Sample records for soil-to-plant transfer factor

  1. Proposal for new best estimates of the soil-to-plant transfer factor of U, Th, Ra, Pb and Po.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, H; Olyslaegers, G; Sanzharova, N; Shubina, O; Reed, E; Shang, Z; Velasco, H

    2009-09-01

    There is increasing interest in radiological assessment of discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides into the terrestrial environment. Such assessments require parameter values for the pathways considered in predictive models. An important pathway for human exposure is via ingestion of food crops and animal products. One of the key parameters in environmental assessment is therefore the soil-to-plant transfer factor to food and fodder crops. The objective of this study was to compile data, based on an extensive literature survey, concerning soil-to-plant transfer factors for uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium. Transfer factor estimates were presented for major crop groups (Cereals, Leafy vegetables, Non-leafy vegetables, Root crops, Tubers, Fruits, Herbs, Pastures/grasses, Fodder), and also for some compartments within crop groups. Transfer factors were also calculated per soil group, as defined by their texture and organic matter content (Sand, Loam, Clay and Organic), and evaluation of transfer factors' dependency on specific soil characteristics was performed following regression analysis. The derived estimates were compared with estimates currently in use. PMID:19058886

  2. Bioavailability and soil-to-plant transfer factors as indicators of potentially toxic element contamination in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Paola; Iavazzo, Pietro; Albanese, Stefano; Agrelli, Diana; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria

    2014-12-01

    Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred. PMID:25217740

  3. Soil to plant transfer of 238 Th on a uranium

    E-print Network

    Hu, Qinhong "Max"

    Soil to plant transfer of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th on a uranium mining-impacted soil from species grown in soils from southeastern China contaminated with uranium mine tailings were analyzed. Keywords: Uranium; Thorium; Radium; Tailings-contaminated soil; Soileplant transfer 1. Introduction

  4. A study on transfer factors of 60Co and 65Zn from soil to plants in the tropical environment of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mollah, A S; Begum, A

    2001-04-01

    Soil to plant transfer factor (TF) of 60Co and 65Zn was determined from radioisotope experiments on plants grown in pots under outdoor ambient tropical conditions for three growing seasons (1995-1998). The TFs were obtained for different plants/crops such as, rice, bean, peanuts pineapple, cabbage, tomato, spinach and grass. The average TF values of 60Co are found to be 0.087. 0.15, 0.12, 0.67, 0.28, 0.79, 1.03 and 0.34 respectively for the above mentioned plants/crops. In case of 65Zn, the average TF values are found to be 2.24, 1.17. 0.89, 1.09, 0.78, 1.34, 2.92 and 1.78, respectively, for the above mentioned plants/crops. The data will be useful to assess the radiation exposure to man associated with the releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities by means of radiological assessment models that require transfer factors as input parameters to predict the contamination of radionuclides in foodchain. PMID:11336414

  5. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of radioactive Ca, Sm and Pd isotopes: critical assessment of the use of analogies to derive best-estimates from existing non-specific data.

    PubMed

    Henner, Pascale; Hurtevent, Pierre; Thiry, Yves

    2014-10-01

    (45)Ca, (151)Sm and (107)Pd are three radionuclides present in low to intermediate in activity radioactive wastes for which no soil-to-plant Transfer Factors (TF) values are available to be used in biosphere models for Ecological Risk Assessment. In the absence of specific radioecological studies, this work reviews and analyzes the existing literature for stable isotopes of Pd, Sm and Ca in order to derive best estimates for TF values that could be used as Transfer Factors. Alternative methods of extrapolation are also critically assessed. The values have been classified according to climatic zone, plant class and soil type for each element. The overall geometric mean TF values (for all plants and conditions) was calculated as 8.4E-02 for Pd, for which the value of radioRu in TRS-472 is also available. The mean TF for Sm was 4.2E-04. This value was lower than the TF values for radioactive Ce that are proposed as alternative values for Sm in TRS-472. The former may be relevant for long term assessments and the latter could possibly used to describe the short term (151)Sm post-release behaviour. The mean value for Ca is 2.3E-01 but varies considerably among plants of a given class due to the variety of plant Ca uptake behaviors. Alternatively, to limit this variability, Ca data content for dry plant matter, as analyzed using the phylogenetic method, could be used to derive TF values if the conservation of isotopic ratio of (45)Ca to stable Ca in soils and in plants hypothesis is taken into account. The TF for Ca in sub-tropical zones is 10-fold lower than in temperate zones. There is a lot of data available about exchangeable Ca in soil, which mean that we could calculate an available TF. The analysis shows that Ca bioavailability is also a key factor within transfer. PMID:24956582

  6. Estimation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of radiocesium in 99 wild plant species grown in arable lands 1 year after the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Jun; Enomoto, Takashi; Yamada, Masao; Ono, Toshiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Sonoda, Shoji; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    One year after the deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant (A formal name is Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station) in March 2011, radiocesium (¹³?Cs, ¹³?Cs) concentrations ([Cs]) were comprehensively investigated in the wild plants of 99 species most of which were annual or summer green perennial herbs and started to grow from April 2012 at the heavily contaminated fields of paddy (three study sites) and upland (one study site) in Fukushima Prefecture. The survey was conducted three times (April, July and October) in the year. In each site, soils (soil cores of 5-cm depth) and plants (aerial shoots) were collected for determination of [Cs] on a dry weight basis, and then the transfer factor (TF) of radiocesium from soil to plant ([Cs]plant/[Cs]soil) was estimated in each species. The [Cs] values of both soils and plants largely varied. However, some species exhibited relatively high TF values (more than 0.4) (e.g., Athyrium yokoscense, Dryopteris tokyoensis, and Cyperus brevifolius), while others exhibited almost negligible values (less than 0.01) (e.g., Salix miyabeana, Humulus scandens, and Elymus tsukushiensis). In addition, judging from the 11 species grown in both paddy and upland fields, TF values were generally higher in the paddy fields. The estimation of phytoextraction efficiency of soil radiocesium by weed communities in the paddy fields suggests that the weed community is not a practical candidate for phytoremediation technique. PMID:24346655

  7. Soil availability, plant uptake and soil to plant transfer of 99Tc--a review.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Roy; Willey, Neil

    2003-01-01

    The fission yield of 99Tc from 239Pu and 235U is similar to that of 137Cs or 90Sr and it is therefore an important component of nuclear weapons fall-out, nuclear waste and releases from nuclear facilities. There is particular current interest in 99Tc transfer from soil to plants for: (a) environmental impact assessments for terrestrial nuclear waste repositories, and (b) assessments of the potential for phytoextraction of radionuclides from contaminated effluent and soil. Vascular plants have a high 99Tc uptake capacity, a strong tendency to transport it to shoot material and accumulate it in vegetative rather than reproductive structures. The mechanisms that control 99Tc entry to plants have not been identified and there has been little discussion of the potential for phytoextraction of 99Tc contaminated effluents or soil. Here we review soil availability, plant uptake mechanisms and soil to plant transfer of 99Tc in the light of recent advances in soil science, plant molecular biology and phytoextraction technologies. We conclude that 99Tc might not be highly available in the long term from up to 50% of soils worldwide, and that no single mechanism that might be easily targeted by recombinant DNA technologies controls 99Tc uptake by plants. Overall, we suggest that Tc might be less available in terrestrial ecosystems than is often assumed but that nevertheless the potential of phytoextraction as a decontamination strategy is probably greater for 99Tc than for any other nuclide of radioecological interest. PMID:12527237

  8. Soil-to-plant transfer of 137Cs related to its geochemical partitioning in Oxisols of tropical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserman, Maria Angélica M.

    Differences in 137Cs soil-to-plant transfer for two types of soils under tropical climatic conditions are discussed with reference to pedology and geochemical partitioning. Using acid oxisol soils with low exchangeable K contents, transfer factor (Tf) values ranged from 0.18 to 0.41 for black beans. Basic oxisol with normal exchangeable K contents presented lower Tf values: 0.06 to 0.11. These values were higher than mean values reported by IUR for 137Cs for beans under temperate climate: 0.03. Results of sequential extraction showed 137Cs weakly bound to soil components and underline the importance of Fe oxides in the control of 137Cs availability.

  9. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of 137Cs in soil and the soil-to-plant transfer in a pine forest in SW Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iisa Outola; Reijo Pehrman; Timo Jaakkola

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of radiocaesium in soil and on its transfer from soil to plants. The study was started in September 2000 in four Scots pine stands located at distances of 0.5, 2, 4 and 8 km along a transect running SE from the Cu–Ni smelter at

  10. Proposal for new best estimates for the soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient and soil-to-plant transfer of nickel.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Van Hees, May; Olyslaegers, Geert; Vidal, Miquel

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compile data, based on an extensive literature survey, for the soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K(d)) and soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) for nickel. The K(d) best estimates were calculated for soils grouped according to texture and organic matter content (sand, loam, clay and organic) and soil cofactors affecting soil-nickel interaction, such as pH, organic matter, and clay content. Variability in K(d) was better explained by pH than by soil texture. Nickel TF estimates were presented for major crop groups (cereals, leafy vegetables, non-leafy vegetables, root crops, tubers, fruits, herbs, pastures/grasses and fodder), and also for plant compartments within crop groups. Transfer factors were also calculated per soil group, as defined by their texture and organic matter content. Furthermore an evaluation of transfer factor dependency on specific soil characteristics was performed following regression analysis. The derived estimates were compared with parameter estimates currently in use. PMID:19223096

