4-Year Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to investigate the probability of transfer from a two-year college to a four-year college for a random sample of 2,500 students who attended a community college within 2 years of high school graduation in 1980. Nationally representative longtitudinal data from the High School and Beyond study established the characteristics…

Lee, Valerie E.; Frank, Kenneth A.

161

CFD analysis of heat transfer and friction factor charaterstics in a circular tube fitted with horizontal baffles twisted tape inserts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swirl/vortex flow generator is an important form of passive augmentation techniques. Twisted-tape is one of the most important members of this form which is used extensively in different type heat exchangers. This paper reports the effect of twisted tape inserts on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in circular tube under constant heat flux and laminar flow conditions using CFD simulation. Plain twisted tape inserts with twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91) and baffled twisted tape inserts with twist ratio (y = 2.93) have been used for the simulation using Fluent version 6.3.26. The results obtained by simulation matched with the literature correlations for plain tube with the discrepancy of less than ± 8% for Nusselt number and ± 6.25% for friction factor. The results have also revealed that the heat transfer in term of the Nusselt number enhanced with increases of Reynolds number, decreases of twist ratio and baffle insert. Among the various twist ratios, the twisted tape with twist ratio of y=2.93 and baffle is offered a maximum heat transfer enhancement.

Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Bakar Mohamad, Abu

2013-12-01

162

Biotic interactions modify the transfer of cesium-137 in a soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the possible influence of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata on the transfer of cesium-137 ((137)Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Standardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence of earthworms caused a two- to threefold increase in (137)Cs concentrations in snails. Transfer was low in earthworms as well as in snails, with transfer factors (TFs) lower than 3.7 x 10(-2). Activity concentrations were higher in earthworms (2.8- 4.8 Bq/kg dry mass) than in snails (<1.5 Bq/kg). In the second experiment, microcosms were used to determine the contribution of soil and lettuce in the accumulation of (137)Cs in snails. Results suggest that the contribution of lettuce and soil is 80 and 20%, respectively. Microcosms also were used to study the influence of earthworms on (137)Cs accumulation in snail tissues in the most ecologically relevant treatment (soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web). In this case, soil-to-plant transfer was high, with a TF of 0.8, and was not significantly modified by earthworms. Conversely, soil-to-snail transfer was lower (TF, approximately 0.1) but was significantly increased in presence of earthworms. Dose rates were determined in the microcosm study with the EDEN (elementary dose evaluation for natural environment) model. Dose rates were lower than 5.5 x 10(-4) mGy/d, far from values considered to have effects on terrestrial organisms (1 mGy/d). PMID:18266477

Fritsch, Clémentine; Scheifler, Renaud; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hubert, Philippe; Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Badot, Pierre-Marie

2008-08-01

163

Basic fibroblast growth factor induces cell migration and proliferation after glia-specific gene transfer in mice  

PubMed Central

Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is overexpressed in most high-grade human gliomas, implying that it is involved in the pathogenesis of these tumors. To assess the biological effect of inappropriate production of bFGF in normal astrocytes, we developed a system for glia-specific gene transfer in transgenic mice. A transgene encoding the receptor for subgroup A avian leukosis virus and controlled by the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter permits efficient glia-specific transfer of genes carried by subgroup A avian leukosis virus vectors. With this system, we have demonstrated that bFGF induces proliferation and migration of glial cells in vivo, without the induction of tumors.

Holland, Eric C.; Varmus, Harold E.

1998-01-01

164

Analysis, Control and Comparison of Hybrid Two-Stage Matrix Converters for Increased Voltage Transfer Ratio and Unity Power Factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrix converters have no boost capabilities. Their output voltage amplitude is therefore reduced compared to back-to-back inverter topologies. Moreover, they are sensitive to grid voltage fluctuations and disturbances and the voltage transfer ratio is further reduced under such grid perturbations. The present paper analyses the behaviour and limits of the two-stage matrix converters. It proposes and investigates three alternative topologies that modify the DC-link voltage of the two-stage matrix converter, by the means of additional circuitry, in order to increase the voltage transfer ratio above unity and to obtain immunity to grid disturbances. A high-performance control of the grid current is required to obtain a power factor close to unity. An effective control method is proposed for each converter. Feed-forward model based controllers allow obtaining good performances. Finally, the performances of the topologies are analysed and compared.

Mariéthoz, Sébastien; Wijekoon, Thiwanka; Wheeler, Patrick W.

165

Factors controlling the competition among rotational and vibrational energy transfer channels in glyoxal  

PubMed Central

The state-to-state transfer of rotational and vibrational energy has been studied for S1 glyoxal (CHOCHO) in collisions with D2, N2, CO and C2H4 using crossed molecular beams. A laser is used to pump glyoxal seeded in He to its S1 zero point level with zero angular momentum about its top axis (K? = 0). The inelastic scattering to each of at least 26 S1 glyoxal rotational and rovibrational levels is monitored by dispersed S1–S0 fluorescence. Various collision partners are chosen to investigate the relative influences of reduced mass and the collision pair interaction potential on the competition among the energy transfer channels. When the data are combined with that obtained previously from other collision partners whose masses range from 2 to 84 amu, it is seen that the channel competition is controlled primarily by the kinematics of the collisional interaction. Variations in the intermolecular potential play strictly a secondary role.

Parmenter, Charles S.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Krajnovich, Douglas J.; Lu, Shao-ping

1997-01-01

166

Analysis of the factors to affect technology transfer fee in the intellectual property management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In knowledge-based global economy, securing technologies through investment for technology innovation is essential in order to gain more sustainable competitive advantage. R&D activities required for such purpose may be recognized when they can result in economic value ultimately. This study focuses on the revenue from technology transfer as an achievement of national R&D projects and develops an intellectual property management

Byun Jungwook; Kim Yunbae; Lee Byungchul; Choi Bodum

2009-01-01

167

Tube side heat transfer coefficient and friction factor characteristics of horizontal tubes with helical rib  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in horizontal double pipes with helical ribs are presented. Nine test sections with different characteristic parameters of: helical rib height to diameter, ?\\/di=0.12, 0.15, 0.19, and helical rib pitch to diameter, p\\/di=1.05, 0.78, 0.63, are tested. Cold and hot water are used as working fluids in the shell side and

Paisarn Naphon; Manachai Nuchjapo; Jutarat Kurujareon

2006-01-01

168

The Use of Iteration Factors Method in the Solution of Multilevel Radiative Transfer Problems in Stellar Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NLTE problem of formation of spectral lines is one of the most difficult ones to deal with; due to the important role of scattering processes it is nonlocal and for the multilevel case it is additionally nonlinear. Therefore, the problem requires simultaneous solution of radiative transfer (RT) and statistical equilibrium (SE) equations which can be achieved through iterative procedure. There is still a great need of efficient numerical methods for a solution of NLTE radiative transfer problems as they are a necessary step of stellar atmospheres modelling and other important astrophysical problems. In the thesis we develop fast and accurate numerical method that uses iteration factors. The method is based on the use of quasi-invariant functions - iteration factors, in a simple iterative procedure. Defined as ratios of the moments (integrals of angles and frequencies) of radiation field intensities, the factors are calculated on the beginning of each iterative step from the current solution and then used to obtain its correction. In the thesis we extend iteration factors method developed for a solution of linear problems - monochromatic problem and two-level atom line transfer problems to the solution of a more generalized multilevel problem of spectral line formation with complete redistribution and no background continuum. The additional difficulty arises from the non linear coupling of atomic level populations and the radiation filed intensities in the corresponding spectral lines. In the thesis we suggest and describe in details four iterative procedures that use two families of iteration factors defined for a constant property medium and two different approaches for a simultaneous solution of nonlinear RT and SE equations: (1) linearization of the equations with respect to all relevant variables and (2) modification of the SE equations in order to make them linear. In both approaches the substitution of the linearized SE equations in the moments of RT equation results in a tridiagonal system that is solved, together with the boundary conditions, by a standard Gaussian elimination procedure. In order to test the convergence properties and accuracy of the suggested procedures we solved a standard benchmark problem of spectral line formation by three-level hydrogen atom in plan-parallel isothermal atmosphere with no background continuum and compared its solutions with those obtained by other methods that solved the same test problem. Additionally we solved the problem of spectral line formation by CaII ions with five levels. We also compared the speed of convergence and the total computational time of our method with those of some other methods in use. Finally, we formulated and analyzed a more general line transfer problem in variably property atmosphere with background continuum. For its solution we defined four additional families of iteration factors and tested the convergence properties of the procedures that use them on a solution of linear radiative transfer problem for constant and for variable (with optical depth) absorption profile, as well as on multilevel case. In the conclusion we emphasized that the use of the iteration factors defined in the thesis results in extremely fast convergence to the exact solutions of the problem, with no need of extra mathematical acceleration, necessary for other methods. Also, the use of iteration factors defined for the spectral line as a whole drastically reduces the memory cost and the computational time. The accuracy of the method increases with the number of the grid points, but the very high convergence speed is not affected by the refinement of the grid resolution. So the total computational work scales linearly with the number of the grid points and is couple of times less than needed by other existing methods.

Kuzmanovska-Barandovska, O.

2012-12-01

169

Visualization of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Receptor Aggregation in Plasma Membranes by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer. Correlation of Receptor Activation with Aggregation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer between epidermal growth factor (EGF) molecules, labeled with fluorescent reporter groups, was used as a monitor for EGF receptor-receptor interactions in plasma membranes isolated from human epidermoid A431 cells. E...

K. L. Carraway J. G. Koland R. A. Cerione

1989-01-01

170

Measurements of the elastic electromagnetic form factor ratio {mu}pGEp/GMp via polarization transfer  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors, {mu}pGEp/GMp. The Jefferson Lab Hall A Focal Plane Polarimeter was used to determine the longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization in ep elastic scattering; the ratio of these polarization components is proportional to the ratio of the two form factors. These data reproduce the observation of Jones et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1398 (2000)], that the form factor ratio decreases significantly from unity above Q2 = 1 GeV2.

Olivier Gayou; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Andrei Afanasev; Arunava Saha; Brendan Fox; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; C. Chang; Cathleen Jones; Charles Glashausser; Charles Perdrisat; D. Crovelli; Daniel Simon; David Meekins; Demetrius Margaziotis; Dipangkar Dutta; Edgar Kooijman; Elaine Schulte; Edward Brash; Edward Kinney; Eugene Chudakov; Feng Xiong; Franco Garibaldi; Garth Huber; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Guido Urciuoli; Haiyan Gao; Jordan Hovdebo; James Kelly; Javier Gomez; Jens-Ole Hansen; Jian-Ping Chen; John Calarco; John LeRose; Joseph Mitchell; Juncai Gao; Konrad Aniol; Kamal Benslama; Kathy McCormick; Cornelis De Jager; Cornelis de Jager; Kevin Fissum; Krishni Wijesooriya; Louis Bimbot; Ludyvine Morand; Luminita Todor; Moskov Amarian; Marat Rvachev; Mark Jones; Martin Epstein; Meihua Liang; Michael Kuss; Nilanga Liyanage; Adam Sarty; Paul Ulmer; Pete Markowitz; Peter Bosted; R. Holt; Riad Suleiman; Richard Lindgren; Rikki Roche; Robert Michaels; Roman Pomatsalyuk; Ronald Gilman; Ronald Ransome; Stephen Becher; Scott Dumalski; Salvatore Frullani; Seonho Choi; Sergey Malov; Sonja Dieterich; Steffen Strauch; Steve Churchwell; Ting Chang; Viktor Gorbenko; Vina Punjabi; Wang Xu; Xiangdong Ji; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Zhengwei Chai

2001-09-01

171

Processing and transfer of epidermal growth factor in developing rat jejunum and ileum  

SciTech Connect

Using everted sac technique we demonstrated the transfer of {sup 125}I-mEGF across the jejunal and ileal walls of suckling, weanling and adult rats. The transfer by the suckling rat jejunum and ileum was significantly inhibited by the presence of dinitrophenol and sodium azide or by the replacement of sodium with potassium or choline, RP-HPLC analysis detected carboxy-terminal processing of {sup 125}I-mEGF in suckling and adult rat jejunum and ileum. Suckling rat jejunum produced {sup 125}I-des(53)mEGF and {sup 125}I-des(49-53)mEGF, whereas {sup 125}I-des(48-53)mEGF was detected in suckling rat ileum or adult rat jejunum and ileum. All three forms of {sup 125}I-mEGF bound to anti-EGF antibody and EGF receptors. The receptor binding of {sup 125}I-des(53)mEGF was higher than that of {sup 125}I-mEGF, but those of {sup 125}I-des(49-53)mEGF and {sup 125}I-des(48-53)mEGF were greatly diminished. Results indicate a carboxy-terminal processing of mouse EGF during uptake and transfer in the small intestine of developing and adult rats, and the resulting products showed altered receptor binding. An identical amino acid sequence of the C-terminal pentapeptide of eGF from mouse, human and possibly rat may suggest a biological significance of C-terminal processing of EGF in the small intestine.

Rao, R.K.; Koldovsky, O.; Korc, M.; Pollack, P.F.; Wright, S.; Davis, T.P. (Univ. of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson (USA))

1990-11-01

172

SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications  

SciTech Connect

Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

Onar, Omer C [ORNL] [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL] [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller (JNJ), John M. [JNJ-Miller PLC] [JNJ-Miller PLC

2014-01-01

173

Transfer students in STEM majors at a Midwestern University: Academic and social involvement factors that influence student success  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is soon-to-be a shortage of qualified U.S. workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As a result, many science-related jobs are being filled by technically-skilled foreign workers. If the U.S wants to maintain its global economic leadership, then it must ensure a continuous growth of highly-trained individuals in STEM disciplines. Therefore, American institutions of higher education, including community colleges, must identify potential factors that contribute to the lack of interest in STEM majors, as well as the low rate of success of students who enter STEM majors but struggle to finish their degrees. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceptions of community college transfer students who are pursuing bachelor degrees in STEM majors at Iowa State University (ISU). What were their transfer experiences and what influenced their academic success in STEM. Participants were encouraged to share their transfer experiences while at the community college as well as their experiences on the ISU campus. They were also asked about their level of academic involvement, their relationships with faculty, and their participation in peer group activities prior to and after transferring. The research design included both quantitative and qualitative components, which provided an in-depth look at the experiences of STEM non-engineering and engineering students. Quantitative data include students' background characteristics, demographic information, and college activities at the community college and ISU. Qualitative data were used to illuminate students' overall transfer experience and their successful journey in STEM fields. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed a better understanding of the strategies students put into practice once they transfer from a community college to a four-year institution in pursuit of a STEM bachelor's degree. The results of this study suggest that there is an association among the background characteristics, community college experiences, university experiences, and the overall adjustment and cumulative GPA of transfer students from STEM non-engineering and engineering majors. In addition, students reported how their early experiences in science and mathematics inspired them to pursue a career in STEM. Even though students chose to go into STEM areas at the community college and university level due to prior interest, the role of academic advisors and faculty were crucial to the adjustment process. Thus, it is vital for academic advisors and faculty to assist students in researching the transfer process to four-year institutions because students need to understand why this is essential to their academic and social adjustment process. The results indicate that it is important to encourage students to interact inside and outside the classroom with other students and instructors. Also, students should become more involved in academic and social groups since these are important factors in enhancing their academic and social adjustment.

Lopez, Carlos

174

Analysis of colony-stimulating factors and macrophage progenitor cells in mice immunized against Listeria monocytogenes by adoptive transfer.  

PubMed Central

Experiments were performed to elucidate the role of colony-stimulating factors in host defenses to the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Mice were protected against Listeria sp. by adoptive transfer of immune spleen cells and were then challenged with listeriae intravenously. Control mice were injected with spleen cells from uninfected mice. Adoptively immunized (immune) mice had significantly fewer listeriae in spleens and livers 2 and 4 days after Listeria challenge than did control mice. During acute infection, colony-stimulating activity in serum was increased earlier (10 h) in immune mice than in controls. Concentrations of colony-stimulating activity were equal at 24 h. By 48 h, values were decreased in immune mice, but were elevated in control mice. Similar changes were noted when a specific colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, was measured in serum by using a radioimmunoassay. The changes in serum colony-stimulating activity in mice adoptively immunized with immune spleen cells were eliminated if spleen cells were first treated with anti-Thy-1.2 monoclonal antibodies. The number of macrophage progenitor cells in bone marrow and spleen were also determined as measures of the hemopoietic potential in these organs. The number of macrophage progenitor cells in bone marrow was higher in immune animals than control animals at 1, 2, and 4 days of infection. Similarly, the number of these cells in spleens was higher during the early stages of infection in immune mice. These results indicate that both the regulation of leukocyte production and the transfer of specific cellular immunity by spleen cells are associated, and they therefore suggest that hemopoietic regulatory factors play a role in immune host defenses.

Wing, E J; Magee, D M; Barczynski, L K

1987-01-01

175

An experimental investigation into the effects turbulator profile and spacing have on heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in small cooled turbine airfoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation is conducted using liquid crystals to study the effects of turbulator profile and spacing on heat transfer coefficient. Friction factors are also measured and both friction factor and heat transfer results for fifteen turbulator geometries are compared. All test configurations position the turbulators on two opposite walls of a rectangular test section in a staggered arrangement with an angle of attack to the mainstream flow of 90 degrees. It is concluded that while turbulators with aspect ratios greater than unity produce higher heat transfer coefficients at the expense of higher pressure losses, 'jersey-barrier' shaped turbulators, properly spaced, are very effective in heat removal with moderate pressure losses.

Taslim, M. E.; Spring, S. D.

1991-06-01

176

JLab Measurement of the He4 Charge Form Factor at Large Momentum Transfers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge form factor of He4 has been extracted in the range 29 fm-2?Q2?77 fm-2 from elastic electron scattering, detecting He4 recoil nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the high resolution spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The measurements have uncovered a second diffraction minimum for the form factor, which was predicted in the Q2 range of this experiment. The data are in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations based on realistic interactions and accurate methods to solve the few-body problem.

Camsonne, A.; Katramatou, A. T.; Olson, M.; Sparveris, N.; Acha, A.; Allada, K.; Anderson, B. D.; Arrington, J.; Baldwin, A.; Chen, J.-P.; Choi, S.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Craver, B.; Decowski, P.; Dutta, C.; Folts, E.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilman, R.; Gomez, J.; Hahn, B.; Hansen, J.-O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, J.; Iodice, M.; Jiang, X.; Kelleher, A.; Khrosinkova, E.; Kievsky, A.; Kuchina, E.; Kumbartzki, G.; Lee, B.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R. A.; Lott, G.; Lu, H.; Marcucci, L. E.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; Meekins, D.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Norum, B.; Petratos, G. G.; Puckett, A.; Qian, X.; Rondon, O.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Segal, J.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Solvignon, P.; Subedi, R. R.; Suleiman, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Viviani, M.; Wang, Y.; Wojtsekhowski, B. B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

2014-04-01

177

JLab measurement of the 4He charge form factor at large momentum transfers.  

PubMed

The charge form factor of 4He has been extracted in the range 29??fm(-2) ? Q2 ? 77??fm(-2) from elastic electron scattering, detecting 4He recoil nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the high resolution spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The measurements have uncovered a second diffraction minimum for the form factor, which was predicted in the Q2 range of this experiment. The data are in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations based on realistic interactions and accurate methods to solve the few-body problem. PMID:24745410

Camsonne, A; Katramatou, A T; Olson, M; Sparveris, N; Acha, A; Allada, K; Anderson, B D; Arrington, J; Baldwin, A; Chen, J-P; Choi, S; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Decowski, P; Dutta, C; Folts, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilman, R; Gomez, J; Hahn, B; Hansen, J-O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Kelleher, A; Khrosinkova, E; Kievsky, A; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; Lee, B; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lott, G; Lu, H; Marcucci, L E; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Meekins, D; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Norum, B; Petratos, G G; Puckett, A; Qian, X; Rondon, O; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Segal, J; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R R; Suleiman, R; Sulkosky, V; Urciuoli, G M; Viviani, M; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zhang, W-M; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

2014-04-01

178

Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

179

In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer pregnancy was a risk factor for hemorrhagic shock in women with placental polyp.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for hemorrhagic shock in women with placental polyp. Materials and methods: Twelve women (group A) developed hemorrhagic shock (shock index?factors for the development of hemorrhagic shock, including the age, conception mode, numbers of previous abortion, gestational weeks at termination of pregnancy (TOP), blood loss weights at TOP and at TCR, were analyzed. Results: When compared with group B, group A had higher in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) pregnancy rate (58.3 versus 12.0%, p?factors for hemorrhagic shock. Conclusions: For the first time, IVF-ET pregnancy was found to be a risk factor for the development of hemorrhagic shock in women with placental polyp. PMID:24693852

Miyahara, Yoshiya; Makihara, Natsuko; Yamasaki, Yui; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Deguchi, Masashi; Yamada, Hideto

2014-07-01

180

Near Threshold Neutral Pion Electroproduction at High Momentum Transfers and Generalized Form Factors  

SciTech Connect

We report the measurement of near threshold neutral pion electroproduction cross sections and the extraction of the associated structure functions on the proton in the kinematic range $Q^2$ from 2 to 4.5 GeV$^2$ and W from 1.08 to 1.16 GeV. These measurements allow us to access the dominant pion-nucleon s-wave multipoles $E_{0+}$ and $S_{0+}$ in the near-threshold region. In the light-cone sum-rule framework (LCSR), these multipoles are related to the generalized form factors $G_1^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$ and $G_2^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$. The data are compared to these generalized form factors and the results for $G_1^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$ are found to be in good agreement with the LCSR predictions, but the level of agreement with $G_2^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$ is poor.

Puneet Khetarpal, Paul Stoler, Inna Aznauryan, Valery Kubarovsky

2013-04-01

181

Near-threshold neutral pion electroproduction at high momentum transfers and generalized form factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the measurement of near-threshold neutral pion electroproduction cross sections and the extraction of the associated structure functions on the proton in the kinematic range Q2 from 2 to 4.5 GeV2 and W from 1.08 to 1.16 GeV. These measurements allow us to access the dominant pion-nucleon s-wave multipoles E0+ and S0+ in the near-threshold region. In the light-cone sum-rule framework (LCSR), these multipoles are related to the generalized form factors G1?0p(Q2) and G2?0p(Q2). The data are compared to these generalized form factors and the results for G1?0p(Q2) are found to be in good agreement with the LCSR predictions, but the level of agreement with G2?0p(Q2) is poor.

Khetarpal, P.; Stoler, P.; Aznauryan, I. G.; Kubarovsky, V.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Anghinolfi, M.; Avakian, H.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Charles, G.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kvaltine, N. D.; Lewis, S.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mao, Y.; Martinez, D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Saylor, N. A.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

2013-04-01

182

Measurement of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factors via the Spin Transfer Reaction  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of the electromagnetic form factors of the proton has been measured at the Jefferson Laboratory at Q{sup 2} values ranging from 0.5 GeV{sup 2} up to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. The experiment used the recently commissioned Hall A Focal Plane Polarimeter (FPP) to measure the polarization of the recoiling proton in elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons on a liquid hydrogen target.

Gilles Quemener; Mark K. Jones; Charles F. Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

1999-08-01

183

Scattering cross-section emission factors for visibility and radiative transfer applications: military vehicles traveling on unpaved roads.  

PubMed

Emission factors for particulate matter (PM) are generally reported as mass emission factors (PM mass emitted per time or activity) as appropriate for air quality standards based on mass concentration. However, for visibility and radiative transfer applications, scattering, absorption, and extinction coefficients are the parameters of interest, with visibility standards based on extinction coefficients. These coefficients (dimension of inverse distance) equal cross-section concentrations, and, therefore, cross-section emission factors are appropriate. Scattering cross-section emission factors were determined for dust entrainment by nine vehicles, ranging from light passenger vehicles to heavy military vehicles, traveling on an unpaved road. Each vehicle made multiple passes at multiple speeds while scattering and absorption coefficients, wind velocity and dust plume profiles, and additional parameters were measured downwind of the road. Light absorption of the entrained PM was negligible, and the light extinction was primarily caused by scattering. The resulting scattering cross-section emission factors per vehicle kilometer traveled (vkt) range from 12.5 m2/vkt for a slow (16 km/ hr), light (1176 kg) vehicle to 3724 m2/vkt for a fast (64 km/hr), heavy (17,727 kg) vehicle and generally increase with vehicle speed and mass. The increase is approximately linear with speed, yielding emission factors per vkt and speed ranging from 4.2 m2/(vkt km/hr) to 53 m2/(vkt km/hr). These emission factors depend approximately linearly on vehicle mass within the groups of light (vehicle mass < or =3100 kg) and heavy (vehicle mass >8000 kg) vehicles yielding emission factors per vkt, speed, and mass of 0.0056 m2/(vkt km/hr kg) and 0.0024 m2/(vkt km/hr kg), respectively. Comparison of the scattering cross-section and PM mass emission factors yields average mass scattering efficiencies of 1.5 m2/g for the light vehicles and of 0.8 m2/g for the heavy vehicles indicating that the heavy vehicles entrain larger particles than the light vehicles. PMID:16350371

Moosmüller, Hans; Varma, Ravi; Arnott, W Patrick; Kuhns, Hampden D; Etyemezian, Vicken; Gillies, John A

2005-11-01

184

Photon counting delay stability as a key factor for optical time transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept and preliminary experimental results of photon counting based two-way optical time transfer are presented. It is based on free-space optical link delimited by a pair of SPAD-based single photon detectors and small reflectors injecting optical signals into the link alternately on two injection points. Several picosecond laser versions may be employed as signal source - laser diode 43 ps at 778 nm, fiber based laser 80 ps at 531 nm or both. Expected repetition rate of experiment is 5 kHz. The NPET timing devices are used to register detection events and custom software and algorithm are used to process measured data. The long term delay stability sub - -picosecond range and small temperature drifts of all elements of measuring chain are crucial to obtain useful data for final time scale comparison in picosecond range. The experimental results from measurement of long term stability of detector delays, delay independence on position in detector active area, and new achievements in quenching techniques will be presented.

