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Phylogeny can be used to make useful predictions of soil-to-plant transfer factors for radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides can be related to plant evolutionary history (phylogeny). For some species and radionuclides\\u000a the effect is significant enough to be useful in predicting Transfer Factors (TFs). Here a Residual Maximum Likelihood (REML)-based\\u000a mixed model and a recent plant phylogeny are used to compile data on soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides and to show how\\u000a the phylogeny can

Neil J. Willey



Radiocaesium soil-to-plant transfer in tropical environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, soil-to-plant transfer factors of radiocaesium are predicted based on soil properties such as pH, organic matter content, exchangeable K+ and clay content valid for the tropical environments in Bangladesh, China and Japan, and using a previously published model. Due to insufficient data of soil properties in the selected regions, the average values of pH, organic matter content,

M. M Rahman; G Voigt



Soil to plant transfer of 238 Th on a uranium  

E-print Network

Soil to plant transfer of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th on a uranium mining-impacted soil from species grown in soils from southeastern China contaminated with uranium mine tailings were (Y.G. Zhu). 0265-931X/$ - see front matter Ã? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j

Hu, Qinhong "Max"


Derivation of soil to plant transfer factors of radiocesium in Northern Greece after the Chernobyl accident, and comparison with greenhouse experiments.  


Radiocesium contamination of cereals, due to the Chernobyl accident, was systematically studied in two selected experimental agricultural farms in Northern Greece for the years 1987, 1988 and 1989. Radiocesium contamination of all annual crops is very low, of the order of 1 Bq kg(-1), and appears to be, for the first 3 years after the Chernobyl accident, time independent, the differences lying within the experimental error. Transfer factors, relating radiocesium deposition to contamination of crops, are deduced from the experimental results. Results are also discussed in the framework of UNSCEAR's empirical model, and the corresponding parameters are deduced. In addition, greenhouse experiments show that the obtained Transfer Factors are independent of the initial radiocesium deposition and that radiocesium from the Chernobyl fallout behaves differently from usual experimental sources, such as (137)CsCl. PMID:15092197

Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Clouvas, A; Gagianas, A



Estimation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of radiocesium in 99 wild plant species grown in arable lands 1 year after the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident.  


One year after the deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant (A formal name is Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station) in March 2011, radiocesium (¹³?Cs, ¹³?Cs) concentrations ([Cs]) were comprehensively investigated in the wild plants of 99 species most of which were annual or summer green perennial herbs and started to grow from April 2012 at the heavily contaminated fields of paddy (three study sites) and upland (one study site) in Fukushima Prefecture. The survey was conducted three times (April, July and October) in the year. In each site, soils (soil cores of 5-cm depth) and plants (aerial shoots) were collected for determination of [Cs] on a dry weight basis, and then the transfer factor (TF) of radiocesium from soil to plant ([Cs]plant/[Cs]soil) was estimated in each species. The [Cs] values of both soils and plants largely varied. However, some species exhibited relatively high TF values (more than 0.4) (e.g., Athyrium yokoscense, Dryopteris tokyoensis, and Cyperus brevifolius), while others exhibited almost negligible values (less than 0.01) (e.g., Salix miyabeana, Humulus scandens, and Elymus tsukushiensis). In addition, judging from the 11 species grown in both paddy and upland fields, TF values were generally higher in the paddy fields. The estimation of phytoextraction efficiency of soil radiocesium by weed communities in the paddy fields suggests that the weed community is not a practical candidate for phytoremediation technique. PMID:24346655

Yamashita, Jun; Enomoto, Takashi; Yamada, Masao; Ono, Toshiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Sonoda, Shoji; Yamamoto, Yoko



Accumulation and soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides in the Nile Delta coastal black sand habitats.  


The radionuclide content was estimated in the soil of three black sand habitats in the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, namely, sand mounds and coastal sand planes and dunes. In addition, a total of 14 heavy minerals found in the soils were characterized. The soil to plant transfer of uranium and thorium was tested on three black sand species, namely, Cakile maritima Scop., Senecio glaucus L. and Rumex Pictus Forssk. The transfer of thorium and uranium radionuclides from the soil to plant is complex process that is subjected to many variables; among which are the organic matter and clay content of the soil, the type of radionuclides and plant species. The study revealed a strong negative relationship between uranium and thorium uptake by S. glaucus and R. pictus and the clay and organic matter content of soil. Concentration of thorium in the soil has a negative correlation with soil-to-plant transfer factor. The study results suggest the possibility of using black sand species for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radioactive elements. The potentiality of S. glaucus as phytoremediator of radionuclides polluted soils is greater than R. pictus which in turn outweigh C. maritima. PMID:21598782

Hegazy, A K; Emam, M H



Soil-to-plant transfer of 137Cs related to its geochemical partitioning in Oxisols of tropical areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differences in 137Cs soil-to-plant transfer for two types of soils under tropical climatic conditions are discussed with reference to pedology and geochemical partitioning. Using acid oxisol soils with low exchangeable K contents, transfer factor (Tf) values ranged from 0.18 to 0.41 for black beans. Basic oxisol with normal exchangeable K contents presented lower Tf values: 0.06 to 0.11. These values were higher than mean values reported by IUR for 137Cs for beans under temperate climate: 0.03. Results of sequential extraction showed 137Cs weakly bound to soil components and underline the importance of Fe oxides in the control of 137Cs availability.

Wasserman, Maria Angélica M.


Soil-to-plant and plant-to-cow's milk transfer of radiocaesium in alpine pastures: significance of seasonal variability.  


Because our present knowledge on the environmental behaviour of fallout radiocaesium in semi-natural environments is rather limited, the transfer of this radionuclide and of natural 40K, from soil-to-plant as well as from plant-to-cow's milk was investigated for a typical alpine pasture (site P). For comparison, a nearby alpine pasture (site K) not used for cattle grazing was also studied. Small seasonal effects were found for 137Cs in the plants, but they were different for the two pastures. Due to the presence of a large variety of different plant species on the pastures and soil adhesion on the vegetation from trampling cattle, the scattering of the data was very large, and the seasonal effects were observable only because of the large number of samples (N approximately 100) collected. The aggregated soil-to-plant transfer factor of 137Cs was for site P, on average, 0.002 +/- 0.001 m2 kg(-1). The plant-to-milk transfer coefficient was, on average, 0.02 day l(-1). The 137Cs concentration in the milk of the cows varied within the grazing period only between 1.4 and 2.9 Bq l(-1), with a significant maximum in the beginning of August. As a result of soil adhesion due to cattle trampling, significantly higher ash- and 137Cs contents of the plants were observed at site P as compared to site K. Possible consequences of the above observations with respect to a representative sampling design of vegetation and milk are discussed. PMID:10834373

Albers, B P; Steindl, H; Schimmack, W; Bunzl, K



Accumulation and Soil-to-Plant Transfer of Radionuclides in the Nile Delta Coastal Black Sand Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radionuclide content was estimated in the soil of three black sand habitats in the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, namely, sand mounds and coastal sand planes and dunes. In addition, a total of 14 heavy minerals found in the soils were characterized. The soil to plant transfer of uranium and thorium was tested on three black sand species, namely, Cakile

A. K. Hegazy; M. H. Emam



Soil to plant transfer of radionuclides: predicting the fate of multiple radioisotopes in plants.  


Predicting soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides is restricted by the range of species for which concentration ratios (CRs) have been measured. Here the radioecological utility of meta-analyses of phylogenetic effects on alkali earth metals will be explored for applications such as 'gap-filling' of CRs, the identification of sentinel biomonitor plants and the selection of taxa for phytoremediation of radionuclide contaminated soils. REML modelling of extensive CR/concentration datasets shows that the concentrations in plants of Ca, Mg and Sr are significantly influenced by phylogeny. Phylogenetic effects of these elements are shown here to be similar. Ratios of Ca/Mg and Ca/Sr are known to be quite stable in plants so, assuming that Sr/Ra ratios are stable, phylogenetic effects and estimated mean CRs are used to predict Ra CRs for groups of plants with few measured data. Overall, there are well quantified plant variables that could contribute significantly to improving predictions of the fate radioisotopes in the soil-plant system. PMID:24011856

Willey, Neil J



Element interactions and soil properties affecting the soil-to-plant transfer of six elements relevant to radioactive waste in boreal forest.  


Cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), uranium (U), and zinc (Zn) are among the elements that have radioactive isotopes in radioactive waste. Soil-to-plant transfer is a key process for possible adverse effects if these radionuclides are accidentally released into the environment. The present study aimed at investigating factors affecting such transfer in boreal forest. The plant species studied were blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). Regression analyses were carried out to investigate the effects of the chemical composition and physical properties of soil on the soil-to-leaf/needle concentration ratios of Co, Mo, Ni, Pb, U and Zn. Soil potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) concentrations were the most important factors affecting the soil-to-plant transfer of the elements studied. Soil clay and organic matter contents were found to significantly affect plant uptake of Mo, Pb and U. Knowledge of the effects of these factors is helpful for interpretation of the predictions of radioecological models describing soil-to-plant transfer and for improving such models. PMID:22130976

Roivainen, Päivi; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka



Transfer of ²³?U and ²³²Th from soil to plant in a high background radiation area of the southwestern region of Cameroon.  


In order to estimate the soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of some natural radionuclides, the activity of ²³?U and ²³²Th was measured in the soil and in agricultural crop samples collected from identified high background radiation areas in the southwestern region of Cameroon. The results showed that the ²³?U and ²³²Th TFs values were in the ranges 1.0×10?²-12.2×10?¹ kg kg?¹ and 5.0×10?²-9.7×10?¹ kg kg?¹, respectively. These computed TFs values were found to be globally higher than those proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. PMID:23754831

Ben-Bolie, G H; Ele Abiama, P; Owono Ateba, P; El Khoukhi, T; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R



Predicting the transfer of radiocaesium from organic soils to plants using soil characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model predicting plant uptake of radiocaesium based on soil characteristics is described. Three soil parameters required to determine radiocaesium bioavailability in soils are estimated in the model: the labile caesium distribution coefficient (kdl), K+ concentration in the soil solution [mK] and the soil solution?plant radiocaesium concentration factor (CF, Bqkg?1 plant\\/Bqdm?3). These were determined as functions of soil clay content,

J. P. Absalom; S. D. Young; N. M. J. Crout; A. Sanchez; S. M. Wright; E. Smolders; A. F. Nisbet; A. G. Gillett



Factors associated with the suppressiveness of sugarcane soils to plant-parasitic nematodes  

PubMed Central

Observations in three Australian sugarcane fields suggested that the soil just under the trash blanket (the covering of crop residue that remains on the soil surface after crops are harvested) was suppressive to plant-parasitic nematodes. Roots were concentrated in this upper layer of soil but plant-parasitic nematode populations were relatively low and roots showed few signs of nematode damage. Root biomass was much lower 15 cm further down the soil profile, where root health was poor and populations of plant-parasitic nematodes were 3-5 times higher than near the soil surface. A bioassay in which Radopholus similis (a nematode that does not occur in sugarcane soils) was inoculated into heat-sterilized and untreated soils, confirmed that biological factors were limiting nematode populations in some of the soils, with soil from 0-2 cm much more suppressive than soil from 15-17 cm. Surface soil from one site was highly suppressive, as only 16% of R. similis recoverable from heated soil were retrieved from this soil after 8 days. Numerous soil chemical, biochemical, and biological properties were measured, and non-linear regression analysis identified two major groups of factors that were significantly associated with suppressiveness. One group reflected the amount of organic matter in soil (total C, total N, and labile C) and the other was associated with the size of the free-living nematode community (total numbers of free-living nematodes, and numbers of plant associates, bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, and carnivores). These results suggested that suppressiveness was biologically mediated and was sustained by C inputs from crop residues and roots. Since nematode-trapping fungi in the test soils could not be quantified using traditional dilution plating methods, their possible role as suppressive agents was assessed by generating TRFLP profiles with Orbiliales-specific primers, and by sequencing cloned PCR products. Although the molecular data were obtained from a limited number of samples, the level of suppression was significantly correlated to the number of Orbiliales clone groups and was also related to the number of Orbiliales species and TRFs, suggesting that this group of fungi may have been one of the suppressive factors operating in the test soils. PMID:23431051

Stirling, Graham R.; Rames, Emily; Stirling, A. Marcelle; Hamill, Sharon



Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of 137Cs in soil and the soil-to-plant transfer in a pine forest in SW Finland.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of radiocaesium in soil and on its transfer from soil to plants. The study was started in September 2000 in four Scots pine stands located at distances of 0.5, 2, 4 and 8 km along a transect running SE from the Cu-Ni smelter at Harjavalta in SW Finland. Annual emissions from the smelter in 1990 were 80 t of Cu, 31 t of Ni and 9000 t of SO(2), and in 1999 these were 5.9, 0.8 and 3400 t, respectively. At each site, soil profiles were sampled with a corer, and samples were separated into litter (L), organic soil layer (O) and mineral soil layers (B, E). Mushrooms, lichens (Cladina spp. and Cetraria islandica), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) plants were collected at each site, except at a distance of 0.5 km, where only mushrooms were available. In the organic soil layer, 137Cs activity decreased from 8000 Bq/m(2) at a distance of 8 km from the smelter to 1500 Bq/m(2) at a distance of 0.5 km; in litter, 137Cs concentration increased from 6300 Bq/m(2) at 8 km to 14000 Bq/m(2) at 0.5 km. 137Cs activity concentration decreased significantly in plants, mushrooms and lichens as the pollution load increased. In lichens, 137Cs activity decreased from 910 Bq/kg at 8 km to 170 Bq/kg at 2 km, while in lingonberry it decreased from 1470 to 20 Bq/kg and in crowberry from 310 to 20 Bq/kg. Aggregated transfer factors for 137Cs decreased in a similar way in lingonberry from 7.6x10(-2) m(2)/kg at 8 km to 7.7x10(-4) m(2)/kg at 2 km and in crowberry from 1.6x10(-2) to 7.9x10(-4) m(2)/kg. PMID:12606162

Outola, Iisa; Pehrman, Reijo; Jaakkola, Timo



Radionuclide transport above a near-surface water table: II. Vertical distribution of gamma activities within soil profiles in relation to wheat rooting density and soil-to-plant transfers  

SciTech Connect

Radiochemical results are described from a replicated field lysimeter experiment to investigate the upward migration of radionuclides in vegetated soils above near-surface contaminated groundwater. Water tables were maintained at depths of 35 cm (shallow) and 65 cm (deep), below which a cocktail of radionuclides including {sup 137}Cs, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 22}Na was introduced. Results of the vertical migration and plant uptake are presented from the first 2 yr of an ongoing experiment with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). As expected, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 109}Cd proved to be highly sorbed to the soil solid phase in the regions of the water table and exhibited a lesser degree of up-profile transport than {sup 22}Na in shallow lysimeters. However, in deep lysimeters, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Cs appeared to be preferentially accumulated at the soil surface; a biological translocation mechanism is postulated to account for this observation. It was clear from a statistical analysis of vertical radionuclide distribution that, in physicochemical terms, {sup 22}Na was the most mobile of the radionuclides studied. The distribution of this radionuclide within the soil profiles showed a significant shift between the two growth seasons examined, whereas the distributions of the other radionuclides remained static between 1990 and 1991. Each radionuclide showed a distinct and consistent distribution pattern throughout the crop tissues, although the differences in tissue specific activities for individual radionuclides were found to be nonsignificant with the exception of {sup 22}Na. Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFw) were calculated using mean soil specific activities in discrete soil layers. The TFw values were significantly lower in 1991 than in 1990 in both shallow and deep lysimeters. 13 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

Wadey, P.; Shaw, G.; Bell, J.N.; Minski, M.J. [Imperial College, Silwood Park, Berks (United Kingdom)



Soil to plant transfer of 238U, 226Ra and 232Th on a uranium mining-impacted soil from southeastern China.  


Both soil and plant samples of nine different plant species grown in soils from southeastern China contaminated with uranium mine tailings were analyzed for the plant uptake and translocation of 238U, 226Ra and 232Th. Substantial differences were observed in the soil-plant transfer factor (TF) among these radionuclides and plant species. Lupine (Lupinus albus) exhibited the highest uptake of 238U (TF value of 3.7x10(-2)), while Chinese mustard (Brassica chinensis) had the least (0.5x10(-2)). However, in the case of 226Ra and 232Th, the highest TFs were observed for white clover (Trifolium pratense) (3.4x10(-2)) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) (2.1x10(-3)), respectively. 232Th in the tailings/soil mixture was less available for plant uptake than 226Ra or 238U, and this was especially evident for Chinese mustard and corn (Zea mays). The root/shoot (R/S) ratios obtained for different plants and radionuclides shown that Indian mustard had the smallest R/S ratios for both 226Ra (5.3+/-1.2) and 232Th (5.3+/-1.7), while the smallest R/S ratio for 238U was observed in clover (2.8+/-0.9). PMID:15878419

Chen, S B; Zhu, Y G; Hu, Q H



About the assumption of linearity in soil-to-plant transfer factors for uranium and thorium isotopes and 226Ra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linearity assumption for soil and plant concentrations of radionuclides is usually a good approximation for use in food-chain models. To verify this assumption, different samples of plant and substrate were collected from a granitic zone located near a disused uranium mine in order to cover a large range of concentrations. In all of the samples, the activity concentration of

P Blanco Rodr??guez; F Vera Tomé; J. C Lozano



Environmental processes affecting plant root uptake of radioactive trace elements and variability of transfer factor data: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-to-plant transfer factors are commonly used to estimate the food chain transfer of radionuclides. Their definition assumes that the concentration of a radionuclide in a plant relates linearly solely to its average concentration in the rooting zone of the soil. However, the large range of transfer factors reported in the literature shows that the concentration of a radionuclide in a

Sabine Ehlken; Gerald Kirchner



Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees  

SciTech Connect

Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.



The Transfer of Dissolved Cs-137 from Soil to Plants  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly maturing plants were grown simultaneously at the same experimental sites under natural conditions at the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Roots of the plants were side by side in the soil. During two seasons we selected samples of the plants and of the soils several times every season. Content of Cs-137 in the plant and in the soil solution extracted from the samples of soils was measured. Results of measurements of the samples show that, for the experimental site, Cs-137 content in the plant varies with date of the sample selection. The plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio depends strongly on the date of selection and also on the type of soil. After analysis of the data we conclude that Cs-137 plant uptake is approximately proportional to the content of dissolved Cs-137 in the soil per unit of volume, and the plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio for the soil is approximately proportional to the soil moisture. (authors)

Prorok, V.V.; Melnichenko, L.Yu. [Department of Physics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 2, build. 1 Acad. Glushkov prospect, Kyiv-680 MSP (Ukraine); Mason, C.F.V. [Research Applications Corporation, 148 Piedra Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Ageyev, V.A.; Ostashko, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 47 Nauky prospect, Kyiv-680 MSP (Ukraine)



Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by radionuclide releases) of waste disposal facilities and decommissioning sites.

Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.



Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake  

E-print Network

of supply, upon written request as follows: Address: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission OfficeTransfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees Office of Nuclear Regulatory; licensee event reports; and Commission papers and their attachments. NRC publications in the NUREG series


Carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from Soil to Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the scope of a joint project to study soil-to-plant carryover of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), five cultivated\\u000a plants (spring wheat, oats, potatoes, maize, and perennial ryegrass) were sown or planted in Mitscherlich pots. Six variants\\u000a per species were used, each with a different concentration level of PFOA and PFOS (from 0.25 to 50 mg\\/kg as aqueous solution)\\u000a to detect possible concentration

T. Stahl; J. Heyn; H. Thiele; J. Hüther; K. Failing; S. Georgii; H. Brunn



Effect of industrial pollution on soil-to-plant transfer of plutonium in a Boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium in a forest ecosystem was studied at different distances from the copper and nickel smelter at Monchegorsk, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Soil and plant samples were collected 7 (site A), 16 (B), 21 (C) and 28 (D) km from the smelter and at a reference site situated in Finland, 152 km from Monchegorsk. The deposition of Cu in litter and

Iisa Riekkinen; Timo Jaakkola



Uranium transfer in the food chain from soil to plants, animals and man  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 16-km-thick Earth's crust, 2.4–3.2mguranium\\/kg is assumed to occur. Thus, uranium is more abundant than iodine, cadmium or selenium. In Central Europe, the vegetation richest in uranium is found on granite weathering soils. Compared to these, the uranium content of the flora is about 25% less on Muschelkalk soils, ?50% less on Buntsandstein, Keuper weathering soils and gneiss weathering

M. Anke; O. Seeber; R. Müller; U. Schäfer; J. Zerull



Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling  

SciTech Connect

A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.



Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To begin the validation process for the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Thailand, research replicating Holton, Bates, and Ruona's study (2000) was conducted in Thailand. The LTSI was administered to 1,029 employees. Exploratory factor analysis and MANOVA were used to identify factors. A factor structure almost identical to that of…

Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.



Factors Affecting Motivation to Transfer Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of trainees (n=88) in a competency-based occupational safety and health training program found that environmental factors (opportunities to use skills, peer/supervisor support, and supervisor sanctions) were most influential on motivation to transfer training. Training attitudes may be affected by prior experiences when the use of training…

Seyler, Dian L.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Burnett, Michael F.; Carvalho, Manuel A.



Some Factors Influencing Transfer of Simulator Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of transfer of training may be used to determine whether simulator training improves pilot performance in an aircraft. Some approaches to determining simulator training effectiveness, such as surveys of pilot and instructor opinions, are not considered particularly reliable. Several other approaches have also been suggested. One factor

Caro, Paul W.


Soil-to-root vegetable transfer factors for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (88)Y in Malaysia.  


Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) are of fundamental importance in assessing the environmental impact due to the presence of radioactivity in soil and agricultural crops. Tapioca and sweet potato, both root crops, are popular foodstuffs for a significant fraction of the Malaysian population, and result in intake of radionuclides. For the natural field conditions experienced in production of these foodstuffs, TFs and the annual effective dose were evaluated for the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and for the anthropogenic radionuclide (88)Y, the latter being a component of fallout. An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptake. For soil samples from all study locations other than the experimental field, it has been shown that these contain the artificial radionuclide (88)Y, although the uptake of (88)Y has only been observed in the roots of the plant Manihot esculenta (from which tapioca is derived) grown in mining soil. The estimated TFs for (226)Ra and (232)Th for tapioca and sweet potato are very much higher than that reported by the IAEA. For all study areas, the annual effective dose from ingestion of tapioca and sweet potato are estimated to be lower than the world average (290 ?Sv y(-1)). PMID:24814722

Asaduzzaman, Kh; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Y M; Bradley, D A; Mahat, R H; Nor, R M



From soil to plant, the journey of P through trophic relationships and ectomycorrhizal association  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus (P) is essential for plant growth and productivity. It is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soil because it is mainly present as unavailable, bound P whereas plants can only use unbound, inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is found in very low concentrations in soil solution. Some ectomycorrhizal fungi are able to release organic compounds (organic anions or phosphatases) to mobilize unavailable P. Recent studies suggest that bacteria play a major role in the mineralization of nutrients such as P through trophic relationships as they can produce specific phosphatases such as phytases to degrade phytate, the main form of soil organic P. Bacteria are also more effective than other microorganisms or plants at immobilizing free Pi. Therefore, bacterial grazing by grazers, such as nematodes, could release Pi locked in bacterial biomass. Free Pi may be taken up by ectomycorrhizal fungus by specific phosphate transporters and transferred to the plant by mechanisms that have not yet been identified. This mini-review aims to follow the phosphate pathway to understand the ecological and molecular mechanisms responsible for transfer of phosphate from the soil to the plant, to improve plant P nutrition. PMID:25360140

Becquer, Adeline; Trap, Jean; Irshad, Usman; Ali, Muhammad A.; Claude, Plassard



Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Transfer Student Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transfer students' adjustment to college has received substantial attention by researchers. This focus has predominately investigated the observation of "transfer shock": a decrease in grade point average (GPA) experienced after transferring. In response to the persistent focus on transfer shock, growing attention has been directed…

Young, Jacob T. N.; Litzler, Elizabeth



Transfer of Radionuclides K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226 from Mining Soil to Sawi (Japanese Mustard)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uptake of naturally occurring thorium, radium and potassium by sawi (Japanese Mustard) from disused tin mining was studied. Both soil and sawi sample were collected from a vegetable farm located 15 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the farm has been operating for 22 years on a disused tin mining. By using a gamma spectroscopy system, the transfers of radionuclides from soil to plants were investigated. The highest values of radionuclides in the soil was K-40 which is 52.8 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 6.51 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 18.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of radionuclides in the sawi sample shows higher values as compared to the soil sample. The highest values of radionuclides in the sawi were K-40 which is 446 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 17.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 65.2 Bq kg-1. The concentration of radionuclides in soils and plants can be used for the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) were calculated and observed to be 2.68 for radium-226, 3.52 for thorium-232 and the highest which is 3.97 for potassium-40.

Hariandra, M.; Amin, Y. M.



Inhalation Transfer Factors for Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate routine health risk assessments, we develop the concept of an inhalation transfer factor (ITF). The ITF is defined as the pollutant mass inhaled by an exposed individual per unit pollutant mass emitted from an air pollution source. A cumulative population inhalation transfer factor (PITF) is also defined to describe the total fraction of an emitted pollutant inhaled by

Alvin C. K. Lai; Tracy L. Thatcher; William W. Nazaroff



Factors Affecting Training Transfer: Participants' Motivation to Transfer Training, Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates factors that motivate participants in learning and training activities to transfer skills, knowledge and attitude from the learning setting to the workplace. Based on training transfer theories hypothesized by Holton (1996), one of the major theories that affect an organization's learning is motivation to transfer theory.…

Alawneh, Muhammad K.



Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium  

SciTech Connect

Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site.

Blanchard, A.



Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Charge and Excitation Transfer  

SciTech Connect

We report the and/or state of several subprojects of our DOE sponsored research on Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Electron and Excitation Transfer: (1) Construction of an ultrafast Ti:sapphire amplifier. (2) Mediation of electronic interactions in host-guest molecules. (3) Theoretical models of electrolytes in weakly polar media. (4) Symmetry effects in intramolecular excitation transfer.

Piotr Piotrowiak



Chlorophyll a Franck-Condon factors and excitation energy transfer  

SciTech Connect

The Franck-Condon factors for the S{sub 1}(Q{sub y}) {leftrightarrow} S{sub 0} electronic transition of chlorophyll (Chl) molecules are important for understanding excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes. Currently, there are two sets of Chl a Frank-Condon factors for over 40 modes, one determined by spectral hole burning and the other by fluorescence line narrowing. Those obtained by the latter spectroscopy are, on average, a factor of 30 times smaller than the hole burning values. Nonline-narrowed fluorescence results for the light-harvesting complex 2 of photosystem 2 at 4.2 K are presented that agree quite well with the hole burning but not the fluorescence line narrowing values.

Pieper, J. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Physics] [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Physics; [Ames Lab., IA (United States); [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Voigt, J. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Physics] [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Physics; Small, G.J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)] [Ames Lab., IA (United States); [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry



Distinguishing Between Knowledge Transfer and Technology Transfer Activities: The Role of Key Organizational Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge transfer and technology transfer are often used interchangeably and while both knowledge transfer and technology transfer are highly interactive activities, they serve different purposes. Knowledge transfer implies a broader, more inclusive construct that is directed more toward understanding the \\

Shanthi Gopalakrishnan; Michael D. Santoro



Tests of Transfer Reaction Determinations of Astrophysical S-Factors  

E-print Network

The ${}^{16}O ({}^{3}He,d) {}^{17}F$ reaction has been used to determine asymptotic normalization coefficients for transitions to the ground and first excited states of ${}^{17}F$. The coefficients provide the normalization for the tails of the overlap functions for ${}^{17}F \\to{}^{16}O + p$ and allow us to calculate the S-factors for ${}^{16}O (p,\\gamma){}^{17}F$ at astrophysical energies. The calculated S-factors are compared to measurements and found to be in very good agreement. This provides the first test of this indirect method to determine astrophysical direct capture rates using transfer reactions. In addition, our results yield S(0) for capture to the ground and first excited states in $^{17}F$, without the uncertainty associated with extrapolation from higher energies.

C. A. Gagliardi; R. E. Tribble; A. Azhari; H. L. Clark; Y. -W. Lui; A. M. Mukhamedzhanov; A. Sattarov; L. Trache; V. Burjan; J. Cejpek; V. Kroha; Š. Pisko?; J. Vincour



Characterization of guinea pig transfer factor collected by In vivo exposure to antilymphocyte gamma globulin  

E-print Network

. , who also found transfer activity in the non-dialyzable portion of the lymphocyte extract, have shown that the human dialyzable transfer factor was a polynucleotide containing ribose, adenosyl, guanosyl, and cytosyl residues, but was lacking uracil.... , who also found transfer activity in the non-dialyzable portion of the lymphocyte extract, have shown that the human dialyzable transfer factor was a polynucleotide containing ribose, adenosyl, guanosyl, and cytosyl residues, but was lacking uracil...

Stewart, Robert Stanley



Effects of stress and other environmental factors on horizontal plasmid transfer assessed by direct quantification of discrete transfer events.  


Selection pressure may affect the horizontal transfer of plasmids. The inability to distinguish between gene transfer and the growth of transconjugants complicates testing. We have developed a method that enables the quantification of discrete transfer events. It uses large numbers of replicate matings (192 or 384) in microtiter wells and the counting of transfer-positive and transfer-negative wells. We applied the method to study the transfer of the IncP1 plasmid pRO103 between Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida strains. pRO103 encodes resistance to mercury and tetracycline and partial degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The results showed positive correlation between transfer and donor metabolic activity, and an optimal temperature for transfer of 29 degrees C. On stimulation of donor activity, the optimal temperature was decreased to 24.5 degrees C. HgCl(2) above 1.0 microg L(-1) negatively affected transfer, whereas 2,4-D up to 0.3 mM had no effect. The negative effect of mercury was shown to be a result of stressing of the recipient. No effects of mercury on transfer could be detected by traditional filter mating. Thus, the method is superior to filter mating and, as the experimental design allows the manipulation of individual parameters, it is ideal for the assessment and comparison of effects of environmental factors on plasmid transfer. PMID:17100984

Johnsen, Anders R; Kroer, Niels



Transfer Factor in the Treatment of Herpes Simplex Types 1 and 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer factor potentiates cellular immunity and induces interferon. It was because of these properties that transfer factor was tried in 17 patients with recurrent herpes simplex types 1 and 2. Transfer factor was administered in doses ranging from 5 to 10 U\\/m2 i.m. The interval between injections varied from 1 week to 3 months. 16 patients could be evaluated clinically

Amanullah Khan; Beth Hansen; N. O. Hill; E. Loeb; A. S. Pardue; J. M. Hill



Student Perceptions of Factors Contributing to Community-College-to-University Transfer Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transfer process includes areas such as academic preparation and advisement, transfer evaluation, financial aid, and psychosocial factors. A descriptive, exploratory method was employed to capture the perceptions of a transfer student cohort regarding their experiences in transitioning from lower division community college enrollment to…

Gard, Dwight R.; Paton, Valerie; Gosselin, Kevin



Factors affecting pregnancy rates and early embryonic death after equine embryo transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, 638 embryo transfers conducted over 3 yr were retrospectively examined to determine which factors (recipient, embryo and transfer) significantly influenced pregnancy and embryo loss rates and to determine how rates could be improved. On Day 7 or 8 after ovulation, embryos (fresh or cooled\\/transported) were transferred by surgical or nonsurgical techniques into recipients ovulating from 5

E. M. Carnevale; R. J. Ramirez; E. L. Squires; M. A. Alvarenga; D. K. Vanderwall; P. M. McCue



Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter\\/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that

S. C. Sheppard; J. M. Long; B. Sanipelli



Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.



General and specific factors in the intersensory transfer of form.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study assessed the relative contributions of specific and nonspecific components to intersensory transfer between vision and touch. A paired-associate paradigm was used in which visual metric figures and their tactual analogs served as stimuli, and familiar adjectives were the responses. Positive intersensory transfer, characterized by symmetry across modalities was obtained. The contribution of nonspecific learning to this effect was negligible. Intersensory transfer was found to be less efficient than the empirically determined maximum level of intrasensory transfer possible in this task.

Clark, J. L.; Warm, J. S.; Schumsky, D. A.



Lung volumes, ventilatory capacity, and transfer factor in healthy British boy and girl twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotes, J. E., Dabbs, J. M., Hall, A. M., Axford, A. T., and Laurence, K. M. (1973). Thorax, 28, 709-715. Lung volumes, ventilatory capacity, and transfer factor in healthy British boy and girl twins. Normal values are reported for the lung volumes, ventilatory capacity, and transfer factor of 212 healthy British twin children aged 8 to 16 years. The boys

J. E. Cotes; J. M. Dabbs; A. M. Hall; A. T. Axford; K. M. Laurence



Relationship between the radiocesium interception potential and the transfer of radiocesium from soil to soybean cultivated in 2011 in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.  


The concentration of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in agricultural fields around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) was elevated after the accident in March 2011. Evaluation of soil properties that influence phytoavailability of radiocesium is important for optimal soil management to minimize radiocesium transfer to crops. In this study, soybean grain and soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected from 46 locations in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011, and (137)Cs concentrations were measured. (137)Cs concentration ranges were 11-329 Bq kg(-1)-dry in soybean grain samples, and 0.29-2.49 kBq kg(-1)-dry in soil samples. The radiocesium interception potential (RIP) values in the soil samples ranged from 0.30 to 8.61 mol kg(-1). RIP negatively correlated with total carbon content and oxalate-extractable Si and Al + 1/2 Fe in the soils, suggesting that soils rich in organic matter and poorly crystalline clays tended to have lower RIP in this region. The soil-to-plant transfer factor for (137)Cs, analyzed in relation with various soil characteristics, varied by two orders of magnitude and was significantly negatively correlated with RIP and exchangeable K concentration in soil. The results show that RIP is useful for evaluating the efficiency of radiocesium transfer from soil to plants in this region. PMID:25036920

Takeda, Akira; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Takeuchi, Megumi; Sato, Mutsuto; Nakao, Atsushi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi



Weak and electromagnetic form factors of baryons at large momentum transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perturbative quantum-chromodynamic predictions are given for the weak and electromagnetic elastic and transition form factors of baryons at large momentum transfer Q. The leading (helicity-conserving) octet and decuplet form factors can all be expressed as linear combinations of the proton and neutron magnetic form factors. The predictions for the spin structure and relative normalization of the baryon form factors reflect

Stanley Brodsky; G. P. Lepage; S. A. A. Zaidi



Factors Affecting the Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Nuclear transfer is a complex multistep procedure that includes oocyte maturation, cell cycle synchronization of donor cells, enucleation, cell fusion, oocyte activation and embryo culture. Therefore, many factors are believed to contribute to the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer. Numerous attempts to improve cloning efficiency have been conducted since the birth of the first sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, the efficiency of somatic cell cloning has remained low, and applications have been limited. In this review, we discuss some of the factors that affect the developmental ability of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in cattle. PMID:25341701

AKAGI, Satoshi; MATSUKAWA, Kazutsugu; TAKAHASHI, Seiya



Factors affecting mass transfer limited biodegradation in saturated porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial degradation rates in the subsurface are not only limited by the physiological capacity of the organisms, but also by inefficient supply of nutrients to the microbes. Although mass transfer limitation of biodegradation in the subsurface has been postulated for years, experimental evidence is still scarce. In the column experiments described here, diffusive transport of 4-nitroanisole from the bulk solution to cells of Rhodococcus opacus strain AS2 immobilized on glass beads or sand appeared to be responsible for the slow transformation rates observed. Assuming steady state, we applied a coupled transformation/transport equation to these data (Best equation) and apparent bead-related mass transfer coefficients were found to increase in proportion to the surface area covered with bacteria. This implies that mass transfer coefficients for individual cells remained constant. In an idealized oligotrophic environment where cells are only loosely clustered and do not shield each other, we would therefore expect biodegradation rates to be independent from the longitudinal distribution of the total biomass along a given flow path. Moreover, apparent mass transfer coefficients increased with the grain size of the column fillings, but did not change upon varying the flow rate. With a limiting external transport step, overall transformation fluxes do not become saturated at concentrations as low as predicted for Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics. Mass transfer limitation thus offers a justification for the common assumption that biodegradation rates in the subsurface follow first order kinetics in a wide concentration range.

Simoni, Stefano F.; Schäfer, Anke; Harms, Hauke; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.



Factors affecting mass transfer limited biodegradation in saturated porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial degradation rates in the subsurface are not only limited by the physiological capacity of the organisms, but also by inefficient supply of nutrients to the microbes. Although mass transfer limitation of biodegradation in the subsurface has been postulated for years, experimental evidence is still scarce. In the column experiments described here, diffusive transport of 4-nitroanisole from the bulk solution

Stefano F Simoni; Anke Schäfer; Hauke Harms; Alexander J. B Zehnder



Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to

X Cindy Tian; Chikara Kubota; Brian Enright; Xiangzhong Yang



Gene Transfer is a Major Factor in Bacterial Evolution Ruiting Lan and Peter R. Reeves  

E-print Network

Gene Transfer is a Major Factor in Bacterial Evolution Ruiting Lan and Peter R. Reeves Department adaptation re- vealed far more extensive gene transfers, examples be- ing the rj& gene cluster Mol. Biol. Evol. 13(1):47-55. 1996 0 1996 by the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. ISSN

Lan, Ruiting


Organizational Factors and the Performance of Knowledge Transfer in Construction Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of managing knowledge in organizations for competitive advantage has received an amount of attention in recently years. Relatively little study has been performed on tacit knowledge transfer in the construction industry. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between organizational factors and the performance of knowledge transfer. Organizational culture, organizational structure, IT technology, and No-IT approaches as four

Hui-min Liu



Transitioning Transfer Students: Interactive Factors that Influence First-Year Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the diverse patterns of interactive factors that influence transfer students' first-year retention at a midsize four-year university. The population for this study consisted of five cohorts totaling 1,713 full-time, degree-seeking transfer students. Sequential sets of logistic regression analyses on blocks of variables were…

Luo, Mingchu; Williams, James E.; Vieweg, Bruce



Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

Diggs, Byron Kenneth



Simulation of a Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles with Power Factor Correction  

SciTech Connect

Wireless power transfer has been a popular topic of recent research. Most research has been done to address the limitations of coil-to-coil efficiency. However, little has been done to address the problem associated with the low input power factor with which the systems operate. This paper details the steps taken to analyze a wireless power transfer system from the view of the power grid under a variety of loading conditions with and without power factor correction.

Pickelsimer, Michael C [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL



Osteogenic sarcoma. Immunologic parameters before and during immunotherapy with tumor-specific transfer factor.  

PubMed Central

18 patients with osteogenic sarcoma were followed by serial measurements in vitro of tumor-specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity and of "active" and total rosette-forming T-cells. 13 of these patients have had or are currently receiving injections of osteogenic sarcoma-specific dialyzable transfer factor derived from healthy donors. In three patients with very small lesions, cytotoxicity was high before amputation and decreased within 2 mo after removal of tumor. Cytotoxicity was low at time of diagnosis in all patients with large tumor masses. The cytotoxicity of the patients' lymphocytes increased after administration of tumor-specific transfer factor in all patients so treated. Patients receiving nonspecific transfer factor showed evidence of declining cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Tumor-specific transfer factor may produce an increase in cell-mediated cytotoxicity to the tumor in patients with osteogenic sarcoma. This possibility is suggested by the pain and edema that occurred in the area of the tumor in patients who had metastatic disease when therapy was started and by lymphocytic infiltrates in the tumor, as well as by the increase in cell-mediated cytotoxicity and the increase in percentage of active rosette-forming cells from subnormal to normal. Serial measurements of cell-mediated cytotoxicity are helpful in monitoring the efficacy of transfer factor and other modes of therapy in these patients, and these measurements are the best available criteria for selection of donors of tumor-specific transfer factor. Images PMID:1078826

Levin, A S; Byers, V S; Fudenberg, H H; Wybran, J; Hackett, A J; Johnston, J O; Spitler, L E



Voltage controllable power factor corrector based inductive coupling power transfer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposed a novel inductive coupling power transfer (ICPT) topology to improve the power factor, output voltage regulation and efficiency. The proposed ICPT is mainly constructed by a voltage controllable power factor corrector (VC-PFC) and a LLC resonant circuit. Additionally, the series compensation and series-parallel compensation are used in the primary and the secondary sides of the coupling transformer

Liang-Rui Chen; Hai-Wen Chang; Chia-Hsuan Wu; Chung-Ming Young; Neng-Yi Chu



Time-fixed rendezvous by impulse factoring with an intermediate timing constraint. [for transfer orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for factoring a two-impulse orbital transfer into a three- or four-impulse transfer which solves the rendezvous problem and satisfies an intermediate timing constraint. Both the time of rendezvous and the intermediate time of a alinement are formulated as any element of a finite sequence of times. These times are integer multiples of a constant plus an additive constant. The rendezvous condition is an equality constraint, whereas the intermediate alinement is an inequality constraint. The two timing constraints are satisfied by factoring the impulses into collinear parts that vectorially sum to the original impulse and by varying the resultant period differences and the number of revolutions in each orbit. Five different types of solutions arise by considering factoring either or both of the two impulses into two or three parts with a limit for four total impulses. The impulse-factoring technique may be applied to any two-impulse transfer which has distinct orbital periods.

Green, R. N.; Kibler, J. F.; Young, G. R.



Lymphatic Vessel Function and Lymphatic Growth Factor Secretion after Microvascular Lymph Node Transfer in Lymphedema Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent reports have shown that microvascular lymph node transfer may improve lymphatic drainage in lymphedema patients. Lymphatic anastomoses are expected to form spontaneously in response to lymphatic growth factor [vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C)] secreted by the transferred lymph nodes. Methods: We have analyzed the results of 19 lymph node transfer patients operated on 2007–2012. Postoperat ive lymphatic function of the affected arm was evaluated using semiquantitative lymphoscintigraphy (transport index) and limb circumference measurements. To investigate the postoperative VEGF-C secretion, we examined axillary seroma fluid samples after different surgical operations, including lymph node transfer. Results: The transport index was improved postoperatively in 7 of 19 patients. Ten of the 19 patients were able to reduce or even discontinue using compression garments. Arm circumferences were reduced in 12 of 19 patients. Six of the 7 patients with preoperative erysipelas infections have not had infectious episodes postoperatively during 15–67 months follow-up. Neuropathic pain was relieved in 5 of 5 patients. VEGF-C protein was detected in the axillary seroma fluid both after lymph node transfer and normal breast reconstruction. Conclusions: Reconstructing the lymphatic anatomy of the axilla with a lymph node flap may offer possibilities that other reconstructive options are lacking. However, we will need further reports and comparative studies about the clinical efficacy of this new promising technique. In addition to the transferred lymph nodes, lymphatic growth factor production may also be induced by other factors related to microvascular breast reconstruction. PMID:25289206

Viitanen, Tiina P.; Visuri, Mikko T.; Hartiala, Pauliina; Maki, Maija T.; Seppanen, Marko P.; Suominen, Erkki A.