  11. Factors associated with the suppressiveness of sugarcane soils to plant-parasitic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Stirling, Graham R.; Rames, Emily; Stirling, A. Marcelle; Hamill, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Observations in three Australian sugarcane fields suggested that the soil just under the trash blanket (the covering of crop residue that remains on the soil surface after crops are harvested) was suppressive to plant-parasitic nematodes. Roots were concentrated in this upper layer of soil but plant-parasitic nematode populations were relatively low and roots showed few signs of nematode damage. Root biomass was much lower 15 cm further down the soil profile, where root health was poor and populations of plant-parasitic nematodes were 3-5 times higher than near the soil surface. A bioassay in which Radopholus similis (a nematode that does not occur in sugarcane soils) was inoculated into heat-sterilized and untreated soils, confirmed that biological factors were limiting nematode populations in some of the soils, with soil from 0-2 cm much more suppressive than soil from 15-17 cm. Surface soil from one site was highly suppressive, as only 16% of R. similis recoverable from heated soil were retrieved from this soil after 8 days. Numerous soil chemical, biochemical, and biological properties were measured, and non-linear regression analysis identified two major groups of factors that were significantly associated with suppressiveness. One group reflected the amount of organic matter in soil (total C, total N, and labile C) and the other was associated with the size of the free-living nematode community (total numbers of free-living nematodes, and numbers of plant associates, bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, and carnivores). These results suggested that suppressiveness was biologically mediated and was sustained by C inputs from crop residues and roots. Since nematode-trapping fungi in the test soils could not be quantified using traditional dilution plating methods, their possible role as suppressive agents was assessed by generating TRFLP profiles with Orbiliales-specific primers, and by sequencing cloned PCR products. Although the molecular data were obtained from a limited number of samples, the level of suppression was significantly correlated to the number of Orbiliales clone groups and was also related to the number of Orbiliales species and TRFs, suggesting that this group of fungi may have been one of the suppressive factors operating in the test soils. PMID:23431051

  12. Radionuclide transport above a near-surface water table: II. Vertical distribution of gamma activities within soil profiles in relation to wheat rooting density and soil-to-plant transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Wadey, P.; Shaw, G.; Bell, J.N.; Minski, M.J. [Imperial College, Silwood Park, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Radiochemical results are described from a replicated field lysimeter experiment to investigate the upward migration of radionuclides in vegetated soils above near-surface contaminated groundwater. Water tables were maintained at depths of 35 cm (shallow) and 65 cm (deep), below which a cocktail of radionuclides including {sup 137}Cs, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 22}Na was introduced. Results of the vertical migration and plant uptake are presented from the first 2 yr of an ongoing experiment with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). As expected, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 109}Cd proved to be highly sorbed to the soil solid phase in the regions of the water table and exhibited a lesser degree of up-profile transport than {sup 22}Na in shallow lysimeters. However, in deep lysimeters, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Cs appeared to be preferentially accumulated at the soil surface; a biological translocation mechanism is postulated to account for this observation. It was clear from a statistical analysis of vertical radionuclide distribution that, in physicochemical terms, {sup 22}Na was the most mobile of the radionuclides studied. The distribution of this radionuclide within the soil profiles showed a significant shift between the two growth seasons examined, whereas the distributions of the other radionuclides remained static between 1990 and 1991. Each radionuclide showed a distinct and consistent distribution pattern throughout the crop tissues, although the differences in tissue specific activities for individual radionuclides were found to be nonsignificant with the exception of {sup 22}Na. Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFw) were calculated using mean soil specific activities in discrete soil layers. The TFw values were significantly lower in 1991 than in 1990 in both shallow and deep lysimeters. 13 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    2013-11-20

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

  14. The Transfer of Dissolved Cs-137 from Soil to Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Prorok, V.V.; Melnichenko, L.Yu. [Department of Physics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 2, build. 1 Acad. Glushkov prospect, Kyiv-680 MSP (Ukraine); Mason, C.F.V. [Research Applications Corporation, 148 Piedra Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Ageyev, V.A.; Ostashko, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 47 Nauky prospect, Kyiv-680 MSP (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    Rapidly maturing plants were grown simultaneously at the same experimental sites under natural conditions at the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Roots of the plants were side by side in the soil. During two seasons we selected samples of the plants and of the soils several times every season. Content of Cs-137 in the plant and in the soil solution extracted from the samples of soils was measured. Results of measurements of the samples show that, for the experimental site, Cs-137 content in the plant varies with date of the sample selection. The plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio depends strongly on the date of selection and also on the type of soil. After analysis of the data we conclude that Cs-137 plant uptake is approximately proportional to the content of dissolved Cs-137 in the soil per unit of volume, and the plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio for the soil is approximately proportional to the soil moisture. (authors)

  15. Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by radionuclide releases) of waste disposal facilities and decommissioning sites.

  16. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-07-20

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  17. Nickel and manganese transfer from soil to plant in lateritic mining soils from New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouschat, P.; Rose, J.; Alliot, I.; Dominici, C.; Keller, C.; Laffont-Schwob, I.; Olivi, L.; Ambrosi, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    New Caledonian ferritic soils (more than 50 % of iron) are naturally rich in metals (chromium, nickel, cobalt, and manganese), deficient in major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium), and unbalanced for the calcium/magnesium ratio. Under these particular ecological conditions, New Caledonia, recognized as a hot-spot of biodiversity, is a natural laboratory to study and understand the adaptation strategies of plants to metalliferous soils, and particularly the tolerance and (hyper)accumulation of metals by plants. Moreover, understanding such mechanisms is essential to develop rehabilitation or phytoremediation techniques for polluted soils, as well as phytomining techniques. Thus, in order to understand the soil - plant relationship and metal mobility along a toposequence in a future nickel mining massif, field experiments were conducted in an isolated ultramafic massif of New Caledonia. Several plant species of two endemic and frequent plant genera were chosen: Tristaniopsis guillainii and T. calobuxus (Myrtaceae), and Phyllanthus serpentinus and P. favieri (Euphorbiaceae), because of their nickel and/or manganese accumulating or hyperaccumulating nature. Leaves, twigs, and roots of all plants were collected along the soil sequence and their associated rhizospheric and bulk soils were sampled. Next, a series of characterization techniques were adapted and then coupled to cryogenics. The combined use of those multiple techniques (cryo-microtomy, cryo-SEM, µXRF, cryo-XAS, and soil characterization) allowed to study co-location and speciation of nickel and manganese in the different plant organs and soils (rhizospheric and bulk). Bioaccumulated nickel and manganese had different distribution patterns. In leaves, Ni accumulated in non photosynthetic tissues (e.g. epidermis) whereas Mn preferentially accumulated in mesophyll whatever the plant species. Nevertheless, in spite of a different speciation in soils, nickel and manganese were both found as similar divalent organometallic complexes in the different plant parts.

  18. Uranium transfer in the food chain from soil to plants, animals and man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Anke; O. Seeber; R. Müller; U. Schäfer; J. Zerull

    2009-01-01

    In the 16-km-thick Earth's crust, 2.4–3.2mguranium\\/kg is assumed to occur. Thus, uranium is more abundant than iodine, cadmium or selenium. In Central Europe, the vegetation richest in uranium is found on granite weathering soils. Compared to these, the uranium content of the flora is about 25% less on Muschelkalk soils, ?50% less on Buntsandstein, Keuper weathering soils and gneiss weathering

  19. Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

    2005-01-01

    To begin the validation process for the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Thailand, research replicating Holton, Bates, and Ruona's study (2000) was conducted in Thailand. The LTSI was administered to 1,029 employees. Exploratory factor analysis and MANOVA were used to identify factors. A factor structure almost identical to that of…

  20. Electromagnetic Form Factors at Large Momentum Transfer

    E-print Network

    P. Kroll

    1994-09-08

    Recent improvements of the hard scattering picture for the large $p_{\\perp}$ behaviour of electromagnetic form factors, namely the inclusion of both Sudakov corrections and intrinsic transverse momentum dependence of the hadronic wave function, are reviewed. On account of these improvements the perturbative contributions to the pion's and the nucleon's form factor can be calculated in a theoretically self-consistent way for momentum transfers as low as about $2$ and $3\\,{\\rm GeV}$, respectively. This is achieved at the expense of a substantial suppression of the perturbative contribution in the few GeV region. Eventual higher twist contributions are discussed in some detail.

  1. Soil-to-root vegetable transfer factors for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (88)Y in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, Kh; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Y M; Bradley, D A; Mahat, R H; Nor, R M

    2014-09-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) are of fundamental importance in assessing the environmental impact due to the presence of radioactivity in soil and agricultural crops. Tapioca and sweet potato, both root crops, are popular foodstuffs for a significant fraction of the Malaysian population, and result in intake of radionuclides. For the natural field conditions experienced in production of these foodstuffs, TFs and the annual effective dose were evaluated for the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and for the anthropogenic radionuclide (88)Y, the latter being a component of fallout. An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptake. For soil samples from all study locations other than the experimental field, it has been shown that these contain the artificial radionuclide (88)Y, although the uptake of (88)Y has only been observed in the roots of the plant Manihot esculenta (from which tapioca is derived) grown in mining soil. The estimated TFs for (226)Ra and (232)Th for tapioca and sweet potato are very much higher than that reported by the IAEA. For all study areas, the annual effective dose from ingestion of tapioca and sweet potato are estimated to be lower than the world average (290 ?Sv y(-1)). PMID:24814722

  2. From soil to plant, the journey of P through trophic relationships and ectomycorrhizal association

    PubMed Central

    Becquer, Adeline; Trap, Jean; Irshad, Usman; Ali, Muhammad A.; Claude, Plassard

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is essential for plant growth and productivity. It is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soil because it is mainly present as unavailable, bound P whereas plants can only use unbound, inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is found in very low concentrations in soil solution. Some ectomycorrhizal fungi are able to release organic compounds (organic anions or phosphatases) to mobilize unavailable P. Recent studies suggest that bacteria play a major role in the mineralization of nutrients such as P through trophic relationships as they can produce specific phosphatases such as phytases to degrade phytate, the main form of soil organic P. Bacteria are also more effective than other microorganisms or plants at immobilizing free Pi. Therefore, bacterial grazing by grazers, such as nematodes, could release Pi locked in bacterial biomass. Free Pi may be taken up by ectomycorrhizal fungus by specific phosphate transporters and transferred to the plant by mechanisms that have not yet been identified. This mini-review aims to follow the phosphate pathway to understand the ecological and molecular mechanisms responsible for transfer of phosphate from the soil to the plant, to improve plant P nutrition. PMID:25360140

