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Sample records for soil-to-plant transfer factor

  1. Soil-to-plant transfer factors for radiocesium and radiostrontium in agricultural systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nisbet, A.F.; Woodman, R.F.M.

    2000-03-01

    A database of soil-to-plant transfer factors for radiocesium and radiostrontium has been compiled for arable crops from published and unpublished sources. The database is more extensive than previous compilations of data published by the International Union of Radioecologists, containing new information for Scandinavia and Greece in particular. It also contains ancillary data on important soil characteristics. The database is sub-divided into 28 soil-crop combinations, covering four soil types and seven crop groups. Statistical analyses showed that transfer factors for radiocesium could not generally be predicted as a function of climatic region, type of experiment, age of contamination, or silt characteristics. However, significant relationships accounting for more than 30% of the variability in transfer factor were identified between transfer factors for radiostrontium and soil pH/organic matter status for a few soil-crop combinations. Best estimate transfer factors for radiocesium and radiostrontium were calculated for 28 soil-crop combinations, based on their geometric means: only the edible parts were considered. To predict the likely value of future individual transfer factors, 95% confidence intervals were also derived. A comparison of best estimate transfer factors derived in this study with recommended values published by the International Union of Radioecologists in 1989 and 1992 was made for comparable soil-crop groupings. While there were no significant differences between the best estimate values derived in this study and the 1992 data, radiological assessments that still use 1989 data may be unnecessarily cautious.

  2. Transfer factors of natural radionuclides and (137)Cs from soil to plants used in traditional medicine in central Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djelic, Gorica; Krstic, Dragana; Stajic, Jelena M; Milenkovic, Biljana; Topuzovic, Marina; Nikezic, Dragoslav; Vucic, Dusica; Zeremski, Tijana; Stankovic, Milan; Kostic, Dragana

    2016-07-01

    Transfer factors of natural radionuclides and (137)Cs from soil to plants used in traditional medicine were determined. The transfer factors (TF) were calculated as Bq kg(-1) of dry plant per Bq kg(-1) of dry soil. Mass activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in soil and plant samples were measured with high purity germanium detector (HPGe). The concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined, as well as the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the content of exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na). Wide ranges of values were obtained for all the metals, especially for Cr and Ni. The Absalom model was used for determination of the amount of (137)Cs transferred from soil to plant based on soil characteristics such as pH, exchangeable potassium, humus and clay contents. The estimated transfer factors were in the range from 0.011 to 0.307 with an arithmetic mean of 0.071, median of 0.050, geometric mean of 0.053 and geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.08. This value agreed well with that calculated from the measurements of 0.069, geometric mean 0.040 and GSD 3.19. Correlations between radionuclides, metals, physicochemical properties and transfer factors were determined by Spearman correlation coefficient. There was a strong positive correlation between (137)Cs transfer factor and the ratio of transfer factor for K and (137)Cs. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed in order to identify some pattern of data. PMID:27082759

  3. Variability of the soil-to-plant radiocaesium transfer factor for Japanese soils predicted with soil and plant properties.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Shinichiro; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Van Hees, May; Wannijn, Jean; Smolders, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Food chain contamination with radiocaesium (RCs) in the aftermath of the Fukushima accident calls for an analysis of the specific factors that control the RCs transfer. Here, soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) of RCs for grass were predicted from the potassium concentration in soil solution (mK) and the Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) of the soil using existing mechanistic models. The mK and RIP were (a) either measured for 37 topsoils collected from the Fukushima accident affected area or (b) predicted from the soil clay content and the soil exchangeable potassium content using the models that had been calibrated for European soils. An average ammonium concentration was used throughout in the prediction. The measured RIP ranged 14-fold and measured mK varied 37-fold among the soils. The measured RIP was lower than the RIP predicted from the soil clay content likely due to the lower content of weathered micas in the clay fraction of Japanese soils. Also the measured mK was lower than that predicted. As a result, the predicted TFs relying on the measured RIP and mK were, on average, about 22-fold larger than the TFs predicted using the European calibrated models. The geometric mean of the measured TFs for grass in the affected area (N = 82) was in the middle of both. The TFs were poorly related to soil classification classes, likely because soil fertility (mK) was obscuring the effects of the soil classification related to the soil mineralogy (RIP). This study suggests that, on average, Japanese soils are more vulnerable than European soils at equal soil clay and exchangeable K content. The affected regions will be targeted for refined model validation. PMID:26717351

  4. Radiocaesium soil-to-plant transfer in tropical environments.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Voigt, G

    2004-01-01

    In this work, soil-to-plant transfer factors of radiocaesium are predicted based on soil properties such as pH, organic matter content, exchangeable K+ and clay content valid for the tropical environments in Bangladesh, China and Japan, and using a previously published model. Due to insufficient data of soil properties in the selected regions, the average values of pH, organic matter content, exchangeable K+ and clay content were taken as the input model parameters within the ranges given for Asia. Nevertheless, a complete set of soil properties of Japanese soils was used to compare the measured and calculated TF values of radiocaesium for radish. The calculated TF values for radiocaesium are comparable with the measured values especially for leafy parts of a plant. However, calculated values for rice, an important crop in Asia are found to overestimate the measured values due to an overestimate of calculated CECs in soils in the selected regions. The empirical parameters used in the model need to be re-evaluated for the specific part of a plant and/or for a variety of different plants. Alternatively, a general conversion factor for each part of a plant and/or for a variety of different plants for a specific region is suggested for tropical environments. PMID:14567948

  5. Soil-to-plant concentration factors for radiological assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Y.C.; Thompson, S.E.; Colsher, C.S.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents the results of a literature review to derive soil-to-plant concentration factors to predict the concentration of a radionuclide in plants from that in soil. The concentration factor, B/sub v/ is defined as the ratio of the concentration of a nuclide in the edible plant part to that in dry soil. CR (the concentration ratio) is similarly defined to denote the concentration factor for dry feed consumed by livestock. B/sub v/ and CR values are used to assess the dose from radionuclides deposited onto soil and transferred into crop plants via roots. Approaches for deriving B/sub v/ and CR values are described, and values for food and feed are tabulated for individual elements. The sources of uncertainty are described, and the factors that contribute to the inherent variability of the B/sub v/ and CR values are discussed. Summary tables of elemental B/sub v/ and CR values and statistical parameters that characterize their distributions provide a basis for a systematic updating of many of the B/sub v/ values in Regulatory Guide 1.109. They also provide a basis for selecting B/sub v/ and CR values for other applications that involve the use of equilibrium models to predict the concentration of radionuclides in plants from that in soil.

  6. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of radioactive Ca, Sm and Pd isotopes: critical assessment of the use of analogies to derive best-estimates from existing non-specific data.

    PubMed

    Henner, Pascale; Hurtevent, Pierre; Thiry, Yves

    2014-10-01

    (45)Ca, (151)Sm and (107)Pd are three radionuclides present in low to intermediate in activity radioactive wastes for which no soil-to-plant Transfer Factors (TF) values are available to be used in biosphere models for Ecological Risk Assessment. In the absence of specific radioecological studies, this work reviews and analyzes the existing literature for stable isotopes of Pd, Sm and Ca in order to derive best estimates for TF values that could be used as Transfer Factors. Alternative methods of extrapolation are also critically assessed. The values have been classified according to climatic zone, plant class and soil type for each element. The overall geometric mean TF values (for all plants and conditions) was calculated as 8.4E-02 for Pd, for which the value of radioRu in TRS-472 is also available. The mean TF for Sm was 4.2E-04. This value was lower than the TF values for radioactive Ce that are proposed as alternative values for Sm in TRS-472. The former may be relevant for long term assessments and the latter could possibly used to describe the short term (151)Sm post-release behaviour. The mean value for Ca is 2.3E-01 but varies considerably among plants of a given class due to the variety of plant Ca uptake behaviors. Alternatively, to limit this variability, Ca data content for dry plant matter, as analyzed using the phylogenetic method, could be used to derive TF values if the conservation of isotopic ratio of (45)Ca to stable Ca in soils and in plants hypothesis is taken into account. The TF for Ca in sub-tropical zones is 10-fold lower than in temperate zones. There is a lot of data available about exchangeable Ca in soil, which mean that we could calculate an available TF. The analysis shows that Ca bioavailability is also a key factor within transfer. PMID:24956582

  7. Will global warming affect soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides?

    PubMed

    Dowdall, M; Standring, W; Shaw, G; Strand, P

    2008-11-01

    Recent assessments of global climate/environmental change are reaching a consensus that global climate change is occurring but there is significant uncertainty over the likely magnitude of this change and its impacts. There is little doubt that all aspects of the natural environment will be impacted to some degree. Soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides has long been a significant topic in radioecology, both for the protection of humans and the environment from the effects of ionising radiation. Even after five decades of research considerable uncertainty exists as to the interplay of key environmental processes in controlling soil-plant transfer. As many of these processes are, to a lesser or greater extent, climate-dependent, it can be argued that climate/environmental change will impact soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides and subsequent transfers in specific environments. This discussion attempts to highlight the possible role of climatic and climate-dependent variables in soil-to-plant transfer processes within the overall predictions of climate/environmental change. The work is speculative, and intended to stimulate debate on a theme that radioecology has either ignored or avoided in recent years. PMID:18676067

  8. [Research advances in iron and zinc transfer from soil to plant in intercropping systems].

    PubMed

    Xia, Hai-yong; Xue, Yan-fang; Meng, Wei-wei; Yu, Li-min; Liu, Ling-yan; Zhang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Intercropping facilitates the efficient utilization of land, light, water and nutrients. It is, therefore, important to increase the biodiversity of farmland and to develop sustainable ecological agriculture in both theory and practice. Intercropping helps improve the mobilization and uptake of soil iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) and corresponding nutritional status in the plants, thus achieving grain micronutrient biofortification. In this review, phenomena of the improvement of Fe and Zn nutrition in dicotyledonous plants as affected by intercropping with gramineous plants (e.g. maize/peanut intercropping) were summarized. Moreover, the possible mechanisms in relation to interspecific rhizosphere molecular and physiological processes, as well as the changes in interspecific root morphology and distribution and microorganisms in the rhizosphere were elucidated. The accumulation, transfer and distribution of Fe and Zn in the plants in intercropping systems were also reviewed. The possible affecting factors on nutrients of Fe and Zn were analyzed. Based on the present advances in the mobilization and acquisition of soil Fe and Zn, and their accumulation and distribution in plants as well as the related management and environment influence factors, some new research questions were pointed out. Quantitative analysis, dynamic and systemic researches and field studies on Fe and Zn transfer from soil to plant in intercropping systems should be strengthened in the future. PMID:26259472

  9. Accumulation and soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides in the Nile Delta coastal black sand habitats.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, A K; Emam, M H

    2011-02-01

    The radionuclide content was estimated in the soil of three black sand habitats in the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, namely, sand mounds and coastal sand planes and dunes. In addition, a total of 14 heavy minerals found in the soils were characterized. The soil to plant transfer of uranium and thorium was tested on three black sand species, namely, Cakile maritima Scop., Senecio glaucus L. and Rumex Pictus Forssk. The transfer of thorium and uranium radionuclides from the soil to plant is complex process that is subjected to many variables; among which are the organic matter and clay content of the soil, the type of radionuclides and plant species. The study revealed a strong negative relationship between uranium and thorium uptake by S. glaucus and R. pictus and the clay and organic matter content of soil. Concentration of thorium in the soil has a negative correlation with soil-to-plant transfer factor. The study results suggest the possibility of using black sand species for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radioactive elements. The potentiality of S. glaucus as phytoremediator of radionuclides polluted soils is greater than R. pictus which in turn outweigh C. maritima. PMID:21598782

  10. Soil to plant transfer of radionuclides: predicting the fate of multiple radioisotopes in plants.

    PubMed

    Willey, Neil J

    2014-07-01

    Predicting soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides is restricted by the range of species for which concentration ratios (CRs) have been measured. Here the radioecological utility of meta-analyses of phylogenetic effects on alkali earth metals will be explored for applications such as 'gap-filling' of CRs, the identification of sentinel biomonitor plants and the selection of taxa for phytoremediation of radionuclide contaminated soils. REML modelling of extensive CR/concentration datasets shows that the concentrations in plants of Ca, Mg and Sr are significantly influenced by phylogeny. Phylogenetic effects of these elements are shown here to be similar. Ratios of Ca/Mg and Ca/Sr are known to be quite stable in plants so, assuming that Sr/Ra ratios are stable, phylogenetic effects and estimated mean CRs are used to predict Ra CRs for groups of plants with few measured data. Overall, there are well quantified plant variables that could contribute significantly to improving predictions of the fate radioisotopes in the soil-plant system. PMID:24011856

  11. Soil-to-plant transfer of native selenium for wild vegetation cover at selected locations of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Száková, Jiřina; Tremlová, Jana; Pegová, Kristýna; Najmanová, Jana; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Total selenium (Se) contents were determined in aboveground biomass of wild plant species growing in two uncultivated meadows at two different locations. The soils in these locations had pseudototal (Aqua Regia soluble) Se in concentration ranges of between 0.2 and 0.3 mg kg(-1) at the first location, and between 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg(-1) at the second location. The plant species represented 29 plant families where the most numerous ones were Poaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae , and Asteraceae. The selenium contents in the plants varied between undetectable levels (Aegopodium podagraria, Achillea millefolium, Lotus corniculatus) and 0.158 mg kg(-1) (Veronica arvensis, Veronicaceae). The Se levels were roughly one order of magnitude lower compared to other elements with similar soil content, such as cadmium and molybdenum. The transfer factors of Se, quantifying the element transfer from soil to plants, varied between <0.001 and 0.146 with no significant differences between the locations, confirming the limited soil-plant selenium transfer regardless of location, soil Se level, and plant species. Among the plant families, no unambiguous trend to potential elevated Se uptake was observed. Low Se content in the soil and its plant availability was comparable to other Se-deficient areas within Europe. PMID:25975239

  12. Comparative Analysis Of 226Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-01

    The transfer of 226Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeiriça uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean 226Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of 226Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for 226Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, 226Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1).

  13. Inter-cultivar variation in soil-to-plant transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Penrose, B; Johnson Née Payne, K A; Arkhipov, A; Maksimenko, A; Gaschak, S; Meacham, M C; Crout, N J M; White, P J; Beresford, N A; Broadley, M R

    2016-05-01

    Radiocaesium and radiostrontium enter the human food chain primarily via soil-plant transfer. However, uptake of these radionuclides can differ significantly within species (between cultivars). The aim of this study was to assess inter-cultivar variation in soil-to-plant transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in a leafy crop species, Brassica oleracea. This study comprised four independent experiments: two pot experiments in a controlled environment artificially contaminated with radiocaesium, and two field experiments in an area contaminated with radiocaesium and radiostrontium in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Radiocaesium concentration ratios varied 35-fold among 27 cultivars grown in pots in a controlled environment. These 27 cultivars were then grown with a further 44 and 43 other cultivars in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone in 2003 and 2004, respectively. In the field-grown cultivars radiocaesium concentration ratios varied by up to 35-fold and radiostrontium concentration ratios varied by up to 23-fold. In three of these experiments (one pot experiment, two field experiments) one out of the 27 cultivars was found to have a consistently lower radiocaesium concentration ratio than the other cultivars. The two field experiments showed that, five out of the 66 cultivars common to both experiments had consistently lower radiocaesium concentration ratios, and two cultivars had consistently lower radiostrontium concentration ratios. One cultivar had consistently lower radiocaesium and radiostrontium concentration ratios. The identification of cultivars that have consistently lower radiocaesium and/or radiostrontium concentration ratios suggests that cultivar selection or substitution may be an effective remediation strategy in radiologically contaminated areas. Future research should focus on plant species that are known to be the largest contributors to human dose. PMID:26945429

  14. Factors associated with the suppressiveness of sugarcane soils to plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Graham R; Rames, Emily; Stirling, A Marcelle; Hamill, Sharon

    2011-09-01

    Observations in three Australian sugarcane fields suggested that the soil just under the trash blanket (the covering of crop residue that remains on the soil surface after crops are harvested) was suppressive to plant-parasitic nematodes. Roots were concentrated in this upper layer of soil but plant-parasitic nematode populations were relatively low and roots showed few signs of nematode damage. Root biomass was much lower 15 cm further down the soil profile, where root health was poor and populations of plant-parasitic nematodes were 3-5 times higher than near the soil surface. A bioassay in which Radopholus similis (a nematode that does not occur in sugarcane soils) was inoculated into heat-sterilized and untreated soils, confirmed that biological factors were limiting nematode populations in some of the soils, with soil from 0-2 cm much more suppressive than soil from 15-17 cm. Surface soil from one site was highly suppressive, as only 16% of R. similis recoverable from heated soil were retrieved from this soil after 8 days. Numerous soil chemical, biochemical, and biological properties were measured, and non-linear regression analysis identified two major groups of factors that were significantly associated with suppressiveness. One group reflected the amount of organic matter in soil (total C, total N, and labile C) and the other was associated with the size of the free-living nematode community (total numbers of free-living nematodes, and numbers of plant associates, bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, and carnivores). These results suggested that suppressiveness was biologically mediated and was sustained by C inputs from crop residues and roots. Since nematode-trapping fungi in the test soils could not be quantified using traditional dilution plating methods, their possible role as suppressive agents was assessed by generating TRFLP profiles with Orbiliales-specific primers, and by sequencing cloned PCR products. Although the molecular data were obtained from a limited number of samples, the level of suppression was significantly correlated to the number of Orbiliales clone groups and was also related to the number of Orbiliales species and TRFs, suggesting that this group of fungi may have been one of the suppressive factors operating in the test soils. PMID:23431051

  15. Impact of temperature on the dynamics of organic matter and on the soil-to-plant transfer of Cd, Zn and Pb in a contaminated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Jean-Yves; Denaix, L; Lacoste, J; Sappin-Didier, V; Nguyen, C; Schneider, A

    2016-02-01

    Predicting the soil-to-plant transfer of metals in the context of global warming has become a major issue for food safety. It requires a better understanding of how the temperature alters the bioavailability of metals in cultivated soils. This study focuses on one agricultural soil contaminated by Cd, Zn and Pb. DGT measurements were performed at 10, 20 and 30 °C to assess how the bioavailability of metals was affected by a rise in soil temperature. A lettuce crop was cultivated in the same conditions to determine if the soil-to-plant transfer of metals increased with a rise in soil temperature. A gradual decline in Cd and Zn bioavailability was observed from 10 to 30 °C, which was attributed to more intense complexation of metals in the pore water at higher temperatures. Together with its aromaticity, the affinity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) for metals was indeed suspected to increase with soil temperature. One main output of the present work is a model which satisfactorily explains the thermal-induced changes in the characteristics of DOM reported in Cornu et al. (Geoderma 162:65-70, 2011) by assuming that the mineralization of initial aliphatic compounds followed a first-order reaction, increased with soil temperature according to the Arrhenius law, and due to a priming effect, led to the appearance of aromatic molecules. The soil-to-plant transfer of Cd and Zn was promoted at higher soil temperatures despite a parallel decrease in Cd and Zn bioavailability. This suggests that plant processes affect the soil-to-plant transfer of Cd and Zn the most when the soil temperature rises. PMID:26452657

  16. Comparative Analysis Of {sup 226}Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-07

    The transfer of {sup 226}Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeirica uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, {sup 226}Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1)

  17. Modelling soil and soil to plant transfer processes of radionuclides and toxic chemicals at long time scales for performance assessment of Radwaste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Achim; Miquel, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Performance assessments for surface nuclear waste disposal facilities require simulation of transfer processes from the waste canisters to a reference group living near-by. Such simulations need to be extended over several hundred to hundred thousand years, depending on waste type, restraining possibilities to represent short term system complexity and variability. Related modelling can be simplified as long as processes are represented conservatively with assessment endpoints estimated larger compared to more realistic modelling approaches. The indicators are doses for radionuclides (RN) and risk factors for toxic chemicals (TC, i.e. heavy metals, nitrate). We discuss a new simulation tool (SCM-Andra-multilayer-model, SAMM) that, among others, allows to model situations where RN/TC move through a soil profile characterised by temporal undersaturation and root growth (soil-plant subsystem of the biosphere model compared to the adjacent saturated geosphere). SAMM describes all relevant transfer and reaction processes (advection, diffusion, root transport, radioactive decay, chemical reactions incl. sorption - desorption) using well known differential equations solved numerically within MATLAB with scenario description and parameterisation defined in Excel sheets. With this conservative approach in mind, we apply global parameters for which the solid-solution (Kd) or soil-to-plant (TF) distribution coefficients are the most relevant. Empirical data are available for homogeneous situations, such as one compartment pot experiments, but rare for entire soil profiles. Similarly soil hydrology, in particular upward and downward advective fluxes are modelled using an empirical approach solely based on key soil hydrological parameters (precipitation, evapotranspiration, irrigation, water table level) and the soil porosity. Variability of soil hydrology in space and time, likely to change drastically even on hourly bases (i.e. intense precipitation event) or within a single column (i.e. preferential flow and capillary rise) is nonetheless represented by annual averages. Changing water saturation and associated variability in redox conditions, RN/TC speciation and mobility, represents an example, where the simulation abilities with SAMM are beyond our capacity of in situ observation and measurement, restricting of course our efforts of validation. The latter is thus limited to simpler cases with parameter values stable within the soil column or throughout time. The study of more complex situations is possible with the SAMM simulation tool. For illustration, we give at least two examples, one for a RN and one for a TC; we evaluate the species initially present as well as the daughter RN and the product of reactivity of the TC. Focus is given to situations where RN/TC are present at the base of a soil column; simulation end points are concentrations at the soil surface and for specified agricultural plant species. Dose and risk calculations based on these data are carried out in classical food chain assessment tools. These illustrations are for generic sites and situations for which at least a minor component of upward advective movement is considered, keeping in mind the conservative approach mentioned above.

  18. Transfer of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th from soil to plant in a high background radiation area of the southwestern region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ben-Bolie, G H; Ele Abiama, P; Owono Ateba, P; El Khoukhi, T; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R

    2013-12-01

    In order to estimate the soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of some natural radionuclides, the activity of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th was measured in the soil and in agricultural crop samples collected from identified high background radiation areas in the southwestern region of Cameroon. The results showed that the ²³⁸U and ²³²Th TFs values were in the ranges 1.0×10⁻²-12.2×10⁻¹ kg kg⁻¹ and 5.0×10⁻²-9.7×10⁻¹ kg kg⁻¹, respectively. These computed TFs values were found to be globally higher than those proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. PMID:23754831

  19. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    2013-11-20

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

  20. The Transfer of Dissolved Cs-137 from Soil to Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Prorok, V.V.; Melnichenko, L.Yu.; Mason, C.F.V.; Ageyev, V.A.; Ostashko, V.V.

    2006-07-01

    Rapidly maturing plants were grown simultaneously at the same experimental sites under natural conditions at the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Roots of the plants were side by side in the soil. During two seasons we selected samples of the plants and of the soils several times every season. Content of Cs-137 in the plant and in the soil solution extracted from the samples of soils was measured. Results of measurements of the samples show that, for the experimental site, Cs-137 content in the plant varies with date of the sample selection. The plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio depends strongly on the date of selection and also on the type of soil. After analysis of the data we conclude that Cs-137 plant uptake is approximately proportional to the content of dissolved Cs-137 in the soil per unit of volume, and the plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio for the soil is approximately proportional to the soil moisture. (authors)

  1. Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by radionuclide releases) of waste disposal facilities and decommissioning sites.

  2. [Transfer factors in medical therapy].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, Dolores J; Sosa-Luna, Carlos A; Vásquez-Moctezuma, Ismael

    2011-09-10

    Transfer factor (TF) consists of messenger peptides produced by activated T lymphocytes as part of cellular immunity, and it acts in virgin lymphocytes through TF inducers, suppressors and specific antigens. TF is not immunogenic because it is not species-specific, since it contains a consensus sequence of amino acids LLYAQDL/VEDN. TF extracted from leukocytes can transfer immunity from a human to another species. TF extracts are complex, containing more than 200 molecules with molecular weights ranging from 1 to 20 kDa. The antigen specific transfer factors (STF) have molecular weights between 3,5 and 5 kDa. TF is easy to prepare and well tolerated. It does not contain HL-A antigens against potential receptors and it can used as adjuvant therapy in several diseases. PMID:20561650

  3. Plant uptake and translocation of air-borne chlordane and comparison with the soil-to-plant route.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Yee; Iannucci-Berger, William A; Eitzer, Brian D; White, Jason C; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia

    2003-10-01

    In order to assess fully the impact of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human health, pollutant exchange at the interface between terrestrial plants, in particular food crops, and other environmental compartments must be thoroughly understood. In this regard, transfers of multicomponent and chiral pollutants are particularly informative. In the present study, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) was planted in containerized, uncontaminated soil under both greenhouse and field conditions and exposed to air-borne chlordane contamination at 14.0 and 0.20 ng/m(3) (average, greenhouses), and 2.2 ng/m(3) (average, field). Chiral gas chromatography interfaced to an ion trap mass spectrometer was used to determine the chiral (trans-chlordane, TC, and cis-chlordane, CC) and achiral (trans-nonachlor, TN) chlordane components in vegetation, air, and soil compartments. The chlordane components of interest were detected in all vegetation tissues examined--root, stem, leaves, and fruits. When compared with the data from a soil-to-plant uptake study, the compositional profile of the chlordane components, i.e. the component fractions of TC, CC, and TN, in plant tissues, showed significantly different patterns between the air-to-plant and soil-to-plant pathways. Changes in the enantiomer fractions of TC and CC in plant tissues relative to the source, i.e. air or soil, although observed, were not markedly different between the two routes. This report provides the first comprehensive comparison between two distinct plant uptake routes for POPs and their subsequent translocation within plant tissues. PMID:12892673

  4. Nickel and manganese transfer from soil to plant in lateritic mining soils from New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouschat, P.; Rose, J.; Alliot, I.; Dominici, C.; Keller, C.; Laffont-Schwob, I.; Olivi, L.; Ambrosi, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    New Caledonian ferritic soils (more than 50 % of iron) are naturally rich in metals (chromium, nickel, cobalt, and manganese), deficient in major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium), and unbalanced for the calcium/magnesium ratio. Under these particular ecological conditions, New Caledonia, recognized as a hot-spot of biodiversity, is a natural laboratory to study and understand the adaptation strategies of plants to metalliferous soils, and particularly the tolerance and (hyper)accumulation of metals by plants. Moreover, understanding such mechanisms is essential to develop rehabilitation or phytoremediation techniques for polluted soils, as well as phytomining techniques. Thus, in order to understand the soil - plant relationship and metal mobility along a toposequence in a future nickel mining massif, field experiments were conducted in an isolated ultramafic massif of New Caledonia. Several plant species of two endemic and frequent plant genera were chosen: Tristaniopsis guillainii and T. calobuxus (Myrtaceae), and Phyllanthus serpentinus and P. favieri (Euphorbiaceae), because of their nickel and/or manganese accumulating or hyperaccumulating nature. Leaves, twigs, and roots of all plants were collected along the soil sequence and their associated rhizospheric and bulk soils were sampled. Next, a series of characterization techniques were adapted and then coupled to cryogenics. The combined use of those multiple techniques (cryo-microtomy, cryo-SEM, µXRF, cryo-XAS, and soil characterization) allowed to study co-location and speciation of nickel and manganese in the different plant organs and soils (rhizospheric and bulk). Bioaccumulated nickel and manganese had different distribution patterns. In leaves, Ni accumulated in non photosynthetic tissues (e.g. epidermis) whereas Mn preferentially accumulated in mesophyll whatever the plant species. Nevertheless, in spite of a different speciation in soils, nickel and manganese were both found as similar divalent organometallic complexes in the different plant parts.

  5. The Knowledge Transfer Factors under Different Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuanhua; Xue, Lili

    Based on a study of knowledge transfer within different types of business, between both domestic and international R&D partners, knowledge transfer success was found to be associated with several key variables: communications, information technology, behavioral and comprehensive. This article offers a process framework of knowledge transfer. The framework identifies stages of transfer and factors that are expected to correlate with difficulty at different stages of the transfer. Each stage of the transfer is discussed to explore the predictive power of different factors at different stages of the process.

  6. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-07-20

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  7. Soil-water distribution coefficients and plant transfer factors for (134)Cs, (85)Sr and (65)Zn under field conditions in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Twining, J R; Payne, T E; Itakura, T

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of soil-to-plant transfer of (134)Cs, (85)Sr and (65)Zn from two tropical red earth soils ('Blain' and 'Tippera') to sorghum and mung crops have been undertaken in the north of Australia. The aim of the study was to identify factors that control bioaccumulation of these radionuclides in tropical regions, for which few previous data are available. Batch sorption experiments were conducted to determine the distribution coefficient (K(d)) of the selected radionuclides at pH values similar to natural pH values, which ranged from about 5.5 to 6.7. In addition, K(d) values were obtained at one pH unit above and below the soil-water equilibrium pH values to determine the effect of pH. The adsorption of Cs showed no pH dependence, but the K(d) values for the Tippera soils (2300-4100 ml/g) exceeded those for the Blain soils (800-1200 ml/g) at equilibrium pH. This was related to the greater clay content of the Tippera soil. Both Sr and Zn were more strongly adsorbed at higher pH values, but the K(d) values showed less dependence on the soil type. Strontium K(d)s were 30-60 ml/g whilst Zn ranged from 160 to 1630 ml/g for the two soils at equilibrium pH. With the possible exception of Sr, there was no evidence for downward movement of radionuclides through the soils during the course of the growing season. There was some evidence of surface movement of labelled soil particles. Soil-to-plant transfer factors varied slightly between the soils. The average results for sorghum were 0.1-0.3 g/g for Cs, 0.4-0.8 g/g for Sr and 18-26 g/g for Zn (dry weight) with the initial values relating to Blain and the following values to Tippera. Similar values were observed for the mung bean samples. The transfer factors for Cs and Sr were not substantially different from the typical values observed in temperate studies. However, Zn transfer factors for plants grown on both these tropical soils were greater than for soils in temperate climates (by more than an order of magnitude). This may be related to trace nutrient deficiency and/or the growth of fungal populations in these soils. The results indicate that transfer factors depend on climatic region together with soil type and chemistry and underline the value of specific bioaccumulation data for radionuclides in tropical soils. PMID:14557038

  8. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Transfer Student Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jacob T. N.; Litzler, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Transfer students' adjustment to college has received substantial attention by researchers. This focus has predominately investigated the observation of "transfer shock": a decrease in grade point average (GPA) experienced after transferring. In response to the persistent focus on transfer shock, growing attention has been directed

  9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Transfer Student Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jacob T. N.; Litzler, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Transfer students' adjustment to college has received substantial attention by researchers. This focus has predominately investigated the observation of "transfer shock": a decrease in grade point average (GPA) experienced after transferring. In response to the persistent focus on transfer shock, growing attention has been directed…

  10. From soil to plant, the journey of P through trophic relationships and ectomycorrhizal association

    PubMed Central

    Becquer, Adeline; Trap, Jean; Irshad, Usman; Ali, Muhammad A.; Claude, Plassard

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is essential for plant growth and productivity. It is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soil because it is mainly present as unavailable, bound P whereas plants can only use unbound, inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is found in very low concentrations in soil solution. Some ectomycorrhizal fungi are able to release organic compounds (organic anions or phosphatases) to mobilize unavailable P. Recent studies suggest that bacteria play a major role in the mineralization of nutrients such as P through trophic relationships as they can produce specific phosphatases such as phytases to degrade phytate, the main form of soil organic P. Bacteria are also more effective than other microorganisms or plants at immobilizing free Pi. Therefore, bacterial grazing by grazers, such as nematodes, could release Pi locked in bacterial biomass. Free Pi may be taken up by ectomycorrhizal fungus by specific phosphate transporters and transferred to the plant by mechanisms that have not yet been identified. This mini-review aims to follow the phosphate pathway to understand the ecological and molecular mechanisms responsible for transfer of phosphate from the soil to the plant, to improve plant P nutrition. PMID:25360140

  11. Seasonal variation of soil-to-plant transfer of K and fallout sup 134,137 Cs in peatland vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W. )

    1989-10-01

    For three plants from a peat bog (Trichophorum caespitosum, Molinia coerulea, Calluna vulgaris) the concentration of 137Cs, the ratio 137Cs:134Cs, and stable K was determined in intervals of about 14 d from June to November 1987. The results show that for two grasses, Trichophorum caespitosum and Molinia coerulea (which have only perennial roots but sprout every year while the old leaves wither), the concentration of 137Cs decreased considerably during the growing season (1800-240, respectively, 4000-320 Bq kg-1 dry weight). A remarkably similar behavior was observed for the seasonal variability of K and radiocesium in the two grass species, which resulted in a nearly constant ratio of 137Cs:K during the year. In contrast, for the evergreen plant Calluna vulgaris (heather) which was contaminated surficially by the Chernobyl fallout, the concentrations of K and 137Cs were rather constant during 1987 (leaves about 10,000; stems about 5000 Bq kg-1 dry weight), even though radiocesium was taken up by the leaves and transported within the plant. For the two grasses, the plant:soil concentration ratios (CR) were obtained separately for total 137Cs, 137Cs from the global fallout, and Chernobyl-derived 137Cs. The CR of 137Cs from the global fallout decreased for Trichophorum caespitosum from 1.9 in the spring to 0.08 in the autumn, and for Chernobyl-derived 137Cs from 1.4 to 0.2. For Molinia coerulea, a similar behavior was observed. Possible reasons for the seasonal variability of the CR values and the different behavior of 137Cs from the global fallout and from the Chernobyl debris are discussed.

  12. Soil-to-root vegetable transfer factors for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (88)Y in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, Kh; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Y M; Bradley, D A; Mahat, R H; Nor, R M

    2014-09-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) are of fundamental importance in assessing the environmental impact due to the presence of radioactivity in soil and agricultural crops. Tapioca and sweet potato, both root crops, are popular foodstuffs for a significant fraction of the Malaysian population, and result in intake of radionuclides. For the natural field conditions experienced in production of these foodstuffs, TFs and the annual effective dose were evaluated for the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and for the anthropogenic radionuclide (88)Y, the latter being a component of fallout. An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptake. For soil samples from all study locations other than the experimental field, it has been shown that these contain the artificial radionuclide (88)Y, although the uptake of (88)Y has only been observed in the roots of the plant Manihot esculenta (from which tapioca is derived) grown in mining soil. The estimated TFs for (226)Ra and (232)Th for tapioca and sweet potato are very much higher than that reported by the IAEA. For all study areas, the annual effective dose from ingestion of tapioca and sweet potato are estimated to be lower than the world average (290 μSv y(-1)). PMID:24814722

  13. Measurement of transfer factor during constant exhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A. F.; Hearne, J.; Brenner, M.; Alfonso, R.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) was measured by a new method based on analysis of the ratio of the concentrations of carbon monoxide to an inert gas (methane) relative to lung volume during a constant exhalation. Since this new technique is based solely upon exhalation, anomalies associated with inspiration and breath holding do not affect results. Additionally, because prolonged breath holding is not required, measurements can readily be made in dyspnoeic patients. METHODS--Exhalation TLCO (TLCO,ex) was compared with the standard (Jones and Meade) 10 second breath holding TLCO (TLCO,bh) in 100 consecutive patients. Patients did not practise the exhalation manoeuvre prior to testing. RESULTS--The comparative results were very close; mean difference (bias) +/- standard deviation (precision) was 0.05 (0.84) mmol/min/kPa. The relation was equally strong in patients with severe pulmonary disease; for patients with FEV1 < 1.51 the mean difference was 0.21 (0.80) mmol/min/kPa. CONCLUSIONS--Since the results were essentially identical between the techniques, it seems that comparable pathophysiological factors affect TLCO during breath holding and constant exhalation. Constant exhalation may therefore be a useful alternative to the breath holding technique for clinical measurement of TLCO. PMID:7831628

  14. Studies of transport pathways of Th, rare earths, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to plants and farm animals. Progress report, April 1, 1985-February 28, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Linsalata, P.

    1986-02-01

    The field study is to assess the soil-to-plant and soil-to-animal concentration factors of the naturally occurring radionuclides /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, /sup 232/Th, /sup 230/Th, and /sup 228/Th, as well as of the light rare earth elements (REE), La, Ce and Nd. Farms situated near the center of a deeply weathered alkalic intrusive known as the Pocos de Caldas (PC) plateau were selected for study because of their proximity (i.e., within a few kilometers) to what may be the largest single near-surface deposit of Th (approx.30,000 tonnes) and REE's (>100,000 tonnes) situated near the summit of a hill (the Morro do Ferro (MF)). An ancillary field study is being conducted in Orange County, New York, where a local cattleman has permitted sampling members of the herd as well as soil and feeds which are all grown on the premises. Vegetable samples and soil have also been analyzed from five additional farms in Orange County, NY. 64 refs., 25 figs., 45 tabs.

  15. Organizational and Cultural Factors Affecting International Transfer of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Doo H.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the results of a study of a global company that examined the effect of training design and work environment on the transfer of human resources development training. Presents a model of international transfer of training and discusses organizational factors and cultural differences that affected the transfer of training. (LRW)

  16. Factors Affecting Training Transfer: Participants' Motivation to Transfer Training, Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alawneh, Muhammad K.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates factors that motivate participants in learning and training activities to transfer skills, knowledge and attitude from the learning setting to the workplace. Based on training transfer theories hypothesized by Holton (1996), one of the major theories that affect an organization's learning is motivation to transfer theory.…

  17. Racial and Cultural Factors and Learning Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closson, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Baldwin and Ford (1988) specifically include learner characteristics as one of three key inputs into the learning transfer process but infrequently (actually almost never) has race, ethnicity, or culture been included as a variable when describing trainee characteristics. For the most part one is left to speculate as to the potential influence…

  18. Some Factors Influencing Transfer of Simulator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    Studies of transfer of training may be used to determine whether simulator training improves pilot performance in an aircraft. Some approaches to determining simulator training effectiveness, such as surveys of pilot and instructor opinions, are not considered particularly reliable. Several other approaches have also been suggested. One factor…

  19. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site.

  20. Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Charge and Excitation Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Piotrowiak

    2004-09-28

    We report the and/or state of several subprojects of our DOE sponsored research on Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Electron and Excitation Transfer: (1) Construction of an ultrafast Ti:sapphire amplifier. (2) Mediation of electronic interactions in host-guest molecules. (3) Theoretical models of electrolytes in weakly polar media. (4) Symmetry effects in intramolecular excitation transfer.

  1. Transfer of Radionuclides K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226 from Mining Soil to Sawi (Japanese Mustard)

    SciTech Connect

    Hariandra, M.; Amin, Y. M.

    2008-05-20

    The uptake of naturally occurring thorium, radium and potassium by sawi (Japanese Mustard) from disused tin mining was studied. Both soil and sawi sample were collected from a vegetable farm located 15 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the farm has been operating for 22 years on a disused tin mining. By using a gamma spectroscopy system, the transfers of radionuclides from soil to plants were investigated. The highest values of radionuclides in the soil was K-40 which is 52.8 Bq kg{sup -1} and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 6.51 Bq kg{sup -1}. The activity of Th-232 is 18.5 Bq kg{sup -1}. The activity of radionuclides in the sawi sample shows higher values as compared to the soil sample. The highest values of radionuclides in the sawi were K-40 which is 446 Bq kg{sup -1} and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 17.5 Bq kg{sup -1}. The activity of Th-232 is 65.2 Bq kg{sup -1}. The concentration of radionuclides in soils and plants can be used for the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) were calculated and observed to be 2.68 for radium-226, 3.52 for thorium-232 and the highest which is 3.97 for potassium-40.

  2. Transfer of Radionuclides K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226 from Mining Soil to Sawi (Japanese Mustard)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariandra, M.; Amin, Y. M.

    2008-05-01

    The uptake of naturally occurring thorium, radium and potassium by sawi (Japanese Mustard) from disused tin mining was studied. Both soil and sawi sample were collected from a vegetable farm located 15 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the farm has been operating for 22 years on a disused tin mining. By using a gamma spectroscopy system, the transfers of radionuclides from soil to plants were investigated. The highest values of radionuclides in the soil was K-40 which is 52.8 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 6.51 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 18.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of radionuclides in the sawi sample shows higher values as compared to the soil sample. The highest values of radionuclides in the sawi were K-40 which is 446 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 17.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 65.2 Bq kg-1. The concentration of radionuclides in soils and plants can be used for the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) were calculated and observed to be 2.68 for radium-226, 3.52 for thorium-232 and the highest which is 3.97 for potassium-40.

  3. A Compendium of Transfer Factors for Agricultural and Animal Products

    SciTech Connect

    Staven, Lissa H.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rhoads, Kathleen; Strenge, Dennis L.

    2003-06-02

    Transfer factors are used in radiological risk assessments to estimate the amount of radioactivity that could be present in a food crop or organism based on the calculated concentration in the source medium (i.e., soil or animal feed). By calculating the concentration in the food, the total intake can be estimated and a dose calculated as a result of the annual intake. This report compiles transfer factors for radiological risk assessments, using common food products, including meats, eggs, and plants. Transfer factors used were most often selected from recommended values listed by national or international organizations for use in radiological food chain transport calculations. Several methods of estimation and extrapolation were used for radionuclides not listed in the primary information sources. Tables of transfer factors are listed by element and information source for beef, eggs, fish, fruit, grain, leafy vegetation, milk, poultry, and root vegetables.

  4. Factors affecting the placental transfer of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Sikov, M.R.; Kelman, B.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to consider factors that affect the availability and transport of actinides from maternal blood, through the placenta, to the conceptus. These factors, of particular importance in scaling results from animals to man, include the route and temporal pattern of administration, the mass and physicochemical state of material administered, metabolism of the pregnant animal and fetal organs or tissue, and species-specific changes in placental structure relative to stage of gestation at exposure. Preliminary concepts for descriptive and kinetic models are proposed to integrate these results, to identify additional information required for developing more comprehensive models, and to provide a basis for scaling to human pregnancies for purposes of radiation dosimetry.

  5. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Leeman, W R; Van Den Berg, K J; Houben, G F

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data concerning feed contaminant concentrations, feeding periods, residue levels in animal products, and other parameters were gathered and recorded. For each case a 'transfer factor', which was defined as the ratio of the concentration of a chemical in an animal product to the concentration of the chemical in animal feed, was calculated. Scientifically founded transfer factors were calculated and analysed for groups of chemicals based on their contaminant classes or physicochemical properties. These database-derived transfer factors enable a more accurate risk assessment in the case of a feed contamination, and enable rapid risk management decision-making and/or intervention. PMID:17164211

  6. Deuteron form factor measurements at low momentum transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlimme, B. S.; Achenbach, P.; Beričič, J.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friščić, I.; Griffioen, K. A.; Huan, Y.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, J.; Müller, U.; Pochodzalla, J.; Schoth, M.; Schulz, F.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Štajner, S.; Thiel, M.; Weber, A.

    2016-03-01

    A precise measurement of the elastic electron-deuteron scattering cross section at four-momentum transfers of 0.24 fm-1 ≤ Q ≤ 2.7 fm-1 has been performed at the Mainz Microtron. In this paper we describe the utilized experimental setup and the necessary analysis procedure to precisely determine the deuteron charge form factor from these data. Finally, the deuteron charge radius rd can be extracted from an extrapolation of that form factor to Q2 = 0.

  7. University Technology Transfer Factors as Predictors of Entrepreneurial Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, Dorothy M.

    2011-01-01

    University technology transfer is a collaborative effort between academia and industry involving knowledge sharing and learning. Working closely with their university partners affords biotechnology firms the opportunity to successfully develop licensed inventions and gain access to novel scientific and technological discoveries. These factors may…

  8. Factors influencing redox potentials of electron transfer proteins.

    PubMed

    Moore, G R; Pettigrew, G W; Rogers, N K

    1986-07-01

    The redox potentials of electron transfer proteins vary over a wide range, even when the type of redox center is the same. Rees [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1985) 82, 3082-3085] proposed that this variation of redox potential partly reflects the different net charges of the proteins, and he presented a linear correlation between these two properties for 36 proteins. A review of the factors that influence protein redox potentials makes it clear that this linear correlation is fortuitous. The key factors influencing redox potentials are the contributions to the Gibbs energy difference between the two redox states, resulting from bonding interactions at the redox center, electrostatic interactions between the redox-center charge and polar groups within the protein and solvent, and redox-state conformational changes. The relative importance of these terms is likely to vary from protein to protein. PMID:3460080

  9. The Influence Theory: Factors That Influence the Transfer Advising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Alan L.; Dantzler, John A.; Hardy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The transfer rate from community college to four-year institutions has been dropping for the past 70 years. In the most recent statistics, the national rate of transfer is 23% (Cohen & Brawer, 2008). In the state of Alabama the transfer rate is approximately 4%, and in the rural counties of Alabama the transfer rate hovers around 1%. Many…

  10. AIDS and transfer factor: myths, certainties and realities.

    PubMed

    Viza, D

    1996-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, the triumph of biology is as indisputable as that of physics was at the end of the 19th century, and so is the might of the inductive thought. Virtually all diseases have been seemingly conquered and HIV, the cause of AIDS, has been fully described ten years after the onset of the epidemic. However, the triumph of biological science is far from being complete. The toll of several diseases, such as cancer, continues to rise and the pathogenesis of AIDS remains elusive. In the realm of inductive science, the dominant paradigm can seldom be challenged in a frontal attack, especially when it is apparently successful, and only what Kuhn calls "scientific revolutions" can overthrow it. Thus, it is hardly surprising that the concept of transfer factor is considered with contempt, and the existence of the moiety improbable: over forty years after the introduction of the concept, not only its molecular structure remains unknown, but also its putative mode of action contravenes dogmas of both immunology and molecular biology. And when facts challenge established dogmas, be in religion, philosophy or science, they must be suppressed. Thus, results of heterodox research become henceforth nisi-i.e., valid unless cause is shown for rescinding them, because they challenge the prevalent paradigm. However, when observations pertain to lethal disorders, their suppression in the name of dogmas may become criminal. Because of the failure of medical science to manage the AIDS pandemic, transfer factor, which has been successfully used for treating or preventing viral infections, may today overcome a priori prejudice and rejection more swiftly. In science, as in life, certainties always end up by dying, and Copernicus' vision by replacing that of Ptolemy. PMID:8993753

  11. Soil-to-crop transfer factors of tellurium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-09-01

    Stable tellurium (Te) concentrations in 148 sets of agricultural soil and associated crop samples were measured in this study to obtain soil-to-crop transfer factor (TF) of Te. We used a recently developed simple method that applies digestion of samples with aqua regia and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to measure low Te levels in these samples. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of Te in soil and crops were 75μgkg(-1)-dry (range: 15-850μgkg(-1)-dry) and 1.8μgkg(-1)-dry (range: 0.1-120μgkg(-1)-dry), respectively; the Te concentration range was significantly wider in crops than in soil. Using these data, we calculated TFs and obtained their range from 1.3×10(-3) to 1.1×10(-1). The GM of TF for upland field crops was calculated to be 2.0×10(-2) and for brown rice was 3.1×10(-2); all crop types had the similar GMs of their TF values. Data comparison for TF of Te was carried out with six elements, which are present in anionic forms in soil environment like Te is, i.e. P, Br, As, Se, Mo, and I. TFs of Te and I showed the highest correlation factor for upland field crops by t-test (r=0.577, p<0.001), but no correlation was found for brown rice. We considered it likely that different water management practices in upland fields and paddy fields affected the Te transfer from soil to crops. PMID:24997965

  12. On the influence of soil properties on the transfer of 137Cs from two soils (Chromic Luvisol and Eutric Fluvisol) to wheat and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Djingova, R; Kovacheva, P; Todorov, B; Zlateva, B; Kuleff, I

    2005-01-01

    Two types of soils (Eutric Fluvisol and Chromic Luvisol) and two crops (wheat and cabbage) were investigated for determination of the transfer of 137Cs from soil to plant. Measurements were performed using gamma-spectrometry. Results for the soil characteristics, transfer factors of the radionuclides (TF), and conversion factors (CF) (cabbage/wheat) were obtained. The transfer of 137Cs was higher for Chromic Luvisol for both the plants. Statistically significant dependence of TF of 137Cs on its concentration in soil was established for cabbage. Dependence between K content in the soil and the transfer factor of 137Cs was not found due to the high concentrations of available K. Use of bioconcentration factor (BCF) (ratio between the activity concentration of a radionuclide in a reference plant to its concentration in another plant) is demonstrated and proposed for risk assessment studies. PMID:15829337

  13. Standardisation of gas mixtures for estimating carbon monoxide transfer factor.

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, A. H.; Laszlo, G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The American Thoracic Society recommends that the inspired concentration used for the estimation of carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) mixture should be 0.25-0.35% carbon monoxide, 10-14% helium, 17-21% oxygen, balance nitrogen. Inspired oxygen influences alveolar oxygen and hence carbon monoxide uptake, such that transfer factor increases by 0.35% per mm Hg decrease in alveolar oxygen. To aid in the standardisation of TLCO either a known inspired oxygen concentration should be used, or TLCO should be corrected to a standard inspired oxygen concentration. The range of gas mixtures used in practice and the implications for cost and accuracy have been investigated. METHODS--A questionnaire was sent to 185 respiratory units in the UK requesting information on (1) the method used to estimate TLCO, (2) the manufacturer of the equipment, (3) the mixture used, (4) whether "medical quality" gas was ordered, and (5) the level of satisfaction with supplier service. RESULTS--Replies were received from 106 units. Most used the single breath breath holding method for which 17 different test mixtures were ordered. One unit also used the single breath exhalation method. Inspired oxygen ranged from 17.94% to 25%, giving a wide variation in alveolar oxygen and hence TLCO. Forty seven units ordered a specific inspired oxygen, the rest ordering "air" as balance. The cost per litre of gas varied greatly, with the mixture 14% helium, 0.28% carbon monoxide, balance air (17.9% oxygen) and 10% helium, 0.28% carbon monoxide, balance air (18.8% oxygen) being cheapest to produce. Ordering a specific inspired oxygen concentration increased the cost. Large cylinders of gas were cheaper for the same mixture. The mixture for the exhalation method was the most expensive. Sixty seven units ordered "medical quality" gas and six assumed this was supplied. Twenty nine (27%) were dissatisfied with their supplier due to (1) poor service, (2) long delivery times, (3) costs, or (4) wrongly labelled cylinders. CONCLUSIONS--It is recommended that two mixtures be available: (a) 14% helium, 0.28% carbon monoxide, balance air for a helium analyser reading up to 15%, and (b) 10% helium, 0.28% carbon monoxide, balance air for lower reading helium analysers. The mixture should be produced under a medical product licence. The advantage of the single exhalation method for routine clinical use needs to be investigated in view of the higher cost of the mixture. PMID:8211878

  14. Transfer of metals in soil-grass ecosystems under long-term N, P, K fertilization in Hesse, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2015-04-01

    With this study focuses on the influence of long-term (14 years) fertilization on metal transition from soil to plants is presented. Accumulation of metals in plants due to long-term fertilization and predicting the bioavailability and transfer of metals in the soil-plant system is of great importance with regard to human health as plants represent the first compartment of the terrestrial food chain. Soil and plant (Lolio-Cynosuretum) samples were taken from a 14 years long-term fertilization field experiment which was carried out in Hesse, Germany. Correlation coefficients, transfer factors, and regression analysis was performed for Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn to quantify the relative difference in bioavailability of metals to plants or to identify the capacity of plants to accumulate a given metal. Correlation coefficients between metals in soils and in plants show significant relationships (p<0.01) for selected metals. Metal bioavailability from soil to plant based on transfer factor (TF) was observed to decrease in the order Cd>Cu>Zn>Mn>Pb. Results of stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that Corg, CEC and bioavailable metal content are the most important predictors for plant metal uptake.