Transfer students in STEM majors: Gender differences in the socialization factors that influence academic and social adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were (a) to examine the socialization factors of community college transfer students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM); (b) to examine the socialization factors that impact the academic and social adjustment of community college transfer students in STEM majors; and (c) to understand how female community college transfer students describe their overall socialization experiences

Dimitra Lynette Jackson



Rate expressions for excitation transfer. III. An ab initio study of electronic factors in excitation transfer and exciton resonance interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed theory for electronic aspects of electronic excitation (energy) transfer (EET) for sandwich dimers was derived in paper II of this series [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 10 521 (1994)]. In II, the electronic transfer matrix element for EET was evaluated, then simplified to various levels of approximation. The results of ab initio molecular orbital calculations on an ethene sandwich dimer are reported here in order to test and quantify the theory of II. The calculations were undertaken using a STO-6G basis set and localized molecular orbitals, with separations of 4, 5, and 6 Å between the molecules. It is demonstrated that the important electronic factors contributing to EET are the Coulombic interaction (for direct singlet-singlet transfer) and, for both singlet-singlet and triplet-triplet EET, orbital overlap-dependent interactions. The dominant orbital overlap-dependent terms arise from through-configuration interaction, which involves successive one-electron transfers mediated via bridging ionic configurations, first presented in II. The results confirm that the Dexter-type exchange interaction is small in comparison.

Scholes, Gregory D.; Harcourt, Richard D.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.



An Overview of Potential Factors for Effective Telemedicine Transfer to Sub-Saharan Africa.  


This paper gives an overview of core factors mitigating effective transfer of TeleMedicine to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a capability for improving the extremely poor state of healthcare delivery systems in that region of the world. Using specific examples of TeleMedicine applications, such as in TeleRadiology and health education, the paper highlights the importance of TeleMedicine in SSA. It then presents the salient factors that influence TeleMedicine technology transfer in the form of a conceptual framework. In explaining the framework, the paper offers opinions and supportive arguments on the importance and significance of the identified factors in effective TeleMedicine "uptake" within the SSA. We believe the framework provides a grounded theoretical basis that information and communications technologies (ICT) or technology transfer researchers can use for empirical investigation in order to understand the efficacy of TeleMedicine adoption within developing countries at large. PMID:19273036

Meso, Peter; Mbarika, Victor W A; Sood, Sanjay Prakash



Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation.

Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J.



Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers  

SciTech Connect

We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-{beta}) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sanchez; Perez, Javier [Lab. de Bioquimica Muscular, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion, C.P.14389, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garcia, M. N. Jimenez; Lopez, M. A. Jimenez [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas Instituto Politecnico Nacional, C.P. 07340, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Espindola, M. E. Sanchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernandez, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F. [Esc. Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez [Depto. de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Ap. Post. 14-740, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico)



Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-?) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sánchez; Pérez, Javiér; García, M. N. Jiménez; López, M. A. Jiménez; Espíndola, M. E. Sánchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernández, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez



Environmental factors influencing gene transfer agent (GTA) mediated transduction in the subtropical ocean.  


Microbial genomic sequence analyses have indicated widespread horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, an adequate mechanism accounting for the ubiquity of HGT has been lacking. Recently, high frequencies of interspecific gene transfer have been documented, catalyzed by Gene Transfer Agents (GTAs) of marine ?-Proteobacteria. It has been proposed that the presence of bacterial genes in highly purified viral metagenomes may be due to GTAs. However, factors influencing GTA-mediated gene transfer in the environment have not yet been determined. Several genomically sequenced strains containing complete GTA sequences similar to Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA, type strain) were screened to ascertain if they produced putative GTAs, and at what abundance. Five of nine marine strains screened to date spontaneously produced virus-like particles (VLP's) in stationary phase. Three of these strains have demonstrated gene transfer activity, two of which were documented by this lab. These two strains Roseovarius nubinhibens ISM and Nitratireductor 44B9s, were utilized to produce GTAs designated RnGTA and NrGTA and gene transfer activity was verified in culture. Cell-free preparations of purified RnGTA and NrGTA particles from marked donor strains were incubated with natural microbial assemblages to determine the level of GTA-mediated gene transfer. In conjunction, several ambient environmental parameters were measured including lysogeny indicated by prophage induction. GTA production in culture systems indicated that approximately half of the strains produced GTA-like particles and maximal GTA counts ranged from 10-30% of host abundance. Modeling of GTA-mediated gene transfer frequencies in natural samples, along with other measured environmental variables, indicated a strong relationship between GTA mediated gene transfer and the combined factors of salinity, multiplicity of infection (MOI) and ambient bacterial abundance. These results indicate that GTA-mediated HGT in the marine environment with the strains examined is favored during times of elevated bacterial and GTA abundance as well as in areas of higher salinity. PMID:22905268

McDaniel, Lauren D; Young, Elizabeth C; Ritchie, Kimberly B; Paul, John H



Factors Contributing to the Upward Transfer of Baccalaureate Aspirants Beginning at Community Colleges. WISCAPE Working Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incorporating the psychological perspective, this study examines factors associated with the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, the study tests a logistic regression model to predict…

Wang, Xueli



Dynamic versus steady-state determination of lung transfer factor in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed at comparing two techniques which measure lung transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in infants. The gold standard deals with the Fick mass-balance applied when steady state for ventilation and CO gas fractions is achieved. The second technique models CO uptake in dynamic conditions where gas fractions are changed by a rebreathing maneuver. This procedure increases

B. Bouferrache; Q. Marbaix-Li; G. Krim; M. Freville; J. P. Libert



Induction of Pulmonary Angiogenesis by Adenoviral-Mediated Gene Transfer of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We hypothesized that gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mediated by an adenovirus vector might induce pulmonary artery angiogenesis in a lamb model of pulmonary artery hypoplasia. Methods. Thirteen fetal lambs had left pulmonary artery banding at 106 days of gestation. Following birth, 3 groups were divided: VEGF group (n 5) and -GAL group (n 4) received

Virginie Lambert; Guy-Michel Mazmanian; Elisabeth M. Dulmet; Philippe Herve ´; Claude Planche ´; Alain Serraf



The Role of Individual and Training Design Factors on Training Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the role of individual and training design factors on training transfer. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature is conducted, and this review highlights a dual role of perceived content validity in the form of increasing self-efficacy and the role of trainees' reaction. The study…

Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan



Analysis of Influencing Factors of Heat Transfer Performance of Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer performance of heat pipe heat exchanger affected by many factors, such as the opening temperature of the heat pipe, the rate of fluid-filled, the physical nature of liquid refrigerant, the work temperature of tube, angle, tube spacing, tube length, hot and cold fluid flow and wind speed. The above-mentioned parameters can not be measured because of Test conditions,

Zhang Jie; Ren Yan; Zhang Lihong; Liang Huimin



Factors Contributing to the Upward Transfer of Baccalaureate Aspirants Beginning at Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined factors associated with the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, a sequential logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict bachelor's degree-seeking community…

Wang, Xueli



Recoil Polarization Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio to High Momentum Transfer  

SciTech Connect

The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electronnucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer Q2 between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large f momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their kinematics, including their scattering angles and momenta, and the position of the interaction vertex. A proton polarimeter measured the polarization of the recoiling protons by measuring the azimuthal asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons scattered in CH2 analyzers. The scattered electron was detected in a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter in order to suppress inelastic backgrounds. The measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the scattered proton is directly proportional to the ratio of form factors GpE=GpM. The measurements reported in this thesis took place at Q2 =5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV2, and represent the most accurate measurements of GpE in this Q2 region to date.

Andrew Puckett



Survey of literature on convective heat transfer coefficients and recovery factors for high atmosphere thermometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat transfer phenomena of rarefied gas flows is discussed based on a literature survey of analytical and experimental rarefied gas dynamics. Subsonic flows are emphasized for the purposes of meteorological thermometry in the high atmosphere. The heat transfer coefficients for three basic geometries are given in the regimes of free molecular flow, transition flow, slip flow, and continuum flow. Different types of heat phenomena, and the analysis of theoretical and experimental data are presented. The uncertainties calculated from the interpolation rule compared with the available experimental data are discussed. The recovery factor for each geometry in subsonic rarefied flows is also given.

Chung, S.



[Team-based community psychiatry: importance of context factors and transferability of evidence from studies].  


The German Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN) guidelines on psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental illness appraise the transferability of results of trials evaluating community-based mental health services to the German situation. This assessment has to draw on research results on factors determining effectiveness. This must be seen against the background of a lack of high-quality trials in Germany. The article discusses system, context and setting factors related to the transfer of evidence on community-based service models from other countries. These issues are discussed on the basis of evidence concerning the models of case management, assertive community treatment and community mental health teams. International differences in study findings are highlighted and the importance of treatment-as-usual in influencing study results is emphasized. The more control services including elements of community-based care there are and the less the pressure to reduce inpatient treatment (threshold to inpatient care admission), the smaller the relative effect sizes of innovative care models will be.In the absence of direct evidence, careful examination of transferability is required before introducing health care models. Research has revealed solid evidence for several factors influencing the effects of innovative community mental health care. Among key factors in the care of people with severe mental illness, home visits and joint team responsibility for both psychiatric and social care were identified. This evidence can facilitate the adaptation of successful mental health care models in Germany. PMID:22688090

Weinmann, S; Gühne, U; Kösters, M; Gaebel, W; Becker, T



Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries.  


The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29Lkg(-1) in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85Lkg(-1) for whole, small-bodied fish. The logCRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were approximately 4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts. PMID:20619514

Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B



SEARCH. Single-Phase, Turbulent Heat-Transfer Friction-Factor Data Base Flow Enhanced Tb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat-exchanger designers need to know what type of performance improvement can be obtained before they will consider enhanced tubes. In particular, they need access to the heat-transfer coefficients and friction-factor values of enhanced tube types that are commercially available. To compile these data from the numerous publications and reports in the open literature is a formidable task that can discourage

T. S. Ravigurguran; T. J. Rabas



Spatial and Kinetic Factors for the Transfer of Head Lice (Pediculus capitis) Between Hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the global increase in pediculosis is well known, little is known about the exact nature of head lice (Pediculus capitis) transmission. Several mechanisms have been proposed such as head-to-head and fomite transmission, but some contention remains concerning the primary transmission route. This study investigated spatial and kinetic factors influencing the dynamics of hair-to-hair transfer to clarify further how head

Deon V. Canyon; Richard Speare; Reinhold Muller



AAV-mediated factor IX gene transfer to skeletal muscle in patients with severe hemophilia B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemophilia B is an X-linked coagulopathy caused by absence of functional coagula- tion factor IX (F.IX). Previously, we estab- lished an experimental basis for gene transfer as a method of treating the dis- ease in mice and hemophilic dogs through intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector ex- pressing F.IX. In this study we investi- gated the safety

Catherine S. Manno; Amy J. Chew; Sylvia Hutchison; Peter J. Larson; Roland W. Herzog; Valder R. Arruda; Shing Jen Tai; Margaret V. Ragni; Arthur Thompson; Margareth Ozelo; Linda B. Couto; Debra G. B. Leonard; Frederick A. Johnson; Alan McClelland; Ciaran Scallan; Erik Skarsgard; Alan W. Flake; Mark A. Kay; Katherine A. High; Bertil Glader



Evaluation of clinical factors influencing pregnancy rate in frozen embryo transfer  

PubMed Central

Background: Frozen embryo transfer (FET) is one of the most important supplementary procedures in the treatment of infertile couples. While general information concerning the outcome of fresh embryo transfer has been documented, paucity of investigations has addressed the clinical factors influenced on pregnancy rates in FET. Objective: In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis of clinical factors that potentially influence the outcome of FET. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the data from 372 women who were subjected to FET registered from April 2009-2011 at the Research and clinical center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Baseline data and pregnancy rate were collected. The data were analyzed statistically using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The clinical pregnancy rate was 57.7 and 29.2% in women <35 years old, and women >35 years old, respectively (p<0.0001). Clinical pregnancy rates in women with FSH <10 IU/ml, and FSH >10 IU/ml were 56.3% and 17.5 %, respectively (p<0.0001). Whereas the other clinical parameters consist of reason of fetus freezing, primary IVF protocol, IVF procedure, endometrial thickness, treatment duration to fetal transfer found to be unrelated to FET outcomes (p>0.05). Conclusion: Female age and basal FSH level are the most important factors influencing the clinical pregnancy rate following FET. PMID:25114675

Eftekhar, Maryam; Rahmani, Elham; Pourmasumi, Soheila



100% Classification Accuracy Considered Harmful: The Normalized Information Transfer Factor Explains the Accuracy Paradox  

PubMed Central

The most widely spread measure of performance, accuracy, suffers from a paradox: predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy. Despite optimizing classification error rate, high accuracy models may fail to capture crucial information transfer in the classification task. We present evidence of this behavior by means of a combinatorial analysis where every possible contingency matrix of 2, 3 and 4 classes classifiers are depicted on the entropy triangle, a more reliable information-theoretic tool for classification assessment. Motivated by this, we develop from first principles a measure of classification performance that takes into consideration the information learned by classifiers. We are then able to obtain the entropy-modulated accuracy (EMA), a pessimistic estimate of the expected accuracy with the influence of the input distribution factored out, and the normalized information transfer factor (NIT), a measure of how efficient is the transmission of information from the input to the output set of classes. The EMA is a more natural measure of classification performance than accuracy when the heuristic to maximize is the transfer of information through the classifier instead of classification error count. The NIT factor measures the effectiveness of the learning process in classifiers and also makes it harder for them to “cheat” using techniques like specialization, while also promoting the interpretability of results. Their use is demonstrated in a mind reading task competition that aims at decoding the identity of a video stimulus based on magnetoencephalography recordings. We show how the EMA and the NIT factor reject rankings based in accuracy, choosing more meaningful and interpretable classifiers. PMID:24427282

Valverde-Albacete, Francisco J.; Pelaez-Moreno, Carmen



Transfer of Cadmium from Soil to Vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd) concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg?1) compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg?1). 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg?1). The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (), and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils. PMID:25247431

Zhang, Huihua; Chen, Junjian; Zhu, Li; Yang, Guoyi; Li, Dingqiang



Strategic factors in the development of the National Technology Transfer Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Broad consensus among industry and government leaders has developed over the last decade on the importance of applying the U.S. leadership in research and development (R&D) to strengthen competitiveness in the global marketplace, and thus enhance national prosperity. This consensus has emerged against the backdrop of increasing economic competition, and the dramatic reduction of military threats to national security with the end of the Cold War. This paper reviews the key factors and considerations that shaped - and continue to influence - the development of the Regional Technoloty Transfer Centers (RTTC) and the National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC). Also, the future role of the national network in support of emerging technology policy initiatives will be explored.

Root, Jonathan F.; Stone, Barbara A.



Examining the Factor Structure and Predictive Ability of the German-Version of the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this research is to examine the construct and predictive ability of a German version of the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (GLTSI), an instrument designed to assess a constellation of 16 factors known to influence the transfer of training in work settings. Design/methodology/approach: The survey data for this study was…

Bates, Reid; Kauffeld, Simone; Holton, Elwood F., III



Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)



Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

{sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D



Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of Pu and Am in soil and on soil-to-plant transfer of Pu and Am in a pine forest in SW Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of industrial pollution on the behavior of plutonium and americium was evaluated in a pine forest in the vicinity of a Cu-Ni smelter in SW Finland. Soil and vegetation were sampled at distances of 0.5, 2, 4 and 8 km from the smelter. The vertical distribution of plutonium and americium was studied in litter, organic layer and mineral

I. Outola



Measurements of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at High Momentum Transfer  

SciTech Connect

The electric and magnetic form factors of the nucleon provide experimental access to the underlying charge and magnetic moment distributions of quarks. We have measured the electric form factor of the neutron at four kinematic points between 1.2 and 3.5 GeV{sup 2} in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. This more than doubles the momentum transfer region for which this quantity has previously been measured, providing new information on the structure of the neutron. Preliminary results for G{sup n}{sub E} at Q{sup 2} = 1.7, 2.5, and 3.5 GeV{sup 2} were presented and were compared with QCD-based models and phenomenological approaches.

Riordan, Seamus [University of Virginia, CEBAF Center F206, Jefferson Laboratory, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)



Neutron spectroscopic factors of 55Ni hole-states from (p,d) transfer reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic information has been extracted on the hole-states of 55Ni, the least known of the quartet of nuclei (55Ni, 57Ni, 55Co and 57Cu), one nucleon away from 56Ni, the N=Z=28 double magic nucleus. Using the H1(Ni56,d)Ni55 transfer reaction in inverse kinematics, neutron spectroscopic factors, spins and parities have been extracted for the f7/2, p3/2 and the s1/2 hole-states of 55Ni. These new data provide a benchmark for large basis calculations that include nucleonic orbits in both the sd and pf shells. State of the art calculations have been performed to describe the excitation energies and spectroscopic factors of the s1/2 hole-state below Fermi energy.

Sanetullaev, A.; Tsang, M. B.; Lynch, W. G.; Lee, Jenny; Bazin, D.; Chan, K. P.; Coupland, D.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M.; Rogers, A. M.; Sun, Z. Y.; Youngs, M.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.; Famiano, M.; Hudan, S.; Shapira, D.; Peters, W. A.; Barbieri, C.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Horoi, M.; Otsuka, T.; Suzuki, T.; Utsuno, Y.



Factor IX expression in skeletal muscle of a severe hemophilia B patient 10 years after AAV-mediated gene transfer.  


In previous work we transferred a human factor IX-encoding adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) into skeletal muscle of men with severe hemophilia B. Biopsy of injected muscle up to 1 year after vector injection showed evidence of gene transfer by Southern blot and of protein expression by IHC and immunofluorescent staining. Although the procedure appeared safe, circulating F.IX levels remained subtherapeutic (< 1%). Recently, we obtained muscle tissue from a subject injected 10 years earlier who died of causes unrelated to gene transfer. Using Western blot, IHC, and immunofluorescent staining, we show persistent factor IX expression in injected muscle tissue. F.IX transcripts were detected in injected skeletal muscle using RT-PCR, and isolated whole genomic DNA tested positive for the presence of the transferred AAV vector sequence. This is the longest reported transgene expression to date from a parenterally administered AAV vector, with broad implications for the future of muscle-directed gene transfer. PMID:22271447

Buchlis, George; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Radu, Antonetta; Hawk, Sarah M; Flake, Alan W; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A



Gene transfer for transplantation. Prolongation of allograft survival with transforming growth factor-beta 1.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors tested the ability of plasmid gene transfer to express transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), prolong allograft survival, and evaluate promoter effects on gene expression. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Delivery of immunosuppressants directly to allografts using gene transfer and gene therapy approaches may inhibit immune activation while avoiding the systemic toxicity of conventional immunosuppression. Candidate genes include soluble cytokines, which could be expressed at low levels throughout the graft while inducing a local immunosuppressive effect. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 is a soluble cytokine that has pleiotropic immunosuppressive effects. METHODS: Cardiac grafts from syngeneic (CBA/J, H-2k) or allogenic (C57BL/6, H-2b) donors were placed into CBA/J recipients. Purified plasmid DNA-encoding murine TGF-beta 1 or beta-galactosidase (Lac Z) under the control of RSV, SV40, MMTV, or pancreatic elastase promoters was injected into grafts at surgery. The Lac Z expression was determined by histologic examination and TGF-beta 1 expression by graft survival. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte and flow cytometric analyses were performed to evaluate the immunosuppressive effects of TGF-beta 1 in vitro. RESULTS: Plasmid DNA-encoding TGF-beta 1 prolonged survival from 12.6 +/- 1.1 days to 26.3 +/- 2.5 days (p < 0.02, Student's t test). The SV40 promoter was superior to the MMTV promoter in its ability to prolong survival. The effects of the plasmids were specific because Lac Z, antisense TGF-beta 1 inserts, or pancreatic elastase promoter did not prolong allograft survival. Histologic examination demonstrated Lac Z expression at least 14 days post-transplant in myocardial cells. Both RSV and SV40 promoters were effective in this respect, while a control null promoter was not. Toxicity testing showed that gene transfer of TGF-beta 1 did not alter survival or histology of syngeneic grafts. In addition, plasmids and purified TGF-beta 1 protein were not toxic to myoblasts in vitro. Recombinant TGF-beta 1 inhibited cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation and altered T cell surface receptor expression and subset expansion in vitro. CONCLUSION: Gene transfer/therapy with plasmid DNA encoding TGF-beta 1 in vivo achieves immunologic effects that prolong allograft survival. Multiple promoters effectively induce plasmid expression, which is achieved in cardiac myocytes for at least 2 weeks without toxicity or adverse systemic effects. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 inhibits immune responses by different mechanisms, revealed by in vitro analysis of T cell cytolytic function, subset distribution, and receptor display. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. Figure 5. PMID:7944661

Qin, L; Chavin, K D; Ding, Y; Woodward, J E; Favaro, J P; Lin, J; Bromberg, J S



Placental Transfer of Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Agents in Pregnant Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Some women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) require therapy with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists during pregnancy. It is not clear whether these drugs are transferred to the fetus, via the placenta, and then cleared, or whether structurally different TNF antagonists have different rates of transfer. Methods We studied 31 pregnant women with IBD receiving infliximab (IFX, n=11), adalimumab (ADA, n=10), or certolizumab (CZP, n=10). Serum concentrations of the drugs were measured at birth in the mother, infant, and in cord blood, and then monthly in the infant until the drugs were undetectable. Drug concentrations in the cord and the infant at birth were compared with those of the mother. Results Concentrations of IFX and ADA, but not CZP, were higher in infants at birth and their cords than in their mothers. The levels of CZP in infants and their cords were <2 ?g/ml. The median level of IFX in the cord was 160% that of the mother, the median level of ADA in the cord was 153% that of the mother, and the median level of CZP in the cord was 3.9% that of the mother. IFX and ADA could be detected in the infants for as long as 6 months. No congenital anomalies or serious complications were reported. Conclusions The TNF antagonists IFX and ADA are transferred across the placenta and can be detected in infants at birth; the drugs were detected in infants up to 6 months after birth. CZP has the lowest level of placental transfer, based on levels measured in cords and infants at birth, of the drugs tested. PMID:23200982

Mahadevan, Uma; Wolf, Douglas C.; Dubinsky, Marla; Cortot, Antoine; Lee, Scott D.; Siegel, Corey A.; Ullman, Thomas; Glover, Sarah; Valentine, John F.; Rubin, David T.; Miller, Jocelyn; Abreu, Maria T.



Friction factor and heat transfer of nanofluids containing cylindrical nanoparticles in laminar pipe flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations of polyalphaolefins-Al2O3 nanofluids containing cylindrical nanoparticles in a laminar pipe flow are performed by solving the Navier-Stokes equation with term of cylindrical nanoparticles, the general dynamic equation for cylindrical nanoparticles, and equation for nanoparticle orientation. The distributions of particle number and volume concentration, the friction factor, and heat transfer are obtained and analyzed. The results show that distributions of nanoparticle number and volume concentration are non-uniform across the section, with larger and smaller values in the region near the pipe center and near the wall, respectively. The non-uniformity becomes significant with the increase in the axial distance from the inlet. The friction factor decreases with increasing Reynolds number. The relationships between the friction factor and the nanoparticle volume concentration as well as particle aspect ratio are dependent on the Reynolds number. The Nusselt number of nanofluids, directly proportional to the Reynolds number, particle volume concentration, and particle aspect ratio, is higher near the pipe entrance than at the downstream locations. The rate of increase in Nusselt number at lower particle volume concentration is more than that at higher concentration. Finally, the expressions of friction factor and Nusselt number as a function of particle volume concentration, particle aspect ratio, and Reynolds number are derived based on the numerical data.

Lin, Jianzhong; Xia, Yi; Ku, Xiaoke



Laminar heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of carbon nano tube/water nanofluids.  


This paper presents an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of CNT/water nanofluid through a circular tube fitted with helical screw tape inserts with constant heat flux under laminar flow condition. Nanofluids of 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions are prepared by two step method. Thermo-physical properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity are measured by using KD2 thermal property analyzer and Brooke field cone and plate viscometer respectively. From the measurements, it is found that the viscosity increase is substantially higher than the increase in the thermal conductivity. The helical screw tape insets with twist ratios Y = 3, 2.44 and 1.78 are used to study the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics under laminar flow in the Reynolds number range of 520-2500. It is observed that, in a plain tube, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number for 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of nanofluids compared to pure water is 15% and 32% respectively. With the use of inserts, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number corresponding to twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 are obtained as 8%, 16% and 4.6% for 0.1% volume fraction of nanofluid and 5%, 4% and 12% for 0.2% volume fraction of nanofluid when compared with water in plain tube. Thermal performance factor evaluation revealed that the values at all Reynolds number for all twist ratios and both concentration of CNT nanofluid are greater than unity which indicates that helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios considered are feasible in terms of energy saving in laminar flow. PMID:24745238

Rathnakumar, P; Mayilsamy, K; Suresh, S; Murugesan, P



Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Is Dependent on Compatible Mitochondrial DNA and Reprogramming Factors  

PubMed Central

Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) involves the transfer of a nucleus or cell from one species into the cytoplasm of an enucleated oocyte from another. Once activated, reconstructed oocytes can be cultured in vitro to blastocyst, the final stage of preimplantation development. However, they often arrest during the early stages of preimplantation development; fail to reprogramme the somatic nucleus; and eliminate the accompanying donor cell's mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in favour of the recipient oocyte's genetically more divergent population. This last point has consequences for the production of ATP by the electron transfer chain, which is encoded by nuclear and mtDNA. Using a murine-porcine interspecies model, we investigated the importance of nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility on successful development. Initially, we transferred murine fetal fibroblasts into enucleated porcine oocytes, which resulted in extremely low blastocyst rates (0.48%); and failure to replicate nuclear DNA and express Oct-4, the key marker of reprogramming. Using allele specific-PCR, we detected peak levels of murine mtDNA at 0.14±0.055% of total mtDNA at the 2-cell embryo stage and then at ever-decreasing levels to the blastocyst stage (<0.001%). Furthermore, these embryos had an overall mtDNA profile similar to porcine embryos. We then depleted porcine oocytes of their mtDNA using 10 µM 2?,3?-dideoxycytidine and transferred murine somatic cells along with murine embryonic stem cell extract, which expressed key pluripotent genes associated with reprogramming and contained mitochondria, into these oocytes. Blastocyst rates increased significantly (3.38%) compared to embryos generated from non-supplemented oocytes (P<0.01). They also had significantly more murine mtDNA at the 2-cell stage than the non-supplemented embryos, which was maintained throughout early preimplantation development. At later stages, these embryos possessed 49.99±2.97% murine mtDNA. They also exhibited an mtDNA profile similar to murine preimplantation embryos. Overall, these data demonstrate that the addition of species compatible mtDNA and reprogramming factors improves developmental outcomes for iSCNT embryos. PMID:21556135

Jiang, Yan; Kelly, Richard; Peters, Amy; Fulka, Helena; Dickinson, Adam; Mitchell, Daniel A.; St. John, Justin C.



Roche-lobe filling factor of mass-transferring red giants: the PIONIER view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the PIONIER visitor instrument that combines the light of the four Auxiliary Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer, we precisely measure the diameters of several symbiotic and related stars: HD 352, HD 190658, V1261 Ori, ER Del, FG Ser, and AG Peg. These diameters - in the range of 0.6-2.3 milli-arcsec - are used to assess the filling factor of the Roche lobe of the mass-losing giants and provide indications on the nature of the ongoing mass transfer. We also provide the first spectroscopic orbit of ER Del, based on CORAVEL and HERMES/Mercator observations. The system is found to have an eccentric orbit with a period of 5.7 years. In the case of the symbiotic star FG Ser, we find that the diameter changes by 13% over the course of 41 days, while the observations of HD 352 are indicative of an elongation. Both these stars are found to have a Roche filling factor close to 1, as is most likely the case for HD 190658 as well, while the three other stars have factors below 0.5-0.6. Our observations reveal the power of interferometry for the study of interacting binary stars; the main limitation in our conclusions is the poorly known distances of the objects. Table 7 and Figs. 9-18 are available in electronic form at

Boffin, H. M. J.; Hillen, M.; Berger, J. P.; Jorissen, A.; Blind, N.; Le Bouquin, J. B.; Miko?ajewska, J.; Lazareff, B.



Twisting dependent properties of twisted carbon nanotube fibers: microstructure and strain transfer factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependences of twisting parameters on the electric and mechanical properties of twisted CNT fibers were systematically studied. Results from electric and mechanical measurements showed that twisting intensity is very effective to improve the electric and mechanical properties of CNT fibers. Further calculations combined with Raman results indicate that the twisting treatments, to a certain extent, can greatly enhance the strain transfer factors of the samples, which dominates the mechanical properties of CNT fibers. In addition, studies on the effect of twisting speeds suggested that lower twisting speed can lead to higher uniformity but lower performances in the electric and mechanical properties, higher twisting speed to higher Young’s modulus and higher conductance but lower uniformities. Ultra-strong uniform CNT fibers need to be prepared with a suitable twisting speed.

Zhou, Jinyuan; Sun, Gengzhi; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Zheng, Lianxi; Xie, Erqing



Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications  

SciTech Connect

Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL] [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL] [ORNL



Configuration interaction and the theory of electronic factors in energy transfer and molecular exciton interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory established in J. Chem. Phys. 101, 10521 (1994), for electronic factors which promote interchromophore electronic energy transfer, exciton interactions and which provide the stabilization of excimers, is extended; first so as to include the possible contribution of doubly excited configurations. It is ascertained that there is a resultant effect upon the (interchromophore orbital overlap-dependent) through-configuration interaction, and a significant correction to the simple expression obtained previously for the Coulombic interaction. These CI effects are admitted to the general theory of the previous work and the cases of nonidentical, identical, and orthogonal donor and acceptor are discussed. Second, a description of superexchange effects is admitted to the theory. Two possible formalisms are developed and discussed.

Scholes, Gregory D.; Harcourt, Richard D.



Biota-sediment accumulation and trophic transfer factors for extremely hydrophobic polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish, invertebrates, and sediment from a contaminated tidal creek system in coastal Georgia (USA) were traced to Aroclor 1268, a mixture of hepta through decachlorinated homologs used at a former chlor/alkali plant adjacent to the study site. The base 10 logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) for the 15 most abundant Aroclor 1268 components in these samples ranged from 6.7 to >9. The composite mean biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for these congeners was 3.1, 0.81, and 0.28 for yearling striped mullet, spotted sea trout, and grass shrimp, respectively, species representing three trophic levels of the local food web. Individual congener BSAFs were negatively correlated with log K{sub ow} for all three species. The composite mean trophic transfer factor (TTF{sub lip}), defined as the ratio of lipid-normalized PCB concentrations in fish to grass shrimp, was higher for mullet (12) than for sea trout (2.9). Individual TTF{sub lip} values were two to three times higher for Cl{sub 7} and Cl{sub 8} homologs that were substituted at all four ortho positions, suggesting a difference in PCB retention based on chlorine substitution patterns. The relative magnitude of BSAFs and TTF{sub lip} values indicated that sediment-ingesting forage species like mullet efficiently accumulate PCBs and are an important link in the food web transfer of sediment-ingesting forage in this system. The negative linear relationships between BSAF and log K{sub ow} established in this study are among the first to be reported in the field for extremely hydrophobic PCBs.

Maruya, K.A.; Lee, R.F. [Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States)



Factors Related to Persistence of Freshmen, Freshman Transfers, and Nonfreshman Transfer Students. Professional File. Number 99, Spring 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined second-term and second-year retention of freshmen (n=6,054) and nonfreshman transfer students (n=2,733) from DePaul University, a large, urban, private institution. The predictor variables included both achievement and noncognitive measures collected at DePaul and on the ACT Assessment. Two questions formed the basis for this…

Perkhounkova, Yelena; McLaughlin, Gerald W.; Noble, Julie P.



Trust and Knowledge Transfer between Business Partners: the Mediating Effects of Three Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge transfer is of vital importance for business partners. The influence of trust between business partners in particular on knowledge transfer is evident. However, it is not clear how the relationship between trust and knowledge transfer works. This study provides a better understanding of that relationship by demonstrating that communication, cooperative behavior and fear of losing one's unique value have

Changli Feng; Tong Zhang



Factors Associated with Bachelor Degree Attainment by Community College Transfer Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of the community college as preparation for transfer to four-year institutions and bachelor degree attainment continues to be a critical means of access to higher learning for students from diverse backgrounds. What variables distinguish community college transfers to four-year institutions who earn a bachelor degree from transfers who do not…

Mourad, Roger; Hong, JiHee



Stem Cell Factor, Interleukin3, and Interleukin6 Promote Retroviral-Mediated Gene Transfer Into Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of retroviral-mediated gene transfer into hema- topoietic stem cells (HSC) is dependent on the survival and self-renewal of HSC in vitro during retroviral infection. We have examined the effect of prestimulation of bone marrow with various cytokines, including the product of the Steel gene, Steel factor or stem cell factor (SCF) (the ligand for the c-kit receptor) on

Barry D. Luskey; Margery Rosenblatt; Kristina Zsebo; David A. Williams


Measurements of the meson-photon transition form factors of light pseudoscalar mesons at large momentum transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the CLEO II detector, we have measured the differential cross sections for exclusive two-photon production of light pseudoscalar mesons ?0, ?, and ?'. From our measurements we have obtained the form factors associated with the electromagnetic transitions ?*?-->meson. We have measured these form factors in the momentum transfer ranges from 1.5 to 9, 20, and 30 GeV2 for ?0, ?, and ?', respectively, and have made comparisons to various theoretical predictions.

Gronberg, J.; Hill, T. S.; Kutschke, R.; Lange, D. J.; Menary, S.; Morrison, R. J.; Nelson, H. N.; Nelson, T. K.; Qiao, C.; Richman, J. D.; Roberts, D.; Ryd, A.; Witherell, M. S.; Balest, R.; Behrens, B. H.; Ford, W. T.; Park, H.; Roy, J.; Smith, J. G.; Alexander, J. P.; Bebek, C.; Berger, B. E.; Berkelman, K.; Bloom, K.; Cassel, D. G.; Cho, H. A.; Coffman, D. M.; Crowcroft, D. S.; Dickson, M.; Drell, P. S.; Ecklund, K. M.; Ehrlich, R.; Elia, R.; Foland, A. D.; Gaidarev, P.; Galik, R. S.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hopman, P. I.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kim, P. C.; Kreinick, D. L.; Lee, T.; Liu, Y.; Ludwig, G. S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N. B.; Ng, C. R.; Nordberg, E.; Ogg, M.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Soffer, A.; Valant-Spaight, B.; Ward, C.; Athanas, M.; Avery, P.; Jones, C. D.; Lohner, M.; Prescott, C.; Yelton, J.; Zheng, J.; Brandenburg, G.; Briere, R. A.; Gao, Y. S.; Kim, D. Y.-J.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Browder, T. E.; Li, F.; Li, Y.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Bergfeld, T.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Ernst, J.; Gladding, G. E.; Gollin, G. D.; Hans, R. M.; Johnson, E.; Karliner, I.; Marsh, M. A.; Palmer, M.; Selen, M.; Thaler, J. J.; Edwards, K. W.; Bellerive, A.; Janicek, R.; Macfarlane, D. B.; McLean, K. W.; Patel, P. M.; Sadoff, A. J.; Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Besson, D.; Coppage, D.; Darling, C.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, N.; Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Lee, S. J.; O'neill, J. J.; Patton, S.; Poling, R.; Riehle, T.; Savinov, V.; Smith, A.; Alam, M. S.; Athar, S. B.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A. H.; Severini, H.; Timm, S.; Wappler, F.; Anastassov, A.; Blinov, S.; Duboscq, J. E.; Fisher, K. D.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K. K.; Hart, T.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Spencer, M. B.; Sung, M.; Undrus, A.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, A.; Zoeller, M. M.; Nemati, B.; Richichi, S. J.; Ross, W. R.; Skubic, P.; Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Gerndt, E.; Hinson, J. W.; Menon, N.; Miller, D. H.; Shibata, E. I.; Shipsey, I. P.; Yurko, M.; Gibbons, L.; Glenn, S.; Johnson, S. D.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Jessop, C. P.; Lingel, K.; Marsiske, H.; Perl, M. L.; Ugolini, D.; Wang, R.; Zhou, X.; Coan, T. E.; Fadeyev, V.; Korolkov, I.; Maravin, Y.; Narsky, I.; Shelkov, V.; Staeck, J.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J.; Artuso, M.; Efimov, A.; Frasconi, F.; Gao, M.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.; Kopp, S.; Moneti, G. C.; Mountain, R.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Xing, X.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S. E.; Jain, V.; Marka, S.; Godang, R.; Kinoshita, K.; Lai, I. C.; Pomianowski, P.; Schrenk, S.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Greene, R.; Perera, L. P.; Zhou, G. J.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Chan, S.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J. S.; O'grady, C.; Schmidtler, M.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Würthwein, F.; Asner, D. M.; Bliss, D. W.; Masek, G.; Paar, H. P.; Prell, S.; Sivertz, M.; Sharma, V.



Effect of K and bentonite additions on Cs-transfer to ryegrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bentonite amendments are generally ineffective in reducing the soil-to-plant radiocaesium transfer but have previously been shown that bentonites in the K-form having been subjected to wetting–drying cycles had pronounced radiocaesium binding capacities. We have investigated the effect of wetting–drying (WD) on Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) development in three K–bentonites and K–bentonite soil mixtures, using a variety of procedures: homogenisation of

H. Vandenhove; A. Cremers; E. Smolders; M. Van Hees



Transfer of elements relevant to radioactive waste from soil to five boreal plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In long-term safety assessment models for radioactive waste disposal, uptake of radionuclides by plants is an important process with possible adverse effects in ecosystems. Cobalt-60, 59,63Ni, 93Mo, and 210Pb are examples of long-living radionuclides present in nuclear waste. The soil-to-plant transfer of stable cobalt, nickel, molybdenum and lead and their distribution across plant parts were investigated in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus),

Päivi Roivainen; Sari Makkonen; Toini Holopainen; Jukka Juutilainen



Measurement of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio with polarized target at high momentum transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiment E07-003 (SANE, Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon Experiment) has been carried out in Hall C at Jefferson Lab to study the proton spin structure functions with a dynamically polarized ammonia target and longitudinally polarized electron beam. Scattered electrons were detected by the Big Electron Telescope Array (BETA). By detecting elastically scattered protons in the High Momentum Spectrometer (HMS) in coincidence with the electrons in BETA, inclusive and elastic measurements were carried out in parallel. The elastic double spin asymmetry allows to extract the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio at high momentum transfer, Q^2 = 5.75 (GeV/c)^2. The measurement will verify the falling of the proton form factor ratio with increasing momentum transfer observed in previous polarization transfer measurements, with a different measurement technique and systematic uncertainties uncorrelated to those of the recoil polarization measurements. Details and status of the analysis will be presented. )

Liyanage, Anusha



Factors Influencing the Choice of a Transfer Institution for Chicago Area Community College Students. Research Memorandum 76-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a normative survey conducted to determine factors considered to be important by Chicago-area baccalaureate oriented community college students in choosing a transfer college or university. From a population of more than 50,000 full- and part-time baccalaureate oriented students enrolled in 14 Chicago-area…

Anderson, Ernest F.; Scholl, Natalie


"A Hand Hold for a Little Bit": Factors Facilitating the Success of Community College Transfer Students to a Large Research University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To understand factors affecting the academic and social integration of community college transfer students, we interviewed 19 students who transferred to one state's large Research-Extensive university. We inquired about the transfer process, efforts of the university to orient and assist them, and perceptions of the university versus the…

Townsend, Barbara K.; Wilson, Kristin



Factors affecting the levels of protection transferred from mother to offspring following immune challenge  

PubMed Central

Introduction The transfer of antibodies from mother to offspring is key to protecting young animals from disease and can have a major impact on responses to infection and offspring fitness. Such maternal effects also allow young that may be exposed to disease in early life to focus resources on growth and development at this critical period of development. Maternally transferred antibodies are therefore an important source of phenotypic variation in host phenotype as well as influencing host susceptibility and tolerance to infection across generations. It has previously been assumed the transfer of antibodies is passive and invariant and reflects the level of circulating antibody in the mother at the time of transfer. However, whether females may vary in the relative amount of protection transferred to offspring has seldom been explored. Results Here we show that females differ widely in the relative amount of specific blood antibodies they transfer to the embryonic environment (range 9.2%-38.4% of their own circulating levels) in Chinese painted quail (Coturnix chinensis). Relative transfer levels were unrelated to the size of a female’s own immune response. Furthermore, individual females were consistent in their transfer level, both across different stages of their immune response and when challenged with different vaccine types. The amount of antibody transferred was related to female condition, but baseline antibody responses of mothers were not. However, we found no evidence for any trade-offs between the relative amount of antibody transferred with other measures of reproductive investment. Conclusions These results suggest that the relative amount of antibodies transferred to offspring can vary significantly and consistently between females. Levels of transfer may therefore be a separate trait open to manipulation or selection with potential consequences for offspring health and fitness in both wild and domesticated populations. PMID:25057280



The role played by environmental factors in the integration of a transfer station in a municipal solid waste management system.  


Transfer stations are an integral part of present-day municipal solid waste management systems. The main criteria used to decide on the location of a transfer station has traditionally been the minimization of transport costs, since it is cheaper to transport great amounts of waste over long distances in large loads than in small ones. In this study, we are going to consider the environmental factor in order to compare the feasibility of using a transfer station integrated within a waste management system. Applying the Life Cycle Assessment technique will enable us to obtain an objective parameter that quantifies the environmental impact of transportation and of operating a transfer station. Taking the current rates of solid wastes generation in the Plana region of Castellón (Spain) as our starting point, in this study we compare the environmental costs involved in the process of taking municipal wastes directly to the nearest waste treatment facility, with those involved in a waste management system integrating a transfer station. Comparing these two cases, an average reduction of 16.8% in the environmental impact can be obtained when a transfer station is incorporated in the waste management system. PMID:16765037

Bovea, M D; Powell, J C; Gallardo, A; Capuz-Rizo, S F



External and Institutional Factors Affecting Community College Student-Transfer Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to identify the environmental conditions and relationships between external and institutional conditions that have a significant effect upon student transfer activity. A sample of 78 colleges in 15 states were selected from institutions participating in a national transfer project; 42% were located in Texas or California. The…

Banks, Debra L.


Factors Influencing Mass Transfer During Immersion Cold Storage of Apples in NaCl\\/Sucrose Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersion chilling and freezing (ICF) consists of dipping a food material in an aqueous freezant (AF). During ICF, mass transfer (solute, water) arise at the solid\\/liquid interface, before and after thermal equilibrium (denoted respectively the primary and secondary stages). The aim of this work was to assess the evolution of mass transfer against time during the secondary stage. Apple cylinders

T. Lucas; J. Francois; P. Bohuon; A. L. Raoult-Wack



Aqueous Al2O3 nanofluids: the important factors impacting convective heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high accuracy, counter flow double pipe heat exchanger system is designed for the measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients with different nanofluids. Both positive and negative enhancement of convective heat transfer of alumina nanofluids are found in the experiments. A modified equation was proposed to explain above phenomena through the physic properties of nanofluids such as thermal conductivity, special heat capacity and viscosity.