  3. Organizational and Cultural Factors Affecting International Transfer of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Doo H.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the results of a study of a global company that examined the effect of training design and work environment on the transfer of human resources development training. Presents a model of international transfer of training and discusses organizational factors and cultural differences that affected the transfer of training. (LRW)

  4. Transfer of Radionuclides K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226 from Mining Soil to Sawi (Japanese Mustard)

    SciTech Connect

    Hariandra, M.; Amin, Y. M. [Radiation Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Malaya, 59100, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2008-05-20

    The uptake of naturally occurring thorium, radium and potassium by sawi (Japanese Mustard) from disused tin mining was studied. Both soil and sawi sample were collected from a vegetable farm located 15 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the farm has been operating for 22 years on a disused tin mining. By using a gamma spectroscopy system, the transfers of radionuclides from soil to plants were investigated. The highest values of radionuclides in the soil was K-40 which is 52.8 Bq kg{sup -1} and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 6.51 Bq kg{sup -1}. The activity of Th-232 is 18.5 Bq kg{sup -1}. The activity of radionuclides in the sawi sample shows higher values as compared to the soil sample. The highest values of radionuclides in the sawi were K-40 which is 446 Bq kg{sup -1} and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 17.5 Bq kg{sup -1}. The activity of Th-232 is 65.2 Bq kg{sup -1}. The concentration of radionuclides in soils and plants can be used for the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) were calculated and observed to be 2.68 for radium-226, 3.52 for thorium-232 and the highest which is 3.97 for potassium-40.

  5. Inhalation Transfer Factors for Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvin C. K. Lai; Tracy L. Thatcher; William W. Nazaroff

    2000-01-01

    To facilitate routine health risk assessments, we develop the concept of an inhalation transfer factor (ITF). The ITF is defined as the pollutant mass inhaled by an exposed individual per unit pollutant mass emitted from an air pollution source. A cumulative population inhalation transfer factor (PITF) is also defined to describe the total fraction of an emitted pollutant inhaled by

  6. Factors Affecting Training Transfer: Participants' Motivation to Transfer Training, Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alawneh, Muhammad K.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates factors that motivate participants in learning and training activities to transfer skills, knowledge and attitude from the learning setting to the workplace. Based on training transfer theories hypothesized by Holton (1996), one of the major theories that affect an organization's learning is motivation to transfer theory.…

  7. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site.

  8. Racial and Cultural Factors and Learning Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closson, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Baldwin and Ford (1988) specifically include learner characteristics as one of three key inputs into the learning transfer process but infrequently (actually almost never) has race, ethnicity, or culture been included as a variable when describing trainee characteristics. For the most part one is left to speculate as to the potential influence…

  9. Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Charge and Excitation Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Piotrowiak

    2004-09-28

    We report the and/or state of several subprojects of our DOE sponsored research on Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Electron and Excitation Transfer: (1) Construction of an ultrafast Ti:sapphire amplifier. (2) Mediation of electronic interactions in host-guest molecules. (3) Theoretical models of electrolytes in weakly polar media. (4) Symmetry effects in intramolecular excitation transfer.

  10. A Compendium of Transfer Factors for Agricultural and Animal Products

    SciTech Connect

    Staven, Lissa H.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rhoads, Kathleen; Strenge, Dennis L.

    2003-06-02

    Transfer factors are used in radiological risk assessments to estimate the amount of radioactivity that could be present in a food crop or organism based on the calculated concentration in the source medium (i.e., soil or animal feed). By calculating the concentration in the food, the total intake can be estimated and a dose calculated as a result of the annual intake. This report compiles transfer factors for radiological risk assessments, using common food products, including meats, eggs, and plants. Transfer factors used were most often selected from recommended values listed by national or international organizations for use in radiological food chain transport calculations. Several methods of estimation and extrapolation were used for radionuclides not listed in the primary information sources. Tables of transfer factors are listed by element and information source for beef, eggs, fish, fruit, grain, leafy vegetation, milk, poultry, and root vegetables.

  11. Factorized steady states for multi-species mass transfer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanney, T.

    2006-12-01

    A general class of mass transport models with Q species of conserved mass is considered. The models are defined on a lattice with parallel discrete time update rules. For one-dimensional, totally asymmetric dynamics we derive necessary and sufficient conditions on the mass transfer dynamics under which the steady state factorizes. We generalize the model to mass transfer on arbitrary lattices and present sufficient conditions for factorization. In both cases, explicit results for random sequential update and continuous time limits are given.

  12. Factors affecting the transfer of organochlorine pesticide residues to breastmilk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline A. Harris; Michael W. Woolridge; Alastair W. M. Hay

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies monitoring organochlorine pesticide residues in breastmilk were examined to identify whether common factors determine the extent of transfer of these residues. A structured review of the English language literature was conducted. Papers were reviewed and assessed using a structured protocol. A total of 77 papers were initially identified, 46 of which contained conclusions relating to the factors which

  13. New heat transfer factors for flat plate solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunde, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that, for flat plate collectors operating in economically viable applications, three equations presented give suitable heat transfer factors for collector efficiency equations based on inlet, mean, and outlet fluid temperatures, respectively. The equations can be solved explicitly for any variable and do not become indeterminate as the flow approaches infinity. In addition, simple equations can be derived with which to convert any efficiency curve to one based on an alternate fluid temperature if (1) the flow rate is known, and (2) curves based on a particular fluid and flow rate can be adjusted to another flow rate without additional information. When a new heat transfer fluid is used, the heat transfer coefficient changes and the new heat transfer factor can be derived from the known transmissivity-absorptivity product and absorber plate fin efficiency.

  14. Initial solidification phenomena: Factors affecting heat transfer in strip casting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Nolli

    2007-01-01

    In the last few years a few companies have announced the final stage of the commercial development of strip casting of steels. In strip casting heat extraction and productivity are limited by the thermal resistance at the interface between processed material and moving mold (rolls for twin-roll strip casters). Among many factors influencing interfacial heat transfer, films of various composition,

  15. Marine radionuclide transfer factors in chordates and a phylogenetic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Jeffree, Ross A; Oberhaensli, Francois; Teyssie, Jean-Louis

    2013-12-01

    Previous radiotracer experiments that compared multi-elemental whole organism: water transfer factors among chondrichthyan and teleost fishes, including an ICRP reference flatfish Psetta maxima, demonstrated distinctive contrasts in their bioaccumulation characteristics, with generally elevated bioaccumulation in chondrichthyans. These results supported a hypothesis that phylogenetic divergence may influence marine radionuclide transfer factors. This notion has been further evaluated in an amphioxus species Branchiostoma lanceolatum, sub-phylum Cephalochordata. This taxon diverged about 800 MYBP from a common ancestor of the teleosts and the chondrichthyans, which in turn diverged from each other around 500 MYBP. Our experimental results indicate that amphioxus is indeed more divergent in its multi-elemental bioaccumulation patterns from teleosts and chondrichthyans than they are from each other, consistent with our hypothesis. The experimental comparisons with the ICRP reference flatfish P. maxima also revealed an unexpectedly enhanced capacity in amphioxus to accumulate all eight tested trace elements from seawater, and for some by more than two orders of magnitude. These results have practical applications for the strategic selection of marine biota for further radioecological investigations to better guarantee the radiological protection of marine biodiversity. Such seemingly anomalous results for understudied biota like amphioxus and chondrichthyans suggest that more effort in marine radioecology be directed to assessing the bioaccumulatory capacities of other phylogenetic groups that have received less attention so far, particularly those that are phylogenetically more remote from commonly investigated taxa and those nominated as ICRP marine reference organisms. PMID:22800799

  16. Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret ( Mustela putorius furo)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziyi Li; Xingshen Sun; Juan Chen; Gregory H. Leno; John F. Engelhardt

    2006-01-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females is a foundational strategy for a number of assisted reproductive technologies, including cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In an attempt to develop efficient ET in domestic ferrets, factors affecting development of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts in the oviduct or uterus was evaluated in recipient nulliparous

  17. Soil-to-crop transfer factors of tellurium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-09-01

    Stable tellurium (Te) concentrations in 148 sets of agricultural soil and associated crop samples were measured in this study to obtain soil-to-crop transfer factor (TF) of Te. We used a recently developed simple method that applies digestion of samples with aqua regia and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to measure low Te levels in these samples. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of Te in soil and crops were 75?gkg(-1)-dry (range: 15-850?gkg(-1)-dry) and 1.8?gkg(-1)-dry (range: 0.1-120?gkg(-1)-dry), respectively; the Te concentration range was significantly wider in crops than in soil. Using these data, we calculated TFs and obtained their range from 1.3×10(-3) to 1.1×10(-1). The GM of TF for upland field crops was calculated to be 2.0×10(-2) and for brown rice was 3.1×10(-2); all crop types had the similar GMs of their TF values. Data comparison for TF of Te was carried out with six elements, which are present in anionic forms in soil environment like Te is, i.e. P, Br, As, Se, Mo, and I. TFs of Te and I showed the highest correlation factor for upland field crops by t-test (r=0.577, p<0.001), but no correlation was found for brown rice. We considered it likely that different water management practices in upland fields and paddy fields affected the Te transfer from soil to crops. PMID:24997965

  18. Initial solidification phenomena: Factors affecting heat transfer in strip casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolli, Paolo