Blazej, Josef; Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan

2013-05-01

185

Transference and "the Rebbe" idiographic and nomothetic factors in the psychoanalysis of Lubavitch Chassidim.  

PubMed

The Lubavitch Chassidim are one of several ultra-orthodox groups within Judaism. Their central focus is on their leader or Rebbe, who is seen as not only the possessor of all wisdom but also having supernatural powers. In working therapeutically with Lubavitch, one needs to distinguish if the beliefs of the individual are unique to them or reflect the belief system of the community. If the former, then it obviously needs to be analyzed. If the latter, then it is seen as an identification with the group and reflective of the need for group cohesion and often a regulator of self-esteem. The following article demonstrates these factors. PMID:23824957

Schulman, Martin A; Kaplan, Ricki S

2013-12-01

186

Efficient, Repeated Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer in Mice Lacking both Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Lymphotoxin ?  

PubMed Central

The efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is now well established. However, the cellular and the humoral immune responses triggered by vector injection lead to the rapid elimination of the transduced cells and preclude any efficient readministration. The present investigation focuses on the role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), a proinflammatory cytokine, and the related cytokine lymphotoxin ? (LT?), in mounting an immune reaction against recombinant adenovirus vectors. After gene transfer in the liver, mice genetically deficient for both cytokines (TNF-?/LT??/?), in comparison with normal mice, presented a weak acute-phase inflammatory reaction, a reduction in cellular infiltrates in the liver, and a severely impaired T-cell proliferative response to both Adenoviral and transgene product antigens. Moreover, we observed a strong reduction in the humoral response to the vector and the transgene product, with a drastic reduction of anti-adenovirus immunoglobulin A and G antibody isotypes. In addition, the reduction in antibody response observed in TNF-?/LT??/? and TNF-?/LT?+/? mice versus TNF-?/LT?+/+ mice links antibody levels to TNF-?/LT? gene dosage. Due to the absence of neutralizing antibodies, the TNF-?/LT? knockout mice successfully express a second gene transduced by a second vector injection. The discovery of the pivotal role played by TNF-? in controlling the antibody response against adenovirus will allow more efficient adenovirus-based strategies for gene therapy to be proposed.

Benihoud, Karim; Saggio, Isabella; Opolon, Paule; Salone, Barbara; Amiot, Franck; Connault, Elisabeth; Chianale, Colette; Dautry, Francois; Yeh, Patrice; Perricaudet, Michel

1998-01-01

187

Some Characteristics of the Resistance Transfer Factor (RTF) Episome as Determined by Inactivation with Tritium, P32, and Gamma Radiation  

PubMed Central

The resistance transfer factor (RTF) episome was studied by measuring its inactivation by Co60 gamma radiation, by incorporated P32, and by tritium incorporated as tritium-labeled thymine. The D37 for Co60 irradiation was 7 to 9 × 104 rad. Growth of the bacteria harboring the RTF in BUdR (bromouracil deoxyriboside) increased the sensitivity of the RTF to the gamma radiation. The RTF was markedly inactivated by tritium after growth of the host (thymine requiring) bacteria in tritium-labeled thymine, thus further establishing the presence of thymine in the genome of the RTF. Assuming the efficiency of inactivation by P32 to be 10%, the phosphorus content of the RTF was estimated to be about 2 × 105 P atoms/episome. The data suggest the RTF contains double stranded DNA with a molecular weight of the order of 3 to 8 × 107.

Painter, Robert B.; Ginoza, Herbert S.

1966-01-01

188

Transfer factor of the radionuclides in food crops from high-background radiation area of south west India.  

PubMed

It is necessary to obtain the transfer factor (TF) of long-lived radionuclides because soil type and vegetation can affect TF. We studied the food crops commonly consumed by the general public of Kanyakumari district of south India. The main focus was on rice, fruits, vegetables and tapioca because the consumption of these is high. The soil to rice TF for the radionuclides, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (238)U and (40) K are 8.8×10(-2), 14.2×10(-2), 5.8×10(-2) and 6.3×10(-2), respectively. The TF of tapioca for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (238)U and (40) K are 6.2×10(-2) , 11×10(-2), 1.9×10(-2) and 8.9×10(-2), respectively. For fruits and vegetables, the TFs are low. In the majority of the crops the non-edible parts accumulate more radionuclides than the edible parts. PMID:21680604

Shanthi, G; Thanka Kumaran, J Thampi; Gnana Raj, G Allen; Maniyan, C G

2012-04-01

189

Development of a general equation to determine the transfer factor feed-to-meat for radiocesium on the basis of the body mass of domestic animals  

SciTech Connect

Transfer factors from feed to meat (5{sub {integral}}), taken from literature for monogastric animals and ruminants have been correlated to their corresponding animal body mass (m{sub b}). Taking all data into account, a close relationship between both transfer factor and body mass becomes evident, yielding a regression function of (T{sub {integral}} = 8.0 x m{sub b}{sup {minus}0.91}) (r = -0.97). For monogastric animals (including poultry), the corresponding relationships are T{sub {integral}} = 1.9 x m{sub b}{sup {minus}0.72} (r = 0.78). The equations offer the opportunity to estimate the transfer factor for individual animals more precisely taking individual body masses into account. They are of interest for animals, on which no or only poor data concerning radiocesium transfer factors are available. The determination of radiocesium transfer factors are reduced to a simple weighing process. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Nalezinski, S.; Ruehm, W.; Wirth, E. [Institut fuer STrahlenhygiene, Neuherberg/Oberschleibheim (Germany)

1996-05-01

190

Contrasting Effects of in Vitro Fertilization and Nuclear Transfer on the Expression of mtDNA Replication Factors  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is normally only inherited through the oocyte. However, nuclear transfer (NT), the fusion of a donor cell with an enucleated oocyte, can transmit both donor cell and recipient oocyte mtDNA. mtDNA replication is under the control of nuclear-encoded replication factors, such as polymerase gamma (POLG) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). These are first expressed during late preimplantation embryo development. To account for the persistence of donor cell mtDNA, even when introduced at residual levels (mtDNAR), we hypothesized that POLG and TFAM would be upregulated in intra- and interspecific (ovine–ovine) and intergeneric (caprine–ovine) NT embryos when compared to in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos. For the intra- and interspecific crosses, PolGA (catalytic subunit), PolGB (accessory subunit), and TFAM mRNA were expressed at the 2-cell stage in both nondepleted (mtDNA+) and mtDNAR embryos with protein being expressed up to the 16-cell stage for POLGA and TFAM. However, at the 16-cell stage, there was significantly more PolGA expression in the mtDNAR embryos compared to their mtDNA+ counterparts. Expression for all three genes first matched IVF embryos at the blastocyst stage. In the intergeneric model, POLG was upregulated during preimplantation development. Although these embryos did not persist further than the 16+-cell stage, significantly more mtDNAR embryos reached this stage. However, the vast majority of these embryos were homoplasmic for recipient oocyte mtDNA. The upreglation in mtDNA replication factors was most likely due to the donor cells still expressing these factors prior to NT.

Bowles, Emma J.; Lee, Joon-Hee; Alberio, Ramiro; Lloyd, Rhiannon E. I.; Stekel, Dov; Campbell, Keith H. S.; St. John, Justin C.

2007-01-01

191

Dynamical structure factor of LiF for all wave vector transfers: New results and insights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a theoretical-experimental investigation of the dynamical structure factor of LiF. The calculations are done within the TDLDA of time-dependent density functional theory; the measurements correspond to non-resonant inelastic x-rays scattering (NIXS) cross sections, obtained in absolute units. The TDLDA spectra contain one adjustable parameter: a ``scissors-operator'' shift of the conduction bands. This parameter is determined in view of the NIXS line shape for q= 6å-1 (q //(111)). The TDLDA spectra display a non-trivial semi-quantitative agreement with the NIXS data, for all wave vectors (directed along the three high-symmetry directions); indeed, the line shape changes drastically from the coherent-response small-q regime, to the incoherent-response large-q regime. The picture of the excitations which emerges offers an alternative view relative to a seminal investigation involving an approximate solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation; W. A. Caliebe et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3907 (2000).

Kou, Q.; Troparevsky, M. C.

2008-03-01

192

Visualization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1?-p300 interactions in live cells by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.  

PubMed

Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? mediates the hypoxia response signaling pathway essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis in low oxygen environments through its complex formation with CBP/p300 in the nucleus. Employing fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we devised a live-cell interaction assay based on reporter proteins by tagging fluorescent proteins onto the carboxy termini of HIF-1? and p300. The nature of the constructed reporter protein was verified by observing localized distribution, degradation, and stabilization kinetics in cells transfected with the HIF-1? containing plasmid. A mutant HIF-1? incapable of binding to p300 was then utilized to demonstrate insignificant FRET efficiency, thereby confirming that our constructs could effectively probe the direct interaction between HIF-1? and p300. We further examined the effects of small molecules known to modulate the HIF-1?-p300 interaction and transcriptional activity on FRET. Finally, by inhibiting activities of two HIF-specific hydroxylases, HIF-specific prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) 2 and factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1) with their specific siRNAs, we explored how these HIF-specific hydroxylases contribute to the HIF-1?-p300 interaction by FRET measurements along with HIF-1 mediated transcriptional activation. Therefore, this technique would provide a way to study selective inhibition of either PHD2 or FIH-1 within living cells, and to screen specific inhibitors of HIF-mediated transcription activity for therapeutic applications. PMID:23966271

Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Myong Jin; Na, Yu-Ran; Kim, Sang Yoon; Yang, Eun Gyeong

2014-02-01

193

Electromagnetic structure of the proton, pion, and kaon by high-precision form factor measurements at large timelike momentum transfers.  

PubMed

The electromagnetic structure of the lightest hadrons, proton, pion, and kaon is studied by high-precision measurements of their form factors for the highest timelike momentum transfers of |Q2|=s=14.2 and 17.4??GeV2. Data taken with the CLEO-c detector at sqrt[s]=3.772 and 4.170 GeV, with integrated luminosities of 805 and 586??pb(-1), respectively, have been used to study e+ e- annihilations into ?+ ?-, K+ K-, and pp. The dimensional counting rule prediction that at large Q2 the quantity Q2F(Q2) for pseudoscalar mesons is nearly constant, and should vary only weakly as the strong coupling constant ?S(Q2) is confirmed for both pions and kaons. However, the measurements are in strong quantitative disagreement with the predictions of the existing quantum chromodynamics-based models. For protons, it is found that the timelike form factors continue to remain nearly twice as large as the corresponding spacelike form factors measured in electron elastic scattering, in significant violation of the expectation of their equality at large Q2. Further, in contrast to pions and kaons, a significant difference is observed between the values of the corresponding quantity |Q4|G(M)(|Q2|)/?(p) for protons at |Q2|=14.2 and 17.4??GeV2. The results suggest the constancy of |Q2|G(M)(|Q2|)/?(p), instead, at these large |Q2|. PMID:23383892

Seth, Kamal K; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Bonvicini, G

2013-01-11

194

A potential screening factor for accumulation of cholesteyl ester transfer protein deficiency in East Asia: Schistosoma japonicum.  

PubMed

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-deficiency manifests a unique plasma lipoprotein profile without other apparent symptoms. It is highly common in East Asia while rather rare anywhere else. A potential environmental screening factor(s) may therefore contribute to this eccentric distribution, such as its selective advantage against a regional illness, most likely an infectious disease, in relation to plasma lipoproteins. Blood flukes use the host plasma lipoproteins as nutrient sources through the lipoprotein receptor-like systems. Its Asian-specific species, Schistosoma (S) japonicum, which has been endemic in East Asia, takes up cholesteryl ester (CE) from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for the embryonation of their eggs to miracidia, a critical step of the hepatic pathogenesis of this parasite, but poorly from HDL of CETP-deficiency. CD36-related protein (CD36RP) was cloned from the adults and the eggs of S. japonicum, with 1880-bp encoding 506 amino-acid residues exhibiting the CD36 domains and two transmembrane regions. Its extracellular domain selectively bound human HDL but neither LDL nor CETP-deficiency HDL, and the antibody against the extracellular domain suppressed the selective HDL-CE uptake and embryonation of the eggs. When infected with S. japonicum, wild-type mice developed less hepatic granulomatosis than CETP-transgenic mice by the ectopic egg embryonation. CD36RP is thus a candidate receptor of S. japonicum to facilitate uptake of HDL-CE necessary for egg embryonation. Abnormal HDL caused by CETP-deficiency retards this process and thereby protects the patients from development of hepatic lesions. S. japonicum infection is a potential screening factor for high prevalence of CETP deficiency in East Asia. PMID:24388961

Yokoyama, Shinji

2014-04-01

195

Frozen-thawed embryo transfer: influence of clinical factors on implantation rate and risk of multiple conception  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Frozen embryo transfer is an important supplementary procedure in the treatment of infertility. While general information concerning the outcome of frozen embryo transfer has been documented, few studies have addressed the potential of embryo implantation in particular clinical situations. Importantly, the risk of multiple conception following frozen embryo transfer has been poorly documented compared with the information available for

J. X. Wang; Y. Y. Yap; C. D. Matthews

2001-01-01

196

Differential Increase in Forebrain and Caudal Neurosecretory System Corticotropin-Releasing Factor and Urotensin I Gene Expression Associated with Seawater Transfer in Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer to seawater (SW) in rainbow trout elicits an increase in plasma cortisol and a bout of anorexia. Although the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system has known hy- pophysiotropic and anorexigenic properties, it is not known whether CRF-related peptides originating from either the forebrain or the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) play a role during SW acclimation. Therefore, we examined the ef-

Paul M. Craig; Haider Al-Timimi; Nicholas J. Bernier

2005-01-01

197

Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of forced circulation solar water heater system fitted with helical twisted tapes  

SciTech Connect

Experimental investigation of heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance of twisted tape solar water heater with various twist ratios has been conducted and the results are compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions with Reynolds number varied from 3000 to 23,000. Experimental data from plain tube collector is validated with the fundamental equations and found that the discrepancy is less than {+-}5.35% and {+-}8.80% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Correlations have been developed for Nusselt number and friction factor with various twist ratios (Y = 3, 4, 5, 6) and are compared with the experimental values. Results conclude that, heat transfer and pressure drop are higher in twisted tape collector compared to the plain one. Among the various twist ratios, the minimum twist ratio 3 is found to enhance the heat transfer and pressure drop due to swirl generation. As the twist ratio increases, the swirl generation decreases and minimizes the heat transfer and friction factor. (author)

Jaisankar, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oxford Engineering College, Tiruchirappalli 620009, Tamil Nadu (India); Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India)

2009-11-15

198

Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater system fitted with spacer at the trailing edge of twisted tapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater system with full- length twist, twist fitted with rod and spacer fitted at the trailing edge for lengths of 100, 200 and 300mm for twist ratio 3 and 5 has been carried out and compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions. The experimental

S. Jaisankar; T. K. Radhakrishnan; K. N. Sheeba

2009-01-01

199

Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the H-->2(e-->,e'n)H1 Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form

E. Geis; M. Kohl; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhövel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. Degrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; A. Shinozaki; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart

2008-01-01

200

Expression of Human Factor IX in Rabbit Hepatocytes by Retrovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer: Potential for Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. We report the

Donna Armentano; Arthur R. Thompson; Gretchen Darlington; Savio L. C. Woo

1990-01-01

201

Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q2 = 3.5 GeV2 by polarization transfer  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of the proton's elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic {rvec e}p {yields} e{rvec p} reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. In the single photon exchange approximation, the ratio G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} is directly proportional to the ratio P{sub t}/P{sub {ell}}. The simultaneous measurement of P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}} in a polarimeter reduces systematic uncertainties. The results for the ratio G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} show a systematic decrease with increasing Q{sup 2}, indicating for the first time a definite difference in the distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. The data have been reanalyzed and systematic uncertainties have become significantly smaller than previously published results.

Vina Punjabi; Konrad Aniol; F. Baker; J. Berthot; Martine Bertin; William Bertozzi; Auguste Besson; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Edward Brash; Daniel Brown; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Zhengwei Chai; C. Chang; Jian-ping Chen; Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; Evaristo Cisbani; Daniel Dale; Raffaele De Leo; Alexandre Deur; Brian Diederich; John Domingo; Martin Epstein; Lars Ewell; Kevin Fissum; A. Fleck; Helene Fonvieille; Salvatore Frullani; Juncai Gao; Franco Garibaldi; Ashot Gasparian; Gerstner; Shalev Gilad; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Alphonza Green; Jens-ole Hansen; Calvin Howell; Garth Huber; Mauro Iodice; Cornelis De Jager; Stephanie Jaminion; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; W. Kahl; J.J. Kelly; M. Khayat; L.H. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; E. Lakuriki; G. Lavessiere; J.J. LeRose; M. Liang; R.A. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; G.J. Lolos; R. Macri; R. Madey; S. Malov; D.J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; J.I. McIntyre; R.L.J. van der Meer; R. Michaels; B.D. Milbrath; J.Y. Mougey; S.K. Nanda; E.A.J.M. Offermann; Z. Papandreou; L. Pentchev; C.F. Perdrisat; G.G. Petratos; N.M. Piskunov; R.I. Pomatsalyuk; D.L. Prout; G. Quemener; R.D. Ransome; B.A. Raue; Y. Roblin; R. Roche; G. Rutledge; P.M. Rutt; A. Saha; T. Saito; A.J. Sarty; T.P. Smith; P. Sorokin; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; K. Takahashi; J.A. Templon; L. Todor; P.E. Ulmer; G.M. Urciuoli; P. Vernin; B. Vlahovic; H. Voskanyan; K. Wijesooriya; B.B. Wojtsekhowski; R.J. Woo; F. Xiong; G.D. Zainea; Z.-L. Zhou

2003-05-01

202

Beginning a Genetic Analysis of Conjugational Transfer Determined by the F Factor in Escherichia coli by Isolation and Characterization of Transfer-Deficient Mutants  

PubMed Central

Eighty-four transfer-deficient mutants of Flac have been isolated; 27 of these bear amber mutations and 1 mutant is temperature-sensitive. All the mutants transfer between 10?2 and <10?5% as well as wild-type Flac, all are curable by acridine orange treatment, and all are resistant to the female-specific phage ?II. Some of the mutants are partially sensitive to female-specific phage tau. Sixty-three of the mutants are resistant to the male-specific phages f1, f2, and Q?; 15 are resistant only to f2; and 6 are sensitive to all three male-specific phages. Most of the mutants are still poor recipients in conjugation, but four of the mutants resistant to f1, f2, and Q? have become good recipients. Those mutants resistant to all three male-specific phages do not seem to make F-pili.

Achtman, Mark; Willetts, Neil; Clark, Alvin J.

1971-01-01

203

Transfer of elements relevant to radioactive waste from soil to five boreal plant species.  

PubMed

In long-term safety assessment models for radioactive waste disposal, uptake of radionuclides by plants is an important process with possible adverse effects in ecosystems. Cobalt-60, (59,63)Ni, (93)Mo, and (210)Pb are examples of long-living radionuclides present in nuclear waste. The soil-to-plant transfer of stable cobalt, nickel, molybdenum and lead and their distribution across plant parts were investigated in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) at two boreal forest sites in Eastern Finland. The concentrations of all of the studied elements were higher in roots than in above-ground plant parts showing that different concentration ratios (CR values) are needed for modelling the transfer to roots and stems/leaves. Some significant differences in CR values were found in comparisons of different plant species and of the same species grown at different sites. However, large within-species variation suggests that it is not justified to use different CR values for modelling soil-to-plant transfer of these elements in the different boreal forest plant species. PMID:21190719

Roivainen, Päivi; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

2011-04-01

204

Numerical investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in a circular tube fitted with V-cut twisted tape inserts.  

PubMed

Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5?cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5?cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration. PMID:24078795

Salman, Sami D; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Takriff, Mohd S; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

2013-01-01

205

Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Characteristics in a Circular Tube Fitted with V-Cut Twisted Tape Inserts  

PubMed Central

Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5?cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5?cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration.

Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

2013-01-01

206

Expression of human factor IX in rabbit hepatocytes by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer: Potential for gene therapy of hemophilia B  

SciTech Connect

Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. The authors report the construction of an N2-based recombinant retroviral vector, NCMVFIX, for efficient transfer and expression of human factor IX cDNA in primary rabbit hepatocytes. In this construct the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter directs the expression of factor IX. Hepatocytes were isolated from 3-week-old New Zealand White rabbits, infected with the recombinant virus, and analyzed for secretion of active factor IX. The infected rabbit hepatocytes produced human factor IX that is indistinguishable from enzyme derived from normal human plasma. The recombinant protein is sufficiently {gamma}-carboxylated and is functionally active in clotting assays. These results establish the feasibility of using infected hepatocytes for the expression of this protein and are a step toward the goal of correcting hemophilia B by hepatic gene transfer.

Thompson, A.R. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA) Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA (USA)); Darlington, G. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA)); Armentano, D.; Woo, S.L.C.

1990-08-01

207

Robotic technology evolution and transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report concerning technology transfer in the area of robotics is presented in vugraph form. The following topics are discussed: definition of technology innovation and tech-transfer; concepts relevant for understanding tech-transfer; models advanced to portray tech-transfer process; factors identified as promoting tech-transfer; factors identified as impeding tech-transfer; what important roles do individuals fulfill in tech-transfer; federal infrastructure for promoting tech-transfer; federal infrastructure for promoting tech-transfer; robotic technology evolution; robotic technology transferred; and recommendations for successful robotics tech-transfer.

Marzwell, Neville I.

1992-01-01

208

(137)Cs inter-plant concentration ratios provide a predictive tool for coral atolls with distinct benefits over transfer factors.  

PubMed

Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR) [Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in coral atoll tree food crops/Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume] can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict (137)Cs concentration in tree food crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact that tree roots naturally integrate (137)Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of (137)Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in (137)Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log-normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD)=1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSDs of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD=1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10-20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples. PMID:17904254

Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F; Bogen, Kenneth T; Conrado, Cynthia L; Kehl, Steven R

2008-01-01

209

137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors  

SciTech Connect

Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

2007-07-17

210

Low cholesteryl ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein activities are the factors making tree shrew and beijing duck resistant to atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Tree shrew and beijing duck are regarded as animal models resistant to atherosclerosis (AS). This study was carried out to discover the potential mechanism. Methods Blood samples were collected from healthy men and male animals. Plasma lipid profile and activities of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) were measured, compared and analyzed in human, tree shrew, and Beijing duck. Results The results showed that there were species differences on plasma lipid profile and activities of CETP and PLTP in the three species. Compared with human, tree shrew and beijing duck had higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)/total cholesterol (TC) and HDL-C/low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ratios, but lower CETP and PLTP activities. In the three species, CETP and PLTP activities were negatively related with the ratio of HDL-C/LDL-C. Conclusions The present study suggested that low plasma CETP and PLTP activities may lead to a high HDL-C/LDL-C ratio and a high resistance to AS finally in tree shrew and beijing duck. Moreover, low PLTP activity may also make the animals resistant to AS by the relative high vitamin E content of apoB-containing lipoproteins and high anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of HDL particles. A detailed study in the future is recommended.

2010-01-01

211

Which factors influence decisions to transfer and treat patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage and which are associated with prognosis? A retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify factors associated with the decision to transfer and/or operate on patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) at a UK regional neurosurgical centre and test whether these decisions were associated with patient survival. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting 14 acute and specialist hospitals served by the neurosurgical unit at Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford, UK. Participants All patients referred acutely to neurosurgery from January 2008 to October 2010. Outcome measures Primary outcome was survival and secondary outcomes were transfer to the neurosurgical centre and acute neurosurgery. Results We obtained clinical data from 1364 consecutive spontaneous patients with ICH and 1175 cases were included in the final analysis. 140 (12%) patients were transferred and 75 (6%) had surgery. In a multifactorial analysis, the decision to transfer was more likely with younger age, women, brainstem and cerebellar location and larger haematomas. Risk of death in the following year was higher with advancing age, lower Glasgow Coma Scale, larger haematomas, brainstem ICH and intraventricular haemorrhage. The transferred patients had a lower risk of death relative to those remaining at the referring centre whether they had surgery (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.67) or not (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.73). Acute management decisions were included in the regression model for the 227 patients under either stroke medicine or neurosurgery at the neurosurgical centre and early do-not-resuscitate orders accounted for much of the observed difference, independently associated with an increased risk of death (HR 4.8, 95% CI 2.7 to 8.6). Conclusions The clear association between transfer to a specialist centre and survival, independent of established prognostic factors, suggests aggressive supportive care at a specialist centre may improve survival in ICH and warrants further investigation in prospective studies.

Abid, Kamran A; Vail, Andy; Patel, Hiren C; King, Andrew T; Tyrrell, Pippa J; Parry-Jones, Adrian R

2013-01-01

212

Factors influencing the efficiency of generating genetically engineered pigs by nuclear transfer: multi-factorial analysis of a large data set  

PubMed Central

Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using genetically engineered donor cells is currently the most widely used strategy to generate tailored pig models for biomedical research. Although this approach facilitates a similar spectrum of genetic modifications as in rodent models, the outcome in terms of live cloned piglets is quite variable. In this study, we aimed at a comprehensive analysis of environmental and experimental factors that are substantially influencing the efficiency of generating genetically engineered pigs. Based on a considerably large data set from 274 SCNT experiments (in total 18,649 reconstructed embryos transferred into 193 recipients), performed over a period of three years, we assessed the relative contribution of season, type of genetic modification, donor cell source, number of cloning rounds, and pre-selection of cloned embryos for early development to the cloning efficiency. Results 109 (56%) recipients became pregnant and 85 (78%) of them gave birth to offspring. Out of 318 cloned piglets, 243 (76%) were alive, but only 97 (40%) were clinically healthy and showed normal development. The proportion of stillborn piglets was 24% (75/318), and another 31% (100/318) of the cloned piglets died soon after birth. The overall cloning efficiency, defined as the number of offspring born per SCNT embryos transferred, including only recipients that delivered, was 3.95%. SCNT experiments performed during winter using fetal fibroblasts or kidney cells after additive gene transfer resulted in the highest number of live and healthy offspring, while two or more rounds of cloning and nuclear transfer experiments performed during summer decreased the number of healthy offspring. Conclusion Although the effects of individual factors may be different between various laboratories, our results and analysis strategy will help to identify and optimize the factors, which are most critical to cloning success in programs aiming at the generation of genetically engineered pig models.