  15. Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations

  16. Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

  17. Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer--biological factors.

    PubMed

    Tian, X Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Enright, Brian; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2003-11-13

    Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer, however, significant breakthroughs are yet to happen. In this review we will discuss studies conducted, in our laboratories and those of others, to gain a better understanding of nuclear reprogramming. Because cattle are a species widely used for nuclear transfer studies, and more laboratories have succeeded in cloning cattle than any other species, this review will be focused on somatic cell cloning of cattle. PMID:14614770

  18. Factors Affecting the Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    AKAGI, Satoshi; MATSUKAWA, Kazutsugu; TAKAHASHI, Seiya

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear transfer is a complex multistep procedure that includes oocyte maturation, cell cycle synchronization of donor cells, enucleation, cell fusion, oocyte activation and embryo culture. Therefore, many factors are believed to contribute to the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer. Numerous attempts to improve cloning efficiency have been conducted since the birth of the first sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, the efficiency of somatic cell cloning has remained low, and applications have been limited. In this review, we discuss some of the factors that affect the developmental ability of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in cattle. PMID:25341701

  19. Factors that affect print quality in thermal dye transfer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Daniel J. P.; McInerney, Elizabeth

    1995-04-01

    Thermal dye transfer (TDT) imaging has established itself as the state- of-the-art process for high quality, continuous tone, nonimpact printing. Imaging quality from this process rivals conventional silver halide photography and exceeds other nonimpact printing technologies. Because this output appears to be virtually indistinguishable from photographic prints, there has been an expectation that all the quality attributes of silver halide photography are embodied in a TDT print. However, there are many significant differences that affect output quality between these two technologies. These differences are primarily in color gamut, print artifacts, Dmin, grain/sharpness, and image stability. The range of colors reproducible by a color, hard copy device, known as its color gamut, is dictated primarily by the image- forming dyes used by the device. The size and shape of a device's gamut is controlled by the spectral density distributions of these image forming dyes, the Dmin of the receiver base, the Dmax of each dye, the amount of light scatter, and the spectral distribution of the viewing illuminant. The spectral density distributions of dyes also have an impact on illuminant sensitivity, which is a predictor of how much the color balance of a print will change with a change in illuminant. By determining and then using characteristic curves for various image- forming dyes, we have been able to calculate and compare the color gamuts and illuminant sensitivity of TDT imaging with other technologies (color monitor and silver halide photography, for example). The differences we have found can have a significant impact on output quality, depending upon the application. Compared to conventional photography, thermal dye transfer prints have traditionally had inferior light stability and resistance to damage from fingerprints. In addition, thermal dye transfer prints have been aggressively attacked by plasticized polyvinyl chloride sheets and folders commonly found in office and home environments. We will describe a major advance in thermal dye transfer imaging technology that greatly improves the image stability position of thermal dye transfer images. This advance is derived from the addition of a thin protective layer onto the final print. To add to customer convenience, the protective layer is integrated into the dye donor ribbon as a 4th patch. The protective layer is laminated to the final print using the thermal print head. TDT print artifacts may also influence the quality of TDT output. These defects can include print head streaks, dust and dirt spots, printer banding, and donor ribbon wrinkling. The origin of these defects will be described.

  20. Relation of pulmonary vessel size to transfer factor in subjects with airflow obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Musk, A.W.

    1983-11-01

    In a group of 61 consecutive patients undergoing assessment of airflow obstruction, a significant linear relation was demonstrated between measurements of the diameter of the midzonal pulmonary vessels on the plain chest radiographs and transfer factor (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide) (r = 0.46, p < 0.001). Since reduction in transfer factor has been shown to relate to structural emphysema, reduction in midzone vessel caliber implies the same. However, in the individual patient neither the transfer factor nor structural emphysema can be reliably predicted from midzone vessel diameters alone.

  1. The Influence of Transfer System Factors and Training Elapsed Time on Transfer in a Healthcare Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalko, Beverly J.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations and other sponsors of training face increasing pressure to demonstrate the value or impact of their training programs on individual and organizational performance. A critical element in the validation of training effectiveness is the permanent transfer of learned knowledge, skills, and behaviors to the workplace. The generalization…

  2. Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diggs, Byron Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

  3. Transitioning Transfer Students: Interactive Factors that Influence First-Year Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Mingchu; Williams, James E.; Vieweg, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the diverse patterns of interactive factors that influence transfer students' first-year retention at a midsize four-year university. The population for this study consisted of five cohorts totaling 1,713 full-time, degree-seeking transfer students. Sequential sets of logistic regression analyses on blocks of variables were

  4. A double-blind trial of transfer factor vs placebo in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, R C; Espinoza, L R; Plank, C R; Ebers, G C; Rosenberg, R A; Zabriskie, J B

    1978-01-01

    A double-blind trial of the effect of transfer factor on multiple sclerosis patients was carried out. In a series of fifty-six multiple sclerosis patients treated with monthly injections of either transfer factor or placebo for 1 year, no beneficial effect of transfer factor was noted. In addition, none of the immunological and serological parameters studied (measles migration inhibition, measles HI titre or CSF immunoglobulin) changed as a result of transfer factor therapy. Histocompatibility typing and CSF IgG/TP ratios were correlated with the disease activity. Of interest was the finding that the presence of the DW2 antigen, when unassociated with HLA-B7 antigen, appeared to correlate with the mildest form of disease activity. PMID:361313

  5. Simulation of a Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles with Power Factor Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Pickelsimer, Michael C; Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak; Miller, John M

    2012-01-01

    Wireless power transfer has been a popular topic of recent research. Most research has been done to address the limitations of coil-to-coil efficiency. However, little has been done to address the problem associated with the low input power factor with which the systems operate. This paper details the steps taken to analyze a wireless power transfer system from the view of the power grid under a variety of loading conditions with and without power factor correction.

  6. Congregation transfers its healthcare system. Franciscan Sisters of Little Falls list critical factors for a successful transfer of sponsorship.

    PubMed

    Eichten, B; Schneider, R M

    1994-12-01

    In 1993 the Franciscan Sisters of Little Falls, MN, transferred ownership and sponsorship of their 12 healthcare facilities to Catholic Health Corporation of Omaha. The sisters had had two goals from the start of the process: To transfer the facilities to another Catholic system, and in such a way that both members of the religious institute and the facilities' personnel would "own" the decision To complete the transfer with minimal upheaval in facility operations The sisters accomplished both of these goals. They attribute their success to prayer and several critical factors. First, having pondered their healthcare ministry in light of their Franciscan tradition, the sisters decided that a larger system could better meet their facilities' needs. Second, they developed a set of criteria for the new sponsor, including the requirement that it be both Catholic and dedicated to rural healthcare. Third, the sisters became willing to take the risks a transfer involved for both their congregation and the 12 facilities. Fourth, the sisters clearly communicated their decision to everyone affected by it. Fifth, they sought the help of experts in making the transfer. Sixth, they worked hard to create trust, so that all involved--including those who would lose their jobs--took ownership of the transfer decision. After completion of the transfer, each of the facilities held a ritual celebrating the friendships and respect built over the long years the Franciscan Sisters were their sponsors. The sisters held their own ritual of commemoration. They continue their ministries in health, education, social services, and pastoral care. PMID:10138591

  7. Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ziyi; Sun, Xingshen; Chen, Juan; Leno, Gregory H.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females is a foundational strategy for a number of assisted reproductive technologies, including cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In an attempt to develop efficient ET in domestic ferrets, factors affecting development of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts in the oviduct or uterus was evaluated in recipient nulliparous or primiparous females. Developing fetuses were collected from recipient animals 21 days post-copulation and examined. The percentage of fetal formation was different (P < 0.05) for unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes (71%) in nulliparous females with bilateral transfer (56%) in primiparous recipients. The percentage (90%) of fetal formation in nulliparous recipients following unilateral transfer of blastocysts was higher (P < 0.05) than that observed in primiparous recipients with bilateral ET (73%). Notably, the percentage of fetal formation was higher (P < 0.05) when blastocyts were transferred as compared to zygotes (90% versus 71%). Transuterine migration of embryos occurred following all unilateral transfers and also in approximately 50% of bilateral transfers with different number of embryos in each uterine horn. These data will help to facilitate the development of assisted reproductive strategies in the ferret and could lead to the use of this species for modeling human disease and for conservation of the endangered Mustelidae species such as black-footed ferret and European mink. PMID:16330092

  8. Robust and Non-Negative Collective Matrix Factorization for Text-to-Image Transfer Learning.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Jing, Liping; Ng, Michael K

    2015-12-01

    Heterogeneous transfer learning has recently gained much attention as a new machine learning paradigm in which the knowledge can be transferred from source domains to target domains in different feature spaces. Existing works usually assume that source domains can provide accurate and useful knowledge to be transferred to target domains for learning. In practice, there may be noise appearing in given source (text) and target (image) domains data, and thus, the performance of transfer learning can be seriously degraded. In this paper, we propose a robust and non-negative collective matrix factorization model to handle noise in text-to-image transfer learning, and make a reliable bridge to transfer accurate and useful knowledge from the text domain to the image domain. The proposed matrix factorization model can be solved by an efficient iterative method, and the convergence of the iterative method can be shown. Extensive experiments on real data sets suggest that the proposed model is able to effectively perform transfer learning in noisy text and image domains, and it is superior to the popular existing methods for text-to-image transfer learning. PMID:26259080

  9. Time-fixed rendezvous by impulse factoring with an intermediate timing constraint. [for transfer orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. N.; Kibler, J. F.; Young, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    A method is presented for factoring a two-impulse orbital transfer into a three- or four-impulse transfer which solves the rendezvous problem and satisfies an intermediate timing constraint. Both the time of rendezvous and the intermediate time of a alinement are formulated as any element of a finite sequence of times. These times are integer multiples of a constant plus an additive constant. The rendezvous condition is an equality constraint, whereas the intermediate alinement is an inequality constraint. The two timing constraints are satisfied by factoring the impulses into collinear parts that vectorially sum to the original impulse and by varying the resultant period differences and the number of revolutions in each orbit. Five different types of solutions arise by considering factoring either or both of the two impulses into two or three parts with a limit for four total impulses. The impulse-factoring technique may be applied to any two-impulse transfer which has distinct orbital periods.

  10. Adjuvant treatment using transfer factor for bronchogenic carcinoma: long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Whyte, R I; Schork, M A; Sloan, H; Orringer, M B; Kirsh, M M

    1992-03-01

    Transfer factor, a dialyzable lymphocyte extract that may act as an immune stimulator by transferring antigen-specific immunity between genetically dissimilar individuals, was administered in a prospective, randomized study to patients with non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma. Between 1976 and 1982, 63 patients who underwent pulmonary resection, mediastinal lymph node dissection, and, when indicated by the presence of mediastinal lymph node involvement, mediastinal irradiation were randomized into two groups. Group 1 (n = 28) received 1 mL of pooled transfer factor at 3-month intervals after operation; group 2 (n = 35 ) served as controls and received saline solution. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to age, sex, tumor histology, stage of disease, or extent of resection. One patient was lost to follow-up at 96 months; follow-up was complete in all others through July 1990. In patients receiving transfer factor, the 2-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 82%, 64%, and 43% respectively, whereas in controls they were 63%, 43%, and 23%. Survival in patients receiving transfer factor was consistently better than in those receiving placebo. Furthermore, survival in patients receiving transfer factor was greater at all stages of disease for both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Although these long-term results were not statistically significant using survival analysis with covariates (p = 0.08), they confirm our previously reported short-term findings suggesting that administration of transfer factor, either through nonspecific immune stimulation, enhancement of cell-mediated immunity, or an as yet undefined mechanism, can improve survival in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. PMID:1540053

  11. Factors that influence passive transfer of immunoglobulins in foals.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, M M; Tran, T; Baldwin, J L; Pritchard, E L

    1992-01-15

    Effects of farm management, breed, mare age, gestation duration, and climatologic factors on colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG concentration, and foal serum IgG concentration were evaluated. Climatologic variables measured were daily maximal, minimal, and mean air temperature, precipitation, average relative humidity, and total solar radiation. Presuckle, postpartum colostrum samples were collected from 140 Standardbred, 94 Thoroughbred, and 59 Arabian mares from January through June during 1985 and 1986. Thoroughbred (farm A, n = 61; farm B, n = 33) and Arabian (farm C, n = 45; farm D, n = 14) mares were located in Ocala, Fla; Standardbred mares (farm E) were in Montgomery, NY. Mares from farms A, B, D, and E foaled in box stalls, and mares from farm C foaled in sand paddocks. Mares with premature lactation greater than 12 hours were not included in the study. Foals were clinically normal at birth and suckled colostrum without assistance within 2 hours of parturition. Specific gravity of presuckle colostrum samples was measured by use of an equine colostrometer. Blood samples were collected 18 hours after parturition from 253 of the 293 foals (n = 45, 25, 32, 13, 138 on farms A through E, respectively) to determine serum concentration of IgG. The IgG concentrations in colostrum and serum were measured by single radial immunodiffusion. Data were analyzed by multiple regression or chi 2 analysis. The most important determinants of foal serum IgG concentration were the IgG content and specific gravity of presuckle colostrum samples (P less than 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1559872

  12. Assessing metal bioaccumulation in aquatic environments: the inverse relationship between bioaccumulation factors, trophic transfer factors and exposure concentration.

    PubMed

    DeForest, David K; Brix, Kevin V; Adams, William J

    2007-08-30

    Bioaccumulation potential in aquatic biota is typically expressed using ratios of chemical concentrations in organism tissue (typically whole body) relative to chemical exposure concentrations, such as bioconcentration factors (BCFs). Past reviews of metal BCFs for aquatic biota, which account for water-only exposures, have shown that BCFs are often highly variable between organisms and generally inversely related to exposure concentration. This paper further evaluates trends in metal bioaccumulation data by evaluating data for bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and trophic transfer factors (TTFs). Bioaccumulation factor data were compiled from field studies that account for combined waterborne and dietary metal exposures. Trophic transfer factor data for metals were compiled from laboratory studies in which aquatic food chains were simulated. Natural aquatic food webs are rarely sufficiently understood to properly evaluate exact predator-prey relationships (i.e., TTFs). Results indicate that field BAFs, like laboratory BCFs, tend to be significantly (p < or = 0.05) inversely related to exposure concentration. Bioaccumulation factors are frequently 100-1000 times larger than BCFs for the same metal and species. This difference is attributed to both lower exposure levels in the field and inclusion of the dietary exposure route. Trophic transfer factors for the metals reviewed, including selenium and methyl mercury were also observed to be inversely related to exposure concentration, particularly at lower exposure concentrations. These inverse relationships have important implications for environmental regulations (e.g., hazard classification and tissue residue-based water quality criteria) and for the use of metal bioaccumulation data in site-specific environmental evaluations, such as ecological and human health risk assessments. Data presented indicate that for metals and metalloids, unlike organic substances, no one BAF or TTF can be used to express bioaccumulation and/or trophic transfer without consideration of the exposure concentration. PMID:17673306

  13. A simple parameterization for quality factor as a function of linear energy transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a simple analytic approximation of the radiation quality factor (Q) as a function of linear energy transfer for use in radiation protection calculations. The paper also presents estimated quality factors in water for protons over a broad range of incident energies. It is shown that the quality factors are less than unity for all proton energies greater than 13 MeV.

  14. Fertility factors in Pseudomonas putida: selection and properties of high-frequency transfer and chromosome donors.

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, M; Garg, G K; Gunsalus, I C

    1979-01-01

    The octane plasmid (OCT) in Pseudomonas putida strains has been shown to be transferred at low frequency. However, bacteria which had newly received this plasmid showed a transient increase in donor ability. Using Octane+ P. putida as the donor, the transfer of most chromosomal markers was shown to be independent of OCT transfer, whereas the mobilization of the octanoate catabolism genes (octanoic and acetate) was dependent on OCT plasmid transfer. The presence of a fertility factor termed FPo has been postulated to explain these results. Strains carrying only this fertility factor have been obtained from strains carrying both OCT and FPo plasmids. Strains in which the OCT plasmid was transferred at high frequencies have also been isolated, and chromosome mobilization by OCT and FPo has been compared. A different gradient of transmission by OCT and FPo has been observed. It has also been shown that chromosome transfer by OCT was dependent on the bacterial recombination system, whereas the chromosome transfer by FPo was unaffected by the presence of a rec mutation in the donor strain. PMID:762014

  15. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sánchez; Pérez, Javiér; García, M. N. Jiménez; López, M. A. Jiménez; Espíndola, M. E. Sánchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernández, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez

    2008-08-01

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-β) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  16. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    SciTech Connect

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sanchez; Perez, Javier; Garcia, M. N. Jimenez; Lopez, M. A. Jimenez; Espindola, M. E. Sanchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernandez, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez

    2008-08-11

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-{beta}) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  17. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2014-02-21

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation.

  18. Factors affecting the efficiency of foal production in a commercial oocyte transfer program.

    PubMed

    Riera, Fernando L; Roldán, Jaime E; Gomez, José; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    Transfer of donor oocytes to the oviducts of inseminated recipient mares (oocyte transfer, OT) presents a valuable method for production of foals from otherwise infertile mares. Little information is available, however, on factors affecting success of OT in a clinical setting. We report the findings over three breeding seasons in a commercial OT program developed at an equine embryo transfer center in Argentina. Overall, 25 mares were enrolled, and 197 follicle aspiration procedures were performed. The average mare age was 23 years. Follicle aspiration was performed with a needle placed through the flank; the oocyte recovery rate per follicle aspirated was 149 of 227 (66%). Induction of donor ovulation with deslorelin + hCG resulted in a significantly higher oocyte recovery rate than did induction with deslorelin alone (75% vs. 58%). There was no significant effect of mare age (17-20, 21-24, or 25-27 years) on oocyte recovery rate. Twelve oocytes were degenerating or lost during handling; transfer of the remaining 137 oocytes resulted in 42 pregnancies (31%) at 14 days. Of these, 32 (23% per transfer) went on to produce a foal or ongoing pregnancy. Transfer of oocytes recovered with a compact cumulus, without donor follicle induction, or less than 20 hours after induction was associated with a significantly reduced pregnancy rate (1/16, 6%), as was use of noncycling, hormone-treated recipients (2/22, 9%). To evaluate management factors affecting pregnancy rate, noncycling, hormone-treated recipients were disregarded, and only procedures using mature (expanded cumulus) oocytes recovered and transferred on the standard schedule (n = 99) were included. Mare age did not significantly affect rates of pregnancy or pregnancy loss. Similar pregnancy rates were obtained using recipients inseminated from 1 to 27 hours before transfer. Counterintuitively, insemination of recipients immediately (1-2 hours) after aspiration of the recipient follicle was associated with a high pregnancy rate (10/12, 83%). There was no significant effect on pregnancy rate of donor induction agent, the time the oocyte was in culture (2-20 hours) before transfer, time from recipient insemination to transfer, or total time from donor induction to transfer (32-45 hours). These findings establish that OT is robust, in that it is effective over a wide variation in timing of the different components involved, and can be successfully developed in a private embryo transfer practice. PMID:26709118

  19. A Transfer Learning Approach for Applying Matrix Factorization to Small ITS Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voß, Lydia; Schatten, Carlotta; Mazziotti, Claudia; Schmidt-Thieme, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Machine Learning methods for Performance Prediction in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) have proven their efficacy; specific methods, e.g. Matrix Factorization (MF), however suffer from the lack of available information about new tasks or new students. In this paper we show how this problem could be solved by applying Transfer Learning (TL),…

  20. Factors Contributing to the Upward Transfer of Baccalaureate Aspirants Beginning at Community Colleges. WISCAPE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating the psychological perspective, this study examines factors associated with the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, the study tests a logistic regression model to predict…

  1. What's Working: Program Factors Influencing California Community College Basic Skills Mathematics Students' Advancement to Transfer Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiero, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which basic skills program factors were exhibited by successful basic skills programs that helped students advance to transfer-level mathematics. This study specifically examined California community college basic skills programs that assist students who place in mathematics courses 2 levels

  2. Factors Contributing to the Upward Transfer of Baccalaureate Aspirants Beginning at Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli

    2012-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, a sequential logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict bachelor's degree-seeking community…

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AIR-TO-LEAF VAPOR PHASE TRANSFER FACTOR FOR DIOXINS AND FURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of an experiment in which grass was grown in a greenhouse and outdoors, and in soils of different concentration levels of dioxins and furans, were used in a modeling exercise to derive an air-to-leaf vapor phase transfer factor. The purpose of the experiment was to under...

  4. Factors Contributing to the Upward Transfer of Baccalaureate Aspirants Beginning at Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli

    2012-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, a sequential logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict bachelor's degree-seeking community

  5. What's Working: Program Factors Influencing California Community College Basic Skills Mathematics Students' Advancement to Transfer Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiero, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which basic skills program factors were exhibited by successful basic skills programs that helped students advance to transfer-level mathematics. This study specifically examined California community college basic skills programs that assist students who place in mathematics courses 2 levels…

  6. The Role of Individual and Training Design Factors on Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the role of individual and training design factors on training transfer. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature is conducted, and this review highlights a dual role of perceived content validity in the form of increasing self-efficacy and the role of trainees' reaction. The study…

  7. Scale-model charge-transfer technique for measuring enhancement factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kositsky, J.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Determination of aircraft electric field enhancement factors is crucial when using airborne field mill (ABFM) systems to accurately measure electric fields aloft. SRI used the scale model charge transfer technique to determine enhancement factors of several canonical shapes and a scale model Learjet 36A. The measured values for the canonical shapes agreed with known analytic solutions within about 6 percent. The laboratory determined enhancement factors for the aircraft were compared with those derived from in-flight data gathered by a Learjet 36A outfitted with eight field mills. The values agreed to within experimental error (approx. 15 percent).

  8. 134Cs transfer factors to green gram and soybean as influenced by waste mica.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasa Chari, M; Manjaiah, K M; Sachdev, P; Sachdev, M S

    2012-02-01

    Greenhouse pot culture experiment was carried out to study the (134)Cs transfer factors from soils to green gram and soybean as influenced by waste mica application (@ 0, 10, 20, 40 g mica kg(-1) soil) and compared with muriate of potash (MOP) application (0.17 g kg(-1) soil). For the study, the soils were contaminated with (134)Cs radionuclide @ 37 kBq kg(-1) soil. The shoot biomass and K uptake by crops were significantly improved with waste mica application (@ 40 g kg(-1) soil). Compared to control, waste mica and MOP application significantly improved the yield, K content in plant and its uptake. Amongst the soils, crops grown in vertisol recorded higher shoot biomass compared to inceptisol and ultisol. Irrespective of the treatments, higher (134)Cs transfer factors were seen in ultisol (0.30) as compared to inceptisol (0.16) and vertisol (0.13). It was observed that higher the K concentration in soil and plant, lowered (134)Cs transfer to green gram and soybean. The study recommended that waste mica @ 20 g kg(-1) would be useful for checking the (134)Cs transfer factors from soils to green gram and soybean. PMID:22115435

  9. Recoil Polarization Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio to High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Puckett

    2010-02-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electronnucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer Q2 between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large f momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their kinematics, including their scattering angles and momenta, and the position of the interaction vertex. A proton polarimeter measured the polarization of the recoiling protons by measuring the azimuthal asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons scattered in CH2 analyzers. The scattered electron was detected in a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter in order to suppress inelastic backgrounds. The measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the scattered proton is directly proportional to the ratio of form factors GpE=GpM. The measurements reported in this thesis took place at Q2 =5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV2, and represent the most accurate measurements of GpE in this Q2 region to date.

  10. Survey of literature on convective heat transfer coefficients and recovery factors for high atmosphere thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, S.

    1973-01-01

    Heat transfer phenomena of rarefied gas flows is discussed based on a literature survey of analytical and experimental rarefied gas dynamics. Subsonic flows are emphasized for the purposes of meteorological thermometry in the high atmosphere. The heat transfer coefficients for three basic geometries are given in the regimes of free molecular flow, transition flow, slip flow, and continuum flow. Different types of heat phenomena, and the analysis of theoretical and experimental data are presented. The uncertainties calculated from the interpolation rule compared with the available experimental data are discussed. The recovery factor for each geometry in subsonic rarefied flows is also given.

  11. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-11-01

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29Lkg(-1) in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85Lkg(-1) for whole, small-bodied fish. The logCRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were approximately 4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts. PMID:20619514

  12. Social Factors that Impact Women's Practice of Breast Self-Examination: A Challenge to the Transfer of Training Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Patricia A.; Flannery, Daniele D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative study was to understand how social factors might help or hinder the training transfer process. Specifically, this qualitative research looked at the meanings a group of women attached to social factors that might influence their practice of breast self-exam. Implications for transfer of training are suggested.…

  13. Transfer Students in STEM Majors: Gender Differences in the Socialization Factors that Influence Academic and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Dimitra Lynette

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to examine the socialization factors of community college transfer students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM); (b) to examine the socialization factors that impact the academic and social adjustment of community college transfer students in STEM majors; and (c) to understand how female…

  14. Effect of Plant and Environmental Factors on ALS-resistant Gene Transfer from ClearfieldTM Rice to Red Rice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imazethapyr-resistant gene from ClearfieldTM (CL) rice varieties transfers through pollen flow to red rice (Oryza sativa L.), a noxious weed in rice production in southern states. Factors which affect gene transfer rate include, but are not limited to, plant and environmental factors. Thus, we aimed...

  15. Cargo capacity of phages and plasmids and other factors influencing horizontal transfers of prokaryote transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sbastien; Gilbert, Clment; Cordaux, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of transposable elements (TEs) plays a key role in prokaryote genome evolution. Most TEs do not encode the enzymatic machinery allowing them to transfer between host cells and it is widely assumed in the literature that horizontal transfer of prokaryote TEs is mediated by other mobile genetic elements such as phages and plasmids. In a recent study, we have shown that phages are less tolerant to insertion sequences (IS, the most frequent class of prokaryote TEs) and therefore have a lower cargo capacity than plasmids. Consequently, while our analysis confirmed the crucial role of plasmids as efficient vehicles of IS horizontal transfer, we concluded that phages are unlikely to efficiently shuttle IS elements between prokaryotes. Here, we discuss whether or not the distribution pattern observed for IS elements in phages and plasmids also holds for other TEs, such as transposons and mobile introns. We also further explore various factors that may impact the relative capacity of phages and plasmids to mediate TE horizontal transfer among prokaryotes. PMID:22934247

  16. The influencing factor of in vitro fertilization and embryonic transfer in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Li, B C; Li, W; Chen, H; Zhang, Yn; Zhang, Z T; Wang, X Y; Gao, B; Dou, T C; Wang, K H

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to explore the influencing factors of ova in vitro fertilization (IVF) and transfer of the fertilized ova into the oviduct of recipient hens. The efficiency of fertilization was compared using three aspects: (i) the different time of ova collection and transfer, (ii) egg-laying period of recipient hen; and (iii) semen volume. The following results are observed: 72%, 40% and 0% of ova were found in ovarian sac in 30?40?min, 50?60?min and more than 90?min post-oviposition, respectively; 20%, 18%, 14% and 5.8% of ova were fertilized with 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0?ml semen, respectively; and 33% and 100% of healthy chickens were hatched from fertile ova with 0.1 and 0.5?ml of semen, respectively. All oocytes obtained from ovary and mid-oviduct were unfertilized. Embryos were transferred into recipient hens 30?min??10?min post-oviposition, and 70% of shelled eggs were produced. There were no eggs produced in the other transfer times. This demonstrated that live chicken can be obtained by IVF of ova collected shortly after oviposition. It was important that the ovum was transferred into the oviduct infundibulum of recipient hens immediately or shortly after oviposition. PMID:22913565

  17. Biotic and abiotic factors affecting plasmid transfer in Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Astorga, A; Muela, A; Cisterna, R; Iriberri, J; Barcina, I

    1992-01-01

    The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on plasmid transfer between Escherichia coli strains in terms of the variation in the number of transconjugants formed and the variation in transfer frequency was investigated. The density of parent cells affected the number of transconjugants, reaching a maximum when the cell density was on the order of 10(8) CFU ml-1. As the donor-to-recipient ratios varied from 10(-4) to 10(4), the number of transconjugants varied significantly (P less than 0.001), reaching a maximum with donor-to-recipient ratios between 1 and 10. The concentration of total organic carbon in the mating medium affects both the number of transconjugants and the transfer frequency, being significantly higher (P less than 0.001) when the total organic carbon concentration was higher than 1,139 mg of C liter-1. However, the transconjugants were detected even with less than 1 mg of C liter-1. Linear regression of log10 transconjugants versus mating temperature showed a highly significant regression line (P less than 0.001). Neither the transfer frequency nor the transconjugant number varied significantly in the range of pHs assayed. We can conclude that plasmid transfer by conjugation can take place within a wide range of conditions, even in such adverse conditions as the absence of nutrients and low temperatures. PMID:1539984

  18. Factors that influence the use of safe patient transfer technique in home care service.

    PubMed

    Skoglind-Öhman, Ingegerd; Kjellberg, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to explore whether home care service personnel used knowledge and skills in transfer technique in their daily work; knowledge and skills gained by participating in training programmes, and to identify factors that may hinder and support their use. Focus group interviews were held with 2 home care service groups in 2 Swedish towns. Individual interviews were conducted with the personnel's managers, unit leaders and safety representatives. Qualitative content analysis was used. The findings revealed that the personnel tried to use their knowledge and skills. However, there were both hindering and supporting factors for the use of safe work technique. The findings indicate that training programmes in transfer technique should not be implemented as isolated actions without considering the physical environment, the wishes of persons receiving care and their relatives, the work organisation, the safety culture and the role of managers. PMID:22152508

  19. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING, SECTION TWO--BIBLIOGRAPHY OF STUDIES OF TRANSFER OF TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STOLUROW, LAWRENCE M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY ON TRANSFER OF LEARNING STUDIES WAS COMPLETED FOR U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION CONTRACT NO. 4-20-002 AS APPENDIX "A" (SECTION TWO) TO THE FINAL REPORT. IT CONTAINS 1,775 TITLES FROM THE PERIOD 1890 TO 1966 ON TRANSFER OF LEARNING. THE CONCERN WAS TO COMPILE THE EMPIRICALLY BASED PRINCIPLES RELATING TO TRANSFER OF TRAINING IN A FORM…

  20. Analysis of spectral radiative heat transfer using discrete exchange factor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinqiu; Naraghi, M. H. N.

    1993-09-01

    A solution technique is developed for spectral radiative heat-transfer problems. The formulation is based on the discrete exchange factor (DEF) method and uses Edward's (1976) wide band model to obtain spectral data. The results of the analyses of three cases were found to be in excellent agreement with those of the zonal method and differ by less than 5 percent from those of the discrete-ordinates method.

  1. Adenoviral gene transfer is inhibited by soluble factors in malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Batra, R K; Dubinett, S M; Henkle, B W; Sharma, S; Gardner, B K

    2000-05-01

    Direct in vivo gene delivery is a prerequisite for many gene therapy strategies; however, efficacy has been limited by a lack of therapeutic gene transfer. In studying intrapleural malignancy as a model for the gene therapy of non-small cell lung cancer, we previously identified soluble chondroitin sulfate-proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans (CS-PG/GAGs) in malignant pleural effusions (MPE) as factors that inhibit retroviral vector (RV) transduction. Similarly, we have observed inhibition to gene transfer in the fluid component of MPE using adenoviral (Ad) vectors. Analyses indicate that the factors responsible for the block are filterable, soluble, titrable, and heat stable (56 degrees C). Passage through microporous membranes fractionates the inhibitory factors into large (> 100 kD) components of the effusions. In contrast to RV transduction, hyaluronic acid or CS-PG/GAGs are not the inhibitors because the block is not reversed by pretreatment of the effusions with mammalian hyaluronidase, and exogenous addition of GAGs into the transduction media does not diminish Ad transduction. In considering the mechanism of action of the inhibitory factors, we observe that Ad entry, and specifically the binding of radiolabeled Ad to its target cell, is inhibited in the presence of MPE. Ad internalization may also be impaired; however, these studies exclude soluble fibronectin in MPE as a competitive inhibitor of Ad transduction. Lastly, sepharose A- mediated immunoglobulin depletion of MPE only partially reverses the block, and significant inhibition to Ad gene transfer persists at lower adenovirus:target cell ratios. Identifying the structural and functional basis for inhibition to Ad gene transfer may yield specific strategies to enable better in vivo translation of gene therapy approaches. PMID:10783134

  2. Evaluation of clinical factors influencing pregnancy rate in frozen embryo transfer

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Maryam; Rahmani, Elham; Pourmasumi, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Frozen embryo transfer (FET) is one of the most important supplementary procedures in the treatment of infertile couples. While general information concerning the outcome of fresh embryo transfer has been documented, paucity of investigations has addressed the clinical factors influenced on pregnancy rates in FET. Objective: In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis of clinical factors that potentially influence the outcome of FET. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the data from 372 women who were subjected to FET registered from April 2009-2011 at the Research and clinical center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Baseline data and pregnancy rate were collected. The data were analyzed statistically using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The clinical pregnancy rate was 57.7 and 29.2% in women <35 years old, and women >35 years old, respectively (p<0.0001). Clinical pregnancy rates in women with FSH <10 IU/ml, and FSH >10 IU/ml were 56.3% and 17.5 %, respectively (p<0.0001). Whereas the other clinical parameters consist of reason of fetus freezing, primary IVF protocol, IVF procedure, endometrial thickness, treatment duration to fetal transfer found to be unrelated to FET outcomes (p>0.05). Conclusion: Female age and basal FSH level are the most important factors influencing the clinical pregnancy rate following FET. PMID:25114675

  3. Transfer of spleen cells expanded by T cell growth factor suppresses arthritis induced in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, H; Tsunematsu, T

    1987-01-01

    The effects of transfer of T cell growth factor (TCGF)-expanded spleen cells after concanavalin A (Con A) stimulation into syngeneic Lewis rats were studied. The recipient rats were immunized with complete Freund's adjuvant for induction of adjuvant arthritis (AA) or chick type II collagen in incomplete Freund's adjuvant for induction of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) on day 0. Each of 5 X 10(7) cultured cells without mitogenic stimulation, 2 X 10(7) Con A-stimulated cells, or 1 X 10(7) TCGF-expanded cells cultured for 8 days (4 days X 2 culture cycles) after Con A stimulation was given on days 0 and 7. Both transfers of the cultured cells without stimulation and TCGF-expanded cells markedly diminished the severity of AA and CIA. On the contrary, transfer of Con A-stimulated cells led to no suppressive activity. In addition, transfer to TCGF-expanded cells significantly lowered the titre of anti-type II collagen antibody compared to that of control rats. The transfer of 1 X 10(7) TCGF-expanded cells was optimal for suppressing AA, in terms of cell number. This observation suggests that these cells were much more effective than were the unstimulated cultured cells, for which more than five times the number was required for the same suppressive activity. As far as the phenotypic proportion of helper (W3/13) and suppressor (OX-8) cells is concerned, we found no significant differences between the cultured cell groups and the freshly separated spleen cell group. The precise mechanism of these suppressive effects is the subject of further study. The transfer of TCGF-expanded cells appears to have a potent immunomodulatory effect. PMID:3497743

  4. Direct phylogenetic evidence for lateral transfer of elongation factor-like gene

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Genes encoding elongation factor-like (EFL) proteins, which show high similarity to elongation factor-1? (EF-1?), have been found in phylogenetically distantly related eukaryotes. The sporadic distribution of EFL-containing lineages within EF-1?-containing lineages indirectly, but strongly, suggests lateral gene transfer as the principal driving force in EFL evolution. However, one of the most critical aspects in the above hypothesis, the donor lineages in any putative cases of lateral EFL gene transfer, remained unclear. In this study, we provide direct evidence for lateral transfer of an EFL gene through the analyses of 10 diatom EFL genes. All diatom EFL homologues tightly clustered in phylogenetic analyses, suggesting acquisition of the exogenous EFL gene early in diatom evolution. Our survey additionally identified Thalassiosira pseudonana as a eukaryote bearing EF-1? and EFL genes and secondary EFL gene loss in Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the complete genome of which encodes only the EF-1? gene. Most importantly, the EFL phylogeny recovered a robust grouping of homologues from diatoms, the cercozoan Bigelowiella natans, and the foraminifer Planoglabratella opecularis, with the diatoms nested within the Bigelowiella plus Planoglabratella (Rhizaria) grouping. The particular relationships recovered are further consistent with two characteristic sequence motifs. The best explanation of our data analyses is an EFL gene transfer from a foraminifer to a diatom, the first case in which the donorrecipient relationship was clarified. Finally, based on a reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR assay and the genome information of Thalassiosira and Phaeodactylum, we propose the loss of elongation factor function in Thalassiosira EF-1?. PMID:18458344

  5. Heat transfer and friction factors in the ribbed square convergent and divergent channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. S.; Ahn, S. W.

    2016-06-01

    Heat transfer and friction factors are reported for the measurements of turbulent flows in the convergent and divergent square channels with one-sided ribbed wall as well as two opposite in-line ribbed walls. The study covers three different hydraulic diameter ratios between inlet and exit at the test section such as Dho/Dhi = 0.75, 1.0, and 1.33 and Reynolds numbers in the range of 25,000-79,000. The channels, composing of ten isolated copper sections in the length of test section of 1 m, have the hydraulic diameter of 87.5 mm for the straight channel (Dho/Dhi = 1.0); the rib height-to-hydraulic diameter is 0.114; the rib pitch-to-height ratio equals 10. On the contrary to public opinion that the friction factor depends on the portion of the ribbed area, the total friction factor in the two opposite ribbed walls are lower than in the one-sided ribbed wall in the divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 because the total pressure, summing positive dynamic and negative static pressures, is acted. The results show that the two opposite ribbed divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 provides the best heat transfer enhancement and the two opposite ribbed convergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 0.75 provides the worst friction factor enhancement, and the ribbed divergent channels are generally recommended.

  6. 100% Classification Accuracy Considered Harmful: The Normalized Information Transfer Factor Explains the Accuracy Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Valverde-Albacete, Francisco J.; Peláez-Moreno, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The most widely spread measure of performance, accuracy, suffers from a paradox: predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy. Despite optimizing classification error rate, high accuracy models may fail to capture crucial information transfer in the classification task. We present evidence of this behavior by means of a combinatorial analysis where every possible contingency matrix of 2, 3 and 4 classes classifiers are depicted on the entropy triangle, a more reliable information-theoretic tool for classification assessment. Motivated by this, we develop from first principles a measure of classification performance that takes into consideration the information learned by classifiers. We are then able to obtain the entropy-modulated accuracy (EMA), a pessimistic estimate of the expected accuracy with the influence of the input distribution factored out, and the normalized information transfer factor (NIT), a measure of how efficient is the transmission of information from the input to the output set of classes. The EMA is a more natural measure of classification performance than accuracy when the heuristic to maximize is the transfer of information through the classifier instead of classification error count. The NIT factor measures the effectiveness of the learning process in classifiers and also makes it harder for them to “cheat” using techniques like specialization, while also promoting the interpretability of results. Their use is demonstrated in a mind reading task competition that aims at decoding the identity of a video stimulus based on magnetoencephalography recordings. We show how the EMA and the NIT factor reject rankings based in accuracy, choosing more meaningful and interpretable classifiers. PMID:24427282

  7. 100% classification accuracy considered harmful: the normalized information transfer factor explains the accuracy paradox.

    PubMed

    Valverde-Albacete, Francisco J; Peláez-Moreno, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The most widely spread measure of performance, accuracy, suffers from a paradox: predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy. Despite optimizing classification error rate, high accuracy models may fail to capture crucial information transfer in the classification task. We present evidence of this behavior by means of a combinatorial analysis where every possible contingency matrix of 2, 3 and 4 classes classifiers are depicted on the entropy triangle, a more reliable information-theoretic tool for classification assessment. Motivated by this, we develop from first principles a measure of classification performance that takes into consideration the information learned by classifiers. We are then able to obtain the entropy-modulated accuracy (EMA), a pessimistic estimate of the expected accuracy with the influence of the input distribution factored out, and the normalized information transfer factor (NIT), a measure of how efficient is the transmission of information from the input to the output set of classes. The EMA is a more natural measure of classification performance than accuracy when the heuristic to maximize is the transfer of information through the classifier instead of classification error count. The NIT factor measures the effectiveness of the learning process in classifiers and also makes it harder for them to "cheat" using techniques like specialization, while also promoting the interpretability of results. Their use is demonstrated in a mind reading task competition that aims at decoding the identity of a video stimulus based on magnetoencephalography recordings. We show how the EMA and the NIT factor reject rankings based in accuracy, choosing more meaningful and interpretable classifiers. PMID:24427282

  8. Neutron spectroscopic factors of 34Ar and 46Ar from ( p,d) transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jenny; Shapira, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Single-neutron-transfer measurements using (p,d) reactions have been performed at 33 MeV per nucleon with proton-rich 34Ar and neutron-rich 46Ar beams in inverse kinematics. The extracted spectroscopic factors are compared to the large-basis shell-model calculations. Relatively weak quenching of the spectroscopic factors is observed between 34Ar and 46Ar. The experimental results suggest that neutron correlations have a weak dependence on the asymmetry of the nucleus over this isotopic region. The present results are consistent with the systematics established from extensive studies of spectroscopic factors and dispersive optical-model analyses of 40 49Ca isotopes. They are, however, inconsistent with the trends obtained in knockout-reaction measurements.

  9. Extracellular Vesicles from Trypanosoma brucei Mediate Virulence Factor Transfer and Cause Host Anemia.

    PubMed

    Szempruch, Anthony J; Sykes, Steven E; Kieft, Rudo; Dennison, Lauren; Becker, Allison C; Gartrell, Anzio; Martin, William J; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Hajduk, Stephen L; Harrington, John M

    2016-01-14

    Intercellular communication between parasites and with host cells provides mechanisms for parasite development, immune evasion, and disease pathology. Bloodstream African trypanosomes produce membranous nanotubes that originate from the flagellar membrane and disassociate into free extracellular vesicles (EVs). Trypanosome EVs contain several flagellar proteins that contribute to virulence, and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense EVs contain the serum resistance-associated protein (SRA) necessary for human infectivity. T. b. rhodesiense EVs transfer SRA to non-human infectious trypanosomes, allowing evasion of human innate immunity. Trypanosome EVs can also fuse with mammalian erythrocytes, resulting in rapid erythrocyte clearance and anemia. These data indicate that trypanosome EVs are organelles mediating non-hereditary virulence factor transfer and causing host erythrocyte remodeling, inducing anemia. PMID:26771494

  10. Strategic factors in the development of the National Technology Transfer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, Jonathan F.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    Broad consensus among industry and government leaders has developed over the last decade on the importance of applying the U.S. leadership in research and development (R&D) to strengthen competitiveness in the global marketplace, and thus enhance national prosperity. This consensus has emerged against the backdrop of increasing economic competition, and the dramatic reduction of military threats to national security with the end of the Cold War. This paper reviews the key factors and considerations that shaped - and continue to influence - the development of the Regional Technoloty Transfer Centers (RTTC) and the National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC). Also, the future role of the national network in support of emerging technology policy initiatives will be explored.

  11. Single-Phase, Turbulent Heat-Transfer Friction-Factor Data Base Flow Enhanced Tb

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-01-21

    Heat-exchanger designers need to know what type of performance improvement can be obtained before they will consider enhanced tubes. In particular, they need access to the heat-transfer coefficients and friction-factor values of enhanced tube types that are commercially available. To compile these data from the numerous publications and reports in the open literature is a formidable task that can discourage the designer from using them. A computer program that contains a comprehensive data base withmore » a search feature would be a handy tool for the designer to obtain an estimate of the performance improvement that can be obtained with a particular enhanced tube geometry. In addition, it would be a valuable tool for researchers who are developing and/or validating new prediction methods. This computer program can be used to obtain friction-factor and/or heat-transfer data for a broad range of internally enhanced tube geometries with forced-convective turbulent flow. The program has search features; that is the user can select data for tubes with a particular enhancement geometry range or data obtained from a particular source or publication. The friction factor data base contains nearly 5,000 points and the heat-transfer data base contains more than 4,700 points. About 360 different tube geometries are included from the 36 different sources. Data for tubes with similar geometries and the same and/or different types can be easily extracted with the sort feature of this data base and compared. Users of the program are heat-exchanger designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.« less

  12. Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Miller

    2009-06-01

    The E02-013 collaboration's precision measurement of the electric form factor of the neutron at high momentum took place in Hall A of Jefferson Laboratory [1]. Four kinematic points spread in Q2 from 1.2 to 3.5 (GeV/c)2 reach the region of momentum transfer where there is little ambiguity that the form factors are dominated by the valence quarks. The electric form factor provides important constraints on the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon and therefore to understand the currently unknown quark angular orbital moments. The talk presented newly obtained results for GnE including at Q2 of 2.5 (GeV/c)2. These measurements provide access to twice the range of momentum transfer for complete iso-spin decomposition of the nucleon form factors. The form factors of the u and d quarks were also presented. The measurement used a double polarization asymmetry method [2][3] with He polarized up to 55% (provided by a novel hybrid alkali optical pumping scheme utilizing a Rb & K mixture) and the highly polarized (85%) electron beam at CEBAF. A specially constructed detector package consisting of an electron spectrometer, named Big-Bite, with a solid angle of 95 msr and a large neutron detector were used to detect the particles in the reaction {sup 3}H{rvec e}({rvec e},e',h). The experimental apparatus provided more than 100 times better Figure-of-Merit than other GnE experiments utilizing polarized targets; for more information see [4].

  13. Selection of terrestrial transfer factors for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Y.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1983-01-01

    A parameter value for a radioecological assessment model is not a single value but a distribution of values about a central value. The sources that contribute to the variability of transfer factors to predict foodchain transport of radionuclides are enumerated. Knowledge of these sources, judgement in interpreting the available data, consideration of collateral information, and established criteria that specify the desired level of conservatism in the resulting predictions are essential elements when selecting appropriate parameter values for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides. 39 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  14. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.; Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  15. Examining the Factor Structure and Predictive Ability of the German-Version of the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Reid; Kauffeld, Simone; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to examine the construct and predictive ability of a German version of the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (GLTSI), an instrument designed to assess a constellation of 16 factors known to influence the transfer of training in work settings. Design/methodology/approach: The survey data for this study was…

  16. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Rao, Chetan; Sudeep Kumara, K; Dileep, B N; Ravi, P M

    2013-10-01

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of (137)Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the (137)Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10(-1) and 1.8 × 10(-1) for (137)Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of (137)Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10(-2) d L(-1) and 4.6 × 10(-2) d L(-1), respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10(-2) d L(-1) for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10(-3) d L(-1) for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of (137)Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for (137)Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content ((40)K and stable K) in the soil and grass were also studied. In order to estimate the ingestion dose accurate data of the dietary habits of the population was necessary and this data was collected through a well planned demographic survey. The internal doses to a child due to the ingestion of (137)Cs along with the milk of the local cows and from the dairy farm were found to be 0.29 μSv y(-1) and 0.04 μSv y(-1),while that to an adult were 0.39 μSv y(-1) and 0.05 μSv y(-1), respectively. PMID:23685702

  17. Heat Transfer and Friction-Factor Methods Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes 3d Rough

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-01-21

    Three-dimensional roughened internally enhanced tubes have been shown to be one of the most energy efficient for turbulent, forced convection applications. However, there is only one prediction method presented in the open literature and that is restricted to three-dimensional sand-grain roughness. Other roughness types are being proposed: hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. There are no validated heat-transfer and friction-factor prediction methods for these different roughness shapes that can be used inmore » the transition and fully rough region. This program calculates the Nusselt number and friction factor values, for a broad range of three-dimensional roughness types such as hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. Users of this program are heat-exchangers designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.« less

  18. Statistical iterative reconstruction using fast optimization transfer algorithm with successively increasing factor in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiyu; Zhang, Zhenxi; Chen, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Statistical iterative reconstruction exhibits particularly promising since it provides the flexibility of accurate physical noise modeling and geometric system description in transmission tomography system. However, to solve the objective function is computationally intensive compared to analytical reconstruction methods due to multiple iterations needed for convergence and each iteration involving forward/back-projections by using a complex geometric system model. Optimization transfer (OT) is a general algorithm converting a high dimensional optimization to a parallel 1-D update. OT-based algorithm provides a monotonic convergence and a parallel computing framework but slower convergence rate especially around the global optimal. Based on an indirect estimation on the spectrum of the OT convergence rate matrix, we proposed a successively increasing factor- scaled optimization transfer (OT) algorithm to seek an optimal step size for a faster rate. Compared to a representative OT based method such as separable parabolic surrogate with pre-computed curvature (PC-SPS), our algorithm provides comparable image quality (IQ) with fewer iterations. Each iteration retains a similar computational cost to PC-SPS. The initial experiment with a simulated Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) system shows that a total 40% computing time is saved by the proposed algorithm. In general, the successively increasing factor-scaled OT exhibits a tremendous potential to be a iterative method with a parallel computation, a monotonic and global convergence with fast rate.

  19. Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

    2005-10-04

    {sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

  20. Laminar heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of carbon nano tube/water nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Rathnakumar, P; Mayilsamy, K; Suresh, S; Murugesan, P

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of CNT/water nanofluid through a circular tube fitted with helical screw tape inserts with constant heat flux under laminar flow condition. Nanofluids of 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions are prepared by two step method. Thermo-physical properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity are measured by using KD2 thermal property analyzer and Brooke field cone and plate viscometer respectively. From the measurements, it is found that the viscosity increase is substantially higher than the increase in the thermal conductivity. The helical screw tape insets with twist ratios Y = 3, 2.44 and 1.78 are used to study the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics under laminar flow in the Reynolds number range of 520-2500. It is observed that, in a plain tube, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number for 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of nanofluids compared to pure water is 15% and 32% respectively. With the use of inserts, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number corresponding to twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 are obtained as 8%, 16% and 4.6% for 0.1% volume fraction of nanofluid and 5%, 4% and 12% for 0.2% volume fraction of nanofluid when compared with water in plain tube. Thermal performance factor evaluation revealed that the values at all Reynolds number for all twist ratios and both concentration of CNT nanofluid are greater than unity which indicates that helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios considered are feasible in terms of energy saving in laminar flow. PMID:24745238

  1. Transfer of Cadmium from Soil to Vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huihua; Chen, Junjian; Zhu, Li; Yang, Guoyi; Li, Dingqiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd) concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg−1) compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg−1). 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg−1). The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (), and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils. PMID:25247431

  2. Chemical elements in pearl oysters (Paxyodon ponderosus), phytoplankton and estuarine sediments from eastern Amazon (Northern Brazil): Bioaccumulation factors and trophic transfer factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhena, Maria P. S. P.; Costa, Marcondes L.; Berrêdo, José F.; Paiva, Rosildo S.; Souza, Crisvaldo C. S.