    In the last few years a few companies have announced the final stage of the commercial development of strip casting of steels. In strip casting heat extraction and productivity are limited by the thermal resistance at the interface between processed material and moving mold (rolls for twin-roll strip casters). Among many factors influencing interfacial heat transfer, films of various composition, either formed during casting or deposited before casting on the surface of the rolls, melt superheat and gas atmosphere composition can have a significantly positive or negative effect on the achieved heat transfer rate. From an industrial point view, methods to improve interfacial heat transfer rates must be found, in order to increase productivity. The objective of this research project is to assess if it is feasible to improve heat transfer rates during solidification of steel in direct contact with a copper mold: (1) by the application of thin coatings on the mold surface; (2) by adding a reactive gas species containing sulfur in the gas shrouding where casting is performed. To address the former, solidification experiments were performed with the mold surface either kept uncoated or coated with coatings of different compositions. To address the latter, the experiments were performed in gas shrouding atmospheres with or without sulphydric acid. It was observed that the resulting heat extraction rates were improved by the application of certain coatings and by the addition of H2S to the gas atmosphere. These findings prove that the application of coatings and the use of small amounts of reactive gaseous species containing sulfur may be methods to increase productivity in strip casting. The effect of superheat and the effect of naturally deposited oxides (Mn-oxide) were also evaluated experimentally. A numerical study of the effect of the critical undercooling on the productivity of a twin-roll strip caster showed that the maximum allowable casting speed can be increased by increasing the critical undercooling, which in turns can be changed by changing the composition of the coating applied on the roll surface; this increase is significant when casting thicknesses are small (less than 1 mm). Finally, a procedure, based on Scheill's method, vaporization and liquation, to predict the composition of films depositing naturally during solidification, starting from the steel composition, is proposed.

  19. Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

  20. Trainee Perceptions of Factors that Influence Learning Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Doo H.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 10 Korean human resource practitioners who were trained in performance improvement technology showed they achieved better transfer in the conceptual than the technical domain. Transfer increased when trainees set goals to apply learning and the job, received work assignments related to the training, and had supervisor support. (Contains…

  1. Relationship between the radiocesium interception potential and the transfer of radiocesium from soil to soybean cultivated in 2011 in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Akira; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Takeuchi, Megumi; Sato, Mutsuto; Nakao, Atsushi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2014-11-01

    The concentration of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in agricultural fields around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) was elevated after the accident in March 2011. Evaluation of soil properties that influence phytoavailability of radiocesium is important for optimal soil management to minimize radiocesium transfer to crops. In this study, soybean grain and soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected from 46 locations in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011, and (137)Cs concentrations were measured. (137)Cs concentration ranges were 11-329 Bq kg(-1)-dry in soybean grain samples, and 0.29-2.49 kBq kg(-1)-dry in soil samples. The radiocesium interception potential (RIP) values in the soil samples ranged from 0.30 to 8.61 mol kg(-1). RIP negatively correlated with total carbon content and oxalate-extractable Si and Al + 1/2 Fe in the soils, suggesting that soils rich in organic matter and poorly crystalline clays tended to have lower RIP in this region. The soil-to-plant transfer factor for (137)Cs, analyzed in relation with various soil characteristics, varied by two orders of magnitude and was significantly negatively correlated with RIP and exchangeable K concentration in soil. The results show that RIP is useful for evaluating the efficiency of radiocesium transfer from soil to plants in this region. PMID:25036920

  2. ON THE STRUCTURE OF ENDOSCOPIC TRANSFER FACTORS D. SHELSTAD

    E-print Network

    Shelstad, Diana

    the associated transfers; see (6.4). In the nonarchimedean case the celebrated theorem of Waldspurger proves characters on G(F) attached to a which we label as $; $D ([KS], [KS12] use the notation !; !D

  3. Transfer passenger needs at airports : human factors in terminal design

    E-print Network

    Brillembourg, Marie-Claire

    1982-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the needs of particular users of airport: transfer passengers. The object of this work has been to produce a set of design guidelines for terminals. these guidelines are framed upon a user-need survey ...

  4. Factors Affecting the Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    AKAGI, Satoshi; MATSUKAWA, Kazutsugu; TAKAHASHI, Seiya

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear transfer is a complex multistep procedure that includes oocyte maturation, cell cycle synchronization of donor cells, enucleation, cell fusion, oocyte activation and embryo culture. Therefore, many factors are believed to contribute to the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer. Numerous attempts to improve cloning efficiency have been conducted since the birth of the first sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, the efficiency of somatic cell cloning has remained low, and applications have been limited. In this review, we discuss some of the factors that affect the developmental ability of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in cattle. PMID:25341701

  5. Relation of pulmonary vessel size to transfer factor in subjects with airflow obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Musk, A.W.

    1983-11-01

    In a group of 61 consecutive patients undergoing assessment of airflow obstruction, a significant linear relation was demonstrated between measurements of the diameter of the midzonal pulmonary vessels on the plain chest radiographs and transfer factor (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide) (r = 0.46, p < 0.001). Since reduction in transfer factor has been shown to relate to structural emphysema, reduction in midzone vessel caliber implies the same. However, in the individual patient neither the transfer factor nor structural emphysema can be reliably predicted from midzone vessel diameters alone.

  6. Adenoviral Gene Transfer of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in the Lung Induces Transient Fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Bonniaud; Peter J. Margetts; Martin Kolb; Thomas Haberberger; Margaret Kelly; Jennifer Robertson; Jack Gauldie

    2003-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is felt to be one of the key profibrotic factors and is a downstream effector molecule mediating the action of transforming growth factor (TGF)-1, a cytokine known to induce severe and progressive fibrosis. However, the in vivo fibro- genic effect of isolated CTGF expression is not well described. We used adenoviral gene transfer to transiently

  7. Factorization theorem for the transfer function of a 2x2 operator matrix with unbounded couplings

    E-print Network

    V. Hardt; R. Mennicken; A. K. Motovilov

    1999-12-29

    We consider the analytic continuation of the transfer function associated with a 2x2 operator matrix having unbounded couplings into unphysical sheets of its Riemann surface. We construct a family of non-selfadjoint operators which factorize the transfer function and reproduce certain parts of its spectrum including the nonreal (resonance) spectrum situated in the unphysical sheets neighboring the physical sheet.

  8. Organizational Factors and the Performance of Knowledge Transfer in Construction Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-min Liu

    2009-01-01

    The importance of managing knowledge in organizations for competitive advantage has received an amount of attention in recently years. Relatively little study has been performed on tacit knowledge transfer in the construction industry. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between organizational factors and the performance of knowledge transfer. Organizational culture, organizational structure, IT technology, and No-IT approaches as four

  9. Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diggs, Byron Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

  10. Gene Ther . Author manuscript Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Gene Ther . Author manuscript Page /1 4 Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene viral genomes and gene transfer mediated by Ad5 and FX-binding ablated Ad5 vectors in non-human primates. Ad5 vectors accumulated in and mediated gene transfer predominantly to the liver while FX

  11. Tests of transfer reaction determinations of astrophysical S factors

    E-print Network

    Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.; Azhari, A.; Clark, HL; Lui, YW; Mukhamedzhanov, AM; Sattarov, A.; Trache, L.; Burjan, V.; Cejpek, J.; Kroha, V.; Piskor, S.; Vincour, J.

    1999-01-01

    -->O-16+p and allow us to calculate the S factors for O-16(p,gamma)F-17 at astrophysical energies. The calculated S factors are compared to measurements and found to be in very good agreement. This provides a test of this indirect method to determine...

  12. Simulation of a Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles with Power Factor Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Pickelsimer, Michael C [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Wireless power transfer has been a popular topic of recent research. Most research has been done to address the limitations of coil-to-coil efficiency. However, little has been done to address the problem associated with the low input power factor with which the systems operate. This paper details the steps taken to analyze a wireless power transfer system from the view of the power grid under a variety of loading conditions with and without power factor correction.

  13. The Influence of Transfer System Factors and Training Elapsed Time on Transfer in a Healthcare Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalko, Beverly J.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations and other sponsors of training face increasing pressure to demonstrate the value or impact of their training programs on individual and organizational performance. A critical element in the validation of training effectiveness is the permanent transfer of learned knowledge, skills, and behaviors to the workplace. The generalization…

  14. Identification and characterization of an oocyte factor required for development of porcine nuclear transfer embryos

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Kei; Nagai, Kouhei; Kitamura, Naoya; Nishikawa, Tomoaki; Ikegami, Haruka; Binh, Nguyen T.; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Mai; Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki; Minami, Naojiro; Yamada, Masayasu; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Miyake, Masashi; Kawarasaki, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Imai, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear reprogramming of differentiated cells can be induced by oocyte factors. Despite numerous attempts, these factors and mechanisms responsible for successful reprogramming remain elusive. Here, we identify one such factor, necessary for the development of nuclear transfer embryos, using porcine oocyte extracts in which some reprogramming events are recapitulated. After incubating somatic nuclei in oocyte extracts from the metaphase II stage, the oocyte proteins that were specifically and abundantly incorporated into the nuclei were identified by mass spectrometry. Among 25 identified proteins, we especially focused on a multifunctional protein, DJ-1. DJ-1 is present at a high concentration in oocytes from the germinal vesicle stage until embryos at the four-cell stage. Inhibition of DJ-1 function compromises the development of nuclear transfer embryos but not that of fertilized embryos. Microarray analysis of nuclear transfer embryos in which DJ-1 function is inhibited shows perturbed expression of P53 pathway components. In addition, embryonic arrest of nuclear transfer embryos injected with anti–DJ-1 antibody is rescued by P53 inhibition. We conclude that DJ-1 is an oocyte factor that is required for development of nuclear transfer embryos. This study presents a means for identifying natural reprogramming factors in mammalian oocytes and a unique insight into the mechanisms underlying reprogramming by nuclear transfer. PMID:21482765

  15. Time-fixed rendezvous by impulse factoring with an intermediate timing constraint. [for transfer orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. N.; Kibler, J. F.; Young, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    A method is presented for factoring a two-impulse orbital transfer into a three- or four-impulse transfer which solves the rendezvous problem and satisfies an intermediate timing constraint. Both the time of rendezvous and the intermediate time of a alinement are formulated as any element of a finite sequence of times. These times are integer multiples of a constant plus an additive constant. The rendezvous condition is an equality constraint, whereas the intermediate alinement is an inequality constraint. The two timing constraints are satisfied by factoring the impulses into collinear parts that vectorially sum to the original impulse and by varying the resultant period differences and the number of revolutions in each orbit. Five different types of solutions arise by considering factoring either or both of the two impulses into two or three parts with a limit for four total impulses. The impulse-factoring technique may be applied to any two-impulse transfer which has distinct orbital periods.