2013-01-01

213

Experimental Heat Transfer Coefficients and Friction Factors in a Rib-Roughened Leading-Edge Cooling Cavity of a Gas Turbine Airfoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gas turbine airfoil contains multiple coolant passageways. These passages usually have rib roughened wall surfaces in order to increase the heat transfer from the blade to the cooling air. Auxiliary power and compressed air is very valuable in a gas turbine, therefore low pumping power requirements are crucial. The thermal performance of three different coolant channel geometries with three different rib sizes was investigated. Heat transfer calculations were performed for Reynolds numbers ranging from 6,000 to 40,000. The performance characteristics were calculated through the use of the convective heat transfer coefficient and the friction factor. In this study, the most desirable characteristics are a high heat transfer coefficient and minimal pumping power requirements. The thermal performance of each case was determined by comparing the average Nusselt numbers to the friction factor ratio. The resulting value was then plotted against the Reynolds number for each case. The trending data indicated thermal efficiency decreases with an increasing Reynolds number for all cases. The picture data shows increased thermal efficiency at larger distances from the nose portion of the cavity. In addition, thermal efficiency was higher at the half distance of the rib pitch while areas close to the ribs saw a lower thermal efficiency. The following experimental data will show that Rig 2 and 3 are the most thermally efficient geometries, with Rig 2 requiring lower pumping power and Rig 3 having a higher average Nusselt number.

Hagan, Peter

214

Cancer cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor using ex vivo gene transfer as vaccines for the treatment of genitourinary malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

When irradiated and administered intradermally as vaccines, cancer cells engineered to secrete high levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by gene transfer elicit potent anticancer immune responses in a variety of animal tumor models. Upon vaccination, antigens present in the cancer cells are phagocytosed and processed by skin dendritic cells. These dendritic cells then prime anticancer immune responses by presenting

William G. Nelson; Jonathan W. Simons; Bahar Mikhak; Ju-Fay Chang; Angelo M. DeMarzo; Michael A. Carducci; Michael Kim; Christine E. Weber; Angelo A. Baccala; Marti A. Goeman; Shirley M. Clift; Dale G. Ando; Hyam I. Levitsky; Lawrence K. Cohen; Martin G. Sanda; Richard C. Mulligan; Alan W. Partin; H. Ballentine Carter; Steven Piantadosi; Fray F. Marshall

2000-01-01

215

Retroviral transfer and expression of human MDR1 in a murine haemopoietic stem cell line does not alter factor dependence, growth or differentiation characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the recent report of a myeloproliferative syndrome in mice that had received an MDR-1-transduced haemopoietic graft, we have investigated the potential effects of MDR-1 expression on primitive haemopoietic cell growth and differentiation. Retroviral gene transfer was used to achieve exogenous expression of either MDR-1 or truncated nerve growth factor receptor (tNGFR) in the multipotent murine haemopoietic progenitor

CM Heyworth; D Gagen; KG Edington; LJ Fairbairn

2002-01-01

216

SOLID-LIQUID MASS TRANSFER AND WETTING FACTORS IN TRICKLE BED REACTORS: EFFECT OF THE TYPE OF SOLID PHASE AND THE PRESENCE OF CHEMICAL REACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid-liquid wetting factor, f, for solid dissolution in a liquid with and without chemical reaction was experimentally determined in a fixed bed three-phase reactor with downward concurrent gas and liquid flows (Trickle Bed Reactor). The method employed consisted of comparing the volumetric solid-liquid mass transfer coefficient obtained when two phases (liquid and gas) circulated through the bed, with those

DOSINDA GONZÁLEZ-MENDIZABAL; MARÍA EUGENIA AGUILERA; FILIPPO PIRONTI

1998-01-01

217

Measurements of the proton elastic-form-factor ratio mu pG p E/G p M at low momentum transfer.  

PubMed

High-precision measurements of the proton elastic form-factor ratio, mu pG p E/G p M, have been made at four-momentum transfer, Q2, values between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to G p E being smaller than expected. PMID:18233135

Ron, G; Glister, J; Lee, B; Allada, K; Armstrong, W; Arrington, J; Beck, A; Benmokhtar, F; Berman, B L; Boeglin, W; Brash, E; Camsonne, A; Calarco, J; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Coman, L; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; Dumas, J; Dutta, C; Feuerbach, R; Freyberger, A; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilman, R; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Ilieva, Y; de Jager, C W; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Kang, H; Kelleher, A; Khrosinkova, E; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Markowitz, P; May-Tal Beck, S; McCullough, E; Meekins, D; Meziane, M; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Norum, B E; Oh, Y; Olson, M; Paolone, M; Paschke, K; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Pomatsalyuk, R; Pomerantz, I; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R; Reyhan, M; Roche, J; Rousseau, Y; Saha, A; Sarty, A J; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Shneor, R; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Song, J; Sparks, R; Subedi, R; Strauch, S; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zhan, X; Zhu, X

2007-11-16

218

Theories Supporting Transfer of Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews theories about factors affecting the transfer of training, including theories on motivation (expectancy, equity, goal setting), training transfer design (identical elements, principle, near and far), and transfer climate (organizational). (Contains 36 references.) (SK)

Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

2001-01-01

219

Assessing Student Expertise in Introductory Physics with Isomorphic Problems. II. Effect of Some Potential Factors on Problem Solving and Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we explore the use of isomorphic problem pairs (IPPs) to assess introductory physics students' ability to solve and successfully transfer problem-solving knowledge from one context to another in mechanics. We call the paired problems "isomorphic" because they require the same physics principle to solve them. We analyze written…

Chandralekha; Singh

2008-01-01

220

Investigation of twisted tape inserted solar water heaters—heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer in a solar water heater could be enhanced by means of twisted tapes, inserted inside the fluid flow tubes, which induce swirl flow and act as turbulence promoters. Experimental investigations for a solar water heater with twisted tape inserts having twist pitch to tube diameter ratio ranging from 3–12 have been carried out for varying mass flow rates.

A Kumar; B. N Prasad

2000-01-01

221

Effects of vascular endothelial growth factor on porcine preimplantation embryos produced by in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on porcine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) at different developmental stages. Four sets of experiments were performed. In the first, supplementation of the in vitro culture medium with 5 ng/mL VEGF was suitable for porcine IVF embryo development, and the blastocyst formation rate was significantly higher than the control and other groups (57.73 ± 6.78% (5 ng/mL VEGF) vs. 43.21 ± 10.22% (control), 42.16 ± 10.24% (50 ng/mL VEGF) and 41.91 ± 11.74% (500 ng/mL VEGF); P < 0.05). The total cell number after supplementation with 5 ng/mL VEGF was significantly higher than the control and other groups (151.85 ± 39.77 (5 ng/mL VEGF) vs. 100.00 ± 34.43 (control), 91.2 ± 31.51 (50 ng/mL VEGF), and 112.53 ± 47.66 (500 ng/mL VEGF); P < 0.05). In the second experiment, when VEGF was added at different developmental stages of IVF derived embryos (early stage, days 1-3, late stage, days 4-7), the blastocyst formation rate and total cell number were significantly higher at the late stage (47.71 ± 9.13% and 131.5 ± 20.70, respectively) than in the control (34.32 ± 7.44% and 85.50 ± 20.41, respectively) and at the early stage (33.60 ± 5.78% and 86.75 ± 25.10, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the blastocyst development rate or total cell number between the whole culture period (days 1-7) and the late stage culture period after supplementation with 5 ng/mL VEGF (P > 0.05). In the third experiment, the cleavage rate was significantly higher when SCNT embryos were cultured with VEGF during the whole culture period than in the late stage (63.56 ± 15.52% vs. 39.72 ± 4.94%; P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the control and the early stage culture period (P > 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was significantly higher at the late stage culture period with VEGF than at the early stage culture period (34.40 ± 15.06% vs. (16.07 ± 5.01%; P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the total cell number between the groups (P > 0.05). In experiment 4, using real-time PCR, VEGF mRNA expression was detected in all the developmental stages of IVF and SCNT embryos, but the expression level varied according to the developmental stage. VEGF receptor, KDR mRNA was detected in all stages IVF and SCNT embryos. However, flt-1 mRNA was not expressed in all embryonic stages of IVF and SCNT embryos. These data suggest that VEGF supplementation at the late embryonic developmental stage might improve the developmental potential of both IVF and SCNT preimplantation porcine embryos through its receptors. PMID:20961610

Biswas, D; Jung, E M; Jeung, E B; Hyun, S H

2011-01-15

222

Technology Transfer Issues and a New Technology Transfer Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following are major issues that should be considered for efficient and effective technology transfer: conceptions of technology, technological activity and transfer, communication channels, factors affecting transfer, and models of transfer. In particular, a well-developed model of technology transfer could be used as a framework for…

Choi, Hee Jun

2009-01-01

223

Measurements of heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in rib-roughened channels simulating leading-edge cavities of a modern turbine blade  

SciTech Connect

Leading edge cooling cavities in modern gas turbine blades play an important role in maintaining the leading edge temperature at levels consistent with air foil design life. These cavities often have a complex cross-sectional shape to be compatible with the external contour of the blade at the leading edge. A survey of many existing geometries shows that, for analytical as well as experimental analyses, such cavities can be simplified in shape by a four-sided polygon with one curved side similar to the leading edge curvature, a rectangle with one semicircular side (often the smaller side) or a trapezoid, the smaller base of which is replaced by a semicircle. Furthermore, to enhance the heat transfer coefficient in these cavities, they are mostly roughened on three sides with ribs of different geometries. Experimental data on friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in such cavities are rare if not nonexistent. A liquid crystal technique was used in this experimental investigation to measure heat transfer coefficients in six test sections representing the leading-edge cooling cavities. Both straight and tapered ribs were configured on the two opposite sidewalls in a staggered arrangement with angles of attack to the mainstream flow, {alpha}, of 60 and 90 deg. The ribs on the curved surface were of constant cross section with an angle of attack 90 deg to the flow. Heat transfer measurements were performed on the straight sidewalls, as well as on the round surface adjacent to the blade leading edge. Effects such as rib angle of attack to the mainstream flow and constant versus tapered rib cross-sectional areas were also investigated. Nusselt numbers, friction factors, and thermal performances are reported for nine rib geometries in six test sections.

Taslim, M.E.; Li, T. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Spring, S.D. [GE Aircraft Engines, Lynn, MA (United States)

1997-07-01

224

Dynamic structure factor and dielectric function of silicon for finite momentum transfer: Inelastic x-ray scattering experiments and ab initio calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed investigation of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,?) as well as of the dielectric function ?M(Q,?) of the prototypical semiconductor silicon for finite momentum transfer, combining inelastic x-ray scattering measurements and ab initio calculations. We show that, in contrast to optical spectra, for finite momentum transfer, time-dependent density-functional theory in adiabatic local-density approximation (TDLDA) together with the inclusion of lifetime effects in a modified independent-particle polarizability ?0,LT describes the physics of valence excitations with high precision. This applies to the dynamic structure factor as well as to the dielectric function, which demonstrates that TDLDA contains the short-range many-body effects that are crucial for a correct description of ?M(Q,?) in silicon at finite momentum transfer. The form of a nonlocal and energy-dependent exchange-correlation kernel is presented which provides the inclusion of the lifetime effects using the true independent-particle polarizability ?0 . The description of the silicon L2,3 absorption edge has been possible by including the outer core electrons 2s and 2p in the valence electrons of the pseudopotential. The energy of the edge is underestimated but a scissor shift of the respective states by the self-energy correction for these states yields good agreement with experiment. Short-range crystal local-field effects and exchange-correlation effects become important with increasing momentum transfer. The inclusion of crystal local-field effects in the random-phase approximation is able to describe the anisotropy of the response well. Our results demonstrate the quantitative predictive power of the first-principles description.

Weissker, Hans-Christian; Serrano, Jorge; Huotari, Simo; Luppi, Eleonora; Cazzaniga, Marco; Bruneval, Fabien; Sottile, Francesco; Monaco, Giulio; Olevano, Valerio; Reining, Lucia

2010-02-01

225

Recombinant factor VIIa to correct coagulopathy in patients with traumatic brain injury presenting to outlying facilities before transfer to the regional trauma center.  

PubMed

Timely correction of coagulopathy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) improves mortality. Recombinant, activated factor VII (VIIa) has been identified as an effective method to correct coagulopathy in patients with TBI. We performed a retrospective study (January 1, 2008-December 31, 2009) of all patients with TBI and coagulopathy (international normalized ratio (INR) > 1.5) transferred to our Level I trauma center. Twenty-three patients with coagulopathy and TBI were transferred to our trauma center, 100 per cent sustained a fall, and 100 per cent were taking warfarin at the time of injury. Ten patients received VIIa to correct coagulopathy before transfer, whereas 13 did not. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes in patients who received VIIa with those who did not. When comparing the VIIa group with the no-VIIa group there was no difference in age, gender, Glasgow Coma Scale score, injury severity score, transfer time, or INR at outlying facility. Both groups received one unit of plasma before arrival at our trauma center; patients in the VIIa group received a single 1.2 mg dose of VIIa at the outlying facility. Upon arrival to our trauma center the VIIa group had a lower INR (1.0 vs 3.0, P = 0.02) and lower mortality (0% vs 39%, P = 0.03). In coagulopathic patients with TBI presenting to outlying institutions with limited resources to quickly provide plasma, VIIa efficiently corrects coagulopathy before transfer to definitive care at the regional trauma center. More rapid correction of coagulopathy with VIIa in this patient population may improve mortality. PMID:22273315

Brown, Carlos V R; Sowery, Lauren; Curry, Eardie; Valadka, Alex B; Glover, Cynthia S; Grabarkewitz, Kim; Green, Terry; Hail, Steve; Admire, John

2012-01-01

226

Prediction of heat transfer coefficients and friction factors for evaporation of R-134a flowing inside corrugated tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, experimental and simulation studies of the evaporation heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of R-134a flowing through corrugated tubes are conducted. The test section is a horizontal counter-flow concentric tube-in-tube heat exchanger 2.0 m in length. A smooth tube and corrugated tubes with inner diameters of 8.7 mm are used as the inner tube. The outer tube is made from a smooth copper tube with an inner diameter of 21.2 mm. The corrugation pitches used in this study are 5.08, 6.35, and 8.46 mm. Similarly, the corrugation depths are 1, 1.25, and 1.5 mm, respectively. The results show that the maximum heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop obtained from the corrugated tube are up to 22 and 19 % higher than those obtained from the smooth tube, respectively. In addition, the average difference of the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop between the simulation model and experimental data are about 10 and 15 %, respectively.

Laohalertdecha, S.; Aroonrat, K.; Dalkilic, A. S.; Mahian, O.; Kaewnai, S.; Wongwises, S.

2014-04-01

227

Transfer of Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on transfer of learning. "Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in an Industrial Setting" (Reid A. Bates, Elwood F. Holton III, Dian L. Seyler) identified seven transfer climate variables that predicted performance and three interpersonal variables that predicted performance ratings. Results…

1997

228

Insulin-like growth factor-1 prevents miR-122 production in neighbouring cells to curtail its intercellular transfer to ensure proliferation of human hepatoma cells  

PubMed Central

miRNAs are 20–22 nt long post-transcriptional regulators in metazoan cells that repress protein expression from their target mRNAs. These tiny regulatory RNAs follow tissue and cell-type specific expression pattern, aberrations of which are associated with various diseases. miR-122 is a liver-specific anti-proliferative miRNA that, we found, can be transferred via exosomes between human hepatoma cells, Huh7 and HepG2, grown in co-culture. Exosomal miR-122, expressed and released by Huh7 cells and taken by miR-122 deficient HepG2 cells, was found to be effective in repression of target mRNAs and to reduce growth and proliferation of recipient HepG2 cells. Interestingly, in a reciprocal process, HepG2 secretes Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) that decreases miR-122 expression in Huh7 cells. Our observations suggest existence of a reciprocal interaction between two different hepatic cells with distinct miR-122 expression profiles. This interaction is mediated via intercellular exosome-mediated miR-122 transfer and countered by a reciprocal IGF1-dependent anti-miR-122 signal. According to our data, human hepatoma cells use IGF1 to prevent intercellular exosomal transfer of miR-122 to ensure its own proliferation by preventing expression of growth retarding miR-122 in neighbouring cells.

Basu, Sudarshana; Bhattacharyya, Suvendra N.

2014-01-01

229

Long-Term Expression of Human Coagulation Factor VIII and Correction of Hemophilia A after in vivo Retroviral Gene Transfer in Factor VIII-Deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemophilia A is caused by a deficiency in coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and predisposes to spontaneous bleeding that can be life-threatening or lead to chronic disabilities. It is well suited for gene therapy because a moderate increase in plasma FVIII concentration has therapeutic effects. Improved retroviral vectors expressing high levels of human FVIII were pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus

Thierry Vandendriessche; Veerle Vanslembrouck; Inge Goovaerts; Hans Zwinnen; Marie-Line Vanderhaeghen; Desire Collen; Marinee K. L. Chuah

1999-01-01

230

Transfer form  

Cancer.gov

10/02 Transfer Investigational Agent Form This form is to be used for an intra-institutional transfer, one transfer/form. Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health TRANSFER FROM: Investigator transferring agent:

231

Factorize  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps students explore the relationship between area and multiplication. First, users are asked to input all factor pairs of a given number. Then, selecting each of those factor pairs, the user draws the respective rectangular array by clicking and dragging across a grid. Options include the use of the commutative property (e.g., user must enter both 2x4 and 4x2 for factors of 8 and represent them with different arrays), entering a number of the user's own choice, and an optional scoring feature allowing the user to keep track of the number correct.

2004-01-01

232

Effect of K and bentonite additions on Cs-transfer to ryegrass.  

PubMed

Bentonite amendments are generally ineffective in reducing the soil-to-plant radiocaesium transfer but have previously been shown that bentonites in the K-form having been subjected to wetting-drying cycles had pronounced radiocaesium binding capacities. We have investigated the effect of wetting-drying (WD) on Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) development in three K-bentonites and K-bentonite soil mixtures, using a variety of procedures: homogenisation of the bentonites with K through dialysis (K(B)), or partial transformation of the bentonite to the K-form in the presence of a solution of K2CO3 (K(L)) or in presence of solid K2CO3 (K(S)). Of the three strategies tested, addition of K2CO3 (solid) at a dose of 2 meq g(-1) clay and adding the K-bentonite mixtures to the soil resulted in the highest RIP increase after 20 WD cycles. The procedure giving the highest RIP yield is the most practical for further applications and was used in a pot experiment under greenhouse condition. When expressing the RIP increase of the soil-bentonite mixtures per unit bentonite added (RIP yield), 28- to 110-fold RIP increases were observed up to a value of approximately 60,000 meq kg(-1) (6 times higher than the RIP for illite). The beneficial effect following K-bentonite application was shown to be dependent both on a sorption enhancement effect (direct RIP effect) and fixation effects (indirect RIP effect). Greenhouse testing proved that the RIP effects observed in greenhouse could be predicted by making use of the sorption data from the laboratory tests. Optimum soil-amendment would be obtained with bentonites with high initial sorption RIP and a high sorption RIP increase when subjected to WD in the presence of potassium. Hypothised Transfer Factor (TF)-reductions of at least 10-fold could result when mixing approximately 1% bentonite, like Otay bentonite (RIP yield 99,000 meq kg(-1) after WD in presence of K if only fine particle size of <1mm considered) with the contaminated ploughing layer. PMID:15795037

Vandenhove, H; Cremers, A; Smolders, E; Van Hees, M

2005-01-01

233

Metals in benthic macrofauna and biogeochemical factors affecting their trophic transfer to wild fish around fish farm cages.  

PubMed

Benthic macroinvertebrates and wild fish aggregating in the vicinity of four Mediterranean fish farms were sampled. Concentrations of metals and other elements were measured in macrofaunal taxa and in fish tissues (muscle, liver, gills, bone, gonad, stomach, intestine, and stomach content). Biological and geochemical characteristics play an important role in metal accumulation in benthic invertebrates, and consequently in metal transfer to higher trophic levels. Macroinvertebrates accumulated lower concentrations of most metals and elements than their respective sediment, except As, P, Na, Zn and Cd. Elemental concentrations of benthic organisms increased with increasing sediment metal content, except Cd, and with % silt, refractory organic matter and chlorophyll-a of sediment due to the influence of sediment geochemistry on metal bioavailability. Tolerant species were found to accumulate higher concentrations of most metals and elements, except for Cd, than equilibrium species. The ecological and morphological characteristics of the benthic invertebrates can affect the bioaccumulation of metals and elements in macrobenthos. Hg and P were found to increase their concentrations from zoobenthos to wild fish aggregating around fish cages feeding on macrofauna. PMID:24184551

Kalantzi, I; Papageorgiou, N; Sevastou, K; Black, K D; Pergantis, S A; Karakassis, I

2014-02-01

234

Improved measurement of labile proton concentration-weighted chemical exchange rate (kws) with experimental factor-compensated and T1-normalized quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI  

PubMed Central

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI enables measurement of dilute CEST agents and microenvironment properties such as pH and temperature, holding great promise for in vivo applications. However, because of confounding concomitant RF irradiation and relaxation effects, the CEST-weighted MRI contrast may not fully characterize the underlying CEST phenomenon. We postulated that the accuracy of quantitative CEST MRI could be improved if the experimental factors (labeling efficiency and RF spillover effect) were estimated and taken into account. Specifically, the experimental factor was evaluated as a function of exchange rate and CEST agent concentration ratio, which remained relatively constant for intermediate RF irradiation power levels. Hence, the experimental factors can be calculated based on the reasonably estimated exchange rate and labile proton concentration ratio, which significantly improved quantification. The simulation was confirmed with Creatine phantoms of serially varied concentration titrated to the same pH, whose reverse exchange rate (kws) was found to be linearly correlated with the concentration. In summary, the proposed solution provides simplified yet reasonably accurate quantification of the underlying CEST system, which may help guide the ongoing development of quantitative CEST MRI.

Wu, Renhua; Liu, Charng-Ming; Liu, Philip K; Sun, Phillip Zhe

2012-01-01

235

Accelerated adhesion of grafted skin by laser-induced stress wave-based gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gene therapy using wound healing-associated growth factor gene has received much attention as a new strategy for improving the outcome of tissue transplantation. We delivered plasmid DNA coding for human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) to rat free skin grafts by the use of laser-induced stress waves (LISWs); autografting was performed with the grafts. Systematic analysis was conducted to evaluate the adhesion properties of the grafted tissue; angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and reepithelialization were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and reperfusion was measured by laser Doppler imaging as a function of time after grafting. Both the level of angiogenesis on day 3 after grafting and the increased ratio of blood flow on day 4 to that on day 3 were significantly higher than those in five control groups: grafting with hHGF gene injection alone, grafting with control plasmid vector injection alone, grafting with LISW application alone, grafting with LISW application after control plasmid vector injection, and normal grafting. Reepithelialization was almost completed on day 7 even at the center of the graft with LISW application after hHGF gene injection, while it was not for the grafts of the five control groups. These findings demonstrate the validity of our LISW-based HGF gene transfection to accelerate the adhesion of grafted skins.

Aizawa, Kazuya; Sato, Shunichi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

2009-11-01

236

Accelerated adhesion of grafted skin by laser-induced stress wave-based gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor.  

PubMed

Gene therapy using wound healing-associated growth factor gene has received much attention as a new strategy for improving the outcome of tissue transplantation. We delivered plasmid DNA coding for human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) to rat free skin grafts by the use of laser-induced stress waves (LISWs); autografting was performed with the grafts. Systematic analysis was conducted to evaluate the adhesion properties of the grafted tissue; angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and reepithelialization were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and reperfusion was measured by laser Doppler imaging as a function of time after grafting. Both the level of angiogenesis on day 3 after grafting and the increased ratio of blood flow on day 4 to that on day 3 were significantly higher than those in five control groups: grafting with hHGF gene injection alone, grafting with control plasmid vector injection alone, grafting with LISW application alone, grafting with LISW application after control plasmid vector injection, and normal grafting. Reepithelialization was almost completed on day 7 even at the center of the graft with LISW application after hHGF gene injection, while it was not for the grafts of the five control groups. These findings demonstrate the validity of our LISW-based HGF gene transfection to accelerate the adhesion of grafted skins. PMID:20059281

Aizawa, Kazuya; Sato, Shunichi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

2009-01-01

237

Retrovirus-mediated transfer of an adenovirus gene encoding an integral membrane protein is sufficient to down regulate the receptor for epidermal growth factor.  

PubMed Central

We have used retrovirus-mediated gene transfer to introduce sequences encoding a 10,400-molecular-weight (10.4K) adenovirus protein previously shown to down regulate the receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) into two murine cell lines that possess human EGF receptors (EGF-Rs). Assays for receptor expression showed that acute infection resulted in rapid, constitutive down regulation of the EGF-R via a pathway that appears to be endosome mediated. This represents the first demonstration that 10.4K expression in the absence of other virus-encoded proteins is sufficient to elicit this response. The usefulness of this approach for the study of 10.4K-mediated signal transduction in cells with a nontransformed phenotype is discussed. Images

Hoffman, B L; Ullrich, A; Wold, W S; Carlin, C R

1990-01-01

238

Determination of nicotine in tobacco with second-order spectra data of charge-transfer complex in ethanol-water binary solvents processed by parallel factor analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of nicotine in mixtures without pre-separation has been proposed. Nicotine could react with 2,4-dinitrophenol through a charge-transfer reaction to form a colored complex. The second-order data from the visible absorption spectra of the complex in a series of ethanol-water binary solvents with various water volume fractions could be expressed as the combination of two bilinear data matrices. With the bilinear model, the second-order spectra data of mixtures containing nicotine and other interferents could be analysed by using second-order calibration algorithms, and the determination of nicotine in the mixtures could be achieved. The algorithm used here was parallel factor analysis. The method has been successfully used to determine nicotine in tobacco samples with satisfactory results.