    2016-04-01

    The current study was conducted near Barcarena County, which is a mid-sized urban center where aluminum ore processing industries (bauxite) and Vila do Conde cargo terminal are located. It aims to discuss the bioaccumulation factors as well as factors related to the trophic transfer of chemical elements in water, oyster, phytoplankton and bottom sediments from an estuary in the Brazilian Northern coast. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), trophic transfer factor (TTF) and biota-sediment-water were used to correlate the contents of chemical elements found in organisms. The sediment, surface water, phytoplankton and pearl oysters chemical composition was analyzed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Pearl oysters showed K, Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Fe, Zn, Al, Ba and Pb accumulation, which concentration increase is associated with their diet (phytoplankton). Al concentrations are 14 times higher in pearl oysters (Paxyodon ponderosus), assuming that they are associated with wastewater emissions and with industrialization processes in the area. BAF and BSAF values are 1000 times higher than the metal concentrations in water and bioavailable fraction concentrations. The oyster-phytoplankton trophic transfer factor indicates that P, Ba, Ca, Na, Cd and Zn showed the largest transfers (from 5 to 19). These trophic transfers may be sufficient to cause significant ecotoxicological effects on the region biota.

  3. A clinical and immunological study of the effects of transfer factor on multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Lamoureux, G; Cosgrove, J; Duquette, P; Lapierre, Y; Jolicoeur, R; Vanderland, F

    1981-01-01

    A clinical and laboratory trial was designated to test the value of a potentially active pool of transfer factor (TF) given for a period of 3 months, at weekly intervals, in 27 relapsing MS patients and controls. The pool of TF was extracted from peripheral lymphocytes of 36 normal individuals presensitized with DNCB as marker. It was biologically capable of transferring DNCB sensitivity to MS recipients and did not show any toxicity. Clinically, a slight but not significant improvement of the functional and disability indices was observed in the TF group over a period of 1 year, while both indices increased in the control group. The treatment had no influence on the number of relapses and/or on sensory and visually evoked potentials, axial tomography and electronystagmography. In laboratory tests, a significant difference was found in the total CSF protein (P less than 0 . 05) and IgG (P less than 0 . 01) levels in the two groups studied; both values decreased or were stabilized in the group receiving TF, while they increased in the control group. Whether or not these slight clinically and biologically beneficial effects were due to the high dose of TF given or to its biological activity remains to be established. This pilot study suggests that a more appropriate answer regarding TF in MS might be obtained by using biologically active material, given for longer periods of time, at a closer interval and in a larger number of patients. PMID:7026094

  4. Induction of immune tolerance to coagulation factor IX antigen by in vivo hepatic gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Mingozzi, Federico; Liu, Yi-Lin; Dobrzynski, Eric; Kaufhold, Antje; Liu, Jian Hua; Wang, YuQin; Arruda, Valder R.; High, Katherine A.; Herzog, Roland W.

    2003-01-01

    Gene replacement therapy is an attractive approach for treatment of genetic disease, but may be complicated by the risk of a neutralizing immune response to the therapeutic gene product. There are examples of humoral and cellular immune responses against the transgene product as well as absence of such responses, depending on vector design and the underlying mutation in the dysfunctional gene. It has been unclear, however, whether transgene expression can induce tolerance to the therapeutic antigen. Here, we demonstrate induction of immune tolerance to a secreted human coagulation factor IX (hF.IX) antigen by adeno-associated viral gene transfer to the liver. Tolerized mice showed absence of anti-hF.IX and substantially reduced in vitro T cell responses after immunization with hF.IX in adjuvant. Tolerance induction was antigen specific, affected a broad range of Th cell subsets, and was favored by higher levels of transgene expression as determined by promoter strength, vector dose, and mouse strain. Hepatocyte-derived hF.IX expression induced regulatory CD4+ T cells that can suppress anti-hF.IX formation after adoptive transfer. With a strain-dependent rate of success, tolerance to murine F.IX was induced in mice with a large F.IX gene deletion, supporting the relevance of these data for treatment of hemophilia B and other genetic diseases. PMID:12727926

  5. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Miller, John M; Tang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  6. Biota-sediment accumulation and trophic transfer factors for extremely hydrophobic polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Maruya, K.A.; Lee, R.F.

    1998-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish, invertebrates, and sediment from a contaminated tidal creek system in coastal Georgia (USA) were traced to Aroclor 1268, a mixture of hepta through decachlorinated homologs used at a former chlor/alkali plant adjacent to the study site. The base 10 logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) for the 15 most abundant Aroclor 1268 components in these samples ranged from 6.7 to >9. The composite mean biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for these congeners was 3.1, 0.81, and 0.28 for yearling striped mullet, spotted sea trout, and grass shrimp, respectively, species representing three trophic levels of the local food web. Individual congener BSAFs were negatively correlated with log K{sub ow} for all three species. The composite mean trophic transfer factor (TTF{sub lip}), defined as the ratio of lipid-normalized PCB concentrations in fish to grass shrimp, was higher for mullet (12) than for sea trout (2.9). Individual TTF{sub lip} values were two to three times higher for Cl{sub 7} and Cl{sub 8} homologs that were substituted at all four ortho positions, suggesting a difference in PCB retention based on chlorine substitution patterns. The relative magnitude of BSAFs and TTF{sub lip} values indicated that sediment-ingesting forage species like mullet efficiently accumulate PCBs and are an important link in the food web transfer of sediment-ingesting forage in this system. The negative linear relationships between BSAF and log K{sub ow} established in this study are among the first to be reported in the field for extremely hydrophobic PCBs.

  7. Modification of an impulse-factoring orbital transfer technique to account for orbit determination and maneuver execution errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibler, J. F.; Green, R. N.; Young, G. R.; Kelly, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method has previously been developed to satisfy terminal rendezvous and intermediate timing constraints for planetary missions involving orbital operations. The method uses impulse factoring in which a two-impulse transfer is divided into three or four impulses which add one or two intermediate orbits. The periods of the intermediate orbits and the number of revolutions in each orbit are varied to satisfy timing constraints. Techniques are developed to retarget the orbital transfer in the presence of orbit-determination and maneuver-execution errors. Sample results indicate that the nominal transfer can be retargeted with little change in either the magnitude (Delta V) or location of the individual impulses. Additonally, the total Delta V required for the retargeted transfer is little different from that required for the nominal transfer. A digital computer program developed to implement the techniques is described.

  8. Internalization of nerve growth factor by pheochromocytoma PC12 cells: absence of transfer to the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrer, H.; Schaefer, T.; Korsching, S.; Thoenen, H.

    1982-06-01

    The intracellular distribution of /sup 125/I-labeled nerve growth factor (NGF) in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells was studied by quantitative electron microscopic (EM) autoradiography and by subcellular fractionation. PC12 cells were grown as monolayer cultures in medium supplemented with serum in the presence of /sup 125/I-NGF. EM autoradiography showed that /sup 125/I-NGF was localized at the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic compartments but did not accumulate in the nuclear chromatin or in the nuclear membrane compartment of cells analyzed after 1 hr and 1, 2, and 8 d of incubation with /sup 125/I-NGF. /sup 125/I-NGF also was not detected in nuclear subcellular fractions prepared from cells grown in serum-supplemented medium either in suspension for 1 d or in monolayer cultures for 1 to 8 d. In contrast, and in confirmation of the results of Yankner and Shooter, about 60% of the cell-bound /sup 125/I-NGF was found in the nuclear pellet after cell fractionation if the cells had been kept previously in suspension for 1 d in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.2% glucose, 0.1% bovine serum albumin, and /sup 125/I-NGF. The ultrastructure of PC12 cells grown under such conditions, however, revealed signs of varying degrees of damage. Autoradiography of the nuclear pellet from these cells showed the grains to be located mainly over damaged nuclei or over cell debris between nuclei. It is concluded that NGF, after binding to specific receptors at the plasma membrane, is transferred to membrane-confined cytoplasmic compartments but does not have to be transferred further to the nuclear membrane or to the nuclear chromatin as a prerequisite for its physiological action.

  9. Stem Cell Factor Gene Transfer Improves Cardiac Function After Myocardial Infarction in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Fish, Kenneth; Aguero, Jaume; Yaniz-Galende, Elisa; Jeong, Dongtak; Kho, Changwon; Tilemann, Lisa; Fish, Lauren; Liang, Lifan; Eltoukhy, Ahmed A.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Zsebo, Krisztina; Costa, Kevin; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stem cell factor (SCF), a ligand of the c-kit receptor, is a critical cytokine which contributes to cell migration, proliferation, and survival. It has been shown that SCF expression increases after myocardial infarction (MI) and may be involved in cardiac repair. The aim of this study was to determine whether gene transfer of membrane-bound human SCF improves cardiac function in a large animal model of MI. Methods and Results A transmural MI was created by implanting an embolic coil in the left anterior descending artery in Yorkshire pigs. One week after the MI, the pigs received direct intramyocardial injections of either a recombinant adenovirus encoding for SCF, (Ad.SCF, n=9) or β-gal (Ad.β-gal, n=6) into the infarct border area. At three months post-MI, ejection fraction increased by 12% relative to baseline after Ad.SCF therapy, whereas it decreased by 4.2% (P=0.004) in pigs treated with Ad.β-gal. Preload-recruitable stroke work was significantly higher in pigs after SCF treatment (Ad.SCF, 55.5±11.6 mmHg vs Ad.β-gal, 31.6±12.6 mmHg, P=0.005), indicating enhanced cardiac function. Histological analyses confirmed the recruitment of c-kit+ cells as well as a reduced degree of apoptosis one week after Ad.SCF injection. In addition, increased capillary density compared to pigs treated with Ad.β-gal was found at three months and suggests an angiogenic role of SCF. Conclusions Local over-expression of SCF post-MI induces the recruitment of c-kit+ cells at the infarct border area acutely. In the chronic stages, SCF gene transfer was associated with improved cardiac function in a pre-clinical model of ischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:25342737

  10. Factors Influencing Lava-Substrate Heat Transfer and Implications for Thermomechanical Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagents, S. A.; Greeley, R.; Lenat, J. F. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    We develop numerical simulations of basaltic lava flowing laminarly over a basalt substrate in order to examine the details of the lava dynamics and thermal boundary layers and to understand the implications for substrate heating. As the initial stage of a larger study of thermomechanical erosion in different planetary environments, we aim to understand why erosion occurs on Earth, why erosion features are not ubiquitous given the high temperatures involved, and whether it is a plausible mechanism for the formation of planetary channels such as lunar sinuous rilles and Venusian canali. Here we confine our attention to terrestrial lavas with well-known properties and eruption parameters. With relatively simple computational fluid dynamic simulations, most closely representing tube-fed hawaiian basalts (for which erosion has been documented), we demonstrate the importance of incorporating several key factors in models of lava flow/ substrate heat transfer, which have commonly been neglected in previous treatments. By addressing the interaction of the flow dynamics and heat transfer in the lava, our work suggests that the development of a temperature gradient in the base of the lava, even for undeveloped flow, has a significant influence on substrate temperature. The sensitivity of the lava-substrate interface temperature to the thermophysical properties of the lava and substrate suggests that a delicate balance is required for partial melting to occur. Thus, it might take weeks of continuous flow to initiate partial melting of the substrate at distances of several kilometers from the vent. These durations exceed the periods of stability typical of lava flowing in tubes; pauses, blockages, surges, and break-outs frequently disrupt the flow. However, natural irregularities in the flow dynamics or substrate topography might help to initiate and maintain substrate melting on shorter timescales by disturbing the intimately coupled dynamic and thermal boundary layers. Although a purely thermal mechanism cannot be ruled out, our findings support the premise that mechanical erosion may play a key role in reports of erosion based on field evidence.

  11. Work Environment Factors Influencing the Transfer of Learning for Online Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitonga, Jacqueline W.

    2006-01-01

    HRD professionals struggle with why a higher percentage of skills and knowledge acquired through training fail to transfer to the work environment and why transfer appears to diminish over time (Cromwell & Kolb, 2002). With increased investment in technology and professional development, it is imperative to enhance the learners' transfer process…

  12. An Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Academic Success of Transfer Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Moore, Donna Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Attrition is a growing concern among higher education institutions. Student retention has long been viewed as a measure of institutional effectiveness. The number of transfer students, particularly those who seek entry into postsecondary education by transfer from a two-year to a four-year institution, continues to increase. However, transfer

  13. Evaluation of thermophysical properties, friction factor, and heat transfer of alumina nanofluid flow in tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sanjib

    Various thermophysical properties, fluid flow parameter and heat transfer characteristics were measured for nanofluid with 6% volume concentration of solid Al2O3 nanoparticles in water. Thermal conductivity measurements showed that there is a definite enhancement in thermal conductivity of the nanofluid compared to that of water. At 7°C, the enhancement was 16% which decreased to 6.96% at 50°C. The viscosity measurements of the 6% volume concentration Al2O 3/water nanofluid showed that its viscosity is higher by a factor of 1.25 to 10.24 than the viscosity of water. Also the measurements of the viscosity of different volume concentration of Al2O3/water nanofluid showed that, the viscosity decreases as the volume concentration decreases. The plot between the shear stress and strain rate for the 6% volume concentration Al2O3/water nanofluid showed that it is a Newtonian fluid for the range of strain rate between 6-122 s-1. Several readings of viscosity were taken by subjecting the nanofluid to heating and cooling cycle. It was found that above 62.65°C, the 6% volume concentration Al2O3/water nanofluid experiences an irrecoverable increase in viscosity and when cooled from beyond this temperature, a hysteresis effect on the viscosity is seen. The friction factor results for laminar flow for the 6% volume concentration Al2O3/water nanofluid showed that it matches the value given by the Hagen-Poiseulle equation (f = 64/Re ). The transition from laminar flow to turbulent was found to occur at a Reynolds number of approximately 1500. The convective heat transfer results were in agreement with that proposed by the Lienhard correlation (Lienhard and Lienhard, 2008). For fully developed laminar flow, the Nusselt number under constant heat flux condition was found to be within ±7% of 4.36. In the laminar flow regime, the Nusselt numbers for thermally developing flow were within ±10% of the value calculated from the Lienhard correlation.

  14. The effect of long-term wastewater irrigation on accumulation and transfer of heavy metals in Cupressus sempervirens leaves and adjacent soils.

    PubMed

    Farahat, Emad; Linderholm, Hans W

    2015-04-15

    Wastewater reuse for agriculture is an important management strategy in areas with limited freshwater resources, yielding potential economic and environmental benefits. Here the effects of long-term irrigation with wastewater on the nutrient contents of green and senesced leaves of Cupressus sempervirens L. were assessed for three planted forests in Egypt. Stoichiometric ratios, transfer factors for nutrients from soil to plant and enrichment factors in contaminated soils were estimated and compared to a ground water irrigated control site. Under wastewater irrigation, C. sempervirens transferred most of the estimated nutrients, particularly heavy metals, from green to senesced leaves. This could be a self-protecting mechanism under continuous wastewater irrigation. The accumulation of four metals (Zn, Mn, Cu and Cd) with transfer factors>1 for wastewater-irrigated trees, indicated the ability for metal accumulation of C. sempervirens. Stoichiometric ratios decreased under wastewater irrigation compared to the control site and global trends, which suggests nutrient disorders in these plants. The values of enrichment factors in the wastewater-irrigated soils showed remarkable availability and distribution of metals. Decreased resorption of metals by senesced leaves of C. sempervirens will add considerable amount of these metals to the soils, which will likely have adverse affects on the desert ecosystem components. PMID:25613764

  15. EPISOME-MEDIATED TRANSFER OF DRUG RESISTANCE IN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. VII. TWO TYPES OF NATURALLY OCCURRING R FACTORS.

    PubMed

    WATANABE, T; NISHIDA, H; OGATA, C; ARAI, T; SATO, S

    1964-09-01

    Watanabe, Tsutomu (Keio University, Tokyo, Japan), Hiroshi Nishida, Chizuko Ogata, Toshihiko Arai, and Sachiko Sato. Episome-mediated transfer of drug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. VII. Two types of naturally occurring R factors. J. Bacteriol. 88:716-726. 1964.-Naturally occurring R factors are classified into two types, fi(+) and fi(-), depending on their fi characters. The term fi is an abbreviation of fertility inhibition and fi(-) and fi(-) mean, respectively, the presence and absence of suppression of the functions of the sex factor F of Escherichia coli K-12. It was found that fi(-) R factors reduce the efficiency of plating of phages lambda and T(1) in K-12; fi(+) R factors did not have this inhibitory action. One of the fi(-) R factors reduced the efficiency of plating of phage T(7) as well. Phages lambda and T(1) underwent host-induced modifications in the host carrying some fi(-) R factors. At least two types of fi(-) R factors were recognized by the types of their restriction and host-induced modification of these phages. CaCl(2) exhibited antagonistic actions against the restrictions of phages lambda and T(1) by fi(-) R factors. Transduction of the ability to ferment galactose with HFT lysates of lambda was reduced by fi(-) R factors. Ultraviolet induction of lambda was not affected by any R factors. Furthermore, adsorption of phages lambda and T(1) was not altered by the presence of any R factors. From these results, we concluded that the suppression of progeny formation of these phages by fi(-) R factors is due to some step(s) after adsorption of the phages to the bacteria. Superinfection immunity and mutual exclusion were found between two different fi(+) R factors but not between fi(+) and fi(-) R factors. The two different fi(-) R factors were frequently genetically recombined. but fi(+) and fi(-) R factors were not genetically recombined, as indicated by findings of independent transfer of these R factors by conjugation and by transduction from the donors having these two R factors. It was assumed from these findings that fi(+) and fi(-) R factors are considerably different episomes having different resistance-transfer factors. PMID:14208512

  16. Simple Estimation of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Orientation Factor Distribution in Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Loura, Luís M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its acute sensitivity to distance in the nanometer scale, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has found a large variety of applications in many fields of chemistry, physics, and biology. One important issue regarding the correct usage of FRET is its dependence on the donor-acceptor relative orientation, expressed as the orientation factor κ2. Different donor/acceptor conformations can lead to κ2 values in the 0 ≤ κ2 ≤ 4 range. Because the characteristic distance for FRET, R0, is proportional to (κ2)1/6, uncertainties in the orientation factor are reflected in the quality of information that can be retrieved from a FRET experiment. In most cases, the average value of κ2 corresponding to the dynamic isotropic limit (<κ2> = 2/3) is used for computation of R0 and hence donor-acceptor distances and acceptor concentrations. However, this can lead to significant error in unfavorable cases. This issue is more critical in membrane systems, because of their intrinsically anisotropic nature and their reduced fluidity in comparison to most common solvents. Here, a simple numerical simulation method for estimation of the probability density function of κ2 for membrane-embedded donor and acceptor fluorophores in the dynamic regime is presented. In the simplest form, the proposed procedure uses as input the most probable orientations of the donor and acceptor transition dipoles, obtained by experimental (including linear dichroism) or theoretical (such as molecular dynamics simulation) techniques. Optionally, information about the widths of the donor and/or acceptor angular distributions may be incorporated. The methodology is illustrated for special limiting cases and common membrane FRET pairs. PMID:23203123

  17. Transfer factor, lung volumes, resistance and ventilation distribution in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Verbanck, Sylvia; Van Muylem, Alain; Schuermans, Daniel; Bautmans, Ivan; Thompson, Bruce; Vincken, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of chronic lung disease requires reference values of lung function indices, including putative markers of small airway function, spanning a wide age range.We measured spirometry, transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO), static lung volume, resistance and ventilation distribution in a healthy population, studying at least 20 subjects per sex and per decade between the ages of 20 and 80 years.With respect to the Global Lung Function Initiative reference data, our subjects had average z-scores for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC of -0.12, 0.04 and -0.32, respectively. Reference equations were obtained which could account for a potential dependence of index variability on age and height. This was done for (but not limited to) indices that are pertinent to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease studies: forced expired volume in 6 s, forced expiratory flow, TLCO, specific airway conductance, residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC), and ventilation heterogeneity in acinar and conductive lung zones.Deterioration in acinar ventilation heterogeneity and lung clearance index with age were more marked beyond 60 years, and conductive ventilation heterogeneity showed the greatest increase in variability with age. The most clinically relevant deviation from published reference values concerned RV/TLC values, which were considerably smaller than American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society-endorsed reference values. PMID:26585426

  18. Visualization of two transfer RNAs trapped in transit during elongation factor G-mediated translocation

    PubMed Central

    Ramrath, David J. F.; Lancaster, Laura; Sprink, Thiemo; Mielke, Thorsten; Loerke, Justus; Noller, Harry F.; Spahn, Christian M. T.

    2013-01-01

    During protein synthesis, coupled translocation of messenger RNAs (mRNA) and transfer RNAs (tRNA) through the ribosome takes place following formation of each peptide bond. The reaction is facilitated by large-scale conformational changes within the ribosomal complex and catalyzed by elongtion factor G (EF-G). Previous structural analysis of the interaction of EF-G with the ribosome used either model complexes containing no tRNA or only a single tRNA, or complexes where EF-G was directly bound to ribosomes in the posttranslocational state. Here, we present a multiparticle cryo-EM reconstruction of a translocation intermediate containing two tRNAs trapped in transit, bound in chimeric intrasubunit ap/P and pe/E hybrid states. The downstream ap/P-tRNA is contacted by domain IV of EF-G and P-site elements within the 30S subunit body, whereas the upstream pe/E-tRNA maintains tight interactions with P-site elements of the swiveled 30S head. Remarkably, a tight compaction of the tRNA pair can be seen in this state. The translocational intermediate presented here represents a previously missing link in understanding the mechanism of translocation, revealing that the ribosome uses two distinct molecular ratchets, involving both intra- and intersubunit rotational movements, to drive the synchronous movement of tRNAs and mRNA. PMID:24324168

  19. Imaging Erg and Jun transcription factor interaction in living cells using fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Camuzeaux, Barbara; Heliot, Laurent; Coll, Jean . E-mail: martine.duterque@ibl.fr

    2005-07-15

    Physical interactions between transcription factors play important roles in modulating gene expression. Previous in vitro studies have shown a transcriptional synergy between Erg protein, an Ets family member, and Jun/Fos heterodimer, members of the bZip family, which requires direct Erg-Jun protein interactions. Visualization of protein interactions in living cells is a new challenge in biology. For this purpose, we generated fusion proteins of Erg, Fos, and Jun with yellow and cyan fluorescent proteins, YFP and CFP, respectively. After transient expression in HeLa cells, interactions of the resulting fusion proteins were explored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy (FRET) in fixed and living cells. FRET between YFP-Erg and CFP-Jun was monitored by using photobleaching FRET and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Both techniques revealed the occurrence of intermolecular FRET between YFP-Erg and CFP-Jun. This is stressed by loss of FRET with an YFP-Erg version carrying a point mutation in its ETS domain. These results provide evidence for the interaction of Erg and Jun proteins in living cells as a critical prerequisite of their transcriptional synergy, but also for the essential role of the Y371 residue, conserved in most Ets proteins, in this interaction.

  20. Role of the nonmagnetic layer in determining the Lande g-factor in a spin transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.S.; Vescovo, E.; Kao, C.C.; Beaujour, J. M.; Kent, A.D.; Jang, H.; Kim, J.Y; Park, J. H., Shim, J. H.

    2009-11-02

    The microscopic origin of the Lande g-factor in two ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic (FM/NM) bilayer systems-Co/Cu and Ni/Pd-has been investigated using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, resonant magnetic reflectivity, and band calculations. The FM/NM bilayer represents the building block of any complete spin-transfer structure (FM1/NM/FM2). The valence electronic structure is profoundly altered over a finite length across the FM/NM interface. A considerable charge transfer takes place from the NM to the FM material. This results in an enhancement of the orbital-to-spin magnetic moment ratio in the FM layer and an induced magnetic polarization in the NM layer. Both effects turn out to be crucial for a correct understanding of the g-factor in spin-transfer systems.

  1. Factors Related to Usage of the Migrant Student Record Transfer System in Five States with High Migrant Concentrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloz, Felipe

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what degree public school districts with heavy migrant populations utilize the services of the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS), and to identify and describe some factors which may influence future use of the MSRTS in 5 states. An original questionnaire was developed and administered by…

  2. Perceptions of a Learning Organization and Factors within the Work Environment That Influence Transfer of Training in Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine law enforcement officers' perception of factors within the workplace that influence transfer of training and their perception of the organization being a learning organization. The study actually had three parts. First, it intended to investigate the perception of law enforcement officers regarding…

  3. Learning What Matters: Exploring the Factors Affecting Learning Transfers in Child Welfare Competencies and Career Interest in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Aries Meng-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of the factors impacting MSW students' interests and motivation to learn child welfare competencies, and how they affect learning transfer of the subject is important for the development of a knowledgeable, competent, and committed workforce that serves children and families in the United States. Practitioners need to attain

  4. Factors affecting the levels of protection transferred from mother to offspring following immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The transfer of antibodies from mother to offspring is key to protecting young animals from disease and can have a major impact on responses to infection and offspring fitness. Such maternal effects also allow young that may be exposed to disease in early life to focus resources on growth and development at this critical period of development. Maternally transferred antibodies are therefore an important source of phenotypic variation in host phenotype as well as influencing host susceptibility and tolerance to infection across generations. It has previously been assumed the transfer of antibodies is passive and invariant and reflects the level of circulating antibody in the mother at the time of transfer. However, whether females may vary in the relative amount of protection transferred to offspring has seldom been explored. Results Here we show that females differ widely in the relative amount of specific blood antibodies they transfer to the embryonic environment (range 9.2%-38.4% of their own circulating levels) in Chinese painted quail (Coturnix chinensis). Relative transfer levels were unrelated to the size of a female’s own immune response. Furthermore, individual females were consistent in their transfer level, both across different stages of their immune response and when challenged with different vaccine types. The amount of antibody transferred was related to female condition, but baseline antibody responses of mothers were not. However, we found no evidence for any trade-offs between the relative amount of antibody transferred with other measures of reproductive investment. Conclusions These results suggest that the relative amount of antibodies transferred to offspring can vary significantly and consistently between females. Levels of transfer may therefore be a separate trait open to manipulation or selection with potential consequences for offspring health and fitness in both wild and domesticated populations. PMID:25057280

  5. Analysis of the sequence and gene products of the transfer region of the F sex factor.

    PubMed Central

    Frost, L S; Ippen-Ihler, K; Skurray, R A

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation results in the transfer of DNA of either plasmid or chromosomal origin between microorganisms. Transfer begins at a defined point in the DNA sequence, usually called the origin of transfer (oriT). The capacity of conjugative DNA transfer is a property of self-transmissible plasmids and conjugative transposons, which will mobilize other plasmids and DNA sequences that include a compatible oriT locus. This review will concentrate on the genes required for bacterial conjugation that are encoded within the transfer region (or regions) of conjugative plasmids. One of the best-defined conjugation systems is that of the F plasmid, which has been the paradigm for conjugation systems since it was discovered nearly 50 years ago. The F transfer region (over 33 kb) contains about 40 genes, arranged contiguously. These are involved in the synthesis of pili, extracellular filaments which establish contact between donor and recipient cells; mating-pair stabilization; prevention of mating between similar donor cells in a process termed surface exclusions; DNA nicking and transfer during conjugation; and the regulation of expression of these functions. This review is a compendium of the products and other features found in the F transfer region as well as a discussion of their role in conjugation. While the genetics of F transfer have been described extensively, the mechanism of conjugation has proved elusive, in large part because of the low levels of expression of the pilus and the numerous envelope components essential for F plasmid transfer. The advent of molecular genetic techniques has, however, resulted in considerable recent progress. This summary of the known properties of the F transfer region is provided in the hope that it will form a useful basis for future comparison with other conjugation systems. PMID:7915817

  6. Aqueous Al2O3 nanofluids: the important factors impacting convective heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianguo; Ding, Yulong; Ma, Caiyun

    2014-12-01

    A high accuracy, counter flow double pipe heat exchanger system is designed for the measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients with different nanofluids. Both positive and negative enhancement of convective heat transfer of alumina nanofluids are found in the experiments. A modified equation was proposed to explain above phenomena through the physic properties of nanofluids such as thermal conductivity, special heat capacity and viscosity.

  7. Baccalaureate Transfers: An Exploration of Factors That Influence Second Institution Choice. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twede, Karen

    The study attempted to determine the transfer patterns of students in four-year colleges and universities in order to understand the forces influencing transfer behavior and the choice of institutions. A short survey was mailed to 203 students selected from a large sample from which ambiguous results had been obtained in an earlier survey. After…

  8. An Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Academic Success of Transfer Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Moore, Donna Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Attrition is a growing concern among higher education institutions. Student retention has long been viewed as a measure of institutional effectiveness. The number of transfer students, particularly those who seek entry into postsecondary education by transfer from a two-year to a four-year institution, continues to increase. However, transfer…

  9. Assessing Dynamic Spectral Causality by Lagged Adaptive Directed Transfer Function and Instantaneous Effect Factor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haojie; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhu, Shanan

    2014-01-01

    It is of significance to assess the dynamic spectral causality among physiological signals. Several practical estimators adapted from spectral Granger causality have been exploited to track dynamic causality based on the framework of time-varying multivariate autoregressive (tvMVAR) models. The non-zero covariance of the model’s residuals has been used to describe the instantaneous effect phenomenon in some causality estimators. However, for the situations with Gaussian residuals in some autoregressive models, it is challenging to distinguish the directed instantaneous causality if the sufficient prior information about the “causal ordering” is missing. Here, we propose a new algorithm to assess the time-varying causal ordering of tvMVAR model under the assumption that the signals follow the same acyclic causal ordering for all time lags and to estimate the instantaneous effect factor (IEF) value in order to track the dynamic directed instantaneous connectivity. The time-lagged adaptive directed transfer function (ADTF) is also estimated to assess the lagged causality after removing the instantaneous effect. In the present study, we firstly investigated the performance of the causal-ordering estimation algorithm and the accuracy of IEF value. Then, we presented the results of IEF and time-lagged ADTF method by comparing with the conventional ADTF method through simulations of various propagation models. Statistical analysis results suggest that the new algorithm could accurately estimate the causal ordering and give a good estimation of the IEF values in the Gaussian residual conditions. Meanwhile, the time-lagged ADTF approach is also more accurate in estimating the time-lagged dynamic interactions in a complex nervous system after extracting the instantaneous effect. In addition to the simulation studies, we applied the proposed method to estimate the dynamic spectral causality on real visual evoked potential (VEP) data in a human subject. Its usefulness in time-variant spectral causality assessment was demonstrated through the mutual causality investigation of brain activity during the VEP experiments. PMID:24956616

  10. Gene Electro Transfer of Plasmid Encoding Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor for Enhanced Expression and Perfusion in the Ischemic Swine Heart

    PubMed Central

    Navare, Sagar; Stratton, Michael; Murray, Len; Li, Fanying

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia can damage heart muscle and reduce the heart's pumping efficiency. This study used an ischemic swine heart model to investigate the potential for gene electro transfer of a plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor for improving perfusion and, thus, for reducing cardiomyopathy following acute coronary syndrome. Plasmid expression was significantly greater in gene electro transfer treated tissue compared to injection of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor alone. Higher gene expression was also seen in ischemic versus non-ischemic groups with parameters 20 Volts (p<0.03), 40 Volts (p<0.05), and 90 Volts (p<0.05), but not with 60 Volts (p<0.09) while maintaining a pulse width of 20 milliseconds. The group with gene electro transfer of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor had increased perfusion in the area at risk compared to control groups. Troponin and creatine kinase increased across all groups, suggesting equivalent ischemia in all groups prior to treatment. Echocardiography was used to assess ejection fraction, cardiac output, stroke volume, left ventricular end diastolic volume, and left ventricular end systolic volume. No statistically significant differences in these parameters were detected during a 2-week time period. However, directional trends of these variables were interesting and offer valuable information about the feasibility of gene electro transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor in the ischemic heart. The results demonstrate that gene electro transfer can be applied safely and can increase perfusion in an ischemic area. Additional study is needed to evaluate potential efficacy. PMID:25545364

  11. Enhancement factor for two-neutron transfer reactions with a schematic coupled-channels model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, K.; Scamps, G.

    2015-12-01

    Probabilities for heavy-ion two-neutron transfer reactions P2 n are often discussed in comparison with the square of the corresponding probabilities for the one-neutron transfer process (P1n) 2, implicitly assuming that (P1n) 2 provides the probability of two-neutron transfer reactions in the absence of the pairing correlation. We use a schematic coupled-channels model, in which the transfers are treated as effective inelastic channels, and demonstrate that this model leads to P2 n=(P1n) 2/4 , rather than P2 n=(P1n) 2 , in the pure sequential limit. We argue that a simple model with spin-up and spin-down neutrons in a single-particle orbital also leads to the same conclusion.

  12. Matrix-fracture transfer shape factor for modeling flow of a compressible fluid in dual-porosity media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, Ehsan; Hassanzadeh, Hassan

    2011-05-01

    The matrix-fracture transfer shape factor is one of the important parameters in the modeling of fluid flow in fractured porous media using a dual-porosity concept. Warren and Root [36] introduced the dual-porosity concept and suggested a relation for the shape factor. There is no general relationship for determining the shape factor for a single-phase flow of slightly compressible fluids. Therefore, different studies reported different values for this parameter, as an input into the flow models. Several investigations have been reported on the shape factor for slightly compressible fluids. However, the case of compressible fluids has not been investigated in the past. The focus of this study is, therefore, to find the shape factor for the single-phase flow of compressible fluids (gases) in fractured porous media. In this study, a model for the determination of the shape factor for compressible fluids is presented; and, the solution of nonlinear gas diffusivity equation is used to derive the shape factor. The integral method and the method of moments are used to solve the nonlinear governing equation by considering the pressure dependency of the viscosity and isothermal compressibility of the fluid. The approximate semi-analytical model for the shape factor presented in this study is verified using single-porosity, fine-grid, numerical simulations. The dependency of the shape factor on the gas specific gravity, pressure and temperature are also investigated. The theoretical analysis presented improves our understanding of fluid flow in fractured porous media. In addition, the developed matrix-fracture transfer shape factor can be used as an input for modeling flow of compressible fluids in dual-porosity systems, such as naturally fractured gas reservoirs, coalbed methane reservoirs and fractured tight gas reservoirs.

  13. An analytical model of view factors for radiation heat transfer in planar and tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Cheng; Cai, Ningsheng; Croiset, Eric

    2011-03-01

    Radiant heat transfer plays an important role in the distribution of cell temperature and current density in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The objective of this paper is to introduce a mathematical model of view factors for radiation heat exchange in an in-house longitudinally distributed SOFC model. A differential view factor model is first developed for planar and tubular SOFC configurations, but is found invalid when the infinitesimal element size is comparable to the characteristic size. Then, a finite-difference view factor model is developed to solve the problem of discontinuities in the differential view factor model. Starting from a classical problem of convective and radiant heat transfer for a transparent gas flow in a gray-wall tube, a fast and accurate computation is available for the finite-difference view factor model without extra mathematical derivations of the governing equations. Compared to the simple modeling which only takes into account the surface-to-surface radiation exchange between two directly opposed elements, the detailed radiation model based on analytical view factors predicts more uniform distribution of cell temperature and current density in the overall SOFC modeling.

  14. Episome-mediated Transfer of Drug Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae X. Restriction and Modification of Phages by fi R Factors.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Takano, T; Arai, T; Nishida, H; Sato, S

    1966-08-01

    Watanabe, Tsutomu (Keio University, Tokyo, Japan), Toshiya Takano, Toshihiko Arai, Hiroshi Nishida, and Sachiko Sato. Episome-mediated transfer of drug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. X. Restriction and modification of phages by fi(-) R factors. J. Bacteriol. 92:477-486. 1966.-An fi(-) R factor, which restricts phages lambda, T1, and T7 without modifying them, was found to restrict and not to modify an F(-)-specific phage, W-31, in Escherichia coli K-12, but not to restrict phage P-22 in Salmonella typhimurium LT-2, whereas other fi(-) R factors restricted and modified P-22 but not W-31; fi(+) R factors did not restrict these phages. Transduction and lysogenization with phages lambda and P-22 were reduced by these fi(-) R factors in K-12 and LT-2, respectively, and the transducing phages lambda and P-22 were modified by these fi(-) R factors. Spontaneous as well as ultraviolet-induced production of phage P-22 and zygotic induction of phage lambda were not significantly affected by any R factor. Injection of the nucleic acids of phages T1 and lambda was not affected by R factors, but the injected phage nucleic acids were rapidly broken down in the bacteria carrying fi(-) R factors. The nucleic acids of the modified phages were not broken down in these bacteria. It was assumed from these results that the mechanism of restriction of phages by fi(-) R factors is due to the breakdown of the injected phage nucleic acids by a deoxyribonuclease(s), presumably located near the cell surface in the cells carrying fi(-) R factors. The deoxyribonuclease(s), formed in the cells carrying the nonmodifying fi(-) R factor, is considered to be different from that synthesized in the cells carrying the modifying fi(-) R factors. It was further shown that the average burst sizes of the unmodified as well as modified phages are slightly reduced by the presence of the fi(-) R factors. PMID:16562138

  15. The Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio mu(p) G**p(E)/G**p(M) at Low Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ron; J. Glister; B. Lee; K. Allada; W. Armstrong; J. Arrington; A. Beck; F. Benmokhtar; B.L. Berman; W. Boeglin; E. Brash; A. Camsonne; J. Calarco; J. P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; J. Dumas; C. Dutta; R. Feuerbach; A. Freyberger; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; R. Gilman; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; Y. Ilieva; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; A. Kelleher; E. Khrosinkova; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; J. J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; S. May-Tal Beck; E. McCullough; D. Meekins; M. Meziane; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; B.E. Norum; Y. Oh; M. Olson; M. Paolone; K. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; M. Potokar; R. Pomatsalyuk; I. Pomerantz; A. Puckett; V. Punjabi; X. Qian; Y. Qiang; R. Ransome; M. Reyhan; J. Roche; Y. Rousseau; A. Saha; A.J. Sarty; B. Sawatzky; E. Schulte; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; R. Shneor; S. ˇ Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; J. Song; R. Sparks; R. Subedi; S. Strauch; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; X. Zhan; X. Zhu

    2007-11-01

    High precision measurements of the proton elastic form factor ratio have been made at four-momentum transfers, Q^2, between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV^2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q^2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to GEp being smaller than the dipole parameterization.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGIES AND PRELIMINARY TRANSFER FACTOR DATA FOR ESTIMATION OF DERMAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental efforts and experimental data are described that focused on quantifying the transfer of particles on a mass basis from indoor surfaces to human skin. Methods were developed that utilized a common fluorescein-tagged Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a possible surrogate ...

  17. The Acquisition of a Second Language Phonology: Interaction of Transfer and Development Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Barbara Frant; Mulford, Randa

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses of acquisition of second-language phonology are evaluated in light of data from a six-year-old Icelandic child learning English. The child's phonological acquisition is characterized as a systematic interaction between transfer from the first language and developmental processes. Specific aspects of the interaction are examined.…

  18. Factors Affecting Persistence of Undergraduate Students in a Fisheries and Wildlife Program: Transfer Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Bjorn H. K.; Millenbah, Kelly F.; Montgomery, Robert A.; Schneider, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Transfer students are of recognized importance to postsecondary education and every year feed thousands of students into natural resources programs across America. This influx of students can have a sustaining effect on many academic programs, including fisheries and wildlife programs, which are suffering from a nation-wide decrease in interest…

  19. Training Design Factors Influencing Transfer of Training to the Workplace within an International Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Doo H.

    2000-01-01

    Korean human resource development practitioners (n=10) attended a training program on performance improvement technology. All showed a high perceived degree of learning, but more in skill than conceptual areas. There were different degrees of transfer, some due to lack of opportunities or lack of relevance to the job. (SK)

  20. Learning Factors Transfer Analysis: Using Learning Curve Analysis to Automatically Generate Domain Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, Philip I. Jr.; Cen, Hao; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method to create a quantitative model of an educational content domain of related practice item-types using learning curves. By using a pairwise test to search for the relationships between learning curves for these item-types, we show how the test results in a set of pairwise transfer relationships that can be…

  1. Factors Affecting Persistence of Undergraduate Students in a Fisheries and Wildlife Program: Transfer Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Bjorn H. K.; Millenbah, Kelly F.; Montgomery, Robert A.; Schneider, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Transfer students are of recognized importance to postsecondary education and every year feed thousands of students into natural resources programs across America. This influx of students can have a sustaining effect on many academic programs, including fisheries and wildlife programs, which are suffering from a nation-wide decrease in interest

  2. Improved retroviral gene transfer into murine and Rhesus peripheral blood or bone marrow repopulating cells primed in vivo with stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, C E; Seidel, N E; Doren, S; Sellers, S; Cline, A P; Metzger, M E; Agricola, B A; Donahue, R E; Bodine, D M

    1996-01-01

    In previous studies we showed that 5 days of treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF) mobilized murine repopulating cells to the peripheral blood (PB) and that these cells could be efficiently transduced with retroviral vectors. We also found that, 7-14 days after cytokine treatment, the repopulating ability of murine bone marrow (BM) increased 10-fold. In this study we examined the efficiency of gene transfer into cytokine-primed murine BM cells and extended our observations to a nonhuman primate autologous transplantation model. G-CSF/SCF-primed murine BM cells collected 7-14 days after cytokine treatment were equivalent to post-5-fluorouracil BM or G-CSF/SCF-mobilized PB cells as targets for retroviral gene transfer. In nonhuman primates, CD34-enriched PB cells collected after 5 days of G-CSF/SCF treatment and CD34-enriched BM cells collected 14 days later were superior targets for retroviral gene transfer. When a clinically approved supernatant infection protocol with low-titer vector preparations was used, monkeys had up to 5% of circulating cells containing the vector for up to a year after transplantation. This relatively high level of gene transfer was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Engraftment after transplantation using primed BM cells was more rapid than that using steady-state bone marrow, and the fraction of BM cells saving the most primitive CD34+/CD38- or CD34+/CD38dim phenotype increased 3-fold. We conclude that cytokine priming with G-CSF/SCF may allow collection of increased numbers of primitive cells from both the PB and BM that have improved susceptibility to retroviral transduction, with many potential applications in hematopoietic stem cell-directed gene therapy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8876230

  3. Overlapping Binding Sites of the Frataxin Homologue Assembly Factor and the Heat Shock Protein 70 Transfer Factor on the Isu Iron-Sulfur Cluster Scaffold Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Manicki, Mateusz; Majewska, Julia; Ciesielski, Szymon; Schilke, Brenda; Blenska, Anna; Kominek, Jacek; Marszalek, Jaroslaw; Craig, Elizabeth A.; Dutkiewicz, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    In mitochondria FeS clusters, prosthetic groups critical for the activity of many proteins, are first assembled on Isu, a 14-kDa scaffold protein, and then transferred to recipient apoproteins. The assembly process involves interaction of Isu with both Nfs1, the cysteine desulfurase serving as a sulfur donor, and the yeast frataxin homolog (Yfh1) serving as a regulator of desulfurase activity and/or iron donor. Here, based on the results of biochemical experiments with purified wild-type and variant proteins, we report that interaction of Yfh1 with both Nfs1 and Isu are required for formation of a stable tripartite assembly complex. Disruption of either Yfh1-Isu or Nfs1-Isu interactions destabilizes the complex. Cluster transfer to recipient apoprotein is known to require the interaction of Isu with the J-protein/Hsp70 molecular chaperone pair, Jac1 and Ssq1. Here we show that the Yfh1 interaction with Isu involves the PVK sequence motif, which is also the site key for the interaction of Isu with Hsp70 Ssq1. Coupled with our previous observation that Nfs1 and Jac1 binding to Isu is mutually exclusive due to partially overlapping binding sites, we propose that such mutual exclusivity of cluster assembly factor (Nfs1/Yfh1) and cluster transfer factor (Jac1/Ssq1) binding to Isu has functional consequences for the transition from the assembly process to the transfer process, and thus regulation of the biogenesis of FeS cluster proteins. PMID:25228696

  4. Characteristics of heavy metal transfer and their influencing factors in different soil-crop systems of the industrialization region, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongyan; Yuan, Xuyin; Li, Tianyuan; Hu, Sun; Ji, Junfeng; Wang, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Soil heavy metals and their bioaccumulation in agricultural products have attracted widespread concerns, yet the transfer and accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in different soil-crop systems was rarely investigated. Soil and crop samples were collected from the typical agricultural areas in the Yangtze River Delta region, China. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg in the soils, roots and grains of rice (Oryza Sativa L.), wheat (Triticum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) were determined in this study. Transfer ability of heavy metals in soil-rice system was stronger than those in soil-wheat and soil-canola systems. The wheat showed a strong capacity to transfer Zn, Cu and Cd from root to the grain while canola presented a restricting effect to the intake of Cu and Cd. Soil pH and total organic matter were major factors influencing metal transfer from soil to rice, whereas soil Al2O3 contents presented a negative effect on heavy metal mobility in wheat and canola cultivation systems. The concentration of Zn and Cd in crop grains could well predicted according to the stepwise multiple linear regression models, which could help to quantitatively evaluate the ecologic risk of heavy metal accumulation in crops in the study area. PMID:26771531

  5. Heat transfer and friction factor correlations for a solar air heater duct roughened artificially with multiple v-ribs

    SciTech Connect

    Hans, V.S.; Saini, R.P.; Saini, J.S.

    2010-06-15

    The use of artificial roughness on the underside of the absorber plate is an effective and economic way to improve the thermal performance of a solar air heater. Several experimental investigations, involving different types of roughness elements, have been carried out to improve the heat transfer from the absorber plate to air flowing in solar air heaters. This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to study the effect of multiple v-rib roughness on heat transfer coefficient and friction factor in an artificially roughened solar air heater duct. The experiment encompassed Reynolds number (Re) from 2000 to 20000, relative roughness height (e/D) values of 0.019-0.043, relative roughness pitch (P/e) range of 6-12, angle of attack ({alpha}) range of 30-75 and relative roughness width (W/w) range of 1-10. Extensive experimentation has been conducted to collect data on heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a rectangular duct roughened with multiple v-ribs. Using these experimental data, correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of roughness geometry and flow parameters have been developed. (author)

  6. Identification and quantification of factors affecting neonatal immunological transfer in dairy calves in the UK.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, J A; Grove-White, D H; Royal, M D; Smith, R F

    2015-06-13

    The object of the study was to quantify the prevalence of failure of passive transfer in UK dairy farms and to identify variables that had a significant impact on the rate of immunological transfer. In a six-month study of 444 calvings from seven UK dairy farms, 26per cent of calves failed to receive adequate immunoglobulin transfer as judged by a plasma total protein (pTP) concentration less than 5.6?g/dl. Colostrum immunoglobulin concentration, indirectly measured using Brix refractometry, showed wide variations with samples ranging from 10.3 to 34.7 Brix units. Thirty-seven per cent of samples were below the suggested cut-off Brix score for colostrum quality of 22 per cent. Potential associations between covariates and plasma protein concentration were investigated using multiple linear regression models. The covariate with the greatest impact on the pTP concentration was the farm on which the calf was born (P<0.05). A significant but small association was demonstrated between colostrum immunoglobulin concentration and calf pTP concentration (P<0.01). Multiple linear regression models suggested that the time of colostrum collection after calving, parity of the dam, and the individual farm were associated with the Brix measurements (P<0.05). This study suggested that veterinary review of colostrum protocols on farm with emphasis on prompt collection and dosing after calving remains a simple and effective measure to improve passive transfer and thus calf health on UK dairy farms. PMID:25861824

  7. Modulation Transfer Function Measurement of Infrared Focal-Plane Arrays with Small Fill Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Barrière, Florence; Druart, Guillaume; Guérineau, Nicolas; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Mugnier, Laurent; Gravrand, Olivier; Baier, Nicolas; Lhermet, Nicolas; Destefanis, Gérard; Derelle, Sophie

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an original method to measure the modulation transfer function (MTF) of an infrared focal-plane array (IRFPA), based on a diffraction grating called a continuously self-imaging grating (CSIG). We give a general methodology to design the test bench, and we describe the data processing approach which has been developed to extract relevant information about the size of the photodiodes and filtering effects. The MTF measurement capability of this method is illustrated with a cooled IRFPA.

  8. Transfer of radiocesium to four cruciferous vegetables as influenced by organic amendment under different field conditions in Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-02-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in four cruciferous vegetables as influenced by cattle manure-based compost amendment was investigated. Komatsuna, mustard, radish and turnip were cultivated in three different (137)Cs-contaminated fields at Nihonmatsu City in Fukushima Prefecture from June to August 2012. Results revealed that organic compost amendments stimulated plant biomass production and tended to induce higher (137)Cs concentration in the cruciferous vegetables in most cases. Among the studied sites, Takanishi soil possessing low exchangeable potassium (0.10 cmolc kg(-1)) was associated with an increased concentration of (137)Cs in plants. Radiocesium transfer factor (TF) values of the vegetables ranged from 0.025 to 0.119. The increase in (137)Cs TFs was dependent on larger plant biomass production, high organic matter content, and high sand content in the studied soils. Average (137)Cs TF values for all study sites and compost treatments were higher in Komatsuna (0.072) and radish (0.059), which exhibited a higher biomass production compared to mustard and turnip. The transferability of (137)Cs to vegetables from soils was in the order Komatsuna > radish > mustard > turnip. The highest (137)Cs TF value (0.071) of all vegetables was recorded for a field where the soil had high organic matter content and a high clay proportion of 470 g kg(-1) consisting of Al-vermiculite clay mineral. PMID:25483355

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING, PHASE II. HOW CONSCIOUS IS TRANSFER OF A SPECIFIC RULE. TECHNICAL REPORT 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCHALE, THOMAS J.; STOLUROW, LAWRENCE M.