  16. FACTORIZATION THEOREM FOR THE TRANSFER FUNCTION OF A 2 \\Theta 2 OPERATOR MATRIX WITH UNBOUNDED COUPLINGS \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    FACTORIZATION THEOREM FOR THE TRANSFER FUNCTION OF A 2 \\Theta 2 OPERATOR MATRIX WITH UNBOUNDED Riemann surface. We construct a family of non­selfadjoint operators which factorize the transfer function) the transfer function associated with the operator matrix H. It is obvious that this function, considered

  17. Heat transfer and friction factor of turbulent flow through a horizontal semi-circular duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbish, N. S.; Moawed, M.; Ammar, M.; Afifi, R. I.

    2011-04-01

    Forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of air flow inside a horizontal semi-circular duct are investigated experimentally. The experiments are carried out on a semi-circular duct of 23 mm inner radius, 2 mm thickness, and 2,000 mm length within a range of Reynolds number (8,242 ? Re ? 57,794)., under uniform wall heat flux conditions. The friction factor is determined by measuring the axial static pressure at different selected axial stations along the semi-circular duct. The variations of surface and mean air temperatures, local heat transfer coefficient, local Nusselt number, and the friction factor with the axial dimensionless distance are presented. It is observed that, for a given value of Reynolds number, each of the local heat transfer coefficient and the friction factor has a relatively high value near the entrance of the semi-circular duct then it decreases with increasing the dimensionless axial distance until it approaches a nearly constant value at the fully developed region. Also, it is found that, with increasing the Reynolds number the average heat transfer coefficient is increased and the friction factor is decreased. Moreover, empirical correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and friction factor as a function of the Reynolds number are obtained.

  18. Pion form factor at spacelike momentum transfers from local-duality QCD sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braguta, Victor; Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri

    2008-04-01

    We study the pion form factor in a broad range of spacelike momentum transfers within the local-duality version of QCD sum rules. We make use of the recently calculated two-loop double spectral density of the < AVA > correlator including O (1) and O (?s) terms, which allows us to give predictions for the pion form factor and to study the interplay between the nonperturbative and perturbative contributions to the pion form factor without any reference to the pion distribution amplitude. Our results demonstrate the dominance of the nonperturbative contribution to the form factor up to relatively large values of the momentum transfer: namely, the nonperturbative O (1) term, which provides the 1 /Q4 power correction, gives more than half of the pion form factor in the region Q2 ? 20GeV2.

  19. Accumulation of (137)Cs in Brazilian soils and its transfer to plants under different climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Handl, J; Sachse, R; Jakob, D; Michel, R; Evangelista, H; Gonçalves, A C; de Freitas, A C

    2008-02-01

    The spatial distribution and behaviour of the global fallout (137)Cs in the tropical, subtropical and equatorial soil-plant systems were investigated at several upland sites in Brazil selected according to their climate characteristics, and to the agricultural importance. To determine the (137)Cs deposition density, undisturbed soil profiles were taken from 23 environments situated between the latitudes of 02 degrees N and 30 degrees S. Sampling sites located along to the equator exhibited (137)Cs deposition densities with an average value of 219Bqm(-2). Extremely low deposition densities of 1.3Bqm(-2) were found in the Amazon region. In contrast, the southern part of Brazil, located between latitudes of 20 degrees S and 34 degrees S, exhibited considerably higher deposition densities ranging from 140Bqm(-2) to 1620Bqm(-2). To examine the (137)Cs soil-to-plant transfer in the Brazilian agricultural products, 29 mainly tropical plant species, and corresponding soil samples were collected at 43 sampling locations in nine federal states of Brazil. Values of the (137)Cs concentration factor plant/soil exhibited a large range from 0.020 (beans) to 6.2 (cassava). Samples of some plant species originated from different collecting areas showed different concentration factors. The (137)Cs content of some plants collected was not measurable due to a very low (137)Cs concentration level found in the upper layers of the incremental soils. Globally, the soil-to-plant transfer of (137)Cs can be described by a logarithmic normal distribution with a geometric mean of 0.3 and a geometric standard deviation of 3.9. PMID:17884260

  20. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2014-02-01

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation.

  1. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J., E-mail: ortoleva@indiana.edu [Center for Cell and Virus Theory, Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 800 E. Kirkwood Ave, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation.

  2. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: a multiscale factorization approach.

    PubMed

    Sereda, Yuriy V; Espinosa-Duran, John M; Ortoleva, Peter J

    2014-02-21

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation. PMID:24559333

  3. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sánchez; Pérez, Javiér; García, M. N. Jiménez; López, M. A. Jiménez; Espíndola, M. E. Sánchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernández, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez

    2008-08-01

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-?) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  4. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    SciTech Connect

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sanchez; Perez, Javier [Lab. de Bioquimica Muscular, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion, C.P.14389, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garcia, M. N. Jimenez; Lopez, M. A. Jimenez [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas Instituto Politecnico Nacional, C.P. 07340, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Espindola, M. E. Sanchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernandez, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F. [Esc. Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez [Depto. de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Ap. Post. 14-740, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2008-08-11

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-{beta}) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  5. The Role of Individual and Training Design Factors on Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the role of individual and training design factors on training transfer. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature is conducted, and this review highlights a dual role of perceived content validity in the form of increasing self-efficacy and the role of trainees' reaction. The study…

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AIR-TO-LEAF VAPOR PHASE TRANSFER FACTOR FOR DIOXINS AND FURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of an experiment in which grass was grown in a greenhouse and outdoors, and in soils of different concentration levels of dioxins and furans, were used in a modeling exercise to derive an air-to-leaf vapor phase transfer factor. The purpose of the experiment was to under...

  7. Monte Carlo direct view factor and generalized radiative heat transfer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Williams, J. L.; Scates, J. H.

    1969-01-01

    Computer programs find the direct view factor from one surface segment to another using the Monte carlo technique, and the radioactive-transfer coefficients between surface segments. An advantage of the programs is the great generality of problems treatable and rapidity of solution from problem conception to receipt of results.

  8. Factors Contributing to the Upward Transfer of Baccalaureate Aspirants Beginning at Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli

    2012-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, a sequential logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict bachelor's degree-seeking community…

  9. Evolution of the cutinase gene family: Evidence for lateral gene transfer of a candidate Phytophthora virulence factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lassaad Belbahri; Gautier Calmin; Felix Mauch; Jan O. Andersson

    2008-01-01

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) can facilitate the acquisition of new functions in recipient lineages, which may enable them to colonize new environments. Several recent publications have shown that gene transfer between prokaryotes and eukaryotes occurs with appreciable frequency. Here we present a study of interdomain gene transfer of cutinases – well documented virulence factors in fungi – between eukaryotic plant

  10. Scale-model charge-transfer technique for measuring enhancement factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kositsky, J.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Determination of aircraft electric field enhancement factors is crucial when using airborne field mill (ABFM) systems to accurately measure electric fields aloft. SRI used the scale model charge transfer technique to determine enhancement factors of several canonical shapes and a scale model Learjet 36A. The measured values for the canonical shapes agreed with known analytic solutions within about 6 percent. The laboratory determined enhancement factors for the aircraft were compared with those derived from in-flight data gathered by a Learjet 36A outfitted with eight field mills. The values agreed to within experimental error (approx. 15 percent).

  11. Recoil Polarization Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio to High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Puckett

    2010-02-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electronnucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer Q2 between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large f momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their kinematics, including their scattering angles and momenta, and the position of the interaction vertex. A proton polarimeter measured the polarization of the recoiling protons by measuring the azimuthal asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons scattered in CH2 analyzers. The scattered electron was detected in a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter in order to suppress inelastic backgrounds. The measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the scattered proton is directly proportional to the ratio of form factors GpE=GpM. The measurements reported in this thesis took place at Q2 =5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV2, and represent the most accurate measurements of GpE in this Q2 region to date.

  12. The ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Benyi; Lu, Yigang

    2008-10-01

    Based on several hypotheses about the process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, the onflow around the solute granule is figured out by the Navier-Stocks equation. In combination with the Higbie’s solute infiltration model, the link between the mass-transfer coefficient and the velocity of flow is found. The mass-transfer coefficient with the ultrasonical effect is compared with that without the ultrasonical effect, and then a new parameter named the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient is brought forward, which describes the mathematical model of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction process enhanced by ultrasonic. The model gives out the relationships among the ultrasonical power, the ultrasonical frequency, the radius of solute granule and the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient. The results calculated by this model fit well with the experimental data, including the extraction of Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Oil (CLSO) and Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Ester (CLSE) from coix seeds and the extraction of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) from the alga by means of the ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (USFE) and the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) respectively. This proves the rationality of the ultrasonic-enhanced factor model. The model provides a theoretical basis for the application of ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical fluid extraction technique.