Gao, Shuqin; Liao, Lifu; Xiao, Xilin; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Du, Nan; Du, Jiangfeng

2010-05-01

239

Protein Replacement Therapy and Gene Transfer in Canine Models of Hemophilia A, Hemophilia B, von Willebrand Disease, and Factor VII Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Dogs with hemophilia A, hemophilia B, von Willebrand disease (VWD), and factor VII deficiency faithfully recapitulate the severe bleeding phenotype that occurs in humans with these disorders. The first rational approach to diagnosing these bleeding disorders became possible with the development of reliable assays in the 1940s through research that used these dogs. For the next 60 years, treatment consisted of replacement of the associated missing or dysfunctional protein, first with plasma-derived products and subsequently with recombinant products. Research has consistently shown that replacement products that are safe and efficacious in these dogs prove to be safe and efficacious in humans. But these highly effective products require repeated administration and are limited in supply and expensive; in addition, plasma-derived products have transmitted bloodborne pathogens. Recombinant proteins have all but eliminated inadvertent transmission of bloodborne pathogens, but the other limitations persist. Thus, gene therapy is an attractive alternative strategy in these monogenic disorders and has been actively pursued since the early 1990s. To date, several modalities of gene transfer in canine hemophilia have proven to be safe, produced easily detectable levels of transgene products in plasma that have persisted for years in association with reduced bleeding, and correctly predicted the vector dose required in a human hemophilia B liver-based trial. Very recently, however, researchers have identified an immune response to adeno-associated viral gene transfer vector capsid proteins in a human liver-based trial that was not present in preclinical testing in rodents, dogs, or nonhuman primates. This article provides a review of the strengths and limitations of canine hemophilia, VWD, and factor VII deficiency models and of their historical and current role in the development of improved therapy for humans with these inherited bleeding disorders.

Nichols, Timothy C.; Dillow, Aaron M.; Franck, Helen W.G.; Merricks, Elizabeth P.; Raymer, Robin A.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Arruda, Valder R.; High, Katherine A.

2011-01-01

240

Increased encapsulated cell biodelivery of nerve growth factor in the brain by transposon-mediated gene transfer.  

PubMed

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as it has positive effects on the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons whose degeneration correlates with the cognitive decline in AD. We have previously described an encapsulated cell biodelivery device, NsG0202, capable of local delivery of NGF by a genetically modified human cell line, NGC-0295. The NsG0202 devices have shown promising safety and therapeutic results in a small phase 1b clinical study. However, results also show that the NGF dose could advantageously be increased. We have used the sleeping beauty transposon expression technology to establish a new clinical grade cell line, NGC0211, with at least 10 times higher NGF production than that of NGC-0295. To test whether encapsulation of this cell line provides a relevant dose escalation step in delivering NGF for treatment of the cognitive decline in AD patients, we have validated the bioactivity of devices with NGC0211 and NGC-0295 cells in normal rat striatum as well as in the quinolinic acid striatal lesion model. These preclinical animal studies show that implantation of devices with NGC0211 cells lead to significantly higher NGF output, which in both cases correlate with highly improved potency. PMID:22113314

Fjord-Larsen, L; Kusk, P; Emerich, D F; Thanos, C; Torp, M; Bintz, B; Tornøe, J; Johnsen, A H; Wahlberg, L U

2012-10-01

241

Accelerated adhesion of grafted skins by laser-induced stress wave-based gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our previous study, we delivered plasmid DNA coding for human hepatocyto growth factor (hHGF) to rat skin grafts based on laser-induced stress wave (LISW), by which production of CD31-positive cells in the grafted skins was found to be enhanced, suggesting improved angiogenesis. In this study, we validated the efficacy of this method to accelerate adhesion of grafted skins; reperfusion and reepithelialization in the grafted skins were examined. As a graft, dorsal skin of a rat was exsected and its subcutaneous fat was removed. Plasmid DNA expression vector for hHGF was injected into the graft; on its back surface a laser target with a transparent sheet for plasma confinement was placed, and irradiated with three nanosecond laser pulses at a laser fluence of 1.2 J/cm2 (532 nm; spot diameter, 3 mm) to generate LISWs. After the application of LISWs, the graft was transplanted onto its donor site. We evaluated blood flow by laser Doppler imaging and analyzed reepithelialization based on immunohistochemistry as a function of postgrafting time. It was found that both reperfusion and reepithelialization were significantly enhanced for the grafts with gene transfection than for normal grafts; reepithelialization was completed within 7 days after transplantation with the transfected grafts. These findings demonstrate that adhesion of grafted skins can be accelerated by delivering HGF gene to the grafts based on LISWs.

Aizawa, Kazuya; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

2009-02-01

242

A Multi-Site Study for Detection of the Factor V (Leiden) Mutation from Genomic DNA Using a Homogeneous Invader Microtiter Plate Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Assay  

PubMed Central

The goal of this multicenter study was to evaluate the second-generation Invader technology for detecting the factor V (Leiden) mutation directly from genomic DNA of different sample types. Invader assay results were compared with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) analysis. The Invader assay is a PCR-independent methodology that uses a microtiter plate format. In the assay, a specific upstream Invader oligonucleotide and a downstream probe hybridize in tandem to a complementary DNA template and form a partially overlapping structure. The Cleavase VIII enzyme recognizes and cuts this structure to release the 5? flap of the probe. This flap then serves as an Invader oligonucleotide to direct cleavage of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe in a second invasive cleavage reaction. Cleavage of this FRET probe results in the generation of a fluorescent signal. The results of the Invader assay were 99.5% concordant with the PCR-based methods. Of the 372 samples tested once, only two gave discordant results (one from operator error and one from unknown causes), but were concordant on retesting. These results indicate that a simple microtiter plate-based Invader assay can reliably genotype clinical patient samples for the factor V (Leiden) point mutation directly from genomic DNA without prior target amplification.

Ledford, Marlies; Friedman, Kenneth D.; Hessner, Martin J.; Moehlenkamp, Cynthia; Williams, Thomas M.; Larson, Richard S.

2000-01-01

243

Bioactivity of Autologous Irradiated Renal Cell Carcinoma Vaccines Generated by ex Vivo Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor Gene Transfer1  

PubMed Central

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-transduced, irradiated tumor vaccines induce potent, T-cell-mediated antitumor immune responses in preclinical models. We report the initial results of a Phase I trial evaluating this strategy for safety and the induction of immune responses in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Patients were treated in a randomized, double-blind dose-escalation study with equivalent doses of autologous, irradiated RCC vaccine cells with or without ex vivo human GM-CSF gene transfer. The replication-defective retroviral vector MFG was used for GM-CSF gene transfer. No dose-limiting toxicities were encountered in 16 fully evaluable patients. GM-CSF gene-transduced vaccines were equivalent in toxicity to nontransduced vaccines up to the feasible limits of autologous tumor vaccine yield. No evidence of autoimmune disease was observed. Biopsies of intradermal sites of injection with GM-CSF gene-transduced vaccines contained distinctive macrophage, dendritic cell, eosinophil, neutrophil, and T-cell infiltrates similar to those observed in preclinical models of efficacy. Histological analysis of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in patients vaccinated with GM-CSF-transduced vaccines demonstrated an intense eosinophil infiltrate that was not observed in patients who received nontransduced vaccines. An objective partial response was observed in a patient treated with GM-CSF gene-transduced vaccine who displayed the largest delayed-type hypersensitivity conversion. No replication-competent retrovirus was detected in vaccinated patients. This Phase I study demonstrated the feasibility, safety, and bioactivity of an autologous GM-CSF gene-transduced tumor vaccine for RCC patients.

Simons, Jonathan W.; Jaffee, Elizabeth M.; Weber, Christine E.; Levitsky, Hyam I.; Nelson, William G.; Carducci, Michael A.; Lazenby, Audrey J.; Cohen, Lawrence K.; Finn, Christy C.; Clift, Shirley M.; Hauda, Karen M.; Beck, Lisa A.; Leiferman, Kristen M.; Owens, Albert H.; Piantadosi, Steven; Dranoff, Glenn; Mulligan, Richard C.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Marshall, Fray F.

2014-01-01

244

Transfer-function parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program fits linear-factored form transfer function to given frequency-response data. Program is based on conjugate-gradient search procedure that minimizes error between given frequency-response data and frequency response of transfer function that is supplied by user.

Seidel, R. C.

1977-01-01

245

Thallium at the interface of soil and green cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.): soil-plant transfer and influencing factors.  

PubMed

Thallium (Tl) is a non-essential and toxic trace metal found in many plants, but it can accumulate at particularly high concentration in green cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.). The aim of this study is to explore the transfer and accumulation of Tl at the interface of rhizospheric soil and green cabbage from a long-term Tl contaminated site in southwestern Guizhou Province, China. Influencing factors such as Tl distribution in various soil fractions and physical-chemical characteristics of rhizospheric soil were also investigated. Our results demonstrated that green cabbage had high accumulation of Tl, with most bioconcentration factor (BF) values exceeding 1, and up to a maximum level of 11. The enrichment of Tl in the green cabbage tissues followed a descending order, i.e. old leaves>fresh leaves>stems?roots. The stems functioned as a channel for Tl transportation to the leaves, where most of the Tl (greater than 80%) was found to accumulate. In the rhizospheric soils, 62-95% of Tl existed in the residual fraction, while lower concentrations of Tl (on average, 1.7% of total T1 in rhizospheric soil) were found in the water and acid soluble fractions. The major fraction of labile Tl was located in the reducible fraction (9%). Our results also suggested that the uptake and enrichment of Tl in green cabbage were affected by Tl concentrations, soil water content, soil pH, soil organic material (SOM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in rhizospheric soil. PMID:23474259

Jia, Yanlong; Xiao, Tangfu; Zhou, Guangzhu; Ning, Zengping

2013-04-15

246

Transient blockade of the inducible costimulator pathway generates long-term tolerance to factor VIII after nonviral gene transfer into hemophilia A mice.  

PubMed

Formation of inhibitory antibodies is a common problem encountered in clinical treatment for hemophilia. Human factor VIII (hFVIII) plasmid gene therapy in hemophilia A mice also leads to strong humoral responses. We demonstrate that short-term therapy with an anti-ICOS monoclonal antibody to transiently block the inducible costimulator/inducible costimulator ligand (ICOS/ICOSL) signaling pathway led to sustained tolerance to hFVIII in hFVIII plasmid-treated hemophilia A mice and allowed persistent, high-level FVIII functional activity (100%-300% of normal). Anti-ICOS treatment resulted in depletion of ICOS(+)CD4(+) T cells and activation of CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in the peripheral blood, spleen, and lymph nodes. CD4(+) T cells from anti-ICOS-treated mice did not proliferate in response to hFVIII stimulation and produced high levels of regulatory cytokines, including interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta. Moreover, CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs from tolerized mice adoptively transferred dominant tolerance in syngeneic hFVIII plasmid-treated hemophilia A mice and reduced the production of antibodies against FVIII. Anti-ICOS-treated mice tolerized to hFVIII generated normal primary and secondary antibody responses after immunization with the T-dependent antigen, bacteriophage Phix 174, indicating maintenance of immune competency. Our data indicate that transient anti-ICOS monoclonal antibody treatment represents a novel single-agent immunomodulatory strategy to overcome the immune responses against transgene product after gene therapy. PMID:18574023

Peng, Baowei; Ye, Peiqing; Blazar, Bruce R; Freeman, Gordon J; Rawlings, David J; Ochs, Hans D; Miao, Carol H

2008-09-01

247

Characterization of an iroBCDEN Gene Cluster on a Transmissible Plasmid of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Evidence for Horizontal Transfer of a Chromosomal Virulence Factor  

PubMed Central

The chromosomal iroBCDEN gene cluster first described for Salmonella enterica is involved in the uptake of catecholate-type siderophore compounds. An orthologous gene cluster has recently been detected in Escherichia coli strains which cause extraintestinal disease. This E. coli iroBCDEN gene cluster has an impact on virulence and has been reported to be located in a pathogenicity island on the chromosome. In this study we characterized an iro gene cluster of a uropathogenic E. coli isolate which is located on a transmissible plasmid related to the R64 plasmid of S. enterica. This cluster is highly homologous to the chromosomal iro cluster of E. coli. When introduced into an E. coli fepA cir fiu aroB mutant, IroN, but not IroBCDE, mediated the utilization of structurally related catecholate siderophores, including 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-l-serine, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-d-ornithine, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and enterochelin. This study supports the idea of an ongoing horizontal transfer of putative virulence factors and the mobilization of single virulence gene clusters, which lead to a modular assembly of virulence determinants such as pathogenicity islands.

Sorsa, Liisa Johanna; Dufke, Severin; Heesemann, Jurgen; Schubert, Soren

2003-01-01

248

Variability of 137Cs and 40K soil-to-fruit transfer factor in tropical lemon trees during the fruit development period.  

PubMed

In this investigation we evaluate the soil uptake of (137)Cs and (40)K by tropical plants and their consequent translocation to fruits, by calculating the soil-to-fruit transfer factors defined as F(v) = [concentration of radionuclide in fruit (Bq kg(-1) dry mass)/concentration of radionuclide in soil (Bq kg(-1) dry mass in upper 20 cm)]. In order to obtain F(v) values, the accumulation of these radionuclides in fruits of lemon trees (Citrus limon B.) during the fruit growth was measured. A mathematical model was calibrated from the experimental data allowing simulating the incorporation process of these radionuclides by fruits. Although the fruit incorporates a lot more potassium than cesium, both radionuclides present similar absorption patterns during the entire growth period. F(v) ranged from 0.54 to 1.02 for (40)K and from 0.02 to 0.06 for (137)Cs. Maximum F(v) values are reached at the initial time of fruit growth and decrease as the fruit develops, being lowest at the maturation period. As a result of applying the model a decreasing exponential function is derived for F(v) as time increases. The agreement between the theoretical approach and the experimental values is satisfactory. PMID:22115437

Velasco, H; Cid, A S; Anjos, R M; Zamboni, C B; Rizzotto, M; Valladares, D L; Juri Ayub, J

2012-02-01

249

Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q{sup 2} = 3.5 GeV{sup 2} by polarization transfer  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub E{sub p}}/G{sub M{sub p}}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic {rvec e}p {yields} e{rvec p} reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. In the single-photon exchange approximation, the ratio G{sub E{sub p}}/G{sub M{sub p}} is directly proportional to the ratio P{sub t}/P{sub {ell}}. The simultaneous measurement of P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}} in a polarimeter reduces systematic uncertainties. The results for the ratio G{sub E{sub p}}/G{sub M{sub p}} show a systematic decrease with increasing Q{sup 2}, indicating for the first time a definite difference in the distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. The data have been re-analyzed and systematic uncertainties have become significantly smaller than previously published results.

V. Punjabi; C.F. Perdrisat; et al

2005-01-01

250

Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q{sup 2}=3.5 GeV{sup 2} by polarization transfer  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub l}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic e{sup {yields}}p{yields}ep{sup {yields}}reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. In the single-photon exchange approximation, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} is directly proportional to P{sub t}/P{sub l}. The simultaneous measurement of P{sub t} and P{sub l} in a polarimeter reduces systematic uncertainties. The results for G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} show a systematic decrease with increasing Q{sup 2}, indicating for the first time a definite difference in the distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. The data have been reanalyzed and their systematic uncertainties have become significantly smaller than those reported previously.

Punjabi, V. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States); Perdrisat, C.F.; Gerstner, G.; Pentchev, L.; Rutledge, G.; Strauch, S.; Wijesooriya, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States); Aniol, K.A.; Epstein, M.B.; Margaziotis, D.J. [California State University, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90032 (United States); Baker, F.T.; Templon, J.A. [University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States); Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Besson, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Jaminion, S.; Laveissiere, G. [Universite Blaise Pascal/CNRS-IN2P3, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Bertozzi, W.; Chai, Z. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [and others

2005-05-01

251

Exploring bus transfer behaviour in metropolitan Melbourne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although passengers dislike transferring between routes, quality transit systems need to facilitate easy transfers to provide competitive city wide access to the private car. This paper reviews bus transfer behaviour in Melbourne, Australia and aims to understand factors which enable transfer behaviour with a particular focus on buses. The research also explores if high transfer rates can be associated with

Graham Currie; Chris Loader

2009-01-01

252

Success Factors for Transferring Technology to Spin-off Applications: the Case of The Technology Property Rights Concession Program in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a study of 127 firms participating in Korea's Technology Property Rights Concession Program, a program designed to stimulate technology transfer related to spin-off applications of public technology. The purpose is to identify the determinants of transfer success. The findings indicate that successful firms were motivated by the ability to access a core technology free of charge and

Younghoon Choi; Jang-Jae Lee

2000-01-01

253

Anti-tumor effect of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of pigment epithelium-derived factor on mouse B16-F10 melanoma  

PubMed Central

Background Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor growth, invasion, and eventually metastasis. Antiangiogenic strategies have been proven to be a promising approach for clinical therapy for a variety of tumors. As a potent inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has recently been studied and used as an anticancer agent in several tumor models. Methods A recombined adenovirus carrying PEDF gene (Ad-PEDF) was prepared, and its expression by infected cells and in treated animals was confirmed with Western blotting and ELISA, respectively. Its activity for inhibiting human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation was tested using the MTT assay. C57BL/6 mice bearing B16-F10 melanoma were treated with i.v. administration of 5 × 108 IU/mouse Ad-PEDF, or 5 × 108 IU/mouse Ad-Null, or normal saline (NS), every 3 days for a total of 4 times. Tumor volume and survival time were recorded. TUNEL, CD31 and H&E stainings of tumor tissue were conducted to examine apoptosis, microvessel density and histological morphology changes. Antiangiogenesis was determined by the alginate-encapsulated tumor cell assay. Results The recombinant PEDF adenovirus is able to transfer the PEDF gene to infected cells and successfully produce secretory PEDF protein, which exhibits potent inhibitory effects on HUVEC proliferation. Through inhibiting angiogenesis, reducing MVD and increasing apoptosis, Ad-PEDF treatment reduced tumor volume and prolonged survival times of mouse bearing B16-F10 melanoma. Conclusion Our data indicate that Ad-PEDF may provide an effective approach to inhibit mouse B16-F10 melanoma growth.

Yang, Li-Ping; Cheng, Ping; Peng, Xing-Chen; Shi, Hua-Shan; He, Wei-Hong; Cui, Feng-Yu; Luo, Shun-Tao; Wei, Yu-Quan; Yang, Li

2009-01-01

254

Comparison of the single breath with the intrabreath method for the measurement of the carbon monoxide transfer factor in subjects with and without airways obstruction.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--Measurement of the carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) has traditionally been performed using the single breath method but recently the intrabreath method has been developed. The aim of this study was to compare the two methods in the clinical evaluation of patients with obstructive and non-obstructive pulmonary disorders. METHODS--Measurements of TLCO with the intrabreath method were carried out on a study sample composed of 50 patients with non-obstructive disorders and 50 with airways obstruction (FEV1/FVC < 70%) either before or after a single breath measurement of the TLCO had been performed. The method involves the continuous analysis of a single slow expirate using a computerised rapid multigas infrared analyser. TLCO, alveolar volume (VA), TLCO/VA, and inspired vital capacity (IVC) values were obtained for both groups by both methods. RESULTS--When measured with the intrabreath method the group with airways obstruction showed lower TLCO and TLCO/VA values than the non-obstructive group. VA was higher in both patient groups when measured with the intrabreath technique. The same test also showed higher TLCO values with the intrabreath method in the group with non-obstructive disorders and lower TLCO/VA values with the intrabreath method in those with airways obstruction. The corresponding parameters obtained by the two methods correlated closely, with no correlation between the magnitude of the differences with the magnitude of the readings. An index of gas mixing indicated a better distribution of the inspired air for the intrabreath method than for the single breath method. The VA values obtained with the intrabreath method showed a closer agreement to the actual total lung capacities measured by body plethysmography. CONCLUSION--The intrabreath method of determining TLCO is comparable to the traditional single breath method. Measurement of alveolar volume by the intrabreath method approximates more closely to total lung capacity, even in subjects with airways obstruction.

Kiss, D.; Popp, W.; Wagner, C.; Havelec, L.; Sertl, K.

1995-01-01

255

Intramuscular gene transfer of fibroblast growth factor-1 using improved pCOR plasmid design stimulates collateral formation in a rabbit ischemic hindlimb model.  

PubMed

Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) is an angiogenic factor known to play a role in the growth of arteries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of direct intramuscular injection of an optimized expression plasmid encoding FGF1 to augment collateral formation and tissue perfusion in a rabbit ischemic hindlimb model. Truncated FGF1 fused to the human fibroblast interferon (FIN) signal peptide was expressed from a newly designed plasmid backbone with an improved safety profile for gene therapy applications. In vitro, optimization of plasmid design yielded in a dramatic increase in expression efficiency for FGF1, independent of the presence of a signal peptide, as analyzed by Western Blotting. In vivo, successful transgene expression could be demonstrated by FGF1 immunostaining after gene application. FGF1 plasmid containing FIN signal peptide (100, 500, and 1,000 mug), when injected into ischemic muscle areas of rabbits 10 days after ligation of the external iliac artery, exhibited a pronounced therapeutic effect on collateral formation to the ischemic hindlimb in a dose-depending manner, as assessed by physiological (blood pressure ratio, maximal intra-arterial Doppler flow) and anatomical (angiographic score, histologic evaluation of capillary density) measurements 30 days after therapy, compared to saline or lacZ control plasmid. FGF1 plasmid without a signal peptide sequence resulted in a comparable therapeutic effect on collateral formation at comparable doses (500 and 1,000 mug). Our results indicate that intramuscular FGF1 gene application could be useful to stimulate collateral formation in a situation of chronic peripheral ischemia. The presence of a signal peptide does not seem to be obligatory to achieve bioactivity of intramuscular transfected FGF1. An optimized vector design improved both biosafety of gene transfer and expression efficiency of the transgene, rendering this vector highly suitable for human gene therapy. Therefore, this new generation vector encoding FGF1 might be useful as an alternative treatment for patients with chronic ischemic disorders not amenable to conventional therapy. PMID:16389546

Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Mahfoudi, Abderrahim; Soubrier, Fabienne; Le Roux, Aude; Branellec, Didier; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Isner, Jeffrey M

2006-06-01

256

Vibrational mode and collision energy effects on reaction of H2CO+ with C2H2: Charge state competition and the role of Franck-Condon factors in endoergic charge transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of collision energy (Ecol) and six different H2CO+ vibrational states on the title reaction have been studied over the center-of-mass Ecol range from 0.1 to 2.6 eV, including measurements of product ion recoil velocity distributions. Ab initio and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations were used to examine the properties of complexes and transition states that might be important in mediating the reaction. Reaction is largely direct, despite the presence of multiple deep wells on the potential surface. Five product channels are observed, with a total reaction cross section at the collision limit. The competition among the major H2+ transfer, hydrogen transfer, and proton transfer channels is strongly affected by Ecol and H2CO+ vibrational excitation, providing insight into the factors that control competition and charge state ``unmixing'' during product separation. One of the more interesting results is that endoergic charge transfer appears to be controlled by Franck-Condon factors, implying that it occurs at large inter-reactant separations, contrary to the expectation that endoergic reactions should require intimate collisions to drive the necessary energy conversion.

Liu, Jianbo; van Devener, Brian; Anderson, Scott L.

2005-11-01

257

Vibrational mode and collision energy effects on reaction of H{sub 2}CO{sup +} with C{sub 2}H{sub 2}: Charge state competition and the role of Franck-Condon factors in endoergic charge transfer  

SciTech Connect

The effects of collision energy (E{sub col}) and six different H{sub 2}CO{sup +} vibrational states on the title reaction have been studied over the center-of-mass E{sub col} range from 0.1 to 2.6 eV, including measurements of product ion recoil velocity distributions. Ab initio and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations were used to examine the properties of complexes and transition states that might be important in mediating the reaction. Reaction is largely direct, despite the presence of multiple deep wells on the potential surface. Five product channels are observed, with a total reaction cross section at the collision limit. The competition among the major H{sub 2}{sup +} transfer, hydrogen transfer, and proton transfer channels is strongly affected by E{sub col} and H{sub 2}CO{sup +} vibrational excitation, providing insight into the factors that control competition and charge state 'unmixing' during product separation. One of the more interesting results is that endoergic charge transfer appears to be controlled by Franck-Condon factors, implying that it occurs at large inter-reactant separations, contrary to the expectation that endoergic reactions should require intimate collisions to drive the necessary energy conversion.

Liu Jianbo; Van Devener, Brian; Anderson, Scott L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

2005-11-22

258

Factors affecting the success of human blastocyst development and pregnancy following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer 1 1 Portions of these data were previously published in Jones et al. (7)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the factors affecting blastocyst development and pregnancy after IVF and ET.Design: Retrospective analysis of data arising from a clinical trial.Setting: Private in vitro fertilization clinic.Patient(s): Fifty-six patients aged ?40 years, undergoing IVF procedures for infertility, recruited specifically for blastocyst transfer.Intervention(s): All zygotes were cultured to days 5 or 6 after insemination, and one to four of the

Gayle M Jones; Alan O Trounson; Nick Lolatgis; Carl Wood

1998-01-01

259

Characterization of the functional sites in the oriT region involved in DNA transfer promoted by sex factor plasmid R100.  