Cao, Jianguo; Ding, Yulong; Ma, Caiyun



Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Is Dependent on Compatible Mitochondrial DNA and Reprogramming Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) involves the transfer of a nucleus or cell from one species into the cytoplasm of an enucleated oocyte from another. Once activated, reconstructed oocytes can be cultured in vitro to blastocyst, the final stage of preimplantation development. However, they often arrest during the early stages of preimplantation development; fail to reprogramme the somatic nucleus;

Yan Jiang; Richard Kelly; Amy Peters; Helena Fulka; Adam Dickinson; Daniel A. Mitchell; Justin C. St. John; Joanna Mary Bridger



Transcriptional regulation of human microsomal triglyceride transfer protein by hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha.  


Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) catalyzes the assembly of triglyceride (TG)-rich apolipoprotein B-containing liver (e.g., VLDL) and intestinal (e.g., chylomicron) lipoproteins. The human MTP gene promoter is reported here to associate in vivo with endogenous hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) and to be transactivated or transsuppressed by overexpressed or by dominant negative HNF-4alpha, respectively. Human MTP (hMTP) transactivation by HNF-4alpha is accounted for by the concerted activity of distal (-83/-70) and proximal (-50/-38) direct repeat 1 elements of the hMTP promoter that bind HNF-4alpha. Transactivation by HNF-4alpha is specifically antagonized by chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter. Transcriptional activation of hMTP by HNF-4alpha is mediated by HNF-4alpha domains engaged in ligand binding and ligand-driven transactivation and is further complemented by HNF-4alpha/HNF-1alpha synergism that involves the HNF-4alpha activation function 1 (AF-1) domain. hMTP transactivation by HNF-4alpha is specifically inhibited by beta,beta-tetramethyl-hexadecanedioic acid acting as an HNF-4alpha antagonist ligand. hMTP transactivation by HNF-4alpha may account for the activation or inhibition of MTP expression and the production of TG-rich lipoproteins by agonist (e.g., saturated fatty acids) or antagonist [e.g., (n-3) PUFA, hypolipidemic fibrates, or Methyl-substituted dicarboxylic acid (Medica) compounds] HNF-4alpha ligands. PMID:15547294

Sheena, Vered; Hertz, Rachel; Nousbeck, Janna; Berman, Ina; Magenheim, Judith; Bar-Tana, Jacob



Matrix-fracture transfer shape factor for modeling flow of a compressible fluid in dual-porosity media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The matrix-fracture transfer shape factor is one of the important parameters in the modeling of fluid flow in fractured porous media using a dual-porosity concept. Warren and Root [36] introduced the dual-porosity concept and suggested a relation for the shape factor. There is no general relationship for determining the shape factor for a single-phase flow of slightly compressible fluids. Therefore, different studies reported different values for this parameter, as an input into the flow models. Several investigations have been reported on the shape factor for slightly compressible fluids. However, the case of compressible fluids has not been investigated in the past. The focus of this study is, therefore, to find the shape factor for the single-phase flow of compressible fluids (gases) in fractured porous media. In this study, a model for the determination of the shape factor for compressible fluids is presented; and, the solution of nonlinear gas diffusivity equation is used to derive the shape factor. The integral method and the method of moments are used to solve the nonlinear governing equation by considering the pressure dependency of the viscosity and isothermal compressibility of the fluid. The approximate semi-analytical model for the shape factor presented in this study is verified using single-porosity, fine-grid, numerical simulations. The dependency of the shape factor on the gas specific gravity, pressure and temperature are also investigated. The theoretical analysis presented improves our understanding of fluid flow in fractured porous media. In addition, the developed matrix-fracture transfer shape factor can be used as an input for modeling flow of compressible fluids in dual-porosity systems, such as naturally fractured gas reservoirs, coalbed methane reservoirs and fractured tight gas reservoirs.

Ranjbar, Ehsan; Hassanzadeh, Hassan



Evidence for factors regulating transfer cell-specific expression in maize endosperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In maize, a layer of basal endosperm cells adjacent to the pedicel is modified for a function in solute transfer. Three genes specifically expressed in this region, termed the basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL-2 to -4), were isolated by differential hybridization. BETL-2 to -4 are coordinately expressed in early and mid-term endosperm development, but are absent at later stages. BETL-2

Gregorio Hueros; Joaquin Royo; Monika Maitz; Francesco Salamini; Richard D. Thompson



The Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio mu(p) G**p(E)/G**p(M) at Low Momentum Transfer  

SciTech Connect

High precision measurements of the proton elastic form factor ratio have been made at four-momentum transfers, Q^2, between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV^2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q^2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to GEp being smaller than the dipole parameterization.

G. Ron; J. Glister; B. Lee; K. Allada; W. Armstrong; J. Arrington; A. Beck; F. Benmokhtar; B.L. Berman; W. Boeglin; E. Brash; A. Camsonne; J. Calarco; J. P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; J. Dumas; C. Dutta; R. Feuerbach; A. Freyberger; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; R. Gilman; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; Y. Ilieva; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; A. Kelleher; E. Khrosinkova; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; J. J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; S. May-Tal Beck; E. McCullough; D. Meekins; M. Meziane; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; B.E. Norum; Y. Oh; M. Olson; M. Paolone; K. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; M. Potokar; R. Pomatsalyuk; I. Pomerantz; A. Puckett; V. Punjabi; X. Qian; Y. Qiang; R. Ransome; M. Reyhan; J. Roche; Y. Rousseau; A. Saha; A.J. Sarty; B. Sawatzky; E. Schulte; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; R. Shneor; S. ? Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; J. Song; R. Sparks; R. Subedi; S. Strauch; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; X. Zhan; X. Zhu



Measurements of the Meson-Photon Transition Form Factors of Light Pseudoscalar Mesons at Large Momentum Transfer  

E-print Network

Using the CLEO~II detector, we have measured the differential cross sections for exclusive two-photon production of light pseudoscalar mesons $\\pi^0$, $\\eta$, and $\\eta^{\\prime}$. From our measurements we have obtained the form factors associated with the electromagnetic transitions $\\gamma^*\\gamma$ $\\to$ meson. We have measured these form factors in the momentum transfer ranges from 1.5 to 9, 20, and 30 GeV$^2$ for $\\pi^0$, $\\eta$, and $\\eta^{\\prime}$, respectively, and have made comparisons to various theoretical predictions.

CLEO Collaboration; J. Gronberg et al



Measurements of the Meson-Photon Transition Form Factors of Light Pseudoscalar Mesons at Large Momentum Transfer  

SciTech Connect

Using the CLEO II detector, we have measured the differential cross sections for exclusive two-photon production of light pseudoscalar mesons {pi}{sup 0}, {eta}, and {eta}{prime}. From our measurements we have obtained the form factors associated with the electromagnetic transitions {gamma}*{gamma} {yields} meson. We have measured these form factors in the momentum transfer ranges from 1.5 to 9, 20, and 30 GeV2 for {pi}{sup 0}, {eta}, and {eta}{prime}, respectively, and have made comparisons to various theoretical predictions.

Jessop, Colin P.



Recoil polarization measurements of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio to high momentum transfer  

E-print Network

The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electronnucleon scattering. These form factors are functions ...

Puckett, Andrew James Ruehe



Overlapping binding sites of the frataxin homologue assembly factor and the heat shock protein 70 transfer factor on the isu iron-sulfur cluster scaffold protein.  


In mitochondria FeS clusters, prosthetic groups critical for the activity of many proteins, are first assembled on Isu, a 14-kDa scaffold protein, and then transferred to recipient apoproteins. The assembly process involves interaction of Isu with both Nfs1, the cysteine desulfurase serving as a sulfur donor, and the yeast frataxin homolog (Yfh1) serving as a regulator of desulfurase activity and/or iron donor. Here, based on the results of biochemical experiments with purified wild-type and variant proteins, we report that interaction of Yfh1 with both Nfs1 and Isu are required for formation of a stable tripartite assembly complex. Disruption of either Yfh1-Isu or Nfs1-Isu interactions destabilizes the complex. Cluster transfer to recipient apoprotein is known to require the interaction of Isu with the J-protein/Hsp70 molecular chaperone pair, Jac1 and Ssq1. Here we show that the Yfh1 interaction with Isu involves the PVK sequence motif, which is also the site key for the interaction of Isu with Hsp70 Ssq1. Coupled with our previous observation that Nfs1 and Jac1 binding to Isu is mutually exclusive due to partially overlapping binding sites, we propose that such mutual exclusivity of cluster assembly factor (Nfs1/Yfh1) and cluster transfer factor (Jac1/Ssq1) binding to Isu has functional consequences for the transition from the assembly process to the transfer process, and thus regulation of the biogenesis of FeS cluster proteins. PMID:25228696

Manicki, Mateusz; Majewska, Julia; Ciesielski, Szymon; Schilke, Brenda; Blenska, Anna; Kominek, Jacek; Marszalek, Jaroslaw; Craig, Elizabeth A; Dutkiewicz, Rafal




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the impact of corporate culture on knowledge transfer. A structural equation model is developed to test to what extent corporate culture influences knowledge transfer behaviour and how this leads to successful knowledge transfer. Based on a sample of 168 German firms the results reflect a highly significant impact of corporate culture on successful knowledge transfer within the

Patrick Spieth


Heat transfer and friction factor correlations for a solar air heater duct roughened artificially with multiple v-ribs  

SciTech Connect

The use of artificial roughness on the underside of the absorber plate is an effective and economic way to improve the thermal performance of a solar air heater. Several experimental investigations, involving different types of roughness elements, have been carried out to improve the heat transfer from the absorber plate to air flowing in solar air heaters. This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to study the effect of multiple v-rib roughness on heat transfer coefficient and friction factor in an artificially roughened solar air heater duct. The experiment encompassed Reynolds number (Re) from 2000 to 20000, relative roughness height (e/D) values of 0.019-0.043, relative roughness pitch (P/e) range of 6-12, angle of attack ({alpha}) range of 30-75 and relative roughness width (W/w) range of 1-10. Extensive experimentation has been conducted to collect data on heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a rectangular duct roughened with multiple v-ribs. Using these experimental data, correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of roughness geometry and flow parameters have been developed. (author)

Hans, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, PAU, Ludhiana (Punjab) 141004 (India); Saini, R.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (UA) 247667 (India); Saini, J.S. [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (UA) 247667 (India)



CFD analysis of heat transfer and friction factor charaterstics in a circular tube fitted with horizontal baffles twisted tape inserts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swirl/vortex flow generator is an important form of passive augmentation techniques. Twisted-tape is one of the most important members of this form which is used extensively in different type heat exchangers. This paper reports the effect of twisted tape inserts on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in circular tube under constant heat flux and laminar flow conditions using CFD simulation. Plain twisted tape inserts with twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91) and baffled twisted tape inserts with twist ratio (y = 2.93) have been used for the simulation using Fluent version 6.3.26. The results obtained by simulation matched with the literature correlations for plain tube with the discrepancy of less than ± 8% for Nusselt number and ± 6.25% for friction factor. The results have also revealed that the heat transfer in term of the Nusselt number enhanced with increases of Reynolds number, decreases of twist ratio and baffle insert. Among the various twist ratios, the twisted tape with twist ratio of y=2.93 and baffle is offered a maximum heat transfer enhancement.

Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Bakar Mohamad, Abu



Factors Influencing Transfer of Responsibility-Based Physical Activity Program Goals into Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate what influences the transfer of responsibility-based physical activity program goals into classrooms. Participants were the two boys and three girls (age range 9-11) who had participated in the program one to three semesters, with at least an 80% attendance rate. Data were collected from individual…

Lee, Okseon; Martinek, Tom



Development of heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations for offset fins using CFD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In aerospace applications, due to the severe limitations on the weight and space envelope, it is mandatory to use high performance compact heat exchangers (CHEs) for enhancing the heat transfer rate. The most popularly used ones in CHEs are the plain fins, offset strip fins (OSFs), louvered fins and wavy fins. Amongst these fin types, wavy and offset

Ranganayakulu Chennu; Pallavi Paturu



CTF\\/NF1 transcription factors act as potent genetic insulators for integrating gene transfer vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene transfer-based therapeutic approaches have greatly benefited from the ability of some viral vectors to efficiently integrate within the cell genome and ensure persistent transmission of newly acquired transgenes to the target cell progeny. However, integration of provirus has been associated with epigenetic repercussions that may influence the expression of both the transgene and cellular genes close to vector integration

A Gaussin; U Modlich; C Bauche; N J Niederländer; A Schambach; C Duros; A Artus; C Baum; O Cohen-Haguenauer; N Mermod



A new tracer gas method to measure oxygen transfer and enhancement factor on RBC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to test a new application of tracer gas in rotating biological contactors (RBC). Our method using propane as tracer gas, is able to quantify the purely physical gas liquid exchange. The procedure was utilized on RBC in order to measure: (a) the physical transfer coefficient with clean discs (Kla) in tap water and in

B.-E. Boumansour; J.-L. Vasel




EPA Science Inventory

Developmental efforts and experimental data are described that focused on quantifying the transfer of particles on a mass basis from indoor surfaces to human skin. Methods were developed that utilized a common fluorescein-tagged Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a possible surrogate ...


The Use of Iteration Factors Method in the Solution of Multilevel Radiative Transfer Problems in Stellar Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NLTE problem of formation of spectral lines is one of the most difficult ones to deal with; due to the important role of scattering processes it is nonlocal and for the multilevel case it is additionally nonlinear. Therefore, the problem requires simultaneous solution of radiative transfer (RT) and statistical equilibrium (SE) equations which can be achieved through iterative procedure. There is still a great need of efficient numerical methods for a solution of NLTE radiative transfer problems as they are a necessary step of stellar atmospheres modelling and other important astrophysical problems. In the thesis we develop fast and accurate numerical method that uses iteration factors. The method is based on the use of quasi-invariant functions - iteration factors, in a simple iterative procedure. Defined as ratios of the moments (integrals of angles and frequencies) of radiation field intensities, the factors are calculated on the beginning of each iterative step from the current solution and then used to obtain its correction. In the thesis we extend iteration factors method developed for a solution of linear problems - monochromatic problem and two-level atom line transfer problems to the solution of a more generalized multilevel problem of spectral line formation with complete redistribution and no background continuum. The additional difficulty arises from the non linear coupling of atomic level populations and the radiation filed intensities in the corresponding spectral lines. In the thesis we suggest and describe in details four iterative procedures that use two families of iteration factors defined for a constant property medium and two different approaches for a simultaneous solution of nonlinear RT and SE equations: (1) linearization of the equations with respect to all relevant variables and (2) modification of the SE equations in order to make them linear. In both approaches the substitution of the linearized SE equations in the moments of RT equation results in a tridiagonal system that is solved, together with the boundary conditions, by a standard Gaussian elimination procedure. In order to test the convergence properties and accuracy of the suggested procedures we solved a standard benchmark problem of spectral line formation by three-level hydrogen atom in plan-parallel isothermal atmosphere with no background continuum and compared its solutions with those obtained by other methods that solved the same test problem. Additionally we solved the problem of spectral line formation by CaII ions with five levels. We also compared the speed of convergence and the total computational time of our method with those of some other methods in use. Finally, we formulated and analyzed a more general line transfer problem in variably property atmosphere with background continuum. For its solution we defined four additional families of iteration factors and tested the convergence properties of the procedures that use them on a solution of linear radiative transfer problem for constant and for variable (with optical depth) absorption profile, as well as on multilevel case. In the conclusion we emphasized that the use of the iteration factors defined in the thesis results in extremely fast convergence to the exact solutions of the problem, with no need of extra mathematical acceleration, necessary for other methods. Also, the use of iteration factors defined for the spectral line as a whole drastically reduces the memory cost and the computational time. The accuracy of the method increases with the number of the grid points, but the very high convergence speed is not affected by the refinement of the grid resolution. So the total computational work scales linearly with the number of the grid points and is couple of times less than needed by other existing methods.

Kuzmanovska-Barandovska, O.



Tube side heat transfer coefficient and friction factor characteristics of horizontal tubes with helical rib  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in horizontal double pipes with helical ribs are presented. Nine test sections with different characteristic parameters of: helical rib height to diameter, ?\\/di=0.12, 0.15, 0.19, and helical rib pitch to diameter, p\\/di=1.05, 0.78, 0.63, are tested. Cold and hot water are used as working fluids in the shell side and

Paisarn Naphon; Manachai Nuchjapo; Jutarat Kurujareon



Bacterial ? 2 -macroglobulins: colonization factors acquired by horizontal gene transfer from the metazoan genome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Invasive bacteria are known to have captured and adapted eukaryotic host genes. They also readily acquire colonizing genes\\u000a from other bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Closely related species such as Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter hepaticus, which exploit different host tissues, share almost none of their colonization genes. The protease inhibitor ?2-macroglobulin provides a major metazoan defense against invasive bacteria, trapping

Aidan Budd; Stephanie Blandin; Elena A Levashina; Toby J Gibson



Numerical Calculation of Diffuse Geometrical Configuration Factors for Solar Energy and Heat Transfer Engineering Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work an effort will be made to calculate numerically the diffuse geometrical configuration factors inside and outside an enclosure by combining already existing numerical methods calculating these factors. The objective of the analysis will be to obtain a very simple numerical calculation method considering general plane convex polygons as emitters and in a first step non convex

A. Frangoudakis



BioMed Central Review Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors  

E-print Network

© 2003 Tian et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL. nuclear transferdonor cell typesdonor ageserum starvationcell passage Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer, however, significant breakthroughs are yet to happen. In this review we will discuss studies conducted, in our laboratories and those of others, to gain a better understanding of nuclear reprogramming. Because cattle are a species widely used for nuclear transfer studies, and more laboratories have succeeded in cloning cattle than any other specie, this review will be focused on somatic cell cloning of cattle.

X Cindy Tian; Chikara Kubota; Brian Enright; Xiangzhong Yang; Xiangzhong Yang



Intravenous somatic gene transfer with antisense tissue factor restores blood flow by reducing tumor necrosis factor-induced tissue factor expression and fibrin deposition in mouse meth-A sarcoma.  

PubMed Central

Fibrin is deposited on the endothelial cell surface in the vasculature of murine methylcholanthrene A-induced sarcomas after injection of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Capillary endothelial cells of the tumor vascular bed become positive for tissue factor after TNF injection, based on immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. Intravascular clot formation was not dependent on tissue factor derived from tumor cells, since in vessels of tumors not expressing tissue factor, TNF also induced fibrin/fibrinogen deposition. However, the time course of fibrin/fibrinogen deposition after TNF differed in tumors expressing no, little, or greater amounts of tissue factor. Fibrin/fibrinogen deposition was more rapid in tumors in which the neoplastic cells expressed tissue factor than in tumors not expressing tissue factor. In the tumors not expressing tissue factor, activation of coagulation was dependent on TNF-induced synthesis of tissue factor by host cells, i.e., endothelium or monocytes/macrophages. Intravenous somatic gene transfer with tissue factor cDNA in the antisense orientation (but not sense or vector alone) reduced intravascular fibrin/fibrinogen deposition and restored blood flow to the tumor, showing that de novo tissue factor expression is central in TNF-induced activation of the coagulation mechanism. PMID:8636400

Zhang, Y.; Deng, Y.; Wendt, T.; Liliensiek, B.; Bierhaus, A.; Greten, J.; He, W.; Chen, B.; Hach-Wunderle, V.; Waldherr, R.; Ziegler, R.; Mannel, D.; Stern, D. M.; Nawroth, P. P.



A phosphatidylinositol transfer protein a-dependent survival factor protects cultured primary neurons against serum deprivation-induced cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective neuronal loss is a prominent feature in both acute\\u000aand chronic neurological disorders. Recently, a link between\\u000aneurodegeneration and a deficiency in the lipid transport\\u000aprotein phosphatidylinositol transfer protein a (PI-TPa) has\\u000abeen demonstrated. In this context it may be of importance\\u000athat fibroblasts overexpressing PI-TPa are known to produce\\u000aand secrete bioactive survival factors that protect fibroblasts\\u000aagainst

Hanneke Bunte; Martijn Schenning; Peter Sodaar; P. R. Bar; Karel W. A. Wirtz; Freek L. van Muiswinkel; Gerry T. Snoek



Measurements of the elastic electromagnetic form factor ratio {mu}pGEp/GMp via polarization transfer  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors, {mu}pGEp/GMp. The Jefferson Lab Hall A Focal Plane Polarimeter was used to determine the longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization in ep elastic scattering; the ratio of these polarization components is proportional to the ratio of the two form factors. These data reproduce the observation of Jones et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1398 (2000)], that the form factor ratio decreases significantly from unity above Q2 = 1 GeV2.

Olivier Gayou; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Andrei Afanasev; Arunava Saha; Brendan Fox; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; C. Chang; Cathleen Jones; Charles Glashausser; Charles Perdrisat; D. Crovelli; Daniel Simon; David Meekins; Demetrius Margaziotis; Dipangkar Dutta; Edgar Kooijman; Elaine Schulte; Edward Brash; Edward Kinney; Eugene Chudakov; Feng Xiong; Franco Garibaldi; Garth Huber; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Guido Urciuoli; Haiyan Gao; Jordan Hovdebo; James Kelly; Javier Gomez; Jens-Ole Hansen; Jian-Ping Chen; John Calarco; John LeRose; Joseph Mitchell; Juncai Gao; Konrad Aniol; Kamal Benslama; Kathy McCormick; Cornelis De Jager; Cornelis de Jager; Kevin Fissum; Krishni Wijesooriya; Louis Bimbot; Ludyvine Morand; Luminita Todor; Moskov Amarian; Marat Rvachev; Mark Jones; Martin Epstein; Meihua Liang; Michael Kuss; Nilanga Liyanage; Adam Sarty; Paul Ulmer; Pete Markowitz; Peter Bosted; R. Holt; Riad Suleiman; Richard Lindgren; Rikki Roche; Robert Michaels; Roman Pomatsalyuk; Ronald Gilman; Ronald Ransome; Stephen Becher; Scott Dumalski; Salvatore Frullani; Seonho Choi; Sergey Malov; Sonja Dieterich; Steffen Strauch; Steve Churchwell; Ting Chang; Viktor Gorbenko; Vina Punjabi; Wang Xu; Xiangdong Ji; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Zhengwei Chai



SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications  

SciTech Connect

Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

Onar, Omer C [ORNL] [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL] [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller (JNJ), John M. [JNJ-Miller PLC] [JNJ-Miller PLC



Proton transfer in a reaction catalyzed by onion lachrymatory factor synthase.  


We produced a single deuterated lachrymatory factor (propanthial S-oxide, m/z = 91) in a model reaction system comprising purified alliinase, lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS), and (E)-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide ((E)-PRENCSO) in D(2)O. Onion LFS reacted with the degraded products of (E)-PRENCSO by alliinase, but not with those of (Z)-PRENCSO. These findings indicate that onion LFS is an (E)-1-propenylsulfenic acid isomerase. PMID:22972339

Masamura, Noriya; Aoyagi, Morihiro; Tsuge, Nobuaki; Kamoi, Takahiro; Imai, Shinsuke



In Vivo and In Vitro studies on transfer factor with a protein antigen system  

E-print Network

measure of induration, was 2. 18mm with a range of 0. 55aas to 3. 65mm. No cross reaction occurred to Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) or Bovine Gamma Globulin (BGG). These same animals provided cells that gave an average of 40/ migration when exposed to EA... as compared to 100/ migration in the controls. iv Mitogenic stimulation indexes of these cells, as assayed by incor- poration of sH-thymidine, were greater than 2. 0 when exposed to EA but not when exposed to BSA or BGG. Transfer of sensitive leuko- cytes...

Kelleher, Peter Joseph



Transfer students in STEM majors at a Midwestern University: Academic and social involvement factors that influence student success  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is soon-to-be a shortage of qualified U.S. workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As a result, many science-related jobs are being filled by technically-skilled foreign workers. If the U.S wants to maintain its global economic leadership, then it must ensure a continuous growth of highly-trained individuals in STEM disciplines. Therefore, American institutions of higher education, including community colleges, must identify potential factors that contribute to the lack of interest in STEM majors, as well as the low rate of success of students who enter STEM majors but struggle to finish their degrees. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceptions of community college transfer students who are pursuing bachelor degrees in STEM majors at Iowa State University (ISU). What were their transfer experiences and what influenced their academic success in STEM. Participants were encouraged to share their transfer experiences while at the community college as well as their experiences on the ISU campus. They were also asked about their level of academic involvement, their relationships with faculty, and their participation in peer group activities prior to and after transferring. The research design included both quantitative and qualitative components, which provided an in-depth look at the experiences of STEM non-engineering and engineering students. Quantitative data include students' background characteristics, demographic information, and college activities at the community college and ISU. Qualitative data were used to illuminate students' overall transfer experience and their successful journey in STEM fields. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed a better understanding of the strategies students put into practice once they transfer from a community college to a four-year institution in pursuit of a STEM bachelor's degree. The results of this study suggest that there is an association among the background characteristics, community college experiences, university experiences, and the overall adjustment and cumulative GPA of transfer students from STEM non-engineering and engineering majors. In addition, students reported how their early experiences in science and mathematics inspired them to pursue a career in STEM. Even though students chose to go into STEM areas at the community college and university level due to prior interest, the role of academic advisors and faculty were crucial to the adjustment process. Thus, it is vital for academic advisors and faculty to assist students in researching the transfer process to four-year institutions because students need to understand why this is essential to their academic and social adjustment process. The results indicate that it is important to encourage students to interact inside and outside the classroom with other students and instructors. Also, students should become more involved in academic and social groups since these are important factors in enhancing their academic and social adjustment.

Lopez, Carlos


A Semi-Empirical Method to Estimate the Response Factors for VOCs in Proton-Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds are essential in sustaining atmospheric chemical processes which lie at the heart of most atmospheric environmental issues. Recent advances in VOC measurement technologies have allowed rapid detection of the primary VOCs and their oxidation products. Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTRMS) has been widely used to determine air concentrations of many hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons rapidly. The recent advance in PTRMS with time-of-flight mass (TOF) detection, allows hundreds of VOC compounds to be detected simultaneously and rapidly. Converting these detected signals into air concentrations is a challenge. This is usually accomplished with calibrations using a limited number of target compounds at known concentrations. However, for the hundreds of masses in the PTR mass spectrum particularly from TOF detectors, conversion to air concentration is not always practical nor possible if their compound identities are not known. Here, we have developed a new method to estimate the response factors for VOCs to convert the measured ion signals into air concentrations. This method is based on semi-empirical calculations of the rate constants for the proton transfer reactions between the hydronium ion and target hydrocarbons using polarizabilities and permanent dipole moments, and extrapolation to unknown hydrocarbons. The method is further validated with calibration results for selected hydrocarbons. Using these response factors, conversion to air concentrations for many signals in a PTR MS of unknown chemical structures can be accomplished.

Li, S.; Leithead, A.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Graus, M.; Veres, P. R.; Murphy, S. M.



JLab Measurement of the He4 Charge Form Factor at Large Momentum Transfers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge form factor of He4 has been extracted in the range 29 fm-2?Q2?77 fm-2 from elastic electron scattering, detecting He4 recoil nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the high resolution spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The measurements have uncovered a second diffraction minimum for the form factor, which was predicted in the Q2 range of this experiment. The data are in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations based on realistic interactions and accurate methods to solve the few-body problem.

Camsonne, A.; Katramatou, A. T.; Olson, M.; Sparveris, N.; Acha, A.; Allada, K.; Anderson, B. D.; Arrington, J.; Baldwin, A.; Chen, J.-P.; Choi, S.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Craver, B.; Decowski, P.; Dutta, C.; Folts, E.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilman, R.; Gomez, J.; Hahn, B.; Hansen, J.-O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, J.; Iodice, M.; Jiang, X.; Kelleher, A.; Khrosinkova, E.; Kievsky, A.; Kuchina, E.; Kumbartzki, G.; Lee, B.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R. A.; Lott, G.; Lu, H.; Marcucci, L. E.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; Meekins, D.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Norum, B.; Petratos, G. G.; Puckett, A.; Qian, X.; Rondon, O.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Segal, J.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Solvignon, P.; Subedi, R. R.; Suleiman, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Viviani, M.; Wang, Y.; Wojtsekhowski, B. B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration



Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)



Near Threshold Neutral Pion Electroproduction at High Momentum Transfers and Generalized Form Factors  

E-print Network

We report the measurement of near threshold neutral pion electroproduction cross sections and the extraction of the associated structure functions on the proton in the kinematic range $Q^2$ from 2 to 4.5 GeV$^2$ and $W$ from 1.08 to 1.16 GeV. These measurements allow us to access the dominant pion-nucleon s-wave multipoles $E_{0+}$ and $S_{0+}$ in the near-threshold region. In the light-cone sum-rule framework (LCSR), these multipoles are related to the generalized form factors $G_1^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$ and $G_2^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$. The data are compared to these generalized form factors and the results for $G_1^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$ are found to be in good agreement with the LCSR predictions, but the level of agreement with $G_2^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$ is poor.

P. Khetarpal; P. Stoler; I. G. Aznauryan; V. Kubarovsky; K. P. Adhikari; D. Adikaram; M. Aghasyan; M. J. Amaryan; M. D. Anderson; S. Anefalos Pereira; M. Anghinolfi; H. Avakian; H. Baghdasaryan; J. Ball; N. A. Baltzell; M. Battaglieri; V. Batourine; I. Bedlinskiy; A. S. Biselli; J. Bono; S. Boiarinov; W. J. Briscoe; W. K. Brooks; V. D. Burkert; D. S. Carman; A. Celentano; G. Charles; P. L. Cole; M. Contalbrigo; V. Crede; A. D'Angelo; N. Dashyan; R. De Vita; E. De Sanctis; A. Deur; C. Djalali; D. Doughty; M. Dugger; R. Dupre; H. Egiyan; A. El Alaoui; L. El Fassi; P. Eugenio; G. Fedotov; S. Fegan; R. Fersch; J. A. Fleming; A. Fradi; M. Y. Gabrielyan; M. Garçon; N. Gevorgyan; G. P. Gilfoyle; K. L. Giovanetti; F. X. Girod; J. T. Goetz; W. Gohn; E. Golovatch; R. W. Gothe; K. A. Griffioen; B. Guegan; M. Guidal; L. Guo; K. Hafidi; H. Hakobyan; C. Hanretty; N. Harrison; K. Hicks; D. Ho; M. Holtrop; C. E. Hyde; Y. Ilieva; D. G. Ireland; B. S. Ishkhanov; E. L. Isupov; H. S. Jo; K. Joo; D. Keller; M. Khandaker; A. Kim; W. Kim; F. J. Klein; S. Koirala; A. Kubarovsky; S. V. Kuleshov; N. D. Kvaltine; S. Lewis; K. Livingston; H. Y. Lu; I. J. D. MacGregor; Y. Mao; D. Martinez; M. Mayer; B. McKinnon; C. A. Meyer; T. Mineeva; M. Mirazita; V. Mokeev; R. A. Montgomery; H. Moutarde; E. Munevar; C. Munoz Camacho; P. Nadel-Turonski; R. Nasseripour; S. Niccolai; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; M. Osipenko; A. I. Ostrovidov; L. L. Pappalardo; R. Paremuzyan; K. Park; S. Park; E. Pasyuk; E. Phelps; J. J. Phillips; S. Pisano; O. Pogorelko; S. Pozdniakov; J. W. Price; S. Procureur; D. Protopopescu; A. J. R. Puckett; B. A. Raue; G. Ricco; D. Rimal; M. Ripani; G. Rosner; P. Rossi; F. Sabatié; M. S. Saini; C. Salgado; N. A. Saylor; D. Schott; R. A. Schumacher; E. Seder; H. Seraydaryan; Y. G. Sharabian; G. D. Smith; D. I. Sober; D. Sokhan; S. S. Stepanyan; S. Stepanyan; I. I. Strakovsky; S. Strauch; M. Taiuti; W. Tang; C. E. Taylor; S. Tkachenko; M. Ungaro; B. Vernarsky; H. Voskanyan; E. Voutier; N. K. Walford; L. B. Weinstein; D. P. Weygand; M. H. Wood; N. Zachariou; J. Zhang; Z. W. Zhao; I. Zonta



Hepatocyte growth factor\\/Met gene transfer in cardiac stem cells—potential for cardiac repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult heart has been recently recognized as a self-renewing organ that contains a pool of committed resident cardiac stem\\u000a cells (CSCs) and cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). These adult CSCs and CPCs can be induced by cytokines and growth factors\\u000a to migrate, differentiate, and proliferate in situ and potentially replace lost cardiomyocytes. Ligand-receptor systems, such\\u000a as the tyrosine kinase receptor

Rosalinda Madonna; Gregg Rokosh; Raffaele De Caterina; Roberto Bolli



An Integrated Model of Transcription Factor Diffusion Shows the Importance of Intersegmental Transfer and Quaternary Protein Structure for Target Site Finding  

PubMed Central

We present a computational model of transcription factor motion that explains both the observed rapid target finding of transcription factors, and how this motion influences protein and genome structure. Using the Smoldyn software, we modelled transcription factor motion arising from a combination of unrestricted 3D diffusion in the nucleoplasm, sliding along the DNA filament, and transferring directly between filament sections by intersegmental transfer. This presents a fine-grain picture of the way in which transcription factors find their targets two orders of magnitude faster than 3D diffusion alone allows. Eukaryotic genomes contain sections of nucleosome free regions (NFRs) around the promoters; our model shows that the presence and size of these NFRs can be explained as their acting as antennas on which transcription factors slide to reach their targets. Additionally, our model shows that intersegmental transfer may have shaped the quaternary structure of transcription factors: sequence specific DNA binding proteins are unusually enriched in dimers and tetramers, perhaps because these allow intersegmental transfer, which accelerates target site finding. Finally, our model shows that a ‘hopping’ motion can emerge from 3D diffusion on small scales. This explains the apparently long sliding lengths that have been observed for some DNA binding proteins observed in vitro. Together, these results suggest that transcription factor diffusion dynamics help drive the evolution of protein and genome structure. PMID:25333780

Schmidt, Hugo G.; Sewitz, Sven; Andrews, Steven S.; Lipkow, Karen



JLab Measurement of the $^4$He Charge Form Factor at Large Momentum Transfers  

E-print Network

The charge form factor of $^$4He has been extracted in the range 29 fm$^{-2}$ $\\le Q^2 \\le 77$ fm$^{-2}$ from elastic electron scattering, detecting $^4$He nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The results are in qualitative agreement with realistic meson-nucleon theoretical calculations. The data have uncovered a second diffraction minimum, which was predicted in the $Q^2$ range of this experiment, and rule out conclusively long-standing predictions of dimensional scaling of high-energy amplitudes using quark counting.

A. Camsonne; A. T. Katramatou; M. Olson; N. Sparveris; A. Acha; K. Allada; B. D. Anderson; J. Arrington; A. Baldwin; J. -P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; E. Cisbani; B. Craver; P. Decowski; C. Dutta; E. Folts; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; R. Gilman; J. Gomez; B. Hahn; J. -O. Hansen; D. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; J. Huang; M. Iodice; X. Jiang; A. Kelleher; E. Khrosinkova; A. Kievsky; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; B. Lee; J. J. LeRose; R. A. Lindgren; G. Lott; H. Lu; L. E. Marcucci; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; S. Marrone; D. Meekins; Z. -E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; B. Norum; G. G. Petratos; A. Puckett; X. Qian; O. Rondon; A. Saha; B. Sawatzky; J. Segal; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; P. Solvignon; R. R. Subedi; R. Suleiman; V. Sulkosky; G. M. Urciuoli; M. Viviani; Y. Wang; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; W. -M. Zhang; X. Zheng; L. Zhu



Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration for infertile women with thin endometrium in frozen embryo transfer program.  


We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration for infertile women with thin endometrium in frozen embryo transfer program. Among 59 infertile patients with thin endometrium (?7 mm), 34 patients received uterine infusion of recombinant human G-CSF (100 ?g/0.6 mL) on the day of ovulation or administration of progesterone or human chorionic gonadotropin, with 40 cycles defined as G-CSF group and 49 previous cycles as self-controlled group, and 25 patients refused, with 80 cycles defined as the control group. Higher proportion of induced cycles and lower proportion of natural cycles were observed in the G-CSF group, when compared to the self-controlled group or control group (P < .05). The cycle cancellation rate was, in descending order, 69.39% in self-controlled group, 48.75% in control group, and 17.50% in G-CSF group, with significant difference (P < .05). The implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer were similar in all the groups (P > .05). Our study fails to demonstrate that G-CSF has the potential to improve embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy rate of the infertile women with thin endometrium. PMID:23885097

Li, Yu; Pan, Ping; Chen, Xiaoli; Li, Lin; Li, Yi; Yang, Dongzi



Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q2=3.5GeV2 by polarization transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors, GEp/GMp, was obtained by measuring Pt and P?, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic e?p?ep?reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5GeV2. In the single-photon exchange approximation, GEp/GMp is directly proportional to Pt/P?. The simultaneous measurement of Pt and P? in a polarimeter reduces systematic uncertainties. The results for GEp/GMp show a systematic decrease with increasing Q2, indicating for the first time a definite difference in the distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. The data have been reanalyzed and their systematic uncertainties have become significantly smaller than those reported previously.

Punjabi, V.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Aniol, K. A.; Baker, F. T.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P. Y.; Bertozzi, W.; Besson, A.; Bimbot, L.; Boeglin, W. U.; Brash, E. J.; Brown, D.; Calarco, J. R.; Cardman, L. S.; Chai, Z.; Chang, C.-C.; Chen, J.-P.; Chudakov, E.; Churchwell, S.; Cisbani, E.; Dale, D. S.; Leo, R. De; Deur, A.; Diederich, B.; Domingo, J. J.; Epstein, M. B.; Ewell, L. A.; Fissum, K. G.; Fleck, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Frullani, S.; Gao, J.; Garibaldi, F.; Gasparian, A.; Gerstner, G.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, A.; Glashausser, C.; Gomez, J.; Gorbenko, V.; Green, A.; Hansen, J.-O.; Howell, C. R.; Huber, G. M.; Iodice, M.; de Jager, C. W.; Jaminion, S.; Jiang, X.; Jones, M. K.; Kahl, W.; Kelly, J. J.; Khayat, M.; Kramer, L. H.; Kumbartzki, G.; Kuss, M.; Lakuriki, E.; Laveissière, G.; Lerose, J. J.; Liang, M.; Lindgren, R. A.; Liyanage, N.; Lolos, G. J.; Macri, R.; Madey, R.; Malov, S.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; McCormick, K.; McIntyre, J. I.; Meer, R. L.; Michaels, R.; Milbrath, B. D.; Mougey, J. Y.; Nanda, S. K.; Offermann, E. A.; Papandreou, Z.; Pentchev, L.; Petratos, G. G.; Piskunov, N. M.; Pomatsalyuk, R. I.; Prout, D. L.; Quéméner, G.; Ransome, R. D.; Raue, B. A.; Roblin, Y.; Roche, R.; Rutledge, G.; Rutt, P. M.; Saha, A.; Saito, T.; Sarty, A. J.; Smith, T. P.; Sorokin, P.; Strauch, S.; Suleiman, R.; Takahashi, K.; Templon, J. A.; Todor, L.; Ulmer, P. E.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Vernin, P.; Vlahovic, B.; Voskanyan, H.; Wijesooriya, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B. B.; Woo, R. J.; Xiong, F.; Zainea, G. D.; Zhou, Z.-L.



K/B×N serum transfer arthritis is delayed and less severe in leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-deficient mice.  


This study is investigating the role of leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in the development of inflammation and joint damage in the mouse K/B×N serum transfer arthritis model. LIF knock-out (LIF(-/-)) mice were generated by mating heterozygote females (LIF(+/-)) with heterozygote males. Arthritis was induced in 8-20-week-old LIF knock-out mice (LIF(-/-)) by intraperitoneal injection of pooled K/B×N sera (50 µl) on days 0 and 2. Clinical disease was scored daily for 6 days. Safranin-O and haematoxylin-stained sections were scored for synovitis, joint space exudate, cartilage degradation and bone damage. RNA was extracted from ankle joints and used to investigate gene expression levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1, LIF, LIF receptor, oncostatin M (OSM), OSM receptor, IL-6 and their common receptor subunit gp130 by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results show that wild-type mice developed severe clinically overt polyarthritis. In contrast, LIF(-/-) mice showed a more than 50% reduction in clinical arthritis severity. Significantly lower histological scores were observed in LIF(-/-) mice compared to wild-type disease controls. LIF(-/-) mice had histopathological scores that were similar to normal healthy mice. IL-6 subfamily cytokine and receptor subunit expression remained unchanged. The expression levels for IL-6 were reduced significantly in all the diseased mice, whether wild-type or LIF(-/-) mice (P < 0·001), compared to healthy wild-type mice. We conclude that LIF contributes to the development of disease in the K/B×N serum transfer model of arthritis. These results provide further evidence for the role of LIF in inflammation and cartilage bone resorption and provide impetus to test the effects of LIF blockade as a therapeutic strategy in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:22774981

Upadhyay, A; Senyschyn, D; Santos, L; Gu, R; Carroll, G J; Jazayeri, J A



A potential screening factor for accumulation of cholesteyl ester transfer protein deficiency in East Asia: Schistosoma japonicum.  


Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-deficiency manifests a unique plasma lipoprotein profile without other apparent symptoms. It is highly common in East Asia while rather rare anywhere else. A potential environmental screening factor(s) may therefore contribute to this eccentric distribution, such as its selective advantage against a regional illness, most likely an infectious disease, in relation to plasma lipoproteins. Blood flukes use the host plasma lipoproteins as nutrient sources through the lipoprotein receptor-like systems. Its Asian-specific species, Schistosoma (S) japonicum, which has been endemic in East Asia, takes up cholesteryl ester (CE) from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for the embryonation of their eggs to miracidia, a critical step of the hepatic pathogenesis of this parasite, but poorly from HDL of CETP-deficiency. CD36-related protein (CD36RP) was cloned from the adults and the eggs of S. japonicum, with 1880-bp encoding 506 amino-acid residues exhibiting the CD36 domains and two transmembrane regions. Its extracellular domain selectively bound human HDL but neither LDL nor CETP-deficiency HDL, and the antibody against the extracellular domain suppressed the selective HDL-CE uptake and embryonation of the eggs. When infected with S. japonicum, wild-type mice developed less hepatic granulomatosis than CETP-transgenic mice by the ectopic egg embryonation. CD36RP is thus a candidate receptor of S. japonicum to facilitate uptake of HDL-CE necessary for egg embryonation. Abnormal HDL caused by CETP-deficiency retards this process and thereby protects the patients from development of hepatic lesions. S. japonicum infection is a potential screening factor for high prevalence of CETP deficiency in East Asia. PMID:24388961

Yokoyama, Shinji



Structural and formulation factors influencing pyridinium lipid-based gene transfer.  