  13. Improved retroviral episome transfer of transcription factors enables sustained cell fate modification.

    PubMed

    Schott, J W; Hoffmann, D; Maetzig, T; Müller, F-J; Steinemann, D; Zychlinski, D; Cantz, T; Baum, C; Schambach, A

    2014-11-01

    Retroviral vectors are versatile gene transfer vehicles widely used in basic research and gene therapy. Mutation of retroviral integrase converts these vectors into transient, integration-deficient gene delivery vehicles associated with a high degree of biosafety. We explored the option to use integration-deficient retroviral vectors to achieve transient ectopic expression of transcription factors, which is considered an important tool for induced cell fate conversion. Stepwise optimization of the retroviral episome transfer as exemplified for the transcription factor Oct4 enabled to improve both expression magnitude and endurance. Long terminal repeat-driven ?-retroviral vectors were identified as the most suitable vector architecture. Episomal expression was enhanced by epigenetic modifiers, and Oct4 activity was increased following fusion to a minimal transactivation motif of herpes simplex virus VP16. Based on kinetic analyses, we identified optimal time intervals for repeated vector administration and established prolonged expression windows of choice. Providing proof-of-concept, episomal transfer of Oct4 was potent to mediate conversion of human fibroblasts stably expressing Klf4, Sox2 and c-Myc into induced pluripotent stem cells, which were mainly free of residual Oct4 vector integration. This study provides evidence for suitability of retroviral episome transfer of transcription factors for cell fate conversion, allowing the generation of distinct patient- or disease-specific cell types. PMID:25102011

  14. Transfer Among Erwinia spp. and Other Enterobacteria of Antibiotic Resistance Carried on R Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Arun K.; Starr, Mortimer P.

    1972-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance carried on R factors was transferred by conjugation from Escherichia coli B/r and Shigella flexneri 1a to Erwinia spp. Tetracycline resistance (TetR) carried on R factor R100 drd-56 was transferred from E. coli B/r to strains of Erwinia amylovora, E. aroideae, E. atroseptica, E. chrysanthemi, E. cytolytica, E. dissolvens, E. herbicola, E. nigrifluens, and E. nimipressuralis, but not to strains of Erwinia carotovora, E. carnegieana, E. dieffenbachiae, E. oleraceae, and E. quercina. Multiple antibiotic resistance (chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline; ChlR-StrR-TetR) carried on R factor SR1 was transferred from a clinical isolate of S. flexneri 1a to strains of E. aroideae, E. chrysanthemi, E. herbicola, and E. nigrifluens, but not to strains of other Erwinia spp. The frequency of this transfer was low with receptive cultures of Erwinia spp. and E. coli (F? strain). Antibiotic resistance in the exconjugants showed varying degrees of stability in the presence or absence of acridine orange, depending on the strain tested. The frequencies of segregation to drug susceptibility in the presence of acridine orange, though low, suggest that the elements exist as plasmids in the majority of the Erwinia exconjugants. Multiple antibiotic resistance (ChlR-StrR-TetR) was found to segregate into various resistance classes (ChlR-StrR, StrR-TetR, TetR, StrR, and none) in these exconjugants. The exconjugants of E. amylovora, E. herbicola, and E. nigrifluens, to which R100 drd-56 was transferred from E. coli B/r, were sensitive to the male (F)-specific phage M13. There was a positive correlation between the susceptibility of exconjugants to the F-specific phage M13 and their ability to transfer R100 drd-56 to the recipient cultures of Escherichia coli, Erwinia herbicola, Salmonella typhimurium, and Shigella dysenteriae. Exceptions were, however, noted with Erwinia dissolvens and E. nimipressuralis exconjugants harboring R100 drd-56; these exconjugants, although not susceptible to M13, transferred R100 drd-56 to the recipient cultures. The frequency of transfer of R100 drd-56 and the levels of resistance to tetracycline in Erwinia exconjugants were found to differ markedly depending upon the strain employed. Transfer of multiple antibiotic resistance (ChlR-StrR-TetR) from Erwinia exconjugants was not obtained in preliminary trials with an E. coli F? strain as the recipient culture. PMID:4562410

  15. Transfer among Erwinia spp. and other enterobacteria of antibiotic resistance carried on R factors.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A K; Starr, M P

    1972-10-01

    Antibiotic resistance carried on R factors was transferred by conjugation from Escherichia coli B/r and Shigella flexneri 1a to Erwinia spp. Tetracycline resistance (TetR) carried on R factor R100 drd-56 was transferred from E. coli B/r to strains of Erwinia amylovora, E. aroideae, E. atroseptica, E. chrysanthemi, E. cytolytica, E. dissolvens, E. herbicola, E. nigrifluens, and E. nimipressuralis, but not to strains of Erwinia carotovora, E. carnegieana, E. dieffenbachiae, E. oleraceae, and E. quercina. Multiple antibiotic resistance (chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline; ChlR-StrR-TetR) carried on R factor SR1 was transferred from a clinical isolate of S. flexneri 1a to strains of E. aroideae, E. chrysanthemi, E. herbicola, and E. nigrifluens, but not to strains of other Erwinia spp. The frequency of this transfer was low with receptive cultures of Erwinia spp. and E. coli (F(-) strain). Antibiotic resistance in the exconjugants showed varying degrees of stability in the presence or absence of acridine orange, depending on the strain tested. The frequencies of segregation to drug susceptibility in the presence of acridine orange, though low, suggest that the elements exist as plasmids in the majority of the Erwinia exconjugants. Multiple antibiotic resistance (ChlR-StrR-TetR) was found to segregate into various resistance classes (ChlR-StrR, StrR-TetR, TetR, StrR, and none) in these exconjugants. The exconjugants of E. amylovora, E. herbicola, and E. nigrifluens, to which R100 drd-56 was transferred from E. coli B/r, were sensitive to the male (F)-specific phage M13. There was a positive correlation between the susceptibility of exconjugants to the F-specific phage M13 and their ability to transfer R100 drd-56 to the recipient cultures of Escherichia coli, Erwinia herbicola, Salmonella typhimurium, and Shigella dysenteriae. Exceptions were, however, noted with Erwinia dissolvens and E. nimipressuralis exconjugants harboring R100 drd-56; these exconjugants, although not susceptible to M13, transferred R100 drd-56 to the recipient cultures. The frequency of transfer of R100 drd-56 and the levels of resistance to tetracycline in Erwinia exconjugants were found to differ markedly depending upon the strain employed. Transfer of multiple antibiotic resistance (ChlR-StrR-TetR) from Erwinia exconjugants was not obtained in preliminary trials with an E. coli F(-) strain as the recipient culture. PMID:4562410

  16. Survey of literature on convective heat transfer coefficients and recovery factors for high atmosphere thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, S.

    1973-01-01

    Heat transfer phenomena of rarefied gas flows is discussed based on a literature survey of analytical and experimental rarefied gas dynamics. Subsonic flows are emphasized for the purposes of meteorological thermometry in the high atmosphere. The heat transfer coefficients for three basic geometries are given in the regimes of free molecular flow, transition flow, slip flow, and continuum flow. Different types of heat phenomena, and the analysis of theoretical and experimental data are presented. The uncertainties calculated from the interpolation rule compared with the available experimental data are discussed. The recovery factor for each geometry in subsonic rarefied flows is also given.

  17. Update on the evaluation of different correlations for the flow friction factor and heat transfer of Stirling engine regenerators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Thomas; Deborah Pittman

    2000-01-01

    This paper is intended to update the overview of different correlations for the friction factor and heat transfer of Stirling engine regenerators given by the Oscillating-Flow Regenerator Test Rig data. For that purpose the data was recalculated using the general applicable set of equations for Reynolds number, friction factor, pressure drop, Nusselt number and heat transfer area. Based on these

  18. Effect of Plant and Environmental Factors on ALS-resistant Gene Transfer from ClearfieldTM Rice to Red Rice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imazethapyr-resistant gene from ClearfieldTM (CL) rice varieties transfers through pollen flow to red rice (Oryza sativa L.), a noxious weed in rice production in southern states. Factors which affect gene transfer rate include, but are not limited to, plant and environmental factors. Thus, we aimed...

  19. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-11-01

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29Lkg(-1) in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85Lkg(-1) for whole, small-bodied fish. The logCRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were approximately 4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts. PMID:20619514

  20. Cargo capacity of phages and plasmids and other factors influencing horizontal transfers of prokaryote transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sébastien; Gilbert, Clément; Cordaux, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of transposable elements (TEs) plays a key role in prokaryote genome evolution. Most TEs do not encode the enzymatic machinery allowing them to transfer between host cells and it is widely assumed in the literature that horizontal transfer of prokaryote TEs is mediated by other mobile genetic elements such as phages and plasmids. In a recent study, we have shown that phages are less tolerant to insertion sequences (IS, the most frequent class of prokaryote TEs) and therefore have a lower cargo capacity than plasmids. Consequently, while our analysis confirmed the crucial role of plasmids as efficient vehicles of IS horizontal transfer, we concluded that phages are unlikely to efficiently shuttle IS elements between prokaryotes. Here, we discuss whether or not the distribution pattern observed for IS elements in phages and plasmids also holds for other TEs, such as transposons and mobile introns. We also further explore various factors that may impact the relative capacity of phages and plasmids to mediate TE horizontal transfer among prokaryotes. PMID:22934247

  1. Viral Gene Transfer of the Antiapoptotic Factor Bcl2 Protects Against Chronic Postischemic Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhasis Chatterjee; Allan S. Stewart; Lawrence T. Bish; Ba Vasant Jayasankar; Elizabeth M. Kim; Bs Y. Joseph Woo; Timothy J. Gardner; H. Lee Sweeney

    2002-01-01

    Background—Apoptosis secondary to acute ischemia and chronic remodeling is implicated as a mediator of heart failure. This study was designed to assess the effect of in vivo viral gene transfer of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 to block apoptosis and preserve ventricular geometry and function. Methods and Results—In a rabbit model of regional ischemia followed by reperfusion, an experimental group treated

  2. Transcriptional regulation of human microsomal triglyceride transfer protein by hepatocyte nuclear factor-4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vered Sheena; Rachel Hertz; Janna Nousbeck; Ina Berman; Judith Magenheim; Jacob Bar-Tana