    TO DETERMINE THE SPECIFIC MECHANISMS THROUGH WHICH TRANSFER OCCURS, THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED TRANSFER RESULTING FROM THE LEARNING OF A SPECIFIC RULE OR PROCESSING FORMULA. PREVIOUS RESEARCH WAS COMBINED INTO A TENTATIVE THEORY OF TRANSFER WHICH WAS TESTED AND ASSESSED BY FOCUSING ON BOTH TRIALS-TO-CRITERION AND VERBAL REPORTS AS MEASURES OF…

  10. Hepatocyte growth factor/Met gene transfer in cardiac stem cells—potential for cardiac repair

    PubMed Central

    Rokosh, Gregg; De Caterina, Raffaele; Bolli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The adult heart has been recently recognized as a self-renewing organ that contains a pool of committed resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) and cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). These adult CSCs and CPCs can be induced by cytokines and growth factors to migrate, differentiate, and proliferate in situ and potentially replace lost cardiomyocytes. Ligand-receptor systems, such as the tyrosine kinase receptor mesenchymal–epithelial transition factor (Met) and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), are potential candidates for boosting migration, engraftment and commitment of CSCs. Here, we discuss the possible application of HGF/Met gene therapy to enhance the ability of CSCs to promote myocardial regeneration. PMID:20393738

  11. Factors impacting on nurses' transference of theoretical knowledge of holistic care into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Saras

    2002-12-01

    Since nurse education moved to universities, a reoccurring concern of health consumers, health administrators, and some practising nurses is that nurses are not able to transfer the theoretical knowledge of holistic care into practice. Much has been written about this concern usually under the heading of the theory-practice gap. A common reason that has been highlighted as the cause of this gap is that the theoretical knowledge that nurses learn in academia is predicated on concepts such as humanism and holistic caring. In contrast, the bureaucratic organisation where nurses provide care tends to be based on management concepts where cost containment and outcome measures are more acceptable. Hence nurses' learned values of holistic caring are pitted against the reality of the practice setting. So what is this practice reality? This paper attempts to provide an insider view of why the theoretical knowledge of holistic care may be difficult to enact in the clinical setting. In-depth taped interviews with nurses and participant observation were conducted in acute care hospitals in Western Australia. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method. The findings indicated that utilitarian nursing and role models had impacted on the transference of theoretical knowledge of holistic care into practice. The paper outlines some measures that nurses themselves can undertake to ensure the narrowing of the theory-practice gap in this area. PMID:19036306

  12. Timing factors affecting blastocyst development in equine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Ho; Velez, Isabel C; Macas-Garca, Beatriz; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2015-04-01

    In nuclear transfer (NT), exposure of donor cell chromatin to the ooplast cytoplasm may aid reprogramming; however, the length of exposure feasible is limited by the developmental life span of the oocyte. We examined the effect of duration of nucleus-cytoplasmic exposure before activation and of in vitro maturation (IVM) in equine NT. In experiment 1, 24 h IVM and a delay of 2, 5, or 8 h between reconstruction and activation yielded 4%, 15%, and 11% blastocysts, respectively. In experiment 2, a 5-h activation delay yielded 17% and 22% blastocysts with two donor cell lines. In experiment 3, using a 5-h activation delay, the blastocyst rate was significantly higher using oocytes after 20 h IVM than after 24 h IVM; however, only 28% of oocytes were in metaphase II (MII) at 20 h. In experiment 4, oocytes were denuded of cumulus at 20 h, and those in metaphase I (MI) were returned to culture for 3 h (20+3H treatment); blastocyst rates were 30% and 27%, respectively (8-h and 5-h delay to activation, respectively). Four live foals resulted from the transfer of 17 blastocysts (24%) produced using MII oocytes and a 5- or 8-h activation delay. Use of equine oocytes immediately after reaching MII, combined with a longer delay from reconstruction to activation, increased developmental competence after equine NT. PMID:25826725

  13. Transfer of tumour necrosis factor-α via colostrum to foals.

    PubMed

    Secor, E J; Matychak, M B; Felippe, M J B

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether TNF-α is transferred to equine neonates via colostrum and the relationship between TNF-α and IgG concentrations in the equine neonate. Colostrum, presuckle and postsuckle foal serum samples were collected from healthy mares and their foals. Equine TNF-α ELISA and IgG SRID kits were used to determine the concentrations of TNF-α and IgG, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using the Spearman rank correlation. TNF-α concentrations in all presuckle foal serum were below the limit of detection in 15/16 foals and increased in postsuckle foal serum to a mean concentration of 7.7 x 10(4) pg/ml. TNF-α concentrations in postsuckle foal serum and colostrum showed significant correlation (rho=0.668; P=0.005). However, TNF-α and IgG concentrations in colostrum or postsuckle foal serum did not correlate (rho<-0.016; P>0.05). Ratios of TNF-α/IgG in colostrum or postsuckle foal serum showed significant correlation (rho=0.750; P=0.0008). These results indicate that TNF-α is transferred to the foal via colostrum absorption and may play a role in early immunity. PMID:22027187

  14. Impact of plant and environmental factors on ALS-resistant gene transfer rate from ClearfieldTM rice to red rice biotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen-mediated transfer of ALS-resistant gene from ClearfieldTM (CL) rice to red rice can affect the population dynamics and long-term management of red rice. To mitigate gene flow, it is important to understand the plant and environmental factors which affect gene transfer rate. This experiment ai...

  15. Transfer students in STEM majors at a Midwestern University: Academic and social involvement factors that influence student success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Carlos

    There is soon-to-be a shortage of qualified U.S. workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As a result, many science-related jobs are being filled by technically-skilled foreign workers. If the U.S wants to maintain its global economic leadership, then it must ensure a continuous growth of highly-trained individuals in STEM disciplines. Therefore, American institutions of higher education, including community colleges, must identify potential factors that contribute to the lack of interest in STEM majors, as well as the low rate of success of students who enter STEM majors but struggle to finish their degrees. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceptions of community college transfer students who are pursuing bachelor degrees in STEM majors at Iowa State University (ISU). What were their transfer experiences and what influenced their academic success in STEM. Participants were encouraged to share their transfer experiences while at the community college as well as their experiences on the ISU campus. They were also asked about their level of academic involvement, their relationships with faculty, and their participation in peer group activities prior to and after transferring. The research design included both quantitative and qualitative components, which provided an in-depth look at the experiences of STEM non-engineering and engineering students. Quantitative data include students' background characteristics, demographic information, and college activities at the community college and ISU. Qualitative data were used to illuminate students' overall transfer experience and their successful journey in STEM fields. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed a better understanding of the strategies students put into practice once they transfer from a community college to a four-year institution in pursuit of a STEM bachelor's degree. The results of this study suggest that there is an association among the background characteristics, community college experiences, university experiences, and the overall adjustment and cumulative GPA of transfer students from STEM non-engineering and engineering majors. In addition, students reported how their early experiences in science and mathematics inspired them to pursue a career in STEM. Even though students chose to go into STEM areas at the community college and university level due to prior interest, the role of academic advisors and faculty were crucial to the adjustment process. Thus, it is vital for academic advisors and faculty to assist students in researching the transfer process to four-year institutions because students need to understand why this is essential to their academic and social adjustment process. The results indicate that it is important to encourage students to interact inside and outside the classroom with other students and instructors. Also, students should become more involved in academic and social groups since these are important factors in enhancing their academic and social adjustment.

  16. SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C; Tang, Lixin; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Campbell, Steven L; Miller , John M.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

  17. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  18. Analysis of colony-stimulating factors and macrophage progenitor cells in mice immunized against Listeria monocytogenes by adoptive transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, E J; Magee, D M; Barczynski, L K

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were performed to elucidate the role of colony-stimulating factors in host defenses to the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Mice were protected against Listeria sp. by adoptive transfer of immune spleen cells and were then challenged with listeriae intravenously. Control mice were injected with spleen cells from uninfected mice. Adoptively immunized (immune) mice had significantly fewer listeriae in spleens and livers 2 and 4 days after Listeria challenge than did control mice. During acute infection, colony-stimulating activity in serum was increased earlier (10 h) in immune mice than in controls. Concentrations of colony-stimulating activity were equal at 24 h. By 48 h, values were decreased in immune mice, but were elevated in control mice. Similar changes were noted when a specific colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, was measured in serum by using a radioimmunoassay. The changes in serum colony-stimulating activity in mice adoptively immunized with immune spleen cells were eliminated if spleen cells were first treated with anti-Thy-1.2 monoclonal antibodies. The number of macrophage progenitor cells in bone marrow and spleen were also determined as measures of the hemopoietic potential in these organs. The number of macrophage progenitor cells in bone marrow was higher in immune animals than control animals at 1, 2, and 4 days of infection. Similarly, the number of these cells in spleens was higher during the early stages of infection in immune mice. These results indicate that both the regulation of leukocyte production and the transfer of specific cellular immunity by spleen cells are associated, and they therefore suggest that hemopoietic regulatory factors play a role in immune host defenses. PMID:2886433

  19. Health status and risk factors associated with failure of passive transfer of immunity in newborn beef calves in Qubec.

    PubMed

    Filteau, Virginie; Bouchard, Emile; Fecteau, Gilles; Dutil, Lucie; DuTremblay, Denis

    2003-11-01

    Risk factors associated with failure of passive transfer of immunity (FPT) were evaluated among newborn beef calves in Qubec. Physical examination was performed on calves born of a normal calving and blood samples were collected for determination of health status and measurement of serum concentration of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1. Of 225 calves, from 45 herds, 19% showed FPT (serum IgG1 concentration < 10.0 g/L). Calves born in a stanchion-stall were more likely to show FPT (OR: 10.2). Calves bottle-fed colostrum were less at risk for FPT (OR: 0.06). Calf gender, month of birth, dam parity, and dam body condition score were not associated with FPT. No association was detected between FPT and health status. Special care should be given to calves born from cows in a stanchion-stall to ensure adequate colostrum intake. Failure of passive transfer of immunity should be considered with other risk factors when investigating morbidity. PMID:14664353

  20. Factors that may prevent transfer of anti-biotic resistance between gram-negative bacteria in the gut.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J D

    1975-02-01

    Antibiotic-resistance transfer between populations of donor and recipient strains of Escherichia coli was completely inhibited in broth by dense suspensions of Bacteroides fragilis. Comparable amounts of inert bacterial matter (for-molised suspensions of E. coli or B. fragilis), or smaller numbers of viable B. fragilis, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus albus, Neisseria catarrhalis, or solutions of sodium taurocholate or glycocholate were only moderately inhibitory. Anaeroboisis had no effect upon plasmid transfer. Population densities of enteric organisms in these studies were similar to those found in faeces. The presence of dense cultures of B. fragilis provide a satisfactory explanation for almost total inhibition of conjugation in the human gut. Other factors inhibiting conjugation to a lesser degree may reinforce the effect of B. fragilis in vivo. As well as selecting for resistant organisms, antibiotics may also indirectly increase populations of R factor-bearing organisms in the gut by interfering with the anaerobic flora and so permit an increase in the frequency of conjugation. PMID:805244

  1. Factors influencing ALS-resistant gene transfer from CL (tm) rice to red rice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice (Oryza sativa L.) is hard to control due to its genetic similarity to cultivated rice. Herbicide-resistant Clearfield ™ (CL) rice now offers an excellent option for red rice control. However, sustainability of CL technology at the producers’ level will be dictated by various factors. Promi...

  2. The Significance of Contextual Factors in African American Students' Transfer of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpell, Zewelanji N.; Boykin, A. Wade; Madhere, Serge; Nasim, Aashir

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to address the lack of experimental research examining the influence of contextual factors on African American students' learning. A total of 162 low-income African American and White fourth graders were randomly assigned to ethnically homogeneous, communally structured groups of three to work on a motion acceleration task using…

  3. Factors affecting stepladder stability during a lateral weight transfer: a study in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-Shiang; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2005-09-01

    A fall from a stepladder is often initiated by a loss of lateral stability. An inverted pendulum model of the human, validated by experiment, was used to determine the feasible range of whole-body center of mass (COM) states for which weight can be transferred laterally on a ladder tread without a ladder rail losing contact with the ground ("no lift-off" stability region). The results show that the size of the feasible no lift-off region was inversely proportional to the height of the tread above the ground, the distance of the stance foot from the ipsilateral rail, and lateral ground inclination angle. For given initial COM kinematics on a tread height equal to 40% human body height, a stance-foot location equal to one-eighth tread width and a 3.5 degrees ground inclination had approximately equivalent effects on the no lift-off region size. Ladder stability was three times more sensitive to tread height than to foot location. Laterally-exerted impulsive hand-tool forces should generally be limited to 8% body weight. These findings can lead to improved ladder designs and safety instructions for stepladder users. PMID:15970205

  4. Role of chemical and ecological factors in trophic transfer of organic chemicals in aquatic food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.W.; Gobas, F.A.P.C. . School of Resource and Environmental Management); Haffner, G.D. )

    1999-06-01

    Trophic transfer of chlorinated organic contaminants was investigated in an aquatic community composed of zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish. Biomagnification, measured as the increase in lipid-based chemical concentrations in predator over that in prey, was observed for high-K[sub OW] chemicals (log K[sub OW] > 6.3). Low-K[sub OW] chemicals (log K[sub OW] < 5.5) did not biomagnify in the food web, and chemicals with log K[sub OW] between 5.5 and 6.3 showed some evidence of biomagnification. Trophic level differences in chemical accumulation in the food web could not be attributed to bioconcentration into increasing trophic levels with increasing lipid levels, as no relationship was observed between trophic position and lipid content of organisms. Plots of contaminant-ordinated principal component scores in component space predicted the detailed diets of the species examined. It is concluded that (1) trophic interactions play a crucial role in the distribution of high-K[sub OW] chemicals but not for low-K[sub OW] chemicals and that (2) contaminant distributions provide a means to determine structure in aquatic communities.

  5. Transference and "the Rebbe" idiographic and nomothetic factors in the psychoanalysis of Lubavitch Chassidim.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Martin A; Kaplan, Ricki S

    2013-12-01

    The Lubavitch Chassidim are one of several ultra-orthodox groups within Judaism. Their central focus is on their leader or Rebbe, who is seen as not only the possessor of all wisdom but also having supernatural powers. In working therapeutically with Lubavitch, one needs to distinguish if the beliefs of the individual are unique to them or reflect the belief system of the community. If the former, then it obviously needs to be analyzed. If the latter, then it is seen as an identification with the group and reflective of the need for group cohesion and often a regulator of self-esteem. The following article demonstrates these factors. PMID:23824957

  6. Scattering cross-section emission factors for visibility and radiative transfer applications: military vehicles traveling on unpaved roads.

    PubMed

    Moosmüller, Hans; Varma, Ravi; Arnott, W Patrick; Kuhns, Hampden D; Etyemezian, Vicken; Gillies, John A

    2005-11-01

    Emission factors for particulate matter (PM) are generally reported as mass emission factors (PM mass emitted per time or activity) as appropriate for air quality standards based on mass concentration. However, for visibility and radiative transfer applications, scattering, absorption, and extinction coefficients are the parameters of interest, with visibility standards based on extinction coefficients. These coefficients (dimension of inverse distance) equal cross-section concentrations, and, therefore, cross-section emission factors are appropriate. Scattering cross-section emission factors were determined for dust entrainment by nine vehicles, ranging from light passenger vehicles to heavy military vehicles, traveling on an unpaved road. Each vehicle made multiple passes at multiple speeds while scattering and absorption coefficients, wind velocity and dust plume profiles, and additional parameters were measured downwind of the road. Light absorption of the entrained PM was negligible, and the light extinction was primarily caused by scattering. The resulting scattering cross-section emission factors per vehicle kilometer traveled (vkt) range from 12.5 m2/vkt for a slow (16 km/ hr), light (1176 kg) vehicle to 3724 m2/vkt for a fast (64 km/hr), heavy (17,727 kg) vehicle and generally increase with vehicle speed and mass. The increase is approximately linear with speed, yielding emission factors per vkt and speed ranging from 4.2 m2/(vkt km/hr) to 53 m2/(vkt km/hr). These emission factors depend approximately linearly on vehicle mass within the groups of light (vehicle mass < or =3100 kg) and heavy (vehicle mass >8000 kg) vehicles yielding emission factors per vkt, speed, and mass of 0.0056 m2/(vkt km/hr kg) and 0.0024 m2/(vkt km/hr kg), respectively. Comparison of the scattering cross-section and PM mass emission factors yields average mass scattering efficiencies of 1.5 m2/g for the light vehicles and of 0.8 m2/g for the heavy vehicles indicating that the heavy vehicles entrain larger particles than the light vehicles. PMID:16350371

  7. Physiological mechanisms, behavioral and psychological factors influencing the transfer of milk from mothers to their young.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Wibke; Woodside, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care".Producing milk to support the growth of their young is a central element of maternal care in mammals. In spite of the facts that ecological constraints influence nursing frequency, length of time until weaning and the composition of milk, there is considerable similarity in the anatomy and physiology of milk production and delivery across mammalian species. Here we provide an overview of cross species variation in nursing patterns and milk composition as well as the mechanisms underlying mammary gland development, milk production and letdown. Not all women breastfeed their infants, thus in later sections we review studies of factors that facilitate or impede the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. The results of these investigations suggest that the decisions to initiate and maintain breastfeeding are influenced by an array of personal, social and biological factors. Finally, studies comparing the development of breastfed and formula fed infants as well as those investigating associations between breastfeeding, maternal health and mother/infant interaction are reviewed. Leading health agencies including the World Health Organization and CDC advocate breastfeeding for at least the first 6months postpartum. To achieve these rates will require not only institutional support but also a focus on individual mother/infant dyads and their experience. PMID:26232032

  8. JLab Measurement of the 4He Charge Form Factor at Large Momentum Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Camsonne, Alexandre; Katramatou, A. T.; Olson, M.; Sparveris, Nikolaos; Acha, Armando; Allada, Kalyan; Anderson, Bryon; Arrington, John; Baldwin, Alan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Decowski, Piotr; Dutta, Chiranjib; Folts, Edward; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilman, Ronald; Gomez, Javier; Hahn, Brian; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, Jian; Iodice, Mauro; Kelleher, Aidan; Khrosinkova, Elena; Kievsky, A.; Kuchina, Elena; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Lee, Byungwuek; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Lott, Gordon; Lu, H.; Marcucci, Laura; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Meekins, David; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Norum, Blaine; Petratos, Gerassimos; Puckett, Andrew; Qian, Xin; Rondon-Aramayo, Oscar; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Segal, John; Hashemi, Mitra; Shahinyan, Albert; Solvignon-Slifer, Patricia; Subedi, Ramesh; Suleiman, Riad; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Viviani, Michele; Wang, Y.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Zhang, W. -M.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.

    2014-04-01

    The charge form factor of 4He has been extracted in the range 29 fm-2 <= Q2 <= 77 fm-2 from elastic electron scattering, detecting 4He nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The results are in qualitative agreement with realistic meson-nucleon theoretical calculations. The data have uncovered a second diffraction minimum, which was predicted in the Q2 range of this experiment, and rule out conclusively long-standing predictions of dimensional scaling of high-energy amplitudes using quark counting.

  9. Retrospective study of factors affecting multiple ovulations, embryo recovery, quality, and diameter in a commercial equine embryo transfer program.

    PubMed

    Panzani, Duccio; Rota, Alessandra; Marmorini, Paola; Vannozzi, Iacopo; Camillo, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    In this study, 198 donor mares of different breeds, ages, and reproductive category were inseminated with fresh, cooled and frozen or frozen and cooled semen at the embryo transfer station or in private artificial insemination centers during 10 breeding seasons. The results of this activity were retrospectively analyzed by Pearson Chi-square test and logistic regression to evaluate factors affecting multiple ovulations, embryo recovery, embryo quality, and embryo diameter. Out of the 661 cycles, 937 ovulations were recorded (mean ovulations/cycle: 1.42 0.58). Ovulation rate and incidence of multiple ovulations were significantly affected by age, breed, and reproductive category. Uterine flushings for embryo recovery were performed between 7 and 10 days after ovulation and resulted in the recovery of 338 embryos (51.1% embryos/cycle and 36.1% embryos/ovulation, respectively). At least one embryo was recovered in 298 flushings (45.1%). The factors affecting embryo recovery were age, breed, reproductive category, type of semen, number of ovulations, and location of artificial insemination. Flushing protocol and day of flushing had no effect on embryo recovery. Age, type of semen, number of ovulations, and day of flushing had a significant influence on embryo diameter (N = 215). None of the factors included in the model had an effect on embryo quality distribution. PMID:25085596

  10. Comparable frequencies of coding mutations and loss of imprinting in human pluripotent cells derived by nuclear transfer and defined factors.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Bjarki; Sagi, Ido; Gore, Athurva; Paull, Daniel; Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Golan-Lev, Tamar; Li, Zhe; LeDuc, Charles; Shen, Yufeng; Stern, Samantha; Xu, Nanfang; Ma, Hong; Kang, Eunju; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Sauer, Mark V; Zhang, Kun; Benvenisty, Nissim; Egli, Dieter

    2014-11-01

    The recent finding that reprogrammed human pluripotent stem cells can be derived by nuclear transfer into human oocytes as well as by induced expression of defined factors has revitalized the debate on whether one approach might be advantageous over the other. Here we compare the genetic and epigenetic integrity of human nuclear-transfer embryonic stem cell (NT-ESC) lines and isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines, derived from the same somatic cell cultures of fetal, neonatal, and adult origin. The two cell types showed similar genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation profiles. Importantly, NT-ESCs and iPSCs had comparable numbers of de novo coding mutations, but significantly more than parthenogenetic ESCs. As iPSCs, NT-ESCs displayed clone- and gene-specific aberrations in DNA methylation and allele-specific expression of imprinted genes. The occurrence of these genetic and epigenetic defects in both NT-ESCs and iPSCs suggests that they are inherent to reprogramming, regardless of derivation approach. PMID:25517467

  11. Efficient, Repeated Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer in Mice Lacking both Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Lymphotoxin α

    PubMed Central

    Benihoud, Karim; Saggio, Isabella; Opolon, Paule; Salone, Barbara; Amiot, Franck; Connault, Elisabeth; Chianale, Colette; Dautry, François; Yeh, Patrice; Perricaudet, Michel

    1998-01-01

    The efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is now well established. However, the cellular and the humoral immune responses triggered by vector injection lead to the rapid elimination of the transduced cells and preclude any efficient readministration. The present investigation focuses on the role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine, and the related cytokine lymphotoxin α (LTα), in mounting an immune reaction against recombinant adenovirus vectors. After gene transfer in the liver, mice genetically deficient for both cytokines (TNF-α/LTα−/−), in comparison with normal mice, presented a weak acute-phase inflammatory reaction, a reduction in cellular infiltrates in the liver, and a severely impaired T-cell proliferative response to both Adenoviral and transgene product antigens. Moreover, we observed a strong reduction in the humoral response to the vector and the transgene product, with a drastic reduction of anti-adenovirus immunoglobulin A and G antibody isotypes. In addition, the reduction in antibody response observed in TNF-α/LTα−/− and TNF-α/LTα+/− mice versus TNF-α/LTα+/+ mice links antibody levels to TNF-α/LTα gene dosage. Due to the absence of neutralizing antibodies, the TNF-α/LTα knockout mice successfully express a second gene transduced by a second vector injection. The discovery of the pivotal role played by TNF-α in controlling the antibody response against adenovirus will allow more efficient adenovirus-based strategies for gene therapy to be proposed. PMID:9811684

  12. Transferable circulating factors and epithelial sodium transport after unilateral nephrectomy in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, C A; Nobes, M S; Gyory, A Z; Heng, P T; Field, M J

    1996-01-01

    1. In order to investigate the role of circulating serum factors in the altered renal haemodynamics and enhanced renal tubular transport observed in renal growth, micropuncture experiments were performed on normal animals infused with 20% plasma derived from animals in whom unilateral nephrectomy had been performed 3 days previously. 2. When animals infused with plasma from uninephrectomized animals (NxP) were compared with those infused with control plasma, the former had a higher tubular fluid flow rate measured at both the late proximal (LP; 26.7 +/- 1.6 vs. 18.4 +/- 1.4 nl min-1; P < 0.001) and early distal (ED; 14.9 +/- 1.0 vs. 7.8 +/- 1.0 nl min-1; P < 0.0001) sites, which was reflected in the final urine flow rate (16.1 +/- 3.4 vs. 5.1 +/- 0.8 microliter min-1; P < 0.005). 3. The single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) was higher in animals infused with NxP as determined from samples taken at the LP (45.8 +/- 2.8 vs. 35.7 +/- 2.3 nl min-1; P < 0.01) and at the ED (34.5 +/- 2.5 vs. 28.1 +/- 1.8 nl min-1; P = 0.05) sites. However, this increase was not reflected in the whole kidney GFR (1.04 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.89 +/- 0.06; P = 0.07), suggestive of a preferential increase in filtration in the outer cortical nephrons. 4. Tubular Na+ transport was higher in the animals infused with NxP as evidenced by a decrease in the fractional delivery of Na+ at the ED site (4.5 +/- 0.4 vs. 6.5 +/- 0.6% of the filtered load; P < 0.05). However, in the final urine there was a significant increase in the urinary sodium excretion in animals infused with NxP (0.67 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.29 +/- 0.09%; P < 0.05) indicating that natriuresis and probably diuresis was a result of inhibition of Na+ and water transport in the late distal tubule and collecting duct. 5. In conclusion, these experiments demonstrate that circulating factors induced by a reduction in renal mass significantly alter glomerular filtration and tubular Na+ transport. PMID:8745293

  13. Transfer gene expression during fertility inhibition of the Escherichia coli K12 sex factor F by the I-like plasmid R62.

    PubMed

    Gasson, M; Willetts, N

    1976-12-22

    Further understanding of how the FinQ fertility inhibition system of the I-like plasmid R62 inhibits transfer of the sex factor F has been gained by the use of a genetic assay for individual transfer gene products. The technique involved construction of a series of Flac plasmids carrying suppressible mutations in individual transfer genes together with a FinQ inhibitor-insensitive traQ mutation. The transfer of the Flac double mutants from a strain carrying wild-type Fhis and R62 then indicated the effect of R62-encoded transfer inhibition on the expression of individual F transfer genes. During such inhibition the products of genes traJ, traA, traE, traB and traC were present in quantities sufficient to permit efficient F transfer, whereas the levels of the traF, traH, traG and traD gene products were so reduced as to limit F transfer. These findings and a failure to obtain recombination between traC and traQ mutations suggest that the R62 fertility inhibition system terminates transcription of the transfer operon between traC and traF. PMID:799252

  14. An Integrated Model of Transcription Factor Diffusion Shows the Importance of Intersegmental Transfer and Quaternary Protein Structure for Target Site Finding

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Hugo G.; Sewitz, Sven; Andrews, Steven S.; Lipkow, Karen

    2014-01-01

    We present a computational model of transcription factor motion that explains both the observed rapid target finding of transcription factors, and how this motion influences protein and genome structure. Using the Smoldyn software, we modelled transcription factor motion arising from a combination of unrestricted 3D diffusion in the nucleoplasm, sliding along the DNA filament, and transferring directly between filament sections by intersegmental transfer. This presents a fine-grain picture of the way in which transcription factors find their targets two orders of magnitude faster than 3D diffusion alone allows. Eukaryotic genomes contain sections of nucleosome free regions (NFRs) around the promoters; our model shows that the presence and size of these NFRs can be explained as their acting as antennas on which transcription factors slide to reach their targets. Additionally, our model shows that intersegmental transfer may have shaped the quaternary structure of transcription factors: sequence specific DNA binding proteins are unusually enriched in dimers and tetramers, perhaps because these allow intersegmental transfer, which accelerates target site finding. Finally, our model shows that a ‘hopping’ motion can emerge from 3D diffusion on small scales. This explains the apparently long sliding lengths that have been observed for some DNA binding proteins observed in vitro. Together, these results suggest that transcription factor diffusion dynamics help drive the evolution of protein and genome structure. PMID:25333780

  15. Development of a general equation to determine the transfer factor feed-to-meat for radiocesium on the basis of the body mass of domestic animals

    SciTech Connect

    Nalezinski, S.; Ruehm, W.; Wirth, E.

    1996-05-01

    Transfer factors from feed to meat (5{sub {integral}}), taken from literature for monogastric animals and ruminants have been correlated to their corresponding animal body mass (m{sub b}). Taking all data into account, a close relationship between both transfer factor and body mass becomes evident, yielding a regression function of (T{sub {integral}} = 8.0 x m{sub b}{sup {minus}0.91}) (r = -0.97). For monogastric animals (including poultry), the corresponding relationships are T{sub {integral}} = 1.9 x m{sub b}{sup {minus}0.72} (r = 0.78). The equations offer the opportunity to estimate the transfer factor for individual animals more precisely taking individual body masses into account. They are of interest for animals, on which no or only poor data concerning radiocesium transfer factors are available. The determination of radiocesium transfer factors are reduced to a simple weighing process. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. A Member of the Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Transcription Termination Factor Family Is Required for Maturation of Chloroplast Transfer RNAIle(GAU).

    PubMed

    Romani, Isidora; Manavski, Nikolay; Morosetti, Arianna; Tadini, Luca; Maier, Swetlana; Kühn, Kristina; Ruwe, Hannes; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian; Wanner, Gerhard; Leister, Dario; Kleine, Tatjana

    2015-09-01

    Plastid gene expression is crucial for organelle function, but the factors that control it are still largely unclear. Members of the so-called mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) family are found in metazoans and plants and regulate organellar gene expression at different levels. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mTERF6 is localized in chloroplasts and mitochondria, and its knockout perturbs plastid development and results in seedling lethality. In the leaky mterf6-1 mutant, a defect in photosynthesis is associated with reduced levels of photosystem subunits, although corresponding messenger RNA levels are unaffected, whereas translational capacity and maturation of chloroplast ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are perturbed in mterf6-1 mutants. Bacterial one-hybrid screening, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal a specific interaction between mTERF6 and an RNA sequence in the chloroplast isoleucine transfer RNA gene (trnI.2) located in the rRNA operon. In vitro, recombinant mTERF6 bound to its plastid DNA target site can terminate transcription. At present, it is unclear whether disturbed rRNA maturation is a primary or secondary defect. However, it is clear that mTERF6 is required for the maturation of trnI.2. This points to an additional function of mTERFs. PMID:26152711

  17. Blocking single-stranded transferred DNA conversion to double-stranded intermediates by overexpression of yeast DNA REPLICATION FACTOR A.

    PubMed

    Dafny-Yelin, Mery; Levy, Avner; Dafny, Raz; Tzfira, Tzvi

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens delivers its single-stranded transferred DNA (T-strand) into the host cell nucleus, where it can be converted into double-stranded molecules. Various studies have revealed that double-stranded transfer DNA (T-DNA) intermediates can serve as substrates by as yet uncharacterized integration machinery. Nevertheless, the possibility that T-strands are themselves substrates for integration cannot be ruled out. We attempted to block the conversion of T-strands into double-stranded intermediates prior to integration in order to further investigate the route taken by T-DNA molecules on their way to integration. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants that overexpress three yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) protein subunits of DNA REPLICATION FACTOR A (RFA) were produced. In yeast, these subunits (RFA1-RFA3) function as a complex that can bind single-stranded DNA molecules, promoting the repair of genomic double strand breaks. Overexpression of the RFA complex in tobacco resulted in decreased T-DNA expression, as determined by infection with A. tumefaciens cells carrying the β-glucuronidase intron reporter gene. Gene expression was not blocked when the reporter gene was delivered by microbombardment. Enhanced green fluorescent protein-assisted localization studies indicated that the three-protein complex was predominantly nuclear, thus indicating its function within the plant cell nucleus, possibly by binding naked T-strands and blocking their conversion into double-stranded intermediates. This notion was further supported by the inhibitory effect of RFA expression on the cell-to-cell movement of Bean dwarf mosaic virus, a single-stranded DNA virus. The observation that RFA complex plants dramatically inhibited the transient expression level of T-DNA and only reduced T-DNA integration by 50% suggests that double-stranded T-DNA intermediates, as well as single-stranded T-DNA, play significant roles in the integration process. PMID:25424309

  18. Inadequate passive immune transfer in puppies: definition, risk factors and prevention in a large multi-breed kennel.

    PubMed

    Mila, H; Feugier, A; Grellet, A; Anne, J; Gonnier, M; Martin, M; Rossig, L; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of neonatal mortality is high in the canine species and far from well-studied. In most domestic neonates, an appropriate colostrum intake is a key element of the control of neonatal mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of passive immune transfer on puppy mortality, assessed through serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration at 2 days of age. Factors impacting passive immune transfer and the value of an oral immunoglobulin supplementation to prevent it were also analyzed. A total of 149 puppies from 34 litters (12 breeds) within one breeding kennel were included. Blood samples were collected at 2 days of age and colostrum was collected from their dams 1 day after whelping to assay IgG concentration. Puppies were weighed at birth and at 2 days of age for calculation of growth rate. Mortality was recorded until 3 weeks of age. Seventy randomly assigned puppies were orally supplemented with hyper-immunized adult plasma twice within the first 8h of life. IgG concentration at 2 days of age was significantly correlated with weight gain during the first 2 days of life. The multivariable model with litter as a random effect demonstrated that neonatal mortality was not influenced by breed size, sex, supplementation, litter size, nor colostrum IgG concentration, but by puppy IgG concentration at 2 days of age. According to the ROC curve, the minimal IgG concentration at and below which puppies were at higher risk of death was determined at 230 mg/dl. Puppy IgG concentration was significantly associated with growth rate, but not with breed size, sex, supplementation, litter size or colostrum IgG concentration in a multivariable model with litter as a random effect. This study demonstrates that neonatal mortality in puppies is related to the quality of passive immune transfer. The oral supplementation with hyper-immunized canine plasma neither decreased risk of mortality, nor improved serum IgG concentration at 2 days of age in puppies. Attention must thus be paid to early colostrum intake to control the neonatal mortality in puppies. PMID:24880625

  19. Non-invasive Bioluminescence Imaging of Myoblast-Mediated Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 Alpha Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Gheysens, Olivier; Chen, Ian Y.; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin; Chan, Carmel; Rasooly, Julia; Vaerenberg, Caroline; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Willmann, Juergen K.; Deroose, Christophe; Wu, Joseph; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We tested a novel imaging strategy, in which both the survival of transplanted myoblasts and their therapeutic transgene expression, a recombinant hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?-VP2), can be monitored using firefly luciferase (fluc) and Renilla luciferase (hrl) bioluminescence reporter genes, respectively. Procedures The plasmid pUbi-hrl-pUbi-HIF-1?-VP2, which expresses both hrl and HIF-1?-VP2 using two ubiquitin promoters, was characterized in vitro. C2c12 myoblasts stably expressing fluc and transiently transfected with pUbi-hrl-pUbi-HIF-1?-VP2 were injected into the mouse hindlimb. Both hrl and fluc expression were monitored using bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Results Strong correlations existed between the expression of hRL and each of HIF-1?-VP2, VEGF, and PlGF (r2>0.83, r2>0.82, and r2>0.97, respectively). In vivo, both transplanted cells and HIF-1?-VP2 transgene expression were successfully imaged using BLI. Conclusions An objective evaluation of myoblast-mediated gene transfer in living mice can be performed by monitoring both the survival and the transgene expression of transplanted myoblasts using the techniques developed herein. PMID:21267661

  20. Enhancing immune responses to inactivated porcine parvovirus oil emulsion vaccine by co-inoculating porcine transfer factor in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-ning; Wang, Ya-bin; Geng, Jing-wei; Guo, Dong-hui; Liu, Fang; Chen, Hong-ying; Zhang, Hong-ying; Cui, Bao-an; Wei, Zhan-yong

    2012-07-27

    Inactivated porcine parvovirus (PPV) vaccines are available commercially and widely used in the breeding herds. However, inactivated PPV vaccines have deficiencies in induction of specific cellular immune response. Transfer factor (TF) is a material that obtained from the leukocytes, and is a novel immune-stimulatory reagent that as a modulator of the immune system. In this study, the immunogenicity of PPV oil emulsion vaccine and the immuno-regulatory activities of TF were investigated. The inactivated PPV oil emulsion vaccines with or without TF were inoculated into BALB/c mice by subcutaneous injection. Then humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses (FACS). The results showed that the PPV specific immune responses could be evoked in mice by inoculating with PPV oil emulsion vaccine alone or by co-inoculation with TF. The cellular immune response levels in the co-inoculation groups were higher than those groups receiving the PPV oil emulsion vaccine alone, with the phenomena of higher level of IFN-γ, a little IL-6 and a trace of IL-4 in serum, and a vigorous T-cell response. However, there was no significant difference in antibody titers between TF synergy inactivated vaccine and the inactivated vaccine group (P>0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that TF possess better cellular immune-enhancing capability and would be exploited into an effective immune-adjuvant for inactivated vaccines. PMID:22705080

  1. BASELINE PARAMETER UPDATE FOR HUMAN HEALTH INPUT AND TRANSFER FACTORS FOR RADIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Coffield, T; Patricia Lee, P

    2007-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to update parameters utilized in Human Health Exposure calculations and Bioaccumulation Transfer Factors utilized at SRS for Performance Assessment modeling. The reason for the update is to utilize more recent information issued, validate information currently used and correct minor inconsistencies between modeling efforts performed in SRS contiguous areas of the heavy industrialized central site usage areas called the General Separations Area (GSA). SRS parameters utilized were compared to a number of other DOE facilities and generic national/global references to establish relevance of the parameters selected and/or verify the regional differences of the southeast USA. The parameters selected were specifically chosen to be expected values along with identifying a range for these values versus the overly conservative specification of parameters for estimating an annual dose to the maximum exposed individual (MEI). The end uses are to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data and maintain it via review of any future issued national references to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released. These reviews are to be added to this document by revision.

  2. Development of a Cell-Based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Reporter for Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, R H; Steenblock, E R; Camarero, J A

    2007-03-22

    We report the construction of a cell-based fluorescent reporter for anthrax lethal factor (LF) protease activity using the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). This was accomplished by engineering an Escherichia coli cell line to express a genetically encoded FRET reporter and LF protease. Both proteins were encoded in two different expression plasmids under the control of different tightly controlled inducible promoters. The FRET-based reporter was designed to contain a LF recognition sequence flanked by the FRET pair formed by CyPet and YPet fluorescent proteins. The length of the linker between both fluorescent proteins was optimized using a flexible peptide linker containing several Gly-Gly-Ser repeats. Our results indicate that this FRET-based LF reporter was readily expressed in E. coli cells showing high levels of FRET in vivo in the absence of LF. The FRET signal, however, decreased 5 times after inducing LF expression in the same cell. These results suggest that this cell-based LF FRET reporter may be used to screen genetically encoded libraries in vivo against LF.

  3. Developing Structural Equation Models To Determine Factors Contributing to Student Graduation and Retention: Are There Differences for Native Students and Transfers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Hong; Hughes, William W.; O'Rear, Michael R.; Fendley, William R., Jr.

    Studies have provided conflicting findings on who is more likely to graduate or to persist in higher education. This study examined differences between native students and transfer students in terms of graduation and retention rates, sought to discover factors that impact students' persistence in higher education, such as a student's first-term…

  4. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of forced circulation solar water heater system fitted with helical twisted tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Jaisankar, S.; Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N.

    2009-11-15

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance of twisted tape solar water heater with various twist ratios has been conducted and the results are compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions with Reynolds number varied from 3000 to 23,000. Experimental data from plain tube collector is validated with the fundamental equations and found that the discrepancy is less than {+-}5.35% and {+-}8.80% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Correlations have been developed for Nusselt number and friction factor with various twist ratios (Y = 3, 4, 5, 6) and are compared with the experimental values. Results conclude that, heat transfer and pressure drop are higher in twisted tape collector compared to the plain one. Among the various twist ratios, the minimum twist ratio 3 is found to enhance the heat transfer and pressure drop due to swirl generation. As the twist ratio increases, the swirl generation decreases and minimizes the heat transfer and friction factor. (author)

  5. Stem Cell Factor Gene Transfer Promotes Cardiac Repair After Myocardial Infarction via In Situ Recruitment and Expansion of c-kit+ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yaniz-Galende, Elisa; Chen, Jiqiu; Chemaly, Elie; Liang, Lifan; Hulot, Jean-Sebastien; McCollum, LaTronya; Arias, Teresa; Fuster, Valentin; Zsebo, Krisztina M.; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale There is growing evidence that the myocardium responds to injury by recruiting c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells to the damage tissue. Even though the ability of exogenously introducing c-kit+ cells to injured myocardium has been established, the capability of recruiting these cells through modulation of local signaling pathways by gene transfer has not been tested. Objective To determine whether stem cell factor gene transfer mediates cardiac regeneration in a rat myocardial infarction model, through survival and recruitment of c-kit+ progenitors and cell-cycle activation in cardiomyocytes, and explore the mechanisms involved. Methods and Results Infarct size, cardiac function, cardiac progenitor cells recruitment, fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte cell-cycle activation were measured at different time points in controls (n=10) and upon stem cell factor gene transfer (n=13) after myocardial infarction. We found a regenerative response because of stem cell factor overexpression characterized by an enhancement in cardiac hemodynamic function: an improvement in survival; a reduction in fibrosis, infarct size and apoptosis; an increase in cardiac c-kit+ progenitor cells recruitment to the injured area; an increase in cardiomyocyte cell-cycle activation; and Wnt/β-catenin pathway induction. Conclusions Stem cell factor gene transfer induces c-kit+ stem/progenitor cell expansion in situ and cardiomyocyte proliferation, which may represent a new therapeutic strategy to reverse adverse remodeling after myocardial infarction. PMID:22931954

  6. Factors That Affect Transfer of the IncI1 β-Lactam Resistance Plasmid pESBL-283 between E. coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Händel, Nadine; Otte, Sarah; Jonker, Martijs; Brul, Stanley; ter Kuile, Benno H.

    2015-01-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria worldwide presents a major health threat to human health care that results in therapy failure and increasing costs. The transfer of resistance conferring plasmids by conjugation is a major route by which resistance genes disseminate at the intra- and interspecies level. High similarities between resistance genes identified in foodborne and hospital-acquired pathogens suggest transmission of resistance conferring and transferrable mobile elements through the food chain, either as part of intact strains, or through transfer of plasmids from foodborne to human strains. To study the factors that affect the rate of plasmid transfer, the transmission of an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) plasmid from a foodborne Escherichia coli strain to the β-lactam sensitive E. coli MG1655 strain was documented as a function of simulated environmental factors. The foodborne E. coli isolate used as donor carried a CTX-M-1 harboring IncI1 plasmid that confers resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Cell density, energy availability and growth rate were identified as factors that affect plasmid transfer efficiency. Transfer rates were highest in the absence of the antibiotic, with almost every acceptor cell picking up the plasmid. Raising the antibiotic concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) resulted in reduced transfer rates, but also selected for the plasmid carrying donor and recombinant strains. Based on the mutational pattern of transconjugant cells, a common mechanism is proposed which compensates for fitness costs due to plasmid carriage by reducing other cell functions. Reducing potential fitness costs due to maintenance and expression of the plasmid could contribute to persistence of resistance genes in the environment even without antibiotic pressure. Taken together, the results identify factors that drive the spread and persistence of resistance conferring plasmids in natural isolates and shows how these can contribute to transmission of resistance genes through the food chain. PMID:25830294

  7. Factors that affect transfer of the IncI1 β-lactam resistance plasmid pESBL-283 between E. coli strains.

    PubMed

    Händel, Nadine; Otte, Sarah; Jonker, Martijs; Brul, Stanley; ter Kuile, Benno H

    2015-01-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria worldwide presents a major health threat to human health care that results in therapy failure and increasing costs. The transfer of resistance conferring plasmids by conjugation is a major route by which resistance genes disseminate at the intra- and interspecies level. High similarities between resistance genes identified in foodborne and hospital-acquired pathogens suggest transmission of resistance conferring and transferrable mobile elements through the food chain, either as part of intact strains, or through transfer of plasmids from foodborne to human strains. To study the factors that affect the rate of plasmid transfer, the transmission of an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) plasmid from a foodborne Escherichia coli strain to the β-lactam sensitive E. coli MG1655 strain was documented as a function of simulated environmental factors. The foodborne E. coli isolate used as donor carried a CTX-M-1 harboring IncI1 plasmid that confers resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Cell density, energy availability and growth rate were identified as factors that affect plasmid transfer efficiency. Transfer rates were highest in the absence of the antibiotic, with almost every acceptor cell picking up the plasmid. Raising the antibiotic concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) resulted in reduced transfer rates, but also selected for the plasmid carrying donor and recombinant strains. Based on the mutational pattern of transconjugant cells, a common mechanism is proposed which compensates for fitness costs due to plasmid carriage by reducing other cell functions. Reducing potential fitness costs due to maintenance and expression of the plasmid could contribute to persistence of resistance genes in the environment even without antibiotic pressure. Taken together, the results identify factors that drive the spread and persistence of resistance conferring plasmids in natural isolates and shows how these can contribute to transmission of resistance genes through the food chain. PMID:25830294

  8. Deuterium fractionation factor for unhydrated hydronium ion: deuterium isotope effects on proton-transfer equilibria in acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, J.L.; Myers, M.T.; Ratcliff, K.M.

    1984-09-19

    Spectrophotometric measurements of pK/sub a/ (dissociation constants) values for three N,N-dimethylanilinium ion indicators have been made in CH/sub 3/CN-H/sub 2/O and CH/sub 3/CN-D/sub 2/O solvent mixtures throughout the range of water content from a mole fraction of 1.00 down to a mole fraction of 3 x 10/sup -4/. The three indicator bases were N,N-dimethyl-p-nitroaniline, N,N-dimethyl-3,5-dinitro-4-toluidine, and 4-chloro-N,N-dimethyl-2,6-dinitroaniline. The observed H/sub 2/O/D/sub 2/O isotope effects on the pK/sub a/ values allow estimation of the value of l/sub 1/, the deuterium fractionation factor relative to L/sub 2/O for unhydrated L/sub 3/O/sup +/ (where L = H or D) in CH/sub 3/CN; that value is near 0.79. (Compare l = 0.69 for L/sub 3/O/sup +/ in L/sub 2/O.) This observation implies that if, as has commonly been assumed, the low value of l in liquid L/sub 2/O results from strong hydrogen bonding of L/sub 3/O/sup +/ to three L/sub 2/O molecules, then hydrogen bonding of L/sub 3/O/sup +/ to CH/sub 3/CN molecules in liquid CH/sub 3/CN is almost as effective in weakening the force field experienced by the three fractionated L's in L/sub 3/O/sup +/ as is hydrogen bonding to L/sub 2/O molecules in liquid L/sub 2/O. The observation that l/sub 1/ is significantly less than 1.0 also supports the contention that the absence of an H/sub 2/O/D/sub 2/O kinetic isotope effect on methyl transfer to L/sub 2/O in CH/sub 3/CN implies that no significant L/sub 2/O-CH/sub 3/ bond is present in the transition state and thus that the activation process for those methyl transfers is predominantly a fluctuation in solvent polarization. 31 references, 3 figures.

  9. In-Hospital Mortality among Rural Medicare Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: The Influence of Demographics, Transfer, and Health Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muus, Kyle J.; Knudson, Alana D.; Klug, Marilyn G.; Wynne, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Context/Purpose: Most rural hospitals can provide medical care to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, but a need for advanced cardiac care requires timely transfer to a tertiary hospital. There is little information on AMI in-hospital mortality predictors among rural transfer patients. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective analyses on

  10. In-Hospital Mortality among Rural Medicare Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: The Influence of Demographics, Transfer, and Health Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muus, Kyle J.; Knudson, Alana D.; Klug, Marilyn G.; Wynne, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Context/Purpose: Most rural hospitals can provide medical care to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, but a need for advanced cardiac care requires timely transfer to a tertiary hospital. There is little information on AMI in-hospital mortality predictors among rural transfer patients. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective analyses on…

  11. Numerical investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in a circular tube fitted with V-cut twisted tape inserts.

    PubMed

    Salman, Sami D; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Takriff, Mohd S; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5 cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration. PMID:24078795

  12. Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Characteristics in a Circular Tube Fitted with V-Cut Twisted Tape Inserts

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5 cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration. PMID:24078795

  13. Expression of human factor IX in rabbit hepatocytes by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer: Potential for gene therapy of hemophilia B

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.R. Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA ); Darlington, G. ); Armentano, D.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1990-08-01

    Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. The authors report the construction of an N2-based recombinant retroviral vector, NCMVFIX, for efficient transfer and expression of human factor IX cDNA in primary rabbit hepatocytes. In this construct the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter directs the expression of factor IX. Hepatocytes were isolated from 3-week-old New Zealand White rabbits, infected with the recombinant virus, and analyzed for secretion of active factor IX. The infected rabbit hepatocytes produced human factor IX that is indistinguishable from enzyme derived from normal human plasma. The recombinant protein is sufficiently {gamma}-carboxylated and is functionally active in clotting assays. These results establish the feasibility of using infected hepatocytes for the expression of this protein and are a step toward the goal of correcting hemophilia B by hepatic gene transfer.

  14. Differential increase in forebrain and caudal neurosecretory system corticotropin-releasing factor and urotensin I gene expression associated with seawater transfer in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Craig, Paul M; Al-Timimi, Haider; Bernier, Nicholas J

    2005-09-01

    Transfer to seawater (SW) in rainbow trout elicits an increase in plasma cortisol and a bout of anorexia. Although the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system has known hypophysiotropic and anorexigenic properties, it is not known whether CRF-related peptides originating from either the forebrain or the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) play a role during SW acclimation. Therefore, we examined the effects of SW transfer on food intake, plasma osmolality, hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis activity, and the expression of CRF and urotensin I (UI) in the forebrain and the CNSS. While SW transfer chronically suppressed food intake over a 2-wk period, it transiently increased plasma osmolality, ACTH, and cortisol. Similarly, 24 h after SW transfer, hypothalamic and preoptic area CRF mRNA levels were significantly increased but recovered to pretransfer levels within 7 d. Conversely, SW transfer elicited a delayed increase in hypothalamic UI mRNA levels and had no effect on preoptic area UI expression. In the CNSS, SW exposure was associated with parallel increases in CRF and UI mRNA levels from 24 h post transfer through 7 d. Finally, in situ hybridization demonstrated an extensive and overlapping pattern of CNSS CRF and UI expression. These results differentially implicate specific neuronal populations of the CRF system in the acute and chronic responses to a hyperosmotic stress and suggest that forebrain and CNSS CRF-related peptides have different roles in the coordinated response to fluid balance disturbances. PMID:15961564

  15. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  16. Lung Transfer Factor in Middle Aged Asymptomatic Male Smokers of a City from West India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gadhavi, Bhakti P.; Mehta, Hemant B.; Shah, Chinmay J.; Gokhale, Pradnya A.; Makwana, Amit H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is an increasingly popular indulgence in India. Assessment by routine spirometry falls short of direct functional parameter like Diffusion Lung Capacity (DLC), also known as lung transfer factor (LTF). Aim To measure LTF amongst middle aged male smokers and to study various correlates for it. Materials and Methods Total of 45 asymptomatic male current smokers were enrolled for this cross-sectional study conducted at pulmonary function testing lab of Physiology Department of our college. Smoking history was evaluated and smoking index was defined by product of number smoked per day and years smoked. We used instrument Ultima PFX of Medgraphic Company. After pre syringe calibration LTF was measured by Methane mixture using protocols of ATS. Parameters measured were Dlco-uncorrected, corrected and normalized to VA (alveolar volume). Results were compared for statistical significance and significance was set as p <0.05. Results In case group of 45(25 bidi and 20 cigarette smokers) mean age was 30 years, mean duration was 8 years, mean smoking index was 60. We found small insignificant decline in actual LTF values than predicted which was not significantly different between bidi and cigarette smokers. Duration, age and intensity of smoking were negatively and significantly correlated with LTF value while anthropometric parameters were not. Conclusion Smoking adversely affects LTF in young asymptomatic current male smoker that further declines with severity of smoking and with duration regardless of type of smoking. With years to come, these alterations can largely be prevented by smoking cessation, at least theoretically. PMID:27134864

  17. Transfer factor of (90)Sr and (137)Cs to lettuce and winter wheat at different growth stage applications.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul

    2015-12-01

    The effect of clay soil contamination time on the transfer factors (Fvs) of (137)Cs and (90)Sr was investigated in four different growth stages of winter wheat and lettuce crops. The experiment was performed in an open field using lysimeters. The Fvs were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg(-1)). Significant difference of log-Fvs was evaluated using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Basically, Fvs of (90)Sr were higher than those of (137)Cs, despite of the application stage or crop' variety. Higher Fvs for both radionuclides were observed for lettuce in comparison to winter wheat. Fvs of (90)Sr showed comparable trends for both crops with enhanced Fvs obtained when contamination occurred in early stages, i.e. 1.20 for lettuce and 0.88 and 0.02 for winter wheat, straw and grains, respectively. Despite the fluctuation noted in the pattern of Fvs for (137)Cs, soil contaminated at the second stage gave the highest Fvs for lettuce and grains, with geometric means of 0.21 and 0.01, respectively. However, wheat-straw showed remarkable increase in Fv for the latest contamination (ripening stage), about 0.06. It could be concluded that soil contamination at early growth stages would represent high radiological risk for the scenarios studied with an exception to (137)Cs in winter wheat-straw which reflected greater hazard at the latest application. PMID:26318772

  18. (137)Cs inter-plant concentration ratios provide a predictive tool for coral atolls with distinct benefits over transfer factors.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F; Bogen, Kenneth T; Conrado, Cynthia L; Kehl, Steven R

    2008-01-01

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR) [Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in coral atoll tree food crops/Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume] can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict (137)Cs concentration in tree food crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact that tree roots naturally integrate (137)Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of (137)Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in (137)Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log-normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD)=1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSDs of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD=1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10-20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples. PMID:17904254

  19. Robotic technology evolution and transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.

    1992-01-01

    A report concerning technology transfer in the area of robotics is presented in vugraph form. The following topics are discussed: definition of technology innovation and tech-transfer; concepts relevant for understanding tech-transfer; models advanced to portray tech-transfer process; factors identified as promoting tech-transfer; factors identified as impeding tech-transfer; what important roles do individuals fulfill in tech-transfer; federal infrastructure for promoting tech-transfer; federal infrastructure for promoting tech-transfer; robotic technology evolution; robotic technology transferred; and recommendations for successful robotics tech-transfer.