A series of pyridinium lipids containing a heterocyclic ring and a nitrogen atom were synthesized to determine the structure-activity relationship for gene delivery. Pyrylium chloroaluminate was synthesized by monoacylation of mesityl oxide and converted into pyrylium hexafluorophosphate, which was used as the key intermediate for reaction with different primary amines, to yield hydroxyethylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate and aminoethylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate. Acylation of these pyridinium salts with different types of fatty acid chlorides afforded the final pyridinium lipids, which were mixed with a co-lipid, such as L-alpha-dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and cholesterol (Chol) to prepare cationic liposomes by sonication. These liposomes were mixed with plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (pCMS-EGFP) or luciferase (pcDNA3-Luc) and transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Several factors including hydrophobic anchor chain length, anchor chain type, configuration of double bond, linker type, co-lipid type, cationic lipid/co-lipid molar ratio, charge ratio (N/P), and cell type had significant influence on transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity. Pyridinium lipids with amide linker showed significantly higher transfection efficiency compared to their ester counterparts. Liposomes prepared at a 1:1 molar ratio of pyridinium lipid and co-lipid showed higher transfection efficiency when either DOPE or cholesterol was used as a co-lipid to prepare cationic liposomes for complex formation with plasmid DNA at 3:1(+/-) charge ratio. Pyridinium liposomes based on a hydrophobic anchor chain length of 16 showed higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity. The pyridinium lipid with a trans-configuration of the double bond in the fatty acid chain showed higher transfection efficiency than its counterpart with cis-configuration at the same fatty acid chain length. In the presence of serum, C16:0 and Lipofectamine significantly decreased their transfection efficiencies, which were completely lost at a serum concentration of 30% and higher, while C16:1 trans-isomer still had high transfection efficiency under these conditions. In conclusion, pyridinium lipids showed high transfection efficiency and have the potential to be used as transfection reagents in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19053309

Zhu, Lin; Lu, Yan; Miller, Duane D; Mahato, Ram I



Structural and Formulation Factors Influencing Pyridinium Lipid-based Gene Transfer  

PubMed Central

A series of pyridinium lipids containing a heterocyclic ring and a nitrogen atom were synthesized to determine the structure-activity relationship for gene delivery. Pyrylium chloroaluminate was synthesized by monoacylation of mesityl oxide and converted into pyrylium hexafluorophosphate, which was used as the key intermediate for reaction with different primary amines, to yield hydroxyethylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate and aminoethylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate. Acylation of these pyridinium salts with different types of fatty acid chlorides afforded the final pyridinium lipids, which were mixed with a co-lipid, such as L-alpha-dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and cholesterol (Chol) to prepare cationic liposomes by sonication. These liposomes were mixed with plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (pCMS-EGFP) or luciferase (pDNA3-Luc) and transfected into Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Several factors including hydrophobic anchor chain length, anchor chain type, configuration of double bond, linker type, co-lipid type, cationic lipid: co-lipid molar ratio, charge ratio (N/P), and cell type had significant influence on transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity. Pyridinium lipids with amide linker showed significantly higher transfection efficiency compared to their ester counterparts. Liposomes prepared at 1:1 molar ratio of pyridinium lipid and co-lipid showed higher transfection efficiency when either DOPE or cholesterol was used as a co-lipid to prepare cationic liposomes for complex formation with plasmid DNA at 3:1(+/?) charge ratio. Pyridinium liposomes based on hydrophobic anchor chain length of 16 showed higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity. The pyridinium lipid with trans-configuration of the double bond in fatty acid chain showed higher transfection efficiency than its counterpart with cis-configuration at the same fatty acid chain length. In the presence of serum, C16:0 and Lipofectamine significantly decreased their transfection efficiencies, which were completely lost at the serum concentration of 30% and higher, while C16:1 trans-isomer still had high transfection efficiency under these conditions. In conclusion, pyridinium lipids showed high transfection efficiency and have the potential to be used as transfection reagents in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19053309

Zhu, Lin; Lu, Yan; Miller, Duane D.; Mahato, Ram I.



Insulin-like growth factor promotes engraftment, differentiation, and functional improvement after transfer of embryonic stem cells for myocardial restoration.  


Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes myocyte proliferation and can reverse cardiac abnormalities when it is administered in the early fetal stage. Supplementation of a mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) suspension with IGF-1 might enhance cellular engraftment and host organ-specific differentiation after injection in the area of acute myocardial injury. In the study reported here, we sought to enhance the restorative effect of ESCs in the injured heart by adding IGF-1 to the injected cell population. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled sv129 ESCs (2.5 x 10(5)) were injected into the ischemic area after left anterior descending (LAD) artery ligation in BalbC mice. Recombinant mouse IGF-1 (25 ng) was added to the cell suspension prior to the injection (n = 5). Echocardiography was performed before organ harvest 2 weeks later. The degree of restoration (ratio of GFP+ to infarct area), expression of cardiac markers by GFP+ cells, inflammatory response, and tumorigenicity were evaluated. Mice with LAD ligation only (n = 5) and ESC transfer without IGF-1 (n = 5) served as controls. ESCs formed viable grafts and improved cardiac function. Left ventricular wall thickness was higher in the IGF-1 group (p = .025). There was a trend toward higher fractional shortening in the IGF-treated group. Histological analysis demonstrated that IGF-1 promoted expression of alpha-sarcomeric actin (p = .015) and major histocompatibility complex class I (p = .01). IGF did not affect the cellular response to the donor cells or tumorigenicity. IGF-1 promotes expression of cardiomyocyte phenotype in ESCs in vivo. It should be considered as an adjuvant to cell transfer for myocardial restoration. PMID:15579642

Kofidis, Theo; de Bruin, Jorg L; Yamane, Toshiyuki; Balsam, Leora B; Lebl, Darren R; Swijnenburg, Rutger-Jan; Tanaka, Masashi; Weissman, Irving L; Robbins, Robert C



Assessing student expertise in introductory physics with isomorphic problems. II. Effect of some potential factors on problem solving and transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper explores the use of isomorphic problem pairs (IPPs) to assess introductory physics studentsâ ability to solve and successfully transfer problem-solving knowledge from one context to another in mechanics. The paired problems are âisomorphicâ because they require the same physics principle to solve them. We analyze written responses, individual discussions for a range of isomorphic problems, and potential factors that may help or hinder transfer of problem-solving skills from one problem in a pair to the other. When quantitative and conceptual questions were paired and given back to back, students who answered both questions in the IPP often performed better on the conceptual questions than those who answered the corresponding conceptual questions only. Although students often took advantage of the quantitative counterpart to answer a conceptual question of an IPP correctly, when only given the conceptual question, students seldom tried to convert it into a quantitative question, solve it, and then reason about the solution conceptually. Even in individual interviews when students who were given only conceptual questions had difficulty and the interviewer explicitly encouraged them to convert the conceptual question into the corresponding quantitative problem by choosing appropriate variables, a majority of students were reluctant and preferred to guess the answer to the conceptual question based upon their gut feeling. Misconceptions associated with friction in some problems were so robust that pairing them with isomorphic problems not involving friction did not help students discern their underlying similarities. Alternatively, from the knowledge-in-pieces perspective, the activation of the knowledge resource related to friction was so strongly and automatically triggered by the context, which is outside the conscious control of the student, that students did not look for analogies with paired problems or other aids that may be present.

Singh, Chandralekha



Inadequate passive immune transfer in puppies: definition, risk factors and prevention in a large multi-breed kennel.  


The prevalence of neonatal mortality is high in the canine species and far from well-studied. In most domestic neonates, an appropriate colostrum intake is a key element of the control of neonatal mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of passive immune transfer on puppy mortality, assessed through serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration at 2 days of age. Factors impacting passive immune transfer and the value of an oral immunoglobulin supplementation to prevent it were also analyzed. A total of 149 puppies from 34 litters (12 breeds) within one breeding kennel were included. Blood samples were collected at 2 days of age and colostrum was collected from their dams 1 day after whelping to assay IgG concentration. Puppies were weighed at birth and at 2 days of age for calculation of growth rate. Mortality was recorded until 3 weeks of age. Seventy randomly assigned puppies were orally supplemented with hyper-immunized adult plasma twice within the first 8h of life. IgG concentration at 2 days of age was significantly correlated with weight gain during the first 2 days of life. The multivariable model with litter as a random effect demonstrated that neonatal mortality was not influenced by breed size, sex, supplementation, litter size, nor colostrum IgG concentration, but by puppy IgG concentration at 2 days of age. According to the ROC curve, the minimal IgG concentration at and below which puppies were at higher risk of death was determined at 230 mg/dl. Puppy IgG concentration was significantly associated with growth rate, but not with breed size, sex, supplementation, litter size or colostrum IgG concentration in a multivariable model with litter as a random effect. This study demonstrates that neonatal mortality in puppies is related to the quality of passive immune transfer. The oral supplementation with hyper-immunized canine plasma neither decreased risk of mortality, nor improved serum IgG concentration at 2 days of age in puppies. Attention must thus be paid to early colostrum intake to control the neonatal mortality in puppies. PMID:24880625

Mila, H; Feugier, A; Grellet, A; Anne, J; Gonnier, M; Martin, M; Rossig, L; Chastant-Maillard, S



Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of forced circulation solar water heater system fitted with helical twisted tapes  

SciTech Connect

Experimental investigation of heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance of twisted tape solar water heater with various twist ratios has been conducted and the results are compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions with Reynolds number varied from 3000 to 23,000. Experimental data from plain tube collector is validated with the fundamental equations and found that the discrepancy is less than {+-}5.35% and {+-}8.80% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Correlations have been developed for Nusselt number and friction factor with various twist ratios (Y = 3, 4, 5, 6) and are compared with the experimental values. Results conclude that, heat transfer and pressure drop are higher in twisted tape collector compared to the plain one. Among the various twist ratios, the minimum twist ratio 3 is found to enhance the heat transfer and pressure drop due to swirl generation. As the twist ratio increases, the swirl generation decreases and minimizes the heat transfer and friction factor. (author)

Jaisankar, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oxford Engineering College, Tiruchirappalli 620009, Tamil Nadu (India); Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India)



Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater system fitted with spacer at the trailing edge of twisted tapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater system with full- length twist, twist fitted with rod and spacer fitted at the trailing edge for lengths of 100, 200 and 300mm for twist ratio 3 and 5 has been carried out and compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions. The experimental

S. Jaisankar; T. K. Radhakrishnan; K. N. Sheeba



Quick identification of gases for enhancing heat transfer in turbulent pipe flows using standard correlation equations for the convective coefficient and the friction factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a simple algebraic procedure for the quick identification of gases (different than air) that are capable of enhancing heat transfer in turbulent pipe flows while causing small-to-moderate accretions in pressure drops. Relying on standard correlation equations for the convective coefficient and the friction factor, the algebraic procedure is centered on the existing competition between the four intervening

Antonio Campo



Ex vivo gene transfer of basic fibroblast growth factor improves cardiac function and blood flow in a swine chronic myocardial ischemia model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported adenovirus-mediated ex vivo gene transfer of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as a new treatment for leg ischemia. This time, we tested this method on a swine myocardial ischemia model, seeking the possibility of its application for ischemic heart disease. An ameroid constrictor was placed around the proximal left circumflex branch of pigs to induce myocardial ischemia.

M Ninomiya; H Koyama; T Miyata; H Hamada; S Miyatake; H Shigematsu; S Takamoto



Adenovirus-mediated ex vivo gene transfer of basic fibroblast growth factor promotes collateral development in a rabbit model of hind limb ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenovirus-mediated ex vivo gene transfer of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a new strategy for the treatment of chronic vascular occlusive disease, was examined in a rabbit model of hind limb ischemia. The left femoral artery was completely excised to induce an ischemic state in the hind limb of male rabbits. Simultaneously, a skin section was resected from the wound,

N Ohara; H Koyama; T Miyata; H Hamada; S-I Miyatake; M Akimoto; H Shigematsu



Expression of Human Factor IX in Rabbit Hepatocytes by Retrovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer: Potential for Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. We report the

Donna Armentano; Arthur R. Thompson; Gretchen Darlington; Savio L. C. Woo



Adenovector-mediated gene transfer of active transforming growth factor-beta1 induces prolonged severe fibrosis in rat lung.  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of fibrosis based upon its matrix-inducing effects on stromal cells in vitro, and studies demonstrating increased expression of total TGF-beta1 in fibrotic tissues from a variety of organs. The precise role in vivo of this cytokine in both its latent and active forms, however, remains unclear. Using replication-deficient adenovirus vectors to transfer the cDNA of porcine TGF-beta1 to rat lung, we have been able to study the effect of TGF-beta1 protein in the respiratory tract directly. We have demonstrated that transient overexpression of active, but not latent, TGF-beta1 resulted in prolonged and severe interstitial and pleural fibrosis characterized by extensive deposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins collagen, fibronectin, and elastin, and by emergence of cells with the myofibroblast phenotype. These results illustrate the role of TGF-beta1 and the importance of its activation in the pulmonary fibrotic process, and suggest that targeting active TGF-beta1 and steps involved in TGF-beta1 activation are likely to be valuable antifibrogenic therapeutic strategies. This new and versatile model of pulmonary fibrosis can be used to study such therapies. PMID:9259574

Sime, P J; Xing, Z; Graham, F L; Csaky, K G; Gauldie, J



Development of a Cell-Based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Reporter for Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor Protease  

SciTech Connect

We report the construction of a cell-based fluorescent reporter for anthrax lethal factor (LF) protease activity using the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). This was accomplished by engineering an Escherichia coli cell line to express a genetically encoded FRET reporter and LF protease. Both proteins were encoded in two different expression plasmids under the control of different tightly controlled inducible promoters. The FRET-based reporter was designed to contain a LF recognition sequence flanked by the FRET pair formed by CyPet and YPet fluorescent proteins. The length of the linker between both fluorescent proteins was optimized using a flexible peptide linker containing several Gly-Gly-Ser repeats. Our results indicate that this FRET-based LF reporter was readily expressed in E. coli cells showing high levels of FRET in vivo in the absence of LF. The FRET signal, however, decreased 5 times after inducing LF expression in the same cell. These results suggest that this cell-based LF FRET reporter may be used to screen genetically encoded libraries in vivo against LF.

Kimura, R H; Steenblock, E R; Camarero, J A



Expression of human factor IX in rabbit hepatocytes by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer: Potential for gene therapy of hemophilia B  

SciTech Connect

Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. The authors report the construction of an N2-based recombinant retroviral vector, NCMVFIX, for efficient transfer and expression of human factor IX cDNA in primary rabbit hepatocytes. In this construct the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter directs the expression of factor IX. Hepatocytes were isolated from 3-week-old New Zealand White rabbits, infected with the recombinant virus, and analyzed for secretion of active factor IX. The infected rabbit hepatocytes produced human factor IX that is indistinguishable from enzyme derived from normal human plasma. The recombinant protein is sufficiently {gamma}-carboxylated and is functionally active in clotting assays. These results establish the feasibility of using infected hepatocytes for the expression of this protein and are a step toward the goal of correcting hemophilia B by hepatic gene transfer.

Thompson, A.R. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA) Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA (USA)); Darlington, G. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA)); Armentano, D.; Woo, S.L.C.



Numerical investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in a circular tube fitted with V-cut twisted tape inserts.  


Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5?cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5?cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration. PMID:24078795

Salman, Sami D; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Takriff, Mohd S; Mohamad, Abu Bakar




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

Clark, Mr



Transfer of elements relevant to radioactive waste from soil to five boreal plant species.  


In long-term safety assessment models for radioactive waste disposal, uptake of radionuclides by plants is an important process with possible adverse effects in ecosystems. Cobalt-60, (59,63)Ni, (93)Mo, and (210)Pb are examples of long-living radionuclides present in nuclear waste. The soil-to-plant transfer of stable cobalt, nickel, molybdenum and lead and their distribution across plant parts were investigated in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) at two boreal forest sites in Eastern Finland. The concentrations of all of the studied elements were higher in roots than in above-ground plant parts showing that different concentration ratios (CR values) are needed for modelling the transfer to roots and stems/leaves. Some significant differences in CR values were found in comparisons of different plant species and of the same species grown at different sites. However, large within-species variation suggests that it is not justified to use different CR values for modelling soil-to-plant transfer of these elements in the different boreal forest plant species. PMID:21190719

Roivainen, Päivi; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka



Robotic technology evolution and transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report concerning technology transfer in the area of robotics is presented in vugraph form. The following topics are discussed: definition of technology innovation and tech-transfer; concepts relevant for understanding tech-transfer; models advanced to portray tech-transfer process; factors identified as promoting tech-transfer; factors identified as impeding tech-transfer; what important roles do individuals fulfill in tech-transfer; federal infrastructure for promoting tech-transfer; federal infrastructure for promoting tech-transfer; robotic technology evolution; robotic technology transferred; and recommendations for successful robotics tech-transfer.

Marzwell, Neville I.



In-Hospital Mortality among Rural Medicare Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: The Influence of Demographics, Transfer, and Health Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context/Purpose: Most rural hospitals can provide medical care to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, but a need for advanced cardiac care requires timely transfer to a tertiary hospital. There is little information on AMI in-hospital mortality predictors among rural transfer patients. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective analyses on…

Muus, Kyle J.; Knudson, Alana D.; Klug, Marilyn G.; Wynne, Joshua



The role played by environmental factors in the integration of a transfer station in a municipal solid waste management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer stations are an integral part of present-day municipal solid waste management systems. The main criteria used to decide on the location of a transfer station has traditionally been the minimization of transport costs, since it is cheaper to transport great amounts of waste over long distances in large loads than in small ones. In this study, we are going

M. D. Bovea; J. C. Powell; A. Gallardo; S. F. Capuz-Rizo



(137)Cs inter-plant concentration ratios provide a predictive tool for coral atolls with distinct benefits over transfer factors.  


Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR) [Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in coral atoll tree food crops/Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume] can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict (137)Cs concentration in tree food crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact that tree roots naturally integrate (137)Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of (137)Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in (137)Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log-normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD)=1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSDs of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD=1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10-20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples. PMID:17904254

Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F; Bogen, Kenneth T; Conrado, Cynthia L; Kehl, Steven R



Monitoring the activation state of insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 hybrid receptors using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer.  


In cells expressing both the insulin receptor isoform A (IRA) and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R), the presence of hybrid receptors, made up of an alphabeta-IRA chain associated with an alphabeta-IGF1R chain, has been demonstrated. These heterodimers are found in normal cells, and they also seem to play crucial roles in a number of cancers. However, they remain difficult to study, due to the concomitant presence of IRA and IGF1R homodimers. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), we have developed assays to specifically monitor the activation state of IRA/IGF1R hybrids, both in vitro and in living cells. The first assay allowed the study of ligand-induced conformational changes within hybrid receptors purified from cells cotransfected with one type of receptor fused to Renilla reniformis luciferase (Rluc), and the other type of receptor fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). In these conditions, only hybrid receptors were BRET-competent. In the second assay, the activation state of IRA/IGF1R hybrids was monitored in real time, in living cells, by cotransfection of kinase-dead versions of IRA-Rluc or IGF1R-Rluc, wild-type untagged IRA or IGF1R, and a YFP-tagged soluble version of the substrate-trapping mutant of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (YFP-PTP1B-D181A-Cter). In hybrid receptors, trans-phosphorylation of the kinase-dead alphabeta-Rluc moiety by the wild-type alphabeta moiety induced the recruitment of YFP-PTP1B-D181A-Cter, resulting in a hybrid-specific ligand-induced BRET signal. Therefore, both methods allow monitoring of the activity of IRA/IGF1R hybrid receptor and could be used to detect molecules of therapeutic interest for the treatment of cancer. PMID:16926280

Blanquart, Christophe; Gonzalez-Yanes, Carmen; Issad, Tarik



137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors  

SciTech Connect

Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R



Soil-to-Crop Transfer Factors of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides and Stable Elements for Long-Term Dose Assessment  

SciTech Connect

A soil-to-crop transfer factor, TF, is a key parameter that directly affects the internal dose assessment for the ingestion pathway, however, obtaining TFs of various long-lived radionuclides occurred during operation of nuclear power plants is difficult because most of them could not be found in natural environments. In this study, therefore, we collected crops and their associated soils throughout Japan and measured more than 50 elements to obtain TFs under equilibrium conditions. The TFs were calculated for 42 elements (Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Sn, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tl, Pb, Th and U) from their concentrations in both crop and soil samples. The TF is defined as the concentration of an isotope in a crop (in Bq/kg or mg/kg dry weight) divided by the concentration of the isotope in soil (in or mg/kg dry weight). Probability distributions of TFs for 62 upland field crops were usually log-normal type so that geometric means (GMs) were calculated. The values for the elements of interest from the viewpoint of long-term dose assessment were 2.5E-02 for Se, 7.9E-02 for Sr, 3.1E-03 for Cs, 4.2E-04 for Th and 4.6E-04 for U. Leafy vegetable showed the highest TFs for all the elements among the crop groups. It was clear that these data were usually within the 95% confidence limits of TFs compiled by IAEA in Technical Report Series 364. (authors)

Uchida, S.; Tagami, K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba (Japan)



Myeloid Deletion of SIRT1 Aggravates Serum Transfer Arthritis in Mice via Nuclear Factor-?B Activation  

PubMed Central

Objective SIRT1 modulates the acetylation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response. This study sought to assess the role of SIRT1 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a myeloid cell-specific SIRT1 knockout (mSIRT1 KO) mouse. Methods mSIRT1 KO mice were generated using the loxP/Cre recombinase system. K/BxN serum transfer arthritis was induced in mSIRT1 KO mice and age-matched littermate loxP control mice. Arthritis severity was assessed by clinical and pathological scoring. The levels of inflammatory cytokines in the serum and joints were measured by ELISA. Migration, M1 polarization, cytokine production, osteoclastogenesis, and p65 acetylation were assessed in bone marrow-derived monocytes/macrophages (BMMs). Results mSIRT1 KO mice showed more severe inflammatory arthritis and aggravated pathological findings than control mice. These effects were paralleled by increases in IL-1, TNF-?, TRAP-positive osteoclasts, and F4/80+ macrophages in the ankles of mSIRT1 KO mice. In addition, BMMs from mSIRT1 KO mice displayed hyperacetylated p65 and increased NF-?B binding activity when compared to control mice, which resulted in increased M1 polarization, migration, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and osteoclastogenesis. Conclusion Our study provides in vivo evidence that myeloid cell-specific deletion of SIRT1 exacerbates inflammatory arthritis via the hyperactivation of NF-?B signaling, which suggests that SIRT1 activation may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:24498364

Lim, Hye Song; Cho, Hee Young; Park, Byung-Hyun; Ka, Sun-O; Lee, Young-Rae; Jeong, Dong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Ok; Han, Myung-Kwan; Lee, Sang-Il



Experimental Heat Transfer Coefficients and Friction Factors in a Rib-Roughened Leading-Edge Cooling Cavity of a Gas Turbine Airfoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gas turbine airfoil contains multiple coolant passageways. These passages usually have rib roughened wall surfaces in order to increase the heat transfer from the blade to the cooling air. Auxiliary power and compressed air is very valuable in a gas turbine, therefore low pumping power requirements are crucial. The thermal performance of three different coolant channel geometries with three different rib sizes was investigated. Heat transfer calculations were performed for Reynolds numbers ranging from 6,000 to 40,000. The performance characteristics were calculated through the use of the convective heat transfer coefficient and the friction factor. In this study, the most desirable characteristics are a high heat transfer coefficient and minimal pumping power requirements. The thermal performance of each case was determined by comparing the average Nusselt numbers to the friction factor ratio. The resulting value was then plotted against the Reynolds number for each case. The trending data indicated thermal efficiency decreases with an increasing Reynolds number for all cases. The picture data shows increased thermal efficiency at larger distances from the nose portion of the cavity. In addition, thermal efficiency was higher at the half distance of the rib pitch while areas close to the ribs saw a lower thermal efficiency. The following experimental data will show that Rig 2 and 3 are the most thermally efficient geometries, with Rig 2 requiring lower pumping power and Rig 3 having a higher average Nusselt number.

Hagan, Peter


Production of transgenic recloned piglets harboring the human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) gene from porcine fetal fibroblasts by nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used nuclear transfer (NT) to develop transgenic female pigs harboring goat beta-casein promoter\\/human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF). The expression of hGM-CSF was specific to the mammary gland, and the glycosylation-derived size heterogeneity corresponded to that of the native human protein. Although various cell types have been used to generate cloned animals, little is currently known about the potential

K.-W. Park; K.-M. Choi; S.-P. Hong; G.-S. Han; J.-Y. Yoo; D.-I. Jin; J.-G. Seol; C.-S. Park



Convective Heat Transfer Steady Thermal Stress and Effect Factors in a ZrO2\\/FGM\\/Ti6Al4V Composite EFBF Plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite element model is constructed to analyze the steady thermal stress and effect factors in a ZrO2\\/FGM\\/Ti-6Al-4V composite EFBF plate under convective heat transfer boundary. From numerical calculation, when hmacra=hmacrb=1, T0=Ta =300 K and Tb=1 800 K, the stress distributions in the plate were obtained. The numerical results show that compared with h2= 2 mm the tensile stress of

Yangjian Xu; Daihui Tu; Wei Wei



Antagonism of platelet-derived growth factor by perivascular gene transfer attenuates adventitial cell migration after vascular injury: new tricks for old dogs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration of adventitial fibroblasts con- tributes to vascular remodeling after angioplasty. This study has used perivascular gene transfer of a truncated platelet-derived growth factor PDGF receptor (PDG- FXR) to investigate whether antagonism of PDGF sig- naling alters adventitial cell migration after balloon injury in rat carotid arteries. Adenoviruses coordinating expression of -galactosidase (LacZ) and PDGFXR or LacZ and green fluorescent

Chandike M. Mallawaarachchi; Peter L. Weissberg; Richard C. M. Siow



Antitumor effect of nuclear factor-?B decoy transfer by mannose-modified bubble lipoplex into macrophages in mouse malignant ascites.  


Patients with malignant ascites (MAs) display several symptoms, such as dyspnea, nausea, pain, and abdominal tenderness, resulting in a significant reduction in their quality of life. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a crucial role in MA progression. Because TAMs have a tumor-promoting M2 phenotype, conversion of the M2 phenotypic function of TAMs would be promising for MA treatment. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a master regulator of macrophage polarization. Here, we developed targeted transfer of a NF-?B decoy into TAMs by ultrasound (US)-responsive, mannose-modified liposome/NF-?B decoy complexes (Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes) in a mouse peritoneal dissemination model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. In addition, we investigated the effects of NF-?B decoy transfection into TAMs on MA progression and mouse survival rates. Intraperitoneal injection of Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure transferred the NF-?B decoy into TAMs effectively. When the NF-?B decoy was delivered into TAMs by this method in the mouse peritoneal dissemination model, mRNA expression of the Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in TAMs was decreased significantly. In contrast, mRNA levels of Th1 cytokines (IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-?, and IL-6) were increased significantly. Moreover, the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor in ascites was suppressed significantly, and peritoneal angiogenesis showed a reduction. Furthermore, NF-?B decoy transfer into TAMs significantly decreased the ascitic volume and number of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in ascites, and prolonged mouse survival. In conclusion, we transferred a NF-?B decoy efficiently by Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes with US exposure into TAMs, which may be a novel approach for MA treatment. PMID:24850474

Kono, Yusuke; Kawakami, Shigeru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Maruyama, Kazuo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru



Examining Factors Affecting Beginning Teachers' Transfer of Learning of ICT-Enhanced Learning Activities in Their Teaching Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined 100 beginning teachers' transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by "learning technology by collaborative design" in their final year of…

Agyei, Douglas D.; Voogt, Joke



Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Synthetic Jets for Cooling in Low Form Factor Electronics in Presence of Mean Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of our experimental studies on interaction of synthetic jets with a bulk flow over a heated surface in a low profile channel as well as its impact on overall heat transfer enhancement. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) studies were conducted to study the impact of jet frequency, mean flow velocity and synthetic jet orientation on the

Rajiv K. Mongia; Mark A. Macdonald; Joshua S. Mccune; Anna Pavlova; Mark A. Trautman; A. Bhattacharya




Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer and fluid dynamic studies were made with air flowing ; parallel to the rods of a seven rod cluster. The radial centers of the rods were ; equally spaced in a triangular array with the ratio of the center-to-center ; distance divided by the rod diameter of 1.015. Pressure drops, velocity ; profiles, and average and local (with

L. D. Palmer; L. L. Swanson



Investigation of twisted tape inserted solar water heaters—heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer in a solar water heater could be enhanced by means of twisted tapes, inserted inside the fluid flow tubes, which induce swirl flow and act as turbulence promoters. Experimental investigations for a solar water heater with twisted tape inserts having twist pitch to tube diameter ratio ranging from 3–12 have been carried out for varying mass flow rates.

A Kumar; B. N Prasad



Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in non-human primates (Microcebus murinus).  

E-print Network

gene transfer predominantly to the liver while FX-binding ablated vectors primarily targeted the spleen obtained from necropsies in human clinical trials suggest that Ad5 may target the liver and spleen after transduces the liver and spleen following i.v. delivery(9, 10, 15, 18). Ablation of CAR- and integrin

Boyer, Edmond


Prediction of heat transfer coefficients and friction factors for evaporation of R-134a flowing inside corrugated tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, experimental and simulation studies of the evaporation heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of R-134a flowing through corrugated tubes are conducted. The test section is a horizontal counter-flow concentric tube-in-tube heat exchanger 2.0 m in length. A smooth tube and corrugated tubes with inner diameters of 8.7 mm are used as the inner tube. The outer tube is made from a smooth copper tube with an inner diameter of 21.2 mm. The corrugation pitches used in this study are 5.08, 6.35, and 8.46 mm. Similarly, the corrugation depths are 1, 1.25, and 1.5 mm, respectively. The results show that the maximum heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop obtained from the corrugated tube are up to 22 and 19 % higher than those obtained from the smooth tube, respectively. In addition, the average difference of the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop between the simulation model and experimental data are about 10 and 15 %, respectively.

Laohalertdecha, S.; Aroonrat, K.; Dalkilic, A. S.; Mahian, O.; Kaewnai, S.; Wongwises, S.



Characterizing the heavy metal-complexing potential of fluorescent water-extractable organic matter from composted municipal solid wastes using fluorescence excitation–emission matrix spectra coupled with parallel factor analysis.  


To investigate the effect of organic matter evolution on heavy metal sorption, fluorescence excitation–emission matrix (EEM) spectra combined with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis were employed to characterize the evolution and metal-complexing potential of fluorescent water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from composted municipal solid wastes (MSWs). The WEOMs examined comprised humic-, fulvic-, tryptophan-, and tyrosine-like substances. Composting treatment increased the content of humic- and fulvic-like matter, and changed the existence pattern of tryptophan- and tyrosine-like substances (i.e., the tryptophan- and tyrosine-like substances from uncomposted MSWs were mainly bound in protein-like matter, whereas those from composted MSWs were primarily bound in humic- and fulvic-like substances). Furthermore, composting treatment increased the polar functional group, aromaticity, and humification degree of the WEOMs, but decreased the aliphatic and hydroxyl group. These evolutions decreased the Cu(II) affinities of fulvic- and humic-like substances and the Pb(II) affinities and complexing capacities of fulvic-like substances, but increased the Cu(II) complexing capacities of fulvic- and humic-like substances. These results reveal that mature composts from the MSWs can be used for the remediation of Cu- and Pb-contaminated soils in situ, whereas immature composts can enhance the metal transferability from soil to plant. PMID:24659406

He, Xiao-Song; Xi, Bei-Dou; Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Xiang; Li, Dan; Cui, Dong-Yu; Tang, Wen-Bin; Yuan, Ying



Adoptive Transfer of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-Modified Macrophages Rescues the Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor (Nrf2) Antiinflammatory Phenotype in Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are instrumental in the pathophysiology of liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Although Nrf2 regulates macrophage-specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) antioxidant defense, it remains unknown whether HO-1 induction might rescue macrophage Nrf2-dependent antiinflammatory functions. This study explores the mechanisms by which the Nrf2–HO-1 axis regulates sterile hepatic inflammation responses after adoptive transfer of ex vivo modified HO-1 overexpressing bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMMs). Livers in Nrf2-deficient mice preconditioned with Ad-HO-1 BMMs, but not Ad-?-Gal-BMMs, ameliorated liver IRI (at 6 h of reperfusion after 90 min of warm ischemia), evidenced by improved hepatocellular function (serum alanine aminotransferase [sALT] levels) and preserved hepatic architecture (Suzuki histological score). Treatment with Ad-HO-1 BMMs decreased neutrophil accumulation, proinflammatory mediators and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis in ischemic livers. Moreover, Ad-HO-1 transfection of Nrf2-deficient BMMs suppressed M1 (Nos2+) while promoting the M2 (Mrc-1/Arg-1+) phenotype. Unlike in controls, Ad-HO-1 BMMs increased the expression of Notch1, Hes1, phosphorylation of Stat3 and Akt in IR-stressed Nrf2-deficient livers as well as in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BMMs. Thus, adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated Ad-HO-1 BMMs rescued Nrf2-dependent antiinflammatory phenotype by promoting Notch1/Hes1/Stat3 signaling and reprogramming macrophages toward the M2 phenotype. These findings provide the rationale for a novel clinically attractive strategy to manage IR liver inflammation/damage. PMID:25014792

Huang, Jing; Shen, Xiu-Da; Yue, Shi; Zhu, Jianjun; Gao, Feng; Zhai, Yuan; Busuttil, Ronald W; Ke, Bibo; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W



Measurements of the meson-photon transition form factors of light pseudoscalar mesons at large momentum transfer  

E-print Network

Using the CLEO II detector, we have measured the differential cross sections for exclusive two-photon production of light pseudoscalar mesons ?(0), ?, and ??. From our measurements we have obtained the form factors associated ...

Ammar, Raymond G.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Besson, David Zeke; Coppage, Don; Darling, C.; Davis, Robin E. P.; Hancock, N.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, Nowhan



Long-Term Expression of Human Coagulation Factor VIII and Correction of Hemophilia A after in vivo Retroviral Gene Transfer in Factor VIII-Deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemophilia A is caused by a deficiency in coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and predisposes to spontaneous bleeding that can be life-threatening or lead to chronic disabilities. It is well suited for gene therapy because a moderate increase in plasma FVIII concentration has therapeutic effects. Improved retroviral vectors expressing high levels of human FVIII were pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus

Thierry Vandendriessche; Veerle Vanslembrouck; Inge Goovaerts; Hans Zwinnen; Marie-Line Vanderhaeghen; Desire Collen; Marinee K. L. Chuah



Experimental determination of average turbulent heat transfer and friction factor in stator internal rib-roughened cooling channels.  


In gas turbine cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to the hot stream are based on the increase of the inner heat transfer areas and on the promotion of the turbulence of the cooling flow. This is currently obtained by casting periodic ribs on one or more sides of the serpentine passages into the core of the blade. Fluid dynamic and thermal behaviour of the cooling flow have been extensively investigated by means of experimental facilities and many papers dealing with this subject have appeared in the latest years. The evaluation of the average value of the heat transfer coefficient most of the time is inferred from local measurements obtained by various experimental techniques. Moreover the great majority of these studies are not concerned with the overall average heat transfer coefficient for the combined ribs and region between them, but do focus just on one of them. This paper presents an attempt to collect information about the average Nusselt number inside a straight ribbed duct. Series of measurements have been performed in steady state eliminating the error sources inherently connected with transient methods. A low speed wind tunnel, operating in steady state flow, has been built to simulate the actual flow condition occurring in a rectilinear blade cooling channel. A straight square channel with 20 transverse ribs on two sides has been tested for Re of about 3 x 10(4), 4.5 x 10(4) and 6 x 10(4). The ribbed wall test section is electrically heated and the heat removed by a stationary flow of known thermal and fluid dynamic characteristics. PMID:11460662

Battisti, L; Baggio, P



Transfer of Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on transfer of learning. "Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in an Industrial Setting" (Reid A. Bates, Elwood F. Holton III, Dian L. Seyler) identified seven transfer climate variables that predicted performance and three interpersonal variables that predicted performance ratings. Results…



Transfer of Learning. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers on transfer of training and human resources. "The Effect of Organizational Support, Management Support, and Peer Support on Transfer of Training" (Susan E. Cromwell, Judith A. Kolb) reports on a longitudinal study of work environment factors that affect transfer of training in a university supervisory skills…



Low-level structure of {sup 70}Ge from lifetime and g-factor measurements following {alpha} transfer to a {sup 66}Zn ion beam  

SciTech Connect

The g factor of the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state in {sup 70}Ge was remeasured using a different experimental approach. Furthermore, for the first time an experimental value (although with a large uncertainty) was obtained for the g factor of the 2{sub 2}{sup +} state in {sup 70}Ge. All this was accomplished by employing the technique of {alpha} transfer to an energetic {sup 66}Zn ion beam in inverse kinematics combined with transient magnetic fields in ferromagnetic gadolinium. The value of the g(2{sub 1}{sup +}) factor obtained ranges from +0.32(11) to +0.43(12), subject to certain assumptions. This range of values is in general agreement with the range of values in the literature, where Coulomb excitation and different IMPAC techniques were used. Lifetimes of several low-lying states were redetermined using the Doppler-Shift-Attenuation-Method. The deduced B(E2) values and the g(2{sub 1}{sup +}) factor are discussed within the framework of large-scale full fp shell model calculations with a closed {sup 40}Ca core and including excitations from the f{sub 7/2} orbital. The results are compared with recent data for {sup 68}Ge and {sup 68}Zn.

Leske, J.; Speidel, K.-H.; Schielke, S.; Gerber, J.; Maier-Komor, P.; Robinson, S. J. Q.; Escuderos, A.; Sharon, Y. Y.; Zamick, L. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 (Germany); Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Physik-Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Geology and Physics Department, University of Southern Indiana, Evansville, Indiana 47712 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855 (United States)



Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors  

SciTech Connect

In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.



Effect of K and bentonite additions on Cs-transfer to ryegrass.  


Bentonite amendments are generally ineffective in reducing the soil-to-plant radiocaesium transfer but have previously been shown that bentonites in the K-form having been subjected to wetting-drying cycles had pronounced radiocaesium binding capacities. We have investigated the effect of wetting-drying (WD) on Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) development in three K-bentonites and K-bentonite soil mixtures, using a variety of procedures: homogenisation of the bentonites with K through dialysis (K(B)), or partial transformation of the bentonite to the K-form in the presence of a solution of K2CO3 (K(L)) or in presence of solid K2CO3 (K(S)). Of the three strategies tested, addition of K2CO3 (solid) at a dose of 2 meq g(-1) clay and adding the K-bentonite mixtures to the soil resulted in the highest RIP increase after 20 WD cycles. The procedure giving the highest RIP yield is the most practical for further applications and was used in a pot experiment under greenhouse condition. When expressing the RIP increase of the soil-bentonite mixtures per unit bentonite added (RIP yield), 28- to 110-fold RIP increases were observed up to a value of approximately 60,000 meq kg(-1) (6 times higher than the RIP for illite). The beneficial effect following K-bentonite application was shown to be dependent both on a sorption enhancement effect (direct RIP effect) and fixation effects (indirect RIP effect). Greenhouse testing proved that the RIP effects observed in greenhouse could be predicted by making use of the sorption data from the laboratory tests. Optimum soil-amendment would be obtained with bentonites with high initial sorption RIP and a high sorption RIP increase when subjected to WD in the presence of potassium. Hypothised Transfer Factor (TF)-reductions of at least 10-fold could result when mixing approximately 1% bentonite, like Otay bentonite (RIP yield 99,000 meq kg(-1) after WD in presence of K if only fine particle size of <1mm considered) with the contaminated ploughing layer. PMID:15795037

Vandenhove, H; Cremers, A; Smolders, E; Van Hees, M



Transfer form

10/02 Transfer Investigational Agent Form This form is to be used for an intra-institutional transfer, one transfer/form. Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health TRANSFER FROM: Investigator transferring agent:


Measurements of the meson-photon transition form factors of light pseudoscalar mesons at large momentum transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the CLEO II detector, we have measured the rates for exclusive two-photon production of light pseudoscalar mesons in a single-tagged mode. From these rates we extract the ?/*/gamma/to meson electromagnetic transition form factors in the Q2 range from 1.5 GeV2 to 9.0, 20.0 and 30.0 GeV2 for the ?0,/ /eta and ?' mesons, respectively.

Savinov, Vladimir



Metals in benthic macrofauna and biogeochemical factors affecting their trophic transfer to wild fish around fish farm cages.  


Benthic macroinvertebrates and wild fish aggregating in the vicinity of four Mediterranean fish farms were sampled. Concentrations of metals and other elements were measured in macrofaunal taxa and in fish tissues (muscle, liver, gills, bone, gonad, stomach, intestine, and stomach content). Biological and geochemical characteristics play an important role in metal accumulation in benthic invertebrates, and consequently in metal transfer to higher trophic levels. Macroinvertebrates accumulated lower concentrations of most metals and elements than their respective sediment, except As, P, Na, Zn and Cd. Elemental concentrations of benthic organisms increased with increasing sediment metal content, except Cd, and with % silt, refractory organic matter and chlorophyll-a of sediment due to the influence of sediment geochemistry on metal bioavailability. Tolerant species were found to accumulate higher concentrations of most metals and elements, except for Cd, than equilibrium species. The ecological and morphological characteristics of the benthic invertebrates can affect the bioaccumulation of metals and elements in macrobenthos. Hg and P were found to increase their concentrations from zoobenthos to wild fish aggregating around fish cages feeding on macrofauna. PMID:24184551

Kalantzi, I; Papageorgiou, N; Sevastou, K; Black, K D; Pergantis, S A; Karakassis, I



Risks associated with the transfer of toxic organo-metallic mercury from soils into the terrestrial feed chain.  