    2004-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) catalyzes the assembly of triglyceride (TG)-rich apolipopro- tein B-containing liver (e.g., VLDL) and intestinal (e.g., chy- lomicron) lipoproteins. The human MTP gene promoter is reported here to associate in vivo with endogenous hepato- cyte nuclear factor-4 ? (HNF-4 ? ) and to be transactivated or transsuppressed by overexpressed or by dominant negative HNF-4 ? ,

  3. AAV-mediated factor IX gene transfer to skeletal muscle in patients with severe hemophilia B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine S. Manno; Amy J. Chew; Sylvia Hutchison; Peter J. Larson; Roland W. Herzog; Valder R. Arruda; Shing Jen Tai; Margaret V. Ragni; Arthur Thompson; Margareth Ozelo; Linda B. Couto; Debra G. B. Leonard; Frederick A. Johnson; Alan McClelland; Ciaran Scallan; Erik Skarsgard; Alan W. Flake; Mark A. Kay; Katherine A. High; Bertil Glader

    2003-01-01

    Hemophilia B is an X-linked coagulopathy caused by absence of functional coagula- tion factor IX (F.IX). Previously, we estab- lished an experimental basis for gene transfer as a method of treating the dis- ease in mice and hemophilic dogs through intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector ex- pressing F.IX. In this study we investi- gated the safety

  4. Evaluation of clinical factors influencing pregnancy rate in frozen embryo transfer

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Maryam; Rahmani, Elham; Pourmasumi, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Frozen embryo transfer (FET) is one of the most important supplementary procedures in the treatment of infertile couples. While general information concerning the outcome of fresh embryo transfer has been documented, paucity of investigations has addressed the clinical factors influenced on pregnancy rates in FET. Objective: In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis of clinical factors that potentially influence the outcome of FET. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the data from 372 women who were subjected to FET registered from April 2009-2011 at the Research and clinical center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Baseline data and pregnancy rate were collected. The data were analyzed statistically using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The clinical pregnancy rate was 57.7 and 29.2% in women <35 years old, and women >35 years old, respectively (p<0.0001). Clinical pregnancy rates in women with FSH <10 IU/ml, and FSH >10 IU/ml were 56.3% and 17.5 %, respectively (p<0.0001). Whereas the other clinical parameters consist of reason of fetus freezing, primary IVF protocol, IVF procedure, endometrial thickness, treatment duration to fetal transfer found to be unrelated to FET outcomes (p>0.05). Conclusion: Female age and basal FSH level are the most important factors influencing the clinical pregnancy rate following FET. PMID:25114675

  5. Transfers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Sala-i-Martin

    1992-01-01

    In this paper I develop a positive theory of intergenerational transfers. I argue that transfers are a means to induce retirement. that is, to buy the elderly out of the labor force. The reason why societies choose to do such a thing is that aggregate output is higher if the elderly do not work. I model this idea through positive

  6. Heavy Chain Transfer by Tumor Necrosis Factor-stimulated Gene 6 to the Bikunin Proteoglycan.

    PubMed

    Lamkin, Elliott; Cheng, Georgiana; Calabro, Anthony; Hascall, Vincent C; Joo, Eun Ji; Li, Lingyun; Linhardt, Robert J; Lauer, Mark E

    2015-02-20

    We present data that hyaluronan (HA) polysaccharides, about 14-86 monosaccharides in length, are capable of accepting only a single heavy chain (HC) from inter-?-inhibitor via transfer by tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6) and that this transfer is irreversible. We propose that either the sulfate groups (or the sulfation pattern) at the reducing end of the chondroitin sulfate (CS) chain of bikunin, or the core protein itself, enables the bikunin proteoglycan (PG) to accept more than a single HC and permits TSG-6 to transfer these HCs from its relatively small CS chain to HA. To test these hypotheses, we investigated HC transfer to the intact CS chain of the bikunin PG, and to the free chain of bikunin. We observed that both the free CS chain and the intact bikunin PG were only able to accept a single HC from inter-?-inhibitor via transfer by TSG-6 and that HCs could be swapped from the bikunin PG and its free CS chain to HA. Furthermore, a significant portion of the bikunin PG was unable to accept a single heavy chain. We discuss explanations for these observations, including the intracellular assembly of inter-?-inhibitor. In summary, these data demonstrate that the sulfation of the CS chain of bikunin and/or its core protein promote HC transfer by TSG-6 to its relatively short CS chain, although they are insufficient to enable the CS chain of bikunin to accept more than one HC in the absence of other cofactors. PMID:25561734

  7. Optimization of the uid A gene transfer of Rosa hybrida via Agrobacterium tumefaciens : an assessment of factors influencing the efficiency of gene transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liping Gao; Manzhu Bao

    2004-01-01

    To develop a transformation protocol of Rosa hybrida ‘Samantha’ via Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the authors examined the effect of different factors on T-DNA transfer by measuring transient expression levels of an intron-containing\\u000a ?-glucuronidase gene. The results indicate that explant, light condition, salt concentration and acetosyringone (AS) concentration\\u000a in co-culture medium are the most important factors, and factors like co-culture temperature, co-culture

  8. 100% Classification Accuracy Considered Harmful: The Normalized Information Transfer Factor Explains the Accuracy Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Valverde-Albacete, Francisco J.; Peláez-Moreno, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The most widely spread measure of performance, accuracy, suffers from a paradox: predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy. Despite optimizing classification error rate, high accuracy models may fail to capture crucial information transfer in the classification task. We present evidence of this behavior by means of a combinatorial analysis where every possible contingency matrix of 2, 3 and 4 classes classifiers are depicted on the entropy triangle, a more reliable information-theoretic tool for classification assessment. Motivated by this, we develop from first principles a measure of classification performance that takes into consideration the information learned by classifiers. We are then able to obtain the entropy-modulated accuracy (EMA), a pessimistic estimate of the expected accuracy with the influence of the input distribution factored out, and the normalized information transfer factor (NIT), a measure of how efficient is the transmission of information from the input to the output set of classes. The EMA is a more natural measure of classification performance than accuracy when the heuristic to maximize is the transfer of information through the classifier instead of classification error count. The NIT factor measures the effectiveness of the learning process in classifiers and also makes it harder for them to “cheat” using techniques like specialization, while also promoting the interpretability of results. Their use is demonstrated in a mind reading task competition that aims at decoding the identity of a video stimulus based on magnetoencephalography recordings. We show how the EMA and the NIT factor reject rankings based in accuracy, choosing more meaningful and interpretable classifiers. PMID:24427282

  9. g-factor of the 9/2+ isomeric state in 65Ni from transfer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, G.; Matea, I.; Balabanski, D. L.; Daugas, J. M.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Franchoo, S.; Ibrahim, F.; Le Blanc, F.; Lewitowicz, M.; Lo Bianco, G.; Lukyanov, S.; Meot, V.; Morel, P.; Neyens, G.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Saltarelli, A.; Sorlin, O.; Stanoiu, M.; Tarisien, M.; Vermeulen, N.; Verney, D.; Yordanov, D.

    2006-11-01

    We report a measurement of the g-factor of the I ? = 9/2+, t 1/2 = 22ns isomer in 65Ni. The state of interest was populated and spin-oriented using a single-neutron transfer on an enriched 64Ni target. The value, which was obtained, g(9/2+,65m Ni) = - 0.296(3) is well in agreement with the g-factors of the other 9/2+ states in the region and with large-basis shell model calculations. The known g-factor of the 9/2+ isomer in 63Ni was used in order to verify the strength of the hyperfine field of Ni( Ni) at room temperature.

  10. Strategic factors in the development of the National Technology Transfer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, Jonathan F.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    Broad consensus among industry and government leaders has developed over the last decade on the importance of applying the U.S. leadership in research and development (R&D) to strengthen competitiveness in the global marketplace, and thus enhance national prosperity. This consensus has emerged against the backdrop of increasing economic competition, and the dramatic reduction of military threats to national security with the end of the Cold War. This paper reviews the key factors and considerations that shaped - and continue to influence - the development of the Regional Technoloty Transfer Centers (RTTC) and the National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC). Also, the future role of the national network in support of emerging technology policy initiatives will be explored.

  11. Transfer of Cadmium from Soil to Vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huihua; Chen, Junjian; Zhu, Li; Yang, Guoyi; Li, Dingqiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd) concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg?1) compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg?1). 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg?1). The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (), and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils. PMID:25247431

  12. Examining the Factor Structure and Predictive Ability of the German-Version of the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Reid; Kauffeld, Simone; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to examine the construct and predictive ability of a German version of the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (GLTSI), an instrument designed to assess a constellation of 16 factors known to influence the transfer of training in work settings. Design/methodology/approach: The survey data for this study was…

  13. Placental growth factor-2 gene transfer by electroporation restores diabetic sensory neuropathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tatsufumi; Imada, Yoshimi; Kawamura, Mai; Takahashi, Tomoko; Fujita, Yoshiaki; Sato, Eiji; Yoshitomi, Hironori; Sunada, Yoshihide; Nakamura, Akihiro

    2011-01-01

    Placental growth factor-2 (PlGF-2) exhibits neurotrophic activity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons through the neuropilin-1 (NP-1) receptor in vitro. To examine the potential utility of PlGF-2 therapy for treating diabetic neuropathy, we performed intramuscular PlGF-2 gene transfer by electroporation, and examined its effects on sensory neuropathy in diabetic mice. PlGF-2 was overexpressed in the tibial anterior (TA) muscles of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with hypoalgesia using a PlGF-2 plasmid injection with electroporation. The nociceptive threshold was measured using a paw-pressure test. In addition, we overexpressed PlGF-1, an isoform of PlGF that does not bind NP-1. The sciatic nerve and skin were examined 3weeks after PlGF-2 electro-gene transfer. The overexpression and secretion of PlGF-2 in TA muscles were confirmed by an increase in PlGF levels in TA muscles and plasma, and strongly PlGF positive myofibers in TA muscles. Two weeks after electro-gene transfer into the bilateral TA muscles, the previously elevated nociceptive threshold was found to be significantly decreased in all treated mice. PlGF-1 gene transfer by electroporation did not significantly decrease the nociceptive threshold in diabetic mice. No increase in the number of endoneurial vessels in the sciatic nerve was found in the PlGF-2 plasmid-electroporated mice. A reduction of area of immunoreactivity in epidermal nerves in diabetic mice was restored by PlGF-2 gene transfer. These findings suggest that PlGF-2 electro-gene therapy can significantly ameliorate sensory deficits (i.e. hypoalgesia) in diabetic mice through NP-1 in DRG and peripheral nerves. PMID:21056561