  20. A compilation of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways and the suggested default values for the RESRAD code

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.Y.; Biwer, B.M.; Yu, C.

    1993-08-01

    The ongoing development and revision of the RESRAD computer code at Argonne National Laboratory requires update of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways. Default values for these transfer factors used in published radiological assessment reports are compiled and compared with values used in RESRAD. The differences among the reported default values used in different radiological assessment codes and reports are also discussed. In data comparisons, values used in more recent reports are given more weight because more recent experimental work tends to be conducted under better-defined laboratory or field conditions. A new default value is suggested for RESRAD if one of the following conditions is met: (1) values used in recent reports are an order of magnitude higher or lower than the default value currently used in RESRAD, or (2) the same default value is used in several recent radiological assessment reports.

  1. Accumulation of cesium and radiocesium in forest litter in selected regions of Poland and its influence on litter-to-mushroom transfer factor.

    PubMed

    Zagrodzki, P; Mietelski, J W; Kro?niak, M; Petelenz, B

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to check whether the stable cesium content in forest litter affects the value of radiocesium from litter-to-mushroom transfer factor Tf or not. Total cesium in litter, measured by AAS, varied from 0.1-2.7 micrograms/g. These data, combined with earlier results for mushrooms, showed no simple correlation for Tf. More complex relationships provided very high correlation coefficients, but their validity needs further investigation. PMID:7710837

  2. Estimate Radiological Dose for Animals

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-12-18

    Estimate Radiological dose for animals in ecological environment using open literature values for parameters such as body weight, plant and soil ingestion rate, rad. halflife, absorbed energy, biological halflife, gamma energy per decay, soil-to-plant transfer factor, ...etc

  3. A Measurement of the neutron electric form factor at very large momentum transfer using polaried electrions scattering from a polarized helium-3 target

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, Aidan

    2010-10-01

    Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. Of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q{sup 2} and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized {sup 3}He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. G{sup n}{sub E} was measured to be 0.0242 ± 0.0020(stat) ± 0.0061(sys) and 0.0247 ± 0.0029(stat) ± 0.0031(sys) at Q{sup 2} = 1.7 and 2.5 GeV{sup 2}, respectively.

  4. Hispanic Student Success: Factors Influencing the Persistence and Transfer Decisions of Latino Community College Students Enrolled in Developmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Gloria; Nora, Amaury

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a set of theoretically-derived predictor variables on the persistence and transfer of Hispanic community college students. Early models of student persistence have been validated primarily among 4-year college students. While the constructs have been well-established, the relationships of those relevant factors…

  5. Examining Factors Affecting Beginning Teachers' Transfer of Learning of ICT-Enhanced Learning Activities in Their Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agyei, Douglas D.; Voogt, Joke

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers' transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by "learning technology by collaborative design" in their final year of…

  6. Bacteroides fragilis Transfer Factor Tn5520: the Smallest Bacterial Mobilizable Transposon Containing Single Integrase and Mobilization Genes That Function in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Vedantam, Gayatri; Novicki, Thomas J.; Hecht, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Many bacterial genera, including Bacteroides spp., harbor mobilizable transposons, a class of transfer factors that carry genes for conjugal DNA transfer and, in some cases, antibiotic resistance. Mobilizable transposons are capable of inserting into and mobilizing other, nontransferable plasmids and are implicated in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. This paper presents the isolation and characterization of Tn5520, a new mobilizable transposon from Bacteroides fragilis LV23. At 4,692 bp, it is the smallest mobilizable transposon reported from any bacterial genus. Tn5520 was captured from B. fragilis LV23 by using the transfer-deficient shuttle vector pGAT400ΔBglII. The termini of Tn5520 contain a 22-bp imperfect inverted repeat, and transposition does not result in a target site repeat. Tn5520 also demonstrates insertion site sequence preferences characterized by A-T-rich nucleotide sequences. Tn5520 has been sequenced in its entirety, and two large open reading frames whose predicted protein products exhibit strong sequence similarity to recombinase-integrase enzymes and mobilization proteins, respectively, have been identified. The transfer, mobilization, and transposition properties of Tn5520 have been studied, revealing that Tn5520 mobilizes plasmids in both B. fragilis and Escherichia coli at high frequency and also transposes in E. coli. PMID:10198023

  7. Deletion map of the Escherichia coli K-12 sex factor F: the order of eleven transfer cistrons.

    PubMed

    Ippen-Ihler, K; Achtman, M; Willetts, N

    1972-06-01

    A series of Hfr deletion mutants was isolated. These mutants contain deletions which extend from a lambda prophage into an Flac which is integrated into the gal operon. Transfer-deficient deletion mutants were found to fall into four different phenotypic groups when tested for male- and female-specific phage resistance. Conjugational and transductional complementation tests with Flac point mutants deficient in transfer (tra(-)) were performed, and the order of 11 tra cistrons was determined. The tra genes are all located between an F gene for the inhibition of female-specific phages and the transposed lac operon originally carried by the Flac. The order of genes in the Hfr studied was established to be: proC... phi(II) (R)... traJ traA traE traK traB traC traF traH traG traD traI...lac...attlambda...bio. PMID:4555414

  8. Heat and Mass Transfer in a Reforming Catalyst Bed: Quantitative Evaluation of the Controlling Factor by Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usami, Yutaka; Fukusako, Shoichiro; Yamada, Masahiko

    Heat and mass transfer characteristics in a reforming catalyst bed have been experimentally investigated. Experiments were carried out with a single bench-scaled reforming tube which was filled with reforming catalyst. The tube wall was uniformly heated, and mixtures of steam and methane or propane were reformed through the catalyst bed. Most part of the reaction was completed in the upper part of the test tube. The effects of space velocity, which is a ratio of volumetric flow rate of process gas to the catalyst volume, steam carbon molar ratio, wall temperature, bed temperature, and catalyst particle diameter on the transport phenomena with chemical reaction, were determined. A correlation to heat transfer coefficient was determined by Nu, Rep, Pr, dp/d, and Da. The prediction of the overall methane conversion rate was also presented.

  9. Exploring the Contextual Factors Related to Transfer of Learning in a High School Implementation of the eMINTS Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lorie F.

    2011-01-01

    Truly impacting teacher practices is a challenge for educational professional development (PD) providers. Typically, little attention is paid to the factors within the environment to which the educators return and how those factors will impact participants' ability to integrate what they have learned into their teaching practices. Even for…

  10. Theories Supporting Transfer of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews theories about factors affecting the transfer of training, including theories on motivation (expectancy, equity, goal setting), training transfer design (identical elements, principle, near and far), and transfer climate (organizational). (Contains 36 references.) (SK)

  11. Experimental determination of average turbulent heat transfer and friction factor in stator internal rib-roughened cooling channels.

    PubMed

    Battisti, L; Baggio, P

    2001-05-01

    In gas turbine cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to the hot stream are based on the increase of the inner heat transfer areas and on the promotion of the turbulence of the cooling flow. This is currently obtained by casting periodic ribs on one or more sides of the serpentine passages into the core of the blade. Fluid dynamic and thermal behaviour of the cooling flow have been extensively investigated by means of experimental facilities and many papers dealing with this subject have appeared in the latest years. The evaluation of the average value of the heat transfer coefficient most of the time is inferred from local measurements obtained by various experimental techniques. Moreover the great majority of these studies are not concerned with the overall average heat transfer coefficient for the combined ribs and region between them, but do focus just on one of them. This paper presents an attempt to collect information about the average Nusselt number inside a straight ribbed duct. Series of measurements have been performed in steady state eliminating the error sources inherently connected with transient methods. A low speed wind tunnel, operating in steady state flow, has been built to simulate the actual flow condition occurring in a rectilinear blade cooling channel. A straight square channel with 20 transverse ribs on two sides has been tested for Re of about 3 x 10(4), 4.5 x 10(4) and 6 x 10(4). The ribbed wall test section is electrically heated and the heat removed by a stationary flow of known thermal and fluid dynamic characteristics. PMID:11460662

  12. DYW-type PPR proteins in a heterolobosean protist: plant RNA editing factors involved in an ancient horizontal gene transfer?

    PubMed

    Knoop, Volker; Rüdinger, Mareike

    2010-10-22

    A particular type of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins with variable length of the 35 aa PPR motifs and conserved carboxyterminal extensions, named the PLS proteins, was so far exclusively identified in land plants. Several PLS proteins with such domain extensions (E, E+, DYW) were shown to be involved in plant organellar RNA editing but their evolutionary origin had remained enigmatic. We here report the first case of DYW-type PLS proteins outside of the plant kingdom in the protist Naegleria gruberi and hypothesize on horizontal gene transfer in very early land plant evolution. PMID:20888816

  13. Factors Determining the Efficiency of Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer: Data Analysis with Over 200,000 Reconstructed Embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianbin; Dou, Hongwei; Xiang, Xi; Li, Lin; Li, Yong; Lin, Lin; Pang, Xinzhi; Zhang, Yijie; Chen, Yu; Luan, Jing; Xu, Ying; Yang, Zhenzhen; Yang, Wenxian; Liu, Huan; Li, Feida; Wang, Hui; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Vajta, Gabor; Du, Yutao

    2015-12-01

    Data analysis in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research is usually limited to several hundreds or thousands of reconstructed embryos. Here, we report mass results obtained with an established and consistent porcine SCNT system (handmade cloning [HMC]). During the experimental period, 228,230 reconstructed embryos and 82,969 blastocysts were produced. After being transferred into 656 recipients, 1070 piglets were obtained. First, the effects of different types of donor cells, including fetal fibroblasts (FFs), adult fibroblasts (AFs), adult preadipocytes (APs), and adult blood mesenchymal (BM) cells, were investigated on the further in vitro and in vivo development. Compared to adult donor cells (AFs, APs, BM cells, respectively), FF cells resulted in a lower blastocyst/reconstructed embryo rate (30.38% vs. 37.94%, 34.65%, and 34.87%, respectively), but a higher overall efficiency on the number of piglets born alive per total blastocysts transferred (1.50% vs. 0.86%, 1.03%, and 0.91%, respectively) and a lower rate of developmental abnormalities (10.87% vs. 56.57%, 24.39%, and 51.85%, respectively). Second, recloning was performed with cloned adult fibroblasts (CAFs) and cloned fetal fibroblasts (CFFs). When CAFs were used as the nuclear donor, fewer developmental abnormalities and higher overall efficiency were observed compared to AFs (56.57% vs. 28.13% and 0.86% vs. 1.59%, respectively). However, CFFs had an opposite effect on these parameters when compared with CAFs (94.12% vs. 10.87% and 0.31% vs. 1.50%, respectively). Third, effects of genetic modification on the efficiency of SCNT were investigated with transgenic fetal fibroblasts (TFFs) and gene knockout fetal fibroblasts (KOFFs). Genetic modification of FFs increased developmental abnormalities (38.96% and 25.24% vs. 10.87% for KOFFs, TFFs, and FFs, respectively). KOFFs resulted in lower overall efficiency compared to TFFs and FFs (0.68% vs. 1.62% and 1.50%, respectively). In conclusion, this is the first report of large-scale analysis of porcine cell nuclear transfer that provides important data for potential industrialization of HMC technology. PMID:26655078

  14. Technology Transfer Issues and a New Technology Transfer Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hee Jun

    2009-01-01

    The following are major issues that should be considered for efficient and effective technology transfer: conceptions of technology, technological activity and transfer, communication channels, factors affecting transfer, and models of transfer. In particular, a well-developed model of technology transfer could be used as a framework for…

  15. Evolution of a Sigma Factor: An All-In-One of Gene Duplication, Horizontal Gene Transfer, Purifying Selection, and Promoter Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    López-Leal, Gamaliel; Cevallos, Miguel A.; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Sigma factors are an essential part of bacterial gene regulation and have been extensively studied as far as their molecular mechanisms and protein structure are concerned. However, their molecular evolution, especially for the alternative sigma factors, is poorly understood. Here, we analyze the evolutionary forces that have shaped the rpoH sigma factors within the alphaproteobacteria. We found that an ancient duplication gave rise to two major groups of rpoH sigma factors and that after this event horizontal gene transfer (HGT) occurred in rpoH1 group. We also noted that purifying selection has differentially affected distinct parts of the gene; singularly, the gene segment that encodes the region 4.2, which interacts with the −35 motif of the RpoH-dependent genes, has been under relaxed purifying selection. Furthermore, these two major groups are clearly differentiated from one another regarding their promoter selectivity, as rpoH1 is under the transcriptional control of σ70 and σ32, whereas rpoH2 is under the transcriptional control of σ24. Our results suggest a scenario in which HGT, gene loss, variable purifying selection and clear promoter specialization occurred after the ancestral duplication event. More generally, our study offers insights into the molecular evolution of alternative sigma factors and highlights the importance of analyzing not only the coding regions but also the promoter regions. PMID:27199915

  16. Quantifying data retention of perpendicular spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory chips using an effective thermal stability factor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Luc; Jan, Guenole; Le, Son; Wang, Po-Kang

    2015-04-01

    The thermal stability of perpendicular Spin-Transfer-Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM) devices is investigated at chip level. Experimental data are analyzed in the framework of the Néel-Brown model including distributions of the thermal stability factor Δ. We show that in the low error rate regime important for applications, the effect of distributions of Δ can be described by a single quantity, the effective thermal stability factor Δeff, which encompasses both the median and the standard deviation of the distributions. Data retention of memory chips can be assessed accurately by measuring Δeff as a function of device diameter and temperature. We apply this method to show that 54 nm devices based on our perpendicular STT-MRAM design meet our 10 year data retention target up to 120 °C.

  17. Quantifying data retention of perpendicular spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory chips using an effective thermal stability factor method

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Luc Jan, Guenole; Le, Son; Wang, Po-Kang

    2015-04-20

    The thermal stability of perpendicular Spin-Transfer-Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM) devices is investigated at chip level. Experimental data are analyzed in the framework of the Néel-Brown model including distributions of the thermal stability factor Δ. We show that in the low error rate regime important for applications, the effect of distributions of Δ can be described by a single quantity, the effective thermal stability factor Δ{sub eff}, which encompasses both the median and the standard deviation of the distributions. Data retention of memory chips can be assessed accurately by measuring Δ{sub eff} as a function of device diameter and temperature. We apply this method to show that 54 nm devices based on our perpendicular STT-MRAM design meet our 10 year data retention target up to 120 °C.

  18. Assessment of selenium food chain transfer and critical exposure factors for avian wildlife species: Need for site-specific data

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.J.; Brix, K.V.; Cothern, K.A.; Tear, L.M.; Cardwell, R.D.; Toll, J.E.; Fairbrother, A.

    1998-12-31

    Observations of selenium poisoning in Belews Lake, NC in the mid-1970s and Kesterson Reservoir, CA in the mid-1980s precipitated a large number of selenium studies. Numerous authors have evaluated the potential for selenium to cause ecologically significant effects via food chain transfer in aquatic ecosystems, especially wetlands. Additionally, bioaccumulation models have been proposed for estimating selenium concentrations in food chains and water that should not be exceeded in order to avoid reproductive effects in avian and aquatic species. The current national chronic ambient water quality criterion (WQC) for protection of aquatic life is 5 {micro}g/L. Scientists with the US Fish and Wildlife Service have recommended setting the ambient water quality criterion at 2 {micro}g/L for both aquatic and wildlife protection.

  19. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    SciTech Connect

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-06-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

  20. Transfer of Learning. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on transfer of training and human resources. "The Effect of Organizational Support, Management Support, and Peer Support on Transfer of Training" (Susan E. Cromwell, Judith A. Kolb) reports on a longitudinal study of work environment factors that affect transfer of training in a university supervisory skills…

  1. Transfer of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on transfer of learning. "Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in an Industrial Setting" (Reid A. Bates, Elwood F. Holton III, Dian L. Seyler) identified seven transfer climate variables that predicted performance and three interpersonal variables that predicted performance ratings. Results…

  2. The delay in transfer between the emergency department and the critical care unit for patients with an acute cardiac event--in hospital factors.

    PubMed

    Grech, C; Pannell, D; Smith-Sparrow, T

    2001-11-01

    The Lyell McEwin Health Service (LMHS) is a major public hospital located in the northern suburbs of Adelaide, a region where the death rate from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is higher than the expected death rate in the population. A retrospective case note study conducted at this hospital investigated the duration that patients with unstable angina pectoris (UA) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) spent in the emergency department (ED) before admission to the critical care unit (CCU) and the factors that contributed to delays of greater than 70 minutes. All patients admitted to the LMHS over an 18 month period with a discharge diagnosis related group (DRG) for AMI and UA were included in the study. A total of 667 case notes were examined; 403 of these cases met the inclusion criteria for the study. The mean duration between arrival in the ED and subsequent admission to the CCU was found to be 161 minutes. DRG was a major factor in the length of time spent in the ED. The mean duration for patients with AMI was 124 minutes, whilst for UA the duration was 190 minutes (difference = 66 minutes, p<0.001). Other factors that were significant were gender (females = mean duration 29 minutes > males, p=0.015), and mode of transport to the ED (arrival by ambulance mean duration 30 minutes < private transport, Recommendations arising from this study included that a system be established to enable the rapid assessment of all patients suspected of suffering AMI and UA, inclusive of their expeditious transfer to the CCU. In addition, a staff development programme was proposed to ensure medical and nursing staff became aware of a bias in this hospital toward transferring male patients in a shorter timeframe than females with the same DRG. PMID:11806510

  3. Factors determining specificity of signal transduction by G-protein-coupled receptors. Regulation of signal transfer from receptor to G-protein.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Kataoka, R; Dingus, J; Wilcox, M; Hildebrandt, J D; Lanier, S M

    1995-06-23

    Among subfamilies of G-protein-coupled receptors, agonists initiate several cell signaling events depending on the receptor subtype (R) and the type of G-protein (G) or effector molecule (E) expressed in a particular cell. Determinants of signaling specificity/efficiency may operate at the R-G interface, where events are influenced by cell architecture or accessory proteins found in the receptor's microenvironment. This issue was addressed by characterizing signal transfer from R to G following stable expression of the alpha 2A/D adrenergic receptor in two different membrane environments (NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and the pheochromocytoma cell line, PC-12). Receptor coupling to endogenous G-proteins in both cell types was eliminated by pertussis toxin pretreatment and R-G signal transfer restored by reconstitution of cell membranes with purified brain G-protein. Thus, the receptor has access to the same population of G-proteins in the two different environments. In this signal restoration assay, agonist-induced activation of G was 3-9-fold greater in PC-12 as compared with NIH-3T3 alpha 2-adrenergic receptor transfectants. The cell-specific differences in signal transfer were observed over a range of receptor densities or G-protein concentration. The augmented signal transfer in PC-12 versus NIH-3T3 transfectants occurred despite a 2-3-fold lower level of receptors existing in the R-G-coupled state (high affinity, guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate-sensitive agonist binding), suggesting the existence of other membrane factors that influence the nucleotide binding behavior of G-protein in the two cell types. Detergent extraction of PC-12 but not NIH-3T3 membranes yielded a heat-sensitive, macromolecular entity that increased 35S-labeled guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) binding to brain G-protein in a concentration-dependent manner. These data indicate that the transfer of signal from R to G is regulated by a cell type-specific, membrane-associated protein that enhances the agonist-induced activation of G. PMID:7797513

  4. Influence of smoking habits on change in carbon monoxide transfer factor over 10 years in middle aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A; Joyce, H; Hopper, L; Pride, N B

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emphysema is associated with a reduction in carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (TLCO/VA), but little is known about the evolution of changes in TLCO/VA in middle aged smokers at risk of developing chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS: TLCO/VA (single breath method) was measured on two occasions 10 years apart in 122 middle aged men. RESULTS: Initially TLCO/VA averaged 97% predicted in never smokers (n = 42, mean age 37.2 years), 99% predicted in ex-smokers (n = 21, mean age 41.9 years), and 85% predicted in those who smoked over 15 cigarettes a day (n = 42, mean age 42.0 years). Mean rates of decrease in TLCO/VA over 10 years, however, were similar in the three groups, so that differences between smokers and non-smokers did not increase during the 10 years. Seventeen men (mean age 40.9 years) who initially were smokers became sustained ex-smokers within two years of the first measurement; in these men mean absolute values of TLCO/VA rose, averaging 89% predicted at the first assessment but 102% predicted 10 years later. CONCLUSION: By the age of about 40 years TLCO/VA was lower in smokers than in never smokers but this difference did not increase over the following 10 years. Sustained ex-smokers had values similar to those of never smokers even when TLCO/VA was known to have been reduced while they were smoking. Changes in TLCO/VA associated with stopping smoking were considerably larger than could be explained by carbon monoxide back pressure, indicating that mechanisms other than irreversible increase in the size of terminal air spaces underlie the lower values in smokers. To detect emphysema in smokers it is necessary to use reference equations that take account of current smoking. PMID:8493623

  5. Friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in turbulated cooling passages of different aspect ratios. I - Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taslim, M. E.; Spring, S. D.

    1987-06-01

    In advanced turbine airfoil cooling designs where multiple-pass cooling circuits are used, a range of cooling passage aspect ratios (height/width) are encountered. The objective of this experimental investigation was to determine the effect that increasing aspect ratios have on friction factors and Nusselt numbers in internal cooling passages with rib-roughened (turbulated) surfaces. Aspect ratios ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 were tested over a Reynolds number range of 30,000 to 190,000. Each aspect ratio was tested at three different turbulator-height/hydraulic-diameter ratios and at a constant turbulator-height/pitch ratio of 0.10.

  6. Determination of nicotine in tobacco with second-order spectra data of charge-transfer complex in ethanol-water binary solvents processed by parallel factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shuqin; Liao, Lifu; Xiao, Xilin; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Du, Nan; Du, Jiangfeng

    2010-05-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of nicotine in mixtures without pre-separation has been proposed. Nicotine could react with 2,4-dinitrophenol through a charge-transfer reaction to form a colored complex. The second-order data from the visible absorption spectra of the complex in a series of ethanol-water binary solvents with various water volume fractions could be expressed as the combination of two bilinear data matrices. With the bilinear model, the second-order spectra data of mixtures containing nicotine and other interferents could be analysed by using second-order calibration algorithms, and the determination of nicotine in the mixtures could be achieved. The algorithm used here was parallel factor analysis. The method has been successfully used to determine nicotine in tobacco samples with satisfactory results.

  7. Risk factors for antibiotic-resistant infection and treatment outcomes among hospitalized patients transferred from long-term care facilities: does antimicrobial choice make a difference?

    PubMed

    Toubes, E; Singh, K; Yin, D; Lyu, R; Glick, N; Russell, L; Mohapatra, S; Saghal, N; Weinstein, R A; Trenholme, G

    2003-03-15

    A prospective observational study of 153 patients transferred from long-term care facilities and admitted to acute-care hospitals who had microbiologically confirmed infections was undertaken to determine the risk factors, outcomes, and resource use associated with isolation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB). Eighty patients (52%) were infected with ARB. In multivariable logistic analysis, the presence of a feeding tube (odds ratio, 3.0) or polymicrobial infection (odds ratio, 4.6) was associated with isolation of ARB. Forty-nine percent of patients infected with ARB received an initial antibiotic regimen to which their isolate was not susceptible. Fifty-one percent of all patients had a change in their antibiotic regimen during their hospital course. For these patients, length of stay, number of days of antibiotic therapy, and cost of hospitalization were significantly higher. However, neither infection with ARB nor appropriateness of initial treatment regimen was significantly related to outcome or resource use. PMID:12627356

  8. Protein Replacement Therapy and Gene Transfer in Canine Models of Hemophilia A, Hemophilia B, von Willebrand Disease, and Factor VII Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Timothy C.; Dillow, Aaron M.; Franck, Helen W.G.; Merricks, Elizabeth P.; Raymer, Robin A.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Arruda, Valder R.; High, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Dogs with hemophilia A, hemophilia B, von Willebrand disease (VWD), and factor VII deficiency faithfully recapitulate the severe bleeding phenotype that occurs in humans with these disorders. The first rational approach to diagnosing these bleeding disorders became possible with the development of reliable assays in the 1940s through research that used these dogs. For the next 60 years, treatment consisted of replacement of the associated missing or dysfunctional protein, first with plasma-derived products and subsequently with recombinant products. Research has consistently shown that replacement products that are safe and efficacious in these dogs prove to be safe and efficacious in humans. But these highly effective products require repeated administration and are limited in supply and expensive; in addition, plasma-derived products have transmitted bloodborne pathogens. Recombinant proteins have all but eliminated inadvertent transmission of bloodborne pathogens, but the other limitations persist. Thus, gene therapy is an attractive alternative strategy in these monogenic disorders and has been actively pursued since the early 1990s. To date, several modalities of gene transfer in canine hemophilia have proven to be safe, produced easily detectable levels of transgene products in plasma that have persisted for years in association with reduced bleeding, and correctly predicted the vector dose required in a human hemophilia B liver-based trial. Very recently, however, researchers have identified an immune response to adeno-associated viral gene transfer vector capsid proteins in a human liver-based trial that was not present in preclinical testing in rodents, dogs, or nonhuman primates. This article provides a review of the strengths and limitations of canine hemophilia, VWD, and factor VII deficiency models and of their historical and current role in the development of improved therapy for humans with these inherited bleeding disorders. PMID:19293459

  9. Substitution of hexon hypervariable region 5 of adenovirus serotype 5 abrogates blood factor binding and limits gene transfer to liver.

    PubMed

    Vigant, Frédéric; Descamps, Delphyne; Jullienne, Betsy; Esselin, Stéphanie; Connault, Elisabeth; Opolon, Paule; Tordjmann, Thierry; Vigne, Emmanuelle; Perricaudet, Michel; Benihoud, Karim

    2008-08-01

    Liver tropism potentially leading to massive hepatocyte transduction and hepatotoxicity still represents a major drawback to adenovirus (Ad)-based gene therapy. We previously demonstrated that substitution of the hexon hypervariable region 5 (HVR5), the most abundant capsid protein, constituted a valuable platform for efficient Ad retargeting. The use of different mouse strains revealed that HVR5 substitution also led to dramatically less adenovirus liver transduction and associated toxicity, whereas HVR5-modified Ad were still able to transduce different cell lines efficiently, including primary hepatocytes. We showed that HVR5 modification did not significantly change Ad blood clearance or liver uptake at early times. However, we were able to link the lower liver transduction to enhanced HVR5-modified Ad liver clearance and impaired use of blood factors. Most importantly, HVR5-modified vectors continued to transduce tumors in vivo as efficiently as their wild-type counterparts. Taken together, our data provide a rationale for future design of retargeted vectors with a safer profile. PMID:18560416

  10. Non-viral liposome-mediated transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ying; Wen, Chun-Yan; Li, Song-Tao; Xia, Zong-Xin

    2016-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the repair of central nervous system injury, but cannot directly traverse the blood-brain barrier. Liposomes are a new type of non-viral vector, able to carry macromolecules across the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Here, we investigate whether BDNF could be transported across the blood-brain barrier by tail-vein injection of liposomes conjugated to transferrin (Tf) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), and carrying BDNF modified with cytomegalovirus promoter (pCMV) or glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter (pGFAP) (Tf-pCMV-BDNF-PEG and Tf-pGFAP-BDNF-PEG, respectively). Both liposomes were able to traverse the blood-brain barrier, and BDNF was mainly expressed in the cerebral cortex. BDNF expression in the cerebral cortex was higher in the Tf-pGFAP-BDNF-PEG group than in the Tf-pCMV-BDNF-PEG group. This study demonstrates the successful construction of a non-virus targeted liposome, Tf-pGFAP-BDNF-PEG, which crosses the blood-brain barrier and is distributed in the cerebral cortex. Our work provides an experimental basis for BDNF-related targeted drug delivery in the brain. PMID:27212923

  11. Non-viral liposome-mediated transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor across the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Ying; Wen, Chun-yan; Li, Song-tao; Xia, Zong-xin

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the repair of central nervous system injury, but cannot directly traverse the blood-brain barrier. Liposomes are a new type of non-viral vector, able to carry macromolecules across the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Here, we investigate whether BDNF could be transported across the blood-brain barrier by tail-vein injection of liposomes conjugated to transferrin (Tf) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), and carrying BDNF modified with cytomegalovirus promoter (pCMV) or glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter (pGFAP) (Tf-pCMV-BDNF-PEG and Tf-pGFAP-BDNF-PEG, respectively). Both liposomes were able to traverse the blood-brain barrier, and BDNF was mainly expressed in the cerebral cortex. BDNF expression in the cerebral cortex was higher in the Tf-pGFAP-BDNF-PEG group than in the Tf-pCMV-BDNF-PEG group. This study demonstrates the successful construction of a non-virus targeted liposome, Tf-pGFAP-BDNF-PEG, which crosses the blood-brain barrier and is distributed in the cerebral cortex. Our work provides an experimental basis for BDNF-related targeted drug delivery in the brain. PMID:27212923

  12. Enhancement of innate immune system in monocot rice by transferring the dicotyledonous elongation factor Tu receptor EFR.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fen; Wang, Huiqin; Wang, Shanzhi; Jiang, Wendi; Shan, Changlin; Li, Bin; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Shiyong; Sun, Wenxian

    2015-07-01

    The elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) receptor (EFR) in cruciferous plants specifically recognizes the N-terminal acetylated elf18 region of bacterial EF-Tu and thereby activates plant immunity. It has been demonstrated that Arabidopsis EFR confers broad-spectrum bacterial resistance in the EFR transgenic solanaceous plants. Here, the transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Zhonghua 17) and cell cultures with constitutive expression of AtEFR were developed to investigate whether AtEFR senses EF-Tu and thus enhances bacterial resistance in the monocot plants. We demonstrated that the Xanthomonas oryzae-derived elf18 peptide induced oxidative burst and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the AtEFR transgenic rice cells and plants, respectively. Pathogenesis-related genes, such as OsPBZ1, were upregulated dramatically in transgenic rice plant and cell lines in response to elf18 stimulation. Importantly, pretreatment with elf18 triggered strong resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae in the transgenic plants, which was largely dependent on the AtEFR expression level. These plants also exhibited enhanced resistance to rice bacterial brown stripe, but not to rice fungal blast. Collectively, the results indicate that the rice plants with heterologous expression of AtEFR recognize bacterial EF-Tu and exhibit enhanced broad-spectrum bacterial disease resistance and that pattern recognition receptor-mediated immunity may be manipulated across the two plant classes, dicots and monocots. PMID:25358295

  13. Effect of K and bentonite additions on Cs-transfer to ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, H; Cremers, A; Smolders, E; Van Hees, M

    2005-01-01

    Bentonite amendments are generally ineffective in reducing the soil-to-plant radiocaesium transfer but have previously been shown that bentonites in the K-form having been subjected to wetting-drying cycles had pronounced radiocaesium binding capacities. We have investigated the effect of wetting-drying (WD) on Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) development in three K-bentonites and K-bentonite soil mixtures, using a variety of procedures: homogenisation of the bentonites with K through dialysis (K(B)), or partial transformation of the bentonite to the K-form in the presence of a solution of K2CO3 (K(L)) or in presence of solid K2CO3 (K(S)). Of the three strategies tested, addition of K2CO3 (solid) at a dose of 2 meq g(-1) clay and adding the K-bentonite mixtures to the soil resulted in the highest RIP increase after 20 WD cycles. The procedure giving the highest RIP yield is the most practical for further applications and was used in a pot experiment under greenhouse condition. When expressing the RIP increase of the soil-bentonite mixtures per unit bentonite added (RIP yield), 28- to 110-fold RIP increases were observed up to a value of approximately 60,000 meq kg(-1) (6 times higher than the RIP for illite). The beneficial effect following K-bentonite application was shown to be dependent both on a sorption enhancement effect (direct RIP effect) and fixation effects (indirect RIP effect). Greenhouse testing proved that the RIP effects observed in greenhouse could be predicted by making use of the sorption data from the laboratory tests. Optimum soil-amendment would be obtained with bentonites with high initial sorption RIP and a high sorption RIP increase when subjected to WD in the presence of potassium. Hypothised Transfer Factor (TF)-reductions of at least 10-fold could result when mixing approximately 1% bentonite, like Otay bentonite (RIP yield 99,000 meq kg(-1) after WD in presence of K if only fine particle size of <1mm considered) with the contaminated ploughing layer. PMID:15795037

  14. Dual gene transfer of fibroblast growth factor-2 and platelet derived growth factor-BB using plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid promotes effective angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in a rodent model of hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Erich V; Flores-Nascimento, Mariane Cristina; Arruda, Valder R; Garcia, Rosana A; Ramos, Celso D; Guillaumon, Ana T; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M

    2009-05-01

    The protein infusion of basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) have been shown to promote the formation of a stable and functional vascular network in small and large animal models of ischemia. Here, we sought to determine whether a similar effect could be obtained using a gene-therapy-based strategy with nonviral vectors. Rats underwent a surgical procedure to create hindlimb ischemia and were injected with a combination of plasmids that expressed FGF-2 and PDGF-BB. Anatomical and functional parameters of the angiogenesis and arteriogenesis response were evaluated after 4 weeks. The results were compared with rats injected with plasmids that expressed a reporter gene or the extensively studied vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) alone. Treatment with the FGF-2/PDGF-BB combination increased the angiogenesis and arteriogenesis response compared with the empty plasmid, and it was as effective as VEGF165. In terms of safety, the combination allowed the use of a 50% lower individual dose of each plasmid and in addition promoted the formation of more stable vessels than VEGF165. In conclusion, the dual gene transfer of FGF-2 and PDGF-BB using nonviral vectors is safe and effective in promoting the formation of a functional vascular network in a rodent model of hindlimb ischemia. PMID:19375684

  15. Transfer factors and effective half-lives of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in different environmental sample types obtained from Northern Finland: case Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Koivurova, Matias; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kallio, Antti

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima NPP accident caused a small but detectable cesium fallout in northern Finland, of the order of 1 Bq/m(2). This fallout transferred further to soil, water, flora and fauna. By using modern HPGe detector systems traces of (134)Cs from the Fukushima fallout were observed in various samples of biota. In northern Finland different types of environmental samples such as reindeer meat, berries, fish, lichens and wolf were collected during 2011-2013. The observed (134)Cs concentrations varied from 0.1 Bq/kg to a few Bq/kg. By using the known (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio observed in Fukushima fallout the increase of the Fukushima accident to the (137)Cs concentrations was found to vary from 0.06 % to 6.9 % depending on the sample type. The aggregated transfer factors (Tag) and effective half-lives (Teff) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also determined and then compared with known values found from earlier studies which are calculated based on the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Generally, the Tag and Teff values determined in this study were found to agree with the values found in the earlier studies. The Teff values were sample-type specific and were found to vary from 0.91 to 2.1 years for (134)Cs and the estimates for (137)Cs ranged between 1.6 and 19 years. Interestingly, the ground lichens had the longest Teff whereas the beard lichen had the shortest. In fauna, highest Tag values were determined for wolf meat ranging between 1.0 and 2.2 m(2)/kg. In flora, the highest Tag values were determined for beard lichens, ranging from 1.9 m(2)/kg to 3.5 m(2)/kg. PMID:25935505

  16. Circadian Regulation of Intestinal Lipid Absorption by Apolipoprotein AIV Involves Forkhead Transcription Factors A2 and O1 and Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyue; Munshi, Mohamed Khalid; Iqbal, Jahangir; Queiroz, Joyce; Sirwi, Alaa Ahmed; Shah, Shrenik; Younus, Abdullah; Hussain, M. Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    We have shown previously that Clock, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), and nocturnin are involved in the circadian regulation of intestinal lipid absorption. Here, we clarified the role of apolipoprotein AIV (apoAIV) in the diurnal regulation of plasma lipids and intestinal lipid absorption in mice. Plasma triglyceride in apoAIV−/− mice showed diurnal variations similar to apoAIV+/+ mice; however, the increases in plasma triglyceride at night were significantly lower in these mice. ApoAIV−/− mice absorbed fewer lipids at night and showed blunted response to daytime feeding. To explain reasons for these lower responses, we measured MTP expression; intestinal MTP was low at night, and its induction after food entrainment was less in apoAIV−/− mice. Conversely, apoAIV overexpression increased MTP mRNA in hepatoma cells, indicating transcriptional regulation. Mechanistic studies revealed that sequences between −204/−775 bp in the MTP promoter respond to apoAIV and that apoAIV enhances expression of FoxA2 and FoxO1 transcription factors and their binding to the identified cis elements in the MTP promoter at night. Knockdown of FoxA2 and FoxO1 abolished apoAIV-mediated MTP induction. Similarly, knockdown of apoAIV in differentiated Caco-2 cells reduced MTP, FoxA2, and FoxO1 mRNA levels, cellular MTP activity, and media apoB. Moreover, FoxA2 and FoxO1 expression showed diurnal variations, and their expression was significantly lower in apoAIV−/− mice. These data indicate that apoAIV modulates diurnal changes in lipid absorption by regulating forkhead transcription factors and MTP and that inhibition of apoAIV expression might reduce plasma lipids. PMID:23729668

  17. Transient blockade of the inducible costimulator pathway generates long-term tolerance to factor VIII after nonviral gene transfer into hemophilia A mice

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Baowei; Ye, Peiqing; Blazar, Bruce R.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Rawlings, David J.; Ochs, Hans D.

    2008-01-01

    Formation of inhibitory antibodies is a common problem encountered in clinical treatment for hemophilia. Human factor VIII (hFVIII) plasmid gene therapy in hemophilia A mice also leads to strong humoral responses. We demonstrate that short-term therapy with an anti-ICOS monoclonal antibody to transiently block the inducible costimulator/inducible costimulator ligand (ICOS/ICOSL) signaling pathway led to sustained tolerance to hFVIII in hFVIII plasmid–treated hemophilia A mice and allowed persistent, high-level FVIII functional activity (100%-300% of normal). Anti-ICOS treatment resulted in depletion of ICOS+CD4+ T cells and activation of CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs in the peripheral blood, spleen, and lymph nodes. CD4+ T cells from anti-ICOS–treated mice did not proliferate in response to hFVIII stimulation and produced high levels of regulatory cytokines, including interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β. Moreover, CD4+CD25+ Tregs from tolerized mice adoptively transferred dominant tolerance in syngeneic hFVIII plasmid-treated hemophilia A mice and reduced the production of antibodies against FVIII. Anti-ICOS–treated mice tolerized to hFVIII generated normal primary and secondary antibody responses after immunization with the T-dependent antigen, bacteriophage Φx 174, indicating maintenance of immune competency. Our data indicate that transient anti-ICOS monoclonal antibody treatment represents a novel single-agent immunomodulatory strategy to overcome the immune responses against transgene product after gene therapy. PMID:18574023

  18. Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q{sup 2}=3.5 GeV{sup 2} by polarization transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Punjabi, V.; Perdrisat, C.F.; Gerstner, G.; Pentchev, L.; Rutledge, G.; Strauch, S.; Wijesooriya, K.; Aniol, K.A.; Epstein, M.B.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Baker, F.T.; Templon, J.A.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Besson, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Jaminion, S.; Laveissiere, G.

    2005-05-01

    The ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub l}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic e{sup {yields}}p{yields}ep{sup {yields}}reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. In the single-photon exchange approximation, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} is directly proportional to P{sub t}/P{sub l}. The simultaneous measurement of P{sub t} and P{sub l} in a polarimeter reduces systematic uncertainties. The results for G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} show a systematic decrease with increasing Q{sup 2}, indicating for the first time a definite difference in the distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. The data have been reanalyzed and their systematic uncertainties have become significantly smaller than those reported previously.

  19. Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q{sup 2} = 3.5 GeV{sup 2} by polarization transfer

    SciTech Connect

    V. Punjabi; C.F. Perdrisat; et al

    2005-01-01

    The ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub E{sub p}}/G{sub M{sub p}}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic {rvec e}p {yields} e{rvec p} reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. In the single-photon exchange approximation, the ratio G{sub E{sub p}}/G{sub M{sub p}} is directly proportional to the ratio P{sub t}/P{sub {ell}}. The simultaneous measurement of P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}} in a polarimeter reduces systematic uncertainties. The results for the ratio G{sub E{sub p}}/G{sub M{sub p}} show a systematic decrease with increasing Q{sup 2}, indicating for the first time a definite difference in the distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. The data have been re-analyzed and systematic uncertainties have become significantly smaller than previously published results.

  20. Interferon-alpha and transfer factor in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. AUSTIMS Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The role of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and transfer factor (TF) in the treatment of multiple sclerosis was investigated in a prospective, multi-centric, three year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. One hundred and eighty two patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis were randomised into three treatment groups whose compositions were found to be similar for demographic and prognostic variables including HLA status. Subcutaneous injections of IFN-alpha (3 x 10(6) units), TF (0.5 units) manufactured from leucocytes of cohabiting donors, or placebo were given twice weekly for two months, once weekly for 10 months then fortnightly for 24 months. One hundred and fifty three patients completed the injection regimen. There was no significant difference in the progression of disability for multiple sclerosis patients in either the IFN-alpha or TF-treated groups compared with the placebo group. Similarly, change in visual evoked responses (VER), and in number of oligoclonal bands (OCB) and the level of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) over the trial period did not differ significantly between the three groups. However, the IFN-alpha-treated group had significantly more reported adverse drug reactions and patient withdrawals than either of the other two groups. PMID:2659737

  1. Exosomes mediate intercellular transfer of pro-fibrogenic connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) between hepatic stellate cells, the principal fibrotic cells in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Alyssa; Chen, Ruju; Chen, Li; Kemper, Sherri; Hattori, Takako; Takigawa, Masaharu; Brigstock, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibrogenic pathways in the liver are principally regulated by hepatic stellate cells (HSC) which produce and respond to fibrotic mediators such as connective tissue growth factor (CCN2). The aim of this study was to determine whether CCN2 is shuttled between HSC in membraneous nanovesicles, or “exosomes”. Methods Exosomes were incubated with HSC after isolation from conditioned medium of control or CCN2-GFP-transfected primary mouse HSC or human LX-2 HSC. Some exosomes were flourescently stained with PKH26. HSC co-culture experiments were performed in the presence of GW4869 exosome inhibitor. CCN2 or CCN2-GFP were evaluated by qRT-PCR or Western blot. Results HSC-derived exosomes contained CCN2 or CCN2 mRNA, each of which increased in concentration during HSC activation or after transfection of HSC with CCN2-GFP. Exosomes, stained with either PKH26 or purified from CCN2-GFP-transfected cells, were taken up by activated or quiescent HSC resulting in CCN2-GFP delivery, as shown by their direct addition to recipient cells or by the GW4869-dependency of donor HSC. Conclusions CCN2 is packaged into secreted nano-sized exosomes which mediate its intercellular transfer between HSC. Exosomal CCN2 may amplify or fine-tune fibrogenic signaling and may, in conjunction with other exosome constituents, have utility as a noninvasive biomarker to assess hepatic fibrosis. PMID:24882759

  2. Quantitative analysis of factors contributing to expansion of microvillous surface area in the coprodaeum of hens transferred to a low NaCl diet.

    PubMed Central

    Mayhew, T M; Elbrønd, V S; Dantzer, V; Skadhauge, E

    1992-01-01

    A stereological study of the lower intestine (coprodaeum) of the domestic hen was undertaken using combined light and electron microscopy. Numbers of columnar absorptive epithelial cells and the dimensions and numbers of microvilli were estimated. The aim was to identify the main factors contributing to an increase in microvillous surface area following transfer of hens from a high to a low NaCl diet on which they were kept for at least 3 wk. The principal contributor to observed changes between organs was cell number. Birds adapted to the low NaCl diet had 57% more cells than high NaCl controls. The average cell had a larger microvillous surface (55%) and this could be explained by the presence of longer (34%) and more densely packed (38%) microvilli. The total number of microvilli per coprodaeum doubled (from 35 x 10(9) on the high NaCl to 71 x 10(9) on the low NaCl diet). The increase in cell number accounted for 67% of the change in surface area and 78% of the change in number of microvilli per organ. These findings emphasise that, when assessing the form and function of a whole organ, it is important to monitor cell populations as well as single cells. This is especially true when studying renewing and expanding (rather than static) populations. PMID:1294571

  3. Membrane transfer of. cap alpha. -tocopherol: influence of soluble. cap alpha. -tocopherol-binding factors from the liver, lung, heart and brain of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.J.; Mavis, R.D.

    1981-10-25

    The pH of liver supernatant was lowered from 7.4 to 5.1, which removed 23% of the soluble protein and 97% of the lipid-soluble phosphate, increased the total ..cap alpha..-tocopherol transfer activity 1.3-fold and the specific activity of the transfer rate 1.6-fold. This transfer activity was proportional to time up to 4 min and to protein concentrations up to 0.1 mg/ml. Fractionation of the pH 5.1-treated liver supernatant by gel filtration produced a single peak of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol transfer activity of M/sub r/ = 34,000 and a single peak of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol-binding activity which was coincident with the transfer activity. The transfer rate of this peak of activity was 316 pmol/min/mg of protein, a 9-fold purification over the original untreated supernatant. This ..cap alpha..-tocopherol transfer rate was reduced by 83 and 96% following pronase digestion or heat treatment (80/sup 0/C) of the soluble fraction, respectively, while trypsin digestion reduced the transfer rate only 18% and phospholipase C digestion had no effect. Untreated liver supernatant possessed the peak of binding activity of M/sub r/ = 34,000 and a high molecular weight binding fraction that eluted at the void volume. Heart and brain supernatants also possessed an ..cap alpha..-tocopherol-binding fraction that eluted at the void volume, while lung supernatant lacked binding activity.

  4. Astrophysical SE2 factor of the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction through the 12C(11B, 7Li)16O transfer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Du, X. C.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Y. J.; Pang, D. Y.; Su, J.; Yan, S. Q.; Fan, Q. W.; Gan, L.; Han, Z. Y.; Li, E. T.; Li, X. Y.; Lian, G.; Liu, J. C.; Pei, C. J.; Qiao, L. H.; Shen, Y. P.; Su, Y.; Wang, Y. B.; Zeng, S.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, W. P.

    2016-02-01

    The 12C(α, γ)16O reaction plays a key role in the evolution of stars with masses of M > 0.55 M⊙. At the Gamow peak (Ec.m. = 300 ke V, T9 = 0.2), the cross section of the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction is so small (about 10-17 barn) that the direct measurement in ground laboratory is not feasible with the existing technology. Up to now, the cross sections at lower energies can only be extrapolated from the data at higher energies. However, two subthreshold resonances, locating at Ex = 7.117 MeV and Ex = 6.917 MeV, make this extrapolation more complicated. In this work the 6.917 MeV subthreshold resonance in the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction was investigated via the 12C(11B, 7Li)16O reaction. The experiment was performed using the Q3D magnetic spectrograph at HI-13 tandem accelerator. We measured the angular distribution of the 12C(11B, 7Li)16O transfer reaction leading to the 6.917 MeV state. Based on DWBA analysis, we derived the square of ANC of the 6.917 MeV level in 16O to be (2.45± 0.28) ×1010 fm-1, with which the reduced-α width can be computed. Finally, we calculated the astrophysical SE2 factor of the 6.917 MeV resonance to be 67.6 ± 7.7 ke V b.