Although the transfer of organo-metallic mercury (OrgHg) in aquatic food webs has long been studied, it has only been recently recognized that there is also accumulation in terrestrial systems. There is still however little information about the exposure of grazing animals to OrgHg from soils and feed as well as on risks of exposure to animal and humans. In this study we collected 78 soil samples and 40 plant samples (Lolium perenne and Brassica juncea) from agricultural fields near a contaminated industrial area and evaluated the soil-to-plant transfer of Hg as well as subsequent trophic transfer. Inorganic Hg (IHg) concentrations ranged from 0.080 to 210mgkg(-1) d.w. in soils, from 0.010 to 84mgkg(-1) d.w. in roots and from 0.020 to 6.9mgkg(-1) d.w. in shoots. OrgHg concentrations in soils varied between 0.20 and 130?gkg(-1) d.w. representing on average 0.13% of the total Hg (THg). In root and shoot samples OrgHg comprised on average 0.58% (roots) and 0.66% (shoots) of THg. Average bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for OrgHg in relation to soil concentrations were 3.3 (for roots) and 1.5 (for shoots). The daily intake (DI) of THg in 33 sampling sites exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of THg of both cows (ADI=1.4mgd(-1)) and sheep (ADI=0.28mgd(-1)), in view of food safety associated with THg in animal kidneys. Estimated DI of OrgHg for grazing animals were up to 220?gd(-1) (for cows) and up to 33?gd(-1) (for sheep). This study suggested that solely monitoring the levels of THg in soils and feed may not allow to adequately taking into account accumulation of OrgHg in feed crops and properly address risks associated with OrgHg exposure for animals and humans. Hence, the inclusion of limits for OrgHg in feed quality and food safety legislation is advised. PMID:23917441

Henriques, Bruno; Rodrigues, S M; Coelho, C; Cruz, N; Duarte, A C; Römkens, P F A M; Pereira, E



A fluorescent nanoprobe based on graphene oxide fluorescence resonance energy transfer for the rapid determination of oncoprotein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).  


Oncoprotein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most critical growth factors that regulates tumor growth and division. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is also an important biomarker for different diseases and clinical disorders. Herein, we propose a graphene oxide (GO) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based aptasensor for rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of VEGF in homogeneous solution. The fluorescent dye-labeled anti-VEGF aptamer is adsorbed on the surface of GO via ?-? interaction between the flat planar GO sheets and the ring structures in the nucleobases, which results in the fluorescence quenching of the dye due to the highly effective FRET from the dye to GO. Upon recognition and binding with the target VEGF, it specifically forms a VEGF/aptamer complex and then release from the GO surface, leading to the restoration of fluorescence signal of the dye. This GO-based sensing platform exhibits high sensitivity and specificity toward VEGF versus other proteins, with the detection limits corresponding to 2.5×10(-10) M. The sensitivity of this new type of aptamer-based assay is at least one order of magnitude higher than that of conventional homogeneous optical assays. Moreover, the application of this nanosensor for human serum sample analysis is also demonstrated. The GO/aptamer-based assay approach holds great promise as a general platform for detection of a variety of target molecules. PMID:24160878

Wang, Sheng-E; Si, Shihui



Human tumor necrosis factor receptor (p55) and interleukin 10 gene transfer in the mouse reduces mortality to lethal endotoxemia and also attenuates local inflammatory responses  

PubMed Central

Anticytokine therapies have been promulgated in gram-negative sepsis as a means of preventing or neutralizing excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines. However, systemic administration of cytokine inhibitors is an inefficient means of targeting excessive production in individual tissue compartments. In the present study, human gene transfer was used to deliver to organs of the reticuloendothelial system antagonists that either inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- alpha) synthesis or block its interactions with cellular receptors. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with cationic liposomes containing 200 micrograms of either a pCMV (cytomegalovirus)/p55 expression plasmid that contains the extracellular domain and transmembrane region of the human p55 TNF receptor, or a pcD-SR-alpha/hIL-10 expression plasmid containing the DNA for human interleukin 10. 48 h later, mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine. Pretreatment of mice with p55 or IL-10 cDNA-liposome complexes improved survival (p < 0.01) to LPS-D-galactosamine. In additional studies, intratracheal administration of IL-10 DNA-liposome complexes 48 h before an intratracheal LPS challenge reduced pulmonary TNF-alpha levels by 62% and decreased neutrophil infiltration in the lung by 55% as measured by myeloperoxidase activity (both p < 0.05). Gene transfer with cytokine inhibitors is a promising option for the treatment of both the systemic and local sequelae of septic shock. PMID:7760015



Human factors aspects of the transfer of control from the automated highway system to the driver. Working paper, October 1993-September 1994  

SciTech Connect

The first two experiments in a series exploring human factors issues related to the Automated Highway System (AHS) used a generic AHS configuration--the left lane reserved for automated vehicles, the center and right lanes containing unautomated vehicles, no transition lane, and no barriers between the automated and unautomated lanes--that was simulated in the Iowa Driving Simulator (IDS). The IDS has a moving base hexapod platform containing a mid-sized sedan. Imagery was projected onto a 3.35-rad (180 deg) screen in front of the driver, and onto a 1.13-rad (60 deg) screen to the rear. Thirty-six drivers between the ages of 25 and 34 years participated in the first experiment; 24 drivers who were age 65 or older took part in the second. Both experiments explored the transfer of control from the AHS to the driver when the driver`s task was to leave the automated lane.

Bloomfield, J.R.; Buck, J.R.; Carroll, S.A.; Booth, M.S.; Romano, R.A.



Protein Replacement Therapy and Gene Transfer in Canine Models of Hemophilia A, Hemophilia B, von Willebrand Disease, and Factor VII Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Dogs with hemophilia A, hemophilia B, von Willebrand disease (VWD), and factor VII deficiency faithfully recapitulate the severe bleeding phenotype that occurs in humans with these disorders. The first rational approach to diagnosing these bleeding disorders became possible with the development of reliable assays in the 1940s through research that used these dogs. For the next 60 years, treatment consisted of replacement of the associated missing or dysfunctional protein, first with plasma-derived products and subsequently with recombinant products. Research has consistently shown that replacement products that are safe and efficacious in these dogs prove to be safe and efficacious in humans. But these highly effective products require repeated administration and are limited in supply and expensive; in addition, plasma-derived products have transmitted bloodborne pathogens. Recombinant proteins have all but eliminated inadvertent transmission of bloodborne pathogens, but the other limitations persist. Thus, gene therapy is an attractive alternative strategy in these monogenic disorders and has been actively pursued since the early 1990s. To date, several modalities of gene transfer in canine hemophilia have proven to be safe, produced easily detectable levels of transgene products in plasma that have persisted for years in association with reduced bleeding, and correctly predicted the vector dose required in a human hemophilia B liver-based trial. Very recently, however, researchers have identified an immune response to adeno-associated viral gene transfer vector capsid proteins in a human liver-based trial that was not present in preclinical testing in rodents, dogs, or nonhuman primates. This article provides a review of the strengths and limitations of canine hemophilia, VWD, and factor VII deficiency models and of their historical and current role in the development of improved therapy for humans with these inherited bleeding disorders. PMID:19293459

Nichols, Timothy C.; Dillow, Aaron M.; Franck, Helen W.G.; Merricks, Elizabeth P.; Raymer, Robin A.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Arruda, Valder R.; High, Katherine A.



Production of transgenic goats expressing human coagulation factor IX in the mammary glands after nuclear transfer using transfected fetal fibroblast cells.  


There are growing numbers of recombinant proteins that have been expressed in milk. Thus one can consider the placement of any gene of interest under the control of the regulatory elements of a milk protein gene in a dairy farm animal. Among the transgene introducing techniques, only nuclear transfer (NT) allows 100 % efficiency and bypasses the mosaicism associated with counterpart techniques. In this study, in an attempt to produce a transgenic goat carrying the human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) transgene, goat fetal fibroblasts were electroporated with a linearized marker-free construct in which the transgene was juxtaposed to ?-casein promoter designed to secret the recombinant protein in goat milk. Two different lines of transfected cells were used as donors for NT to enucleated oocytes. Two transgenic goats were liveborn. DNA sequencing of the corresponding transgene locus confirmed authenticity of the cloning procedure and the complementary experiments on the whey demonstrated expression of human factor IX in the milk of transgenic goats. In conclusion, our study has provided the groundwork for a prosperous and promising approach for large-scale production and therapeutic application of hFIX expressed in transgenic goats. PMID:22869287

Amiri Yekta, Amir; Dalman, Azam; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Shahverdi, Abdol Hossein; Fakheri, Rahman; Vazirinasab, Hamed; Daneshzadeh, Mohammad Taghi; Vojgani, Mahdi; Zomorodipour, Alireza; Fatemi, Nayeralsadat; Vahabi, Zeinab; Mirshahvaladi, Shahab; Ataei, Fariba; Bahraminejad, Elmira; Masoudi, Najmehsadat; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Gourabi, Hamid



The Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the $^{2}\\vec{\\rm H}(\\vec{\\rm e},{\\rm e}'{\\rm n}){\\rm p}$ Reaction  

E-print Network

We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form factor ratio $G^{n}_{E}/G^{n}_{M}$ was extracted from the beam-target vector asymmetry $A_{ed}^{V}$ at four-momentum transfers $Q^{2}=0.14$, 0.20, 0.29 and 0.42 (GeV/c)$^{2}$.

E. Geis; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhoevel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. DeGrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; M. Kohl; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; A. Shinozaki; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; E. Six; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart



Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) based label-free aptasensor for platelet-derived growth factor-BB and its logic gate application.  


Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is often overexpressed in human malignant tumors as an indicator for tumor angiogenesis. Here by the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between DNA-Ag fluorescent nanoclusters (NCs) and G-quadruplex/hemin complexes, we present a sensitive label-free fluorescent sensor for PDGF-BB. In the presence of PDGF-BB, the specific conjugation with its aptamer induced the conformational change of the duplex-like DNA sequence, releasing the G-quadruplex sequence part. Then in the presence of hemin and K(+), the horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme (HRP-DNAzyme) was formed. With the electron transfer between the DNA-Ag NCs to the hemin Fe (III) center of HRP-DNAzyme, the PET occurred with a decrease in the fluorescence intensity of the DNA-Ag NCs. The detection performance such as selectivity, linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and the quenching capability of HRP-DNAzyme were estimated. The detection range for PDGF-BB is from 5×10(-13) to 1×10(-8) M and the detection limit is 1×10(-13) M. The experimental results confirmed that the novel fluorescent aptasensor possessed a good sensitivity and high selectivity for PDGF-BB. In addition, the developed probe is nontoxic, label-free only involving one-step hybridization without sophisticated fabrication process. Furthermore, based on this quenching mode occurred by PDGF-BB and hemin, using PDGF-BB and hemin as inputs and the fluorescence signal as an output, a logic gate has been fabricated. PMID:25150781

Wang, Guangfeng; Zhu, Yanhong; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Xiaojun



Transfer factors to Whitetail deer: comparison of stomach-content, plant-sample and soil-sample concentrations as the denominator.  


A recent study measured transfer factors for 49 elements in hunter-killed Whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), using concentrations in the stomach content as the substrate/denominator to compute muscle/vegetation concentration ratios (CR(m-stomach)) and daily fractional transfer factors (Ff). Using the stomach content ensured an accurate representation of what the deer ate, except that it was limited in time to the vegetation selected by the animal just before it was killed. Here, two alternatives are considered, one where the feed is represented by samples of 21 different vegetation types that deer may have eaten in the area (CR(m-plant)), and the other is using soil concentration in the region as the denominator (CR(m-soil)). The latter is the formulation used in the ERICA tool, and other sources, for risk assessment to non-human biota. Across elements, (log) concentrations in all the media were highly correlated. The stomach contents had consistently higher ash and rare earth element concentrations than the sampled (and washed) vegetation and this was attributed to soil or dust ingestion. This lends credence to the use of soil-based CRm-soil values, despite (or more accurately because of) the inclusive yet gross simplicity of the approach. However, it was clear that variation of CR(m-soil) values was larger than for CR(m-stomach) or CR(m-plant), even if soil load on vegetation was included in the latter values. It was also noted that the variation in CR(m-soil) computed from the product of CR(m-plant) and CR(plant-soil) (where CR(plant-soil) is the plant/soil concentration ratio) was somewhat larger than the variation inherent in CR(m-soil) data. Thus it is reasonable to estimate CR(m-soil) from CR(m-plant) and CR(plant-soil) if observed CR(m-soil) values are not available, but this introduces further uncertainty. PMID:23287432

Sheppard, S C



Nonlymphocyte-derived Tumor Necrosis Factor Is Required for Induction of Colitis in Recombination Activating Gene (RAG)2 2 \\/ 2 Mice upon Transfer of CD4 1 CD45RB hi T Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this study, we addressed the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- a and lymphotoxin (LT)- a in the development of colitis and defined the cellular sources (T cells versus non-T cells) of TNF (TNF- a and LT- a ) relevant to disease development. After adoptive transfer of TNF 1 \\/ 1 CD4 1 CD45RB hi splenocytes into TNF

Nadia Corazza; Susanne Eichenberger; Hans-Pietro Eugster; Christoph Mueller


Credit risk transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive summary Techniques for transferring credit risk, such as financial guarantees and credit insurance, have been a long-standing feature of financial markets. In the past few years, however, the range of credit risk transfer (CRT) instruments and the circumstances in which they are used have widened considerably. A number of factors have contributed to this growth, including: greater focus by



Circadian Regulation of Intestinal Lipid Absorption by Apolipoprotein AIV Involves Forkhead Transcription Factors A2 and O1 and Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein*  

PubMed Central

We have shown previously that Clock, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), and nocturnin are involved in the circadian regulation of intestinal lipid absorption. Here, we clarified the role of apolipoprotein AIV (apoAIV) in the diurnal regulation of plasma lipids and intestinal lipid absorption in mice. Plasma triglyceride in apoAIV?/? mice showed diurnal variations similar to apoAIV+/+ mice; however, the increases in plasma triglyceride at night were significantly lower in these mice. ApoAIV?/? mice absorbed fewer lipids at night and showed blunted response to daytime feeding. To explain reasons for these lower responses, we measured MTP expression; intestinal MTP was low at night, and its induction after food entrainment was less in apoAIV?/? mice. Conversely, apoAIV overexpression increased MTP mRNA in hepatoma cells, indicating transcriptional regulation. Mechanistic studies revealed that sequences between ?204/?775 bp in the MTP promoter respond to apoAIV and that apoAIV enhances expression of FoxA2 and FoxO1 transcription factors and their binding to the identified cis elements in the MTP promoter at night. Knockdown of FoxA2 and FoxO1 abolished apoAIV-mediated MTP induction. Similarly, knockdown of apoAIV in differentiated Caco-2 cells reduced MTP, FoxA2, and FoxO1 mRNA levels, cellular MTP activity, and media apoB. Moreover, FoxA2 and FoxO1 expression showed diurnal variations, and their expression was significantly lower in apoAIV?/? mice. These data indicate that apoAIV modulates diurnal changes in lipid absorption by regulating forkhead transcription factors and MTP and that inhibition of apoAIV expression might reduce plasma lipids. PMID:23729668

Pan, Xiaoyue; Munshi, Mohamed Khalid; Iqbal, Jahangir; Queiroz, Joyce; Sirwi, Alaa Ahmed; Shah, Shrenik; Younus, Abdullah; Hussain, M. Mahmood



Comparison of passively transferred antibodies in bighorn and domestic lambs reveals one factor in differential susceptibility of these species to Mannheimia haemolytica-induced pneumonia.  


Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes fatal bronchopneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin is the primary virulence factor of this organism. BHS are more susceptible to developing fatal pneumonia than the related species Ovis aries (domestic sheep [DS]). In BHS herds affected by pneumonia, lamb recruitment is severely impaired for years subsequent to an outbreak. We hypothesized that a lack of maternally derived antibodies (Abs) against M. haemolytica provides an immunologic basis for enhanced susceptibility of BH lambs to population-limiting pneumonia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the titers of Abs directed against M. haemolytica in the sera of BH and domestic lambs at birth through 12 weeks of age. Results revealed that BH lambs had approximately 18-fold lower titers of Ab against surface antigens of M. haemolytica and approximately 20-fold lower titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs than domestic lambs. The titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the serum and colostrum samples of BH ewes were approximately 157- and 50-fold lower than those for domestic ewes, respectively. Comparatively, the higher titers of parainfluenza 3 virus-neutralizing Abs in the BH lambs ruled out the possibility that these BHS had an impaired ability to passively transfer Abs to their lambs. These results suggest that lower levels of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the sera of BH ewes, and resultant low Ab titers in their lambs, may be a critical factor in the poor lamb recruitment in herds affected by pneumonia. PMID:21613459

Herndon, Caroline N; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Knowles, Donald P; Call, Douglas R; Srikumaran, Subramaniam



The structure of a ring-opened proliferating cell nuclear antigen-replication factor C complex revealed by fluorescence energy transfer  

PubMed Central

Numerous proteins that function in DNA metabolic pathways are known to interact with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The important function of PCNA in stimulating various cellular activities requires its topological linkage with DNA. Loading of the circular PCNA onto duplex DNA requires the activity of a clamp-loader [replication factor C (RFC)] complex and the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. The mechanistic and structural details regarding PCNA loading by the RFC complex are still developing. In particular, the positive identification of a long-hypothesized structure of an open clamp–RFC complex as an intermediate in loading has remained elusive. In this study, we capture an open yeast PCNA clamp in a complex with RFC through fluorescence energy transfer experiments. We also follow the topological transitions of PCNA in the various steps of the clamp-loading pathway through both steady-state and stopped-flow fluorescence studies. We find that ATP effectively drives the clamp-loading process to completion with the formation of the closed PCNA bound to DNA, whereas ATP?S cannot. The information derived from this work complements that obtained from previous structural and mechanistic studies and provides a more complete picture of a eukaryotic clamp-loading pathway using yeast as a paradigm. PMID:16476998

Zhuang, Zhihao; Yoder, Bonita L.; Burgers, Peter M. J.; Benkovic, Stephen J.



Monitoring the activation state of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and its interaction with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer.  


We have developed two bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based approaches to monitor 1) ligand-induced conformational changes within partially purified insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors (IGF1R) and 2) IGF1R interaction with a substrate-trapping mutant of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B-D181A) in living cells. In the first assay, human IGF1R fused to Renilla reniformis luciferase (Rluc) or yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) were cotransfected in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells. The chimeric receptors were then partially purified by wheat germ lectin chromatography, and BRET measurements were performed in vitro. In the second assay, BRET measurements were performed on living HEK-293 cells cotransfected with IGF1R-Rluc and YFP-PTP1B-D181A. Ligand-induced conformational changes within the IGF1R and interaction of the IGF1R with PTP1B could be detected as an energy transfer between Rluc and YFP. Dose-response experiments with IGF-1, IGF-2, and insulin demonstrated that the effects of these ligands on BRET correlate well with their known pharmacological properties toward the IGF1R. Inhibition of IGF1R autophosphorylation by the tyrphostin AG1024 (3-bromo-5-t-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzylidenemalonitrile) resulted in the inhibition of IGF1-induced BRET signal between the IGF1R and PTP1B. In addition, an anti-IGF1R antibody known to inhibit the biological effects of IGF-1 inhibited ligand-induced BRET signal within the IGF1R, as well as between IGF1R and PTP1B. This inhibition of BRET signal paralleled the inhibition of the ligand-induced autophosphorylation of the IGF1R by this antibody. In conclusion, these BRET-based assays permit 1) the rapid evaluation of the effects of agonists or inhibitory molecules on IGF1R activation and 2) the analysis of the regulation of IGF1R-PTP1B interaction in living cells. PMID:15976035

Blanquart, Christophe; Boute, Nicolas; Lacasa, Danièle; Issad, Tarik



Heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations for rectangular solar air heater duct having transverse wedge shaped rib roughness on the absorber plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

As is well known, the heat transfer coefficient of a solar air heater duct can be increased by providing artificial roughness on the heated wall (i.e. the absorber plate). Experiments were performed to collect heat transfer and friction data for forced convection flow of air in solar air heater rectangular duct with one broad wall roughened by wedge shaped transverse

J. L Bhagoria; J. S Saini; S. C Solanki



Prevention of Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis after Adenoviral Vector - Mediated Transfer of the Keratinocyte Growth Factor cDNA to Mouse Submandibular Glands  

PubMed Central

Purpose The study aims to evaluate if human keratinocyte growth factor (hKGF), secreted after transduction of murine salivary glands with adenoviral vectors, can prevent oral mucositis resulting from radiation. Experimental Design Two serotype 5 adenoviral vectors encoding hKGF were constructed: AdEF1?-hKGF and AdLTR2EF1?-hKGF. Female C3H mice, 8 weeks old, were irradiated by single (22.5 Gy) or fractionated (5 × 8 Gy for 5 days) doses to induce oral mucositis (ulcers on tongue). One day before irradiation, the above viral vectors or an empty vector, Adcontrol, was given (1010 particles per gland) to both submandibular glands by retrograde ductal instillation. Each experiment included five groups: no irradiation and irradiation (± Adcontrol, AdEF1?-hKGF, or AdLTR2EF1?-hKGF). Blood, saliva, submandibular glands, and tongue were collected on day 7 for single-dose studies orday10 for fractionated dosing. HKGF levels were measured by ELISA. Results In three separate single-dose irradiation experiments, lingual ulcers were dramatically reduced after either KGF-expressing vector. Similarly, in two separate fractionated irradiation experiments, the hKGF-expressing vectors completely prevented ulcer formation. QPCR data indicated that ~ 107 to 108 particles of each vector remained in the targeted submandibular glands at the terminal time. Transgenic hKGF protein was found at high levels in saliva, serum, and submandibular gland extracts. Conclusions hKGF gene transfer to salivary glands prevented radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that transgenic hKGF secreted from transduced salivary glands may be useful clinically to prevent oral mucositis caused by radiation. PMID:19584147

Zheng, Changyu; Cotrim, Ana P.; Sunshine, Abraham N.; Sugito, Takayuki; Liu, Lina; Sowers, Anastasia; Mitchell, James B.; Baum, Bruce J.



Theories supporting transfer of training  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews theories and conceptual frameworks necessary to describe three factors affecting transfer of training. This information helps HRD pro- fessionals understand why people wish to change their performance after attending a training program, what training design contributes to people's ability to transfer skills successfully, and what kind of organizational environment supports the transfer. This article also provides HRD

Siriporn Yamnill; Gary N. McLean



Influence of tube-entrance configuration on average heat-transfer coefficients and friction factors for air flowing in an Inconel tube  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heat-transfer investigation was conducted with air flowing through an electrically heated Inconel tube having either a long-approach or a right-angle-edge entrance, an inside diameter of 0.402 inch, and a length of 24 inches over a range of Reynolds numbers up to 375,000 and average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 2000 degrees R. Good correlation of heat-transfer data was obtained for both entrances, which substantiates work previously reported. A fair correlation of friction data was obtained for both entrances. The entrance configuration had little effect on the average heat-transfer and friction coefficients.

Lowdermilk, Warren H; Grele, Milton D



Vibrational mode and collision energy effects on reaction of H{sub 2}CO{sup +} with C{sub 2}H{sub 2}: Charge state competition and the role of Franck-Condon factors in endoergic charge transfer  

SciTech Connect

The effects of collision energy (E{sub col}) and six different H{sub 2}CO{sup +} vibrational states on the title reaction have been studied over the center-of-mass E{sub col} range from 0.1 to 2.6 eV, including measurements of product ion recoil velocity distributions. Ab initio and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations were used to examine the properties of complexes and transition states that might be important in mediating the reaction. Reaction is largely direct, despite the presence of multiple deep wells on the potential surface. Five product channels are observed, with a total reaction cross section at the collision limit. The competition among the major H{sub 2}{sup +} transfer, hydrogen transfer, and proton transfer channels is strongly affected by E{sub col} and H{sub 2}CO{sup +} vibrational excitation, providing insight into the factors that control competition and charge state 'unmixing' during product separation. One of the more interesting results is that endoergic charge transfer appears to be controlled by Franck-Condon factors, implying that it occurs at large inter-reactant separations, contrary to the expectation that endoergic reactions should require intimate collisions to drive the necessary energy conversion.

Liu Jianbo; Van Devener, Brian; Anderson, Scott L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)



Dynamic transfer 1 DYNAMIC TRANSFER  

E-print Network

Dynamic transfer 1 DYNAMIC TRANSFER: A PERSPECTIVE FROM PHYSICS EDUCATION RESEARCH Running head: Dynamic transfer N. Sanjay Rebello Physics Department, 116 Cardwell Hall, Kansas State University. Phone: (760) 768 5606 Fax: (785) 768 5631 Email: #12;Dynamic transfer 2 ABSTRACT We

Zollman, Dean


Adenovirus vector-mediated ex vivo gene transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to bone marrow stromal cells promotes axonal regeneration after transplantation in completely transected adult rat spinal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy in adult rat completely transected spinal cord of adenovirus vector-mediated\\u000a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ex vivo gene transfer to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). BMSC were infected with\\u000a adenovirus vectors carrying ?-galactosidase (AxCALacZ) or BDNF (AxCABDNF) genes. The T8 segment of spinal cord was removed\\u000a and replaced by graft containing

Masao Koda; Takahito Kamada; Masayuki Hashimoto; Masazumi Murakami; Hiroshi Shirasawa; Seiichiro Sakao; Hidetoshi Ino; Katsunori Yoshinaga; Shuhei Koshizuka; Hideshige Moriya; Masashi Yamazaki



Establishment of Cereal Endosperm Expression Domains: Identification and Properties of a Maize Transfer Cell-Specific Transcription Factor, ZmMRP-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In maize, cells at the base of the endosperm are transformed into transfer cells that facilitate nutrient uptake by the de- veloping seed. ZmMRP-1 is the first transfer cell-specific transcriptional activator to be identified. The protein it en- codes contains nuclear localization signals and a MYB-related DNA binding domain. A single gene copy is present in maize, mapping to a

Elisa Gómez; Joaquín Royo; Yan Guo; Richard Thompson; Gregorio Hueros


Alpha-tocopherol transfer factor (aTTF) from rat liver mediates the transfer of d-alpha-(/sup 3/H)-tocopherol from liposomes to human erythrocyte ghosts and exhibits saturation kinetics  

SciTech Connect

aTTF was observed to transfer d-alpha-(/sup 3/H)-tocopherol (/sup 3/HaT) from egg lecithin liposomes to human erythrocyte ghosts (EG). aTTF may be associated with the 32,000-35,000 MW alpha-Tocopherol Binding Protein previously described to transfer /sup 3/HaT from liposomes to rat liver microsomes and mitochondria prepared by ammonium sulfate precipitation of rat liver cytosol followed by dialysis against 50 mM TRIS-HCl/1 mM EDTA buffer, pH 7.4. Assay for aTTF activity consisted of incubating liposomal /sup 3/HaT and EG in the presence of aTTF or buffer blank for various time periods at 37/sup 0/C, then counting the resulting radioactivity in washed EG after pelleting by centrifugation. Liposomes were prelabeled-with non-exchangable glycerol-(/sup 14/C)-trioleate to correct for liposomes adhering to pelleted EG. Greater than 50% of the tritium found with the EG pellet was recovered by HPLC as /sup 3/HaT. aTTF activity increased with increasing liposomal /sup 3/HaT concentration before reaching a plateau. aTTF activity was similarly saturated by increasing EG concentrations. The same assay conditions with buffer blank along resulted in negligible transfer activity.

Verdon, C.P.; Blumberg, J.B.



The human element in technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transfer model composed of three roles and their linkages was considered. This model and a growing body of experience was analyzed to provide guidance in the human elements of technology transfer. For example, criteria for selection of technology transfer agents was described, and some needed working climate factors were known. These concepts were successfully applied to transfer activities.

Peake, H. J.



Technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for a successful technology transfer program and what such a program would look like are discussed. In particular, the issues associated with technology transfer in general, and within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) environment specifically are addressed. The section on background sets the stage, identifies the barriers to successful technology transfer, and suggests actions to address the barriers either generally or specifically. The section on technology transfer presents a process with its supporting management plan that is required to ensure a smooth transfer process. Viewgraphs are also included.

Handley, Thomas



Astrophysical S factor for the radiative capture (12)N(p,gamma)(13)O determined from the (14)N((12)N,(13)O)(13)C proton transfer reaction  

E-print Network

The cross section of the radiative proton capture reaction on the drip line nucleus (12)N was investigated using the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. We have used the (14)N((12)N,(13)O)(13)C proton transfer reaction at 12 Me...

Banu, A.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.; Zhai, Y.; Carstoiu, F.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.




EPA Science Inventory

The use of solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis has an advantage of carrying out reaction between two immiscible substrates, one in solid phase and the other in liquid phase, with high selectivity and at relatively low temperatures. In this study we investigated the synthesis ci...


Astrophysical S factor for the radiative capture {sup 12}N(p,{gamma}){sup 13}O determined from the {sup 14}N({sup 12}N,{sup 13}O){sup 13}C proton transfer reaction  

SciTech Connect

The cross section of the radiative proton capture reaction on the drip line nucleus {sup 12}N was investigated using the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. We have used the {sup 14}N({sup 12}N,{sup 13}O){sup 13}C proton transfer reaction at 12 MeV/nucleon to extract the ANC for {sup 13}O{yields}{sup 12}N+p and calculate from it the direct component of the astrophysical S factor of the {sup 12}N(p,{gamma}){sup 13}O reaction. The optical potentials used and the distorted-wave Born approximation analysis of the proton transfer reaction are discussed. For the entrance channel, the optical potential was inferred from an elastic scattering measurement carried out at the same time as the transfer measurement. From the transfer, we determined the square of the ANC, C{sub p{sub 1/2}}{sup 2}({sup 13}O{sub g.s.})=2.53{+-}0.30 fm{sup -1}, and hence a value of 0.33(4) keV b was obtained for the direct astrophysical S factor at zero energy. Constructive interference at low energies between the direct and resonant captures leads to an enhancement of S{sub total}(0)=0.42(6) keV b. The {sup 12}N(p,{gamma}){sup 13}O reaction was investigated in relation to the evolution of hydrogen-rich massive Population III stars, for the role that it may play in the hot pp-chain nuclear burning processes, possibly occurring in such objects.

Banu, A.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, C. A.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Zhai, Y.; Carstoiu, F.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering 'Horia Hulubei', R-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, CZ-250 68 Prague-Rez (Czech Republic)



Nitrogen supply as a factor influencing photoinhibition and photosynthetic acclimation after transfer of shade-grown Solanum dulcamara to bright light  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared the ability of shadegrown clones of Solamum dulcamara L. from shade and sun habitats to acclimate to bright light, as a function of nitrogen nutrition before and after transfer to bright light. Leaves of S. dulcamara grown in the shade with 0.6 mM NO3-have similar photosynthetic properties as leaves of plants grown with 12.0 mM NO3-. When

P. J. Ferrar; C. B. Osmond



Elevated HDL Cholesterol Is a Risk Factor for Ischemic Heart Disease in White Women When Caused by a Common Mutation in the Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The level of HDL cholesterol is inversely related to the risk of ischemic heart disease. Methods and Results—In 9168 women and men from a general population and 946 women and men with ischemic heart disease (all white), we tested the hypothesis that the Ile405Val mutation in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene (CETP) affects HDL cholesterol levels and the risk

Birgit Agerholm-Larsen; Børge G. Nordestgaard; Rolf Steffensen; Gorm Jensen; Anne Tybjærg-Hansen



Prevalence and factors associated with false positive suspicion of acute aortic syndrome: experience in a patient population transferred to a specialized aortic treatment center  

PubMed Central

Study objective Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment at specialized centers. We sought to determine the frequency and etiology of false positive activation of a regional AAS network in a patient population emergently transferred for suspected AAS. Methods We evaluated 150 consecutive patients transferred from community emergency departments directly to our Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU) with a diagnosis of suspected AAS between March, 2010 and August, 2011. A final diagnosis of confirmed acute Type A, acute Type B dissection, and false positive suspicion of dissection was made in 63 (42%), 70 (46.7%) and 17 (11.3%) patients respectively. Results Of the 17 false positive transfers, ten (58.8%) were suspected Type A dissection and seven (41.2%) were suspected Type B dissection. The initial hospital diagnosis in 15 (88.2%) patients was made by a computed tomography (CT) scan and 10 (66.6%) of these patients required repeat imaging with an ECG-synchronized CT to definitively rule out AAS. Five (29.4%) patients had prior history of open or endovascular aortic repair. Overall in-hospital mortality was 9.3%. Conclusions The diagnosis of AAS is confirmed in most patients emergently transferred for suspected AAS. False positive activation in this setting is driven primarily by uncertainty secondary to motion-artifact of the ascending aorta and the presence of complex anatomy following prior aortic intervention. Network-wide standardization of imaging strategies, and improved sharing of imaging may further improve triage of this complex patient population. PMID:24400203

Raymond, Chad E.; Aggarwal, Bhuvnesh; Schoenhagen, Paul; Kralovic, Damon M.; Kormos, Kristopher; Holloway, David



Measurement of the electric form factor of the neutron at low momentum transfers using a vector polarized deuterium gas target at BLAST  

E-print Network

Elastic form factors are fundamental quantities that characterize the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon. High precision measurements of these quantities are essential in understanding the structure of hadronic matter. ...

Ziskin, Vitaliy



Technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: international comparison of R&D expenditures in 1989; NASA Technology Transfer Program; NASA Technology Utilization Program thrusts for FY 1992 and FY 1993; National Technology Transfer Network; and NTTC roles.

Penaranda, Frank E.



Adenovirus-mediated transfer of siRNA against basic fibroblast growth factor mRNA enhances the sensitivity of glioblastoma cells to chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is an important growth factor for glioma cell proliferation and invasion. BFGF is overexpressed\\u000a in malignant gliomas and its level is associated with malignant grades and clinical outcome of patients with gliomas. Small\\u000a interfering RNAs (siRNA) are synthetic forms of microRNA made of short double stranded RNA, and they effectively catalyze\\u000a the degradation of their

Xuequan Feng; Biao Zhang; Jinhuan Wang; Xinnv Xu; Na Lin; Hongsheng Liu



Optimality and Conductivity for Water Flow: From Landscapes, to Unsaturated Soils, to Plant Leaves  

SciTech Connect

Optimality principles have been widely used in many areas. Based on an optimality principle that any flow field will tend toward a minimum in the energy dissipation rate, this work shows that there exists a unified form of conductivity relationship for three different flow systems: landscapes, unsaturated soils and plant leaves. The conductivity, the ratio of water flux to energy gradient, is a power function of water flux although the power value is system dependent. This relationship indicates that to minimize energy dissipation rate for a whole system, water flow has a small resistance (or a large conductivity) at a location of large water flux. Empirical evidence supports validity of the relationship for landscape and unsaturated soils (under gravity dominated conditions). Numerical simulation results also show that the relationship can capture the key features of hydraulic structure for a plant leaf, although more studies are needed to further confirm its validity. Especially, it is of interest that according to this relationship, hydraulic conductivity for gravity-dominated unsaturated flow, unlike that defined in the classic theories, depends on not only capillary pressure (or saturation), but also the water flux. Use of the optimality principle allows for determining useful results that are applicable to a broad range of areas involving highly non-linear processes and may not be possible to obtain from classic theories describing water flow processes.

Liu, H.H.



Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid in a circular pipe under laminar flow with wire coil inserts  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, fully developed laminar flow convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated horizontal tube with and without wire coil inserts is presented. For this purpose, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of 43 nm size were synthesized, characterized and dispersed in distilled water to form stable suspension containing 0.1% volume concentration of nanoparticles. The Nusselt number in the fully developed region were measured and found to increase by 12.24% at Re = 2275 for plain tube with nanofluid compared to distilled water. Two wire coil inserts made of stainless steel with pitch ratios 2 and 3 were used which increased the Nusselt numbers by 15.91% and 21.53% respectively at Re = 2275 with nanofluid compared to distilled water. The better heat transfer performance of nanofluid with wire coil insert is attributed to the effects of dispersion or back-mixing which flattens the temperature distribution and make the temperature gradient between the fluid and wall steeper. The measured pressure loss with the use of nanofluids is almost equal to that of the distilled water. The empirical correlations developed for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of Reynolds/Peclet number, pitch ratio and volume concentration fits with the experimental data within {+-}15%. (author)

Chandrasekar, M.; Suresh, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India); Chandra Bose, A. [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India)



Bioaccumulation and food-chain analysis for evaluating ecological risks in terrestrial and wetland habitats: Availability-transfer factors (ATFs) in soil {r_arrow} soil macroinvertebrate {r_arrow} amphibian food chains  

SciTech Connect

As part of the ecological risk assessment process for terrestrial and wetland habitats, the evaluation of bioaccumulative chemicals of concern (BCCs) is frequently pursued through food-chain analysis with a subsequent comparison of daily doses to benchmark toxicity reference values, when available. Food-chain analysis has frequently been applied to the analysis of exposure to BCCs identified as chemicals of potential ecological concern (COPECs) in the ecological risk assessment process. Here, designed studies focused on wetland food-chains such as hydric soil {r_arrow} soil macroinvertebrate {r_arrow} amphibian and terrestrial food-chains such as soil {r_arrow} plant {r_arrow} small mammal illustrate an approach for the derivation and validation of trophic transfer factors for metals considered as COPECs such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc. The results clearly indicate that the transfer of chemicals between trophic levels is critical in the bioaccumulation process in wetland and terrestrial food-chains and is influenced by numerous interacting abiotic and biotic factors, including physicochemical properties of soil, and the role, if any, that the metal has in the receptor as a required trace element.

Linder, G. [HeronWorks Farm, Brooks, OR (United States); Bollman, M. [Dynamac International, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Callahan, C. [EPA, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gillette, C. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept.of Microbiology; Nebeker, A. [EPA, Corvallis, OR (United States). Environmental Research Lab.; Wilborn, D. [Takena Ecological Services, Corvallis, OR (United States)



DOI: 10.1126/science.1223304 , 1087 (2012);337Science  

E-print Network

terrestrial ecosystem C dy- namics by stimulating decomposition of soil organic C in AMF-active zones. This effect will likely occur in its interplay with other controlling factors such as temperature and plant a transient C sink in plant biomass by facilitating N transfer from soil to plants and partially alleviating N

Mahadevan, L.


Exploring Differential Effects of Supervisor Support on Transfer of Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide further insight into the relationship between supervisor support and transfer of training, by taking into account the effects of other transfer-influencing factors in a systemic approach of the transfer process. Design/methodology/approach: A review of studies on factors affecting transfer of…

Nijman, Derk-Jan J. M.; Nijhof, Wim J.; Wognum, A. A. M.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.



"Transfer Shock" or "Transfer Ecstasy?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The alleged characteristic drop in grade point average (GPA) of transfer students and the subsequent rise in GPA was investigated in this study. No statistically significant difference was found in first term junior year GPA between junior college transfers and native Florida State University students after the variance accounted for by the…

Nickens, John M.


Factors affecting the concentration in seven-spotted ladybirds (Coccinella septempunctata L.) of Cd and Zn transferred through the food chain.  


The transfer of Cd and Zn from soils amended with sewage sludge was followed through a food chain consisting of wheat, aphids and the predator Coccinella septempunctata. Multiple regression models were generated to predict the concentrations of Cd and Zn in C. septempunctata. No significant model could be generated for Cd, indicting that the concentration of this metal was maintained within relatively narrow limits. A model predicting 64% of the variability in the Zn concentration of C. septempunctata was generated from of the concentration of Zn in the diet, time and rate of Zn consumption. The results suggest that decreasing the rate of food consumption is an effective mechanism to prevent the accumulation of Zn and that the availability of Zn in the aphid prey increased with the concentration in the aphids. The results emphasise the importance of using ecologically relevant food chains and exposure pathways during ecotoxicological studies. PMID:19683847

Green, I D; Diaz, A; Tibbett, M



Nitrogen supply as a factor influencing photoinhibition and photosynthetic acclimation after transfer of shade-grown Solanum dulcamara to bright light.  


We have compared the ability of shadegrown clones of Solamum dulcamara L. from shade and sun habitats to acclimate to bright light, as a function of nitrogen nutrition before and after transfer to bright light. Leaves of S. dulcamara grown in the shade with 0.6 mM NO 3 (-) have similar photosynthetic properties as leaves of plants grown with 12.0 mM NO 3 (-) . When transferred to bright light for 1-2 d the leaves of these plants show substantial photoinhibition which is characterized by about 50% decrease in apparent quantum yield and a reduction in the rate of photosynthesis in air at light saturation. Photoinhibition of leaf photosynthesis is associated with reduction in the variable component of low-temperature fluorescence emission, and with loss of in-vitro electron transport, especially of photosystem II-dependent processes.We find no evidence for ecotypic differentiation in the potential for photosynthetic acclimation among shade and sun clones of S. dulcamara, or of differentiation with respect to nitrogen requirements for acclimation. Recovery from photoinhibition and subsequent acclimation of photosynthesis to bright light only occurs in leaves of plants provided with 12.0 mM NO 3 (-) . In these, apparent quantum yield is fully restored after 14 d, and photosynthetic acclimation is shown by an increase in light-saturated photosynthesis in air, of light-and CO2-saturated photosynthesis, and of the initial slope of the CO2-response curve. The latter changes are highly correlated with changes in ribulose-bisphosphate-carboxylase activity in vitro. Plants supplied with 0.6 mM NO 3 (-) show incomplete recovery of apparent quantum yield after 14 d, but CO2-dependent leaf photosynthetic parameters return to control levels. PMID:24232334

Ferrar, P J; Osmond, C B



Particle-mediated gene transfer with transforming growth factor-beta1 cDNAs enhances wound repair in rat skin.  

PubMed Central

Based on preliminary but variable results with direct DNA transfer into wounds, we evaluated in vivo gene transfer by particle-mediated DNA delivery to rat skin to determine whether overexpression of TGF-beta1 at the site of skin incisions would result in a significant improvement in repair. Optimization of the method with viral promoter-luciferase reporter constructs indicated that expression of luciferase activity persisted up to 5 d and was promoter, pressure, and site dependent (ventral > dorsal). Using cytomegalovirus (CMV)-driven human alpha1-antitrypsin, transgene expression was immunolocalized within keratinocytes of the stratum granulosum at 24 h. We measured tensile strength of skin incisions at 11-21 d in both normal and diabetic rats transfected with TGF-beta1 expression vectors at surgery. Native murine TGF-beta1 under an SV40 promoter produced positive effects, while wound strengthening was more pronounced in diabetic animals using a CMV-driven construct. Transfection of rat skin with constitutively active, mutant porcine TGF-beta1 under the control of the CMV and Moloney murine leukemia virus promoters significantly increased tensile strength up to 80% for 14-21 d after surgery. Transfection 24 h before surgery was more effective. Particle-mediated gene delivery can be used to deliver viral promoter-cytokine expression constructs into rat skin in a safe, efficient, and reproducible fashion. The extent of wound repair, as evidenced by enhanced tensile strength, can be markedly improved in tissues transfected with TGF-beta1 expression constructs. PMID:8981938

Benn, S I; Whitsitt, J S; Broadley, K N; Nanney, L B; Perkins, D; He, L; Patel, M; Morgan, J R; Swain, W F; Davidson, J M



Effects of Pax8 and TTF-1 Thyroid Transcription Factor Gene Transfer in Hepatoma Cells: Imaging of Functional Protein-Protein Interaction and Iodide Uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thyroid transcription factors TTF-1 and Pax8 cooperate in the transcriptional activation of thyroid-specific genes such as thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroperoxidase (TPO), and sodium\\/ iodide symporter (NIS). Methods: Dog TTF-1 (dTTF-1) and the human Pax8 (hPax8) gene were transfected in Morris hepatoma (MH3924A) cells to investigate (a) the possible visualization of functional protein-protein interaction and (b) the induction of thyroid-specific gene

Annette Altmann; Ralf B. Schulz; Gabriela Glensch; Helmut Eskerski; Sabine Zitzmann; Michael Eisenhut; Uwe Haberkorn


Geo energy research and development: technology transfer  

SciTech Connect

Sandia Geo Energy Programs related to geothermal, coal, oil and gas, and synfuel resources have provided a useful mechanism for transferring laboratory technologies to private industry. Significant transfer of hardware, computer programs, diagnostics and instrumentation, advanced materials, and in situ process understanding has occurred through US/DOE supported programs in the past five years. The text briefly reviews the technology transfer procedures and summarizes 32 items that have been transferred and another 20 technologies that are now being considered for possible transfer to industry. A major factor in successful transfer has been personal interactions between Sandia engineers and the technical staff from private industry during all aspects of the technology development.