PubMed Central

We have previously identified three sites, named sbi, ihfA, and sbyA, specifically recognized or bound by the TraI, IHF, and TraY proteins, respectively; these sites are involved in nicking at the origin of transfer, oriT, of plasmid R100. In the region next to these sites, there exists the sbm region, which consists of four sites, sbmA, sbmB, sbmC, and sbmD; this region is specifically bound by the TraM protein, which is required for DNA transfer. Between sbmB and sbmC in this region, there exists another IHF-binding site, ihfB. The region containing all of these sites is located in the proximity of the tra region and is referred to as the oriT region. To determine whether these sites are important for DNA transfer in vivo, we constructed plasmids with various mutations in the oriT region and tested their mobilization in the presence of R100-1, a transfer-proficient mutant of R100. Plasmids with either deletions in the sbi-ihfA-sbyA region or substitution mutations introduced into each specific site in this region were mobilized at a greatly reduced frequency, showing that all of these sites are essential for DNA transfer. By binding to ihfA, IHF, which is known to bend DNA, may be involved in the formation of a complex (which may be called oriT-some) consisting of TraI, IHF, and TraY that efficiently introduces a nick at oriT. Plasmids with either deletions in the sbm-ihfB region or substitution mutations introduced into each specific site in this region were mobilized at a reduced frequency, showing that this region is also important for DNA transfer. By binding to ihfB, IHF may also be involved in the formation of another complex (which may be called the TraM-IHF complex) consisting of TraM and IHF that ensures DNA transfer with a high level of efficiency. Several-base-pair insertions into the positions between sbyA and sbmA affected the frequency of transfer in a manner dependent upon the number of base pairs, indicating that the phasing between sbyA and sbmA is important. This in turn suggests that both oriT-some and the TraM-IHF complex should be in an appropriate position spatially to facilitate DNA transfer.

Abo, T; Ohtsubo, E

1995-01-01

260

The Transfer Function--One of Many.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the junior college's evolution into the comprehensive community college, focusing on the role of transfer education and changes in student characteristics. Considers societal and institutional factors affecting the transfer function and problems facing transfer programs, e.g., open admissions, transfer student identification, institutional…

Knoell, Dorothy M.

1982-01-01

261

The human element in technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transfer model composed of three roles and their linkages was considered. This model and a growing body of experience was analyzed to provide guidance in the human elements of technology transfer. For example, criteria for selection of technology transfer agents was described, and some needed working climate factors were known. These concepts were successfully applied to transfer activities.

Peake, H. J.

1978-01-01

262

Factors Related to English Reading Performance in Children with Chinese as a First Language: More Evidence of Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parallel measures of phonological, syntactic, and orthographic processing skill and reading were administered in English and Chinese to 65 children whose first language (L1) was Cantonese and whose 2nd language (L2) was English. This research adds to the evidence for cross-language transfer of phonological processing in L2 learning of…

Gottardo, Alexandra; Yan, Bernice; Siegel, Linda S.; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

2001-01-01

263

Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore heat transfer and energy efficiency using the context of energy efficient houses. They gain a solid understanding of the three types of heat transfer: radiation, convection and conduction, which are explained in detail and related to the real world. They learn about the many ways solar energy is used as a renewable energy source to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses and operating costs. Students also explore ways in which a device can capitalize on the methods of heat transfer to produce a beneficial result. They are given the tools to calculate the heat transferred between a system and its surroundings.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

264

Optimality and Conductivity for Water Flow: From Landscapes, to Unsaturated Soils, to Plant Leaves  

SciTech Connect

Optimality principles have been widely used in many areas. Based on an optimality principle that any flow field will tend toward a minimum in the energy dissipation rate, this work shows that there exists a unified form of conductivity relationship for three different flow systems: landscapes, unsaturated soils and plant leaves. The conductivity, the ratio of water flux to energy gradient, is a power function of water flux although the power value is system dependent. This relationship indicates that to minimize energy dissipation rate for a whole system, water flow has a small resistance (or a large conductivity) at a location of large water flux. Empirical evidence supports validity of the relationship for landscape and unsaturated soils (under gravity dominated conditions). Numerical simulation results also show that the relationship can capture the key features of hydraulic structure for a plant leaf, although more studies are needed to further confirm its validity. Especially, it is of interest that according to this relationship, hydraulic conductivity for gravity-dominated unsaturated flow, unlike that defined in the classic theories, depends on not only capillary pressure (or saturation), but also the water flux. Use of the optimality principle allows for determining useful results that are applicable to a broad range of areas involving highly non-linear processes and may not be possible to obtain from classic theories describing water flow processes.

Liu, H.H.

2012-02-23

265

Characterizations of Nanofluid Heat Transfer Enhancements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nanoparticle morphology is thought to be an important factor influencing heat and mass transfer rates in liquid systems. How nanoparticles mechanistically increase heat and mass transfer rates is not well understood. Both dispersed nanoparticles and aggre...

D. W. Johnson

2013-01-01

266

Astrophysical S factor for the radiative capture {sup 12}N(p,{gamma}){sup 13}O determined from the {sup 14}N({sup 12}N,{sup 13}O){sup 13}C proton transfer reaction  

SciTech Connect

The cross section of the radiative proton capture reaction on the drip line nucleus {sup 12}N was investigated using the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. We have used the {sup 14}N({sup 12}N,{sup 13}O){sup 13}C proton transfer reaction at 12 MeV/nucleon to extract the ANC for {sup 13}O{yields}{sup 12}N+p and calculate from it the direct component of the astrophysical S factor of the {sup 12}N(p,{gamma}){sup 13}O reaction. The optical potentials used and the distorted-wave Born approximation analysis of the proton transfer reaction are discussed. For the entrance channel, the optical potential was inferred from an elastic scattering measurement carried out at the same time as the transfer measurement. From the transfer, we determined the square of the ANC, C{sub p{sub 1/2}}{sup 2}({sup 13}O{sub g.s.})=2.53{+-}0.30 fm{sup -1}, and hence a value of 0.33(4) keV b was obtained for the direct astrophysical S factor at zero energy. Constructive interference at low energies between the direct and resonant captures leads to an enhancement of S{sub total}(0)=0.42(6) keV b. The {sup 12}N(p,{gamma}){sup 13}O reaction was investigated in relation to the evolution of hydrogen-rich massive Population III stars, for the role that it may play in the hot pp-chain nuclear burning processes, possibly occurring in such objects.

Banu, A.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, C. A.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Zhai, Y.; Carstoiu, F.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering 'Horia Hulubei', R-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, CZ-250 68 Prague-Rez (Czech Republic)

2009-02-15

267

Iron catalyzed polyethylene chain growth on zinc: a study of the factors delineating chain transfer versus catalyzed chain growth in zinc and related metal alkyl systems.  

PubMed

The bis(imino)pyridine iron complex, [[2,6-(MeC=N-2,6-iPr2C6H3)2C5H)N]FeCl2] (1), in combination with MAO and ZnEt2 (> 500 equiv.), is shown to catalyze polyethylene chain growth on zinc. The catalyzed chain growth process is characterized by an exceptionally fast and reversible exchange of the growing polymer chains between the iron and zinc centers. Upon hydrolysis of the resultant ZnR2 product, a Poisson distribution of linear alkanes is obtained; linear alpha-olefins with a Poisson distribution can be generated via a nickel-catalyzed displacement reaction. Other dialkylzinc reagents such as ZnMe2 and ZniPr2 also show catalyzed chain growth; in the case of ZnMe2 a slight broadening of the product distribution is observed. The products obtained from Zn(CH2Ph)2 show evidence for chain transfer but not catalyzed chain growth, whereas ZnPh2 shows no evidence for chain transfer. The Group 13 metal alkyl reagents AlR3 (R = Me, Et, octyl, IBu) and GaR3 (R = Et, nBu) act as highly efficient chain transfer agents, whereas GaMe3 exhibits behavior close to catalyzed chain growth. LinBu, MgnBu2 and BEt3 result in very low activity catalyst systems. SnMe4 and PbEt4 give active catalysts, but with very little chain transfer to Sn or Pb. The remarkably efficient iron catalyzed chain growth reaction for ZnEt2 compared to other metal alkyls can be rationalized on the basis of: (1) relatively low steric hindrance around the zinc center, (2) their monomeric nature in solution, (3) the relatively weak Zn-C bond, and (4) a reasonably close match in Zn-C and Fe-C bond strengths. PMID:15327329

Britovsek, George J P; Cohen, Steven A; Gibson, Vernon C; Van Meurs, Martin

2004-09-01

268

Prevalence and factors associated with false positive suspicion of acute aortic syndrome: experience in a patient population transferred to a specialized aortic treatment center  

PubMed Central

Study objective Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment at specialized centers. We sought to determine the frequency and etiology of false positive activation of a regional AAS network in a patient population emergently transferred for suspected AAS. Methods We evaluated 150 consecutive patients transferred from community emergency departments directly to our Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU) with a diagnosis of suspected AAS between March, 2010 and August, 2011. A final diagnosis of confirmed acute Type A, acute Type B dissection, and false positive suspicion of dissection was made in 63 (42%), 70 (46.7%) and 17 (11.3%) patients respectively. Results Of the 17 false positive transfers, ten (58.8%) were suspected Type A dissection and seven (41.2%) were suspected Type B dissection. The initial hospital diagnosis in 15 (88.2%) patients was made by a computed tomography (CT) scan and 10 (66.6%) of these patients required repeat imaging with an ECG-synchronized CT to definitively rule out AAS. Five (29.4%) patients had prior history of open or endovascular aortic repair. Overall in-hospital mortality was 9.3%. Conclusions The diagnosis of AAS is confirmed in most patients emergently transferred for suspected AAS. False positive activation in this setting is driven primarily by uncertainty secondary to motion-artifact of the ascending aorta and the presence of complex anatomy following prior aortic intervention. Network-wide standardization of imaging strategies, and improved sharing of imaging may further improve triage of this complex patient population.

Raymond, Chad E.; Aggarwal, Bhuvnesh; Schoenhagen, Paul; Kralovic, Damon M.; Kormos, Kristopher; Holloway, David

2013-01-01

269

Ab-initio study of the electronic factor ( ?) conformational dependence in [CH 2–(phenylene) n –CH 2] ? electron transfer model systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of ? and of the decay constant (?) on the methylene-adjacent benzene dihedral angle (?), for thermal electron transfer in [CH2–(phenylene)n–CH2]? (n=1,2,3) model systems, is studied. Closed-shell Hartree–Fock (RHF) ab initio, through use of Koopmans theorem (KT), open-shell HF (ROHF) and multiconfigurational SCF (MCSCF) level calculations are performed, with several basis sets. A non-exponential distance dependence of ?2

Silmar A. do Monte; E. Ventura; A. A. S. da Gama

2005-01-01

270

Factors associated with serum immunoglobulin levels in beef calves from Alberta and Saskatchewan and association between passive transfer and health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Inadequate consumption of colostrum can negatively affect calf health and survival. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations of 935 beef calves from 152 herds in Alberta and Saskatchewan have been described, using radial immunodiffusion. The determinants and health effects of serum IgG concentrations were studied in 601 calves sampled between 2 and 8 days of age. Of these calves, 6% had failure of passive transfer and an additional 10% had marginal passive transfer. Serum IgG concentrations were lower in calves born to a heifer, as a twin, or experiencing dystocia. The odds of both calf death and treatment were increased in calves with serum IgG concentrations below 24 g/L; a threshold notably higher than the 16 g/L usually considered as providing adequate passive transfer. The finding of 1/3 of calves with serum IgG concentrations less than 24 g/L suggests that calfhood treatments and mortality could be decreased by ensuring that high risk calves consume colostrum.

Waldner, Cheryl L.; Rosengren, Leigh B.

2009-01-01

271

Intramuscular gene transfer of fibroblast growth factor-1 using improved pCOR plasmid design stimulates collateral formation in a rabbit ischemic hindlimb model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) is an angiogenic factor known to play a role in the growth of arteries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of direct intramuscular injection of an optimized expression plasmid encoding FGF1 to augment collateral formation and tissue perfusion in a rabbit ischemic hindlimb model. Truncated FGF1 fused to the human fibroblast

Bernhard Witzenbichler; Abderrahim Mahfoudi; Fabienne Soubrier; Aude Le Roux; Didier Branellec; Heinz-Peter Schultheiss; Jeffrey M. Isner

2006-01-01

272

Effect of Adenovector-Mediated Gene Transfer of Keratinocyte Growth Factor on the Proliferation of Alveolar Type II Cells In Vitro and In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alveolar type II cell proliferation occurs after lung injury and is thought to minimize the subsequent fibrotic response. Kerati- nocyte growth factor (KGF) has been shown to be a potent growth factor for rat alveolar type II cells. In this study, we created a replication-deficient, recombinant human type 5 ade- novirus vector expressing human KGF (Ad5-KGF) to produce alveolar type

Osamu Morikawa; Thomas A. Walker; Larry D. Nielsen; Tianli Pan; James L. Cook; Robert J. Mason

273

Measurements of the Proton Elastic-Form-Factor Ratio {mu}{sub p}G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} at Low Momentum Transfer  

SciTech Connect

High-precision measurements of the proton elastic form-factor ratio, {mu}{sub p}G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p}, have been made at four-momentum transfer, Q{sup 2}, values between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV{sup 2}. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q{sup 2} range the deviation from unity is primarily due to G{sub E}{sup p} being smaller than expected.

Ron, G.; Piasetzky, E.; Pomerantz, I.; Shneor, R. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Glister, J. [Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada); Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada); Lee, B.; Choi, Seonho; Kang, H.; Oh, Y.; Song, J.; Yan, X. [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747, Korea (Korea, Republic of); Allada, K.; Dutta, C. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States); Armstrong, W.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Yao, H. [Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Arrington, J.; Solvignon, P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Beck, A.; May-Tal Beck, S. [NRCN, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel)] (and others)

2007-11-16

274

Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid in a circular pipe under laminar flow with wire coil inserts  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, fully developed laminar flow convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated horizontal tube with and without wire coil inserts is presented. For this purpose, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of 43 nm size were synthesized, characterized and dispersed in distilled water to form stable suspension containing 0.1% volume concentration of nanoparticles. The Nusselt number in the fully developed region were measured and found to increase by 12.24% at Re = 2275 for plain tube with nanofluid compared to distilled water. Two wire coil inserts made of stainless steel with pitch ratios 2 and 3 were used which increased the Nusselt numbers by 15.91% and 21.53% respectively at Re = 2275 with nanofluid compared to distilled water. The better heat transfer performance of nanofluid with wire coil insert is attributed to the effects of dispersion or back-mixing which flattens the temperature distribution and make the temperature gradient between the fluid and wall steeper. The measured pressure loss with the use of nanofluids is almost equal to that of the distilled water. The empirical correlations developed for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of Reynolds/Peclet number, pitch ratio and volume concentration fits with the experimental data within {+-}15%. (author)

Chandrasekar, M.; Suresh, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India); Chandra Bose, A. [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India)

2010-02-15

275

Technology transfer to Saudi Arabia petrochemical industry experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia sought transferring petrochemical technology. The transfer aims to reduce the country's dependence on oil and to utilize national resources more efficiently. To investigate the factors affecting the transfer, conditions related to the technology in question and the receiving entity are analyzed. Multinational corporations play a major role in the transfer process. The research shows that joint venture transfers

A. A. K

1987-01-01

276

Comparison of prediction methods for the uptake of As, Cd and Pb in carrot and lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Model Framework (NMF) for uptake into crops is based on particle deposition and Transfer factors from soil to plant calculated from the BAse de données sur les teneurs en Eléments Traces métalliques de Plantes Potagères (BAPPET) database. Besides NMF, approaches developed by the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Hough, and the United States Environmental

C. N. Legind; S. Trapp

2010-01-01

277

Technology Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can reach their maximum effectiveness.

Smith, Nanette R.

1995-01-01

278

HRD Effectiveness and Transfer of Learning. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) effectiveness and transfer of learning. "Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand" (Siriporn Yamnill, Gary N. McLean) discusses how the Learning Transfer System Inventory was validated in Thailand by administering it to 1,029 employers and analyzing…

2002

279

Pulse Combustion: Impinging Jet Heat Transfer Enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for convective heat transfer enhancement is described. The technique involves the use of a pulse combustor to generate a transient jet that impinges on a flat plate. Enhancements in convective heat transfer of a factor of up to 2.5, compared to a steady impinging jet at approximately the same Reynolds number, have been obtained. Heat transfer data

R A. EIBECK; J. O. KELLER; T. T. BRAMLETTE; D. J. SAILOR

1993-01-01

280

Community Colleges and the Transfer Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how the traditional transfer role of the community college has become less significant as a vocational and community-based role has assumed importance. The paper describes factors contributing to the transfer function's decline and illustrates various attitudes surrounding the issue. The history of transfer education is…

Perkins, Mary E.

281

Improvement of heart function in postinfarct heart failure swine models after hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer: comparison of low-, medium- and high-dose groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in surgical and reperfusion therapy, there is no effective therapy currently exists to prevent the progressive\\u000a decline in cardiac function following myocardial infarction. Hepatocyte growth factor has potent angiogenic and anti-apoptotic\\u000a activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect and dose–effect relationship on postinfarction\\u000a heart failure with different doses of adenovirus-mediated human hepatocyte growth

Zhi-jian Yang; Bo Chen; Zhang Sheng; Ding-guo Zhang; En-zhi Jia; Wei Wang; Dong-chao Ma; Tie-bing Zhu; Lian-sheng Wang; Chun-jian Li; Hui Wang; Ke-jiang Cao; Wen-zhu Ma

2010-01-01

282

On-bead combinatorial synthesis and imaging of chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging agents to identify factors that influence water exchange.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents is highly dependent on the rate of water exchange between the inner sphere of a paramagnetic ion and bulk water. Normally, identifying a paramagnetic complex that has optimal water exchange kinetics is done by synthesizing and testing one compound at a time. We report here a rapid, economical on-bead combinatorial synthesis of a library of imaging agents. Eighty different 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-tetraamide peptoid derivatives were prepared on beads using a variety of charged, uncharged but polar, hydrophobic, and variably sized primary amines. A single chemical exchange saturation transfer image of the on-bead library easily distinguished those compounds having the most favorable water exchange kinetics. This combinatorial approach will allow rapid screening of libraries of imaging agents to identify the chemical characteristics of a ligand that yield the most sensitive imaging agents. This technique could be automated and readily adapted to other types of MRI or magnetic resonance/positron emission tomography agents as well. PMID:21793515

Napolitano, Roberta; Soesbe, Todd C; De León-Rodríguez, Luis M; Sherry, A Dean; Udugamasooriya, D Gomika

2011-08-24

283

[Technology Transfer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some authorities on technolgoy transfer feel that industry is not fully capitalizing on the inventive output of universities and nonprofit organizations. From the point of view of the government, the stakes are high. The magnitude of federal support of research and development in these organizations demands evidence of useful results if it is to…

Latker, Norman J.

284

Peptide-matrix-mediated gene transfer of an oxygen-insensitive hypoxia-inducible factor-1? variant for local induction of angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) constitutes a target in therapeutic angiogenesis. HIF-1? functions as a sensor of hypoxia and induces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which then induces angiogenesis. To explore the potential of HIF-1? gene therapy in stimulating wound healing, we delivered a gene encoding a stabilized form of HIF-1?, lacking the oxygen-sensitive degradation domain, namely HIF-1??ODD, by using a previously characterized peptide-based gene delivery vector in fibrin as a surgical matrix. The peptide vector consisted of multiple domains: (i) A cysteine-flanked lysine hexamer provided DNA interactions that were stable extracellularly but destabilized intracellularly after reduction of the formed disulfide bonds. This DNA-binding domain was fused to either (ii) a fibrin-binding peptide for entrapment within the matrix or (iii) a nuclear localization sequence for efficient nuclear targeting. The HIF-1??ODD gene was expressed and translocated to the nucleus under normoxic conditions, leading to up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A165 mRNA and protein levels in vitro. When the peptide-DNA nanoparticles entrapped in fibrin matrices were applied to full-thickness dermal wounds in the mouse (10 ?g per wound in 30 ?l of fibrin), angiogenesis was increased comparably strongly to that induced by VEGF-A165 protein (1.25 ?g per wound in 30 ?l of fibrin). However, the maturity of the vessels induced by HIF-1??ODD was significantly higher than that induced by VEGF-A165 protein, as shown by stabilization of the neovessels with smooth muscle. Nonviral, local administration of this potent angiogenesis-inducing gene by using this peptide vector represents a powerful approach in tissue engineering and therapeutic angiogenesis.

Trentin, Diana; Hall, Heike; Wechsler, Sandra; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

2006-01-01

285

Geo energy research and development: technology transfer  

SciTech Connect

Sandia Geo Energy Programs related to geothermal, coal, oil and gas, and synfuel resources have provided a useful mechanism for transferring laboratory technologies to private industry. Significant transfer of hardware, computer programs, diagnostics and instrumentation, advanced materials, and in situ process understanding has occurred through US/DOE supported programs in the past five years. The text briefly reviews the technology transfer procedures and summarizes 32 items that have been transferred and another 20 technologies that are now being considered for possible transfer to industry. A major factor in successful transfer has been personal interactions between Sandia engineers and the technical staff from private industry during all aspects of the technology development.

Traeger, R.K.

1982-03-01

286

Improved measurement of labile proton concentration-weighted chemical exchange rate (k(ws)) with experimental factor-compensated and T(1) -normalized quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI.  

PubMed

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI enables measurement of dilute CEST agents and microenvironment properties such as pH and temperature, holding great promise for in vivo applications. However, because of confounding concomitant radio frequency (RF) irradiation and relaxation effects, the CEST-weighted MRI contrast may not fully characterize the underlying CEST phenomenon. We postulated that the accuracy of quantitative CEST MRI could be improved if the experimental factors (labeling efficiency and RF spillover effect) were estimated and taken into account. Specifically, the experimental factor was evaluated as a function of exchange rate and CEST agent concentration ratio, which remained relatively constant for intermediate RF irradiation power levels. Hence, the experimental factors can be calculated based on the reasonably estimated exchange rate and labile proton concentration ratio, which significantly improved quantification. The simulation was confirmed with creatine phantoms of serially varied concentration titrated to the same pH, whose reverse exchange rate (k(ws)) was found to be linearly correlated with the concentration. In summary, the proposed solution provides simplified yet reasonably accurate quantification of the underlying CEST system, which may help guide the ongoing development of quantitative CEST MRI. PMID:22649044

Wu, Renhua; Liu, Charng-Ming; Liu, Philip K; Sun, Phillip Zhe

2012-01-01

287

Transfer functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vulnerability of electronic equipment to carbon fibers is studied. The effectiveness of interfaces, such as filters, doors, window screens, and cabinets, which affect the concentration, exposure, or deposition of carbon fibers on both (internal and external) sides of the interface is examined. The transfer function of multilayer aluminum mesh, wet and dry, polyurethane foam, and window screen are determined as a function of air velocity. FIlters installed in typical traffic control boxes and air conditioners are also considered.

Taback, I.

1979-01-01

288

Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry activity students explore how heat transfers from one substance to another This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2006 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Leslie Van (Montgomery Blair High School)

2006-04-01

289

Population pharmacokinetic modelling of Emfilermin (recombinant human leukaemia inhibitory factor, r-hLIF) in healthy postmenopausal women and in infertile patients undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer  

PubMed Central

Aims The aim of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for Emfilermin (recombinant human leukaemia inhibitory factor, r-hLIF) following subcutaneous administration to healthy postmenopausal women and to infertile patients undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Methods Data from three studies, a single and a repeat dose Phase I study in postmenopausal women as well as a proof of concept study in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer were combined and analyzed. The structural pharmacokinetic model was developed using the rich data from the Phase I studies and the full pharmacostatistical model was then derived using all the data. Results The pharmacokinetics of r-hLIF after repeated subcutaneous administration were described by a one-compartment disposition model with a zero order input. The duration of the absorption phase was short (0.8 h) and invariant. The apparent clearance in postmenopausal women was 57 l h?1 (CV = 17%). In in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer patients, the apparent clearance was decreased by 35% compared with postmenopausal women. The apparent volume of distribution was 235 l (interindividual CV = 28%) and exhibited an interoccasion variability of 23%. It increased (for weight above 62 kg) or decreased (for weight below 62 kg) by 29% for every 10 kg body weight. The median posthoc estimates of apparent clearance and volume of distribution and their variability were consistent with the population estimates. In postmenopausal women, the results were consistent with those obtained by noncompartmental analysis. The residual variability on r-hLIF serum concentrations was 20%. Conclusions The pharmacokinetics of r-hLIF after repeated SC administration were described by a one compartment disposition model, with zero order input, in postmenopausal women and those undergoing IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer. Absorption of r-hLIF was rapid as was its subsequent clearance. The apparent volume of distribution of r-hLIF was moderate to high, depended on body weight and showed interoccasion variability.

Goggin, Timothy; Nguyen, Quyen T X; Munafo, Alain

2004-01-01

290

Virus-mediated gene transfer into hippocampal CA1 region restores long-term potentiation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor mutant mice.  

PubMed Central

Long-term potentiation (LTP) has been shown to be impaired in mice deficient in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, as well as in a number of other knockout animals. Despite its power the gene-targeting approach is always fraught with the danger of looking at the cumulative direct and indirect effects of the absence of a particular gene rather than its immediate function. The re-expression of a specific gene at a selective time point and at a specific site in gene-defective mutants presents a potent procedure to overcome this limitation and to evaluate the causal relationship between the absence of a particular gene and the impairment of a function in gene-defective animals. Here we demonstrate that the re-expression of the BDNF gene in the CA1 region almost completely restores the severely impaired LTP in hippocampal slices of BDNF-deficient mice. The results therefore provide strong evidence for the direct involvement of BDNF in the process of LTP. Images Fig. 1

Korte, M; Griesbeck, O; Gravel, C; Carroll, P; Staiger, V; Thoenen, H; Bonhoeffer, T

1996-01-01

291

Immune tolerance induction to factor IX through B cell gene transfer: TLR9 signaling delineates between tolerogenic and immunogenic B cells.  

PubMed

A subset of patients with severe hemophilia B, the X-linked bleeding disorder resulting from absence of coagulation factor IX (FIX), develop pathogenic antibody responses during replacement therapy. These inhibitors block standard therapy and are often associated with anaphylactic reactions to FIX. Established clinical immune tolerance induction protocols often fail for FIX inhibitors. In a murine model of this immune complication, retrovirally transduced primary B cells expressing FIX antigen fused with immunoglobulin-G heavy chain prevented antibody formation to FIX and was also highly effective in desensitizing animals with preexisting response. In contrast, transplant of B cells that received the identical expression cassette via nucleofection of plasmid vector substantially heightened antibody formation against FIX, a response that could be blocked by toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) inhibition. While innate responses to TLR4 activation or to retrovirus were minimal in B cells, plasmid DNA activated TLR9, resulting in CpG-dependent NF-?B activation/IL-6 expression and adaptor protein 3 dependent, CpG-independent induction of IFN-I. Neither response was seen in TLR9-deficient B cells. Therefore, TLR9 signaling in B cells, in particular in response to plasmid vector, is highly immunogenic and has to be avoided in design of tolerance protocols. PMID:24609143

Wang, Xiaomei; Moghimi, Babak; Zolotukhin, Irene; Morel, Laurence M; Cao, Ou; Herzog, Roland W

2014-06-01

292

Nonadiabatic anharmonic electron transfer.  