  5. Transfer Students from California Community Colleges: A Narrative Approach to Understanding the Social Capital and Institutional Factors That Lead to a Timely Transfer to a Public, Four-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermoso, Katrina Virata

    2013-01-01

    The unique experiences of community college transfer students have not been explored at public, four-year universities. Most of the research on the experiences of community college students is based on quantitative research methods, which fail to provide a comprehensive understanding of the nature of students' lived experiences. This qualitative…

  6. Commitment to Transfer. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arthur M.

    The proportion of community college students transferring to a four-year institution dropped considerably during the 1970's and early 1980's, a situation leading to accusations that the colleges do not prepare their students sufficiently well for transfer. However, several other factors have an influence on transfer rates. The fact that most…

  7. Electron transfer in peptides.

    PubMed

    Shah, Afzal; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Martic, Sanela; Munir, Azeema; Shahzad, Suniya; Ahmad, Khurshid; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2015-02-21

    In this review, we discuss the factors that influence electron transfer in peptides. We summarize experimental results from solution and surface studies and highlight the ongoing debate on the mechanistic aspects of this fundamental reaction. Here, we provide a balanced approach that remains unbiased and does not favor one mechanistic view over another. Support for a putative hopping mechanism in which an electron transfers in a stepwise manner is contrasted with experimental results that support electron tunneling or even some form of ballistic transfer or a pathway transfer for an electron between donor and acceptor sites. In some cases, experimental evidence suggests that a change in the electron transfer mechanism occurs as a result of donor-acceptor separation. However, this common understanding of the switch between tunneling and hopping as a function of chain length is not sufficient for explaining electron transfer in peptides. Apart from chain length, several other factors such as the extent of the secondary structure, backbone conformation, dipole orientation, the presence of special amino acids, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamic properties of a peptide also influence the rate and mode of electron transfer in peptides. Electron transfer plays a key role in physical, chemical and biological systems, so its control is a fundamental task in bioelectrochemical systems, the design of peptide based sensors and molecular junctions. Therefore, this topic is at the heart of a number of biological and technological processes and thus remains of vital interest. PMID:25619931

  8. Improved Function of the Failing Rat Heart by Regulated Expression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I via Intramuscular Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lai, N. Chin; Tang, Tong; Gao, Mei Hua; Saito, Miho; Miyanohara, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Current methods of gene transfer for heart disease include injection into heart muscle or intracoronary coronary delivery, approaches that typically provide limited expression and are cumbersome to apply. To circumvent these problems, we selected a transgene, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which may, in theory, have favorable effects on heart function when secreted from a remote site. We examined the feasibility and efficacy of skeletal muscle injection of adeno-associated virus 5 encoding IGF-I under Tet regulation (AAV5.IGFI-tet) to treat heart failure. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in rats by coronary occlusion; 1 week later, rats with impaired left ventricular (LV) function received 2×1012 genome copies (GC) of AAV5.IGFI-tet in the anterior tibialis muscle, and 4 weeks later, were randomly assigned to receive doxycycline in drinking water to activate IGF-I expression (IGF-On; n=10), or not to receive doxycycline (IGF-Off; n=10). Ten weeks after MI (5 weeks after activation of IGF-I expression), LV size and function were assessed by echocardiography and physiological studies. IGF-On rats showed reduced LV end-systolic dimension (p=0.03) and increased LV ejection fraction (p=0.02). In addition, IGF-On rats showed, before and during dobutamine infusion, increases in cardiac output (p=0.02), stroke work (p=0.0001), LV + dP/dt (p<0.0001), LV relaxation (LV – dP/dt; p=0.03), and systolic arterial blood pressure (p=0.0003). Mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance were unchanged. Activation of IGF-I expression reduced cardiac fibrosis (p=0.048), apoptosis (p<0.0001), and caspase-3/7 activity (p=0.04). Serum IGF-I was increased 5 weeks after transgene activation (p=0.008). These data indicate that skeletal muscle injection of AAV5.IGFI-tet enables tetracycline-activated expression, increases serum IGF-I levels, and improves function of the failing heart. PMID:22017392

  9. TRANSFER STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GREIVE, DONALD E.

    THIS 1967 STUDY AT LORAIN COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE (LCCC) WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DISCOVER (1) THE PERCENTAGE OF CREDIT HOURS IN A UNIVERSITY PARALLEL PROGRAM ACCEPTED BY TRANSFER INSTITUTIONS, (2) THE STUDENT'S GPA BEFORE AND AFTER TRANSFER, AND (3) HOW MANY COLLEGES ACCEPTED LCCC'S TRANSFERS. INSTITUTIONS TO WHICH LCCC STUDENTS HAD HAD THEIR…

  10. Vibrational mode and collision energy effects on reaction of H{sub 2}CO{sup +} with C{sub 2}H{sub 2}: Charge state competition and the role of Franck-Condon factors in endoergic charge transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jianbo; Van Devener, Brian; Anderson, Scott L.

    2005-11-22

    The effects of collision energy (E{sub col}) and six different H{sub 2}CO{sup +} vibrational states on the title reaction have been studied over the center-of-mass E{sub col} range from 0.1 to 2.6 eV, including measurements of product ion recoil velocity distributions. Ab initio and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations were used to examine the properties of complexes and transition states that might be important in mediating the reaction. Reaction is largely direct, despite the presence of multiple deep wells on the potential surface. Five product channels are observed, with a total reaction cross section at the collision limit. The competition among the major H{sub 2}{sup +} transfer, hydrogen transfer, and proton transfer channels is strongly affected by E{sub col} and H{sub 2}CO{sup +} vibrational excitation, providing insight into the factors that control competition and charge state 'unmixing' during product separation. One of the more interesting results is that endoergic charge transfer appears to be controlled by Franck-Condon factors, implying that it occurs at large inter-reactant separations, contrary to the expectation that endoergic reactions should require intimate collisions to drive the necessary energy conversion.

  11. Technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for a successful technology transfer program and what such a program would look like are discussed. In particular, the issues associated with technology transfer in general, and within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) environment specifically are addressed. The section on background sets the stage, identifies the barriers to successful technology transfer, and suggests actions to address the barriers either generally or specifically. The section on technology transfer presents a process with its supporting management plan that is required to ensure a smooth transfer process. Viewgraphs are also included.

  12. Retrospective determination of 137Cs specific activity distribution in spruce bark and bark aggregated transfer factor in forests on the scale of the Czech Republic ten years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Suchara, I; Rulík, P; Hůlka, J; Pilátová, H

    2011-04-15

    The (137)Cs specific activities (mean 32Bq kg(-1)) were determined in spruce bark samples that had been collected at 192 sampling plots throughout the Czech Republic in 1995, and were related to the sampling year. The (137)Cs specific activities in spruce bark correlated significantly with the (137)Cs depositions in areas affected by different precipitation sums operating at the time of the Chernobyl fallout in 1986. The ratio of the (137)Cs specific activities in bark and of the (137)Cs deposition levels yielded bark aggregated transfer factor T(ag) about 10.5×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1). Taking into account the residual specific activities of (137)Cs in bark 20Bq kg(-1) and the available pre-Chernobyl data on the (137)Cs deposition loads on the soil surface in the Czech Republic, the real aggregated transfer factor after and before the Chernobyl fallout proved to be T*(ag)=3.3×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1) and T**(ag)=4.0×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1), respectively. The aggregated transfer factors T*(ag) for (137)Cs and spruce bark did not differ significantly in areas unequally affected by the (137)Cs fallout in the Czech Republic in 1986, and the figures for these aggregated transfer factors were very similar to the mean bark T(ag) values published from the extensively affected areas near Chernobyl. The magnitude of the (137)Cs aggregated transfer factors for spruce bark for the pre-Chernobyl and post-Chernobyl period in the Czech Republic was also very similar. The variability in spruce bark acidity caused by the operation of local anthropogenic air pollution sources did not significantly influence the accumulation and retention of (137)Cs in spruce bark. Increasing elevation of the bark sampling plots had a significant effect on raising the remaining (137)Cs specific activities in bark in areas affected by precipitation at the time when the plumes crossed, because the sums of this precipitation increased with elevation (covariable). PMID:21377193

  13. SOLID-LIQUID PHASE TRANSFER CATALYZED SYNTHESIS OF CINNAMYL ACETATE-KINETICS AND ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE REACTION IN A BATCH REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis has an advantage of carrying out reaction between two immiscible substrates, one in solid phase and the other in liquid phase, with high selectivity and at relatively low temperatures. In this study we investigated the synthesis ci...

  14. Applicability of moisture transfer parameters estimated by correlation between Biot number and lag factor (Bi-G correlation) for convective drying of eggplant slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianxi; Hou, Hongying; Chen, Junruo

    2013-11-01

    Accurate values of the moisture transfer parameters are necessary to study heat and mass transfer, particularly for the efficient design of both process and equipment. However, these parameters obtained from empirical equations or analytical solutions of Fick’s second diffusion law are generally different from each other. In order to make simulation more accurate and closer to the fact, it is necessary to perform theoretical analysis and test of available empirical equations in literatures. In this work, such efforts were made: firstly, moisture transfer parameters were evaluated by Bi-G correlation; then, the obtained parameters were substituted to Fick’s second law of diffusion model, and the model was numerically calculated with convective boundary condition. The results show that although the exponential equation fits the experimental data well, the data predicted from Fick’s second law deviate far from the experimental data. This implicates that Bi-G correlation need be further improved to obtain better accurate moisture transfer parameters.

  15. Additive Manufacturing/Diagnostics via the High Frequency Induction Heating of Metal Powders: The Determination of the Power Transfer Factor for Fine Metallic Spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Caravias, George; Holcomb, Matthew

    2015-03-11

    Grid Logic Inc. is developing a method for sintering and melting fine metallic powders for additive manufacturing using spatially-compact, high-frequency magnetic fields called Micro-Induction Sintering (MIS). One of the challenges in advancing MIS technology for additive manufacturing is in understanding the power transfer to the particles in a powder bed. This knowledge is important to achieving efficient power transfer, control, and selective particle heating during the MIS process needed for commercialization of the technology. The project s work provided a rigorous physics-based model for induction heating of fine spherical particles as a function of frequency and particle size. This simulation improved upon Grid Logic s earlier models and provides guidance that will make the MIS technology more effective. The project model will be incorporated into Grid Logic s power control circuit of the MIS 3D printer product and its diagnostics technology to optimize the sintering process for part quality and energy efficiency.

  16. The human element in technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A transfer model composed of three roles and their linkages was considered. This model and a growing body of experience was analyzed to provide guidance in the human elements of technology transfer. For example, criteria for selection of technology transfer agents was described, and some needed working climate factors were known. These concepts were successfully applied to transfer activities.

  17. Prevalence and factors associated with false positive suspicion of acute aortic syndrome: experience in a patient population transferred to a specialized aortic treatment center

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Chad E.; Aggarwal, Bhuvnesh; Schoenhagen, Paul; Kralovic, Damon M.; Kormos, Kristopher; Holloway, David

    2013-01-01

    Study objective Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment at specialized centers. We sought to determine the frequency and etiology of false positive activation of a regional AAS network in a patient population emergently transferred for suspected AAS. Methods We evaluated 150 consecutive patients transferred from community emergency departments directly to our Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU) with a diagnosis of suspected AAS between March, 2010 and August, 2011. A final diagnosis of confirmed acute Type A, acute Type B dissection, and false positive suspicion of dissection was made in 63 (42%), 70 (46.7%) and 17 (11.3%) patients respectively. Results Of the 17 false positive transfers, ten (58.8%) were suspected Type A dissection and seven (41.2%) were suspected Type B dissection. The initial hospital diagnosis in 15 (88.2%) patients was made by a computed tomography (CT) scan and 10 (66.6%) of these patients required repeat imaging with an ECG-synchronized CT to definitively rule out AAS. Five (29.4%) patients had prior history of open or endovascular aortic repair. Overall in-hospital mortality was 9.3%. Conclusions The diagnosis of AAS is confirmed in most patients emergently transferred for suspected AAS. False positive activation in this setting is driven primarily by uncertainty secondary to motion-artifact of the ascending aorta and the presence of complex anatomy following prior aortic intervention. Network-wide standardization of imaging strategies, and improved sharing of imaging may further improve triage of this complex patient population. PMID:24400203

  18. Are the orientation and bond strength of the RCO2(-)···M link key factors for ultrafast electron transfers?

    PubMed

    Luo, Peng; Karsenti, Paul-Ludovic; Brisard, Gessie; Marsan, Benoit; Harvey, Pierre D

    2015-12-18

    The photo-induced electron transfers in the "straight up" ionic assemblies [Pd3(2+)]···MCP and [Pd3(2+)]···DCP···[Pd3(2+)] ([Pd3(2+)]* → MCP or DCP) are ultrafast (<85 fs) indicating that it is not necessary to have a strong coordination bond or a bent geometry to obtain fast electron injection in porphyrin-containing DSSCs. PMID:26463512

  19. Factors associated with serum immunoglobulin levels in beef calves from Alberta and Saskatchewan and association between passive transfer and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Waldner, Cheryl L.; Rosengren, Leigh B.

    2009-01-01

    Inadequate consumption of colostrum can negatively affect calf health and survival. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations of 935 beef calves from 152 herds in Alberta and Saskatchewan have been described, using radial immunodiffusion. The determinants and health effects of serum IgG concentrations were studied in 601 calves sampled between 2 and 8 days of age. Of these calves, 6% had failure of passive transfer and an additional 10% had marginal passive transfer. Serum IgG concentrations were lower in calves born to a heifer, as a twin, or experiencing dystocia. The odds of both calf death and treatment were increased in calves with serum IgG concentrations below 24 g/L; a threshold notably higher than the 16 g/L usually considered as providing adequate passive transfer. The finding of 1/3 of calves with serum IgG concentrations less than 24 g/L suggests that calfhood treatments and mortality could be decreased by ensuring that high risk calves consume colostrum. PMID:19436479

  20. Technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penaranda, Frank E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: international comparison of R&D expenditures in 1989; NASA Technology Transfer Program; NASA Technology Utilization Program thrusts for FY 1992 and FY 1993; National Technology Transfer Network; and NTTC roles.

  1. Transfer Hydrosilylation.

    PubMed

    Oestreich, Martin

    2016-01-11

    Transfer hydrogenation is without question a common technology in industry and academia. Unlike its countless varieties, conceptually related transfer hydrosilylations had essentially been unreported until the recent development of a radical and an ionic variant. The new methods are both based on a silicon-substituted cyclohexa-1,4-diene and hinge on the aromatization of the corresponding cyclohexadienyl radical and cation intermediates, respectively, concomitant with homo- or heterolytic fission of the SiC bond. Both the radical and ionic transfer hydrosilylation are brought into context with one other in this Minireview, and early insight into the possibility of transfer hydrosilylation is included. Although the current state-of-the-art is certainly still limited, the recent advances have already revealed the promising potential of transfer hydrosilylation. PMID:26597123

  2. Comparison of Passively Transferred Antibodies in Bighorn and Domestic Lambs Reveals One Factor in Differential Susceptibility of These Species to Mannheimia haemolytica-Induced Pneumonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes fatal bronchopneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin is the primary virulence factor of this organism. BHS are more susceptible to developing fatal pneumonia than the related species Ovis aries...

  3. Comparative study of selected Brazilian and Nigerian policies to promote the transfer and development of technology: the role of regime and non-regime factors, and some results from the automobile industry, 1967-80

    SciTech Connect

    Gusau, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    This study is concerned with the policies adopted by Brazil and Nigeria to promote the transfer and development of technology in industry. The objectives are two-fold: (1) to compare and analyze the policies with respect to the automobile industries in the 1967-1980 period; (2) to investigate whether their adoption was solely a function of the different ideological values and issue levels of economic development of the countries, or whether the regimes are solely an expression of the patterns of that development. The study adopted the Comparative Public Policy approach to explore the various hypotheses formulated. The findings showed that Brazil realized more significant results than Nigeria in technology development, while in other areas, such as the curtailment of imports, employment generation, etc., the results are mixed. The study concludes that both regime and industrial development factors influence the variation in the policies, although the regime factor seems to explain more of the variation.

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals from contaminated soil to plants and evaluation of soil remediation by vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Mery; Abollino, Ornella; Buoso, Sandro; Giacomino, Agnese; La Gioia, Carmela; Mentasti, Edoardo

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the distribution of 15 metal ions, namely Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zn and Zr, in the soil of a contaminated site in Piedmont (Italy). This area was found to be heavily contaminated with Cu, Cr and Ni. The availability of these metal ions was studied using Tessier's sequential extraction procedure: the fraction of mobile species, which potentially is the most harmful for the environment, was much higher than that normally present in unpolluted soils. This soil was hence used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with vermiculite to reduce the availability of the pollutants to two plants, Lactuca sativa and Spinacia oleracea, by pot experiments. The results indicated that the addition of vermiculite significantly reduces the uptake of metal pollutants by plants, confirming the possibility of using this clay in amendment treatments of metal-contaminated soils. The effect of plant growth on metal fractionation in soils was investigated. Finally, the sum of the metal percentages extracted into the first two fractions of Tessier's protocol was found to be suitable in predicting the phytoavailability of most of the pollutants present in the investigated soil. PMID:21055788

  5. Optimality and Conductivity for Water Flow: From Landscapes, to Unsaturated Soils, to Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.H.

    2012-02-23

    Optimality principles have been widely used in many areas. Based on an optimality principle that any flow field will tend toward a minimum in the energy dissipation rate, this work shows that there exists a unified form of conductivity relationship for three different flow systems: landscapes, unsaturated soils and plant leaves. The conductivity, the ratio of water flux to energy gradient, is a power function of water flux although the power value is system dependent. This relationship indicates that to minimize energy dissipation rate for a whole system, water flow has a small resistance (or a large conductivity) at a location of large water flux. Empirical evidence supports validity of the relationship for landscape and unsaturated soils (under gravity dominated conditions). Numerical simulation results also show that the relationship can capture the key features of hydraulic structure for a plant leaf, although more studies are needed to further confirm its validity. Especially, it is of interest that according to this relationship, hydraulic conductivity for gravity-dominated unsaturated flow, unlike that defined in the classic theories, depends on not only capillary pressure (or saturation), but also the water flux. Use of the optimality principle allows for determining useful results that are applicable to a broad range of areas involving highly non-linear processes and may not be possible to obtain from classic theories describing water flow processes.

  6. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid in a circular pipe under laminar flow with wire coil inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekar, M.; Suresh, S.; Chandra Bose, A.

    2010-02-15

    In this paper, fully developed laminar flow convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated horizontal tube with and without wire coil inserts is presented. For this purpose, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of 43 nm size were synthesized, characterized and dispersed in distilled water to form stable suspension containing 0.1% volume concentration of nanoparticles. The Nusselt number in the fully developed region were measured and found to increase by 12.24% at Re = 2275 for plain tube with nanofluid compared to distilled water. Two wire coil inserts made of stainless steel with pitch ratios 2 and 3 were used which increased the Nusselt numbers by 15.91% and 21.53% respectively at Re = 2275 with nanofluid compared to distilled water. The better heat transfer performance of nanofluid with wire coil insert is attributed to the effects of dispersion or back-mixing which flattens the temperature distribution and make the temperature gradient between the fluid and wall steeper. The measured pressure loss with the use of nanofluids is almost equal to that of the distilled water. The empirical correlations developed for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of Reynolds/Peclet number, pitch ratio and volume concentration fits with the experimental data within {+-}15%. (author)

  7. Bioaccumulation and food-chain analysis for evaluating ecological risks in terrestrial and wetland habitats: Availability-transfer factors (ATFs) in soil {r_arrow} soil macroinvertebrate {r_arrow} amphibian food chains

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, G.; Bollman, M.; Callahan, C.; Gillette, C.; Nebeker, A.; Wilborn, D.

    1998-12-31

    As part of the ecological risk assessment process for terrestrial and wetland habitats, the evaluation of bioaccumulative chemicals of concern (BCCs) is frequently pursued through food-chain analysis with a subsequent comparison of daily doses to benchmark toxicity reference values, when available. Food-chain analysis has frequently been applied to the analysis of exposure to BCCs identified as chemicals of potential ecological concern (COPECs) in the ecological risk assessment process. Here, designed studies focused on wetland food-chains such as hydric soil {r_arrow} soil macroinvertebrate {r_arrow} amphibian and terrestrial food-chains such as soil {r_arrow} plant {r_arrow} small mammal illustrate an approach for the derivation and validation of trophic transfer factors for metals considered as COPECs such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc. The results clearly indicate that the transfer of chemicals between trophic levels is critical in the bioaccumulation process in wetland and terrestrial food-chains and is influenced by numerous interacting abiotic and biotic factors, including physicochemical properties of soil, and the role, if any, that the metal has in the receptor as a required trace element.

  8. [Gene transfer].

    PubMed

    Danos, O

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian cells in culture can be modified by gene transfer and these procedures are routinely used in experimental biology. Yet, efficient approaches to modify certain complex cell populations, stem cells or cells organized within a tissue are still lacking. The hurdles to gene transfer can be listed by describing the pathway of a nucleic acid molecule, from the external medium towards the cell nucleus where its encoded information will be expressed. The requirements include the necessity to compact the size of the macromolecule, to overcome electrostatic repulsion, to cross a series of membranes and to establish itself permanently. Viruses have evolved to achieve these goals and understanding their strategies for cell invasion allows to design vectors for gene transfer. Chemicals or biochemicals able to bind DNA, as well as physical methods inducing changes in the structure of membranes can also be useful for gene transfer. The outcome of gene transfer technologies and their improvement pave the way to inovative medical applications and provide powerful tools for exploring the living world. PMID:11268666

  9. Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can reach their maximum effectiveness.

  10. Analysis of transfer genes and gene products within the traB-traC region of the Escherichia coli fertility factor, F

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.; Wu, J.H.; Kathir, P.; Hamilton, C.M.; Ippen-Ihler, K.

    1987-09-01

    A series of plasmids that carry overlapping segments of F DNA encoding the genes in the traB-traC interval was constructed, and a restriction enzyme map of the region was derived. Plasmids carrying deletions that had been introduced at an HpaI sites within this interval were also isolated. The ability of these plasmids to complement transfer of F lac plasmids carrying mutations in traB, traV, traW, and traC was analyzed. The protein products of the plasmids were labeled in UV-irradiated cells and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. These analyses showed that the product of traV is a polypeptide that migrates with an apparent molecular weight of 21,000. It was not detected when (/sup 35/S)methionine was used to label plasmid products, but was readily detected in /sup 14/C-amino acid labeling experiments. A 21,500-dalton product appeared to stem from the region assigned to traP. A 9000-dalton product was found to stem from a locus, named traR, that is located between traV and traC. No traW activity could be detected from the region of tra DNA examined. The authors data also indicated that traC is located in a more promoter-proximal position than suggested on earlier maps. The plasmids constructed are expected to be useful in studies designed to identify the specific functions of the traB, -P, -V, -R, and -C products.

  11. Exploring Differential Effects of Supervisor Support on Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijman, Derk-Jan J. M.; Nijhof, Wim J.; Wognum, A. A. M.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide further insight into the relationship between supervisor support and transfer of training, by taking into account the effects of other transfer-influencing factors in a systemic approach of the transfer process. Design/methodology/approach: A review of studies on factors affecting transfer of

  12. Transfer of three transcription factors via a lentiviral vector ameliorates spatial learning and memory impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin; Yan, Qing; Wang, Songtao; Wang, Cunzu; Zhao, Peng

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible and progressive neurodegenerative disorder with observable memory impairment. The present study was performed to evaluate the beneficial effects of lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of a combination of three transcription regulators, ABN (Ascl1, Brn2 and Ngn2), on learning and memory loss in a mouse model of AD. The AD model was established by injecting Aβ1-42 bilaterally into the mouse hippocampus. Lentiviral ABN was delivered bilaterally into the hippocampus of mice. Animals injected with LV-ABN showed significantly improved spatial learning and memory in the water maze test. Additionally, antibody array analysis indicated that intrahippocampal LV-ABN delivery significantly altered the expression levels of some proteins that were identified as inflammatory factors or neuroprotective and growth factors. In conclusion, our data suggest that LV-ABN delivery can ameliorate spatial learning and memory impairment in an AD mouse model, and the beneficial effect of ABN gene treatment could be linked to inhibition of the neuroinflammatory response and enhancement of neuroprotection and neurogenesis. Thus, these findings indicate that lentiviral ABN gene delivery has potential therapeutic applications for AD. PMID:27102892

  13. Training Transfer: An Integrative Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lisa A.; Hutchins, Holly M.

    2007-01-01

    Given the proliferation of training transfer studies in various disciplines, we provide an integrative and analytical review of factors impacting transfer of training. Relevant empirical research for transfer across the management, human resource development (HRD), training, adult learning, performance improvement, and psychology literatures is…

  14. Experimental Approaches to Studying Biological Electron Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Provides an overview on biological electron-transfer reactions, summarizing what is known about how distance, spatial organization, medium, and other factors affect electron transfer. Experimental approaches, including studies of bimolecular electron transfer reactions (electrostatic effects and precursor complexes), are considered. (JN)

  15. Transfer functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taback, I.

    1979-01-01

    The vulnerability of electronic equipment to carbon fibers is studied. The effectiveness of interfaces, such as filters, doors, window screens, and cabinets, which affect the concentration, exposure, or deposition of carbon fibers on both (internal and external) sides of the interface is examined. The transfer function of multilayer aluminum mesh, wet and dry, polyurethane foam, and window screen are determined as a function of air velocity. FIlters installed in typical traffic control boxes and air conditioners are also considered.

  16. A survey of attitudes and factors associated with successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge transfer in an older population most likely to witness cardiac arrest: design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    Vaillancourt, Christian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Brehaut, Jamie C; Osmond, Martin; Charette, Manya L; Wells, George A; Stiell, Ian G

    2008-01-01

    Background Overall survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rarely exceed 5%. While bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can increase survival for cardiac arrest victims by up to four times, bystander CPR rates remain low in Canada (15%). Most cardiac arrest victims are men in their sixties, they usually collapse in their own home (85%) and the event is witnessed 50% of the time. These statistics would appear to support a strategy of targeted CPR training for an older population that is most likely to witness a cardiac arrest event. However, interest in CPR training appears to decrease with advancing age. Behaviour surrounding CPR training and performance has never been studied using well validated behavioural theories. Methods/Design The overall goal of this study is to conduct a survey to better understand the behavioural factors influencing CPR training and performance in men and women 55 years of age and older. The study will proceed in three phases. In phase one, semi-structured qualitative interviews will be conducted and recorded to identify common categories and themes regarding seeking CPR training and providing CPR to a cardiac arrest victim. The themes identified in the first phase will be used in phase two to develop, pilot-test, and refine a survey instrument based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In the third phase of the project, the final survey will be administered to a sample of the study population over the telephone. Analyses will include measures of sampling bias, reliability of the measures, construct validity, as well as multiple regression analyses to identify constructs and beliefs most salient to seniors' decisions about whether to attend CPR classes or perform CPR on a cardiac arrest victim. Discussion The results of this survey will provide valuable insight into factors influencing the interest in CPR training and performance among a targeted group of individuals most susceptible to witnessing a victim in cardiac arrest. The findings can then be applied to the design of trials of various interventions designed to promote attendance at CPR classes and improve CPR performance. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00665288 PMID:18986547

  17. Investigations of Spectroscopic Factors and Sum Rules from the Single Neutron Transfer Reaction 111Cd(overrightarrow {{d}} ,p)112Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Krücken, R.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2014-03-01

    Cadmium isotopes have been presented for decades as excellent examples of vibrational nuclei, with low-lying levels interpreted as multi-phonon quadrupole, octupole, and mixed-symmetry states. A large amount of spectroscopic data has been obtained through various experimental studies of cadmiumisotopes. In the present work, the 111Cd(overrightarrow {{d}} ,p)112Cd reaction was used to investigate the single-particle structure of the 112Cd nucleus. A 22 MeV beam of polarized deuterons was obtained at the Maier-Leibnitz laboratory in Garching, Germany. The reaction ejectiles were momentum analyzed using a Q3D spectrograph, and 130 levels have been identified up to 4.2 MeV of excitation energy. Using DWBA analysis with optical model calculations, spin-parity assignments have been made for observed levels, and spectroscopic factors have been extracted from the experimental angular distributions of differential cross section and analyzing power. In this high energy resolution investigation, many additional levels have been observed compared with the previous (d,p) study using 8 MeV deuterons [1]. There were a total of 44 new levels observed, and the parity assignments of 34 levels were improved.

  18. Geo energy research and development: technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1982-03-01

    Sandia Geo Energy Programs related to geothermal, coal, oil and gas, and synfuel resources have provided a useful mechanism for transferring laboratory technologies to private industry. Significant transfer of hardware, computer programs, diagnostics and instrumentation, advanced materials, and in situ process understanding has occurred through US/DOE supported programs in the past five years. The text briefly reviews the technology transfer procedures and summarizes 32 items that have been transferred and another 20 technologies that are now being considered for possible transfer to industry. A major factor in successful transfer has been personal interactions between Sandia engineers and the technical staff from private industry during all aspects of the technology development.

  19. Comparison of Factors Affecting Water Transfer in a Cultivated Paleotropical Grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf) Field and a Neotropical Savanna during the Dry Season of the Orinoco Lowlands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Jos, J. J.; Nikonova, N.; Bracho, R.

    1998-05-01

    Partitioning of available energy into sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat exchange was simultaneously measured in a closed Brachiaria field and an open neotropical savanna during the dry season of the Orinoco lowlands. These communities, differing in canopy coverage and aerodynamic forcing conditions, had major effects on the radiation and energy budgets. Thus, in the Brachiaria canopy, seasonally averaged daily LE was 55% (6.635 0.92 MJ m2 day1) of the seasonally averaged daily available energy. In the savanna, it was 30% (2.841 0.65 MJ m2 day1). The high degree of coupling between the Brachiaria and savanna surfaces to the prevailing weather of the dry season, as expressed by the seasonally averaged daily omega factor ( = 0.056 0.005 and 0.042 0.003, respectively), indicates that LE depended on the atmospheric driving potential and the canopy conductance (gc) to vapor diffusion. Consequently, daily LE was proportional to the imposed evapotranspiration rate. The hourly LE measured/LE equilibrium ratio for the Brachiaria canopy was logarithmically related to the canopy resistance (rc); in the savanna, the ratio was exponentially related to rc with a threshold value ranging from 60 to 90 s m1. This contrasting behavior was unrelated to plant water status as maximum hourly leaf water potential in both canopies was, on average, similar (0.7 to 0.8 MPa). The difference between the two canopies in the control exerted by the canopy conductance on water losses was associated with the size of the evaporating surface and the proportional contribution of the foliage and the dry soil resistance.

  20. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms.

    PubMed

    Tuovinen, Tiina S; Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low. PMID:26363398

  1. Adenoviral-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer has a protective effect on sciatic nerve following constriction-induced spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Chou, An-Kuo; Yang, Ming-Chang; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tai, Ming-Hong; Kwan, Aij-Li; Hong, Yi-Ren

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain due to peripheral nerve injury may be associated with abnormal central nerve activity. Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) can help attenuate neuropathic pain in different animal models of nerve injury. However, whether GDNF can ameliorate neuropathic pain in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) in constriction-induced peripheral nerve injury remains unknown. We investigated the therapeutic effects of adenoviral-mediated GDNF on neuropathic pain behaviors, microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and programmed cell death in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) nerve injury animal model. In this study, neuropathic pain was produced by CCI on the ipsilateral SCDH. Mechanical allodynia was examined with von Frey filaments and thermal sensitivity was tested using a plantar test apparatus post-operatively. Target proteins GDNF-1, GDNFRa-1, MMP2, MMP9, p38, phospho-p38, ED1, IL6, IL1β, AIF, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, PARP, cleaved PARP, SPECTRIN, cleaved SPECTRIN, Beclin-1, PKCσ, PKCγ, iNOS, eNOS and nNOS were detected. Microglial activity was measured by observing changes in immunoreactivity with OX-42. NeuN and TUNEL staining were used to reveal whether apoptosis was attenuated by GDNF. Results showed that administrating GDNF began to attenuate both allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7. CCI-rats were found to have lower GDNF and GDNFRa-1 expression compared to controls, and GDNF re-activated their expression. Also, GDNF significantly down-regulated CCI-induced protein expression except for MMP2, eNOS and nNOS, indicating that the protective action of GDNF might be associated with anti-inflammation and prohibition of microglia activation. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that GDNF reduced CCI-induced neuronal apoptosis. In sum, GDNF enhanced the neurotrophic effect by inhibiting microglia activation and cytokine production via p38 and PKC signaling. GDNF could be a good therapeutic tool to attenuate programmed cell death, including apoptosis and autophagy, consequent to CCI-induced peripheral nerve injury. PMID:24642655

  2. Nonadiabatic anharmonic electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, P. P.

    2013-03-28

    The effect of an inner sphere, local mode vibration on an electron transfer is modeled using the nonadiabatic transition probability (rate) expression together with both the anharmonic Morse and the harmonic oscillator potential. For an anharmonic inner sphere mode, a variational analysis uses harmonic oscillator basis functions to overcome the difficulties evaluating Morse-model Franck-Condon overlap factors. Individual matrix elements are computed with the use of new, fast, robust, and flexible recurrence relations. The analysis therefore readily addresses changes in frequency and/or displacement of oscillator minimums in the different electron transfer states. Direct summation of the individual Boltzmann weighted Franck-Condon contributions avoids the limitations inherent in the use of the familiar high-temperature, Gaussian form of the rate constant. The effect of harmonic versus anharmonic inner sphere modes on the electron transfer is readily seen, especially in the exoergic, inverted region. The behavior of the transition probability can also be displayed as a surface for all temperatures and values of the driving force/exoergicity {Delta}=-{Delta}G. The temperature insensitivity of the transfer rate is clearly seen when the exoergicity equals the collective reorganization energy ({Delta}={Lambda}{sub s}) along a maximum ln (w) vs. {Delta} ridge of the surface. The surface also reveals additional regions for {Delta} where ln (w) appears to be insensitive to temperature, or effectively activationless, for some kinds of inner sphere contributions.

  3. Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio From Elastic e + p -> e + p Scattering at Momentum Transfer Q^2 = 2.5, 5.2, 6.7 and 8.5 (GeV/c)^2

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur Mkrtchyan

    2012-05-31

    Among the fundamental observables of nucleon structure, electromagnetic form factors are a crucial benchmark for modern calculations describing the strong interaction dyna mics of the nucleon's quark constituents. Electromagnetic probes are traditionally preferered to the hadronic beams. The electromagnetic interaction is a powerful tool for investigating the nucleon structure since it is well understood and it reveals observables that can be directly interpreted in terms of the current carried by the quarks. Elastic scattering leads to the form factors that describe the spatial charge a nd current distributions inside the nucleon. The reaction mechanism is assumed to be one photon exchange, the electromagnetic interaction is exactly calculable in QED, and one can safely extract the information on the hadronic vertex. The most important feature of early measurements of proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} with recoil polarization technique at Q{sup 2} up to 5.6 (GeV/c){sup 2} is the sharp decline of the ratio with Q{sup 2} increases, indicating that G{sub E}{sup p} falls much faster than G{sub M}{sup p}. This contradicts to data obtained by Rosenbluth separation method. An intriguing question was whether G{sub E}{sup p} will continue to decrease or become constant when Q{sup 2} increases. New set of measurements of proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} at Q{sup 2} = 2.5, 5.2, 6.7 and 8.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} have been conducted at JLab Hall C using {approx}85% longitudinally polarized electron elastic scattering from unpolarized hydrogen target. Recoil protons were detected in the HMS magnetic spectrometer with the standard detector package, combined with newly installed trigger scintillators and Focal Plane Polarimeter. The BigCal electromagnetic calorimeter (1744 channel) have been used for electron detection. Data obtained in this experiment show that G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} ratio continued to drop with Q{sup 2} and may cross 'zero' at Q{sup 2} > 10-15 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Intensive theoretical and experimental efforts over the past decade have aimed at explaining the discrepancy between data for the proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} obtained from cross section and polarization measurements. It was assumed that the two photon exchange contribution might be responsible for difference of G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} ratio obtained by Rosenbluth separation method and recoil polarization technique. The kinematical dependence of polarization transfer observables in elastic electron-proton scattering at Q{sup 2} = 2.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} have been used in search of effects of 2{gamma} contribution. For a wide range of values of the virtual photon polarization {epsilon} ({epsilon} = 0.15, 0.63, and 0.77), the proton form factor ratio and longitudinal polarization transfer component were measured with statistical uncertainties of {+-}0.01 and {+-}0.005, respectively. Our data provide significant constraints on models of nucleon structure.

  4. Core transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good news for all petroleum geoscientists, mining and environmental scientists, university researchers, and the like: Shell Oil Company has deeded its Midland core and sample repository to the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) at the University of Texas at Austin. The Midland repository includes more than 1 million linear meters of slab, whole core, and prepared cuttings. Data comprising one of the largest U.S. core collections—the geologic samples from wells drilled in Texas and 39 other states—are now public data and will be incorporated into the existing BEG database. Both Shell and the University of Texas at Austin are affiliated with the American Geological Institute, which assisted in arranging the transfer as part of its goal to establish a National Geoscience Data Repository System at regional centers across the United States.

  5. The transfer of analytical procedures.

    PubMed

    Ermer, J; Limberger, M; Lis, K; Wätzig, H

    2013-11-01

    Analytical method transfers are certainly among the most discussed topics in the GMP regulated sector. However, they are surprisingly little regulated in detail. General information is provided by USP, WHO, and ISPE in particular. Most recently, the EU emphasized the importance of analytical transfer by including it in their draft of the revised GMP Guideline. In this article, an overview and comparison of these guidelines is provided. The key to success for method transfers is the excellent communication between sending and receiving unit. In order to facilitate this communication, procedures, flow charts and checklists for responsibilities, success factors, transfer categories, the transfer plan and report, strategies in case of failed transfers, tables with acceptance limits are provided here, together with a comprehensive glossary. Potential pitfalls are described such that they can be avoided. In order to assure an efficient and sustainable transfer of analytical procedures, a practically relevant and scientifically sound evaluation with corresponding acceptance criteria is crucial. Various strategies and statistical tools such as significance tests, absolute acceptance criteria, and equivalence tests are thoroughly descibed and compared in detail giving examples. Significance tests should be avoided. The success criterion is not statistical significance, but rather analytical relevance. Depending on a risk assessment of the analytical procedure in question, statistical equivalence tests are recommended, because they include both, a practically relevant acceptance limit and a direct control of the statistical risks. However, for lower risk procedures, a simple comparison of the transfer performance parameters to absolute limits is also regarded as sufficient. PMID:23978903

  6. Soil-plant-animal transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines: a case study from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S M; Pereira, M E; Duarte, A C; Römkens, P F A M

    2012-02-01

    Food chain models are essential tools to assess risks of soil contamination in view of product quality including fodder crops and animal products. Here we link soil to plant transfer (SPT) models for potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, U and Zn with models describing accumulation in animal organs. Current EU standards for food products and acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) for humans were used as critical limits. The combined model is used to assess the impact of soil contamination on animal health, product quality and human health using data from 100 arable fields. Results indicate that 42 existing arable fields near industrial and mining sites are unsuitable for animal grazing in view of food safety due to elevated intake of Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb by cows and sheep. At 10 sites daily intake levels of As by cows exceeded threshold concentrations regarding the quality of animal products. The food chain model also was used inversely to derive soil threshold concentrations in view of EU fodder standards. Calculated threshold levels in soil for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn appear to be in line with those proposed or used in other EU countries. As such the approach applied here can form a conceptual basis for a more harmonized risk assessment strategy regarding the protection of animal and human health. PMID:22208740

  7. Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

    2012-04-01

    Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as: soil pH< available phosphorus < humus content < exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ < exchangeable K+. Inorganic fertilizers in high and temperate rates decrease 137Cs transfer to crops in 2.3-5.5 times. Organic fertilizers are less efficient, but its application can decrease 137Cs accumulation by farm crops during 2-3 years. Correlation analysis shows inversely proportional dependence between organic matter content and exchangeable form of 137Cs in soil (r2 = 0.81). A linear relation between 137Cs transfer factors (TF) to plants and exchangeable radionuclide content has been found (r2=0.68). Inversely proportional relation between the mobility level of potassium, its mobile form content and TF 137Cs was detected (r2 = 0.78).

  8. Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, Kimberly R.

    1995-01-01

    The development and application of new technologies in the United States has always been important to the economic well being of the country. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been an important source of these new technologies for almost four decades. Recently, increasing global competition has emphasized the importance of fully utilizing federally funded technologies. Today NASA must meet its mission goals while at the same time, conduct research and development that contributes to securing US economic growth. NASA technologies must be quickly and effectively transferred into commercial products. In order to accomplish this task, NASA has formulated a new way of doing business with the private sector. Emphasis is placed on forming mutually beneficial partnerships between NASA and US industry. New standards have been set in response to the process that increase effectiveness, efficiency, and timely customer response. This summer I have identified potential markets for two NASA inventions: including the Radially Focused Eddy Current Sensor for Characterization of Flaws in Metallic Tubing and the Radiographic Moire. I have also worked to establish a cooperative program with TAG, private industry, and a university known as the TAG/Industry/Academia Program.

  9. The Technology Transfer Process: Concepts, Framework and Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, James A.

    This paper discusses the conceptual framework and methodology of the technology transfer process and develops a model of the transfer mechanism. This model is then transformed into a predictive model of technology transfer incorporating nine factors that contribute to the movement of knowledge from source to user. Each of these factors is examined…

  10. Microparticle Fluorimetry and Energy Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folan, Lorcan Michael

    1987-12-01

    The primary aims of this dissertation were to develop an aerosol particle fluorimeter, utilize the instrument to investigate electronic energy transfer in individual microparticles (liquid droplets approximately 10 microns in radius) and develop an electromagnetic model to explain the observed energy transfer. A spectrometer for measuring the fluorescence emission fron a single trapped aerosol particle is described. This device consists of a particle generator, an electrodynamic levitator, and excitation source and detection optics and electronics. Provision is made to cool the sample chamber and fluorescence emission spectra can be obtained in real time. The fluorimeter was used to investigate energy transfer between donor-acceptor pairs of laser dyes. Energy transfer between the dyes was found to be enhanced in the levitated particles over the same material in bulk solution by more than a factor of 100. The concentration dependence of the particle energy transfer and characteristic features identified in the emission spectra indicate that the natural electromagnetic resonances of the particle mediate the energy transfer. A model calculation supports the experimental conclusions and yields good qualitative agreement with the observed energy transfer magnitude and concentration dependence.

  11. Modifications of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) in adult cardiocytes by adenoviral gene transfer: differential effects on eIF4F activity and total protein synthesis rates.

    PubMed

    Saghir, A N; Tuxworth, W J; Hagedorn, C H; McDermott, P J

    2001-06-01

    In adult feline cardiocytes, increases in eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) activity are correlated with accelerated rates of total protein synthesis produced in response to increased load. Adenoviral gene transfer was employed to increase either eIF4F complex formation or the phosphorylation of eIF4E on Ser-209. To simulate load,cardiocytes were electrically stimulated to contract (2 Hz,5 ms pulses). Non-stimulated cardiocytes were used as controls.Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of wild-type eIF4E increased the total eIF4E pool by 120-140% above endogenous levels after 24 h and produced a corresponding increase in eIF4F content.However, it did not accelerate total protein synthesis rates inquiescent cardiocytes; neither did it potentiate the increase produced by contraction. To modify the affinity of eIF4F, cardiocytes were infected with a mutant (eIF4E/W56F) with a decreased binding affinity for the mRNA cap. Overexpression of eIF4E/W56F increased the quantity of eIF4F but the rate of total protein synthesis was decreased inquiescent and contracting cardiocytes. Overexpression of a mutant that blocked eIF4E phosphorylation (eIF4E/S209A) increased the quantity ofeIF4F without any significant effect on total protein synthesis rates in quiescent or contracting cardiocytes. Overexpression of the eIF4Ekinase Mnk-1 increased eIF4E phosphorylation without a corresponding increase in eIF4F complex formation or in the rate of total protein synthesis. We conclude the following: (1) eIF4F assembly is increased by raising eIF4E levels via adenoviral gene transfer; (2) the capbinding affinity of eIF4F is a rate-limiting determinant for total protein synthesis rates; and (3) increases in the quantity of eIF4Falone or in eIF4E phosphorylation are not sufficient to accelerate total protein synthesis rates. PMID:11368785

  12. Momentum transfer dependence of GPDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selyugin, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    Based on the factorization representation of the General Parton Distributions (GPDs) the momentum transfer dependence was determined by the analysis of the different representations of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and all possible experimental data of the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and neutron. The obtained t-dependence of the GPDs is checked by analysis of the different hadronic reactions (including exclusive and elastic hadron scattering) in a wide energy region with minimum free fitting parameters.

  13. To transfer or not to transfer? Kinematics and laterality quotient predict interlimb transfer of motor learning.

    PubMed

    Lefumat, Hannah Z; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Miall, R Chris; Cole, Jonathan; Buloup, Frank; Bringoux, Lionel; Bourdin, Christophe; Sarlegna, Fabrice R

    2015-11-01

    Humans can remarkably adapt their motor behavior to novel environmental conditions, yet it remains unclear which factors enable us to transfer what we have learned with one limb to the other. Here we tested the hypothesis that interlimb transfer of sensorimotor adaptation is determined by environmental conditions but also by individual characteristics. We specifically examined the adaptation of unconstrained reaching movements to a novel Coriolis, velocity-dependent force field. Right-handed subjects sat at the center of a rotating platform and performed forward reaching movements with the upper limb toward flashed visual targets in prerotation, per-rotation (i.e., adaptation), and postrotation tests. Here only the dominant arm was used during adaptation and interlimb transfer was assessed by comparing performance of the nondominant arm before and after dominant-arm adaptation. Vision and no-vision conditions did not significantly influence interlimb transfer of trajectory adaptation, which on average was significant but limited. We uncovered a substantial heterogeneity of interlimb transfer across subjects and found that interlimb transfer can be qualitatively and quantitatively predicted for each healthy young individual. A classifier showed that in our study, interlimb transfer could be predicted based on the subject's task performance, most notably motor variability during learning, and his or her laterality quotient. Positive correlations suggested that variability of motor performance and lateralization of arm movement control facilitate interlimb transfer. We further show that these individual characteristics can predict the presence and the magnitude of interlimb transfer of left-handers. Overall, this study suggests that individual characteristics shape the way the nervous system can generalize motor learning. PMID:26334018

  14. Radiation View Factor With Shadowing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-24

    FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors as input data to finite element heat transfer analysis codes.

  15. Analogical Transfer from a Simulated Physical System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Samuel B.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently found that spontaneous analogical transfer is strongly tied to concrete and contextual similarities between the cases. However, that work has largely failed to acknowledge that the relevant factor in transfer is the similarity between individuals' mental representations of the situations rather than the overt

  16. Analogical Transfer from a Simulated Physical System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Samuel B.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently found that spontaneous analogical transfer is strongly tied to concrete and contextual similarities between the cases. However, that work has largely failed to acknowledge that the relevant factor in transfer is the similarity between individuals' mental representations of the situations rather than the overt…

  17. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Rangelov, A.A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N.V.

    2011-03-15

    Research Highlights: > Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. > The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  18. Strategies for Helping Students Transfer Credits. DETC Occasional Paper 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fares, Ali

    This booklet is a guide to the process of transferring college credits from one institution of higher education to another. First, it identifies the factors that affect college transfer, including college and/or state policies on transfer of credits, college residency requirements, comparability of courses, grade received in a course, and

  19. Beyond Access: Explaining Socioeconomic Differences in College Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Pfeffer, Fabian T.

    2009-01-01

    Reducing socioeconomic differences in college transfer requires understanding how and why parental education, occupational class, and family income are associated with changing colleges. Building on prior studies of traditional community college transfer, the authors explore relationships between those factors and two types of transfer among…

  20. In the Trainer's Voice: A Study of Training Transfer Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Holly M.

    2009-01-01

    Data were gathered from members of a large professional training organization regarding their practices for supporting training transfer. Transfer factor categories grounded in the literature were used to code the data using content analysis procedures. Commensurate with the transfer literature, results suggest that trainers reported strategies…

  1. The Decline of the Transfer Function: Threats or Challenges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissler, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    Recognizes a decline in the community college transfer function. Cites studies revealing a decrease in the number of transfer students, lower ability levels, and weakened liberal arts programs as causative factors. Calls for the transfer function's preservation through improved communication, clearly stated admissions requirements, improved

  2. Probability of Detection Demonstration Transferability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Propellant Tank Penetrant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Probability of Detection (POD) Assessment (NESC activity) has surfaced several issues associated with liquid penetrant POD demonstration testing. This presentation lists factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. Initial testing will address the liquid penetrant inspection technique. Some of the factors to be considered in this task are crack aspect ratio, the extent of the crack opening, the material and the distance between the inspection surface and the inspector's eye.

  3. Transfer of Training: An Interpretive Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Stephen M.

    Information processing and memorial processes that have been identified by contemporary research as important factors in human learning and cognitive activity are shown to provide a basis for explaining and predicting transfer of training effects. Four major factors are discussed in separate sections: the relationship between retrieval cues and…

  4. Evaluation of multiple transfer of DNA using mock case scenarios.

    PubMed

    Goray, Mariya; Mitchell, John R; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2012-01-01

    DNA transfer and its possible role in explaining the presence of a biological sample at a crime scene is becoming more prevalent in criminal investigations and related court proceedings. To assist understanding of DNA transfer and assess the extent to which we can utilise already available information regarding transfer of DNA we compare transfer rates determined from mock multi-step transfer scenarios with transfer rates predicted by the application of currently available transfer rate data. The transfer results obtained from the scenarios tested were, in some instances, different (both lower and higher rates) from those predicted. These discrepancies are most likely the result of the impact of as yet untested variables. These may include the variations in substrate type, transfer area size and environmental factors such as temperature and humidity among others. Whilst detailed re-enactments of proposed transfer scenarios, that take into account the many possibly relevant aspects affecting transfer are desirable, to provide an accurate likelihood estimate, these are not always possible. The application of detailed transfer rate tables that include data on the many factors affecting transfer could provide a useful substitute for evaluating the likelihood of specific transfer events. The value and accuracy derived from applying such tables will improve as more research in this area is conducted and the tables expanded and refined. PMID:22189169

  5. Second Chances: Investigating Athletes’ Experiences of Talent Transfer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Talent transfer initiatives seek to transfer talented, mature individuals from one sport to another. Unfortunately talent transfer initiatives seem to lack an evidence-based direction and a rigorous exploration of the mechanisms underpinning the approach. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify the factors which successfully transferring athletes cite as facilitative of talent transfer. In contrast to the anthropometric and performance variables that underpin current talent transfer initiatives, participants identified a range of psycho-behavioral and environmental factors as key to successful transfer. We argue that further research into the mechanisms of talent transfer is needed in order to provide a strong evidence base for the methodologies employed in these initiatives. PMID:26600303

  6. Transfer of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on transfer of learning. In "Learning Transfer in a Social Service Agency: Test of an Expectancy Model of Motivation" (Reid A. Bates) structural equation modeling is used to test the validity of a valence-instrumentality-expectancy approach to motivation to transfer learning. "The Relationship between…

  7. Orbit Transfer Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakwell, J. V.

    1986-01-01

    Collection of computer programs developed that solve problem of transfer between noncoplanar circular orbits for spacecraft with chemical propulsion systems. Two basic programs given. First, referred to as "exact solution," gives complete, exact time histories of transfers. Second, or "approximate solution," program gives approximate information on transfer time and fuel cost but provides no detail of trajectory.

  8. Operationalizing the Transfer Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Philip

    In statistical terms, transfer rates require two components: a numerator that represents community college students who transfer and a denominator that approximates the pool of potential transfer students. The California Task Force adopted a set of criteria to judge the appropriateness of prospective pairs of numerators and denominators. Its form…

  9. Transfer Index: One Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinselman, James L.

    A transfer index of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate index of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…

  10. Transfer of Learning Transformed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Instruction is motivated by the assumption that students can transfer their learning, or apply what they have learned in school to another setting. A common problem arises when the expected transfer does not take place, what has been referred to as the inert knowledge problem. More than an academic inconvenience, the failure to transfer is a major

  11. Quantification of soil-to-plant transport of recombinant nucleopolyhedrovirus: effects of soil type and moisture, air currents, and precipitation.