Traeger, R.K.



Mass transfer andMass transfer and Mass transfer andMass transfer and  

E-print Network

eknik Mass transfer andMass transfer and arationste Mass transfer andMass transfer and separation / mass transfer analogy7. Heat / mass transfer analogy Massöve Ron Zevenhoven �bo Akademi Universityy.1 Heat / mass transfer analogy7.1 Heat / mass transfer analogy 4 erföringo gygy Massöve RoNzfebruari 2012

Zevenhoven, Ron


Impaired neoangiogenesis in ?2-adrenoceptor gene-deficient mice: restoration by intravascular human ?2-adrenoceptor gene transfer and role of NF?B and CREB transcription factors  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There is much evidence supporting the role of ?2-adrenoceptors (?2AR) in angiogenesis but the mechanisms underlying their effects have not been elucidated. Hence, we studied post-ischaemic angiogenesis in the hindlimb (HL) of ?2AR knock-out mice (?2AR?/?) in vivo and explored possible molecular mechanisms in vitro. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Femoral artery resection (FAR) was performed in wild-type and ?2AR?/? mice and adaptive responses to chronic HL ischaemia were explored; blood flow was measured by ultrasound and perfusion of dyed beads, bone rarefaction, muscle fibrosis and skin thickness were evaluated by immunoflourescence and morphometric analysis. Intrafemoral delivery of an adenovirus encoding the human ?2AR (AD?2AR) was used to reinstate ?2ARs in ?2AR?/? mice. Molecular mechanisms were investigated in mouse-derived aortic endothelial cells (EC) in vitro, focusing on NF?B activation and transcriptional activity. RESULTS Angiogenesis was severely impaired in ?2AR?/? mice subjected to FAR, but was restored by gene therapy with AD?2AR. The proangiogenic responses to a variety of stimuli were impaired in ?2AR?/? EC in vitro. Moreover, removal of ?2ARs impaired the activation of NF?B, a transcription factor that promotes angiogenesis; neither isoprenaline (stimulates ?ARs) nor TNF? induced NF?B activation in ?2AR?/? EC. Interestingly, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor that counter regulates NF?B, was constitutively increased in ?2AR?/? ECs. AD?2AR administration restored ?2AR membrane density, reduced CREB activity and reinstated the NF?B response to isoprenaline and TNF?. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results suggest that ?2ARs control angiogenesis through the tight regulation of nuclear transcriptional activity. PMID:20958287

Ciccarelli, Michele; Sorriento, Daniela; Cipolletta, Ersilia; Santulli, Gaetano; Fusco, Anna; Zhou, Rui-Hai; Eckhart, Andrea D; Peppel, Karsten; Koch, Walter J; Trimarco, Bruno; Iaccarino, Guido



[Technology Transfer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some authorities on technolgoy transfer feel that industry is not fully capitalizing on the inventive output of universities and nonprofit organizations. From the point of view of the government, the stakes are high. The magnitude of federal support of research and development in these organizations demands evidence of useful results if it is to…

Latker, Norman J.


Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor in critical limb ischemia: safety results from a phase I trial.  


Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is typified by rest pain and/or tissue necrosis secondary to advanced peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is characterized by diminution in limb perfusion at rest. We tested the safety of an angiogenic strategy with CI-1023 (Ad(GV)VEGF121.10), a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding human vascular endothelial growth factor isoform 121 in patients with CLI as part of a phase I trial. Fifteen subjects >35 years of age with CLI and angiographic disease involving the infra-inguinal vessels underwent intramuscular injection of CI-1023 (4 x 10(8) to 4 x 10(10) particle units, n = 13) or placebo (n = 2). All of the patients tolerated the injection well and there were no serious complications related to the procedure. Transient edema was noted in one patient. A total of 79 adverse events were reported over the course of one year. One death (day 136) and one malignancy (day 332) occurred in the CI-1023 group. CI-1023 appears to be well tolerated and safe for single-dose administration in patients with critical limb ischemia due to PAD. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of this form of therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:12866606

Mohler, Emile R; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Olin, Jeffrey W; Trachtenberg, Jeffrey D; Rasmussen, Henrik; Pak, Raphael; Crystal, Ronald G



Investigations of Spectroscopic Factors and Sum Rules from the Single Neutron Transfer Reaction 111Cd(overrightarrow {{d}} ,p)112Cd  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium isotopes have been presented for decades as excellent examples of vibrational nuclei, with low-lying levels interpreted as multi-phonon quadrupole, octupole, and mixed-symmetry states. A large amount of spectroscopic data has been obtained through various experimental studies of cadmiumisotopes. In the present work, the 111Cd(overrightarrow {{d}} ,p)112Cd reaction was used to investigate the single-particle structure of the 112Cd nucleus. A 22 MeV beam of polarized deuterons was obtained at the Maier-Leibnitz laboratory in Garching, Germany. The reaction ejectiles were momentum analyzed using a Q3D spectrograph, and 130 levels have been identified up to 4.2 MeV of excitation energy. Using DWBA analysis with optical model calculations, spin-parity assignments have been made for observed levels, and spectroscopic factors have been extracted from the experimental angular distributions of differential cross section and analyzing power. In this high energy resolution investigation, many additional levels have been observed compared with the previous (d,p) study using 8 MeV deuterons [1]. There were a total of 44 new levels observed, and the parity assignments of 34 levels were improved.

Jamieson, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Krücken, R.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.



Pretreatment of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene Transfer Mediated by Octaarginine Peptide-Modified Nanoparticles Ameliorates LPS/D-Galactosamine-Induced Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that an octaarginine- and pH-sensitive fusogenic peptide-modified multifunctional envelope-type nano device (R8-GALA-MEND) produces a high level of gene expression in the liver. In this study, we report on an examination of whether this gene delivery system exerts potent hepatoprotective effects against lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced acute liver injury. In vivo-jetPEI™-Gal, a commercially available in vivo transfection reagent, was used as a reference. The systemic administration of the R8-GALA-MEND or in vivo-jetPEI™-Gal showed that the latter was more toxic than the R8-GALA-MEND, indicating that R8-GALA-MEND is a safer system than in vivo-jetPEI™-Gal. Pretreatment with R8-GALA-MEND or in vivo-jetPEI™-Gal loaded with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) pDNA inhibited serum GPT and GOT levels from becoming elevated. However, the survival rate of the mice was significantly enhanced in the case of R8-GALA-MEND, but not for the in vivo-jetPEI™-Gal treatment. These results demonstrate that R8-GALA-MEND has the potential for use in the pretreatment of an acute liver injury. PMID:22963044

Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Mizuno, Ryoichi; Ikramy, Khalil A.; Akita, Hidetaka



Effects of recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated CD151 gene transfer on the expression of rat vascular endothelial growth factor in ischemic myocardium  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to observe the effects of cluster of differentiation (CD) 151 on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ischemic myocardium by the injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector carrying the human CD151 gene. A rat acute myocardial infarction model was established, and rAAV-CD151 was injected into the ischemic myocardium. Four weeks later, the ischemic myocardium was removed in order to detect the expression of exogenous CD151 mRNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the expression of CD151 and VEGF was detected by western blot analysis to evaluate the effect of CD151 overexpression on VEGF expression. Four weeks after injection of the vector, exogenous CD151 mRNA was expressed in the myocardial tissues of the CD151 group, whereas it was not detected in sham surgery, model control or rAAV-green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene-treated groups. The expression levels of CD151 protein were significantly higher in the CD151 group compared with those in the other three groups (P<0.05). The VEGF expression level in the CD151 group was higher compared with those in the control and GFP groups (P>0.05). These results indicate that rAAV-CD151 effectively transfects rat myocardial tissues, and may promote angiogenesis of the ischemic myocardium, improve left ventricular function and increase VEGF expression to improve ventricular function.




Distal realignment (tibial tuberosity transfer).  


Although tibial tuberosity (TT) transfer has for many years been the basis of many protocols for the management of patellar instability, the role of pure medial transfer in particular appears to be declining. In contrast, the greater recognition of the importance of patella alta as a predisposing factor to recurrent patellar dislocation has resulted in a resurgence in the popularity of distal TT transfer. When TT transfer is performed, the direction and amount of transfer is based on the patellar height and the lateralization of the TT relative to the trochlear groove. Patellar height is best assessed on a lateral radiograph with the knee in flexion using a ratio that uses the articular surface of the patella in relation to the height above the tibia. Assessment of lateralization of the TT relative to the trochlear groove can be made using either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans. PMID:22878656

Feller, Julian Ashley



Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

intellectual property rights in the animal(s), the Government retains these rights. Additionally, to the extent in the animal(s), these rights are not transferred to the recipient. · Provider is transferring the animal(sAnimal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been

Bandettini, Peter A.


Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio From Elastic e + p -> e + p Scattering at Momentum Transfer Q^2 = 2.5, 5.2, 6.7 and 8.5 (GeV/c)^2  

SciTech Connect

Among the fundamental observables of nucleon structure, electromagnetic form factors are a crucial benchmark for modern calculations describing the strong interaction dyna mics of the nucleon's quark constituents. Electromagnetic probes are traditionally preferered to the hadronic beams. The electromagnetic interaction is a powerful tool for investigating the nucleon structure since it is well understood and it reveals observables that can be directly interpreted in terms of the current carried by the quarks. Elastic scattering leads to the form factors that describe the spatial charge a nd current distributions inside the nucleon. The reaction mechanism is assumed to be one photon exchange, the electromagnetic interaction is exactly calculable in QED, and one can safely extract the information on the hadronic vertex. The most important feature of early measurements of proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} with recoil polarization technique at Q{sup 2} up to 5.6 (GeV/c){sup 2} is the sharp decline of the ratio with Q{sup 2} increases, indicating that G{sub E}{sup p} falls much faster than G{sub M}{sup p}. This contradicts to data obtained by Rosenbluth separation method. An intriguing question was whether G{sub E}{sup p} will continue to decrease or become constant when Q{sup 2} increases. New set of measurements of proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} at Q{sup 2} = 2.5, 5.2, 6.7 and 8.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} have been conducted at JLab Hall C using {approx}85% longitudinally polarized electron elastic scattering from unpolarized hydrogen target. Recoil protons were detected in the HMS magnetic spectrometer with the standard detector package, combined with newly installed trigger scintillators and Focal Plane Polarimeter. The BigCal electromagnetic calorimeter (1744 channel) have been used for electron detection. Data obtained in this experiment show that G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} ratio continued to drop with Q{sup 2} and may cross 'zero' at Q{sup 2} > 10-15 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Intensive theoretical and experimental efforts over the past decade have aimed at explaining the discrepancy between data for the proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} obtained from cross section and polarization measurements. It was assumed that the two photon exchange contribution might be responsible for difference of G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} ratio obtained by Rosenbluth separation method and recoil polarization technique. The kinematical dependence of polarization transfer observables in elastic electron-proton scattering at Q{sup 2} = 2.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} have been used in search of effects of 2{gamma} contribution. For a wide range of values of the virtual photon polarization {epsilon} ({epsilon} = 0.15, 0.63, and 0.77), the proton form factor ratio and longitudinal polarization transfer component were measured with statistical uncertainties of {+-}0.01 and {+-}0.005, respectively. Our data provide significant constraints on models of nucleon structure.

Arthur Mkrtchyan



A promising strategy for the treatment of ischemic heart disease: Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor gene transfer in rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains a worldwide problem. Gene therapy, and recently, cell transplantation, have made desirable progress. A combination of appropriate stem cells and angiogenic genes appears promising in treating IHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the results of angiogenesis and myogenesis induced by transplantation of the adenovirus carrying human vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (Ad-hVEGF165)-transfected mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in IHD compared with direct MSC transplantation or Ad-hVEGF165 delivery. METHODS: Cultured MSCs were transfected by Ad-hVEGF165, and secreted VEGF was measured by ELISA in vitro. Ad-hVEGF165-transfected MSCs (MSC/VEGF group), MSCs (MSC group), Ad-hVEGF165 (VEGF group) or a serum-free medium (control group) was injected into syngeneic Wistar rats immediately after left coronary artery occlusion. All cells were marked with CM-DiI (Molecular Probes, USA) before transplantation. One week after treatment, messenger RNA expression of hVEGF165 in the MSC/VEGF group was found to be significantly higher than in other groups by reverse tran-scriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. One month after cell transplantation, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, capillary density of the infarcted region, infarct size and hemodynamic parameters (including LV end-diastolic pressure, LV+dP/dt and LV–dP/dt) were measured and immunohistochemical analysis was performed. RESULTS: A high level of VEGF was expressed by Ad-hVEGF165-transfected MSCs. LV ejection fraction, mean capillary density of the infarcted region and hemodynamic parameters were significantly improved in the MSC/VEGF group compared with the MSC group, the VEGF group and the control group (P<0.001 for all). Partly transplanted MSCs showed the cardiomyocyte phenotype, expressed desmin and cardiac troponin T, and resulted in angiogenesis in the ischemic myocardium. However, a few transplanted MSCs incorporated into the vascular structure and most of the new vascular components were host-derived. CONCLUSIONS: The combined strategy of MSC transplantation and VEGF gene therapy can produce effective myogenesis and host-derived angiogenesis, resulting in the prevention of progressive heart dysfunction after myocardial infarction. PMID:17876381

Gao, Feng; He, Tao; Wang, HongBing; Yu, ShiQiang; Yi, DingHua; Liu, WeiYong; Cai, ZhenJie



Adenoviral-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer has a protective effect on sciatic nerve following constriction-induced spinal cord injury.  


Neuropathic pain due to peripheral nerve injury may be associated with abnormal central nerve activity. Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) can help attenuate neuropathic pain in different animal models of nerve injury. However, whether GDNF can ameliorate neuropathic pain in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) in constriction-induced peripheral nerve injury remains unknown. We investigated the therapeutic effects of adenoviral-mediated GDNF on neuropathic pain behaviors, microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and programmed cell death in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) nerve injury animal model. In this study, neuropathic pain was produced by CCI on the ipsilateral SCDH. Mechanical allodynia was examined with von Frey filaments and thermal sensitivity was tested using a plantar test apparatus post-operatively. Target proteins GDNF-1, GDNFRa-1, MMP2, MMP9, p38, phospho-p38, ED1, IL6, IL1?, AIF, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, PARP, cleaved PARP, SPECTRIN, cleaved SPECTRIN, Beclin-1, PKC?, PKC?, iNOS, eNOS and nNOS were detected. Microglial activity was measured by observing changes in immunoreactivity with OX-42. NeuN and TUNEL staining were used to reveal whether apoptosis was attenuated by GDNF. Results showed that administrating GDNF began to attenuate both allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7. CCI-rats were found to have lower GDNF and GDNFRa-1 expression compared to controls, and GDNF re-activated their expression. Also, GDNF significantly down-regulated CCI-induced protein expression except for MMP2, eNOS and nNOS, indicating that the protective action of GDNF might be associated with anti-inflammation and prohibition of microglia activation. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that GDNF reduced CCI-induced neuronal apoptosis. In sum, GDNF enhanced the neurotrophic effect by inhibiting microglia activation and cytokine production via p38 and PKC signaling. GDNF could be a good therapeutic tool to attenuate programmed cell death, including apoptosis and autophagy, consequent to CCI-induced peripheral nerve injury. PMID:24642655

Chou, An-Kuo; Yang, Ming-Chang; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tai, Ming-Hong; Kwan, Aij-Li; Hong, Yi-Ren



Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry activity students explore how heat transfers from one substance to another This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2006 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit

Ms. Leslie Van (Montgomery Blair High School)



Transfer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer cells are a specialized cell type that can be found in many exchange surfaces in plants,\\u000a including branching points, hydathodes, or phloem loading and unloading areas. The developing seeds are\\u000a strong sinks with no symplastic connection with the mother plant, as they are distinct individuals. Consequently,\\u000a during the grain filling phase seed storage organs must develop specialized structures to facilitate

J. Royo; E. Gómez; G. Hueros


Soil-plant-animal transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines: a case study from Portugal.  


Food chain models are essential tools to assess risks of soil contamination in view of product quality including fodder crops and animal products. Here we link soil to plant transfer (SPT) models for potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, U and Zn with models describing accumulation in animal organs. Current EU standards for food products and acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) for humans were used as critical limits. The combined model is used to assess the impact of soil contamination on animal health, product quality and human health using data from 100 arable fields. Results indicate that 42 existing arable fields near industrial and mining sites are unsuitable for animal grazing in view of food safety due to elevated intake of Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb by cows and sheep. At 10 sites daily intake levels of As by cows exceeded threshold concentrations regarding the quality of animal products. The food chain model also was used inversely to derive soil threshold concentrations in view of EU fodder standards. Calculated threshold levels in soil for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn appear to be in line with those proposed or used in other EU countries. As such the approach applied here can form a conceptual basis for a more harmonized risk assessment strategy regarding the protection of animal and human health. PMID:22208740

Rodrigues, S M; Pereira, M E; Duarte, A C; Römkens, P F A M



Nonadiabatic anharmonic electron transfer  

SciTech Connect

The effect of an inner sphere, local mode vibration on an electron transfer is modeled using the nonadiabatic transition probability (rate) expression together with both the anharmonic Morse and the harmonic oscillator potential. For an anharmonic inner sphere mode, a variational analysis uses harmonic oscillator basis functions to overcome the difficulties evaluating Morse-model Franck-Condon overlap factors. Individual matrix elements are computed with the use of new, fast, robust, and flexible recurrence relations. The analysis therefore readily addresses changes in frequency and/or displacement of oscillator minimums in the different electron transfer states. Direct summation of the individual Boltzmann weighted Franck-Condon contributions avoids the limitations inherent in the use of the familiar high-temperature, Gaussian form of the rate constant. The effect of harmonic versus anharmonic inner sphere modes on the electron transfer is readily seen, especially in the exoergic, inverted region. The behavior of the transition probability can also be displayed as a surface for all temperatures and values of the driving force/exoergicity {Delta}=-{Delta}G. The temperature insensitivity of the transfer rate is clearly seen when the exoergicity equals the collective reorganization energy ({Delta}={Lambda}{sub s}) along a maximum ln (w) vs. {Delta} ridge of the surface. The surface also reveals additional regions for {Delta} where ln (w) appears to be insensitive to temperature, or effectively activationless, for some kinds of inner sphere contributions.

Schmidt, P. P. [Molecular Physics Research, 6547 Kristina Ursula Court, Falls Church, Virginia 22044 (United States)



Pleural thickening and gas transfer in asbestosis.  

PubMed Central

Anomalies in the ratio of transfer factor to effective alveolar volume as an indicator of pulmonary gas exchange in cases of asbestosis may be related to diffuse pleural thickening. To examine the effect of pleural disease on gas transfer the plain chest radiographs of patients with asbestosis were assessed by two observers for profusion of parenchymal opacities and extent of pleural disease and the results were related to lung function. In 30 cases of category 1 profusion of parenchymal abnormality (according to the ILO international classification of radiographs for pneumoconiosis) transfer factor was independent of the degree of pleural thickening. The ratio of transfer factor to effective alveolar volume correlated directly with the degree of pleural thickening as alveolar volume fell with increasing severity of pleural disease. The results indicate that correcting transfer factor for alveolar volume does not provide an accurate reflection of severity of diffuse parenchymal fibrosis in patients with asbestosis and even minor pleural disease. PMID:6623418

Cookson, W O; Musk, A W; Glancy, J J



The transfer of analytical procedures.  


Analytical method transfers are certainly among the most discussed topics in the GMP regulated sector. However, they are surprisingly little regulated in detail. General information is provided by USP, WHO, and ISPE in particular. Most recently, the EU emphasized the importance of analytical transfer by including it in their draft of the revised GMP Guideline. In this article, an overview and comparison of these guidelines is provided. The key to success for method transfers is the excellent communication between sending and receiving unit. In order to facilitate this communication, procedures, flow charts and checklists for responsibilities, success factors, transfer categories, the transfer plan and report, strategies in case of failed transfers, tables with acceptance limits are provided here, together with a comprehensive glossary. Potential pitfalls are described such that they can be avoided. In order to assure an efficient and sustainable transfer of analytical procedures, a practically relevant and scientifically sound evaluation with corresponding acceptance criteria is crucial. Various strategies and statistical tools such as significance tests, absolute acceptance criteria, and equivalence tests are thoroughly descibed and compared in detail giving examples. Significance tests should be avoided. The success criterion is not statistical significance, but rather analytical relevance. Depending on a risk assessment of the analytical procedure in question, statistical equivalence tests are recommended, because they include both, a practically relevant acceptance limit and a direct control of the statistical risks. However, for lower risk procedures, a simple comparison of the transfer performance parameters to absolute limits is also regarded as sufficient. PMID:23978903

Ermer, J; Limberger, M; Lis, K; Wätzig, H



AAV-Dominant Negative Tumor Necrosis Factor (DN-TNF) Gene Transfer to the Striatum Does Not Rescue Medium Spiny Neurons in the YAC128 Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease  

PubMed Central

CNS inflammation is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease, and recent studies suggest that the inflammatory response may contribute to neuronal demise. In particular, increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling is implicated in the pathology of both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown that localized gene delivery of dominant negative TNF to the degenerating brain region can limit pathology in animal models of PD and AD. TNF is upregulated in Huntington's disease (HD), like in PD and AD, but it is unknown whether TNF signaling contributes to neuronal degeneration in HD. We used in vivo gene delivery to test whether selective reduction of soluble TNF signaling could attenuate medium spiny neuron (MSN) degeneration in the YAC128 transgenic (TG) mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD). AAV vectors encoding cDNA for dominant-negative tumor necrosis factor (DN-TNF) or GFP (control) were injected into the striatum of young adult wild type WT and YAC128 TG mice and achieved 30–50% target coverage. Expression of dominant negative TNF protein was confirmed immunohistologically and biochemically and was maintained as mice aged to one year, but declined significantly over time. However, the extent of striatal DN-TNF gene transfer achieved in our studies was not sufficient to achieve robust effects on neuroinflammation, rescue degenerating MSNs or improve motor function in treated mice. Our findings suggest that alternative drug delivery strategies should be explored to determine whether greater target coverage by DN-TNF protein might afford some level of neuroprotection against HD-like pathology and/or that soluble TNF signaling may not be the primary driver of striatal neuroinflammation and MSN loss in YAC128 TG mice. PMID:24824433

Alto, Laura Taylor; Chen, Xi; Ruhn, Kelly A.; Trevino, Isaac; Tansey, Malu G.



Rapid detection of the factor XIII Val34Leu (163 G-->T) polymorphism by real-time PCR using fluorescence resonance energy transfer detection and melting curve analysis.  


The Val34Leu polymorphism in the A subunit of blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIII-A) is located in the activation peptide, just three amino acids upstream of the thrombin cleavage site. The Val-->Leu replacement accelerates the rate of the proteolytic activation of FXIII and it seems to provide protection against myocardial infarction. Methods available for the assessment of the FXIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism are rather time-consuming, laborious and not easily applicable for large-scale studies. In this study a new method based on real-time PCR with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) detection and melting curve analysis was developed. The rapid, simple method was adapted to the widely used real-time PCR instrument, LightCycler (Roche Diagnostics). The results showed 100% coincidence with those obtained by the traditional PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay and fluorescent DNA sequencing. Using this method, an allele frequency of 24.2% was obtained (n=113), which well agrees with the allele frequency obtained by PCR-RFLP on a different group of the same ethnic Hungarian population (25.9%). PMID:15387436

Shemirani, Amir H; Muszbek, László



Transferability of tubifex limiting factor models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dense populations of T. tubifex are generally associated with habitats dominated by fine sediments and enriched organic material (e.g. Krueger, 2002). Management of whirling disease positive systems is entering a new phase where channel modifications are being implemented to reduce or isolate this type of habitat. These management actions have the potential to cause new areas of sediment deposition. Descriptions of sediment characteristics associated with high numbers of T. tubifex can help engineers design channel modifications that minimize situations where altered velocity distributions inadvertently create optimum worm habitat. Ongoing studies in two Colorado Rivers with very different flow regimes and watershed characteristics provide preliminary evidence that a median sediment particle diameter greater than 1.4mm in conjunction with at least 30% (dry weight) of sediment with a diameter less than 0.3mm limits T. tubifex densities to approximately less than 10% of maximum densities.

Terrell, James W.; Milhous, Robert T.



Shape factors in conductive heat transfer  

E-print Network

: q e -k(~)ZT hT q = Heat flow, Btu/Hr k = Thexmal conductivity, -Btu Jk ~ Lrea, ZtB I ~ length of. heat flow path& Jt 6 T = Temperatux e di f f er ence, dp. R Resistance, (op Zt)pt. ln othex simple cases, such as the cylinder and, the sphex'e.... It has 'been shown bg Andrews 1 and Jacob d that. q = -k (S. Z. ) ~ T Where S. Z. = Shape abactor ~ ! - ~d dk dx (1S) Hence; S. P. ]~i (lSa) Sic. lariy the flow of d. irect current in an electrical circuit may be represented as: (S. X. ) h e S...

Faulkner, Richard Campbell



Considering factors beyond transfer of conceptual knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One thread in education research has been to investigate whether and in what ways students âtransferâ conceptual knowledge from one context to another. We argue that in understanding studentsâ reasoning across contexts, it can additionally be productive to attend to their epistemological framing. We present a case study of one student (Will), whose reasoning on two similarly structured approximation problems does not draw on pieces of conceptual knowledge across contexts in a manner that experts might view as productive. We further show that attending to Willâs epistemological framing aids our understanding of why he draws on different types of knowledge on the two problems.

Kuo, Eric; Champney, Danielle; Little, Angela



Polymerization by phase transfer catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolphthalein polythiocarbonate was obtained by phase transfer catalysis using several catalysts and characterized by inherent viscosity, i.r. spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. From the thermogravimetric curve, the kinetics parameters were determined. Glass transition temperature, thermal decomposition temperature, activation energy, and preexponential factor were lower than those determined for the corresponding polycarbonate.

L. H. Tagle; F. R. Díaz; N. Valdebenito



Analogical Transfer from a Simulated Physical System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has consistently found that spontaneous analogical transfer is strongly tied to concrete and contextual similarities between the cases. However, that work has largely failed to acknowledge that the relevant factor in transfer is the similarity between individuals' mental representations of the situations rather than the overt…

Day, Samuel B.; Goldstone, Robert L.



Food chain transfer and potential renal toxicity of mercury to small mammals at a contaminated terrestrial field site.  


Mercury concentrations were determined in surface soil and biota at a contaminated terrestrial field site and were used to calculate transfer coefficients of mercury through various compartments of the ecosystem based on trophic relationships. Mercury concentrations in all compartments (soil, vegetation, invertebrates, and small mammals) were higher than mercury concentrations in corresponding samples at local reference sites. Nonetheless, mercury concentrations in biota did not exceed concentrations in the contaminated surface soil, which averaged 269 ?g g(-1). Plant tissue concentrations of mercury were low (0.01 to 2.0 ?g g(-1)) and yielded soil to plant transfer coefficients ranging from 3.7×10(-5) for seeds to 7.0×10(-3) for grass blades. Mercury concentrations in invertebrates ranged from 0.79 for harvestmen (Phalangida) to 15.5 ?g g(-1) for undepurated earthworms (Oligochaeta). Mean food chain transfer coefficients for invertebrates were 0.88 for herbivores/omnivores and 2.35 for carnivores. Mean mercury concentrations in target tissue (kidney) were 1.16±1.16 ?g g(-1) for the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), a granivore, and 38.8±24.6 ?g g(-1) for the shorttail shrew (Blarina brevicauda), an insectivore. Transfer coefficients for diet to kidney were 0.75 and 4.40 for P. leucopus and B. brevicauda, respectively. A comparison of kidney mercury residues measured in this study with values from controlled laboratory feeding studies from the literature indicate that B. brevicauda but not P. leucopus may be ingesting mercury at levels that are nephrotoxic. PMID:24201735

Talmage, S S; Walton, B T



Subjective Transfer Function Approach for Analyzing Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Subjective Transfer Functions (STF) approach is a subjective measurement method for analyzing complex systems where many factors either directly or indirectly impact on system outcomes. In this approach, systems are analyzed from the perspective of th...

C. T. Veit, M. Callero



Electron transfer dissociation (ETD): The mass spectrometric breakthrough essential for O-GlcNAc protein site assignments - A study of the O-GlcNAcylated protein Host Cell Factor C1  

PubMed Central

The development of electron-based, unimolecular dissociation mass spectrometric methods, i.e. electron capture and electron transfer dissociation (ECD and ETD, respectively), has greatly increased the speed and reliability of labile post-translational modification (PTM) site assignment. The field of intracellular O-GlcNAc (O-linked N-acetylglucosamine) signaling has especially advanced with the advent of ETD mass spectrometry. Only within the last five years have proteomic-scale experiments utilizing ETD allowed the assignment of hundreds of O-GlcNAc sites within cells and subcellular structures. Our ability to identify and unambiguously assign the site of O-GlcNAc modifications using ETD is rapidly increasing our understanding of this regulatory glycosylation and its potential interaction with other PTMs. Here, we discuss the advantages of using ETD, complimented with collisional-activation mass spectrometry (CID/CAD), in a study of O-GlcNAc modified peptides of the extensively O-GlcNAcylated protein Host Cell Factor C1 (HCF-1). HCF-1 is a transcriptional co-regulator, forms a stable complex with O-GlcNAc transferase and is involved in control of cell cycle progression. ETD, along with higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) mass spectrometry, was employed to assign the PTMs of the HCF-1 protein isolated from HEK293T cells. These include nineteen sites of O-GlcNAcylation, two sites of phosphorylation and two sites bearing dimethylarginine, and showcase the residue-specific, PTM complexity of this regulator of cell proliferation. PMID:23335398

Myers, Samuel A.; Daou, Salima; Affar, El Bachir; Burlingame, AL



Quality factors  

SciTech Connect

The quality factor, Q, is a dimensionless modifier used in converting absorbed dose, expressed in rads (or grays), to dose equivalent, expressed in rems (or seiverts). The dose equivalent is used in radiation protection to account for the biological effectiveness of different kinds of radiation. The quality factor is related to both the linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The RBE's obtained from biological experiments depend in a complex way on the observed biological effect, the specific test organism, and the experimental conditions. Judgement is involved, therefore, in the choice of the quality factor. Questions regarding the adequacy of current Q values for neutrons were raised first in a 1980 statement by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) and later in a 1985 statement by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1980, the NCRP alerted the technical community to possible future increases between a factor of three and ten in the Q for neutrons, and in 1985, the ICRP suggested an increase by a factor of two in Q for neutrons. Both the ICRP and NRCP are now recommending essentially the same guidance with regard to Q for neutrons: an increase by a factor of two. The Q for neutrons is based on a large, albeit unfocused, body of experimental data. In spite of the lack of focus, the data supporting a change in the neutron quality factor are substantial. However, the proposed doubling of Q for neutrons is clouded by other issues regarding its application. 33 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Kerr, G.D.



Orbital transfer vehicles - An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of past high energy upper stage evolution leading to the first earth-lunar transfer vehicle, the Apollo S-IVB, is given and the current STS (Space Transportation System) upper-stage characteristics are discussed as a basis for future OTV (Orbital Transfer Vehicle) planning. Attention is given to requirements, operational factors, design features, and program alternatives as a background for a general review of OTV planning considerations for STS performance enhancement. The alternative discussed and other issues are under study by NASA and will be carefully assessed during the next few years as options are considered versus mission needs.

Disher, J. H.; Fero, L. K.



Mass transfer andMass transfer and Mass transfer andMass transfer and  

E-print Network

eknik Mass transfer andMass transfer and arationste Mass transfer andMass transfer and separationSepa Massöverföring och separationsteknikMassöverföring och separationsteknik ("M�F("M�F--ST")ST") 4 erföringo 6. Mass transfer and convection6. Mass transfer and convection Massöve Ron Zevenhoven �bo Akademi Universityy

Zevenhoven, Ron


Keeping School: Teacher Transfers within a Large District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher transfers from one worksite to another have a significant impact upon the schools they leave. Researchers and school leaders have proposed a number of solutions to attempt to address teacher transfers, but the rate of teacher transfers remains high. Thus, a better understanding of the motivational factors related to teachers' decisions to…

Thornton, Bill; Perreault, George; Jennings, Mike



Beyond Access: Explaining Socioeconomic Differences in College Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reducing socioeconomic differences in college transfer requires understanding how and why parental education, occupational class, and family income are associated with changing colleges. Building on prior studies of traditional community college transfer, the authors explore relationships between those factors and two types of transfer among…

Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Pfeffer, Fabian T.



Transfer of Training: A Meta-Analytic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although transfer of learning was among the very first issues addressed by early psychologists, the extant literature remains characterized by inconsistent measurement of transfer and significant variability in findings. This article presents a meta-analysis of 89 empirical studies that explore the impact of predictive factors (e.g., trainee characteristics, work environment, training interventions) on the transfer of training to different tasks

Brian D. Blume; J. Kevin Ford; Timothy T. Baldwin; Jason L. Huang



Investigation on Convective Heat Transfer and Flow Features of Nanofluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

With progresses of thermoscience and thermal engineering, many efforts have been devoted to heat transfer enhancement. Among them, application of additives to liquids is often involved. Since the flow media themselves may be the controlling factor of limiting heat transfer performance, solid additives are suspended in the base liquids in order to change transport properties, flow and heat transfer features

Yimin Xuan; Qiang Li



Manifestations of sequential electron transfer  

SciTech Connect

An essential feature of efficient photo-initiated charge separation is sequential electron transfer. Charge separation is initiated by photoexcitation of an electron donor followed by rapid electron transfer steps from the excited donor through a series of electron acceptors, so that, after one or two successive steps, charge separation is stabilized by the physical separation between the oxidized donor and reduced acceptor. The prime example of this process is the sequential electron transfer that takes place in the purple photosynthetic bacterial reaction center, resulting in the charge separation between P{sup +} and Q{sub A}{sup -} across a biological membrane. We have developed magnetic resonance tools to monitor sequential electron transfer. We are applying these techniques to study charge separation in natural photo-synthetic systems in order to gain insights into the features of the reaction center proteins that promote efficient charge separation. As we establish what some of these factors are, we are beginning to design artificial photosynthetic systems that undergo photoinduced sequential electron transfer steps.

Thurnauer, M.C.; Tang, J.



Does Technology Transfer Facilitate Technological Progress? Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically investigates the impact of technology transfer which consists of imports of technology and purchase of domestic technology on total factor productivity for a cross sectional sample of large and medium-sized industrial enterprises by 30 major provinces or regions in China. The possible determinants of total factor productivity are sought with special focus on technology transfer. An endogeneity

Wuwei Li



Probability of Detection Demonstration Transferability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ongoing Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Propellant Tank Penetrant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Probability of Detection (POD) Assessment (NESC activity) has surfaced several issues associated with liquid penetrant POD demonstration testing. This presentation lists factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. Initial testing will address the liquid penetrant inspection technique. Some of the factors to be considered in this task are crack aspect ratio, the extent of the crack opening, the material and the distance between the inspection surface and the inspector's eye.

Parker, Bradford H.



Analysis of insertion mutants in the Escherichia coli fertility factor F transfer genes: traY, traQ, trbA, trbB and artA  

E-print Network

in maxicells. Flac derivatives carrying kan insertions in ~tra and traY, and pOX38 derivatives carrying insertions in trbA, trbB and artA were then constructed by in vivo recombination. After the structure of these derivatives was confirmed, their transfer... genes. The pOX38 mutant derivatives carrying kan inserts in genes ~t , artA and g3bB retained pilus expression and transferred at normal levels. Therefore, these three genes may not be essential to con]ugation among E. coli. DEDICATION To our...

Kathir, Pushpa Rani



Aberrant expression of retinol-binding protein, osteopontin and fibroblast growth factor 7 in the porcine uterine endometrium of pregnant recipients carrying embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) is a useful tool to produce cloned animals for various purposes, but the efficiency to generate cloned animals using this technique is still very low. To improve the low efficiency in production of cloned pigs it is critical to understand the reprogramming process during development of cloned embryos, but it is also

Mingoo Kim; Heewon Seo; Yohan Choi; Woosuk Hwang; Chang-Kyu Lee; Hakhyun Ka



Health factors in colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum is a breast milk produced after the birth of the newborn and lasts for 2–4 days. Colostrum is very important part\\u000a of breast milk and lays down the immune system and confers growth factors and other protective factors for the young ones\\u000a in mammals. This is the source of passive immunity achieved by the mother and is transferred to

B. R. Thapa



Fall 2014 Transfer Supplemental  

E-print Network

Fall 2014 Transfer Supplemental Applica2on Tutorial #12;t Accessing Your Supplemental Applica2on Click here to access your Supplemental Applica2on. The Supplemental Applica2on must be completed by SDSU upper division transfer applicants

Gallo, Linda C.


Methods of Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To help students better understand conduction, convection, and radiation as methods of heat transfer in solids, liquids and gases. Let's look at all three methods of heat transfer ... Overview of Conduction, Convection, Radiation Conduction- 1. Explain what happens as heat energy is supplied to one part of a solid. 2. Explain how energy is transferred by conduction through a solid. Convection- 1. What is ?anything fluid? ? Include two examples. 2. Describe how and why heat is transferred in ...

Carlone, Mrs.



Proton transfer in organic scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation focuses on the fundamental understanding of the proton transfer process and translating the knowledge into design/development of new organic materials for efficient non-aqueous proton transport. For example, what controls the shuttling of a proton between two basic sites? a) Distance between two groups? or b) the basicity? c) What is the impact of protonation on molecular conformation when the basic sites are attached to rigid scaffolds? For this purpose, we developed several tunable proton sponges and studied proton transfer in these scaffolds theoretically as well as experimentally. Next we moved our attention to understand long-range proton conduction or proton transport. We introduced liquid crystalline (LC) proton conductor based on triphenylene molecule and established that activation energy barrier for proton transport is lower in the LC phase compared to the crystalline phase. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of several critical factors: the choice of the proton transferring groups, mobility of the charge carriers, intrinsic vs. extrinsic charge carrier concentrations and the molecular architectures on long-range proton transport. The outcome of this research will lead to a deeper understanding of non-aqueous proton transfer process and aid the design of next generation proton exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel cell.

Basak, Dipankar


Heat transfer dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As heat transfer technology increases in complexity, it becomes more difficult for those without thermal dynamics engineering training to choose between competitive heat transfer systems offered to meet their drying requirements. A step back to the basics of heat transfer can help professional managers and papermakers make informed decisions on alternative equipment and methods. The primary forms of heat and



new freshmen new transfers  

E-print Network

, film, and television 1% arts and architecture 2% humanities 8% life sciences 35% physical sciences 17% Transfers 22.7 Transfers 33% 26% 42% Transfers 67% 47% 12% 3% 2% 3% 23% 1% 9% humanities 20% life sciences% social sciences 24% engineering and applied science 11% nursing 1% theater, film, and television 1% arts

Jalali. Bahram


new freshmen new transfers  

E-print Network

, and television 1% arts and architecture 2% humanities 9% life sciences 33% physical sciences 16% social sciences% Transfers 22 Transfers 35% 21% 44% Transfers 69% 48% 12% 2% 3% 4% 22% 1% 8% humanities 20% life sciences 18 23% engineering and applied science 13% nursing 1% theater, film, and television 1% arts

Koehler, Carla



Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of the problem. Appalachian community colleges are dealing with a dynamic transfer policy environment and implementing practices that either foster or impede transfer student success. The problem in this dissertation is to discern how Appalachian community colleges are making sense of transfer policy changes and conducting practices to address student transfer success. Although individual factors must be considered by

Christopher M. Phillips



Gene therapy for preventing neuronal death using hepatocyte growth factor: in vivo gene transfer of HGF to subarachnoid space prevents delayed neuronal death in gerbil hippocampal CA1 neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a novel strategy to prevent delayed neuronal death (DND) following transient occlusion of arteries, the gene of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a novel neurotrophic factor, was transfected into the subarachnoid space of gerbils after transient forebrain ischemia. Importantly, transfection of HGF gene into the subarachnoid space prevented DND, accompanied by a significant increase in HGF in the cerebrospinal

K Hayashi; R Morishita; H Nakagami; S Yoshimura; A Hara; K Matsumoto; T Nakamura; T Ogihara; Y Kaneda; N Sakai



Model for Ground-Coupled Heat and Moisture Transfer from Buildings  

SciTech Connect

An important factor in soil heat transfer that is often over looked is the effect of moisture, which can vary the effective thermal conductivity by a factor of ten. The objective of this research was to investigate the ground-coupled heat and moisture transfer from buildings, and to develop results and tools to improve energy simulation of ground-coupled heat transfer.

Deru, M.



Transferability of interventions in health education: a review  

PubMed Central

Background Health education interventions are generally complex. Their outcomes result from both the intervention itself and the context for which they are developed. Thus, when an intervention carried out in one context is reproduced in another, its transferability can be questionable. We performed a literature review to analyze the concept of transferability in the health education field. Methods Articles included were published between 2000 and 2010 that addressed the notion of transferability of interventions in health education. Articles were analyzed using a standardized grid based on four items: 1) terminology used; 2) factors that influenced transferability; 3) capacity of the research and evaluation designs to assess transferability; and 4) tools and criteria available to assess transferability. Results 43 articles met the inclusion criteria. Only 13 of them used the exact term “transferability” and one article gave an explicit definition: the extent to which the measured effectiveness of an applicable intervention could be achieved in another setting. Moreover, this concept was neither clearly used nor distinguished from others, such as applicability. We highlight the levels of influence of transferability and their associated factors, as well as the limitations of research methods in their ability to produce transferable conclusions. Conclusions We have tried to clarify the concept by defining it along three lines that may constitute areas for future research: factors influencing transferability, research methods to produce transferable data, and development of criteria to assess transferability. We conclude this review with three propositions: 1) a conceptual clarification of transferability, especially with reference to other terms used; 2) avenues for developing knowledge on this concept and analyzing the transferability of interventions; and 3) in relation to research, avenues for developing better evaluation methods for assessing the transferability of interventions. PMID:22747988



Technology Transfer Center | Technology Transfer Education

SKIP ALL NAVIGATION SKIP TO SUB MENU Search Site Technology Transfer Center of the National Cancer Institute Standard Forms & Agreements Co-Development & Resources Careers & Training Intellectual Property & Inventions About TTC Overview NCI TTC Fellowship


2011 Impact Factors of JQSRT and its peers Journal ISI Impact Factor* ISI Immediacy Index**  

E-print Network

.501 Numerical Heat Transfer A ­ Applications 2.492 0.472 International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 2.407 0 Society of America B 2.185 0.561 Journal of Heat Transfer 1.830 0.286 Applied Optics 1.748 0.415 Journal ________________________________________________________________________________ Journal ISI Impact Factor* ISI Immediacy Index



EPA Science Inventory

The transfer of recombinant DNA molecules from the introduced organism to natural populations of bacteria may be an important factor in assessing the outcomes of planned release of genetically engineered organisms into the environment. As genetic transfer is further investigated,...