PubMed

The effect of an inner sphere, local mode vibration on an electron transfer is modeled using the nonadiabatic transition probability (rate) expression together with both the anharmonic Morse and the harmonic oscillator potential. For an anharmonic inner sphere mode, a variational analysis uses harmonic oscillator basis functions to overcome the difficulties evaluating Morse-model Franck-Condon overlap factors. Individual matrix elements are computed with the use of new, fast, robust, and flexible recurrence relations. The analysis therefore readily addresses changes in frequency and/or displacement of oscillator minimums in the different electron transfer states. Direct summation of the individual Boltzmann weighted Franck-Condon contributions avoids the limitations inherent in the use of the familiar high-temperature, gaussian form of the rate constant. The effect of harmonic versus anharmonic inner sphere modes on the electron transfer is readily seen, especially in the exoergic, inverted region. The behavior of the transition probability can also be displayed as a surface for all temperatures and values of the driving force/exoergicity ? = -?G. The temperature insensitivity of the transfer rate is clearly seen when the exoergicity equals the collective reorganization energy (? = ?(s)) along a maximum ln?(w) vs. ? ridge of the surface. The surface also reveals additional regions for ? where ln?(w) appears to be insensitive to temperature, or effectively activationless, for some kinds of inner sphere contributions. PMID:23556710

Schmidt, P P

2013-03-28

293

PASSIVE TRANSFER OF TRANSPLANTATION IMMUNITY  

PubMed Central

Passive transfer of homograft immunity was successfully achieved by injection of the supernatant obtained from tissue-sensitized lymphoid cells disrupted by sonic vibration. The effective substance destroyed specific skin homografts within 6 days but did not reject non-specific skin grafts in this time. No evidence of transferred antigen or of transfer factor was found when the effective material was passed to irradiated recipients carrying test grafts. By a variety of physiochemical procedures the "soluble substance" behaved like a gamma globulin and was considered to be a transplantation antibody.

Najarian, J. S.; Feldman, J. D.

1963-01-01

294

Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as: soil pH< available phosphorus < humus content < exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ < exchangeable K+. Inorganic fertilizers in high and temperate rates decrease 137Cs transfer to crops in 2.3-5.5 times. Organic fertilizers are less efficient, but its application can decrease 137Cs accumulation by farm crops during 2-3 years. Correlation analysis shows inversely proportional dependence between organic matter content and exchangeable form of 137Cs in soil (r2 = 0.81). A linear relation between 137Cs transfer factors (TF) to plants and exchangeable radionuclide content has been found (r2=0.68). Inversely proportional relation between the mobility level of potassium, its mobile form content and TF 137Cs was detected (r2 = 0.78).

Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

2012-04-01

295

MODELING TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROCESS: PROPOSITION OF A QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE OBSERVATION APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology transfer is well recognized as one of th e most critical factors to enhance innovative capab ilities within firms. Technology transfer results from actions taken by v arious actors and organizations. One obstacle is: w hen the transfer emerges the participants don't label it as technology transfer. This paper presents a comprehensive literature ana lysis about technology transfer factors

H. KOOLI-CHAABANE; M. CAMARGO; V. BOLY; B. YANNOU

296

Adenoviral-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer has a protective effect on sciatic nerve following constriction-induced spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Neuropathic pain due to peripheral nerve injury may be associated with abnormal central nerve activity. Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) can help attenuate neuropathic pain in different animal models of nerve injury. However, whether GDNF can ameliorate neuropathic pain in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) in constriction-induced peripheral nerve injury remains unknown. We investigated the therapeutic effects of adenoviral-mediated GDNF on neuropathic pain behaviors, microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and programmed cell death in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) nerve injury animal model. In this study, neuropathic pain was produced by CCI on the ipsilateral SCDH. Mechanical allodynia was examined with von Frey filaments and thermal sensitivity was tested using a plantar test apparatus post-operatively. Target proteins GDNF-1, GDNFRa-1, MMP2, MMP9, p38, phospho-p38, ED1, IL6, IL1?, AIF, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, PARP, cleaved PARP, SPECTRIN, cleaved SPECTRIN, Beclin-1, PKC?, PKC?, iNOS, eNOS and nNOS were detected. Microglial activity was measured by observing changes in immunoreactivity with OX-42. NeuN and TUNEL staining were used to reveal whether apoptosis was attenuated by GDNF. Results showed that administrating GDNF began to attenuate both allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7. CCI-rats were found to have lower GDNF and GDNFRa-1 expression compared to controls, and GDNF re-activated their expression. Also, GDNF significantly down-regulated CCI-induced protein expression except for MMP2, eNOS and nNOS, indicating that the protective action of GDNF might be associated with anti-inflammation and prohibition of microglia activation. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that GDNF reduced CCI-induced neuronal apoptosis. In sum, GDNF enhanced the neurotrophic effect by inhibiting microglia activation and cytokine production via p38 and PKC signaling. GDNF could be a good therapeutic tool to attenuate programmed cell death, including apoptosis and autophagy, consequent to CCI-induced peripheral nerve injury. PMID:24642655

Chou, An-Kuo; Yang, Ming-Chang; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tai, Ming-Hong; Kwan, Aij-Li; Hong, Yi-Ren

2014-01-01

297

The transfer of analytical procedures.  

PubMed

Analytical method transfers are certainly among the most discussed topics in the GMP regulated sector. However, they are surprisingly little regulated in detail. General information is provided by USP, WHO, and ISPE in particular. Most recently, the EU emphasized the importance of analytical transfer by including it in their draft of the revised GMP Guideline. In this article, an overview and comparison of these guidelines is provided. The key to success for method transfers is the excellent communication between sending and receiving unit. In order to facilitate this communication, procedures, flow charts and checklists for responsibilities, success factors, transfer categories, the transfer plan and report, strategies in case of failed transfers, tables with acceptance limits are provided here, together with a comprehensive glossary. Potential pitfalls are described such that they can be avoided. In order to assure an efficient and sustainable transfer of analytical procedures, a practically relevant and scientifically sound evaluation with corresponding acceptance criteria is crucial. Various strategies and statistical tools such as significance tests, absolute acceptance criteria, and equivalence tests are thoroughly descibed and compared in detail giving examples. Significance tests should be avoided. The success criterion is not statistical significance, but rather analytical relevance. Depending on a risk assessment of the analytical procedure in question, statistical equivalence tests are recommended, because they include both, a practically relevant acceptance limit and a direct control of the statistical risks. However, for lower risk procedures, a simple comparison of the transfer performance parameters to absolute limits is also regarded as sufficient. PMID:23978903

Ermer, J; Limberger, M; Lis, K; Wätzig, H

2013-11-01

298

Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio From Elastic e + p -> e + p Scattering at Momentum Transfer Q^2 = 2.5, 5.2, 6.7 and 8.5 (GeV/c)^2  

SciTech Connect

Among the fundamental observables of nucleon structure, electromagnetic form factors are a crucial benchmark for modern calculations describing the strong interaction dyna mics of the nucleon's quark constituents. Electromagnetic probes are traditionally preferered to the hadronic beams. The electromagnetic interaction is a powerful tool for investigating the nucleon structure since it is well understood and it reveals observables that can be directly interpreted in terms of the current carried by the quarks. Elastic scattering leads to the form factors that describe the spatial charge a nd current distributions inside the nucleon. The reaction mechanism is assumed to be one photon exchange, the electromagnetic interaction is exactly calculable in QED, and one can safely extract the information on the hadronic vertex. The most important feature of early measurements of proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} with recoil polarization technique at Q{sup 2} up to 5.6 (GeV/c){sup 2} is the sharp decline of the ratio with Q{sup 2} increases, indicating that G{sub E}{sup p} falls much faster than G{sub M}{sup p}. This contradicts to data obtained by Rosenbluth separation method. An intriguing question was whether G{sub E}{sup p} will continue to decrease or become constant when Q{sup 2} increases. New set of measurements of proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} at Q{sup 2} = 2.5, 5.2, 6.7 and 8.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} have been conducted at JLab Hall C using {approx}85% longitudinally polarized electron elastic scattering from unpolarized hydrogen target. Recoil protons were detected in the HMS magnetic spectrometer with the standard detector package, combined with newly installed trigger scintillators and Focal Plane Polarimeter. The BigCal electromagnetic calorimeter (1744 channel) have been used for electron detection. Data obtained in this experiment show that G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} ratio continued to drop with Q{sup 2} and may cross 'zero' at Q{sup 2} > 10-15 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Intensive theoretical and experimental efforts over the past decade have aimed at explaining the discrepancy between data for the proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} obtained from cross section and polarization measurements. It was assumed that the two photon exchange contribution might be responsible for difference of G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} ratio obtained by Rosenbluth separation method and recoil polarization technique. The kinematical dependence of polarization transfer observables in elastic electron-proton scattering at Q{sup 2} = 2.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} have been used in search of effects of 2{gamma} contribution. For a wide range of values of the virtual photon polarization {epsilon} ({epsilon} = 0.15, 0.63, and 0.77), the proton form factor ratio and longitudinal polarization transfer component were measured with statistical uncertainties of {+-}0.01 and {+-}0.005, respectively. Our data provide significant constraints on models of nucleon structure.

Arthur Mkrtchyan

2012-05-31

299

Fouling of heat transfer surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The history of the fouling of heat transfer surfaces is reviewed up to 1979. Four epochs of fouling are identified. Particular attention is paid to fouling in steam boilers and steam condensers. The origin of the cleanliness factor and the fouling factor are discussed. The introduction of scientific methods of studying fouling through the model of Kern and Seaton, and the application of models based on fundamental ideas in mass transfer are considered. The paper concludes by drawing attention to the successes in understanding fouling and pointing out the needs for future research.

Somerscales, E.F.C. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (USA))

1990-01-01

300

Technology transfer in the IT industry: A Korean perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently Korean Government announced ambitious IT strategy to establish Korea as one of leaders in world IT market. To implement this strategy, technology transfer from research lab to market should be successfully performed. This study is to identify factors influencing technology transfer and to examine contribution of these factors on success of technology transfer in Korean IT industry. Survey results

Tae Kyung Sung

2009-01-01

301

Energy Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can a Ping-Pong ball be made to bounce higher without throwing it downward harder? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate energy transference and momentum by simultaneously dropping a Ping-Pong ball sitting directly above a golf ball and measuring the bounce height. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable K-12 national science education standards. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions, and presentation techniques. The content of the activity is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve

2004-01-01

302

Gene Transfers of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-B, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-D Have No Effects on Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic Low-Density Lipoprotein-Receptor\\/ Apolipoprotein B48Deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The role of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) in large arteries has been proposed to be either vasculoprotective or proatherogenic. Because VEGF family members are used for human therapy, it is important to know whether they could enhance atherogenesis. We tested the effects of the members of the VEGF gene family on atherogenesis in LDL-receptor\\/apolipoprotein (apo) B48 double-knockout (LDLR\\/apoB48) mice

Pia Leppänen; Suvi Koota; Ivana Kholová; Jonna Koponen; Christina Fieber; Ulf Eriksson; Kari Alitalo; Seppo Ylä-Herttuala

2010-01-01

303

Transference: erotised, erotic, loving, affectionate.  

PubMed

Within a set of phenomena traditionally problematic for psychoanalysis, four types of erotic transference are outlined with a description of their dynamic genesis and related case histories (transference and countertransference developments, fundamental treatment procedures): erotised, erotic, loving, and affectionate transference. The first type is based mostly on psychotic modalities, the second on neurotic modalities. Both the loving and the affectionate transference, on the other hand, turn out to be clinical forms corresponding to a normal substantially same development, different from each other by virtue of a diverse level of maturation in the Oedipus complex: they often provoke--in analysts--a defensive stiffening which is harmful and--from the theoretical point of view--not above reproach. The work is particularly focused on the analytic evolution of a female patient who develops an amorous transference in which the defensive aspects prove to be less important than the potentially evolutionary ones. The treatment has been based--in particular--on the analytic utilisation of this transference. The last part of the contribution is devoted to the analysts' 'guarantee factors', which permit them to work in psychoanalysis with the 'highly explosive forces' of these transference configurations, maintaining a useful, rigorous, sensitive and sufficiently creative framework. PMID:8005766

Bolognini, S

1994-02-01

304

AAV-Dominant Negative Tumor Necrosis Factor (DN-TNF) Gene Transfer to the Striatum Does Not Rescue Medium Spiny Neurons in the YAC128 Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease  

PubMed Central

CNS inflammation is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease, and recent studies suggest that the inflammatory response may contribute to neuronal demise. In particular, increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling is implicated in the pathology of both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown that localized gene delivery of dominant negative TNF to the degenerating brain region can limit pathology in animal models of PD and AD. TNF is upregulated in Huntington's disease (HD), like in PD and AD, but it is unknown whether TNF signaling contributes to neuronal degeneration in HD. We used in vivo gene delivery to test whether selective reduction of soluble TNF signaling could attenuate medium spiny neuron (MSN) degeneration in the YAC128 transgenic (TG) mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD). AAV vectors encoding cDNA for dominant-negative tumor necrosis factor (DN-TNF) or GFP (control) were injected into the striatum of young adult wild type WT and YAC128 TG mice and achieved 30–50% target coverage. Expression of dominant negative TNF protein was confirmed immunohistologically and biochemically and was maintained as mice aged to one year, but declined significantly over time. However, the extent of striatal DN-TNF gene transfer achieved in our studies was not sufficient to achieve robust effects on neuroinflammation, rescue degenerating MSNs or improve motor function in treated mice. Our findings suggest that alternative drug delivery strategies should be explored to determine whether greater target coverage by DN-TNF protein might afford some level of neuroprotection against HD-like pathology and/or that soluble TNF signaling may not be the primary driver of striatal neuroinflammation and MSN loss in YAC128 TG mice.

Alto, Laura Taylor; Chen, Xi; Ruhn, Kelly A.; Trevino, Isaac; Tansey, Malu G.

2014-01-01

305

Considering factors beyond transfer of conceptual knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One thread in education research has been to investigate whether and in what ways students âtransferâ conceptual knowledge from one context to another. We argue that in understanding studentsâ reasoning across contexts, it can additionally be productive to attend to their epistemological framing. We present a case study of one student (Will), whose reasoning on two similarly structured approximation problems does not draw on pieces of conceptual knowledge across contexts in a manner that experts might view as productive. We further show that attending to Willâs epistemological framing aids our understanding of why he draws on different types of knowledge on the two problems.

Kuo, Eric; Champney, Danielle; Little, Angela

2013-12-17

306

Technology Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and application of new technologies in the United States has always been important to the economic well being of the country. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been an important source of these new technologies for almost four decades. Recently, increasing global competition has emphasized the importance of fully utilizing federally funded technologies. Today NASA must meet its mission goals while at the same time, conduct research and development that contributes to securing US economic growth. NASA technologies must be quickly and effectively transferred into commercial products. In order to accomplish this task, NASA has formulated a new way of doing business with the private sector. Emphasis is placed on forming mutually beneficial partnerships between NASA and US industry. New standards have been set in response to the process that increase effectiveness, efficiency, and timely customer response. This summer I have identified potential markets for two NASA inventions: including the Radially Focused Eddy Current Sensor for Characterization of Flaws in Metallic Tubing and the Radiographic Moire. I have also worked to establish a cooperative program with TAG, private industry, and a university known as the TAG/Industry/Academia Program.

Bullock, Kimberly R.

1995-01-01

307

Trends in Technology Transfer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various forms of technology transfer in Europe and North America are discussed including research contracts, cooperative research centers, and personnel transfer. Examples of approaches to technology transfer are given and the establishment of personnel transfer is discussed. Preconditions for successful technology transfer in the future are…

Starnick, Jurgen

1988-01-01

308

Modifications of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) in adult cardiocytes by adenoviral gene transfer: differential effects on eIF4F activity and total protein synthesis rates.  

PubMed

In adult feline cardiocytes, increases in eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) activity are correlated with accelerated rates of total protein synthesis produced in response to increased load. Adenoviral gene transfer was employed to increase either eIF4F complex formation or the phosphorylation of eIF4E on Ser-209. To simulate load,cardiocytes were electrically stimulated to contract (2 Hz,5 ms pulses). Non-stimulated cardiocytes were used as controls.Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of wild-type eIF4E increased the total eIF4E pool by 120-140% above endogenous levels after 24 h and produced a corresponding increase in eIF4F content.However, it did not accelerate total protein synthesis rates inquiescent cardiocytes; neither did it potentiate the increase produced by contraction. To modify the affinity of eIF4F, cardiocytes were infected with a mutant (eIF4E/W56F) with a decreased binding affinity for the mRNA cap. Overexpression of eIF4E/W56F increased the quantity of eIF4F but the rate of total protein synthesis was decreased inquiescent and contracting cardiocytes. Overexpression of a mutant that blocked eIF4E phosphorylation (eIF4E/S209A) increased the quantity ofeIF4F without any significant effect on total protein synthesis rates in quiescent or contracting cardiocytes. Overexpression of the eIF4Ekinase Mnk-1 increased eIF4E phosphorylation without a corresponding increase in eIF4F complex formation or in the rate of total protein synthesis. We conclude the following: (1) eIF4F assembly is increased by raising eIF4E levels via adenoviral gene transfer; (2) the capbinding affinity of eIF4F is a rate-limiting determinant for total protein synthesis rates; and (3) increases in the quantity of eIF4Falone or in eIF4E phosphorylation are not sufficient to accelerate total protein synthesis rates. PMID:11368785

Saghir, A N; Tuxworth, W J; Hagedorn, C H; McDermott, P J

2001-06-01

309

Modifications of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) in adult cardiocytes by adenoviral gene transfer: differential effects on eIF4F activity and total protein synthesis rates.  

PubMed Central

In adult feline cardiocytes, increases in eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) activity are correlated with accelerated rates of total protein synthesis produced in response to increased load.Adenoviral gene transfer was employed to increase either eIF4F complex formation or the phosphorylation of eIF4E on Ser-209. To simulate load,cardiocytes were electrically stimulated to contract (2 Hz,5 ms pulses). Non-stimulated cardiocytes were used as controls.Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of wild-type eIF4E increased the total eIF4E pool by 120-140% above endogenous levels after 24 h and produced a corresponding increase in eIF4F content.However, it did not accelerate total protein synthesis rates inquiescent cardiocytes; neither did it potentiate the increase produced by contraction. To modify the affinity of eIF4F, cardiocytes were infected with a mutant (eIF4E/W56F) with a decreased binding affinity for the mRNA cap. Overexpression of eIF4E/W56F increased the quantity of eIF4F but the rate of total protein synthesis was decreased inquiescent and contracting cardiocytes. Overexpression of a mutant that blocked eIF4E phosphorylation (eIF4E/S209A) increased the quantity ofeIF4F without any significant effect on total protein synthesis rates in quiescent or contracting cardiocytes. Overexpression of the eIF4Ekinase Mnk-1 increased eIF4E phosphorylation without a corresponding increase in eIF4F complex formation or in the rate of total protein synthesis. We conclude the following: (1) eIF4F assembly is increased by raising eIF4E levels via adenoviral gene transfer; (2) the capbinding affinity of eIF4F is a rate-limiting determinant for total protein synthesis rates; and (3) increases in the quantity of eIF4Falone or in eIF4E phosphorylation are not sufficient to accelerate total protein synthesis rates.

Saghir, A N; Tuxworth , W J; Hagedorn, C H; McDermott, P J

2001-01-01

310

Human resource issues and technology transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the pivotal role of human resources in the successful acquisition, assimilation, diffusion and development of technology across international boundaries. A model of technology transfer which shows the interplay of factors that can affect the efficacy of technology transfer between entities across nations is presented. Other important considerations (on both the supplier and recipient sides) that can facilitate

Rosalie L. Tung

1994-01-01

311

Technology Transfer and Human Resource Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defines technology transfer in the macroeconomic sense and highlights three factors which must be taken into account, namely contrast, similarity and compatibility. Advises examination of social and economic costs before embarking on such a project. Identifies human resources as the most important element of technology transfer, as it influences both the acquisition and integration of new technology. Provides a five-stage

Jon-Chao Hong

1994-01-01

312

Load transfer mechanism in carbon nanotube ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics to study the nature of load transfer in a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundle consisting of seven (10,10) SWCNTs: one core tube surrounded by six tubes on the perimeter. The surface tension and the inter-tube corrugation are identified as the two factors that contribute to load transfer. The surface tension effectively acts

Dong Qian; Rodney S. Ruoff

2003-01-01

313

Applying Transfer in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout the chapters in this issue, the authors have cited various definitions for learning transfer. For educators, in its simplest form, transfer of learning occurs when students put to practical use the knowledge and skills they gained in the classroom (near transfer). Chapter 1 defines near transfer and then goes into detail on the levels…

Kaminski, Karen; Foley, Jeffrey M.; Kaiser, Leann M. R.

2013-01-01

314

Engineering heat transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic concepts of heat transfer are set forth, and the fundamentals of numerical analysis appropriate to solving heat transfer problems are covered. In some example problems, numerical solutions, flow charts, example FORTRAN programs, and computer output are given. Conduction, convection, thermal radiation, and combined mechanisms of heat transfer are investigated. A chapter on heat transfer equipment is given, and

J. R. Welty

1974-01-01

315

PLANT UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF AIR-BORNE CHLORDANE AND COMPARISON WITH THE SOIL-TO-PLANT ROUTE. (R828174)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

316

The Decline of the Transfer Function: Threats or Challenges?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizes a decline in the community college transfer function. Cites studies revealing a decrease in the number of transfer students, lower ability levels, and weakened liberal arts programs as causative factors. Calls for the transfer function's preservation through improved communication, clearly stated admissions requirements, improved…

Kissler, Gerald R.

1982-01-01

317

Barriers to Transfer Student Academic Success and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Transition to College Inventory (TCI) designed to identify patterns of noncognitive factors related to academic performance and persistence was adapted and validated for use with first-year transfer students in a university setting. In this study, 369 entering transfer students were surveyed during Transfer Preview, an orientation program for…

Duggan, Molly H.; Pickering, J. Worth

2008-01-01

318

Keeping School: Teacher Transfers within a Large District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher transfers from one worksite to another have a significant impact upon the schools they leave. Researchers and school leaders have proposed a number of solutions to attempt to address teacher transfers, but the rate of teacher transfers remains high. Thus, a better understanding of the motivational factors related to teachers' decisions to…

Thornton, Bill; Perreault, George; Jennings, Mike

2008-01-01

319

Strategies for Helping Students Transfer Credits. DETC Occasional Paper 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is a guide to the process of transferring college credits from one institution of higher education to another. First, it identifies the factors that affect college transfer, including college and/or state policies on transfer of credits, college residency requirements, comparability of courses, grade received in a course, and…

Fares, Ali

320

Wireless Power Transfer  

ScienceCinema

Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consump

None

2013-11-19

321

Wireless Power Transfer  

SciTech Connect

Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consump

None

2013-07-22

322

Quality factors  

SciTech Connect

The quality factor, Q, is a dimensionless modifier used in converting absorbed dose, expressed in gray (or rad), to dose equivalent, expressed in sievert (or rem). The dose equivalent is used in radiation protection to account for the biological effectiveness of different kinds of radiation. The quality factor is related to both linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The RBE obtained from biological experiments depends in a complex way on the observed biological effect, the specific test organism and the experimental conditions. Judgment is involved, therefore, in the choice of Q. Questions regarding the adequacy of current Q values for neutrons were first raised in a 1980 statement by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and later in a 1985 statement by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1980, the NCRP alerted the technical community to the possibility of a future increase between a factor of 3 to 10 in the Q for neutrons, and in 1985, the ICRP suggested an increase by a factor of 2 in Q for fast neutrons. Both these advisory groups are now recommending essentially the same guidance with regard to Q for neutrons: an increase by a factor of 2. The Q for neutrons is based on a large, albeit unfocused, body of experimental data. In spite of the lack of focus, the data supporting a change in the neutron quality factor are substantial. However, the proposed doubling of Q for neutrons is clouded by other issues regarding its application. These issues are discussed, together with the current database for the neutron quality factor. Improvements are needed to provide better guidance with regard to both Q for neutrons and its application in radiation protection.

Kerr, G.D.

1988-08-01

323

Probability of Detection Demonstration Transferability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ongoing Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Propellant Tank Penetrant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Probability of Detection (POD) Assessment (NESC activity) has surfaced several issues associated with liquid penetrant POD demonstration testing. This presentation lists factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. Initial testing will address the liquid penetrant inspection technique. Some of the factors to be considered in this task are crack aspect ratio, the extent of the crack opening, the material and the distance between the inspection surface and the inspector's eye.

Parker, Bradford H.

2008-01-01

324

Wireless adiabatic power transfer  

SciTech Connect

Research Highlights: > Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. > The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

Rangelov, A.A., E-mail: rangelov@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Department of Physics, Sofia University, James Bourchier 5 blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y. [Department of Physics of Complex System, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Vitanov, N.V. [Department of Physics, Sofia University, James Bourchier 5 blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

2011-03-15

325

Electron Transfer versus Proton Transfer in Gas-Phase Ion/Ion Reactions of Polyprotonated Peptides  

PubMed Central

The ion/ion reactions of several dozen reagent anions with triply protonated cations of the model peptide KGAILKGAILR have been examined to evaluate predictions of a Landau–Zener-based model for the likelihood for electron transfer. Evidence for electron transfer was provided by the appearance of fragment ions unique to electron transfer or electron capture dissociation. Proton transfer and electron transfer are competitive processes for any combination of anionic and cationic reactants. For reagent anions in reactions with protonated peptides, proton transfer is usually significantly more exothermic than electron transfer. If charge transfer occurs at relatively long distances, electron transfer should, therefore, be favored on kinetic grounds because the reactant and product channels cross at greater distances, provided conditions are favorable for electron transfer at the crossing point. The results are consistent with a model based on Landau–Zener theory that indicates both thermodynamic and geometric criteria apply for electron transfer involving polyatomic anions. Both the model and the data suggest that electron affinities associated with the anionic reagents greater than about 60–70 kcal/mol minimize the likelihood that electron transfer will be observed. Provided the electron affinity is not too high, the Franck–Condon factors associated with the anion and its corresponding neutral must not be too low. When one or the other of these criteria is not met, proton transfer tends to occur essentially exclusively. Experiments involving ion/ion attachment products also suggest that a significant barrier exists to the isomerization between chemical complexes that, if formed, lead to either proton transfer or electron transfer.