    PubMed

    Fuxa, J R; Richter, A R

    2001-11-01

    Significantly more occlusion bodies (OB) of DuPont viral construct HzSNPV-LqhIT2, expressing a scorpion toxin, were transported by artificial rainfall to cotton plants from sandy soil (70:15:15 sand-silt-clay) than from silt (15:70:15) and significantly more from silt than from clay (15:15:70). The amounts transported by 5 versus 50 mm of precipitation were the same, and transport was zero when there was no precipitation. In treatments that included precipitation, the mean number of viable OB transported to entire, 25- to 35-cm-tall cotton plants ranged from 56 (clay soil, 5 mm of rain) to 226 (sandy soil, 50 mm of rain) OB/plant. In a second experiment, viral transport increased with increasing wind velocity (0, 16, and 31 km/h) and was greater in dry (-1.0 bar of matric potential) than in moist (-0.5 bar) soil. Wind transport was greater for virus in a clay soil than in silt or sand. Only 3.3 x 10(-7) (clay soil, 5 mm rain) to 1.3 x 10(-6) (sandy soil, 50 mm rain) of the OB in surrounding soil in experiment 1 or 1.1 x 10(-7) (-0.5 bar sandy soil, 16-km/h wind) to 1.3 x 10(-6) (-1.0 bar clay soil, 31-km/h wind) in experiment 2 were transported by rainfall or wind to cotton plants. This reduces the risk of environmental release of a recombinant nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV), because only a very small proportion of recombinant virus in the soil reservoir is transported to vegetation, where it can be ingested by and replicate in new host insects. PMID:11679341

  12. Electron Transfer versus Proton Transfer in Gas-Phase Ion/Ion Reactions of Polyprotonated Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Harsha P.; He, Min; Chrisman, Paul A.; Pitteri, Sharon J.; Hogan, Jason M.; Hodges, Brittany D. M.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    The ion/ion reactions of several dozen reagent anions with triply protonated cations of the model peptide KGAILKGAILR have been examined to evaluate predictions of a LandauZener-based model for the likelihood for electron transfer. Evidence for electron transfer was provided by the appearance of fragment ions unique to electron transfer or electron capture dissociation. Proton transfer and electron transfer are competitive processes for any combination of anionic and cationic reactants. For reagent anions in reactions with protonated peptides, proton transfer is usually significantly more exothermic than electron transfer. If charge transfer occurs at relatively long distances, electron transfer should, therefore, be favored on kinetic grounds because the reactant and product channels cross at greater distances, provided conditions are favorable for electron transfer at the crossing point. The results are consistent with a model based on LandauZener theory that indicates both thermodynamic and geometric criteria apply for electron transfer involving polyatomic anions. Both the model and the data suggest that electron affinities associated with the anionic reagents greater than about 6070 kcal/mol minimize the likelihood that electron transfer will be observed. Provided the electron affinity is not too high, the FranckCondon factors associated with the anion and its corresponding neutral must not be too low. When one or the other of these criteria is not met, proton transfer tends to occur essentially exclusively. Experiments involving ion/ion attachment products also suggest that a significant barrier exists to the isomerization between chemical complexes that, if formed, lead to either proton transfer or electron transfer. PMID:16144411

  13. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  14. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  15. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    SciTech Connect

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2014-06-15

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  16. Volume conduction energy transfer for implantable devices

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Fang, Wenzhu; Zhan, Shanshan; Zhou, Yuxuan; Gao, Qing; Gao, Xingya

    2013-01-01

    A common model of power supply for implantable devices was established to study factors affecting volume conduction energy transfer. Electromagnetic and equivalent circuit models were constructed to study the effect of separation between the source electrode pairs on volume conduction energy transfer. In addition, the parameters of external signal including waveform, amplitude and frequency were analyzed. As the current amplitude did not lead to tissue injury and the current frequency did not cause nerve excitability, the recommended separation between the source electrodes was 3 cm, the proposed waveform of signal source was sinusoidal wave and the optimal frequency was 200 KHz. In agar experiment and swine skin experiment, the current transfer efficiencies were 28.13% and 20.65%, respectively, and the energy transfer efficiencies were 9.86% and 6.90%, respectively. In conclusion, we can achieve optimal efficiency of energy transfer by appropriately setting the separation between the source electrode parameters of the signal source. PMID:24285949

  17. Use of insulin-like growth factor-I during embryo culture and treatment of recipients with gonadotropin-releasing hormone to increase pregnancy rates following the transfer of in vitro-produced embryos to heat-stressed, lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Block, J; Drost, M; Monson, R L; Rutledge, J J; Rivera, R M; Paula-Lopes, F F; Ocon, O M; Krininger, C E; Liu, J; Hansen, P J

    2003-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether pregnancy rates following the transfer of in vitro-produced embryos to heat-stressed cows could be improved by 1) culturing embryos in the presence of IGF-I and 2) treating recipients with GnRH. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 260) were synchronized using a timed ovulation protocol. Embryos were produced in vitro and cultured with or without 100 ng/mL of IGF-I. On d 7 after anticipated ovulation (d 0), a single embryo was transferred to all recipients with a palpable corpus luteum (n = 210). A subset of recipients (n = 164) was injected with either GnRH or placebo on d 11. Plasma progesterone concentrations on d 0 and 7 were used to determine the synchrony of recipients. Pregnancy was diagnosed at d 53 and 81 by rectal palpation. Among all recipients, transfer of IGF-I-treated embryos increased pregnancy rate at d 53 (P < 0.05) and tended to increase pregnancy rate at d 81 (P < 0.06). Calving rate also tended to be higher for recipients that received IGF-I-treated embryos (P < 0.07). Among the subset of synchronized recipients (n = 190), pregnancy rate at d 53 and d 81 and calving rate were higher (P < 0.05) for IGF-I-treated embryos. The GnRH tended to increase pregnancy rate at d 53 for all recipients (P < 0.08) and the subset of synchronized recipients (P < 0.10). There were no effects of GnRH (P > 0.10) for pregnancy rate at d 81 and calving rate. The overall proportion of male calves was 64.3%. There was no effect (P > 0.10) of embryo treatment or GnRH on the birth weight or sex ratio of calves. Results of this experiment indicate that treatment of embryos with IGF-I can improve pregnancy and calving rates following transfer of in vitro-produced embryos. Further research is necessary to determine whether the treatment of recipients with GnRH is a practical approach to increase pregnancy rates following in vitro embryo transfer. PMID:12817508

  18. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-03-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool. 6 figures.

  19. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  20. Calculating proper transfer prices

    SciTech Connect

    Dorkey, F.C. ); Jarrell, G.A. )

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  1. Wireless Power Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-22

    Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consumption. Previously worrisome traffic delays now provide longer periods of charge while passing over in-motion chargers. Inclement weather such as rain and snow do not affect the charging capability. At ORNL, we are working to develop the robust nature of wireless power technology to provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions.

  2. Wireless Power Transfer

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-11-19

    Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consumption. Previously worrisome traffic delays now provide longer periods of charge while passing over in-motion chargers. Inclement weather such as rain and snow do not affect the charging capability. At ORNL, we are working to develop the robust nature of wireless power technology to provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions.

  3. Space Transfer Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In June 1989 the Marshall Space Flight Center initiated studies of Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) concepts. A successor to the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) concept, the STV would be a high-performance space vehicle capable of transferring automated payloads from a Space Station to geosynchronous orbits, the Moon, or planets. Illustrated in this artist's concept are two STV's undergoing aerobraking maneuvers as they approach a Space Station.

  4. [Indoor transfer lift].

    PubMed

    Bo, Wo; Ping, Cai; Xiaojun, Ji; Dongcai, Liu

    2010-01-01

    Indoor transfer lift is a useful technical assistant to assist the nursing of mobility impaired person, and the high-end product even make it possible that the disabled to live an independent living. The features of market available transfer lifts are discussed and the standard ISO 10535 (Hoists for the transfer of disabled persons--Requirements and test methods) is briefly introduced. The component parts and their function of rail lift are introduced in detail. PMID:20391923

  5. Settled Cryogenic Propellant Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; Sakla, Steve; Wall, John; Hopkins, Josh; Saks, Greg; Duffey, Jack; Chato, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant transfer can significantly benefit NASA s space exploration initiative. LMSSC parametric studies indicate that "Topping off" the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) in LEO with approx.20 mT of additional propellant using cryogenic propellant transfer increases the lunar delivered payload by 5 mT. Filling the EDS to capacity in LEO with 78 mT of propellants increases the delivered payload by 20 mT. Cryogenic propellant transfer is directly extensible to Mars exploration in that it provides propellant for the Mars Earth Departure stage and in-situ propellant utilization at Mars. To enable the significant performance increase provided by cryogenic propellant transfer, the reliability and robustness of the transfer process must be guaranteed. By utilizing low vehicle acceleration during the cryogenic transfer the operation is significantly simplified and enables the maximum use of existing, reliable, mature upper stage cryogenic-fluid-management (CFM) techniques. Due to settling, large-scale propellant transfer becomes an engineering effort, and not the technology development endeavor required with zero-gravity propellant transfer. The following key CFM technologies are all currently implemented by settling on both the Centaur and Delta IV upper stages: propellant acquisition, hardware chilldown, pressure control, and mass gauging. The key remaining technology, autonomous rendezvous and docking, is already in use by the Russians, and must be perfected for NASA whether the use of propellant transfer is utilized or not.

  6. Bacterial transfer RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Jennifer; Ibba, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Transfer RNA is an essential adapter molecule that is found across all three domains of life. The primary role of transfer RNA resides in its critical involvement in the accurate translation of messenger RNA codons during protein synthesis and, therefore, ultimately in the determination of cellular gene expression. This review aims to bring together the results of intensive investigations into the synthesis, maturation, modification, aminoacylation, editing and recycling of bacterial transfer RNAs. Codon recognition at the ribosome as well as the ever-increasing number of alternative roles for transfer RNA outside of translation will be discussed in the specific context of bacterial cells. PMID:25796611

  7. Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Intermediaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Stephen M.; Flagg, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    A standard and comprehensive model is needed to evaluate and compare technology transfer systems and the stakeholders within these systems. The principle systems considered include federal laboratories, U.S. universities, the rehabilitation engineering research centers (RERCs), and large small business innovation research programs. An earlier…

  8. Following the Ontario Transfer Student: From College to University Inception. Professional File. Number 31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Christine Helen

    2011-01-01

    What sources and resources do college students utilize to assist them in the transfer process? What factors influence students' transfer decisions? What information do students possess about transfer and of what quality is the transfer information students receive? This investigation interviews students of two-year College of Applied Arts and…

  9. Transferring Education for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Umer Farooque, T. K.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability stands for sustaining the past, meeting needs of the present without compromising the ability to meet future needs. It should meet the individual and social needs, present and future needs local and global needs. A sustainable education that meets this requirements surely be a transferable education; an education that transfers from…

  10. Automatic microbial transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Device can transfer metabolites or inhibitory agents to broth cultures of bacteria, in various stages of growth, for study. It also has application in transfer of other micro-organisms, such as yeasts, and could be useful in clinical and research laboratories. Device has been used for wide variety of purposes in experimental situations.

  11. Transfer Study Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    Longitudinal data are presented relating to Bakersfield College (BC) students who transferred to public four-year colleges and universities. Highlighted findings include the following: (1) first-time transfers from BC to the California State University and College (CSUC) system increased by 19.4% from fall 1987 to fall 1988, the highest since the…

  12. National Technology Transfer Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Lee W.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC) are provided. The NTTC mission is to serve as a hub for the nationwide technology-transfer network to expedite the movement of federally developed technology into the stream of commerce. A description of the Center is provided.

  13. Lymphangiogenesis and Lymphangiogenic Growth Factors.

    PubMed

    Hartiala, Pauliina; Saarikko, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema is a progressive disease caused by damage to the lymphatic network. Recent development in the fields of preclinical growth factor research and lymphedema microsurgery promise new hope for lymphedema patients. In this article, we review the latest results on basic research and highlight the role of specific growth factors in normal lymphatic development and several disease states. Lymph node transfer, a new promising method in reconstructive lymphatic microsurgery, is also dependent on the lymphatic vascular regrowth and lymphangiogenic growth factors. We discuss the scientific basis of lymph node transfer and therapeutic potential of lymphangiogenic growth factors in the treatment of lymphedema. PMID:25665098

  14. Thermal radiation heat transfer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.; Howell, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of heat transfer by thermal radiation is presented, including the radiative behavior of materials, radiation between surfaces, and gas radiation. Among the topics considered are property prediction by electromagnetic theory, the observed properties of solid materials, radiation in the presence of other modes of energy transfer, the equations of transfer for an absorbing-emitting gas, and radiative transfer in scattering and absorbing media. Also considered are radiation exchange between black isothermal surfaces, radiation exchange in enclosures composed of diffuse gray surfaces and in enclosures having some specularly reflecting surfaces, and radiation exchange between nondiffuse nongray surfaces. The use of the Monte Carlo technique in solving radiant-exchange problems and problems of radiative transfer through absorbing-emitting media is explained.

  15. [Nuclear transfer and reprogramming in fish].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Geng; Zhu, Zuo-Yan; Sun, Yong-Hua; Zhao, Jue

    2013-04-01

    As an important sub-field in the study of animal cloning, fish nuclear transfer was first established in the early 1960s by Chinese embryologists. Due to its advantages, zebrafish has become a unique animal model to study the mystery of reprogramming in nuclear transfer. This article summarizes the history and current situation in fish nuclear transfer technology and discusses the factors that may influence the development of the cloned embryos. A comprehensive understand-ing of the mechanism for epigenetic modification following nuclear transfer, such as genomic DNA methylation and histone acetylation and/or methylation, will likely increase the success rate and eventually lead to the future freedom of cloning technique. PMID:23659933

  16. Transfer color to night vision images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shaoyuan; Jing, Zhongliang; Liu, Gang; Li, Zhenhua

    2005-08-01

    Natural color appearance is the key problem of color night vision field. In this paper, the color mood of daytime color image is transferred to the monochromic night vision image. This method gives the night image a natural color appearance. For each pixel in the night vision image, the best matching pixel in the color image is found based on texture similarity measure. Entropy, energy, contrast, homogeneity, and correlation features based on co-occurrence matrix are combined as texture similarity measure to find the corresponding pixels between the two images. We use a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimistic weighting factors assigned to the five different features. GA is also employed in searching the matching pixels to make the color transfer algorithm faster. When the best matching pixel in the color image is found, the chromaticity values are transferred to the corresponding pixel of the night vision image. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of this natural color transfer technique.

  17. Conjugate heat transfer of a finned oval tube. Part B: Heat transfer behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Fiebig, M.; Mitra, N.K.

    1998-03-01

    Conjugate heat transfer in a high-performance finned oval tube heat exchanger element has been calculated for a thermally and hydrodynamically developing three-dimensional laminar flow. The influence of Reynolds number in the range 100--500 and of a fin parameter Fi, the product of the dimensionless fin thickness and its thermal conductivity, on the heat transfer behavior have been studied. In part 1, the computed velocity field was presented. Here the authors present the heat transfer behavior, including heat flux on the tube, fin temperatures, fin Nusselt numbers and heat flux distributions, fin efficiencies, Colburn j factor, and apparent friction factor f{sup app}. For the investigated configuration, the ratio of heat transfer on the tube to that on the fin remains under 10%. The fin temperature and fin efficiency depend weakly on Fi. Finned tube heat exchangers are used in air conditioners and the chemical industry.

  18. Numerical Radiative Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Operator Perturbation: 1. Survey of operator perturbation methods W. Kalkofen; 2. Line formation in expanding atmospheres: multilevel calculations using approximate lambda operators W. R. Hamann; 3. Stellar atmospheres in non-LTE: model construction and line formation calculations using approximate lambda operators K. Werner; 4. Acceleration of convergence L. H. Auer; 5. Line formation in a time-dependent atmosphere W. Kalkofen; 6. Iterative solution of multilevel transfer problems Eugene H. Avrett and Rudolf Loeser; 7. An algorithm for the simultaneous solution of thousands of transfer equations under global constraints Lawrence S. Anderson; 8. Operator perturbation for differential equations W. Kalkofen; Part II. Polarised Radiation: 9. A gentle introduction to polarised radiative transfer David E. Rees; 10. Non-LTE polarised radiative transfer in special lines David E. Rees and Graham A. Murphy; 11. Transfer of polarised radiation using 4x4 matrices E. Landi Degli'Innocenti; 12. Radiative transfer in the presence of strong magnetic fields A. A. van Ballegooijen; 13. An integral operator technique of radiative transfer in spherical symmetry A. Peraiah; 14. Discrete ordinate matrix method M. Schmidt and R. Wehrse.

  19. Numerical Radiative Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang

    1988-01-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Operator Perturbation: 1. Survey of operator perturbation methods W. Kalkofen; 2. Line formation in expanding atmospheres: multilevel calculations using approximate lambda operators W. R. Hamann; 3. Stellar atmospheres in non-LTE: model construction and line formation calculations using approximate lambda operators K. Werner; 4. Acceleration of convergence L. H. Auer; 5. Line formation in a time-dependent atmosphere W. Kalkofen; 6. Iterative solution of multilevel transfer problems Eugene H. Avrett and Rudolf Loeser; 7. An algorithm for the simultaneous solution of thousands of transfer equations under global constraints Lawrence S. Anderson; 8. Operator perturbation for differential equations W. Kalkofen; Part II. Polarised Radiation: 9. A gentle introduction to polarised radiative transfer David E. Rees; 10. Non-LTE polarised radiative transfer in special lines David E. Rees and Graham A. Murphy; 11. Transfer of polarised radiation using 4x4 matrices E. Landi Degli'Innocenti; 12. Radiative transfer in the presence of strong magnetic fields A. A. van Ballegooijen; 13. An integral operator technique of radiative transfer in spherical symmetry A. Peraiah; 14. Discrete ordinate matrix method M. Schmidt and R. Wehrse.

  20. Technology transfer 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This document, Technology Transfer 94, is intended to communicate that there are many opportunities available to US industry and academic institutions to work with DOE and its laboratories and facilities in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. It has seven major sections: Introduction, Technology Transfer Activities, Access to Laboratories and Facilities, Laboratories and Facilities, DOE Office, Technologies, and an Index. Technology Transfer Activities highlights DOE`s recent developments in technology transfer and describes plans for the future. Access to Laboratories and Facilities describes the many avenues for cooperative interaction between DOE laboratories or facilities and industry, academia, and other government agencies. Laboratories and Facilities profiles the DOE laboratories and facilities involved in technology transfer and presents information on their missions, programs, expertise, facilities, and equipment, along with data on whom to contact for additional information on technology transfer. DOE Offices summarizes the major research and development programs within DOE. It also contains information on how to access DOE scientific and technical information. Technologies provides descriptions of some of the new technologies developed at DOE laboratories and facilities.

  1. Transferability of glass lens molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuki, Masahide

    2006-02-01

    Sphere lenses have been used for long time. But it is well known that sphere lenses theoretically have spherical aberration, coma and so on. And, aspheric lenses attract attention recently. Plastic lenses are molded easily with injection machines, and are relatively low cost. They are suitable for mass production. On the other hand, glass lenses have several excellent features such as high refractive index, heat resistance and so on. Many aspheric glass lenses came to be used for the latest digital camera and mobile phone camera module. It is very difficult to produce aspheric glass lenses by conventional process of curve generating and polishing. For the solution of this problem, Glass Molding Machine was developed and is spreading through the market. High precision mold is necessary to mold glass lenses with Glass Molding Machine. The mold core is ground or turned by high precision NC aspheric generator. To obtain higher transferability of the mold core, the function of the molding machine and the conditions of molding are very important. But because of high molding temperature, there are factors of thermal expansion and contraction of the mold and glass material. And it is hard to avoid the factors. In this session, I introduce following items. [1] Technology of glass molding and the machine is introduced. [2] The transferability of glass molding is analyzed with some data of glass lenses molded. [3] Compensation of molding shape error is discussed with examples.

  2. Heat transfer equipment design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R. K.; Subbarao, Eleswarapu Chinna; Mashelkar, R. A.

    A comprehensive presentation is made of state-of-the-art configurations and design methodologies for heat transfer devices applicable to industrial processes, automotive systems, air conditioning/refrigeration, cryogenics, and petrochemicals refining. Attention is given to topics in heat exchanger mechanical design, single-phase convection processes, thermal design, two-phase exchanger thermal design, heat-transfer augmentation, and rheological effects. Computerized analysis and design methodologies are presented for the range of heat transfer systems, as well as advanced methods for optimization and performance projection.

  3. Heat transfer device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved heat transfer device particularly suited for use as an evaporator plate in a diffusion cloud chamber. The device is characterized by a pair of mutually spaced heat transfer plates, each being of a planar configuration, having a pair of opposed surfaces defining therebetween a heat pipe chamber. Within the heat pipe chamber, in contiguous relation with the pair of opposed surfaces, there is disposed a pair of heat pipe wicks supported in a mutually spaced relationship by a foraminous spacer of a planar configuration. A wick including a foraminous layer is contiguously related to the external surfaces of the heat transfer plates for uniformly wetting these surfaces.

  4. Embryo transfer in swine.

    PubMed

    Davis, D L; James, J E

    1984-03-01

    Embryo transfer is used to propagate genetically superior swine while minimizing disease risks. Embryos are harvested through a ventral midline incision in the anesthetized sow 4-6 days after estrus, using a glass tube or Foley catheter. Embryos are transferred to similarly prepared sows by injection directly into the uterus through a tomcat catheter or glass pipette. Embryos typically are transferred within a few hours of collection but may be stored in culture medium at 37 C for up to 30 hours. PMID:6727854

  5. Heat transfer in pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbach, T.

    1985-01-01

    The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

  6. Information transfer in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1988-01-01

    An informal overview is given of the work in progress and the planned work in the area of information transfer that specifically addresses human factors issues in National Airspace System (NAS). The issues of how weather information will be displayed on the flight deck, the development of appropriate decision making technology, and digital datalink transmission are also briefly discussed.

  7. Special Report on the Transfer Admission Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for College Admission Counseling, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each Spring, much media attention is focused on the college admission process for first-year students, with particular emphasis on acceptance rates and factors that colleges consider when choosing among applicants. However, less attention is focused on the transfer admission process, which affects approximately one-third of students beginning at…

  8. Maximizing profits in international technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straube, W.

    1974-01-01

    Maximum profit can be introduced into international technology transfer by observing the following: (1) ethical and open dealing between the parties; (2) maximum knowledge of all facts concerning the technology, the use of the technology, the market, competition, prices, and alternatives; (3) ability to coordinate exports, service, support activities, licensing and cross licensing; and (4) knowledgeable people which put these factors together.

  9. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  10. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot was constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors were found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  11. Predicting outcomes for youth transferred to adult court.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carol A; Mulvey, Edward P; Loughran, Thomas A; Fagan, Jeffrey; Chassin, Laurie A; Piquero, Alex R; Losoya, Sandra H; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    Extant research regarding juvenile transfer has focused primarily on the negative effects of current policies, with little consistent and rigorous work on the variation among the adolescents transferred to adult court and their later adjustment in the community. Using a sample of 193 transferred youth from Arizona, we consider how certain individual characteristics are related to four post-release outcomes (antisocial activity, re-arrest, re-institutionalization, and gainful activity). We find considerable variability in outcomes, with adjustment significantly and consistently related to certain legal and risk-need factors. These results indicate that some transferred youth may experience negative outcomes, and that refinements to transfer policy may benefit from consideration of these factors in determining which serious adolescent offenders are most appropriate for transfer. PMID:20204478

  12. Transferring learning from faculty development to the classroom.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kim Z

    2014-12-01

    This study’s purpose was to better understand the transfer of learning by uncovering how various factors supported the integration of health information technology knowledge and skills gleaned from the Health Resources and Services Administration–funded faculty development programs into nursing education curricula. Through interviews with 20 participants from four programs, this study confirmed the importance of findings related to faculty, program, and work environment characteristics for supporting successful transfer of learning and substantiates a variety of other transfer-of-learning research. New or seldom discussed supportive individual characteristics were found, including leadership abilities, lifelong learning, ability to recognize limitations, persistence, creativity, and risk taking. The importance of networking, diversity of perspectives, postconference support, and teams in program designs were found to positively influence transfer. The variety of supportive factors and barriers in the participants’ work environments strengthens the assertions that transfer may be context dependent. Findings provided insight for recommendations to improve learning transfer. PMID:25494191

  13. Technology transfer for adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  14. Mississippi Technology Transfer Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Mississippi Technology Transfer Center at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., was officially dedicated in 1987. The center is home to several state agencies as well as the Center For Higher Learning.

  15. International Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Robert G.

    The flow of technology out of the United States is discussed. Methods of technology flow, such as licensing and investing, are identified, and the advantages and disadvantages of technology transfer are discussed, especially in relation to the government's role. (MLH)

  16. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  17. Technology transfer methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labotz, Rich

    1991-01-01

    Information on technology transfer methodology is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include problems in economics, technology drivers, inhibitors to using improved technology in development, technology application opportunities, and co-sponsorship of technology.

  18. Shielded cells transfer automation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J J

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures.

  19. Principles of tendon transfers.

    PubMed

    Coulet, B

    2016-04-01

    Tendon transfers are carried out to restore functional deficits by rerouting the remaining intact muscles. Transfers are highly attractive in the context of hand surgery because of the possibility of restoring the patient's ability to grip. In palsy cases, tendon transfers are only used when a neurological procedure is contraindicated or has failed. The strategy used to restore function follows a common set of principles, no matter the nature of the deficit. The first step is to clearly distinguish between deficient muscles and muscles that could be transferred. Next, the type of palsy will dictate the scope of the program and the complexity of the gripping movements that can be restored. Based on this reasoning, a surgical strategy that matches the means (transferable muscles) with the objectives (functions to restore) will be established and clearly explained to the patient. Every paralyzed hand can be described using three parameters. 1) Deficient segments: wrist, thumb and long fingers; 2) mechanical performance of muscles groups being revived: high energy-wrist extension and finger flexion that require strong transfers with long excursion; low energy-wrist flexion and finger extension movements that are less demanding mechanically, because they can be accomplished through gravity alone in some cases; 3) condition of the two primary motors in the hand: extrinsics (flexors and extensors) and intrinsics (facilitator). No matter the type of palsy, the transfer surgery follows the same technical principles: exposure, release, fixation, tensioning and rehabilitation. By performing an in-depth analysis of each case and by following strict technical principles, tendon transfer surgery leads to reproducible results; this allows the surgeon to establish clear objectives for the patient preoperatively. PMID:27117119

  20. Symbolic transfer entropy.

    PubMed

    Staniek, Matthäus; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2008-04-18

    We propose to estimate transfer entropy using a technique of symbolization. We demonstrate numerically that symbolic transfer entropy is a robust and computationally fast method to quantify the dominating direction of information flow between time series from structurally identical and nonidentical coupled systems. Analyzing multiday, multichannel electroencephalographic recordings from 15 epilepsy patients our approach allowed us to reliably identify the hemisphere containing the epileptic focus without observing actual seizure activity. PMID:18518155

  1. Symbolic Transfer Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniek, Matthäus; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    We propose to estimate transfer entropy using a technique of symbolization. We demonstrate numerically that symbolic transfer entropy is a robust and computationally fast method to quantify the dominating direction of information flow between time series from structurally identical and nonidentical coupled systems. Analyzing multiday, multichannel electroencephalographic recordings from 15 epilepsy patients our approach allowed us to reliably identify the hemisphere containing the epileptic focus without observing actual seizure activity.

  2. Adaptive transfer functions

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper details the approach and methodology used to build adaptive transfer functions in a feed-forward Back-Propagation neural network, and provides insight into the structure dependent properties of using non-scaled analog inputs. The results of using adaptive transfer functions are shown to outperform conventional architectures in the implementation of a mechanical power transmission gearbox design expert system knowledge base. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Computational heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaluria, Yogesh; Torrance, Kenneth E.

    Numerical approaches to heat-transfer problems are examined in an introductory text for senior and graduate engineering students. The emphasis is on the application of physical criteria in selecting the computational method. Chapters are devoted to the mathematics of the governing equations, finite differences, and finite elements; the simulation of transport processes; numerical methods for convective and radiative heat transfer; and combined modes and process applications. Graphs, diagrams, flow charts, problems, tables of material parameters, and sample computer programs are provided.

  4. Controlled environment specimen transfer.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Christian D; Zandbergen, Henny; W Hansen, Thomas; Chorkendorff, Ib; B Wagner, Jakob

    2014-08-01

    Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking an environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for methanol synthesis and a Co/Al2O3 catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Both systems are sensitive to ambient atmosphere as they will oxidize after relatively short air exposure. The Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, was reduced in the in situ X-ray diffractometer set-up, and subsequently, successfully transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ transfer holder facilitates complimentary in situ experiments of the same specimen without changing the specimen state during transfer. PMID:24824787

  5. Learning Transfer: The Views of Practitioners in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Paul; Darcy, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable expenditure on human resource development (HRD) has not necessarily resulted in a significant impact on organizational performance, and research suggests that the failure to transfer learning may be an important explanation. The search for factors affecting transfer has been extensive, as shown in Grossman and Salas's article in this

  6. Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Learning Transfer System Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Bookter, Annette I.; Yamkovenko, V. Bogdan

    2007-01-01

    The Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) was developed to identify a select set of factors with the potential to substantially enhance or inhibit transfer of learning to the work environment. It has undergone a variety of validation studies, including construct, criterion, and crosscultural studies. However, the convergent and divergent…

  7. A Model of the Antecedents of Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed Turab, Ghaneemah; Casimir, Gian

    2015-01-01

    Many organizations have invested heavily in training. However, only a small percentage of what is learnt from training is applied or transferred to the workplace. This study examines factors that influence training transfer. A conceptual model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action is hypothesized and tested. The sample consisted of 123 full-time…

  8. Learning Transfer: The Views of Practitioners in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Paul; Darcy, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable expenditure on human resource development (HRD) has not necessarily resulted in a significant impact on organizational performance, and research suggests that the failure to transfer learning may be an important explanation. The search for factors affecting transfer has been extensive, as shown in Grossman and Salas's article in this…

  9. A Model of the Antecedents of Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed Turab, Ghaneemah; Casimir, Gian

    2015-01-01

    Many organizations have invested heavily in training. However, only a small percentage of what is learnt from training is applied or transferred to the workplace. This study examines factors that influence training transfer. A conceptual model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action is hypothesized and tested. The sample consisted of 123 full-time

  10. Ames Lab 101: Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory Associate Laboratory Director, Sponsored Research Administration, Debra Covey discusses technology transfer. Covey also discusses Ames Laboratory's most successful transfer, lead-free solder.

  11. Ames Lab 101: Technology Transfer

    ScienceCinema

    Covey, Debra

    2012-08-29

    Ames Laboratory Associate Laboratory Director, Sponsored Research Administration, Debra Covey discusses technology transfer. Covey also discusses Ames Laboratory's most successful transfer, lead-free solder.

  12. Irreversible Heavy Chain Transfer to Chondroitin*

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Mark E.; Hascall, Vincent C.; Green, Dixy E.; DeAngelis, Paul L.; Calabro, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the transfer of heavy chains (HCs) from inter-α-inhibitor, via the enzyme TSG-6 (tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6), to hyaluronan (HA) oligosaccharides is an irreversible event in which subsequent swapping of HCs between HA molecules does not occur. We now describe our results of HC transfer experiments to chondroitin sulfate A, chemically desulfated chondroitin, chemoenzymatically synthesized chondroitin, unsulfated heparosan, heparan sulfate, and alginate. Of these potential HC acceptors, only chemically desulfated chondroitin and chemoenzymatically synthesized chondroitin were HC acceptors. The kinetics of HC transfer to chondroitin was similar to HA. At earlier time points, HCs were more widely distributed among the different sizes of chondroitin chains. As time progressed, the HCs migrated to lower molecular weight chains of chondroitin. Our interpretation is that TSG-6 swaps the HCs from the larger, reversible sites on chondroitin chains, which function as HC acceptors, onto smaller chondroitin chains, which function as irreversible HC acceptors. HCs transferred to smaller chondroitin chains were unable to be swapped off the smaller chondroitin chains and transferred to HA. HCs transferred to high molecular weight HA were unable to be swapped onto chondroitin. We also present data that although chondroitin was a HC acceptor, HA was the preferred acceptor when chondroitin and HA were in the same reaction mixture. PMID:25135638

  13. Achieving regionalization through rural interhospital transfer.

    PubMed

    Feazel, Leah; Schlichting, Adam B; Bell, Gregory R; Shane, Dan M; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Faine, Brett; Nugent, Andrew; Mohr, Nicholas M

    2015-09-01

    Regionalization of emergency medical care aims to provide consistent and efficient high-quality care leading to optimal clinical outcomes by matching patient needs with appropriate resources at a network of hospitals. Regionalized care has been shown to improve outcomes in trauma, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac arrest, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In rural areas, effective regionalization often requires interhospital transfer. The decision to transfer is complex and includes such factors as capabilities of the presenting hospital; capacity at the receiving hospital; and financial, geographic, and patient-preference considerations. Although transfer to a comprehensive center has proven benefits for some conditions, the transfer process is not without risk. These risks include clinical deterioration, limited resource availability during transport, vehicular crashes, time delays for time-sensitive care, poor communication between providers, and neglect of patient preferences. This article reviews the transfer decision, financial implications, risks, and considerations for patients undergoing rural interhospital transfer. We identify several strategies that should be considered for development of the regionalized emergency health care system of the future and identify areas where further research is necessary. PMID:26087707

  14. Disability and Type/Level of Offense Committed by Juveniles Transferred versus Not Transferred to the Adult Court System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Julie C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two groups of males in Arizona Department of Corrections (ADJC) custody with regard to three factors. The first group consisted of youth sentenced to ADJC who later received criminal charges for which they were transferred to the adult court system, ("Transferred" group), and the second group involved youth…

  15. Transfer of nir calibration model for determining fiber content in flax; effects of transfer samples and standardization procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transfer of a calibration model for determining fiber content in flax stem was accomplished between two near-infrared spectrometers, which are the same brand but require a standardization. In this paper, three factors including: transfer sample set, spectral type, and standardization method wer...

  16. Tech transfer outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Liebetrau, S.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides an informal summary of the conference workshop sessions. Tech Transfer Outreach '' was originally designed as an opportunity for national laboratory communications and technology transfer staff to become better acquainted and to discuss matters of mutual interest. When DOE field office personnel asked if they could attend, and then when one of our keynote speakers became a participant in the discussions, the actual event grew in importance. The conference participants--the laboratories and DOE representatives from across the nation--worked to brainstorm ideas. Their objective: identify ways to cooperate for effective (and cost-effective) technology transfer outreach. Thus, this proceedings is truly a product of ten national laboratories and DOE, working together. It candidly presents the discussion of issues and the ideas generated by each working group. The issues and recommendations are a consensus of their views.

  17. Three pro-nuclei (3PN) incidence factors and clinical outcomes: a retrospective study from the fresh embryo transfer of in vitro fertilization with donor sperm (IVF-D)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingzhao; Zhao, Wanqiu; Xue, Xia; Zhang, Silin; Shi, Wenhao; Shi, Juanzi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the main factors of 3PN incidence and determine whether the presence of 3PN could lead to a worse pregnancy outcome. Methods: This study included 508 IVF-D (in vitro fertilization with donor sperm) cycles from January 2013 to September 2014. The patients were divided into three groups as follows: group 1 included patients with no 3PN zygotes, group 2 included patients with 1%-25% 3PN zygotes and group 3 included patients with > 25% 3PN zygotes. Results: We observed that more retrieved oocytes and higher HCG day peak E2 value could result in 3PN incidence more easily. When the 3PN zygotes rate was > 25%, the percentages of normal fertilization (68.4% and 66.3% and 46.4%, P < 0.001), day 3 grade I+II embryos (41.2% and 38.6% and 25.8%, P < 0.001), day 3 grade I+II+III embryos (68.7% and 65.2% and 61.4%, P = 0.032) and implantation rates (52.1% and 50.8% and 45.4%, P = 0.026) were significantly lower than that in the other two groups respectively. The pregnancy rate was lower in 3PN > 25% group than that in the other two groups but there was no significant difference (65.2% and 66.7% and 55.6%, P = 0.266). The cleavage (98.3% and 97.2% and 98.2%, P = 0.063) and early abortion (7.1% and 8.0% and 8.6%, P = 0.930) rate were identical among three groups. Conclusions: More retrieved oocytes and higher HCG day peak E2 value could result in 3PN incidence more easily. Interestingly, normal fertilization rate, day-3 grade I+II embryos rate, day-3 grade I+II+III embryos rate and implantation rate were significantly lower in IVF-D cycles with a 3PN incidence of > 25%. The number of day-3 grade I+II embryos might be a key factor for pregnancy in IVF-D cycles with a 3PN incidence of > 25%. PMID:26550358

  18. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS meet the servicing requirements for ISS and could also provide the automated fluid and power interface system needed for on orbit consumable resupply of spacecraft into the new century.

  19. Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastedo, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

  20. Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthess, Georg

    1984-04-01

    The burning of fossil carbon compounds causes an annual rise of about 0.2% of the total atmospheric CO2, which is about 50% the annual output of manmade CO2. One of the major reasons for this beneficial phenomenon is probably the CO2 uptake by the ocean water. A thorough knowledge of this process is needed for a prediction of the long-term impact of the use of fossil fuels on the environment. The example indicates that mass transfer across the gas-water interface is an important aspect in the geophysical, geochemical, and biochemcial cycle of natural and manmade substances. It regulates the transition between the dissolved state in the water and the gaseous state in the atmosphere. The knowledge of the air-water exchange is probably the most advanced of all the transport processes between environmental compartments. Nevertheless, there is still a need for a better understanding of this interfacial mass transfer, which is a critical factor of great scientific and practical relevance in assessments of the various pathways of wastes in the environment and for their engineering management.

  1. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  2. Departmental technology transfer update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Roger A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is the following: to provide the perspective of the Department of Energy (DOE); emphasize new and emerging initiatives; and address unresolved issues that might impact successful program implementation. The approach is the following: to provide a brief overview of DOE, its R&D, and its technology transfer assets; to briefly describe the evolution of DOE's enhanced technology transfer program; to report on specific progress and achievements over the past year--as the spring board for our current and future plans; to present our near and longer term plans; and to survey the remaining issues and the resolution process.

  3. Technology transfer issue

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, C.

    1982-05-31

    Testimony by Lawrence J. Brady, Commerce Assistant Secretary for Trade Administration, at Congressional hearings on the national security issues of technology transfers to the Soviet Union identified steps the US needs to take to deal effectively with the problem. These steps include an understanding of how the Soviet Union has and will benefit militarily by acquiring Western technology and efforts to work with other countries, counterintelligence agencies, and industries to stem the flow of technological information. Brady outlined changes in technology development that complicate the enforcement of transfer rules, and emphasized the importance of a close relationship between the business community and the Commerce Department. (DCK)

  4. Nerve Transfers in Tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ida K

    2016-05-01

    Hand and upper extremity function is instrumental to basic activities of daily living and level of independence in cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Nerve transfer surgery is a novel and alternate approach for restoring function in SCI. This article discusses the biologic basis of nerve transfers in SCI, patient evaluation, management, and surgical approaches. Although the application of this technique is not new; recent case reports and case series in the literature have increased interest in this field. The challenges are to improve function, achieve maximal gains in function, avoid complications, and to primum non nocere. PMID:27094894

  5. Thermal transfer recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Fukushima, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Shinozuka, M.; Seikohsha, K. K. Suwa

    1988-08-01

    The recording media consist of more than or one coloring layer and a layer containing a flame retardant to ensure noncombustibility and good thermal transfer. Thus, a PET film was coated on a side with a compound containing Vylon 290 (polyester resin), AFR-1021 (decabromodiphenyl oxide) 8 and Polysafe 60 (Sb oxide), and coated on the other side with a compound containing carnauba wax, HNP-9 (paraffin wax), EV-410 (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer), and Cu phthalocyanine to give a thermal transfer recording medium which showed good noncombustibility and antiblocking properties, and provided high quality images.

  6. Transferring Technology to Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfenbarger, J. Ken

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology transfer processes in which JPL has been involved to assist in transferring the technology derived from aerospace research and development to industry. California Institute of Technology (CalTech), the organization that runs JPL, is the leading institute in patents for all U.S. universities. There are several mechanisms that are available to JPL to inform industry of these technological advances: (1) a dedicated organization at JPL, National Space Technology Applications (NSTA), (2) Tech Brief Magazine, (3) Spinoff magazine, and (4) JPL publications. There have also been many start-up organizations and businesses from CalTech.

  7. Making behavioral technology transferable

    PubMed Central

    Pennypacker, H. S.; Hench, Larry L.

    1997-01-01

    The paucity of transferred behavioral technologies is traced to the absence of strategies for developing technology that is transferable, as distinct from strategies for conducting research, whether basic or applied. In the field of engineering, the results of basic research are transformed to candidate technologies that meet standardized criteria with respect to three properties: quantification, repetition, and verification. The technology of vitrification and storage of nuclear waste is used to illustrate the application of these criteria. Examples from behavior analysis are provided, together with suggestions regarding changes in practice that will accelerate the development and application of behavioral technologies. PMID:22478284

  8. Kinetic characterization and identification of a novel inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase 2 using a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay technology.

    PubMed

    Dao, Jennifer H; Kurzeja, Robert J M; Morachis, Jose M; Veith, Henrike; Lewis, Jeffery; Yu, Violeta; Tegley, Christopher M; Tagari, Philip

    2009-01-15

    The human hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylases 1, 2, and 3 (HIF-PHD1, -2, and -3) are thought to act as proximal sensors of cellular hypoxia by virtue of their mechanism-based dependence on molecular oxygen. These 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) and non-heme iron-dependent oxygenases constitutively hydroxylate HIF, resulting in high-affinity binding to Von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL). Some reported affinities for the HIF-PHDs for 2-OG and iron approach the estimated physiological concentrations for these cofactors, suggesting that the system as described is not catalytically optimal. Here we report the enzymatic characterization of full-length recombinant human HIF-PHD2 using a novel and sensitive catalytic assay. We demonstrated submicromolar affinities for 2-OG and ferrous iron and HIF-PHD2 Km values for oxygen that are greater than atmospheric oxygen levels, suggesting that molecular oxygen is indeed the key regulator of this pathway. In addition, we observed enhancement of HIF-PHD2 catalytic activity in the presence of ascorbic acid with only minor modifications of HIF-PHD2 requirements for 2-OG, and a detailed pH study demonstrated optimal HIF-PHD2 catalytic activity at pH 6.0. Lastly, we used this sensitive and facile assay to rapidly perform a large high-throughput screen of a chemical library to successfully identify and characterize novel 2-OG competitive inhibitors of HIF-PHD2. PMID:18952043

  9. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  10. Transfer function matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Given a multivariable system, it is proved that the numerator matrix N(s) of the transfer function evaluated at any system pole either has unity rank or is a null matrix. It is also shown that N(s) evaluated at any transmission zero of the system has rank deficiency. Examples are given for illustration.

  11. Glycolipid transfer proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rhoderick E.; Mattjus, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Glycolipid transfer proteins (GLTPs) are small (24 kD), soluble, ubiquitous proteins characterized by their ability to accelerate the intermembrane transfer of glycolipids in vitro. GLTP specificity encompasses both sphingoid- and glycerol-based glycolipids, but with a strict requirement that the initial sugar residue be beta-linked to the hydrophobic lipid backbone. The 3D protein structures of GLTP reveal liganded structures with unique lipid binding modes. The biochemical properties of GLTP action at the membrane surface have been studied rather comprehensively, but the biological role of GLTP remains enigmatic. What is clear is that GLTP differs distinctly from other known glycolipid-binding proteins, such as nonspecific lipid transfer proteins, lysosomal sphingolipid activator proteins, lectins, lung surfactant proteins as well as other lipid binding/transfer proteins. Based on the unique conformational architecture that targets GLTP to membranes and enables glycolipid binding, GLTP is now considered the prototypical and founding member of a new protein superfamily in eukaryotes. PMID:17320476

  12. Cryogenic Transfer Line Chilldown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dresar, N. T.; Siegwarth, J. D.

    2004-06-01

    The transient behavior of a small-scale cryogenic transfer line was investigated during chilldown to cryogenic temperatures. The vacuum-jacketed apparatus consisted of a vertical tube followed by a near-horizontal tube. The tube diameter was 1 cm and the overall length was 4.4 m. The apparatus was equipped with view-ports in the near-horizontal section to allow visual observation of the flow patterns. Wall temperatures were measured at various locations along the length of the transfer line. Each test was conducted at a constant liquid volumetric flowrate at the transfer line inlet until saturation temperatures were obtained throughout the system. Liquid flowrate was varied by more than two orders of magnitude and resulted in chilldown times ranging from a few minutes to several hours. An optimum flowrate exists that minimizes liquid consumption during the chilldown process. At higher flowrates, there is insufficient time for heat transfer from the liquid to the wall and inefficiencies result from the greater amount of incompletely vaporized liquid passing through the system. At lower flowrates, chilldown time and total ambient heat leak into the system increase, which raises liquid consumption. The experimental values of liquid consumption are compared to analytical estimates. At low flowrates, the data compares favorably to a minimum consumption model while at high flowrates the maximum consumption model overpredicts hydrogen consumption and underpredicts nitrogen consumption.

  13. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  14. Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

  15. Decal transfer microfabrication

    DOEpatents

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Childs, William Robert

    2004-10-19

    A method of making a microstructure includes forming a pattern in a surface of a silicon-containing elastomer, oxidizing the pattern, contacting the pattern with a substrate; and bonding the oxidized pattern and the substrate such that the pattern and the substrate are irreversibly attached. The silicon-containing elastomer may be removably attached to a transfer pad.

  16. Transfer to UC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento.

    This student informational booklet reports that more than 11,000 students transferred from California community colleges to the University of California (UC) in 2000. The publication also answers frequently asked questions. There are three ways to become eligible to attend UC: (1) meet the requirements upon graduating from high school; (2) make up…

  17. Catalysis: Quantifying charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Trevor E.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2016-02-01

    Improving the design of catalytic materials for clean energy production requires a better understanding of their electronic properties, which remains experimentally challenging. Researchers now quantify the number of electrons transferred from metal nanoparticles to an oxide support as a function of particle size.

  18. [Transference and group psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bechelli, Luiz Paulo de C; Santos, Manoel Antônio Dos

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the concept of transference, focusing on its peculiarities in the group context. The nature of the therapeutic situation and the broad freedom given to patients in order to access the unconscious material at their own pace, within a safe environment and with as little censorship as can be managed, transference gradually takes place. Through displacement, the psychotherapist and group members are perceived not as they are, with their real attributes, but as one or more objects that arouse emotions coming from the infant world, more precisely from the collection of deep affective influences. One peculiarity of the group situation when compared to individual psychotherapy is that, in the former, multiple transferences coexist, which group members establish among themselves, enabling a wide range of possible feelings. Both treatment modes share the assumption that unresolved conflicts which stimulated patients to seek for help can be reduced or even abolished through the interpretation and working through of transference, which functions as a process of change throughout the psychotherapy. PMID:16532247

  19. Charge Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennerl, Konrad

    2010-12-01

    Charge transfer, or charge exchange, describes a process in which an ion takes one or more electrons from another atom. Investigations of this fundamental process have accompanied atomic physics from its very beginning, and have been extended to astrophysical scenarios already many decades ago. Yet one important aspect of this process, i.e. its high efficiency in generating X-rays, was only revealed in 1996, when comets were discovered as a new class of X-ray sources. This finding has opened up an entirely new field of X-ray studies, with great impact due to the richness of the underlying atomic physics, as the X-rays are not generated by hot electrons, but by ions picking up electrons from cold gas. While comets still represent the best astrophysical laboratory for investigating the physics of charge transfer, various studies have already spotted a variety of other astrophysical locations, within and beyond our solar system, where X-rays may be generated by this process. They range from planetary atmospheres, the heliosphere, the interstellar medium and stars to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, where charge transfer may even be observationally linked to dark matter. This review attempts to put the various aspects of the study of charge transfer reactions into a broader historical context, with special emphasis on X-ray astrophysics, where the discovery of cometary X-ray emission may have stimulated a novel look at our universe.

  20. Beyond "Technology Transfer"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beek, P. G. H.

    1997-01-01

    When agricultural innovations are not adopted, there is often a gap between what people know they ought to do and what they do. Extension practice needs to expand from technology transfer. The knowledge systems approach is useful in dealing with the introduction of innovation in increasingly complex and uncertain situations. (SK)

  1. Information Transfer in 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, Roger W.

    Results of a recent study of potential demand for electronic information transfer services in 1970-1990 are presented. Projections are made for new services such as electronic mail, remote library browsing, checkless society transactions, video telephone and others, as well as conventional services such as telephone, telegraph and network program…

  2. Proton-transfer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Acuna, A.U.; Costela, A.; Munoz, J.M.

    1986-06-19

    Stimulated radiation was generated by an active medium where the population inversion results from excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer reaction. The operation of a salicylamide pulsed laser, built on this principle, is described. The laser shows a 5% energy conversion efficiency when pumped with 5-20 mJ of 308-nm radiation.

  3. Analytic Couple Modeling Introducing Device Design Factor, Fin Factor, Thermal Diffusivity Factor, and Inductance Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    A set of convenient thermoelectric device solutions have been derived in order to capture a number of factors which are previously only resolved with numerical techniques. The concise conversion efficiency equations derived from governing equations provide intuitive and straight-forward design guidelines. These guidelines allow for better device design without requiring detailed numerical modeling. The analytical modeling accounts for factors such as i) variable temperature boundary conditions, ii) lateral heat transfer, iii) temperature variable material properties, and iv) transient operation. New dimensionless parameters, similar to the figure of merit, are introduced including the device design factor, fin factor, thermal diffusivity factor, and inductance factor. These new device factors allow for the straight-forward description of phenomenon generally only captured with numerical work otherwise. As an example a device design factor of 0.38, which accounts for thermal resistance of the hot and cold shoes, can be used to calculate a conversion efficiency of 2.28 while the ideal conversion efficiency based on figure of merit alone would be 6.15. Likewise an ideal couple with efficiency of 6.15 will be reduced to 5.33 when lateral heat is accounted for with a fin factor of 1.0.

  4. Metal ion modulated electron transfer in photosynthetic proteins.

    SciTech Connect

    Utschig, L. M.; Thurnauer, M. C.; Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    Photosynthetic purple bacterial reaction center (RC) proteins are ideal native systems for addressing basic questions regarding the nature of biological electron transfer because both the protein structure and the electron-transfer reactions are well-characterized. Metal ion binding to the RC can affect primary photochemistry and provides a probe for understanding the involvement of local protein environments in electron transfer. The RC has two distinct transition metal ion binding sites, the well-known non-heme Fe{sup 2+} site buried in the protein interior and a recently discovered Zn{sup 2+} site located on the surface of the protein. Fe{sup 2+} removal and Zn{sup 2+} binding systematically affect different electron-transfer steps in the RC. Factors involved in the metal ion alteration of RC electron transfer may provide a paradigm for other biological systems involved in electron transfer.