The challenges of technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of challenges of technology transfer are presented with emphasis placed on the position of industry seeking technology through the media of technology searches. Factors considered are: (1) not-invented-here syndrome; (2) penetration of technological literature; (3) gap between origin and industry use; (4) large aerospace manufacturer vs. the small manufacturer; (5) link between the technology disseminator and the potential user; (6) feasibility of substitutions in terms of production costs; and (7) role of patents. It is shown that industry, government agencies, and others having technology to disseminate or use, must mutually understand the technology tools and translate to one another's capabilities, in order to profit from this national resource.

Hazelwood, J. N.



Heat transfer enhancement in metal hydride systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt has been made to enhance the heat transfer of hydrogen storage metal hydride systems by the addition of small fraction of high conductivity materials in various configurations. Results indicate that the form of the enhancement material rather than its composition is the more critical factor. The addition of over 6% aluminum foam enhances the effective thermal conductivity of a hydride bed by a factor of 2.6.

Rosso, M. J., Jr.; Strickland, G.


A lipid transfer protein that transfers lipid.  


Very few lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) have been caught in the act of transferring lipids in vivo from a donor membrane to an acceptor membrane. Now, two studies (Halter, D., S. Neumann, S.M. van Dijk, J. Wolthoorn, A.M. de Maziere, O.V. Vieira, P. Mattjus, J. Klumperman, G. van Meer, and H. Sprong. 2007. J. Cell Biol. 179:101-115; D'Angelo, G., E. Polishchuk, G.D. Tullio, M. Santoro, A.D. Campli, A. Godi, G. West, J. Bielawski, C.C. Chuang, A.C. van der Spoel, et al. 2007. Nature. 449:62-67) agree that four-phosphate adaptor protein 2 (FAPP2) transfers glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a lipid that takes an unexpectedly circuitous route. PMID:17923527

Levine, Tim P



Transfer color to night vision images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural color appearance is the key problem of color night vision field. In this paper, the color mood of daytime color image is transferred to the monochromic night vision image. This method gives the night image a natural color appearance. For each pixel in the night vision image, the best matching pixel in the color image is found based on texture similarity measure. Entropy, energy, contrast, homogeneity, and correlation features based on co-occurrence matrix are combined as texture similarity measure to find the corresponding pixels between the two images. We use a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimistic weighting factors assigned to the five different features. GA is also employed in searching the matching pixels to make the color transfer algorithm faster. When the best matching pixel in the color image is found, the chromaticity values are transferred to the corresponding pixel of the night vision image. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of this natural color transfer technique.

Sun, Shaoyuan; Jing, Zhongliang; Liu, Gang; Li, Zhenhua



The current status of equine embryo transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of embryo transfer in the horse has increased steadily over the past two decades. However, several unique biological features as well as technical problems have limited its widespread use in the horse as compared with that in the cattle industry. Factors that affect embryo recovery include the day of recovery, number of ovulations, age of the donor and

E. L Squires; P. M McCue; D Vanderwall



Information transfer in the National Airspace System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An informal overview is given of the work in progress and the planned work in the area of information transfer that specifically addresses human factors issues in National Airspace System (NAS). The issues of how weather information will be displayed on the flight deck, the development of appropriate decision making technology, and digital datalink transmission are also briefly discussed.

Lee, Alfred T.



Technology transfer and international law  

SciTech Connect

Controversy surrounding technology transfer to developing countries reflects the need to evaluate transfer policies in such a way that the political and economic implications of alternative strategies are considered. A thorough study of historical power relationships as well as the legal ramifications should guide policymakers. This review of technology-transfer issues analyzes the split between those industrialized areas that claim exclusive use of inventions and the counterclaims by those in the Third World who want easier access to technology and who want that access to be recognized as an inherent right. Disparity in the global distribution of technology is examined in terms of its socio-economic impacts, the legal aspects of policy and patents, and the Third World concept of a transnational regime. The analysis continues with a discussion of the factors affecting international conflict and a set of criteria for resolving competing claims. It concludes with suggested reforms which would take account of the Third World concerns by restructuring the institutions of health and social planning on the basis of meeting real needs. 467 notes and references. (DCK)

Nanyenya-Takirambudde, P.



Factor Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, the learner finds the prime factorization of composite numbers by building factor trees. A second level includes finding the greatest common factor and the least common multiple by sorting factors using a Venn Diagram.



Factor Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative allows students to find the prime factorization of numbers by completing factor trees. Then they may use a venn diagram to sort the prime factors to find the greatest common factor and the least common multiple.

Playground, Math




Microsoft Academic Search

We examined adult felony recidivism for 475 matched pairs in Florida. Each pair, matched on seven factors, contained one juvenile transferred to adult court and one retained in the juvenile justice system. We found that transfers were more likely to re-offend and were more likely to commit violence after they turned 18 years of age. This was true even after

Lonn Lanza-Kaduce; Donna M. Bishop; Charles E. Frazier



Heat transfer enhancement of copper nanofluid with acoustic cavitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer characteristics of copper nanofluids with and without acoustic cavitation were investigated experimentally. The effects of such factors as acoustical parameters, nanofluid concentration and fluid subcooling on heat transfer enhancement around a heated horizontal copper tube were discussed in detail. The results indicated that the copper nanoparticles and acoustic cavitation had profound and significant influence on heat transport in

D. W. Zhou



Estimation of Mass Transfer Rates through Hydrophobic Pervaporation Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pervaporation of dilute solutions (acids, esters, and ketones) through hydrophobic membranes, mass transfer coefficients increased with temperature in an Arrhenius-like manner. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors were estimated through empirical correlations, allowing estimation of mass transfer coefficients. The activation energy was a function of the heat of sorption and the elastic modulus of the membrane. For low molecular weight

Amy R. Overington; Marie Wong; John A. Harrison; Lílian B. Ferreira



Retroviral-Mediated Gene Transfer Into Hepatocytes in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable gene transfer into hepatocytes might be used to compensate for a genetic deficiency affecting liver function or to deliver diffusible factors into the blood stream. In rats, we have combined retroviral-mediated gene transfer with a surgical procedure in which the liver is temporarily excluded from the circulation and infected in vivo. Partial hepatectomy was performed 24-48 hr before perfusion

Nicolas Ferry; Olivier Duplessis; Didier Houssin; Olivier Danos; Jean-Michel Heard




Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate from transfer station requires treatment before being discharged into the environment to avoid surface and underground water contamination. Various factors such as waste composition, availability of oxygen and moisture, designing and controlling of transfer station operations have been shown to affect the composition of the leachate. The high COD, BOD, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and heavy metals contents of fresh



RFID Tag Ownership Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some applications, the bearer of a radio frequency identi- fication (RFID) tag might change, with corresponding changes required in the RFID system infrastructure. We survey the security requirements for RFID tag ownership transfer, and propose novel authentication pro- tocols for tag ownership and authorisation transfer. The proposed proto- cols satisfy most of the requirements that we present, and have

Boyeon Song


Transferring Education for Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sustainability stands for sustaining the past, meeting needs of the present without compromising the ability to meet future needs. It should meet the individual and social needs, present and future needs local and global needs. A sustainable education that meets this requirements surely be a transferable education; an education that transfers from…

Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Umer Farooque, T. K.



Transfer via soft homomorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of transfer learning aims to speed up learning across multiple related tasks by transferring knowledge be- tween source and target tasks. Past work has shown that when the tasks are specified as Markov Decision Processes (MDPs), a function that maps states in the target task to similar states in the source task can be used to trans- fer

Jonathan Sorg; Satinder Singh



Transferability of glass lens molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sphere lenses have been used for long time. But it is well known that sphere lenses theoretically have spherical aberration, coma and so on. And, aspheric lenses attract attention recently. Plastic lenses are molded easily with injection machines, and are relatively low cost. They are suitable for mass production. On the other hand, glass lenses have several excellent features such as high refractive index, heat resistance and so on. Many aspheric glass lenses came to be used for the latest digital camera and mobile phone camera module. It is very difficult to produce aspheric glass lenses by conventional process of curve generating and polishing. For the solution of this problem, Glass Molding Machine was developed and is spreading through the market. High precision mold is necessary to mold glass lenses with Glass Molding Machine. The mold core is ground or turned by high precision NC aspheric generator. To obtain higher transferability of the mold core, the function of the molding machine and the conditions of molding are very important. But because of high molding temperature, there are factors of thermal expansion and contraction of the mold and glass material. And it is hard to avoid the factors. In this session, I introduce following items. [1] Technology of glass molding and the machine is introduced. [2] The transferability of glass molding is analyzed with some data of glass lenses molded. [3] Compensation of molding shape error is discussed with examples.

Katsuki, Masahide



10 CFR 626.7 - Royalty transfer and exchange.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.7 Royalty transfer and exchange...capability, logistical problems for moving petroleum products, macroeconomic factors, and...



10 CFR 626.7 - Royalty transfer and exchange.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.7 Royalty transfer and exchange...capability, logistical problems for moving petroleum products, macroeconomic factors, and...



10 CFR 626.7 - Royalty transfer and exchange.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.7 Royalty transfer and exchange...capability, logistical problems for moving petroleum products, macroeconomic factors, and...



10 CFR 626.7 - Royalty transfer and exchange.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.7 Royalty transfer and exchange...capability, logistical problems for moving petroleum products, macroeconomic factors, and...



Factoring with the Factor Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet presents a composite number, and prompts you to factor it -- one step at a time. Enter one factor, prime or another composite; the applet calculates the remaining factor, and branches two boxes below any composite factor so that you may proceed factoring until you obtain the full factorization into primes, which the applet colors in green. Click the "Repeat problem" button to see that different factor trees for a given number still result in the same prime factorization.

Interactive Math Miscellany And Puzzles, Alexander B.



Comparisons of power transfer functions and flow transfer functions  

SciTech Connect

Transfer functions may be used to calculate component feedbacks or temperature increments by convolution of the transfer function with the appropriate fractional change in system-quantity. Power-change transfer functions have been reported. The corresponding flow transfer functions for this case, and comparison with the power transfer functions, are reported here. Results of feedback simulation of ramped flow transients using flow transfer functions are also described.

Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.



Technology transfer 1994  

SciTech Connect

This document, Technology Transfer 94, is intended to communicate that there are many opportunities available to US industry and academic institutions to work with DOE and its laboratories and facilities in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. It has seven major sections: Introduction, Technology Transfer Activities, Access to Laboratories and Facilities, Laboratories and Facilities, DOE Office, Technologies, and an Index. Technology Transfer Activities highlights DOE`s recent developments in technology transfer and describes plans for the future. Access to Laboratories and Facilities describes the many avenues for cooperative interaction between DOE laboratories or facilities and industry, academia, and other government agencies. Laboratories and Facilities profiles the DOE laboratories and facilities involved in technology transfer and presents information on their missions, programs, expertise, facilities, and equipment, along with data on whom to contact for additional information on technology transfer. DOE Offices summarizes the major research and development programs within DOE. It also contains information on how to access DOE scientific and technical information. Technologies provides descriptions of some of the new technologies developed at DOE laboratories and facilities.

Not Available



Numerical Radiative Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Introduction; Part I. Operator Perturbation: 1. Survey of operator perturbation methods W. Kalkofen; 2. Line formation in expanding atmospheres: multilevel calculations using approximate lambda operators W. R. Hamann; 3. Stellar atmospheres in non-LTE: model construction and line formation calculations using approximate lambda operators K. Werner; 4. Acceleration of convergence L. H. Auer; 5. Line formation in a time-dependent atmosphere W. Kalkofen; 6. Iterative solution of multilevel transfer problems Eugene H. Avrett and Rudolf Loeser; 7. An algorithm for the simultaneous solution of thousands of transfer equations under global constraints Lawrence S. Anderson; 8. Operator perturbation for differential equations W. Kalkofen; Part II. Polarised Radiation: 9. A gentle introduction to polarised radiative transfer David E. Rees; 10. Non-LTE polarised radiative transfer in special lines David E. Rees and Graham A. Murphy; 11. Transfer of polarised radiation using 4x4 matrices E. Landi Degli'Innocenti; 12. Radiative transfer in the presence of strong magnetic fields A. A. van Ballegooijen; 13. An integral operator technique of radiative transfer in spherical symmetry A. Peraiah; 14. Discrete ordinate matrix method M. Schmidt and R. Wehrse.

Kalkofen, Wolfgang



High Expression Hampers Horizontal Gene Transfer  

PubMed Central

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the movement of genetic material from one species to another, is a common phenomenon in prokaryotic evolution. Although the rate of HGT is known to vary among genes, our understanding of the cause of this variation, currently summarized by two rules, is far from complete. The first rule states that informational genes, which are involved in DNA replication, transcription, and translation, have lower transferabilities than operational genes. The second rule asserts that protein interactivity negatively impacts gene transferability. Here, we hypothesize that high expression hampers HGT, because the fitness cost of an HGT to the recipient, arising from the 1) energy expenditure in transcription and translation, 2) cytotoxic protein misfolding, 3) reduction in cellular translational efficiency, 4) detrimental protein misinteraction, and 5) disturbance of the optimal protein concentration or cell physiology, increases with the expression level of the transferred gene. To test this hypothesis, we examined laboratory and natural HGTs to Escherichia coli. We observed lower transferabilities of more highly expressed genes, even after controlling the confounding factors from the two established rules and the genic GC content. Furthermore, expression level predicts gene transferability better than all other factors examined. We also confirmed the significant negative impact of gene expression on the rate of HGTs to 127 of 133 genomes of eubacteria and archaebacteria. Together, these findings establish the gene expression level as a major determinant of horizontal gene transferability. They also suggest that most successful HGTs are initially slightly deleterious, fixed because of their negligibly low costs rather than high benefits to the recipient. PMID:22436996

Park, Chungoo; Zhang, Jianzhi



Nova-induced mass transfer variations  

E-print Network

We investigate variations of the mass transfer rate in cataclysmic variables (CVs) that are induced by nova outbursts. The ejection of nova shells leads to a spread of transfer rates in systems with similar orbital period. The effect is maximal if the specific angular momentum in the shell is the same as the specific orbital angular momentum of the white dwarf. We show analytically that in this case the nova-induced widening of the mass transfer rate distribution can be significant if the system, in the absence of nova outbursts, is close to mass transfer instability (i.e., within a factor of ~1.5 of the critical mass ratio). Hence the effect is negligible below the period gap and for systems with high-mass white dwarfs. At orbital periods between about 3 and 6 hrs the width of the mass transfer rate distribution exceeds an order of magnitude if the mass accreted on the white dwarf prior to the runaway is larger than a few 10^{-4} M_sun. At a given orbital period in this range, systems with the highest transfer rate should on average have the largest ratio of donor to white dwarf mass. We show results of population synthesis models which confirm and augment the analytic results.

Ulrich Kolb; Saul Rappaport; Klaus Schenker; Steve Howell



Irreversible heavy chain transfer to chondroitin.  


We have recently demonstrated that the transfer of heavy chains (HCs) from inter-?-inhibitor, via the enzyme TSG-6 (tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6), to hyaluronan (HA) oligosaccharides is an irreversible event in which subsequent swapping of HCs between HA molecules does not occur. We now describe our results of HC transfer experiments to chondroitin sulfate A, chemically desulfated chondroitin, chemoenzymatically synthesized chondroitin, unsulfated heparosan, heparan sulfate, and alginate. Of these potential HC acceptors, only chemically desulfated chondroitin and chemoenzymatically synthesized chondroitin were HC acceptors. The kinetics of HC transfer to chondroitin was similar to HA. At earlier time points, HCs were more widely distributed among the different sizes of chondroitin chains. As time progressed, the HCs migrated to lower molecular weight chains of chondroitin. Our interpretation is that TSG-6 swaps the HCs from the larger, reversible sites on chondroitin chains, which function as HC acceptors, onto smaller chondroitin chains, which function as irreversible HC acceptors. HCs transferred to smaller chondroitin chains were unable to be swapped off the smaller chondroitin chains and transferred to HA. HCs transferred to high molecular weight HA were unable to be swapped onto chondroitin. We also present data that although chondroitin was a HC acceptor, HA was the preferred acceptor when chondroitin and HA were in the same reaction mixture. PMID:25135638

Lauer, Mark E; Hascall, Vincent C; Green, Dixy E; DeAngelis, Paul L; Calabro, Anthony



Cryogenic Transfer Line Chilldown  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transient behavior of a small scale cryogenic transfer line was investigated during chilldown to cryogenic temperatures. The vacuum-jacketed apparatus consisted of a vertical tube followed by a near horizontal tube. The apparatus was equipped with view ports in the near horizontal section to allow visual observation of the flow patterns. Wall temperatures were measured at various locations along the length of the transfer line. Each test was conducted at a constant liquid volumetric flowrate at the transfer line inlet until saturation temperatures were obtained throughout the system.

VanDresar, Neil T.; Siegwarth, James D.



Investment casting heat transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calculate temperature profile and Biot number in mixed conduction and convection/radiation heat transfer from liquid metal through a ceramic mold to the environment, and suggest a design change to reduce the probability of shattering due to thermal stress.

Powell, Adam C., IV



Tendon Transfer Surgery  


... in hand function occurs. The muscle imbalance or muscle loss due to nervous system disease may be treated with tendon transfers. Common nervous system disorders treated with tendon ... muscle atrophy. Finally, there are some conditions in which ...


DCIDE Material Transfer Agreement

MATERIAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Development of Clinical Imaging Drugs and Enhancers Program (DCIDE) has been designed to assist academic and business investigators to acquire the data necessary for them to file an Investigational


FLT Transfer Agreement

Provider: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Provider agrees to transfer to Recipient the following Production Documents (click here) for the production of 3'-deoxy-3'- [F-18] fluorothymidine ([F-18] FLT). (A) Generic Chemistry, Manufacturing and Control


Technology transfer 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technology Transfer 1995 is intended to inform the US industrial and academic sectors about the many opportunities they have to form partnerships with the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the mutual advantage of the individual institutions, DOE, and the ...



Technology transfer for adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia



Ames Lab 101: Technology Transfer  

SciTech Connect

Ames Laboratory Associate Laboratory Director, Sponsored Research Administration, Debra Covey discusses technology transfer. Covey also discusses Ames Laboratory's most successful transfer, lead-free solder.

Covey, Debra



Semantic Effects in Transfer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighty sixth-grade subjects, split into five independent groups, learned two PA lists of 12 noun pairs each. Two groups performed under traditional transfer conditions with lists conforming to a negative transfer paradigm, A-B, A-C, or to a reference paradigm A-B, C-D. Two other groups learned the same lists under a syntactic PA method where the…

Davidson, Robert E.; And Others


Shielded cells transfer automation  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures.

Fisher, J J



Transference and CounterTransference in Treating Incarcerated Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

As delineated by Roundy and Hprton (1990), the role of the therapist in the psychotherapeutic treatment of sexual perpetrators, when compared to other client populations, is in many ways unique. These unique characteristics are sometimes referred to within the context of the processes of transference and counter-transference. Whereas transference and counter-transference are well documented in the literature regarding general psychotherapy

Brad Allen; Karl E. Brekke



Resonant transfer and excitation by crystal channeling  

SciTech Connect

A transition amplitude for resonant transfer and excitation (RTE) in a crystal channel is derived and compared with observations of Belkacem {ital et} {ital al}. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 380 (1990)) of titanium ions channeled in a thin gold crystal. Using a one-dimensional tight-binding model of the gold lattice, the RTE cross section is shown to be proportional to the Compton profile of {ital atomic} gold multiplied by a crystal-structure factor, analogous to multislit interference of light with diffraction. It is suggested that Belkacem {ital et} {ital al}. observed a single (principal) maximum with a very narrow width determined by the crystal's Fermi energy. It is found that the observed shift in the RTE peak, relative to that expected for a quasifree crystal electron, can be accounted for by a change in the Coulomb energy of the transferred electron caused by the highly charged impurity'' ion prior to transfer.

Feagin, J.M. (Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Freiburg, 7800 Freiburg (Gemany)); Wanser, K.H. (Department of Physics, California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, California (USA))



Training Transfer between CD-ROM Based Instruction and Traditional Classroom Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many research studies on the effect of orga- nizational factors on training transfer have been conducted, but few studies have considered the effect that different training delivery methods have on training transfer. This study sought to identify if there is any difference in the perceived transfer of training between traditional classroom instruction learners and computer-based instruc- tion learners. Other demographic

Gregory C. Petty; Doo H. Lim; Jeff Zulauf


Enhancement of natural convection and pool boiling heat transfer via ultrasonic vibration  

E-print Network

on the heat transfer regime and the amount of dissolved gas. In the natural convection and subcooled boiling streaming are major factors enhancing heat transfer rate. The highest enhancement ratio is obtained] and Bonekamp and Bier [6] studied the influence of ultrasound on nucleate boiling heat transfer, to find

Kim, Ho-Young


Beyond Access: Explaining Socioeconomic Differences in College Transfer. WISCAPE Working Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reducing socioeconomic differences in college transfer requires a better understanding of how and why parental education, occupational class, and family income are associated with changing colleges. Building on prior studies of traditional community college transfer we explore relationships between those factors and two types of transfer among…

Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Pfeffer, Fabian T.



The Role of Teams, Culture, and Capacity in the Transfer of Organizational Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Transferring organizational practices requires an understanding not only of what is being transferred but also of what is needed to ensure that the transfer is successful. In line with this thinking, the purpose of this study is to examine three factors that are crucial parts of this mechanism: use of teams, culture, and capacity.…

Lucas, Leyland M.



Transfer Velocity Project: Key Findings on Student Transfer in California Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Which factors promote student transfer from California Community Colleges (CCC) to baccalaureate-granting institutions? How do community college practices support this transition? Which student behaviors and characteristics particularly facilitate their movement to four-year colleges and universities? The Research and Planning Group for California…

Research and Planning Group for California Community Colleges (RP Group), 2010



Motives for Private Income Transfers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private income transfers are becoming increasingly recognized as a key aspect of the U.S. economy. The majority of private income transfers occur inter vivos (i.e., between living persons), but very little is known about this type of transfer behavior. This paper tests alternative hypotheses concerning motivation for inter vivos transfers. Two motives are considered: altruism and exchange. Evidence presented here

Donald Cox



Determination of heat (mass) transfer from blockages with round and elongated holes in a wide rectangular channel  

E-print Network

performance for a particular blockage configuration was measured in terms of the heat transfer enhancement and the friction factor ratio. Heat transfer enhancement was measured as a ratio of average Nusselt number on the blockage surface to the Nusselt number...

Rupakula, Venkata Panduranga Praveen



40 CFR Table 33 to Subpart G of... - Saturation Factors  

...false Saturation Factors 33 Table 33 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 33 Table 33 to Subpart G of Part 63—Saturation Factors Cargo carrier...



Optimum Transfer Guide: Psychology Why Psychology at Texas Tech?  

E-print Network

, Cognitive/ Applied Cognitive Psychology, and Human Factors (accredited by the Human Factors and Ergonomics of the department (806) 742.0876 comprises programs in applied cognitive psychologyOptimum Transfer Guide: Psychology Why Psychology at Texas Tech? The Department of Psychology

Gelfond, Michael



E-print Network

Soneto Drive Whittier, CA 90605 June 2006 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. 1. Executive Summary .......................................... 14 5.6 Factors that influence oxygen transfer efficiency .................... 15 5.7 Aeration system.1 Factors that affect estimation of OTE field testing ................... 23 7.2 Advantages and limitations of the


Earth-Mars Low Thrust Orbit Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-thrust trajectories with variable radial thrust is studied in this paper. The problem is tackled by solving the Hamilton- Jacobi-Bellman equation for the nonlinear dynamics. The dynamics of the system will be factorized in such a way that the new factorized system is accessible. The problem is tackled using the Approximating Sequence Riccati Equations (ASRE) method. The technique is based on Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) with fixed terminal state, which guarantees closed loop solution, instead of solving the two-point boundary value problem in which the classical optimal control is stated, this technique allows us to derive closed-loop solutions. This technique can be applied to any planet-to-planet transfer; it has been applied here to the Earth-Mars low-thrust transfer.

Owis, Ashraf


Direct transfer of graphene onto flexible substrates  

PubMed Central

In this paper we explore the direct transfer via lamination of chemical vapor deposition graphene onto different flexible substrates. The transfer method investigated here is fast, simple, and does not require an intermediate transfer membrane, such as polymethylmethacrylate, which needs to be removed afterward. Various substrates of general interest in research and industry were studied in this work, including polytetrafluoroethylene filter membranes, PVC, cellulose nitrate/cellulose acetate filter membranes, polycarbonate, paraffin, polyethylene terephthalate, paper, and cloth. By comparing the properties of these substrates, two critical factors to ensure a successful transfer on bare substrates were identified: the substrate’s hydrophobicity and good contact between the substrate and graphene. For substrates that do not satisfy those requirements, polymethylmethacrylate can be used as a surface modifier or glue to ensure successful transfer. Our results can be applied to facilitate current processes and open up directions for applications of chemical vapor deposition graphene on flexible substrates. A broad range of applications can be envisioned, including fabrication of graphene devices for opto/organic electronics, graphene membranes for gas/liquid separation, and ubiquitous electronics with graphene. PMID:24127582

Martins, Luiz G. P.; Song, Yi; Zeng, Tingying; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Kong, Jing; Araujo, Paulo T.



Tech transfer outreach  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an informal summary of the conference workshop sessions. Tech Transfer Outreach '' was originally designed as an opportunity for national laboratory communications and technology transfer staff to become better acquainted and to discuss matters of mutual interest. When DOE field office personnel asked if they could attend, and then when one of our keynote speakers became a participant in the discussions, the actual event grew in importance. The conference participants--the laboratories and DOE representatives from across the nation--worked to brainstorm ideas. Their objective: identify ways to cooperate for effective (and cost-effective) technology transfer outreach. Thus, this proceedings is truly a product of ten national laboratories and DOE, working together. It candidly presents the discussion of issues and the ideas generated by each working group. The issues and recommendations are a consensus of their views.

Liebetrau, S. (ed.)



Satellite system considerations for computer data transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Communications satellites will play a key role in the transmission of computer generated data through nationwide networks. This paper examines critical aspects of satellite system design as they relate to the computer data transfer task. In addition, it discusses the factors influencing the choice of error control technique, modulation scheme, multiple-access mode, and satellite beam configuration based on an evaluation of system requirements for a broad range of application areas including telemetry, terminal dialog, and bulk data transmission.

Cook, W. L.; Kaul, A. K.



Nutrition, synchronization, and management of beef embryo transfer recipients.  


A commercially viable cattle embryo transfer industry was established during the early 1970s. Initially, techniques for transferring cattle embryos were exclusively surgical. However, by the early 1980s, most embryos were transferred nonsurgically. For an embryo transfer program to be effective, numerous factors need to be in place to ensure success. Nutrition, estrous cycle control, and recipient management are all responsible for the success or failure in fertility for a given herd. Utilization of body condition scores is a practical method to determine nutritional status of the recipient herd. Prepartum nutrition is critical to ensure that cows calve in adequate body condition to reinitiate postpartum estrous cycles early enough to respond to synchronization protocols. Estrus synchronization for embryo transfer after detected estrus or for fixed-time embryo transfer without estrus detection are effective methods to increase the number of calves produced by embryo transfer. In addition, resynchronization of nonpregnant recipients effectively ensures that a high percentage of recipients will return to estrus during a 72 h interval and are eligible for subsequent embryo transfers. Numerous additional factors need to be assessed to ensure that the recipient herd achieves its reproductive potential. These factors include assessing the merits of nulliparous, primiparous, or multiparous cows, ensuring that facilities allow for minimal stress, and that the herd health program is well-defined and followed. Numerous short- and long-term factors contribute to recipients conceiving to a transferred embryo, maintaining the embryo/fetus to term, delivering the calf without assistance and raising and weaning a healthy calf. PMID:17964640

Jones, A L; Lamb, G C



Teachers' Domain: Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive Flash animation for Grades 5-8 on the topic of heat. Users explore methods of heat transfer and classify examples from everyday life. Three methods of heat transfer are depicted: conduction, convection, and radiation. Teachers' Domain is an NSF-funded pathway of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL). It is a growing collection of more than 1,000 free educational resources compiled by researchers and experienced teachers to promote the use of digital resources in the classroom.



Departmental technology transfer update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is the following: to provide the perspective of the Department of Energy (DOE); emphasize new and emerging initiatives; and address unresolved issues that might impact successful program implementation. The approach is the following: to provide a brief overview of DOE, its R&D, and its technology transfer assets; to briefly describe the evolution of DOE's enhanced technology transfer program; to report on specific progress and achievements over the past year--as the spring board for our current and future plans; to present our near and longer term plans; and to survey the remaining issues and the resolution process.

Lewis, Roger A.



Ariane transfer vehicle scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA's Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a vehicle design concept for the transfer of payloads from Ariane 5 launch vehicle orbit insertion to a space station, on the basis of the Ariane 5 program-developed Upper Stage Propulsion Module and Vehicle Equipment Bay. The ATV is conceived as a complement to the Hermes manned vehicle for lower cost unmanned carriage of logistics modules and other large structural elements, as well as waste disposal. It is also anticipated that the ATV will have an essential role in the building block transportation logistics of any prospective European space station.

Deutscher, Norbert; Cougnet, Claude



Transferring Technology to Industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the technology transfer processes in which JPL has been involved to assist in transferring the technology derived from aerospace research and development to industry. California Institute of Technology (CalTech), the organization that runs JPL, is the leading institute in patents for all U.S. universities. There are several mechanisms that are available to JPL to inform industry of these technological advances: (1) a dedicated organization at JPL, National Space Technology Applications (NSTA), (2) Tech Brief Magazine, (3) Spinoff magazine, and (4) JPL publications. There have also been many start-up organizations and businesses from CalTech.

Wolfenbarger, J. Ken



Material Balance Assessment for Double-Shell Tank Waste Pipeline Transfer  

SciTech Connect

PNNL developed a material balance assessment methodology based on conservation of mass for detecting leaks and mis-routings in pipeline transfer of double-shell tank waste at Hanford. The main factors causing uncertainty in these transfers are variable property and tank conditions of density, existence of crust, and surface disturbance due to mixer pump operation during the waste transfer. The methodology was applied to three waste transfers from Tanks AN-105 and AZ-102.

Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.; Hartley, Stacey A.; Enderlin, Carl W.



The role of the University Licensing Office in transferring intellectual property to industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Universities in the US have a significant impact on business through the transfer of technology. This transfer of technology takes various forms, including faculty communications, faculty consulting activities, and the direct transfer of technology through the licensing of patents, copyrights, and other intellectual property to industry. The topics discussed include the following: background of the MIT Technology Licensing Office (TLO), goals of the MIT TLO, MIT's technology transfer philosophy, and important factors for success in new company formation.

Preston, John T.



Planning method for large scale waste transfer station location of Xuzhou urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the statistical and analysis of transfer stations in Xuzhou urban area to determine the quantity and scale of large scale waste transfer station. Form qualitative conditions by the analysis of location factors to determine the weight of each factor to form a quantitative index, trying to use planning methods to narrow the scope of available site area. Ultimately,

Li Da; Zhang Jincui; Guo Hui



Convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of Cu-water nanofluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental system is built to investigate convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of the nanofluid in a tube.\\u000a Both the convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of Cu-water nanofluid for the laminar and turbulent flow\\u000a are measured. The effects of such factors as the volume fraction of suspended nanoparticles and the Reynolds number on the\\u000a heat transfer and

Qiang Li; Yimin Xuan



Review of Orbital Propellant Transfer Techniques and the Feasibility of a Thermal Bootstrap Propellant Transfer Concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was performed in support of the NASA Task B-2 Study Plan for Space Basing. The nature of space-based operations implies that orbital transfer of propellant is a prime consideration. The intent of this report is (1) to report on the findings and recommendations of existing literature on space-based propellant transfer techniques, and (2) to determine possible alternatives to the recommended methods. The reviewed literature recommends, in general, the use of conventional liquid transfer techniques (i.e., pumping) in conjunction with an artificially induced gravitational field. An alternate concept that was studied, the Thermal Bootstrap Transfer Process, is based on the compression of a two-phase fluid with subsequent condensation to a liquid (vapor compression/condensation). This concept utilizes the intrinsic energy capacities of the tanks and propellant by exploiting temperature differentials and available energy differences. The results indicate the thermodynamic feasibility of the Thermal Bootstrap Transfer Process for a specific range of tank sizes, temperatures, fill-factors and receiver tank heat transfer coefficients.

Yoshikawa, H. H.; Madison, I. B.



Proton-transfer laser  

SciTech Connect

Stimulated radiation was generated by an active medium where the population inversion results from excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer reaction. The operation of a salicylamide pulsed laser, built on this principle, is described. The laser shows a 5% energy conversion efficiency when pumped with 5-20 mJ of 308-nm radiation.

Acuna, A.U.; Costela, A.; Munoz, J.M.



Heat Transfer Technical Brief  

E-print Network

in nucleate and film boiling regimes to investigate the effect of MWCNT height on pool boiling performance level, and working fluid on nucleate boiling were re- ported in this study. The thermal conductivityJournal of Heat Transfer Technical Brief Pool Boiling Experiments on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube

Banerjee, Debjyoti


Understanding heat transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Heat Transfer is a graduate-level professional development course designed for middle school teachers to enhance understanding and teaching of physical science. In two sessions, you will investigate physical science topics using hands-on activities and online resources including video segments, interactive activities, readings, and other multimedia materials. These resources are drawn from Teachers' Domain, WGBH's digital library service.



Internal Transfer and Articulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1989, a descriptive study was conducted of internal transfer and articulation within the context of two-year branch campuses of four-year institutions. Data were gathered from a survey sent to the chief executive officers (CEO's) of 408 campuses delivering two-year tracks within a four-year college or university. Study findings, based on…

Prager, Carolyn


Transfer to UC.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student informational booklet reports that more than 11,000 students transferred from California community colleges to the University of California (UC) in 2000. The publication also answers frequently asked questions. There are three ways to become eligible to attend UC: (1) meet the requirements upon graduating from high school; (2) make up…

California Community Colleges, Sacramento.


Ancient horizontal gene transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cornerstone of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution is the vertical inheritance of traits from parent to offspring across successive generations. However, molecular evolutionary biologists have shown that extensive horizontal (also known as lateral) gene transfer (HGT) can occur between distantly related species. Comparative sequence analyses of genomes indicates that the universal tree of life might be at risk because

James R. Brown



Horizontal Gene Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Citizendium article offers a comprehensive review of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Topics include main features of HGT in nature, HGT in prokaryotes, HGT in eukaryotes, history and discovery of HGT, and decoding the tree of life from genomes scrambled by HGT. The image-rich text includes a list of related articles, a bibliography and external links of interest.



Feed tank transfer requirements  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

Freeman-Pollard, J.R.



Electron Transfer in Metalloproteins  

E-print Network

. The ability of transition metals to exist in more than one stable oxidation state makes them suitable catalysts for biological processes that require transfer of electrons. The oxidation/reduction centers Cytochrome f Plastocyanin Plastoquinone complex + cytochrome b6 hh Glucose ADP+P ATP ATP CO2 ADP+P NADP F0005

Tuscia, Università Degli Studi Della


Cryogenic Transfer Line Chilldown  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transient behavior of a small-scale cryogenic transfer line was investigated during chilldown to cryogenic temperatures. The vacuum-jacketed apparatus consisted of a vertical tube followed by a near-horizontal tube. The tube diameter was 1 cm and the overall length was 4.4 m. The apparatus was equipped with view-ports in the near-horizontal section to allow visual observation of the flow patterns. Wall temperatures were measured at various locations along the length of the transfer line. Each test was conducted at a constant liquid volumetric flowrate at the transfer line inlet until saturation temperatures were obtained throughout the system. Liquid flowrate was varied by more than two orders of magnitude and resulted in chilldown times ranging from a few minutes to several hours. An optimum flowrate exists that minimizes liquid consumption during the chilldown process. At higher flowrates, there is insufficient time for heat transfer from the liquid to the wall and inefficiencies result from the greater amount of incompletely vaporized liquid passing through the system. At lower flowrates, chilldown time and total ambient heat leak into the system increase, which raises liquid consumption. The experimental values of liquid consumption are compared to analytical estimates. At low flowrates, the data compares favorably to a minimum consumption model while at high flowrates the maximum consumption model overpredicts hydrogen consumption and underpredicts nitrogen consumption.

Van Dresar, N. T.; Siegwarth, J. D.



FMISO Transfer Agreement

Provider: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Provider agrees to transfer to Recipient the following FMISO Production Documents (click here) for the production of [18F]Fluoromisonidazole, 1H-1-(3-[18f]-Fluoro-2-Hydroxy-Propyl)-2-Nitro-Imidazole, [18F]FMISO.


FES Transfer Agreement

Provider: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Provider agrees to transfer to Recipient the following FES Production Documents (click here) for the production of [16-[18F]-fluoro-17-estradiol, [18F]FES (A) Generic Chemistry, Manufacturing and Control Section(B)


Somatic cell nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloning by nuclear transfer from adult somatic cells is a remarkable demonstration of developmental plasticity. When a nucleus is placed in oocyte cytoplasm, the changes in chromatin structure that govern differentiation can be reversed, and the nucleus can be made to control development to term.

I. Wilmut; N. Beaujean; P. A. de Sousa; A. Dinnyes; T. J. King; L. A. Paterson; D. N. Wells; L. E. Young



Charge Transfer Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charge transfer, or charge exchange, describes a process in which an ion takes one or more electrons from another atom. Investigations of this fundamental process have accompanied atomic physics from its very beginning, and have been extended to astrophysical scenarios already many decades ago. Yet one important aspect of this process, i.e. its high efficiency in generating X-rays, was only revealed in 1996, when comets were discovered as a new class of X-ray sources. This finding has opened up an entirely new field of X-ray studies, with great impact due to the richness of the underlying atomic physics, as the X-rays are not generated by hot electrons, but by ions picking up electrons from cold gas. While comets still represent the best astrophysical laboratory for investigating the physics of charge transfer, various studies have already spotted a variety of other astrophysical locations, within and beyond our solar system, where X-rays may be generated by this process. They range from planetary atmospheres, the heliosphere, the interstellar medium and stars to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, where charge transfer may even be observationally linked to dark matter. This review attempts to put the various aspects of the study of charge transfer reactions into a broader historical context, with special emphasis on X-ray astrophysics, where the discovery of cometary X-ray emission may have stimulated a novel look at our universe.

Dennerl, Konrad



Factor Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Factor Game engages students in a contest in which winning strategies involve distinguishing between numbers with many factors and numbers with few factors. Students are then guided through an analysis of game strategies and introduced to the definitions of prime and composite numbers.

Mathematics, National C.



Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost-effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

Chato, David J.



Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

Chato, David J.



Training transfer: scientific background and insights for practical application.  


Training transfer as an enduring, multilateral, and practically important problem encompasses a large body of research findings and experience, which characterize the process by which improving performance in certain exercises/tasks can affect the performance in alternative exercises or motor tasks. This problem is of paramount importance for the theory of training and for all aspects of its application in practice. Ultimately, training transfer determines how useful or useless each given exercise is for the targeted athletic performance. The methodological background of training transfer encompasses basic concepts related to transfer modality, i.e., positive, neutral, and negative; the generalization of training responses and their persistence over time; factors affecting training transfer such as personality, motivation, social environment, etc. Training transfer in sport is clearly differentiated with regard to the enhancement of motor skills and the development of motor abilities. The studies of bilateral skill transfer have shown cross-transfer effects following one-limb training associated with neural adaptations at cortical, subcortical, spinal, and segmental levels. Implementation of advanced sport technologies such as motor imagery, biofeedback, and exercising in artificial environments can facilitate and reinforce training transfer from appropriate motor tasks to targeted athletic performance. Training transfer of motor abilities has been studied with regard to contralateral effects following one limb training, cross-transfer induced by arm or leg training, the impact of strength/power training on the preparedness of endurance athletes, and the impact of endurance workloads on strength/power performance. The extensive research findings characterizing the interactions of these workloads have shown positive transfer, or its absence, depending on whether the combinations conform to sport-specific demands and physiological adaptations. Finally, cross-training as a form of concurrent exercising in different athletic disciplines has been examined in reference to the enhancement of general fitness, the preparation of recreational athletes, and the preparation of athletes for multi-sport activities such as triathlon, duathlon, etc. PMID:23633165

Issurin, Vladimir B



Instance Transfer Learning with Multisource Dynamic TrAdaBoost  

PubMed Central

Since the transfer learning can employ knowledge in relative domains to help the learning tasks in current target domain, compared with the traditional learning it shows the advantages of reducing the learning cost and improving the learning efficiency. Focused on the situation that sample data from the transfer source domain and the target domain have similar distribution, an instance transfer learning method based on multisource dynamic TrAdaBoost is proposed in this paper. In this method, knowledge from multiple source domains is used well to avoid negative transfer; furthermore, the information that is conducive to target task learning is obtained to train candidate classifiers. The theoretical analysis suggests that the proposed algorithm improves the capability that weight entropy drifts from source to target instances by means of adding the dynamic factor, and the classification effectiveness is better than single source transfer. Finally, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has higher classification accuracy. PMID:25152906

Zhang, Qian; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Ming



Studying Transfer Students: Part II: Dimensions of Transfer Students' Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement of students from community colleges to 4-year colleges or universities has been an area of inquiry that has received attention from researchers and policy makers. A plethora of research has focused on the academic outcomes of transfer students at senior institutions. Specifically, the concept of transfer shock has been used to explain transfer students' academic adjustment as measured

Frankie Santos Laanan



Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer  

E-print Network

The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow and reverse-flow TDTH...

Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.



Clemson Transfer Credit Categories and Policies CLEMSON TRANSFER CREDIT CLASSIFICATIONS  

E-print Network

Clemson Transfer Credit Categories and Policies CLEMSON TRANSFER CREDIT CLASSIFICATIONS FREQUENTLY Clemson Course (4999) What classifications of transfer credit does Clemson utilize to award credit- or four-year), credit for a specific Clemson course can be awarded from the 1000 to 4000 level. Elective

Duchowski, Andrew T.