Gunawardena, Harsha P.; He, Min; Chrisman, Paul A.; Pitteri, Sharon J.; Hogan, Jason M.; Hodges, Brittany D. M.; McLuckey, Scott A.

2005-01-01

326

Mechanisms of metal ion-coupled electron transfer.  

PubMed

Redox inactive metal ions acting as Lewis acids can control electron transfer from electron donors (D) to electron acceptors (A) by binding to radical anions of electron acceptors which act as Lewis bases. Such electron transfer is defined as metal ion-coupled electron transfer (MCET). Mechanisms of metal ion-coupled electron transfer are classified mainly into two pathways, i.e., metal ion binding to electron acceptors followed by electron transfer (MB/ET) and electron transfer followed by metal ion binding to the resulting radical anions of electron acceptors (ET/MB). In the former case, electron transfer and the stronger binding of metal ions to the radical anions occur in a concerted manner. Examples are shown in each case to clarify the factors to control MCET reactions in both thermal and photoinduced electron-transfer reactions including back electron-transfer reactions. PMID:22596095

Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ohkubo, Kei; Morimoto, Yuma

2012-05-17

327

Methods of Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To help students better understand conduction, convection, and radiation as methods of heat transfer in solids, liquids and gases. Let's look at all three methods of heat transfer ... Overview of Conduction, Convection, Radiation Conduction- 1. Explain what happens as heat energy is supplied to one part of a solid. 2. Explain how energy is transferred by conduction through a solid. Convection- 1. What is ?anything fluid? ? Include two examples. 2. Describe how and why heat is transferred in ...

Carlone, Mrs.

2006-11-12

328

Overcoming knowledge stickiness in scientific knowledge transfer.  

PubMed

This paper explores the transfer and dissemination of knowledge between scientists, the volunteers who collect the knowledge and the communities which learn from it in order to implement change. The role of knowledge "stickiness" in the reduction of knowledge transfer is outlined. The characteristics of the knowledge and the situation combine to develop a range of factors, "stickiness predictors," which can deter knowledge transfer. These stickiness predictors are used to analyse data gathered from three qualitative cases, which were developed from both participant observation and semi-structured interviews studying the interactions between the scientists, volunteers and organisations. A reconsideration of the way that knowledge and knowledge transfer are being conceptualised by scientists is proposed, in order to enable "stickiness" factors to be recognised and managed, thereby increasing the potential for scientific literacy. A move towards a more broadly constituted community of practice is proposed. PMID:23823166

Blackman, Deborah; Benson, Angela M

2012-07-01

329

Phonon-induced dynamic resonance energy transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a network of interacting quantum systems, achieving fast coherent energy transfer is a challenging task. While quantum systems are susceptible to a wide range of environmental factors, in many physical settings their interactions with quantized vibrations, or phonons, of a supporting structure are the most prevalent. This leads to noise and decoherence in the network, ultimately impacting the energy-transfer process. In this work, we introduce a novel type of coherent energy-transfer mechanism for quantum systems, where phonon interactions are able to actually enhance the energy transfer. Here, a shared phonon interacts with the systems and dynamically adjusts their resonances, providing remarkable directionality combined with quantum speed-up. We call this mechanism phonon-induced dynamic resonance energy transfer and show that it enables long-range coherent energy transport even in highly disordered systems.

Lim, James; Tame, Mark; Yee, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Joong-Sung; Lee, Jinhyoung

2014-05-01

330

Transfer of Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four symposium papers on transfer of learning. In "Learning Transfer in a Social Service Agency: Test of an Expectancy Model of Motivation" (Reid A. Bates) structural equation modeling is used to test the validity of a valence-instrumentality-expectancy approach to motivation to transfer learning. "The Relationship between…

1999

331

Transfer of Learning Transformed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instruction is motivated by the assumption that students can transfer their learning, or apply what they have learned in school to another setting. A common problem arises when the expected transfer does not take place, what has been referred to as the inert knowledge problem. More than an academic inconvenience, the failure to transfer is a major…

Larsen-Freeman, Diane

2013-01-01

332

Proton transfer in organic scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation focuses on the fundamental understanding of the proton transfer process and translating the knowledge into design/development of new organic materials for efficient non-aqueous proton transport. For example, what controls the shuttling of a proton between two basic sites? a) Distance between two groups? or b) the basicity? c) What is the impact of protonation on molecular conformation when the basic sites are attached to rigid scaffolds? For this purpose, we developed several tunable proton sponges and studied proton transfer in these scaffolds theoretically as well as experimentally. Next we moved our attention to understand long-range proton conduction or proton transport. We introduced liquid crystalline (LC) proton conductor based on triphenylene molecule and established that activation energy barrier for proton transport is lower in the LC phase compared to the crystalline phase. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of several critical factors: the choice of the proton transferring groups, mobility of the charge carriers, intrinsic vs. extrinsic charge carrier concentrations and the molecular architectures on long-range proton transport. The outcome of this research will lead to a deeper understanding of non-aqueous proton transfer process and aid the design of next generation proton exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel cell.

Basak, Dipankar

333

DNA transfer: review and implications for casework.  

PubMed

DNA-bearing cellular material can come to be present on a surface by either direct or indirect transfer. Direct transfer includes contact, but also includes activities within the vicinity of an item that may result in the transfer of DNA directly from an individual without any contact, such as speaking, coughing, and sneezing. Indirect transfer of DNA is when DNA from an individual comes to be on an item via an intermediary surface. It is important to consider indirect transfer in the evaluation of trace DNA in casework. The term 'trace DNA' in this review refers solely to DNA that cannot be attributed to an identifiable body fluid. This review presents and considers data from trace DNA experiments to establish whether the quantity of DNA recovered from a crime stain and/or the quality of a DNA profile obtained can be used to infer the likely mechanism of transfer. The data show that varied results are obtained from apparently similar trace DNA samples, presumably due to the many factors that affect the detection of trace DNA. The nature and effect of these varying factors and the application of the data to casework is considered generally and with specific reference to DNA transfer to skin, DNA beneath fingernails, 'wearer DNA', and various contamination considerations. PMID:23623709

Meakin, Georgina; Jamieson, Allan

2013-07-01

334

Heat transfer system  

DOEpatents

A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

335

Heat transfer system  

DOEpatents

A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

Not Available

1980-03-07

336

Debottlenecking using heat transfer enhancement  

SciTech Connect

Vertical thermosiphon reboilers (VTRs) and multiple-effect evaporators, used widely in the process industries, are difficult to debottleneck. As a result, process engineers usually wind up buying expensive replacement units when they need to increase VTR or multiple-effect-evaporator throughput. Flow in these units depends on the buoyancy created by vaporization. Flowrate is thus linked not only to heat transfer rate, but also to vaporization and frictional and static pressure loss. Since these factors are closely linked, changing one affects the others. In this article, using a simulation model that has been validated against actual reboiler performance data, the authors show how tube inserts can be used to enhance heat transfer and to debottleneck some of these types of units. They conclude the article by working out a sample debottlenecking for a typical feed-forward, multi-effect evaporator operating at low pressure, using the simulation.

Polly, G.T.; Gibbard, I. [Cal Gavin Ltd. Process Intensification Engineering, Inc., Alcester (United Kingdom); Pretty, B. [Veritech, Inc., Reston, VA (United States)

1998-05-01

337

Transferability of interventions in health education: a review  

PubMed Central

Background Health education interventions are generally complex. Their outcomes result from both the intervention itself and the context for which they are developed. Thus, when an intervention carried out in one context is reproduced in another, its transferability can be questionable. We performed a literature review to analyze the concept of transferability in the health education field. Methods Articles included were published between 2000 and 2010 that addressed the notion of transferability of interventions in health education. Articles were analyzed using a standardized grid based on four items: 1) terminology used; 2) factors that influenced transferability; 3) capacity of the research and evaluation designs to assess transferability; and 4) tools and criteria available to assess transferability. Results 43 articles met the inclusion criteria. Only 13 of them used the exact term “transferability” and one article gave an explicit definition: the extent to which the measured effectiveness of an applicable intervention could be achieved in another setting. Moreover, this concept was neither clearly used nor distinguished from others, such as applicability. We highlight the levels of influence of transferability and their associated factors, as well as the limitations of research methods in their ability to produce transferable conclusions. Conclusions We have tried to clarify the concept by defining it along three lines that may constitute areas for future research: factors influencing transferability, research methods to produce transferable data, and development of criteria to assess transferability. We conclude this review with three propositions: 1) a conceptual clarification of transferability, especially with reference to other terms used; 2) avenues for developing knowledge on this concept and analyzing the transferability of interventions; and 3) in relation to research, avenues for developing better evaluation methods for assessing the transferability of interventions.

2012-01-01

338

APPALACHIAN BRIDGES TO THE BACCALAUREATE: INSTITUTIONAL PERCEPTIONS OF COMMUNITY COLLEGE TRANSFER SUCCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of the problem. Appalachian community colleges are dealing with a dynamic transfer policy environment and implementing practices that either foster or impede transfer student success. The problem in this dissertation is to discern how Appalachian community colleges are making sense of transfer policy changes and conducting practices to address student transfer success. Although individual factors must be considered by

Christopher M. Phillips

2011-01-01

339

Intraluminal Factors Affecting Iron Absorption.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The simplest model of iron absorption must consider (1) the mucosal uptake of dietary iron and (2) the transfer of iron from intestinal cells into the body. It provides three anatomic locations for studying regulatory factors: (a) intraluminal, (b) duoden...

M. E. Conrad

1968-01-01

340

Model for Ground-Coupled Heat and Moisture Transfer from Buildings  

SciTech Connect

An important factor in soil heat transfer that is often over looked is the effect of moisture, which can vary the effective thermal conductivity by a factor of ten. The objective of this research was to investigate the ground-coupled heat and moisture transfer from buildings, and to develop results and tools to improve energy simulation of ground-coupled heat transfer.

Deru, M.

2003-06-01

341

Can Knowledge Be Transferred?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The paper argues that conventional models of knowledge transfer are confused and mistaken. Books can be transferred between\\u000a people. Knowledge is more complex. Knowledge transfer is not a linear process managed by administrators. It is a matter of\\u000a culture change, with knowledge as integral to the culture.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Knowledge is socially constituted, and not simply held by individuals. Explicit knowledge is

Richard Ennals; Peter Totterdill; Robert Parrington

342

Settled Cryogenic Propellant Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic propellant transfer can significantly benefit NASA s space exploration initiative. LMSSC parametric studies indicate that "Topping off" the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) in LEO with approx.20 mT of additional propellant using cryogenic propellant transfer increases the lunar delivered payload by 5 mT. Filling the EDS to capacity in LEO with 78 mT of propellants increases the delivered payload by 20 mT. Cryogenic propellant transfer is directly extensible to Mars exploration in that it provides propellant for the Mars Earth Departure stage and in-situ propellant utilization at Mars. To enable the significant performance increase provided by cryogenic propellant transfer, the reliability and robustness of the transfer process must be guaranteed. By utilizing low vehicle acceleration during the cryogenic transfer the operation is significantly simplified and enables the maximum use of existing, reliable, mature upper stage cryogenic-fluid-management (CFM) techniques. Due to settling, large-scale propellant transfer becomes an engineering effort, and not the technology development endeavor required with zero-gravity propellant transfer. The following key CFM technologies are all currently implemented by settling on both the Centaur and Delta IV upper stages: propellant acquisition, hardware chilldown, pressure control, and mass gauging. The key remaining technology, autonomous rendezvous and docking, is already in use by the Russians, and must be perfected for NASA whether the use of propellant transfer is utilized or not.

Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; Sakla, Steve; Wall, John; Hopkins, Josh; Saks, Greg; Duffey, Jack; Chato, David J.

2006-01-01

343

Health factors in colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum is a breast milk produced after the birth of the newborn and lasts for 2–4 days. Colostrum is very important part\\u000a of breast milk and lays down the immune system and confers growth factors and other protective factors for the young ones\\u000a in mammals. This is the source of passive immunity achieved by the mother and is transferred to

B. R. Thapa

2005-01-01

344

The electronic couplings in electron transfer and excitation energy transfer.  

PubMed

The transport of charge via electrons and the transport of excitation energy via excitons are two processes of fundamental importance in diverse areas of research. Characterization of electron transfer (ET) and excitation energy transfer (EET) rates are essential for a full understanding of, for instance, biological systems (such as respiration and photosynthesis) and opto-electronic devices (which interconvert electric and light energy). In this Account, we examine one of the parameters, the electronic coupling factor, for which reliable values are critical in determining transfer rates. Although ET and EET are different processes, many strategies for calculating the couplings share common themes. We emphasize the similarities in basic assumptions between the computational methods for the ET and EET couplings, examine the differences, and summarize the properties, advantages, and limits of the different computational methods. The electronic coupling factor is an off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix element between the initial and final diabatic states in the transport processes. ET coupling is essentially the interaction of the two molecular orbitals (MOs) where the electron occupancy is changed. Singlet excitation energy transfer (SEET), however, contains a Frster dipole-dipole coupling as its most important constituent. Triplet excitation energy transfer (TEET) involves an exchange of two electrons of different spin and energy; thus, it is like an overlap interaction of two pairs of MOs. Strategies for calculating ET and EET couplings can be classified as (1) energy-gap-based approaches, (2) direct calculation of the off-diagonal matrix elements, or (3) use of an additional operator to describe the extent of charge or excitation localization and to calculate the coupling value. Some of the difficulties in calculating the couplings were recently resolved. Methods were developed to remove the nondynamical correlation problem from the highly precise coupled cluster models for ET coupling. It is now possible to obtain reliable ET couplings from entry-level excited-state Hamiltonians. A scheme to calculate the EET coupling in a general class of systems, regardless of the contributing terms, was also developed. In the past, empirically derived parameters were heavily invoked in model description of charge and excitation energy drifts in a solid-state device. Recent advances, including the methods described in this Account, permit the first-principle quantum mechanical characterization of one class of the parameters in such descriptions, enhancing the predictive power and allowing a deeper understanding of the systems involved. PMID:19215069

Hsu, Chao-Ping

2009-04-21

345

Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Intermediaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A standard and comprehensive model is needed to evaluate and compare technology transfer systems and the stakeholders within these systems. The principle systems considered include federal laboratories, U.S. universities, the rehabilitation engineering research centers (RERCs), and large small business innovation research programs. An earlier…

Bauer, Stephen M.; Flagg, Jennifer L.

2010-01-01

346

POTENTIAL FOR TRANSFER AND ESTABLISHMENT OF ENGINEERED GENETIC SEQUENCES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The transfer of recombinant DNA molecules from the introduced organism to natural populations of bacteria may be an important factor in assessing the outcomes of planned release of genetically engineered organisms into the environment. As genetic transfer is further investigated,...

347

Transfer of Radionuclides from the Environment to Human Milk. A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author reviews literature from an on-line bibliographic search and describes what is known about radionuclide and elemental transfer from the environment to human milk. Included in the review are factors affecting elemental transfer, element concentra...

M. Eaman

1986-01-01

348

Student Equity: Transfer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the transfer function at Diablo Valley College (DVC), in California, this report offers 1991 and 1992 transfer data drawn from reports issued by the University of California (UC), the California State University (CSU), and the Los Angeles-based Center for the Study of Community Colleges (CSCC). Following introductory materials, the UC…

Birdsall, Les

349

Technology Transfer | Poster  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute’s Technology Transfer Center (NCI’s TTC) recently launched a redesign of its website. New graphics, color scheme, and updated features provide a user-friendly environment for finding information related to technology transfer at NCI.

350

National Technology Transfer Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on the National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC) are provided. The NTTC mission is to serve as a hub for the nationwide technology-transfer network to expedite the movement of federally developed technology into the stream of commerce. A description of the Center is provided.

Rivers, Lee W.

1992-01-01

351

Forefoot tendon transfers.  

PubMed

Flexible forefoot deformities, such as hallux varus, clawed hallux, hammer toes, and angular lesser toe deformities, can be treated effectively with tendon transfers. Based on the presentation of the flexible forefoot deformities, tendon transfers can be used as the primary treatment or as adjuncts to bony procedures when there are components of fixed deformities. PMID:24548515

Veljkovic, Andrea; Lansang, Edward; Lau, Johnny

2014-03-01

352

Transfer involving deformed nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs.

Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

1985-03-01

353

A Three-Phased Technology Transfer Model: Lessons from Software Technology Transfer from Japan to Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software development is quickly becoming globally distributed. Cross-country-border software development that spans across country borders is a mandatory part of software production today. In order to facilitate global coordination, the transfer of technology is a key. We analyze a successful technology transfer from one time dimension and three factor dimensions. From the lessons learned, we propose a three-phase model of

Toshihiko Yamakami; Hiroyuki Suzuki

2008-01-01

354

Evaluating the performance of technology transfer offices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the causal relationships among the factors influencing the technology transfer offices' (TTOs) performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) method is used in this study. Findings – The findings from this research is that TTO human resources, industry research demand, R&D budget of university and economic uncertainty are the

Alp Ustundag; Seda U?urlu; Mehmet Serdar Kilinc

2011-01-01

355

Maximizing profits in international technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maximum profit can be introduced into international technology transfer by observing the following: (1) ethical and open dealing between the parties; (2) maximum knowledge of all facts concerning the technology, the use of the technology, the market, competition, prices, and alternatives; (3) ability to coordinate exports, service, support activities, licensing and cross licensing; and (4) knowledgeable people which put these factors together.

Straube, W.

1974-01-01

356

Information transfer in the National Airspace System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An informal overview is given of the work in progress and the planned work in the area of information transfer that specifically addresses human factors issues in National Airspace System (NAS). The issues of how weather information will be displayed on the flight deck, the development of appropriate decision making technology, and digital datalink transmission are also briefly discussed.

Lee, Alfred T.

1988-01-01

357

Ion-exchange voltammetry as a solid-phase microextraction analytical method:? factors influencing the mass transfer to perfluorosulfonated ionomer film-coated electrodes and some of their consequences on the current responses.  

PubMed

A simple theoretical model of mass transfer kinetics at an electrode coated with an ion-exchange film polymer is proposed. The model takes into account the analyte depletion in solution and gives the relationship between the ion-exchange voltammetric (IEV) peak current and the initial analyte concentration in the sample matrix. The verification of the model is investigated at disposable Nafion film-coated screen-printed electrodes, using the redox cationic (ferrocenylmethyl)trimethylammonium salt. It is shown that the theoretical model and the experimental data fit satisfactorily insofar as the variation of the extraction and apparent diffusion coefficients of the salt with the film thickness are taken into account. Indeed, the film thickness plays a crucial role for the optimization of the IEV sensitivity, because the physicochemical properties of the recast Nafion polymer are dependent on the amount per unit area of Nafion deposited on the electrode surface. PMID:21662910

Bagel, O; Degrand, C; Limoges, B

1999-08-01

358

Decal transfer lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new soft-lithographic method for micropatterning polymeric resists, Decal Transfer Lithography (DTL), is described. This technique is based on the adhesive transfer of elastomeric decal patterns via the engineered adhesion and release properties of a compliant poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) patterning tool. This procedure is capable of transferring micron to sub-micron-sized features with high fidelity over large substrate areas in both open and closed forms, negative and positive image contrasts. Methods are introduced to promote adhesion of PDMS to noble metals using either of two methods: self-assembling monolayers (SAMs) or silicon dioxide capping layers. A novel UV/Ozone (UVO) mask was developed, which allows the photopatterning of UVO modifications of polymer surfaces. This modification in turn enables the direct photoinitiated patterning of resist patterns transferred by the soft-lithographic DTL method Photodefined-Cohesive Mechanical Failure (P-CMF), which fuses the design rules of the contact based adhesive transfer of PDMS in DTL with those of photolithography. The second, so-called Spartacus method, transfers the design rules of photolithography directly onto PDMS surfaces, enabling a photodefined adhesive transfer of PDMS films onto silicon oxide surfaces. The most significant advance embodied in the DTL method, however, is that is offers useful new capabilities for the design and fabrication of patterns of non-planar surfaces, 3D microfluidic assemblies, and microreactors.

Childs, William Robert

359

Transfer efficiency optimal control of magnetic resonance coupled system of wireless power transfer based on frequency control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to suppress the fast decrease of the transfer efficiency of magnetic resonance coupled wireless power transfer system\\u000a (MRCWPTS) with distance increase, this paper investigates the impact factors of the system transfer efficiency and is, then\\u000a formulates a new efficiency optimal control method based on frequency control. Based upon this control method two optimal\\u000a control schemes are designed to

LinLin Tan; XueLiang Huang; Hui Huang; YuWei Zou; Hui Li

2011-01-01

360

Estimation of Mass Transfer Rates through Hydrophobic Pervaporation Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pervaporation of dilute solutions (acids, esters, and ketones) through hydrophobic membranes, mass transfer coefficients increased with temperature in an Arrhenius-like manner. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors were estimated through empirical correlations, allowing estimation of mass transfer coefficients. The activation energy was a function of the heat of sorption and the elastic modulus of the membrane. For low molecular weight

Amy R. Overington; Marie Wong; John A. Harrison; Lílian B. Ferreira

2009-01-01

361

Heat transfer enhancement of copper nanofluid with acoustic cavitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer characteristics of copper nanofluids with and without acoustic cavitation were investigated experimentally. The effects of such factors as acoustical parameters, nanofluid concentration and fluid subcooling on heat transfer enhancement around a heated horizontal copper tube were discussed in detail. The results indicated that the copper nanoparticles and acoustic cavitation had profound and significant influence on heat transport in

D. W. Zhou

2004-01-01

362

Tendon transfers-how do they work? Planning and implementation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to update the orthopedic community on the planning and implementation of tendon transfers in the foot and ankle. This information will serve to reinforce those principles and factors that are inherent in successful performance of tendon transfer. In addition, the authors highlight recent updates that impact decision-making for these procedures. PMID:24548506

Dowd, Thomas; Bluman, Eric M

2014-03-01

363

Heat transfer equipment design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive presentation is made of state-of-the-art configurations and design methodologies for heat transfer devices applicable to industrial processes, automotive systems, air conditioning/refrigeration, cryogenics, and petrochemicals refining. Attention is given to topics in heat exchanger mechanical design, single-phase convection processes, thermal design, two-phase exchanger thermal design, heat-transfer augmentation, and rheological effects. Computerized analysis and design methodologies are presented for the range of heat transfer systems, as well as advanced methods for optimization and performance projection.

Shah, R. K.; Subbarao, Eleswarapu Chinna; Mashelkar, R. A.

364

Heat Transfer Fluids for Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief survey is given of the properties, compared to water, of three commercially available heat transfer fluids -- ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and silicone oil. Their physical and chemical properties and toxicity are discussed as well as factors ...

E. Moeller

1982-01-01

365

Astrophysical S-factor of the {sup 12}N(p,{gamma}){sup 13}O Reaction Determined from the ({sup 12}N,{sup 13}O) Proton Transfer Reaction  

SciTech Connect

The reaction cross section of the radiative proton capture on the drip line nucleus {sup 12}N was studied at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A and M University. We have employed the indirect Asymptotic Normalization Coefficient method to determine the direct radiative component of the astrophysical S-factor of the {sup 12}N(p,{gamma}){sup 13}O reaction. A value of 0.31(5) keV{center_dot}b was found at zero energy. Interference between direct and resonant captures leads to a further enhancement of a factor of two. The reaction was investigated in relation to the evolution of hydrogen-rich massive objects, Population III stars, because of the role that it may play in the hot pp chain nuclear burning processes occurring in such stars.

Banu, A.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, C. A.; McCleskey, M.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Zhai, Y. [Cyclotrone Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Burjan, V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Carstoiu, F. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania)

2008-01-24

366

Glycolipid transfer proteins  

PubMed Central

Glycolipid transfer proteins (GLTPs) are small (24 kD), soluble, ubiquitous proteins characterized by their ability to accelerate the intermembrane transfer of glycolipids in vitro. GLTP specificity encompasses both sphingoid- and glycerol-based glycolipids, but with a strict requirement that the initial sugar residue be beta-linked to the hydrophobic lipid backbone. The 3D protein structures of GLTP reveal liganded structures with unique lipid binding modes. The biochemical properties of GLTP action at the membrane surface have been studied rather comprehensively, but the biological role of GLTP remains enigmatic. What is clear is that GLTP differs distinctly from other known glycolipid-binding proteins, such as nonspecific lipid transfer proteins, lysosomal sphingolipid activator proteins, lectins, lung surfactant proteins as well as other lipid binding/transfer proteins. Based on the unique conformational architecture that targets GLTP to membranes and enables glycolipid binding, GLTP is now considered the prototypical and founding member of a new protein superfamily in eukaryotes.

Brown, Rhoderick E.; Mattjus, Peter

2007-01-01

367

Heat Transfer Through Fabrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heat is transferred through fabrics by convection, conduction and radiation and under certain circumstances by vaporization. Each mode is subject to different physical principles but the effect of the total heat absorbed by underlying skin is the same: if...

A. M. Stoll M. A. Chianta

1970-01-01

368

International Technology Transfer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The flow of technology out of the United States is discussed. Methods of technology flow, such as licensing and investing, are identified, and the advantages and disadvantages of technology transfer are discussed, especially in relation to the government's role. (MLH)

Morris, Robert G.