  5. Symbolic local information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Haruna, T.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, the permutation-information theoretic approach has been used in a broad range of research fields. In particular, in the study of high-dimensional dynamical systems, it has been shown that this approach can be effective in characterizing global properties, including the complexity of their spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we show that this approach can also be applied to reveal local spatiotemporal profiles of distributed computations existing at each spatiotemporal point in the system. J. T. Lizier et al. have recently introduced the concept of local information dynamics, which consists of information storage, transfer, and modification. This concept has been intensively studied with regard to cellular automata, and has provided quantitative evidence of several characteristic behaviors observed in the system. In this paper, by focusing on the local information transfer, we demonstrate that the application of the permutation-information theoretic approach, which introduces natural symbolization methods, makes the concept easily extendible to systems that have continuous states. We propose measures called symbolic local transfer entropies, and apply these measures to two test models, the coupled map lattice (CML) system and the Bak-Sneppen model (BS-model), to show their relevance to spatiotemporal systems that have continuous states. In the CML, we demonstrate that it can be successfully used as a spatiotemporal filter to stress a coherent structure buried in the system. In particular, we show that the approach can clearly stress out defect turbulences or Brownian motion of defects from the background, which gives quantitative evidence suggesting that these moving patterns are the information transfer substrate in the spatiotemporal system. We then show that these measures reveal qualitatively different properties from the conventional approach using the sliding window method, and are also robust against external noise. In the BS-model, we demonstrate that these measures can provide novel insight to the model, featuring how symbolic local information transfer is related to the dynamical properties of the elements involved in a spatiotemporal dynamics.

  6. Transfer Velocity Project: Key Findings on Student Transfer in California Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Planning Group for California Community Colleges (RP Group), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Which factors promote student transfer from California Community Colleges (CCC) to baccalaureate-granting institutions? How do community college practices support this transition? Which student behaviors and characteristics particularly facilitate their movement to four-year colleges and universities? The Research and Planning Group for California…

  7. The For-Profit Transfer Path: A Comparison of California Community College Transfer Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ommeren, Alice

    2011-01-01

    The results of this study determined that community college students who transfer to for-profit institutions are indeed different from students who follow traditional routes defined as public and non-profit institutions. This study compares the demographic characteristics, academic experiences, and socioeconomic factors of California community…

  8. The distance and temperature dependence of electron-transfer rates

    SciTech Connect

    Sutin, N.

    1987-01-01

    Electron transfer occurs over relatively long distances in a variety of systems. In interpreting the measured electron-transfer rates it is usually assumed that the rate constants depend exponentially on the distance separating the two redox sites and that this distance dependence arises from the decrease in the electronic coupling of the redox sites with increasing separation. Although the electronic coupling is an important factor determining the distance dependence of the rate, theoretical considerations suggest that the nuclear factors are also important. The various factors determining long-range electron-transfer rates are discussed and it is shown that very different distance dependences are predicted for reactions in the normal and inverted free-energy regions. The effect of the enthalpy change on the electron-transfer rate is also considered; three enthalpy regions are identified depending on the overall free energy and entropy changes for the reaction.

  9. Direct transfer of graphene onto flexible substrates

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Luiz G. P.; Song, Yi; Zeng, Tingying; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Kong, Jing; Araujo, Paulo T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the direct transfer via lamination of chemical vapor deposition graphene onto different flexible substrates. The transfer method investigated here is fast, simple, and does not require an intermediate transfer membrane, such as polymethylmethacrylate, which needs to be removed afterward. Various substrates of general interest in research and industry were studied in this work, including polytetrafluoroethylene filter membranes, PVC, cellulose nitrate/cellulose acetate filter membranes, polycarbonate, paraffin, polyethylene terephthalate, paper, and cloth. By comparing the properties of these substrates, two critical factors to ensure a successful transfer on bare substrates were identified: the substrate’s hydrophobicity and good contact between the substrate and graphene. For substrates that do not satisfy those requirements, polymethylmethacrylate can be used as a surface modifier or glue to ensure successful transfer. Our results can be applied to facilitate current processes and open up directions for applications of chemical vapor deposition graphene on flexible substrates. A broad range of applications can be envisioned, including fabrication of graphene devices for opto/organic electronics, graphene membranes for gas/liquid separation, and ubiquitous electronics with graphene. PMID:24127582

  10. Regulation of technology transfer by multinational corporations

    SciTech Connect

    Clarry, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines the changing terms and organizational forms of technology transfer by MNCs within the pharmaceutical industry in Latin American countries. Host government regulation was able to attract entries by MNCs and reduce their level of direct contractual costs for transfers, but also encouraged more unregulated internal transmission within MNC organizations. The internalization of imperfect markets for intangible marketing and technological advantages avoided stricter host regulations, but simultaneously increased policy conflicts with governments. The process of technology transfer by MNCs became more politicized and negotiable in the industry during the 1970s. The costs of transfers were determined more by organizational and bargaining power factors than by economic processes. Government regulation reduced royalty payments and restrictive business practices in technology licensing agreements, but host nations were still dependent on imports and new products from MNCs. The bargaining position of host governments improved as competition among oligopolistic MNCs increased and pharmaceutical technology matured. More investments in local raw material manufacturing were stimulated, and internal transfer pricing manipulation was reduced by government regulations.

  11. A correlation for mass transfer coefficients in elbows

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Shirazi, S.A.; Shadley, J.R.; Rybicki, E.F.; Dayalan, E.

    1998-12-31

    Mass transfer can have a significant effect on corrosion rates depending on the solution chemistry and flow conditions. Therefore, knowledge of the distribution of mass transfer coefficients along the flow geometry can be useful in determining the severity of corrosion rates in situations where mass transfer is a factor. In this investigation, mass transfer in 90 elbows was examined. A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code was used to model the flow in an elbow and compute mass transfer coefficients. Results were compared to available experimental data to verify the model. Although the number of variables involved in corrosion process is large, only two dimensionless parameters, namely, the flow Reynolds number and the Schmidt number are important for characterizing the mass transfer process. Mass transfer in elbows is also influenced by elbow geometry parameters such as the elbow radius to pipe diameter ratio (r/D). Based on these three dimensionless parameters, mass transfer between the elbow wall and the fluid was simulated and a correlation was developed to predict the maximum elbow mass transfer coefficient as a function of the flow Reynolds number, the Schmidt number and the elbow r/D. This investigation was motivated by a need to predict mass transfer coefficients in elbows for use in conjunction with a comprehensive model for calculating CO{sub 2} corrosion rates in oil and gas pipelines.

  12. Technology transfer within the government

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Carissa Bryce

    1992-01-01

    The report of a workshop panel concerned with technology transfer within the government is presented. The suggested subtopics for the panel were as follows: (1) transfer from non-NASA U.S. government technology developers to NASA space missions/programs; and (2) transfer from NASA to other U.S. government civil space mission programs. Two presentations were made to the panel: Roles/Value of Early Strategic Planning Within the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to Facilitate Later Technology Transfer To and From Industry; and NOAA Satellite Programs and Technology Requirements. The panel discussion addresses the following major issues: DOD/NASA cooperation; alternative mechanisms for interagency communication and interactions; current technology transfer relationships among federal research agencies, and strategies for improving this transfer; technology transfer mechanisms appropriate to intragovernment transfer; the importance of industry as a technology transfer conduit; and measures of merit.

  13. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  14. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost-effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  15. Radiation transfer in dense interstellar clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, S.; Rosolia, A.; Barsella, B.; Ferrini, F.; Iorio, D.

    1984-12-01

    The scattering properties of interstellar dust in the far ultraviolet as derived from the observations are reviewed. The transfer of ultraviolet radiation within a spherically symmetric inhomogeneous cloud is analysed using the method of successive scattering. The effects of different assumptions, both on the albedo and asymmetry factor of interstellar dust, and also of the extinction law on UV radiation penetration into clouds are studied. The results are used to determine the lifetime against photodestruction of interstellar formaldehyde in dense clouds.

  16. The Role of Teams, Culture, and Capacity in the Transfer of Organizational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Leyland M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Transferring organizational practices requires an understanding not only of what is being transferred but also of what is needed to ensure that the transfer is successful. In line with this thinking, the purpose of this study is to examine three factors that are crucial parts of this mechanism: use of teams, culture, and capacity.…

  17. Beyond Access: Explaining Socioeconomic Differences in College Transfer. WISCAPE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Pfeffer, Fabian T.

    2008-01-01

    Reducing socioeconomic differences in college transfer requires a better understanding of how and why parental education, occupational class, and family income are associated with changing colleges. Building on prior studies of traditional community college transfer we explore relationships between those factors and two types of transfer among…

  18. A Tale of Two Terms: Exploring Differences between Spring and Fall Transfer Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlick, Renee A.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to explore what factors contribute to transfer student success and attempted to create a model using logistic regression to help predict likeliness of transfer student success. Using a sample that included all students who transferred to Colorado State University from a regionally accredited US institution between fall 2007 and…

  19. Goals, Family, and Community: What Drives Tribal College Transfer Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makomenaw, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This article examines success factors for American Indian tribal college students who transfer to 4-year predominantly White institutions. The study examined the experiences of 8 tribal college transfer students to Midwest universities. Using an indigenous methodology, 3 themes were found to help American Indian tribal college transfer students…

  20. Goals, Family, and Community: What Drives Tribal College Transfer Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makomenaw, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This article examines success factors for American Indian tribal college students who transfer to 4-year predominantly White institutions. The study examined the experiences of 8 tribal college transfer students to Midwest universities. Using an indigenous methodology, 3 themes were found to help American Indian tribal college transfer students

  1. One-way radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rodríguez, Pedro; Ilan, Boaz; Kim, Arnold D.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the one-way radiative transfer equation (RTE) for modeling the transmission of a light beam incident normally on a slab composed of a uniform forward-peaked scattering medium. Unlike the RTE, which is formulated as a boundary value problem, the one-way RTE is formulated as an initial value problem. Consequently, the one-way RTE is much easier to solve. We discuss the relation of the one-way RTE to the Fokker-Planck, small-angle, and Fermi pencil beam approximations. Then, we validate the one-way RTE through systematic comparisons with RTE simulations for both the Henyey-Greenstein and screened Rutherford scattering phase functions over a broad range of albedo, anisotropy factor, optical thickness, and refractive index values. We find that the one-way RTE gives very good approximations for a broad range of optical property values for thin to moderately thick media that have moderately to sharply forward-peaked scattering. Specifically, we show that the error made by the one-way RTE decreases monotonically as the anisotropic factor increases and as the albedo increases. On the other hand, the error increases monotonically as the optical thickness increases and the refractive index mismatch at the boundary increases.

  2. Wireless power transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  3. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  4. Swipe transfer assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, Robert M.; Mills, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The swipe transfer assembly is a mechanical assembly which is used in conjunction with glove boxes and other sealed containments. It is used to pass small samples into or out of glove boxes without an open breach of the containment, and includes a rotational cylinder inside a fixed cylinder, the inside cylinder being rotatable through an arc of approximately 240.degree. relative to the outer cylinder. An offset of 120.degree. from end to end allows only one port to be opened at a time. The assembly is made of stainless steel or aluminum and clear acrylic plastic to enable visual observation. The assembly allows transfer of swipes and smears from radiological and other specially controlled environments.

  5. Technology Transfer Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Since its inception, Goddard has pursued a commitment to technology transfer and commercialization. For every space technology developed, Goddard strives to identify secondary applications. Goddard then provides the technologies, as well as NASA expertise and facilities, to U.S. companies, universities, and government agencies. These efforts are based in Goddard's Technology Commercialization Office. This report presents new technologies, commercialization success stories, and other Technology Commercialization Office activities in 1999.

  6. Plastic container bagless transfer

    DOEpatents

    Tibrea, Steven L.; D'Amelio, Joseph A.; Daugherty, Brent A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus are provided for transferring material from an isolated environment into a storage carrier through a conduit that can be sealed with a plug. The plug and conduit can then be severed to provide a hermetically sealed storage carrier containing the material which may be transported for storage or disposal and to maintain a seal between the isolated environment and the ambient environment.

  7. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  8. Technology transfer initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, Wayne; Schroer, Bernard J.; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) technology transfer activities with the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the period of April 1993 through December 1993. Early in 1993, the MSFC/TUO and UAH conceived of the concept of developing stand-alone, integrated data packages on MSFC technology that would serve industrial needs previously determined to be critical. Furthermore, after reviewing over 500 problem statements received by MSFC, it became obvious that many of these requests could be satisfied by a standard type of response. As a result, UAH has developed two critical area response (CAR) packages: CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) replacements and modular manufacturing and simulation. Publicity included news releases, seminars, articles and conference papers. The Huntsville Chamber of Commerce established the Technology Transfer Subcommittee with the charge to identify approaches for the Chamber to assist its members, as well as non-members, access to the technologies at the federal laboratories in North Alabama. The Birmingham Chamber of Commerce has expressed interest in establishing a similar technology transfer program. This report concludes with a section containing a tabulation of the problem statements, including CAR packages, submitted to MSFC from January 1992 through December 1993.

  9. The argument from transfer.

    PubMed

    Munthe, Christian

    1996-01-01

    Utilitarian arguments on bioethical issues regarding human reproduction typically start with the view that it is wrong, other things being equal, not to procreate when this would have resulted in an additional being with a life worth living. The paper takes this view for granted and examines the common utilitarian claim that overpopulation and destitution in the world mean that, in practice, this obligation to procreate, other things being equal, often turns into a (categorical) obligation not to procreate. A version of this argument is defended -- a version called the argument from transfer -- according to which, rather than having additional children and care for them in order to make them happy, many people in the West ought to abstain from procreation and take care of destitute children already existing. The reasoning leading up to this conclusion raises some philosophical questions, seldom discussed in connection with bioethics, which indicate that the argument from transfer, although supporting the claim above, cannot neutralise the obligation to create more happy people as easily as assumed by utilitarians. It is argued that the argument from transfer may place many people facing the choice of procreation in a peculiar moral dilemma. PMID:11653235

  10. Spin and Pseudospin Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Allan

    Electrons in a Fermi liquid can be regarded as non-interacting particles (quasiparticles) in an effective potential that is a consequence of interactions between electrons. In many-body theory the effective potential is known as the electronic self-energy. When the electronic system has a broken symmetry, the effective potential can have different symmetries than the potential term that appears in the single particle Hamiltonian. For example, the effective potential of a superconductor includes terms that change the electron particle number and the effective potential of a ferromagnet includes terms that change the electron spin. When the electron system is not in equilibrium, the effective potential is altered. I will present a view of spin-transfer phenomena in ferromagnetic metals in which current-induced spin torques arise from changes in the ferromagnet's spin-dependent effective potential when the quasiparticle system is held out of equilibrium by applying a bias potential. In this view spin-transfer is an example of a more general set of phenomena and is not fundamentally associated with an approximate conservation law, for example the approximate conservation of total spin angular momentum. I will illustrate this point of view by discussing other examples of spin-transfer like phenomena, including transport anomalies that have been observed in bilayer quantum Hall systems, current-driven magnetization changes in antiferromagnetic metals, and current-drive bond-weakening in molecular electronics. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  11. Human Glycolipid Transfer Protein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Min; Malakhova, Margarita L.; Lin, Xin; Pike, Helen M.; Chung, Taeowan; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Brown, Rhoderick E.

    2008-01-01

    Glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) is a soluble 24 kDa protein that selectively accelerates the intermembrane transfer of glycolipids in vitro. Little is known about the GLTP structure and dynamics. Here, we report the cloning of human GLTP and characterize the environment of the three tryptophans (Trps) of the protein using fluorescence spectroscopy. Excitation at 295 nm yielded an emission maximum (λmax) near 347 nm, indicating a relatively polar average environment for emitting Trps. Quenching with acrylamide at physiological ionic strength or with potassium iodide resulted in linear Stern—Volmer plots, suggesting accessibility of emitting Trps to soluble quenchers. Insights into reversible conformational changes accompanying changes in GLTP activity were provided by addition and rapid dilution of urea while monitoring changes in Trp or 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid fluorescence. Incubation of GLTP with glycolipid liposomes caused a blue shift in the Trp emission maximum but diminished the fluorescence intensity. The blue-shifted emission maximum, centered near 335 nm, persisted after separation of glycolipid liposomes from GLTP, consistent with formation of a GLTP—glycolipid complex at a glycolipid-liganding site containing Trp. The results provide the first insights into human GLTP structural dynamics by fluorescence spectroscopy, including global conformational changes that accompany GLTP folding into an active conformational state as well as more subtle conformational changes that play a role in GLTP-mediated transfer of glycolipids between membranes, and establish a foundation for future studies of membrane rafts using GLTP. PMID:15287756

  12. Model wall and recovery temperature effects on experimental heat transfer data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throckmorton, D. A.; Stone, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    Basic analytical procedures are used to illustrate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the relative impact upon heat transfer data analysis of certain factors which may affect the accuracy of experimental heat transfer data. Inaccurate knowledge of adiabatic wall conditions results in a corresponding inaccuracy in the measured heat transfer coefficient. The magnitude of the resulting error is extreme for data obtained at wall temperatures approaching the adiabatic condition. High model wall temperatures and wall temperature gradients affect the level and distribution of heat transfer to an experimental model. The significance of each of these factors is examined and its impact upon heat transfer data analysis is assessed.

  13. Predictors of Transfer out of Early French Immersion Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Margaret

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the factors that best predict which elementary school children will transfer out of a French immersion program. Learner characteristics, teacher and parent evaluations, and family background were examined. Analyses suggest that attitudinal and motivational factors are of primary importance to the continuation of second-language…

  14. Review of Orbital Propellant Transfer Techniques and the Feasibility of a Thermal Bootstrap Propellant Transfer Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshikawa, H. H.; Madison, I. B.

    1971-01-01

    This study was performed in support of the NASA Task B-2 Study Plan for Space Basing. The nature of space-based operations implies that orbital transfer of propellant is a prime consideration. The intent of this report is (1) to report on the findings and recommendations of existing literature on space-based propellant transfer techniques, and (2) to determine possible alternatives to the recommended methods. The reviewed literature recommends, in general, the use of conventional liquid transfer techniques (i.e., pumping) in conjunction with an artificially induced gravitational field. An alternate concept that was studied, the Thermal Bootstrap Transfer Process, is based on the compression of a two-phase fluid with subsequent condensation to a liquid (vapor compression/condensation). This concept utilizes the intrinsic energy capacities of the tanks and propellant by exploiting temperature differentials and available energy differences. The results indicate the thermodynamic feasibility of the Thermal Bootstrap Transfer Process for a specific range of tank sizes, temperatures, fill-factors and receiver tank heat transfer coefficients.

  15. Effects of nonlocality on transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Luke

    Nuclear reactions play a key role in the study of nuclei away from stability. Single-nucleon transfer reactions involving deuterons provide an exceptional tool to study the single-particle structure of nuclei. Theoretically, these reactions are attractive as they can be cast into a three-body problem composed of a neutron, proton, and the target nucleus. Optical potentials are a common ingredient in reactions studies. Traditionally, nucleon-nucleus optical potentials are made local for convenience. The effects of nonlocal potentials have historically been included approximately by applying a correction factor to the solution of the corresponding equation for the local equivalent interaction. This is usually referred to as the Perey correction factor. In this thesis, we have systematically investigated the effects of nonlocality on (p,d) and (d,p) transfer reactions, and the validity of the Perey correction factor. We implemented a method to solve the single channel nonlocal equation for both bound and scattering states. We also developed an improved formalism for nonlocal interactions that includes deuteron breakup in transfer reactions. This new formalism, the nonlocal adiabatic distorted wave approximation, was used to study the effects of including nonlocality consistently in ( d,p) transfer reactions. For the (p,d) transfer reactions, we solved the nonlocal scattering and bound state equations using the Perey-Buck type interaction, and compared to local equivalent calculations. Using the distorted wave Born approximation we construct the T-matrix for (p,d) transfer on 17O, 41Ca, 49Ca, 127 Sn, 133Sn, and 209Pb at 20 and 50 MeV. Additionally we studied (p,d) reactions on 40Ca using the the nonlocal dispersive optical model. We have also included nonlocality consistently into the adiabatic distorted wave approximation and have investigated the effects of nonlocality on on (d,p) transfer reactions for deuterons impinged on 16O, 40Ca, 48Ca, 126Sn, 132Sn, 208Pb at 10, 20, and 50 MeV. We found that for bound states the Perry corrected wave functions resulting from the local equation agreed well with that from the nonlocal equation in the interior region, but discrepancies were found in the surface and peripheral regions. Overall, the Perey correction factor was adequate for scattering states, with the exception for a few partial waves. Nonlocality in the proton scattering state reduced the amplitude of the wave function in the nuclear interior. The same was seen for nonlocality in the deuteron scattering state, but the wave function was also shifted outward. In distorted wave Born approximation studies of (p,d) reactions using the Perey-Buck potential, we found that transfer distributions at the first peak differed by 15-35% as compared to the distribution resulting from local potentials. When using the dispersive optical model, this discrepancies grew to approx 30-50% . When nonlocality was included consistently within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation, the disagreement was found to be sim 40% . If only local optical potentials are used in the analysis of experimental (p,d) or (d,p) transfer cross sections, the extracted spectroscopic factors may be incorrect by up to 50% in some cases due to the local approximation. This highlights the necessity to pursue reaction formalisms that include nonlocality exactly.

  16. Energy Transfer in Rotating Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambon, Claude; Mansour, Nagi N.; Godeferd, Fabien S.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The influence or rotation on the spectral energy transfer of homogeneous turbulence is investigated in this paper. Given the fact that linear dynamics, e.g. the inertial waves regime tackled in an RDT (Rapid Distortion Theory) fashion, cannot Affect st homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, the study of nonlinear dynamics is of prime importance in the case of rotating flows. Previous theoretical (including both weakly nonlinear and EDQNM theories), experimental and DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) results are gathered here and compared in order to give a self-consistent picture of the nonlinear effects of rotation on tile turbulence. The inhibition of the energy cascade, which is linked to a reduction of the dissipation rate, is shown to be related to a damping due to rotation of the energy transfer. A model for this effect is quantified by a model equation for the derivative-skewness factor, which only involves a micro-Rossby number Ro(sup omega) = omega'/(2(OMEGA))-ratio of rms vorticity and background vorticity as the relevant rotation parameter, in accordance with DNS and EDQNM results fit addition, anisotropy is shown also to develop through nonlinear interactions modified by rotation, in an intermediate range of Rossby numbers (Ro(omega) = (omega)' and Ro(omega)w greater than 1), which is characterized by a marco-Rossby number Ro(sup L) less than 1 and Ro(omega) greater than 1 which is characterized by a macro-Rossby number based on an integral lengthscale L and the micro-Rossby number previously defined. This anisotropy is mainly an angular drain of spectral energy which tends to concentrate energy in tile wave-plane normal to the rotation axis, which is exactly both the slow and the two-dimensional manifold. In Addition, a polarization of the energy distribution in this slow 2D manifold enhances horizontal (normal to the rotation axis) velocity components, and underlies the anisotropic structure of the integral lengthscales. Finally is demonstrated the ability of a generalized EDQNM (Eddy Damped Quasi-Normal Markovian) model to predict the underlying spectral transfer structure and all the subsequent developments of classic anisotropy indicators in physical space, when compared to recent LES results. Even if the applications mainly concern developed strong turbulence, a particular emphasis is given to the strong formal analogy of this EDQNM2 model with recent weakly nonlinear approaches to wave-turbulence.

  17. Technology Transfer Network and Affiliations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Technology Transfer Partnership program sponsors a number of organizations around the country that are designed to assist U.S. businesses in accessing, utilizing, and commercializing NASA-funded research and technology. These organizations work closely with the Technology Transfer Offices, located at each of the 10 NASA field centers, providing a full range of technology transfer and commercialization services and assistance.

  18. Evaluating Technology Transfer and Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozeman, Barry; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Four articles discuss the evaluation of technology transfer and diffusion: (1) "Technology Transfer at the U.S. National Laboratories: A Framework for Evaluation"; (2) "Application of Social Psychological and Evaluation Research: Lessons from Energy Information Programs"; (3) "Technology and Knowledge Transfer in Energy R and D Laboratories: An…

  19. Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1995-01-01

    The Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SOTS) is a mechanism for the transfer of spatial data between dissimilar computer systems. The SOTS specifies exchange constructs, addressing formats, structure, and content for spatially referenced vector and raster (including gridded) data. SOTS components are a conceptual model, specifications for a quality report, transfer module specifications, data dictionary specifications, and definitions of spatial features and attributes.

  20. The role of the University Licensing Office in transferring intellectual property to industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Universities in the US have a significant impact on business through the transfer of technology. This transfer of technology takes various forms, including faculty communications, faculty consulting activities, and the direct transfer of technology through the licensing of patents, copyrights, and other intellectual property to industry. The topics discussed include the following: background of the MIT Technology Licensing Office (TLO), goals of the MIT TLO, MIT's technology transfer philosophy, and important factors for success in new company formation.

  1. Thermal Spin Transfer Torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Gerrit

    2009-03-01

    The coupling between spin and charge in electronic transport is studied in the field of spintronics. Heat currents are coupled to both charge and spin currents as well [1]. This extension of spintronics to what may be called ``spin caloritronics'' recently enjoys renewed attention [2]. The spin-transfer torque associated with electric currents can excite magnetizations in nanostructures, switching magnetic configuration in spin valves and move domain walls in magnetic wires when exceeding critical values of the order of 10^7Acm-2 [3]. Also heat currents transfer spin angular momentum [4], either intrinsically or via the thermoelectric generation of particle spin currents. We predict that temperature differences of the order of 100 K over typical metallic nanostructures cause effects equivalent to the critical charge current densities. In this talk I will give a brief review of various aspects of spin caloritronics with emphasis on thermal spin transfer torques. This work has been carried out in collaboration with Moosa Hatami, Qinfang Zhang, Paul Kelly, Hans Joakim Skadsem, Arne Brataas and Sadamichi Maekawa. [4pt] [1] M. Johnson and R.H. Silsbee, Phys. Rev. B 35, 4959 (1987).[0pt] [2] International Workshop on Spin Caloritronics, Lorentz Center of Leiden University, 9-13 February 2009, http://www.lorentzcenter.nl/lc/web/2009/323/info.php3?wsid=323[0pt] [3] D. C. Ralph and M. D. Stiles, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 1190 (2008).[0pt] [4] M. Hatami, G.E.W. Bauer, Q. Zhang, and P.J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 066603 (2007).

  2. Radiant-interchange Configuration Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D C :; Morgan, W R

    1952-01-01

    A study is presented of the geometric configuration factors required for computing radiant heat transfer between opaque surfaces separated by a nonabsorbing medium and various methods of determining the configuration factors are discussed. Configuration-factor solutions available in the literature have been checked and the more complicated equations are presented as families of curves. Cases for point, line, and finite-area sources are worked out over a wide range of geometric proportions. These cases include several new configurations involving rectangles, triangles, and cylinders of finite length which are integrated and tabulated. An analysis is presented, in which configuration factors are employed of the radiant heat transfer to the rotor blades of a typical gas turbine under different conditions of temperature and pressure. (author)

  3. Ariane Transfer Vehicle status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnal, Christophe; Theillier, Francis; Salt, David J.

    1990-10-01

    ESA has since 1987 conducted studies for an Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) that will be able to bridge the distance between the Ariane 5 launch vehicle and orbiting elements which must be serviced. ATV's reference mission involves the logistical support of the Space Station Freedom through transport of such items as unpressurized carriers or pressurized modules. After an attached period of up to six months at the Station, the ATV can remove a cargo of the Station's waste products for disposal. A conceptual development history of the ATV is presented with emphasis on the ESA/NASA common design criteria that had to be addressed to arrive at a suitable ATV architecture.

  4. Autologous Lymph Node Transfers.

    PubMed

    Becker, C

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema is a common chronic and progressive condition complicating cancer treatment. Patients undergoing lymph node dissection and radiation therapy required for oncological treatment in breast and pelvic cancers are at high risk for secondary lymphedema. Reconstruction of the damaged region with a fatty flap containing lymph nodes may restore the anatomy. It has been postulated that the cytokines included in the fat surrounding the nodes VEGF-c allow regrowth of the lymphatic vessels. Hypoplasic congenital lymphedema are also positively improved by the autologous lymph node transfer, thanks to the same principles. PMID:26372688

  5. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, J.C.; Hoover, M.A.; May, K.W.; Ross, M.J.

    1988-10-12

    This invention is comprised of a transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed fame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control. 5 figs.

  6. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    DOEpatents

    Dobbins, James C.; Hoover, Mark A.; May, Kay W.; Ross, Maurice J.

    1990-01-01

    A transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed frame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control.

  7. Toward improved technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a model and describes two new initiatives for improving technology transfer. The model and the initiatives call for the following paradigm shifts: (1) Be proactive instead of reactive; (2) Improve leadership skills first, then management skills; (3) Organize and execute around a few critical activities that matter the most instead of the many that matter the least; (4) Think win-win, instead of ``my way`` or ``your way``; (5) Listen first, speak second; (6) Make 1+1=1,000 instead of 2; and (7) Renew resources daily instead of intermittently.

  8. Thermal flux transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freggens, R. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A thermal flux transfer system for use in maintaining the thrust chamber of an operative reaction motor at given temperatures is described. The system is characterized by an hermetically sealed chamber surrounding a thrust chamber to be cooled, with a plurality of parallel, longitudinally spaced, disk-shaped wick members formed of a metallic mesh and employed in delivering a working fluid, in its liquid state, radially toward the thrust chamber and delivering the working fluid, in its vapor state, away from the nozzle for effecting a cooling of the nozzle, in accordance with known principles of an operating heat pipe.

  9. Heat transfer in aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Aeropropulsion heat transfer is reviewed. A research methodology based on a growing synergism between computations and experiments is examined. The aeropropulsion heat transfer arena is identified as high Reynolds number forced convection in a highly disturbed environment subject to strong gradients, body forces, abrupt geometry changes and high three dimensionality - all in an unsteady flow field. Numerous examples based on heat transfer to the aircraft gas turbine blade are presented to illustrate the types of heat transfer problems which are generic to aeropropulsion systems. The research focus of the near future in aeropropulsion heat transfer is projected.

  10. Transferring heat during a bounce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiri, Samira; Bird, James

    2015-11-01

    When a hot liquid drop impacts a cold non-wetting surface, the temperature difference drives heat transfer. If the drop leaves the surface before reaching thermal equilibrium, the amount of heat transfer may depend on the contact time. Past studies exploring finite-time heat exchange with droplets focus on the Leidenfrost condition where heat transfer is regulated by a thin layer of vapor. Here, we present systematic experiments to measure the heat transferred by a bouncing droplet in non-Leidenfrost conditions. We propose a physical model of this heat transfer and compare our model to the experiments.

  11. Heat transfer in aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1985-07-01

    Aeropropulsion heat transfer is reviewed. A research methodology based on a growing synergism between computations and experiments is examined. The aeropropulsion heat transfer arena is identified as high Reynolds number forced convection in a highly disturbed environment subject to strong gradients, body forces, abrupt geometry changes and high three dimensionality - all in an unsteady flow field. Numerous examples based on heat transfer to the aircraft gas turbine blade are presented to illustrate the types of heat transfer problems which are generic to aeropropulsion systems. The research focus of the near future in aeropropulsion heat transfer is projected.

  12. A Probe into the Negative Writing Transfer of Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Xiaojun; Niao, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese college students have studied English for many years, they still have much difficulty in writing a good paper. There are many factors resulting in their inability to write well, such as students' lack of vocabulary, having a poor knowledge of grammar, language transfer, and so on. But, of these factors, the negative transfer of…

  13. Monitoring data transfer latency in CMS computing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacorsi, D.; Diotalevi, T.; Magini, N.; Sartirana, A.; Taze, M.; Wildish, T.

    2015-12-01

    During the first LHC run, the CMS experiment collected tens of Petabytes of collision and simulated data, which need to be distributed among dozens of computing centres with low latency in order to make efficient use of the resources. While the desired level of throughput has been successfully achieved, it is still common to observe transfer workflows that cannot reach full completion in a timely manner due to a small fraction of stuck files which require operator intervention. For this reason, in 2012 the CMS transfer management system, PhEDEx, was instrumented with a monitoring system to measure file transfer latencies, and to predict the completion time for the transfer of a data set. The operators can detect abnormal patterns in transfer latencies while the transfer is still in progress, and monitor the long-term performance of the transfer infrastructure to plan the data placement strategy. Based on the data collected for one year with the latency monitoring system, we present a study on the different factors that contribute to transfer completion time. As case studies, we analyze several typical CMS transfer workflows, such as distribution of collision event data from CERN or upload of simulated event data from the Tier-2 centres to the archival Tier-1 centres. For each workflow, we present the typical patterns of transfer latencies that have been identified with the latency monitor. We identify the areas in PhEDEx where a development effort can reduce the latency, and we show how we are able to detect stuck transfers which need operator intervention. We propose a set of metrics to alert about stuck subscriptions and prompt for manual intervention, with the aim of improving transfer completion times.

  14. Nucleon Form Factors from Generalized Parton Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    M. Guidal; Maxim Polyakov; Anatoly Radyushkin; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2004-10-01

    We discuss the links between Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) and elastic nucleon form factors. These links, in the form of sum rules, represent powerful constraints on parametrizations of GPDs. A Regge parametrization for GPDs at small momentum transfer, is extended to the large momentum transfer region and it is found to describe the basic features of proton and neutron electromagnetic form factor data. This parametrization is used to estimate the quark contribution to the nucleon spin.

  15. Heat transfer between immiscible liquids enhanced by gas bubbling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, G. A.; Schwarz, C. E.; Klages, J.; Klein, J.

    1982-08-01

    The phenomena of core-concrete interactions impact upon containment integrity of light water reactors (LWR) following postulated complete meltdown of the core by containment pressurization, production of combustible gases, and basemat penetration. Experiments were performed with nonreactor materials to investigate one aspect of this problem, heat transfer between overlying immiscible liquids whose interface is disturbed by a transverse non-condensable gas flux emanating from below. Hydrodynamic studies were performed to test a criterion for onset of entrainment due to bubbling through the interface and subsequent heat transfer studies were performed to assess the effect of bubbling on interfacial heat transfer rates, both with and without bubble induced entrainment. Non entraining interfacial heat transfer data with mercury-water/oil fluid pairs were observed to be bounded from below within a factor of two to three by the Szekeley surface renewal heat transfer model.

  16. Auto-disable syringes for immunization: issues in technology transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, J. S.; Milstien, J. B.

    1999-01-01

    WHO and its partners recommend the use of auto-disable syringes, "bundled" with the supply of vaccines when donor dollars are used, in all mass immunization campaigns, and also strongly advocate their use in routine immunization programmes. Because of the relatively high price of auto-disable syringes, WHO's Technical Network for Logistics in Health recommends that activities be initiated to encourage the transfer of production technology for these syringes as a means of promoting their use and enhancing access to the technology. The present article examines factors influencing technology transfer, including feasibility, corporate interest, cost, quality assurance, intellectual property considerations, and probable time frames for implementation. Technology transfer activities are likely to be complex and difficult, and may not result in lower prices for syringes. Guidelines are offered on technology transfer initiatives for auto-disable syringes to ensure the quality of the product, the reliability of the supply, and the feasibility of the technology transfer activity itself. PMID:10680248

  17. Instance transfer learning with multisource dynamic TrAdaBoost.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Since the transfer learning can employ knowledge in relative domains to help the learning tasks in current target domain, compared with the traditional learning it shows the advantages of reducing the learning cost and improving the learning efficiency. Focused on the situation that sample data from the transfer source domain and the target domain have similar distribution, an instance transfer learning method based on multisource dynamic TrAdaBoost is proposed in this paper. In this method, knowledge from multiple source domains is used well to avoid negative transfer; furthermore, the information that is conducive to target task learning is obtained to train candidate classifiers. The theoretical analysis suggests that the proposed algorithm improves the capability that weight entropy drifts from source to target instances by means of adding the dynamic factor, and the classification effectiveness is better than single source transfer. Finally, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has higher classification accuracy. PMID:25152906

  18. Psychopathic, paranoid and depressive transferences.

    PubMed

    Kernberg, O F

    1992-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the superego pathology frequently present in patients with borderline personality organization, an important issue in transference developments that evolve as a consequence and expression of this pathology. I shall describe 'psychopathic transferences' to refer to periods in the treatment when conditions of deceptiveness prevail in the transference, and the importance of systematically interpreting and working through these particular transferences. As a result of such a working through, paranoid transferences usually become dominant, and, in turn, need to be worked through fully. At this point, more advanced transferences characterized by depressive features tend to prevail, signalling the structural transformation of borderline into neurotic personality organization. Clinical case material will illustrate these transformations in the transference. PMID:1582756

  19. Intramolecular electron transfer rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupp, Joseph T.

    The initial goals of this project were: (1) to construct pulsed-accelerated-flow and pulsed-laser (transient absorbance) instruments for intramolecular electron-transfer rate measurements, (2) to design and synthesize appropriate molecules and perform such measurements, (3) to develop further an electrochemical method for gauging site-to-site electronic coupling, and (4) to apply time-dependent Raman scattering theory to the problem of inner-shell reorganization in charge-transfer reactions. Although all four goals were met, we also found it necessary to pursue studies in some unforeseen directions. For example, early on we discovered that medium effects (aggregation and ion pairing) could play a very large, and previously unrecognized, role in some optical intervalence reactions. Given the importance of the effects to the areas above, we chose to map them in a fairly complete fashion. Also, in anticipation of possible renewal we initiated studies in a new area: bimolecular photoredox kinetics in supercritical media. Finally, in a small project carried out largely by undergraduates we examined solvent tuning effects upon lifetimes of photo-excited ruthenium am(m)ine bipyridine complexes. The key new findings and other highlights of these studies are outlined.

  20. Finite thrust orbital transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    The finite thrust optimal transfer in the presence of the Earth's shadow and oblate planet perturbations is a problem of strong interest in modern telecommunication satellite design with plasmic propulsion. The Maximum Principle cannot be used in its standard form to deal with the Earth's shadow. In this paper, using a regularization of the Hamiltonian which expands the Maximum Principle application domain, we provide for the first time, the necessary conditions in a very general context for the finite thrust optimal transfer with limited power around an oblate planet. The costate in such problems is generally discontinuous. To obtain fast numerical solutions, the averaging of the Hamiltonian is introduced. Two classes of boundary conditions are analyzed and numerically solved: the minimum time and the minimum fuel at a fixed time. These two problems are the basic tools for designing the orbit raising of a satellite after the launcher injection into its separation orbit. Numerical solutions have been calculated for the more important applications of LEO to GEO/MEO missions and the results have been reported and discussed.

  1. Mars transfer vehicle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    1993-01-01

    Earth-to-Mars distances vary from 60 to 400 million kilometers over a 14-year cycle. This complicates Mars mission design as a function of calendar time. Stay times at Mars are also strongly driven by opportunities for a return flight path which are within the limits of delta-V associated with practical space vehicles. The biggest difference between Mars and lunar transfer missions is mission time, which grows from a few days for the moon, to as much as a few hundred days for Mars missions. As a result, modules for similarly sized crews must be much larger for Mars missions that for transfer to lunar orbit. Technology challenges for one Mars mission scenario analyzed by Boeing include aerobrakes, propulsion, and life support systems. Mission performance is very sensitive to aerobrake weight fraction and, as a result, there is an incentive to use high performance materials such as advanced composites and thermal protection systems. Lander aerobrake would be used twice (for both planetary capture and descent to the Mars surface), and it would need to survive temperatures up to 3500 degrees.

  2. Inferring Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lassalle, Florent; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer (HGT or LGT) is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. In the presence of HGT events, different fragments of the genome are the result of different evolutionary histories. This can therefore complicate the investigations of evolutionary relatedness of lineages and species. Also, as HGT can bring into genomes radically different genotypes from distant lineages, or even new genes bearing new functions, it is a major source of phenotypic innovation and a mechanism of niche adaptation. For example, of particular relevance to human health is the lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants, leading to the emergence of pathogenic lineages [1]. Computational identification of HGT events relies upon the investigation of sequence composition or evolutionary history of genes. Sequence composition-based ("parametric") methods search for deviations from the genomic average, whereas evolutionary history-based ("phylogenetic") approaches identify genes whose evolutionary history significantly differs from that of the host species. The evaluation and benchmarking of HGT inference methods typically rely upon simulated genomes, for which the true history is known. On real data, different methods tend to infer different HGT events, and as a result it can be difficult to ascertain all but simple and clear-cut HGT events. PMID:26020646

  3. Polarization transfer NMR imaging

    DOEpatents

    Sillerud, Laurel O.; van Hulsteyn, David B.

    1990-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) image is obtained with spatial information modulated by chemical information. The modulation is obtained through polarization transfer from a first element representing the desired chemical, or functional, information, which is covalently bonded and spin-spin coupled with a second element effective to provide the imaging data. First and second rf pulses are provided at first and second frequencies for exciting the imaging and functional elements, with imaging gradients applied therebetween to spatially separate the nuclei response for imaging. The second rf pulse is applied at a time after the first pulse which is the inverse of the spin coupling constant to select the transfer element nuclei which are spin coupled to the functional element nuclei for imaging. In a particular application, compounds such as glucose, lactate, or lactose, can be labeled with .sup.13 C and metabolic processes involving the compounds can be imaged with the sensitivity of .sup.1 H and the selectivity of .sup.13 C.

  4. Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

  5. Transfer of rare earth elements from natural metalliferous (copper and cobalt rich) soils into plant shoot biomass of metallophytes from Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourret, Olivier; Lange, Bastien; Jitaru, Petru; Mahy, Grégory; Faucon, Michel-Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REE) is generally assessed for the characterization of the geological systems where these elements represent the best proxies of processes involving the occurrence of an interface between different media. REE behavior is investigated according to their concentrations normalized with respect to the upper continental crust. In this study, the geochemical fingerprint of REE in plant shoot biomass of an unique metallicolous flora (i.e., Crepidorhopalon tenuis and Anisopappus chinensis) was investigated. The plants originate from extremely copper and cobalt rich soils, deriving from Cu and Co outcrops in Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Some of the species investigated in this study are able to accumulate high amounts of Cu and Co in shoot hence being considered as Cu and Co hyperaccumulators. Therefore, assessing the behavior of REE may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of metal accumulation by this flora. The data obtained in this study indicate that REE uptake by plants is not primarily controlled by their concentration and speciation in the soil as previously shown in the literature (Brioschi et al. 2013). Indeed, the REE patterns in shoots are relatively flat whereas soils patterns are Middle REE enriched. In addition, it is worth noting that Eu enrichments occur in aerial parts of the plants. These positive Eu anomalies suggest that Eu3 + can form stable organic complexes replacing Ca2 + in several biological processes as in xylem fluids associated with the general nutrient flux. Therefore, is is possible that the Eu mobility in these fluids is enhanced by its reductive speciation as Eu2 +. Eventually, the geochemical behavior of REE illustrates that metals accumulation in aerial parts of C. tenuis and A. chinensis is mainly driven by dissolved complexation. Brioschi, L., Steinmann, M., Lucot, E., Pierret, M., Stille, P., Prunier, J., Badot, P., 2013. Transfer of rare earth elements (REE) from natural soil to plant systems: implications for the environmental availability of anthropogenic REE. Plant and Soil, 366, 143-163.

  6. Orbital transfer of large space structures with nuclear electric rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, T. H.; Byers, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential application of electric propulsion for orbit transfer of a large spacecraft structure from low earth orbit to geosynchronous altitude in a deployed configuration. The electric power was provided by the spacecraft nuclear reactor space power system on a shared basis during transfer operations. Factors considered with respect to system effectiveness included nuclear power source sizing, electric propulsion thruster concept, spacecraft deployment constraints, and orbital operations and safety. It is shown that the favorable total impulse capability inherent in electric propulsion provides a potential economic advantage over chemical propulsion orbit transfer vehicles by reducing the number of Space Shuttle flights in ground-to-orbit transportation requirements.

  7. Job transfers: a neglected aspect of migration in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Menon, R

    1987-01-01

    "This article examines the incidence of [job-related] transfers in Malaysia. The retrospective migration data from the Malaysia Family Life Survey [conducted in 1976-1977] are used to demonstrate that transfers comprise 18 percent of all migration in the country and that there has been a rise in the incidence of transfers over a 35 year period. Factors underlying this trend are outlined. Furthermore, significant differences in age, educational attainment and other characteristics between transferees and other types of migrants are identified and their implications discussed." PMID:12314668

  8. Free Functional Muscle Transfers to Restore Upper Extremity Function.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Emily M; Tung, Thomas H; Moore, Amy M

    2016-05-01

    Free functional muscle transfer provides an option for functional restoration when nerve reconstruction and tendon transfers are not feasible. To ensure a successful outcome, many factors need to be optimized, including proper patient selection, timing of intervention, donor muscle and motor nerve selection, optimal microneurovascular technique and tension setting, proper postoperative management, and appropriate rehabilitation. Functional outcomes of various applications to the upper extremity and the authors' algorithm for the use of free functional muscle transfer are also included in this article. PMID:27094895

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was developed to identify critical input parameters to assess dietary intake of young children. The model was used as a framework for understanding important factors in data collection and analysis. Factors incorporated included transfer efficiencies of pest...

  10. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  11. The enigma of the transference.

    PubMed

    Adatto, C P

    1989-01-01

    Through a review of Freud's views of transference and a presentation of case material, various aspects of transference are examined and discussed. Freud used the concept of transference not only clinically as related to the person of the analyst, but also in his theory of psychology. Both are linked by the theory that the origins of the transference lie in the intrapsychic processes and the unconscious conflicts of patients, and account for his repeated emphasis regarding the central aspect of transference resistance. The issues of positive and negative transference, the transference neurosis, and extra-analytic transferences are discussed. In his later writings Freud touched on the issue of transference of the power of the patient's super-ego on the analyst; this was further elaborated by Anna Freud to include personality structures in general. The importance of distinguishing between object-related and psychic structure transferences is emphasized. The analyst is conceptualized as a vehicle through which the patient resolves his intrapsychic conflicts. PMID:2793329

  12. Noise enhances information transfer in hierarchical networks.

    PubMed

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Holyst, Janusz A; Sloot, Peter M A

    2013-01-01

    We study the influence of noise on information transmission in the form of packages shipped between nodes of hierarchical networks. Numerical simulations are performed for artificial tree networks, scale-free Ravasz-Barabási networks as well for a real network formed by email addresses of former Enron employees. Two types of noise are considered. One is related to packet dynamics and is responsible for a random part of packets paths. The second one originates from random changes in initial network topology. We find that the information transfer can be enhanced by the noise. The system possesses optimal performance when both kinds of noise are tuned to specific values, this corresponds to the Stochastic Resonance phenomenon. There is a non-trivial synergy present for both noisy components. We found also that hierarchical networks built of nodes of various degrees are more efficient in information transfer than trees with a fixed branching factor. PMID:23390574

  13. Noise enhances information transfer in hierarchical networks

    PubMed Central

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Holyst, Janusz A.; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2013-01-01

    We study the influence of noise on information transmission in the form of packages shipped between nodes of hierarchical networks. Numerical simulations are performed for artificial tree networks, scale-free Ravasz-Barabási networks as well for a real network formed by email addresses of former Enron employees. Two types of noise are considered. One is related to packet dynamics and is responsible for a random part of packets paths. The second one originates from random changes in initial network topology. We find that the information transfer can be enhanced by the noise. The system possesses optimal performance when both kinds of noise are tuned to specific values, this corresponds to the Stochastic Resonance phenomenon. There is a non-trivial synergy present for both noisy components. We found also that hierarchical networks built of nodes of various degrees are more efficient in information transfer than trees with a fixed branching factor. PMID:23390574

  14. Three orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace engineering students at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University undertook three design projects under the sponsorship of the NASA/USRA Advanced Space Design Program. All three projects addressed cargo and/or crew transportation between low Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit. Project SPARC presents a preliminary design of a fully reusable, chemically powered aeroassisted vehicle for a transfer of a crew of five and a 6000 to 20000 pound payload. The ASTV project outlines a chemically powered aeroassisted configuration that uses disposable tanks and a relatively small aerobrake to realize propellant savings. The third project, LOCOST, involves a reusable, hybrid laser/chemical vehicle designed for large cargo (up to 88,200 pounds) transportation.

  15. Aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D. (Inventor); Nagy, Kornel (Inventor); Roberts, Barney B. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Kroll, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Gamble, Joe (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle which includes an aerobraking device which also serves as a heat shield in the shape of a raked-off elliptic or circular cone with a circular or elliptical base, and with an ellipsoid or other blunt shape nose. The aerobraking device is fitted with a toroid-like skirt and is integral with the support structure of the propulsion system and other systems of the space vehicle. The vehicle is intended to be transported in components to a space station in lower earth orbit where it is assembled for use as a transportation system from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit and return. Conventional guidance means are included for autonomous flight.

  16. Methane heat transfer investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Future high chamber pressure LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines require copper base alloy main combustion chamber coolant channels similar to the SSME to provide adequate cooling and reusable engine life. Therefore, it is of vital importance to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics and coking thresholds for LNG (94% methane) cooling, with a copper base alloy material adjacent to he fuel coolant. High pressure methane cooling and coking characteristics recently evaluated at Rocketdyne using stainless steel heated tubes at methane bulk temperatures and coolant wall temperatures typical of advanced engine operation except at lower heat fluxes as limited by the tube material. As expected, there was no coking observed. However, coking evaluations need be conducted with a copper base surface exposed to the methane coolant at higher heat fluxes approaching those of future high chamber pressure engines.

  17. Heat transfer probe

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff

    2006-10-10

    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  18. Olympic torch transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    KSC Shuttle Operations Manager Loren J. Shriver (right) transfers the Olympic flame to KSC runner Joanne Maceo's torch at the top of Launch Pad 39A after he carried the Olympic torch to the top of the pad as his contribution to the July 7, 1996 KSC Olympic torch relay effort. Jon Granston of the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games (center) witnesses the exchange. Maceo then carried her lit torch down the concrete hard stand of the pad to pass the flame to another of the 20-member KSC runner team that participated in the KSC relay effort. The Olympic torch arrived at KSC at 1:40 p.m. and traveled a 20-mile course to the pad and then out to the KSC visitor Center. The Space Shuttle Atlantis is behind the trio, poised for the STS-79 mission, with will feature the fourth docking of the shuttle with the Russian Mir space station.

  19. HEAT TRANSFER METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.

    1960-08-30

    A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.

  20. Technology transfer 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Technology Transfer 1995 is intended to inform the US industrial and academic sectors about the many opportunities they have to form partnerships with the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the mutual advantage of the individual institutions, DOE, and the nation as a whole. It also describes some of the growing number of remarkable achievements resulting from such partnerships. These partnership success stories offer ample evidence that Americans are learning how to work together to secure major benefits for the nation--by combining the technological, scientific, and human resources resident in national laboratories with those in industry and academia. The benefits include more and better jobs for Americans, improved productivity and global competitiveness for technology-based industries, and a more efficient government laboratory system.