Technology Transfer and Commercialization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin



Swipe transfer assembly  


The swipe transfer assembly is a mechanical assembly which is used in conjunction with glove boxes and other sealed containments. It is used to pass small samples into or out of glove boxes without an open breach of the containment, and includes a rotational cylinder inside a fixed cylinder, the inside cylinder being rotatable through an arc of approximately relative to the outer cylinder. An offset of from end to end allows only one port to be opened at a time. The assembly is made of stainless steel or aluminum and clear acrylic plastic to enable visual observation. The assembly allows transfer of swipes and smears from radiological and other specially controlled environments.

Christiansen, Robert M. (Blackfoot, ID); Mills, William C. (McKeesport, PA)



Long-distance transfer and routing of static magnetic fields.  


We show how the static magnetic field of a finite source can be transferred and routed to arbitrary long distances. This is achieved by using transformation optics, which results in a device made of a material with a highly anisotropic magnetic permeability. We show that a simplified version of the device, made by a superconducting-ferromagnet hybrid, also leads to an excellent transfer of the magnetic field. The latter is demonstrated with a proof-of-principle experiment where a ferromagnet tube coated with a superconductor improves the transfer of static magnetic fields with respect to conventional methods by a 400% factor over distances of 14 cm. PMID:25014816

Navau, C; Prat-Camps, J; Romero-Isart, O; Cirac, J I; Sanchez, A



Regolith Radiative Transfer Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing an improved regolith radiative transfer model (RRT) for multiple applications in planetary systems. Our immediate motivation for developing this particular RRT model is new data from Cassini at long IR wavelengths (100-500 microns). The first application will be to simulate the emissivity of the ring's grainy regoliths at far infrared wavelengths. The behavior of the emissivity at far IR is an important probe for determining the composition of the non-icy components of ring material.

Vahidinia, Sanaz



Satellite time transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different satellite time transfer techniques are described. One-way and two-way methods are presented. A more detailed description of different methods such as the global positioning system and time and frequency comparisons using TV-signals or pn-coded signals via communication satellites are outlined. In addition the use of laser signals (the Lasso experiment) is explained and the performance of the different techniques

D. Kirchner



Feed tank transfer requirements  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

Freeman-Pollard, J.R.



HIGEE Mass Transfer  

E-print Network

HIGEE MASS TRANSFER R.J. Mohr and R. Fowler GLITSCH, INC. Dallas, Texas ABSTRACT Distillation, absorption, and gas stripping have traditionally been performed in tall columns utilizing trays or packing. Columns perform satisfactorily... towers; large liquid inventory; difficulty in modifying column internals once installed; start up time to reach steady state conditions in excessive. Many of these disadvantages can be overcome by use of HIGEE, an innovative vapor-liquid mass...

Mohr, R. J.; Fowler, R.


Technology Transfer Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since its inception, Goddard has pursued a commitment to technology transfer and commercialization. For every space technology developed, Goddard strives to identify secondary applications. Goddard then provides the technologies, as well as NASA expertise and facilities, to U.S. companies, universities, and government agencies. These efforts are based in Goddard's Technology Commercialization Office. This report presents new technologies, commercialization success stories, and other Technology Commercialization Office activities in 1999.



Phospholipid transfer proteins revisited.  

PubMed Central

Phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PI-TP) and the non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsL-TP) (identical with sterol carrier protein 2) belong to the large and diverse family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins. Although these two proteins may express a comparable phospholipid transfer activity in vitro, recent studies in yeast and mammalian cells have indicated that they serve completely different functions. PI-TP (identical with yeast SEC14p) plays an important role in vesicle flow both in the budding reaction from the trans-Golgi network and in the fusion reaction with the plasma membrane. In yeast, vesicle budding is linked to PI-TP regulating Golgi phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis with the apparent purpose of maintaining an optimal PI/PC ratio of the Golgi complex. In mammalian cells, vesicle flow appears to be dependent on PI-TP stimulating phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) synthesis. This latter process may also be linked to the ability of PI-TP to reconstitute the receptor-controlled PIP2-specific phospholipase C activity. The nsL-TP is a peroxisomal protein which, by its ability to bind fatty acyl-CoAs, is most likely involved in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids in this organelle. This protein constitutes the N-terminus of the 58 kDa protein which is one of the peroxisomal 3-oxo-acyl-CoA thiolases. Further studies on these and other known phospholipid transfer proteins are bound to reveal new insights in their important role as mediators between lipid metabolism and cell functions. PMID:9182690

Wirtz, K W



Cryogenic Transfer Line Chilldown  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transient behavior of a small-scale cryogenic transfer line was investigated during chilldown to cryogenic temperatures. The vacuum-jacketed apparatus consisted of a vertical tube followed by a near-horizontal tube. The tube diameter was 1 cm and the overall length was 4.4 m. The apparatus was equipped with view-ports in the near-horizontal section to allow visual observation of the flow patterns.

N. T. van Dresar; J. D. Siegwarth



Programmable Quantum State Transfer  

E-print Network

A programmable quantum networks model is used in this paper for development of methods of control of a quantum state transport. These methods may be applied for a wide variety of patterns of controlled state transmission and spreading in quantum systems. The programmable perfect state transfer and quantum walk, mobile quantum (ro)bots and lattice gas automata may be described by unified way with such approach.

Alexander Yu. Vlasov



Improving NASA's technology transfer process through increased screening and evaluation in the information dissemination program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of NASA's technology transfer system can be improved if the technology transfer process is better understood. This understanding will only be gained if a detailed knowledge about factors generally influencing technology transfer is developed, and particularly those factors affecting technology transfer from government R and D agencies to industry. Secondary utilization of aerospace technology is made more difficult because it depends on a transfer process which crosses established organizational lines of authority and which is outside well understood patterns of technical applications. In the absence of a sound theory about technology transfer and because of the limited capability of government agencies to explore industry's needs, a team approach to screening and evaluation of NASA generated technologies is proposed which calls for NASA, and other organizations of the private and public sectors which influence the transfer of NASA generated technology, to participate in a screening and evaluation process to determine the commercial feasibility of a wide range of technical applications.

Laepple, H.



Technology transfer initiatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) technology transfer activities with the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the period of April 1993 through December 1993. Early in 1993, the MSFC/TUO and UAH conceived of the concept of developing stand-alone, integrated data packages on MSFC technology that would serve industrial needs previously determined to be critical. Furthermore, after reviewing over 500 problem statements received by MSFC, it became obvious that many of these requests could be satisfied by a standard type of response. As a result, UAH has developed two critical area response (CAR) packages: CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) replacements and modular manufacturing and simulation. Publicity included news releases, seminars, articles and conference papers. The Huntsville Chamber of Commerce established the Technology Transfer Subcommittee with the charge to identify approaches for the Chamber to assist its members, as well as non-members, access to the technologies at the federal laboratories in North Alabama. The Birmingham Chamber of Commerce has expressed interest in establishing a similar technology transfer program. This report concludes with a section containing a tabulation of the problem statements, including CAR packages, submitted to MSFC from January 1992 through December 1993.

Mccain, Wayne; Schroer, Bernard J.; Ziemke, M. Carl



The Orthogonal Transfer CCD  

E-print Network

We have designed and built a new type of CCD that we call an orthogonal transfer CCD (OTCCD), which permits parallel clocking horizontally as well as vertically. The device has been used successfully to remove image motion caused by atmospheric turbulence at rates up to 100 Hz, and promises to be a better, cheaper way to carry out image motion correction for imaging than by using fast tip/tilt mirrors. We report on the device characteristics, and find that the large number of transfers needed to track image motion does not significantly degrade the image either because of charge transfer inefficiency or because of charge traps. For example, after 100 sec of tracking at 100 Hz approximately 3% of the charge would diffuse into a skirt around the point spread function. Four nights of data at the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT (MDM) 2.4-m telescope also indicate that the atmosphere is surprisingly benign, in terms of both the speed and coherence angle of image motion. Image motion compensation improved image sharpness by about 0.5 arcsec in quadrature with no degradation over a field of at least 3 arcminutes.

John L. Tonry; Barry E. Burke; Paul L. Schechter



Heat transfer variations of bicycle helmets.  


Bicycle helmets exhibit complex structures so as to combine impact protection with ventilation. A quantitative experimental measure of the state of the art and variations therein is a first step towards establishing principles of bicycle helmet ventilation. A thermal headform mounted in a climate-regulated wind tunnel was used to study the ventilation efficiency of 24 bicycle helmets at two wind speeds. Flow visualization in a water tunnel with a second headform demonstrated the flow patterns involved. The influence of design details such as channel length and vent placement was studied, as well as the impact of hair. Differences in heat transfer among the helmets of up to 30% (scalp) and 10% (face) were observed, with the nude headform showing the highest values. On occasion, a negative role of some vents for forced convection was demonstrated. A weak correlation was found between the projected vent cross-section and heat transfer variations when changing the head tilt angle. A simple analytical model is introduced that facilitates the understanding of forced convection phenomena. A weak correlation between exposed scalp area and heat transfer was deduced. Adding a wig reduces the heat transfer by approximately a factor of 8 in the scalp region and up to one-third for the rest of the head for a selection of the best ventilated helmets. The results suggest that there is significant optimization potential within the basic helmet structure represented in modern bicycle helmets. PMID:16882634

Brühwiler, P A; Buyan, M; Huber, R; Bogerd, C P; Sznitman, J; Graf, S F; Rösgen, T



Fluid mechanics and transfer processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental principles of fluid dynamics, heat, and mass transfer are discussed. The basic equations governing the convective transfer by fluid motion of matter, energy and momentum, and the transfer of the same properties by diffusion of molecular motion. These concepts are then applied systematically to the study of fluid dynamics in an engineering context and to the parallel investigation of

J. M. Kay; R. M. Nedderman



Technology Transfer Network and Affiliations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Technology Transfer Partnership program sponsors a number of organizations around the country that are designed to assist U.S. businesses in accessing, utilizing, and commercializing NASA-funded research and technology. These organizations work closely with the Technology Transfer Offices, located at each of the 10 NASA field centers, providing a full range of technology transfer and commercialization services and assistance.



University of Missouri TRANSFER STUDENT  

E-print Network

five Summer Welcome sessions for transfer students. After you have read this section, you will be askedUniversity of Missouri TSRO 2014 TRANSFER STUDENT REGISTRATION AND ORIENTATION THIS GUIDE IS YOUR Math Placement Exam 5 Transfer Interest Groups (TRIGs) 6 Completing Your TSRO Form 8 Helpful

Taylor, Jerry


Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the organization of a graduate course dealing with mass transfer, particularly as it relates to chemical reactions. Discusses the course outline, including mathematics models of mass transfer, enhancement of mass transfer rates by homogeneous chemical reaction, and gas-liquid systems with chemical reaction. (TW)

DeCoursey, W. J.



Zero gravity liquid transfer screen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid transfer device for use in a zero gravity environment, for transferring liquid from one container to another is described. The device includes a spiral shaped screen type member which is carried in the container for collecting the randomly dispersed liquid and transferring such to an exit port.

Howard, F. S. (inventor)



Phenomenology of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors  

SciTech Connect

A rigorous extraction of the deuteron charge form factors from tensor polarization data in elastic electron-deuteron scattering, at given values of the 4-momentum transfer, is presented. Then the world data for elastic electron-deuteron scattering is used to parameterize, in three different ways, the three electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron in the 4-momentum transfer range 0-7 fm. This procedure is made possible with the advent of recent polarization measurements. The parameterizations allow a phenomenological characterization of the deuteron electromagnetic structure. They can be used to remove ambiguities in the form factors extraction from future polarization data.

David Abbott; Abdellah Ahmidouch; H. Anklin; J. Arvieux; James P. Ball; Shelton Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Samuel Danagoulian; K. Dow; Jean-Eric Ducret; Jim Dunne; Lars Ewell; L. Eyraud; C. Furget; Michel Garcon; Ron Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; Kenneth Gustafsson; Kawtar Hafidi; A. Honegger; J. Jourdan; Serge Kox; Gerfried Kumbartzki; L. Lu; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; Justin McIntyre; David Meekins; F. Merchez; Joseph Mitchell; R. Mohring; S. Mtingwa; H. Mrktchyan; D. Pitz; Liming Qin; Ronald Ransome; J.-S. R'eal; Philip Roos; Paul Rutt; Reyad Sawafta; Stepan Stepanyan; Raphael Tieulent; E. Tomasi-Gustafsson; William Turchinetz; K. Vansyoc; J. Volmer; E. Voutier; Claude Williamson; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Jianguo Zhao; W. Zhao



Phenomenology of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors  

SciTech Connect

A rigorous extraction of the deuteron charge form factors from tensor polarization data in elastic electron-deuteron scattering, at given values of the 4-momentum transfer, is presented. Then the world data for elastic electron-deuteron scattering is used to parameterize, in three different ways, the three electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron in the 4-momentum transfer range 0-7 fm. This procedure is made possible with the advent of recent polarization measurements. The parameterizations allow a phenomenological characterization of the deuteron electromagnetic structure. They can be used to remove ambiguities in the form factors extraction from future polarization data.

David Abbott; Abdellah Ahmidouch; H. Anklin; J. Arvieux; James P. Ball; Shelton Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Samuel Danagoulian; K. Dow; Jean-Eric Ducret; Jim Dunne; Lars Ewell; L. Eyraud; C. Furget; Michel Garcon; Ron Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; Kenneth Gustafsson; Kawtar Hafidi; A. Honegger; J. Jourdan; Serge Kox; Gerfried Kumbartzki; L. Lu; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; Justin McIntyre; David Meekins; F. Merchez; Joseph Mitchell; R. Mohring; S. Mtingwa; H. Mrktchyan; D. Pitz; Liming Qin; Ronald Ransome; J.-S. R'eal; Philip Roos; Paul Rutt; Reyad Sawafta; Stepan Stepanyan; Raphael Tieulent; E. Tomasi-Gustafsson; William Turchinetz; K. Vansyoc; J. Volmer; E. Voutier; Claude Williamson; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Jianguo Zhao; W. Zhao



Phenomenology of the Deuteron Electromagnetic Form Factors  

E-print Network

A rigorous extraction of the deuteron charge form factors from tensor polarization data in elastic electron-deuteron scattering, at given values of the 4-momentum transfer, is presented. Then the world data for elastic electron-deuteron scattering is used to parameterize, in three different ways, the three electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron in the 4-momentum transfer range 0-7 fm^-1. This procedure is made possible with the advent of recent polarization measurements. The parameterizations allow a phenomenological characterization of the deuteron electromagnetic structure. They can be used to remove ambiguities in the form factors extraction from future polarization data.

TheJLAB t20 collaboration; D. Abbott



Factor Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students first create factor posters for a variety of different numbers that will be displayed in the classroom to be utilized as a resource throughout the school year. They make discoveries about factors using color tiles, represent their discoveries using graph paper, and display their information on poster board as find factors of an assigned number. The plan includes a list of materials, questions, assessment options, and extensions.

Piecora, Jamie



Tests of transfer reaction determinations of astrophysical S factors  

E-print Network

The O-16(He-3,d)F-17 reaction has been used to determine asymptotic normalization coefficients for transitions to the ground and first excited states of F-17. Th, coefficients provide the normalization for the tails of the overlap functions for F-17...

Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.; Azhari, A.; Clark, HL; Lui, YW; Mukhamedzhanov, AM; Sattarov, A.; Trache, L.; Burjan, V.; Cejpek, J.; Kroha, V.; Piskor, S.; Vincour, J.



Radiative Transfer in Clumpy and Fractal Media  

E-print Network

A Monte Carlo model of radiative transfer in multi-phase dusty media is applied to the situation of stars and clumpy dust in a sphere or a disk. The distribution of escaping and absorbed photons are shown for various filling factors and densities. Analytical methods of approximating the escaping fraction of radiation, based on the Mega-Grains approach, are discussed. Comparison with the Monte Carlo results shows that the escape probability formulae provide a reasonable approximation of the escaping/absorbed fractions, for a wide range of parameters characterizing a clumpy dusty medium. A possibly more realistic model of the interstellar medium is one in which clouds have a self-similar hierarchical structure of denser and denser clumps within clumps, resulting in a fractal distribution of gas and dust. Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer in such multi-phase fractal media are compared with the two-phase clumpy case.

Frank Varosi; Eli Dwek



Noise enhances information transfer in hierarchical networks  

PubMed Central

We study the influence of noise on information transmission in the form of packages shipped between nodes of hierarchical networks. Numerical simulations are performed for artificial tree networks, scale-free Ravasz-Barabási networks as well for a real network formed by email addresses of former Enron employees. Two types of noise are considered. One is related to packet dynamics and is responsible for a random part of packets paths. The second one originates from random changes in initial network topology. We find that the information transfer can be enhanced by the noise. The system possesses optimal performance when both kinds of noise are tuned to specific values, this corresponds to the Stochastic Resonance phenomenon. There is a non-trivial synergy present for both noisy components. We found also that hierarchical networks built of nodes of various degrees are more efficient in information transfer than trees with a fixed branching factor. PMID:23390574

Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Holyst, Janusz A.; Sloot, Peter M. A.



Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design features and performance capabilities of Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants for transferring off-peak utility electricity to on-peak hours are described. The plant operations involve compressing ambient air with an axial flow compressor and depositing it in an underground reservoir at 70 bar pressure. Released during a peaking cycle, the pressure is reduced to 43 bar, the air is heated to 550 C, passed through an expander after a turbine, and passed through a low pressure combustion chamber to be heated to 850 C. A West German plant built in 1978 to supply over 300 MW continuous power for up to two hours is detailed, noting its availability factor of nearly 98 percent and power delivery cost of $230/kW installed. A plant being constructed in Illinois will use limestone caverns as the air storage tank.

Stys, Z. S.



A Qualitative Study of Two-To-Four-Year Transfer Practices in California Community Colleges: An Analysis of Seven Case Studies Featuring Colleges with Consistently Higher-than-Expected Transfer Rates, Fall 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Which factors promote transfer from community colleges to four-year colleges and universities? What can individuals learn about transfer from tracking cohorts of students? What can they learn from studying colleges that have a strong track record of transferring students? These questions are at the center of a study funded in 2007 by the…

Mery, Pamela; Schiorring, Eva



Transfer of Training: Does It Truly Happen?: An Examination of Support, Instrumentality, Retention and Learner Readiness on the Transfer Motivation and Transfer of Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the importance of selected environmental, situational and individual factors in the training transfer process. Design/methodology/approach: This study proposes and tests a framework via structural equation modelling by including supervisor and peer support, instrumentality and learner readiness on…

Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed; Sundram, Veera Pandiyan Kaliani; Othman, Akmal Aini



Long-range plasmon-assisted energy transfer over doped graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that longitudinal plasmons in doped monolayer graphene can mediate highly efficient long-range energy transfer between nearby fluorophores, e.g., semiconductor quantum dots. We derive a simple analytical expression for the energy transfer efficiency that incorporates all the essential processes involved. We perform numerical calculations of the transfer efficiency for a pair of PbSe quantum dots near graphene for interfluorophore distances of up to 1 ?m and find that the plasmon-assisted long-range energy transfer can be enhanced by up to a factor of ˜104 relative to the Förster's transfer in vacuum.

Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Shahbazyan, Tigran V.



Heat Transfer Textbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory engineering textbook on heat and mass transfer, written by John H. Lienhard IV, Professor at University of Houston and John H. Lienhard IV, Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology is now available online without charge. One aim of this project is to "explore the possibilities of placing textbooks online." The idea is that the online format holds two key benefits -- ease of continuous updates or corrections, and the "potential for fundamentally altering the economics of higher education, particularly those in environments where money is scarce." To these ends, the website also posts a history of the various versions and statistics on downloads of the book worldwide.



Manipulator mounted transfer platform  


A transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed frame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control.

Dobbins, James C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hoover, Mark A. (Idaho Falls, ID); May, Kay W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ross, Maurice J. (Pocatello, ID)



EPA underwrites technology transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Environmental Protection Agency will establish a multi-million dollar corporation at the University of Pittsburgh that will aim to speed up the commercial development of environmental technology. The National Environmental Technology Applications Corporation (NETAC) will be responsible for identifying promising projects underway around the country and helping usher techniques and products into the marketplace.According to EPA administrator Lee Thomas, “NETAC will be a positive force for changing the way government and industry work together in the environmental area. It will provide a new approach that will effectively increase the transfer of pollution control technologies among environmental decision-makers in both government and industry.“


Toward improved technology transfer  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a model and describes two new initiatives for improving technology transfer. The model and the initiatives call for the following paradigm shifts: (1) Be proactive instead of reactive; (2) Improve leadership skills first, then management skills; (3) Organize and execute around a few critical activities that matter the most instead of the many that matter the least; (4) Think win-win, instead of ``my way`` or ``your way``; (5) Listen first, speak second; (6) Make 1+1=1,000 instead of 2; and (7) Renew resources daily instead of intermittently.

Hays, W.W. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)



Ariane Transfer Vehicle status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA has since 1987 conducted studies for an Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) that will be able to bridge the distance between the Ariane 5 launch vehicle and orbiting elements which must be serviced. ATV's reference mission involves the logistical support of the Space Station Freedom through transport of such items as unpressurized carriers or pressurized modules. After an attached period of up to six months at the Station, the ATV can remove a cargo of the Station's waste products for disposal. A conceptual development history of the ATV is presented with emphasis on the ESA/NASA common design criteria that had to be addressed to arrive at a suitable ATV architecture.

Bonnal, Christophe; Theillier, Francis; Salt, David J.



The Multinational Transfer of Competency-Based Foster Parent Assessment, Selection, and Training: A Nine-Country Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes transfer of methods of the PRIDE program for foster parent training and assessment from Sweden and Finland, to Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Estonia. Discusses three critical factors: program content, methodology used to accomplish the transfer, and commitment of the transferring organizations and individuals involved. Considers the…

Herczog, Maria; van Pagee, Rob; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers



Polarization transfer NMR imaging  


A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) image is obtained with spatial information modulated by chemical information. The modulation is obtained through polarization transfer from a first element representing the desired chemical, or functional, information, which is covalently bonded and spin-spin coupled with a second element effective to provide the imaging data. First and second rf pulses are provided at first and second frequencies for exciting the imaging and functional elements, with imaging gradients applied therebetween to spatially separate the nuclei response for imaging. The second rf pulse is applied at a time after the first pulse which is the inverse of the spin coupling constant to select the transfer element nuclei which are spin coupled to the functional element nuclei for imaging. In a particular application, compounds such as glucose, lactate, or lactose, can be labeled with .sup.13 C and metabolic processes involving the compounds can be imaged with the sensitivity of .sup.1 H and the selectivity of .sup.13 C.

Sillerud, Laurel O. (Los Alamos, NM); van Hulsteyn, David B. (Santa Fe, NM)



Predicting transfer students' selection of a STEM major and academic adjustment: A study of community college students at a midwestern university.  

E-print Network

??This research project investigated differences between transfer students choosing STEM- and non-STEM-related majors, determined the factors affecting a transfer student's choice of a STEM- or… (more)

Gaalswyk, Terry Burdell



A research on the moderate transference of China's agricultural labor.  


Examining the economic impact of large transfers of agricultural laborers to other occupations in China, this article argues in favor of moderate transference and provides specific measures for accomplishing that level of relocation. In 1979, China adopted a rural economic reform which prompted a total of 54.6 million farmers to transfer to other occupations over the next decade. Despite the transfers, the authors calculate that there remains an agricultural labor surplus of 70 million. While some maintain that accelerated transference of agricultural labor is necessary to achieve economic growth, the article points out not only the obstacles to accelerated transference but also its detrimental economic impact. 3 main factors hinder accelerated transference: the limited capacity of urban areas to absorb new labor, the limited amount of funds for investments needed to make the transfer possible, and the limited amount of energy and raw materials. Given China's current situation, accelerate transfers would only worsen the overcrowding of cities, aggravate the shortages of energy and raw materials, and retard economic progress by increasing inflation. The authors explain that China's particular situation calls for a policy of moderate transference, one that takes into account land output value, the capacity of nonagricultural sectors to absorb new labor, and the capacity of urban areas to absorb people. The authors propose the following 4 general measures that such a policy should include: 1) promoting technological development in rural areas, 2) adjusting and expanding the various structures in township enterprises, 3) favoring central townships, and 4) improving rural education. Within each of these general measures, the authors offer more specific recommendations. PMID:12343586

Li, H; Wu, M; Zhu, J; Wu, G



Computational chemistry and aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the radiative heating phenomena encountered during a typical aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV) trajectory was made to determine the potential impact of computational chemistry on AOTV design technology. Both equilibrium and nonequilibrium radiation mechanisms were considered. This analysis showed that computational chemistry can be used to predict (1) radiative intensity factors and spectroscopic data; (2) the excitation rates of both atoms and molecules; (3) high-temperature reaction rate constants for metathesis and charge exchange reactions; (4) particle ionization and neutralization rates and cross sections; and (5) spectral line widths.

Cooper, D. M.; Jaffe, R. L.; Arnold, J. O.



Testing efficiency transfer codes for equivalence.  


Four general Monte Carlo codes (GEANT3, PENELOPE, MCNP and EGS4) and five dedicated packages for efficiency determination in gamma-ray spectrometry (ANGLE, DETEFF, GESPECOR, ETNA and EFFTRAN) were checked for equivalence by applying them to the calculation of efficiency transfer (ET) factors for a set of well-defined sample parameters, detector parameters and energies typically encountered in environmental radioactivity measurements. The differences between the results of the different codes never exceeded a few percent and were lower than 2% in the majority of cases. PMID:19892558

Vidmar, T; Celik, N; Cornejo Díaz, N; Dlabac, A; Ewa, I O B; Carrazana González, J A; Hult, M; Jovanovi?, S; Lépy, M-C; Mihaljevi?, N; Sima, O; Tzika, F; Jurado Vargas, M; Vasilopoulou, T; Vidmar, G



Important aspects of placental-specific gene transfer.  


The placenta is a unique and highly complex organ that develops only during pregnancy and is essential for growth and survival of the developing fetus. The placenta provides the vital exchange of gases and wastes, the necessary nutrients for fetal development, acts as immune barrier that protects against maternal rejection, and produces numerous hormones and growth factors that promote fetal maturity to regulate pregnancy until parturition. Abnormal placental development is a major underlying cause of pregnancy-associated disorders that often result in preterm birth. Defects in placental stem cell propagation, growth, and differentiation are the major factors that affect embryonic and fetal well-being and dramatically increase the risk of pregnancy complications. Understanding the processes that regulate placentation is important in determining the underlying factors behind abnormal placental development. The ability to manipulate genes in a placenta-specific manner provides a unique tool to analyze development and eliminates potentially confounding results that can occur with traditional gene knockouts. Trophoblast stem cells and mouse embryos are not overly amenable to traditional gene transfer techniques. Most viral vectors, however, have a low infection rate and often lead to mosaic transgenesis. Although the traditional method of embryo transfer is intrauterine surgical implantation, the methodology reported here, combining lentiviral blastocyst infection and nonsurgical embryo transfer, leads to highly efficient and placental-specific gene transfer. Numerous advantages of our optimized procedures include increased investigator safety, a reduction in animal stress, rapid and noninvasive embryo transfer, and higher a rate of pregnancy and live birth. PMID:25110063

Kaufman, Melissa R; Albers, Renee E; Keoni, Chanel; Kulkarni-Datar, Kashmira; Natale, David R; Brown, Thomas L



Carrier-phase time transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted several time-transfer experiments using the phase of the GPS carrier rather than the code, as is done in current GPS-based time-transfer systems. Atomic clocks were connected to geodetic GPS receivers; we then used the GPS carrier-phase observations to estimate relative clock behavior at 6-minute intervals. GPS carrier-phase time transfer is more than an order of magnitude more

Kristine M. Larson; Judah Levine



Olympic torch transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KSC Shuttle Operations Manager Loren J. Shriver (right) transfers the Olympic flame to KSC runner Joanne Maceo's torch at the top of Launch Pad 39A after he carried the Olympic torch to the top of the pad as his contribution to the July 7, 1996 KSC Olympic torch relay effort. Jon Granston of the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games (center) witnesses the exchange. Maceo then carried her lit torch down the concrete hard stand of the pad to pass the flame to another of the 20-member KSC runner team that participated in the KSC relay effort. The Olympic torch arrived at KSC at 1:40 p.m. and traveled a 20-mile course to the pad and then out to the KSC visitor Center. The Space Shuttle Atlantis is behind the trio, poised for the STS-79 mission, with will feature the fourth docking of the shuttle with the Russian Mir space station.



National Technology Transfer Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC) "provides access to federal technology information, technology and market assessment services, technology marketing and assistance in finding strategic partners." The purpose of the Center is to help make "commercialization deals happen" by fostering relationships with federal clients, showcasing technologies and facilitating partnerships between clients and US industry. The technologies showcased here have been assessed by a team of market and technology analysts for their commercial potential. This extensive database of technologies, which largely seems to come from NASA, can be searched by keyword or browsed by category, such as medical devices, communications, software, or aerodynamics. NTTC's services and programs that promote business partnerships are described further on this website.


Technology transfer 1995  

SciTech Connect

Technology Transfer 1995 is intended to inform the US industrial and academic sectors about the many opportunities they have to form partnerships with the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the mutual advantage of the individual institutions, DOE, and the nation as a whole. It also describes some of the growing number of remarkable achievements resulting from such partnerships. These partnership success stories offer ample evidence that Americans are learning how to work together to secure major benefits for the nation--by combining the technological, scientific, and human resources resident in national laboratories with those in industry and academia. The benefits include more and better jobs for Americans, improved productivity and global competitiveness for technology-based industries, and a more efficient government laboratory system.

Not Available



Aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle which includes an aerobraking device which also serves as a heat shield in the shape of a raked-off elliptic or circular cone with a circular or elliptical base, and with an ellipsoid or other blunt shape nose. The aerobraking device is fitted with a toroid-like skirt and is integral with the support structure of the propulsion system and other systems of the space vehicle. The vehicle is intended to be transported in components to a space station in lower earth orbit where it is assembled for use as a transportation system from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit and return. Conventional guidance means are included for autonomous flight.

Scott, Carl D. (Inventor); Nagy, Kornel (Inventor); Roberts, Barney B. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Kroll, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Gamble, Joe (Inventor)



Three orbital transfer vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace engineering students at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University undertook three design projects under the sponsorship of the NASA/USRA Advanced Space Design Program. All three projects addressed cargo and/or crew transportation between low Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit. Project SPARC presents a preliminary design of a fully reusable, chemically powered aeroassisted vehicle for a transfer of a crew of five and a 6000 to 20000 pound payload. The ASTV project outlines a chemically powered aeroassisted configuration that uses disposable tanks and a relatively small aerobrake to realize propellant savings. The third project, LOCOST, involves a reusable, hybrid laser/chemical vehicle designed for large cargo (up to 88,200 pounds) transportation.



Model for the phase transfer of nanoparticles using ionic surfactants.  


Ionic surfactants are widely used for the phase transfer of nanoparticles from aqueous to organic phases; however, a model that can be used to select ionic surfactants based on the nanoparticle solution properties has yet to be established. Here, we have studied the phase transfer of a variety of nanoparticles and have identified hydrophobicity, steric repulsion, and interfacial tension as key factors in determining whether or not phase transfer will occur. Based on these studies, we have developed a simple model for phase transfer wherein the success of the surfactant depends only on three criteria. The phase transfer agents must (i) efficiently load onto or cross the interface, (ii) solubilize the nanoparticles in the receiving phase, and (iii) sterically stabilize the nanoparticles to prevent aggregation due to van der Waals forces between the inorganic cores. Using these criteria, the effectiveness of ionic surfactants could be predicted based on their molecular geometry and the properties of the nanoparticle solutions. These rules provide a basis for choosing surfactants for phase transfer of spherical nanoparticles up to 16 nm in diameter and advances the development of a general model of nanoparticle phase transfer, which would include all nanoparticle shapes, sizes, and solvents. PMID:25347724

Joshi, Chakra P; Bigioni, Terry P



Cash transfers for HIV prevention: considering their potential  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cash payments to vulnerable households and/or individuals have increasingly garnered attention as a means to reduce poverty, improve health and achieve other development-related outcomes. Recent evidence from Malawi and Tanzania suggests that cash transfers can impact HIV-related behaviours and outcomes and, therefore, could serve as an important addition to HIV prevention efforts. Discussion This article reviews the current evidence on cash transfers for HIV prevention and suggests unresolved questions for further research. Gaps include (1) understanding more about the mechanisms and pathways through which cash transfers affect HIV-related outcomes; (2) addressing key operational questions, including the potential feasibility and the costs and benefits of different models of transfers and conditionality; and (3) evaluating and enhancing the wider impacts of cash transfers on health and development. Conclusions Ongoing and future studies should build on current findings to unpack unresolved questions and to collect additional evidence on the multiple impacts of transfers in different settings. Furthermore, in order to address questions on sustainability, cash transfer programmes need to be integrated with other sectors and programmes that address structural factors such as education and programming to promote gender equality and address HIV. PMID:23972159

Heise, Lori; Lutz, Brian; Ranganathan, Meghna; Watts, Charlotte




SciTech Connect

Long distance data movement is an essential activity of modern computing. However, the congestion control mechanisms in the Internet’s Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) severely limit the bandwidth achieved by long distance data transfers. The throughput of such transfers can be improved by applying the logistical technique of breaking a single long distance transfer into multiple shorter transfers. This technique can result in signifi cantly improved throughput while still respecting the shared nature of the Internet by not attempting to circumvent the TCP congestion controls. This technique has been incorporated into an algorithm which attempts to dynamically schedule transfers for optimal throughput. The algorithm couples graph techniques with real-time latency and bandwidth measurements to discover the best path and adaptively respond to network dynamics. The algorithm shows improvements in speed and fl exibility over standard data transfer methods such as FTP. Specifi c transfers tests performed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and a destination in Sunnyvale, CA show throughput increases by a factor of two.

LaBissoniere, D.; Roche, K.



Technology Transfer Center | Staff Directory

Charlotte McGuinness - Unit Supervisor CSC and Specialist for NCCAM Tawanda Abdelmouti - Technology Development Administrative Specialist Vio Conley - Technology Transfer Specialist for NIA and NIDA Joseph M.


Automatic tank gauges can be used for custody transfer  

SciTech Connect

Automatic tank gauging systems (ATG's) can be used effectively for volume measurements for custody transfers of liquids because they can offer better repeatability of measurements, and they can reduce human measurement errors. However, users must be aware of the factors affecting the installed accuracy which could disqualify the ATG installation for custody transfer measurements. Also, approvals may be needed, in some cases, from regulatory agencies to allow the use of electronic ATG's. This paper presents factors that affect both the inherent and installed accuracy of ATG's and the conditions required for using ATG's, along with advantages and disadvantages of using ATG's in custody transfers. Excerpts of some of the standards that apply to ATG's are also reviewed.

Mei, K.W. (Chevron Corp., Richmond, CA (US))



Bilayer Approaches for Nanoparticle Phase Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles (NPs) are often synthesized in organic solvents due to advantages of superior size and shape control obtainable in a non-polar environment. However, many applications featuring NPs require them to be in aqueous media. To transfer NPs from oil to water, surfactants with amphiphilic (hydrophobic and hydrophilic) groups have been widely used. A popular phase-transfer approach involves formation of oil-in-water emulsions upon which the oil storing the NPs is boiled off. In the process, surfactants form bilayers with hydrophobic groups on the NPs rendering them water-dispersible. This transfer route however is limited in that NPs aggregate to form clusters which results in poor colloidal stability and for the specific case of quantum dots (QDs), adversely impacts optical properties. It has ever since remained a challenge to devise approaches that transfer NPs from oil to water as single particles without compromising NP stability and properties. We have discovered that by simple addition of salt to water during the step of emulsion formation, NP transfer efficiency can be greatly enhanced in "salty-micelles" of surfactants. The strength of this approach lies in its simplicity and generic nature in that the transfer scheme is valid for different NP, surfactant and salt types. Using a model system with cadmium selenide (CdSe) QDs as NPs, Aerosol-OT (AOT) as the surfactant and NaCl as the salt in water, we found >90% of CdSe QDs transferred in salty-micelles of AOT which was significantly higher than the 45-55% QDs that transferred in deionized-water (DI-water) micelles of AOT. In the salty-micelle environment, QDs were found to exist predominantly as single NPs with narrow size distribution, as established by light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy. The effects of salt were in lowering aqueous solubility of AOT through "salting-out" action and in screening repulsions between like-charged head groups of AOT molecules. Electrophoresis, thermogravimetric analysis and photoluminescence measurements using a solvatochromic dye established higher surfactant coverage with greater lateral compaction for QDs in salty-micelles over the DI-micelle counterpart. Single NP characteristics along with a hydrophobic environment in laterally compact salty-micelles resulted in better retention of optical properties of QDs. Observations of a secondary effect by salt in inducing spontaneous emulsification of a hydrocarbon (octane)/AOT/brine system were systematically investigated by tracking time-variant octane droplet size and charge. Salinity levels that determine the spontaneous curvature and phase behavior of AOT were seen to influence the initial nucleation of octane droplets and their subsequent growth. The smallest octane drops (sub 50 nm) were nucleated at the optimum cross-over salinity and emergence of the liquid crystalline phase of AOT resulted in slowest growth rates. These factors contributed towards higher transfer efficiency of NPs in salty-micelles. Two applications from formulating aqueous NP suspensions by the new phase-transfer approach are described. In the first, QD and carbon-dot (C-Dot) "nanoreporters" were formulated for oil-field reservoir characterization using Neodol 91-7 (nonionic) and Avanel S150 CGN (hybrid nonionic and anionic) as surfactants. These NPs were stable to aggregation under reservoir-representative conditions (salinities: 1M NaCl, 1M KCl and 0.55M synthetic seawater; temperatures: 70-100 °C) and demonstrated flow and transport through crushed-calcite and quartz-sand columns with high breakthrough and recovery (> 90%). In the second application, tandem assembly of a cationic polymer, multivalent salt, and NPs was investigated in a microfluidic channel where charge ratio of the polymer/salt and shear from flow and device geometry determined their assembly into higher ordered structures such as gels and capsules.

Kini, Gautam Chandrakanth


eknikarationste Mass transfer andMass transfer and  

E-print Network

processes Massöve and separation processesand separation processes (mainly G/G, G/L, L/L)(mainly G/G, G/L, L/Leknikarationste Mass transfer andMass transfer and ti t h lti t h l 24302 ochSepa separation

Zevenhoven, Ron


Transference and Counter-Transference in Treating Incarcerated Sex Offenders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the processes involved in treating sex offenders. Focuses on how therapists can feel traumatized by this patient population, the dynamism of transference, and tactics used by sex offender patients, such as seduction, imitation, intimidation, and invalidation. Describes ways for therapists to maintain objectivity and use transference

Allen, Brad; Brekke, Karl E.



Exploring Benefit Transfer: Disamenities of Waste Transfer Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefit transfer method was developed as an alternative way to value exter- nalities using values from studies of similar circumstances, carried out at similar sites some- where else, given the challenges and high costs inherent in assessing the actual cost. Specifically, in order to test the performance of the benefit transfer method, employing hedonic price models, this study focused




Experimental investigation on heat transfer enhancement from a heated circular cylinder with constant heat input power in turbulent pulsating crossflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were carried out to study the heat transfer performance of a heated circular cylinder in turbulent pulsating crossflows. For a single heated circular cylinder, heat transfer enhancement factors up to 1.26 were observed in the studied parameter range. Two empirical correlations with different deviations were developed. The heat transfer enhancement factor was found to decrease with Strouhal number and Reynolds number, but increase in trend with the ratio of pulsating to steady Reynolds number.

Li, Guoneng; Zheng, Youqu; Xu, Yousheng; Hu, Guilin; Zhang, Zhiguo



Sources of instabilities in two-way satellite time transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) has become an important component in the international system for comparing time and frequency over long distances. In order to make further improvements in the stability of TWSTFT a more complete understanding of the sources of instabilities is required. This paper analyzes several sources of instabilities, including environmental factors, ionospheric delay, satellite motion

T. E. Parker; V. Zhang



Information transfer during contingency operations: Emergency air-ground communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Safety related problems are reported which occur as a consequence of information transfer deficiencies that arise when air/ground communications are (or should be) used as a resource in inflight emergency situations. The system factors, the human errors, and the associated causes of these problem are defined.

Porter, R. F.



The Rockefeller University Office of Technology Transfer 502 Founders Hall  

E-print Network

The Rockefeller University Office of Technology Transfer 502 Founders Hall 1230 York Avenue New Disorders using Ion Channel Modulators RU 1118 Technology Summary Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include of causative factors. Every year, about 20,000 children develop ASD in the U.S. alone. About 50% of them

de Lange, Titia


Post Baccalaureate Reverse Transfer Implications for Community College Student Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper asserts that a sizeable number of students at the community college have attained a baccalaureate degree or higher and have returned to the community college to take credit courses. These post-baccalaureate reverse transfer students (PRTS) enroll in the community college for a variety of reasons, but one of the more common factors is…

Pope, Myron; Turner, Mary; Barker, John


Preweaning growth characteristics for Brahman-Angus embryo transfer calves  

E-print Network

Effects of factors affecting birth weight and weaning weight of 3-4 Brahman x ;,4 Angus and 3-4 Angus x 14 Brahman embryo transfer calves were analyzed. Data used in this project were collected at the Angleton Research Station. Backcross matings...

Cook, Billy Jack



Improved Heat-Transfer Calculations for Hypersonic Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lewis number corrected for extremely high airspeeds. Algorithm calculates improved, variable value of Lewis number, factor in equation for heat-transfer coefficient at stagnation point of body in hypersonic flow mach numbers of approximately 25. New algorithm improves accuracy of calculations of heat generated by hot air acting on moving body.

Greenschlag, S. N.



Custody transfer of natural gas by heat content  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of pricing gas independent of pressure or temperature bases, as supported by the Natural Gas Policy Act with which the trend to price gas on the basis of heating value was accelerated. Tables with base pressure conversion factors, calculated BTU values, and BTUs transferred were presented. Using the mass derived from chromatographic analysis of a stream in mol




Performance evaluation of the multi-source file transfer protocol in peer-to-peer network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-source file transfer protocol (MFTP) is a popular file sharing tool used in peer-to-peer network these days. This research project compares the transitional file transfer protocol (FTP) and MFTP by analyzing how factors such as the transfer time, network's bottleneck bandwidth, and traffic load affect one another. Our simulation results show that MFTP is able to improve the overall system

Bee Lertnitiwong; Lan Yang



Transfer of Attachment Functions and Adjustment Among Young Adults in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the process of attachment transfer from parents to peers, as well as factors related to this transfer process among Mainland Chinese. A total of 147 Chinese college students (with a mean age of 21.44) completed questionnaires that measured attachment style, attachment transfer, attachment support from various figures, loneliness, positive\\/negative affects, and self-esteem. Major findings

Hong Zhang; Darius K. S. Chan; Fei Teng



Power Factor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks availab