369

Lunar Transfer Vehicle Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lunar transportation architectures exist for several different mission scenarios. Direct flights from Earth are possible, as the Apollo program clearly demonstrated. Alternatively, a space transfer vehicle could be constructed in space by using the Space ...

J. T. Keeley

1993-01-01

370

DCIDE Material Transfer Agreement  

Cancer.gov

MATERIAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Development of Clinical Imaging Drugs and Enhancers Program (DCIDE) has been designed to assist academic and business investigators to acquire the data necessary for them to file an Investigational

371

Puzzles of electron transfer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Major progress has been made to dramatically change our concepts of electron transfer reactions over the last several years by defining the distances, energetics, and even orientation of electron donor and acceptors groups. Despite this progress, several ...

J. R. Miller

1989-01-01

372

Operational transfer path analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the tools used to study the NVH behaviour of a system is the transfer path analysis. It aims to identify the operational forces and the propagation paths of the vibrations and is especially interesting in the case when the system is composed of different subsystems. The classical techniques identify the transfer paths when the system is disassembled. This way one eliminates flanking transfer paths. Yet it is very time-consuming and the boundary conditions are not correct anymore. The presented method makes it possible to identify the transfer paths without disassembling the system. The advantages are that the overall testing time is reduced and that the real boundary conditions are present. In this article the theory will be reviewed and it will be validated using data generated by finite element simulations.

De Sitter, Gert; Devriendt, Christof; Guillaume, Patrick; Pruyt, Erik

2010-02-01

373

Transfer-Function Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transfer function simulator constructed from analog or both analog and digital components substitute for device that has faults that confound analysis of feedback control loop. Simulator is substitute for laser and spectrophone.

Kavaya, M. J.

1985-01-01

374

FLT Transfer Agreement  

Cancer.gov

Provider: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Provider agrees to transfer to Recipient the following Production Documents (click here) for the production of 3'-deoxy-3'- [F-18] fluorothymidine ([F-18] FLT). (A) Generic Chemistry, Manufacturing and Control

375

Electroluminescent Proton Transfer Polymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effects of molecular size, extended conformation, and excimer formation on excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in main chain polymers were investigated in a series of homopolymers and copolymers. Several polymers were shown to exhibit bot...

S. A. Jenekhe X. Zhang R. M. Tarkka

1998-01-01

376

Monte Carlo radiative transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I outline methods for calculating the solution of Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer (MCRT) in scattering, absorption and emission processes of dust and gas, including polarization. I provide a bibliography of relevant papers on methods with astrophysical applications.

Whitney, B. A.

2011-03-01

377

Monte Carlo radiative transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I outline methods for calculating the solution of Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer (MCRT) in scattering, absorption and emission processes of dust and gas, including polarization. I provide a bibliography of relevant papers on methods with astrophysical applications.

Whitney, Barbara A.

2011-12-01

378

Investment casting heat transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calculate temperature profile and Biot number in mixed conduction and convection/radiation heat transfer from liquid metal through a ceramic mold to the environment, and suggest a design change to reduce the probability of shattering due to thermal stress.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2004-12-15

379

Technology transfer methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on technology transfer methodology is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on new systems development, the developer's perspective, barriers to providing a home for technology, and incentives for using new technologies.

Labotz, Rich; Connell, Don; Kroll, Ken

1991-01-01

380

Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

1980-01-01

381

Sensitization of Tumor Necrosis Factor a-resistant Human Melanoma by Tumor specific in Vivo Transfer of the Gene Encoding Endothelial Monocyte-activating Polypeptide II Using Recombinant Vaccinia Virus1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a) is a proinflammatory cytokine with potent experimental antitumor activity. Its clinical use in cancer treatment is severely limited by its considerable toxicity after systemic administra- tion, and it is currently confined to isolated limb and organ perfusion settings. In this report, we introduce a novel concept of TNF-a-based gene therapy using the TNF-sensitizing properties of

Michael F. X. Gnant; Adam C. Berger; James Huang; Peter C. Wu; Maria J. Merino; David L. Bartlett; H. Richard; Steven K. Libutti

1999-01-01

382

Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2-mediated gene transfer into human keratinocytes is influenced by both the ubiquitin\\/proteasome pathway and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient gene delivery into keratinocytes is a prerequisite for successful skin gene therapy. Vectors based on recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (rAAV-2) offer several promising features that make them attractive for cutaneous applications. However, highly efficient gene delivery may be hampered by different cellular factors, including lack of viral receptors, impairment of cytoplasmic trafficking or limitations in viral second-strand synthesis.

Markus Braun-Falco; Angelika Eisenried; Hildegard Büning; Johannes Ring

2005-01-01

383

Induction of Immunity to Prostate Cancer Antigens: Results of a Clinical Trial of Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous Prostate Tumor Cells Engineered to Secrete Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor Using ex Vivo Gene Transfer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccination with irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulat- ing factor (GM-CSF)-secreting gene-transduced cancer vaccines induces tumoricidal immune responses. In a Phase I human gene therapy trial, eight immunocompetent prostate cancer (PCA) patients were treated with autologous, GM-CSF-secreting, irradiated tumor vaccines prepared from ex vivo retroviral transduction of surgically harvested cells. Expansion of primary cultures of autologous vaccine cells was successful to meet trial

Jonathan W. Simons; Bahar Mikhak; Ju-Fay Chang; Angelo M. DeMarzo; Michael A. Carducci; Michael Lim; Christine E. Weber; Angelo A. Baccala; Marti A. Goemann; Shirley M. Clift; Dale G. Ando; Hyam I. Levitsky; Lawrence K. Cohen; Martin G. Sanda; Richard C. Mulligan; Alan W. Partin; H. Ballentine Carter; Steven Piantadosi; Fray F. Marshall; William G. Nelson

384

The Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the $^{2}\\\\vec{\\\\rm H}(\\\\vec{\\\\rm e},{\\\\rm e}'{\\\\rm n}){\\\\rm p}$ Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum\\u000atransfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron.\\u000aLongitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from\\u000aan isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered\\u000aelectrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance\\u000aSpectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form

E. Geis; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhoevel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. DeGrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; M. Kohl; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; A. Shinozaki; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart

2008-01-01

385

Adaptive transfer functions  

SciTech Connect

This paper details the approach and methodology used to build adaptive transfer functions in a feed-forward Back-Propagation neural network, and provides insight into the structure dependent properties of using non-scaled analog inputs. The results of using adaptive transfer functions are shown to outperform conventional architectures in the implementation of a mechanical power transmission gearbox design expert system knowledge base. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Goulding, J.R. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA))

1991-01-01

386

Semantic Effects in Transfer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighty sixth-grade subjects, split into five independent groups, learned two PA lists of 12 noun pairs each. Two groups performed under traditional transfer conditions with lists conforming to a negative transfer paradigm, A-B, A-C, or to a reference paradigm A-B, C-D. Two other groups learned the same lists under a syntactic PA method where the…

Davidson, Robert E.; And Others

387

Ames Lab 101: Technology Transfer  

SciTech Connect

Ames Laboratory Associate Laboratory Director, Sponsored Research Administration, Debra Covey discusses technology transfer. Covey also discusses Ames Laboratory's most successful transfer, lead-free solder.

Covey, Debra

2010-01-01

388

Ames Lab 101: Technology Transfer  

ScienceCinema

Ames Laboratory Associate Laboratory Director, Sponsored Research Administration, Debra Covey discusses technology transfer. Covey also discusses Ames Laboratory's most successful transfer, lead-free solder.

Covey, Debra

2012-08-29

389

Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated.

Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

2014-06-01

390

Förster energy transfer induced random lasing at unconventional excitation wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally demonstrate efficient lasing from a Rhodamine-nanoscatterer random laser when pumped with unconventional wavelengths, at which the absorption of Rhodamine is negligible. Förster-type energy transfer was realized by using Coumarin molecules as donors. Explicit time-resolved spectroscopy provided direct evidence for the nonradiative transfer with ˜48% efficiency. We obtained lasing at reduced thresholds by a factor of over 3 and increased amplification rates by a factor of ˜4 in the Förster regime, even in samples with sub-diffusive disorder strength. We characterize the efficacy of the Förster transfer induced lasing over a range of unconventional wavelengths for the Rh-based system.

Shadak Alee, K.; Barik, Sabyasachi; Mujumdar, Sushil

2013-11-01

391

Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The burning of fossil carbon compounds causes an annual rise of about 0.2% of the total atmospheric CO2, which is about 50% the annual output of manmade CO2. One of the major reasons for this beneficial phenomenon is probably the CO2 uptake by the ocean water. A thorough knowledge of this process is needed for a prediction of the long-term impact of the use of fossil fuels on the environment. The example indicates that mass transfer across the gas-water interface is an important aspect in the geophysical, geochemical, and biochemcial cycle of natural and manmade substances. It regulates the transition between the dissolved state in the water and the gaseous state in the atmosphere. The knowledge of the air-water exchange is probably the most advanced of all the transport processes between environmental compartments. Nevertheless, there is still a need for a better understanding of this interfacial mass transfer, which is a critical factor of great scientific and practical relevance in assessments of the various pathways of wastes in the environment and for their engineering management.

Matthess, Georg

1984-04-01

392

Cryogenic fluid transfer for exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the

David J. Chato

2008-01-01

393

Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer

Bastedo, Helena

2010-01-01

394

Heat transfer in turbulent flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present volume on heat transfer in turbulent flow discusses heat transfer through a pressure-driven 3D boundary layer, the effects of simulated combustor turbulence on boundary layer heat transfer, an experiment on spatial and temporal turbulent structures of a natural convection boundary layer, and the influence of high mainstream turbulence on leading edge heat transfer. Attention is given to turbulent

R. S. Amano; M. E. Crawford; N. K. Anand

1990-01-01

395

Photoinduced Charge Transfer Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photoinduced charge transfer process is the fundamental process in a photovoltaic system. Organic photovoltaics contain a donor-acceptor molecular system which undergoes photoinduced charge transfer leading to a large dipole moment. Often the charge transfer properties of such donor-acceptor systems are measured in solution. The dipole moments on the solvent molecules creates a reaction field. To simulate this reaction field we adopt an approach similar to the explicit solvent model proposed by Washel and co-workers. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine various possible solvent structures. We use a carotenoid-porphyrin-C60 molecular triad as the light-harvesting system. This molecular triad has a very large dipole moment (153 Debye) in the charge separated state. The resulting solvent structures and the reaction field as a function of temperature will be presented.

Basurto, Luis; Baruah, Tunna; Zope, Rajendra; Rodriguez, Jose

2011-10-01

396

Tech transfer outreach  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an informal summary of the conference workshop sessions. Tech Transfer Outreach '' was originally designed as an opportunity for national laboratory communications and technology transfer staff to become better acquainted and to discuss matters of mutual interest. When DOE field office personnel asked if they could attend, and then when one of our keynote speakers became a participant in the discussions, the actual event grew in importance. The conference participants--the laboratories and DOE representatives from across the nation--worked to brainstorm ideas. Their objective: identify ways to cooperate for effective (and cost-effective) technology transfer outreach. Thus, this proceedings is truly a product of ten national laboratories and DOE, working together. It candidly presents the discussion of issues and the ideas generated by each working group. The issues and recommendations are a consensus of their views.

Liebetrau, S. (ed.)

1992-01-01

397

Transfer Velocity Project: Key Findings on Student Transfer in California Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Which factors promote student transfer from California Community Colleges (CCC) to baccalaureate-granting institutions? How do community college practices support this transition? Which student behaviors and characteristics particularly facilitate their movement to four-year colleges and universities? The Research and Planning Group for California…

Research and Planning Group for California Community Colleges (RP Group), 2010

2010-01-01

398

Orbital Fluid Transfer System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS meet the servicing requirements for ISS and could also provide the automated fluid and power interface system needed for on orbit consumable resupply of spacecraft into the new century.

Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

1998-01-01

399

Thermal transfer recording media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recording media consist of more than or one coloring layer and a layer containing a flame retardant to ensure noncombustibility and good thermal transfer. Thus, a PET film was coated on a side with a compound containing Vylon 290 (polyester resin), AFR-1021 (decabromodiphenyl oxide) 8 and Polysafe 60 (Sb oxide), and coated on the other side with a compound containing carnauba wax, HNP-9 (paraffin wax), EV-410 (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer), and Cu phthalocyanine to give a thermal transfer recording medium which showed good noncombustibility and antiblocking properties, and provided high quality images.

Takei, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Fukushima, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Shinozuka, M.; Seikohsha, K. K. Suwa

1988-08-01

400

Applied heat transfer  

SciTech Connect

Heat transfer principles are discussed with emphasis on the practical aspects of the problems. Correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop from several worldwide sources for flow inside and outside of tubes, including finned tubes are presented, along with design and performance calculations of heat exchangers economizers, air heaters, condensers, waste-heat boilers, fired heaters, superheaters, and boiler furnaces. Vibration analysis for tube bundles and heat exchangers are also discussed, as are estimating gas-mixture properties at atmospheric and elevated pressures and life-cycle costing techniques. (JMT)

Ganapathy, V.

1982-01-01

401

Teachers' Domain: Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive Flash animation for Grades 5-8 on the topic of heat. Users explore methods of heat transfer and classify examples from everyday life. Three methods of heat transfer are depicted: conduction, convection, and radiation. Teachers' Domain is an NSF-funded pathway of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL). It is a growing collection of more than 1,000 free educational resources compiled by researchers and experienced teachers to promote the use of digital resources in the classroom.

2008-10-21

402

Transferring Technology to Industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the technology transfer processes in which JPL has been involved to assist in transferring the technology derived from aerospace research and development to industry. California Institute of Technology (CalTech), the organization that runs JPL, is the leading institute in patents for all U.S. universities. There are several mechanisms that are available to JPL to inform industry of these technological advances: (1) a dedicated organization at JPL, National Space Technology Applications (NSTA), (2) Tech Brief Magazine, (3) Spinoff magazine, and (4) JPL publications. There have also been many start-up organizations and businesses from CalTech.

Wolfenbarger, J. Ken

2006-01-01

403

Secondary DNA transfer of biological substances under varying test conditions.  

PubMed

This research investigates factors that may influence the secondary transfer of DNA. These include the type of biological substance deposited, the nature of the primary and secondary substrate, moisture content of the deposit and type of contact between the surfaces. Results showed that secondary transfer is significantly affected by both the type of primary substrate and the moisture (wetness) of the biological sample. Porous substrates and/or dry samples diminished transfer (with on average only 0.36% of biological material being transferred from one site to another), whereas non-porous substrates and/or wet samples facilitated transfer events (approximately 50-95% of biological material was transferred from one site to another). Further, the type of secondary substrate also influenced transfer rate, with porous surfaces, absorbing transferred biological substances more readily than non-porous ones. No significant differences were observed among the biological substances tested (pure DNA, blood and saliva). Friction contact between the two substrates significantly enhanced secondary transfer compared to either passive or pressure contact. These preliminary results will assist in developing general assumptions when estimating probability of a secondary DNA transfer event under simple conditions. PMID:20129462

Goray, Mariya; Eken, Ece; Mitchell, Robert J; van Oorschot, Roland A H

2010-02-01

404

Algebra Teachers' Utilization of Problems Requiring Transfer between Algebraic, Numeric, and Graphic Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For students to develop an understanding of functions, they must have opportunities to solve problems that require them to transfer between algebraic, numeric, and graphic representations (transfer problems). Research has confirmed student difficulties with certain types of transfer problems and has suggested instructional factors as a possible…

Cunningham, Robert F.

2005-01-01

405

The Role of Teams, Culture, and Capacity in the Transfer of Organizational Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Transferring organizational practices requires an understanding not only of what is being transferred but also of what is needed to ensure that the transfer is successful. In line with this thinking, the purpose of this study is to examine three factors that are crucial parts of this mechanism: use of teams, culture, and capacity.…

Lucas, Leyland M.

2010-01-01

406

Effect of elastic transfer in sub-barrier fusion between similar nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effect of the elastic transfer process on sub-barrier fusion reactions between similar nuclei. The coupling to the elastic transfer channel is described in terms of a parity dependent potential, directly obtained from the transfer form factor. Within the simple barrier penetration model, we find that this effect can account for a considerable part of the sub-barrier enhancement

M. Lozano; A. Vitturi

1987-01-01

407

A prospective, randomized study comparing day 2 and day 3 embryo transfer in human IVF  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is believed that delayed transfer of embryos after IVF allows for a better selection of good quality embryos. Hence, the number of embryos and all other prognostic factors being equal, transfer of day 3 embryos should be associated with higher implantation and pregnancy rates than transfer of day 2 embryos. To investigate this hypothesis, a prospective randomized study was

H. Laverge; P. De Sutter; J. Van der Elst; M. Dhont

2001-01-01

408

Do Institutional Characteristics Matter in Two- to Four-Year Transfer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to estimate the effects of individual and institutional factors on college transfer. The author used logistic transgression to estimate the probability of transfer. The author assumes the probability of transfer from a two-year institution to a four-year institution is a function of student characteristics, type of institution in…

Yang, Po

409

Availability and Accessibility of the Nation's Research Infrastructure: The Transfer of Assistive Technologies by Federal Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Laboratories have almost 30 years of history in technology transfer. This paper examines some critical factors leading and impeding success, in terms of strategic partnerships, mission relevance and transfer context. The paper also considers future potential for transfers to the field of assistive technology for people with disabilities.

C. Dan Brand

2003-01-01

410

Direct transfer of graphene onto flexible substrates  

PubMed Central

In this paper we explore the direct transfer via lamination of chemical vapor deposition graphene onto different flexible substrates. The transfer method investigated here is fast, simple, and does not require an intermediate transfer membrane, such as polymethylmethacrylate, which needs to be removed afterward. Various substrates of general interest in research and industry were studied in this work, including polytetrafluoroethylene filter membranes, PVC, cellulose nitrate/cellulose acetate filter membranes, polycarbonate, paraffin, polyethylene terephthalate, paper, and cloth. By comparing the properties of these substrates, two critical factors to ensure a successful transfer on bare substrates were identified: the substrate’s hydrophobicity and good contact between the substrate and graphene. For substrates that do not satisfy those requirements, polymethylmethacrylate can be used as a surface modifier or glue to ensure successful transfer. Our results can be applied to facilitate current processes and open up directions for applications of chemical vapor deposition graphene on flexible substrates. A broad range of applications can be envisioned, including fabrication of graphene devices for opto/organic electronics, graphene membranes for gas/liquid separation, and ubiquitous electronics with graphene.

Martins, Luiz G. P.; Song, Yi; Zeng, Tingying; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Kong, Jing; Araujo, Paulo T.

2013-01-01

411

Thermal transfer recording media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recording media consist of more than or one coloring layer and a layer containing a flame retardant to ensure noncombustibility and good thermal transfer. Thus, a PET film was coated on a side with a compound containing Vylon 290 (polyester resin), AFR-1021 (decabromodiphenyl oxide) 8 and Polysafe 60 (Sb oxide), and coated on the other side with a compound

T. Takei; M. Taniguchi; H. Fukushima; Y. Yamaguchi; M. Shinozuka; K. K. Suwa Seikohsha

1988-01-01

412

Thermal Transfer Recording Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recording media consist of more than or one coloring layer and a layer containing a flame retardant to ensure noncombustibility and good thermal transfer. Thus, a PET film was coated on a side with a compound containing Vylon 290 (polyester resin), AF...

T. Takei M. Taniguchi H. Fukushima Y. Yamaguchi M. Shinozuka

1988-01-01

413

Electron transfer in biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron transfer is one of the key reactions of biology not just in catalysis of oxidation\\/reduction reactions but in the conversion of sources of energy such as light to usable form for chemical transformations. There are then two intriguing problems. What is the nature of the matrix in which electrons flow in a biological cell after the initial charge separation

R. J. P. Williams

1989-01-01

414

Unemployment and immiserizing transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reexamines the welfare effects of international transfers in a two country model in the presence of unemployment which is generated by an exogenously specified real minimum wage rate. In this context we have found the necessary conditions for the occurrence of paradoxical as well as normal results on employment as well as welfare.

Hamid Beladi

1990-01-01

415

Transfer function matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given a multivariable system, it is proved that the numerator matrix N(s) of the transfer function evaluated at any system pole either has unity rank or is a null matrix. It is also shown that N(s) evaluated at any transmission zero of the system has rank deficiency. Examples are given for illustration.

Seraji, H.

1987-01-01

416

The Transferable Belief Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We describe the Transferable Belief Model, a model for representing quantified beliefs based on belief functions. Beliefs can be held at two levels: 1) a credal level where beliefs are entertained and quantified by belief functions, 2) a pignistic level where beliefs can be used to make decisions and are quantified by probability functions. The relation between the belief

Philippe Smets; Robert Kennes

1994-01-01

417

The Transferable Belief Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the Transferable Belief Model, a model for representing quantified beliefs based on belief functions. Beliefs can be held at two levels: 1) a credal level where beliefs are entertained and quantified by belief functions, 2) a pignistic level where beliefs can be used to make decisions and are quantified by probability functions. The relation between the belief function

Philippe Smets; Yen-teh Hsia; Alessandro Saffiotti; Robert Kennes; Elizabeth Umkehrer; E. Umkehren

1991-01-01

418

FES Transfer Agreement  

Cancer.gov

Provider: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Provider agrees to transfer to Recipient the following FES Production Documents (click here) for the production of [16-[18F]-fluoro-17-estradiol, [18F]FES (A) Generic Chemistry, Manufacturing and Control Section(B)

419

FMISO Transfer Agreement  

Cancer.gov

Provider: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Provider agrees to transfer to Recipient the following FMISO Production Documents (click here) for the production of [18F]Fluoromisonidazole, 1H-1-(3-[18f]-Fluoro-2-Hydroxy-Propyl)-2-Nitro-Imidazole, [18F]FMISO.

420

Internal Transfer and Articulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1989, a descriptive study was conducted of internal transfer and articulation within the context of two-year branch campuses of four-year institutions. Data were gathered from a survey sent to the chief executive officers (CEO's) of 408 campuses delivering two-year tracks within a four-year college or university. Study findings, based on…

Prager, Carolyn

421

Understanding heat transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Heat Transfer is a graduate-level professional development course designed for middle school teachers to enhance understanding and teaching of physical science. In two sessions, you will investigate physical science topics using hands-on activities and online resources including video segments, interactive activities, readings, and other multimedia materials. These resources are drawn from Teachers' Domain, WGBH's digital library service.

2010-01-01

422

Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

Knapp, Henry H., III

423

Understanding Energy Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Energy Transfer is a graduate-level professional development course designed for middle school teachers to enhance understanding and teaching of physical science. In two sessions, you will investigate physical science topics using hands-on activities and online resources including video segments, interactive activities, readings, and other multimedia materials. These resources are drawn from Teachers' Domain, WGBH's digital library service.

2010-01-01

424

Information Transfer in 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a recent study of potential demand for electronic information transfer services in 1970-1990 are presented. Projections are made for new services such as electronic mail, remote library browsing, checkless society transactions, video telephone and others, as well as conventional services such as telephone, telegraph and network program…

Hough, Roger W.

425

Cosmological radiative transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, we present a new code SPHRAY to calculate the transfer of ionizing radiation through an arbitrary smoothed particle hydrodynamics density field. This represents a unique application in that it is the only particle based radiative transfer code with the speed to be applied to cosmological simulations with 512 3 particles. In Chapter 2 we lay out the numerical algorithms the code is based on. In Chapter 3 we validate the results of our code on a set of standard radiative transfer tests that have been set in front of the community in the form of a comparison project. In Chapter 4 we describe an application of SPHRAY in calculating the neutral Hydrogen density field in the proximity zone of an accretion powered active galaxy. This scenario is especially well suited for our code in the sense that it requires the inclusion of shadowing effects, the treatment of a background as well as strong local sources, and the accurate calculation of very low neutral fractions. In Chapter 5 we present a large cosmological reionization application in which we explore the effect of smoothing the density field prior to doing radiative transfer as has been done in many previous works to lessen the computational cost.

Altay, Gabriel

2009-06-01

426

Symbolic local information transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the permutation-information theoretic approach has been used in a broad range of research fields. In particular, in the study of high-dimensional dynamical systems, it has been shown that this approach can be effective in characterizing global properties, including the complexity of their spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we show that this approach can also be applied to reveal local spatiotemporal profiles of distributed computations existing at each spatiotemporal point in the system. J. T. Lizier et al. have recently introduced the concept of local information dynamics, which consists of information storage, transfer, and modification. This concept has been intensively studied with regard to cellular automata, and has provided quantitative evidence of several characteristic behaviors observed in the system. In this paper, by focusing on the local information transfer, we demonstrate that the application of the permutation-information theoretic approach, which introduces natural symbolization methods, makes the concept easily extendible to systems that have continuous states. We propose measures called symbolic local transfer entropies, and apply these measures to two test models, the coupled map lattice (CML) system and the Bak-Sneppen model (BS-model), to show their relevance to spatiotemporal systems that have continuous states. In the CML, we demonstrate that it can be successfully used as a spatiotemporal filter to stress a coherent structure buried in the system. In particular, we show that the approach can clearly stress out defect turbulences or Brownian motion of defects from the background, which gives quantitative evidence suggesting that these moving patterns are the information transfer substrate in the spatiotemporal system. We then show that these measures reveal qualitatively different properties from the conventional approach using the sliding window method, and are also robust against external noise. In the BS-model, we demonstrate that these measures can provide novel insight to the model, featuring how symbolic local information transfer is related to the dynamical properties of the elements involved in a spatiotemporal dynamics.

Nakajima, K.; Haruna, T.

2013-06-01

427

Investigation of flow and heat transfer of nanofluid in microchannel with variable property approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laminar flow and heat transfer of water-Al2O3 nanofluid under constant heat flux have been investigated numerically. Single-phase with temperature dependant effective properties has been assumed for fluid. Enhancement in heat transfer and increase in friction factor have been obtained by the use of nanofluid. Heat transfer enhancement is more obvious by the use of variable properties. Also, effects of temperature variation on nanofluid heat transfer are greater than the pure water.

Mirzaei, Mostafa; Dehghan, Maziar

2013-12-01