  14. Relativistic radiative transfer in relativistic plane-parallel flows: Behavior of the Eddington factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Relativistic radiative transfer in a relativistic plane-parallel flow which is accelerated from its base, like an accretion disk wind, is numerically examined under a fully special-relativistic treatment. We first derive relativistic formal solutions. We then iteratively solve the relativistic transfer equation for several cases such as radiative equilibrium or local thermodynamic equilibrium, and obtain specific intensities in the inertial and comoving frames, as well as moment quantities and the Eddington factor. Moment quantities are rather different in each case, but the behavior of the Eddington factor for the plane-parallel case is quite similar in all cases. The Eddington factor generally depends on the flow velocity v as well as the optical depth ?. In the case of relativistic plane-parallel flows, in an optically thin regime of ? ? 1, it is slightly larger than 1/3 at very slow speed, it becomes smaller than 1/3 at mildly relativistic speed, and it again increases up to unity in the highly relativistic case. At highly relativistic speed, on the other hand, it becomes larger than 1/3 even in an optically thick regime. We find the Eddington approximation is fairly good, except for ? ? 1 or v/c ? 0.9, although the moment formalism under the Eddington approximation has some defects at v/c=1/?{3}.

  15. Angiogenesis Enhancement by Laser-induced Stress Waves-assisted Gene Transfer of Hepatocyte Growth Factor in Grafted Skins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuhiro Terakawa; Shunichi Sato; Daizoh Saitoh; Hiroshi Ashida; Hideyuki Okano; Minoru Obara

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated that gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor to skin graft by applying laser-induced stress waves enhanced angiogenesis in grafted skins, indicating accelerated adhesion of transplanted skins

  16. Characterization of guinea pig transfer factor collected by In vivo exposure to antilymphocyte gamma globulin

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Robert Stanley

    1976-01-01

    sensitized to the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) t ' fM~bt ' b ' ~ t*td 'thAIgG d guinated 4-6 hr later. The resultant sensitized plasma was dialyzed either once or twice to produce fractions containing plasma components of &5000 daltons and &5000 daltons..., or &5000, 5000-30, 000, and &30, 000 deltons. Only the fractions containing &5000 dalton components demonstrated the ability to passively transfer the sensitivity to BCG, as determined by recipient skin tests, macrophage inhibition factor analysis...

  17. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  18. Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

    2005-10-04

    {sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

  19. Training, transfer, and turnover: Exploring the relationship among transfer of learning factors and staff retention in child welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale Curry; Timothy McCarragher; Mary Dellmann-Jenkins

    2005-01-01

    Although training is often used in child welfare as an intervention to promote effective performance on the job (transfer of learning—TOL) as well as staff retention, there is not a preponderance of empirical evidence to support this practice. The “transfer problem” is well documented in training and development literature and the relationship between training and turnover in child welfare is

  20. Irreversible Heavy Chain Transfer to Hyaluronan Oligosaccharides by Tumor Necrosis Factor-stimulated Gene-6*

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Mark E.; Glant, Tibor T.; Mikecz, Katalin; DeAngelis, Paul L.; Haller, F. Michael; Husni, M. Elaine; Hascall, Vincent C.; Calabro, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The covalent transfer of heavy chains (HCs) from inter-?-inhibitor (I?I) to hyaluronan (HA) via the protein product of tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) forms the HC-HA complex, a pathological form of HA that promotes the adhesion of leukocytes to HA matrices. The transfer of HCs to high molecular weight (HMW) HA is a reversible event whereby TSG-6 can shuffle HCs from one HA molecule to another. Therefore, HMW HA can serve as both an HC acceptor and an HC donor. In the present study, we show that transfer of HCs to low molecular weight HA oligosaccharides is an irreversible event where subsequent shuffling does not occur, i.e. HA oligosaccharides from 8 to 21 monosaccharide units in length can serve as HC acceptors, but are unable to function as HC donors. We show that the HC-HA complex is present in the synovial fluid of mice subjected to systemic and monoarticular mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HA oligosaccharides can be used, with TSG-6, to irreversibly shuffle HCs from pathological, HMW HC-HA to HA oligosaccharides, thereby restoring HC-HA matrices from the inflamed joint to their normal state, unmodified with HCs. This process was also effective for HC-HA in the synovial fluid of human rheumatoid arthritis patients (in vitro). PMID:23166324

  1. Recoil polarization measurements of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio to high momentum transfer.

    SciTech Connect

    Puckett, A. J. R.; Brash, E.J.; Jones, M. K.; Luo, W.; Meziane, M.; Arrington, J.; Hafidi, K.; Reimer, P.; Solvignon, P. (Physics); (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.); (Christopher Newport Univ.); (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility); (Lanzhou Univ.); (Coll. of William and Mary)

    2010-01-01

    Among the most fundamental observables of nucleon structure, electromagnetic form factors are a crucial benchmark for modern calculations describing the strong interaction dynamics of the nucleon's quark constituents; indeed, recent proton data have attracted intense theoretical interest. In this Letter, we report new measurements of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio using the recoil polarization method, at momentum transfers Q{sup 2} = 5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV{sup 2}. By extending the range of Q{sup 2} for which G{sub E}{sup p} is accurately determined by more than 50%, these measurements will provide significant constraints on models of nucleon structure in the nonperturbative regime.

  2. Placental Transfer of Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Agents in Pregnant Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Uma; Wolf, Douglas C.; Dubinsky, Marla; Cortot, Antoine; Lee, Scott D.; Siegel, Corey A.; Ullman, Thomas; Glover, Sarah; Valentine, John F.; Rubin, David T.; Miller, Jocelyn; Abreu, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Some women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) require therapy with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists during pregnancy. It is not clear whether these drugs are transferred to the fetus, via the placenta, and then cleared, or whether structurally different TNF antagonists have different rates of transfer. Methods We studied 31 pregnant women with IBD receiving infliximab (IFX, n=11), adalimumab (ADA, n=10), or certolizumab (CZP, n=10). Serum concentrations of the drugs were measured at birth in the mother, infant, and in cord blood, and then monthly in the infant until the drugs were undetectable. Drug concentrations in the cord and the infant at birth were compared with those of the mother. Results Concentrations of IFX and ADA, but not CZP, were higher in infants at birth and their cords than in their mothers. The levels of CZP in infants and their cords were <2 ?g/ml. The median level of IFX in the cord was 160% that of the mother, the median level of ADA in the cord was 153% that of the mother, and the median level of CZP in the cord was 3.9% that of the mother. IFX and ADA could be detected in the infants for as long as 6 months. No congenital anomalies or serious complications were reported. Conclusions The TNF antagonists IFX and ADA are transferred across the placenta and can be detected in infants at birth; the drugs were detected in infants up to 6 months after birth. CZP has the lowest level of placental transfer, based on levels measured in cords and infants at birth, of the drugs tested. PMID:23200982

  3. Statistical iterative reconstruction using fast optimization transfer algorithm with successively increasing factor in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiyu; Zhang, Zhenxi; Chen, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Statistical iterative reconstruction exhibits particularly promising since it provides the flexibility of accurate physical noise modeling and geometric system description in transmission tomography system. However, to solve the objective function is computationally intensive compared to analytical reconstruction methods due to multiple iterations needed for convergence and each iteration involving forward/back-projections by using a complex geometric system model. Optimization transfer (OT) is a general algorithm converting a high dimensional optimization to a parallel 1-D update. OT-based algorithm provides a monotonic convergence and a parallel computing framework but slower convergence rate especially around the global optimal. Based on an indirect estimation on the spectrum of the OT convergence rate matrix, we proposed a successively increasing factor- scaled optimization transfer (OT) algorithm to seek an optimal step size for a faster rate. Compared to a representative OT based method such as separable parabolic surrogate with pre-computed curvature (PC-SPS), our algorithm provides comparable image quality (IQ) with fewer iterations. Each iteration retains a similar computational cost to PC-SPS. The initial experiment with a simulated Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) system shows that a total 40% computing time is saved by the proposed algorithm. In general, the successively increasing factor-scaled OT exhibits a tremendous potential to be a iterative method with a parallel computation, a monotonic and global convergence with fast rate.

  4. Friction factor and heat transfer of nanofluids containing cylindrical nanoparticles in laminar pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianzhong; Xia, Yi; Ku, Xiaoke

    2014-10-01

    Numerical simulations of polyalphaolefins-Al2O3 nanofluids containing cylindrical nanoparticles in a laminar pipe flow are performed by solving the Navier-Stokes equation with term of cylindrical nanoparticles, the general dynamic equation for cylindrical nanoparticles, and equation for nanoparticle orientation. The distributions of particle number and volume concentration, the friction factor, and heat transfer are obtained and analyzed. The results show that distributions of nanoparticle number and volume concentration are non-uniform across the section, with larger and smaller values in the region near the pipe center and near the wall, respectively. The non-uniformity becomes significant with the increase in the axial distance from the inlet. The friction factor decreases with increasing Reynolds number. The relationships between the friction factor and the nanoparticle volume concentration as well as particle aspect ratio are dependent on the Reynolds number. The Nusselt number of nanofluids, directly proportional to the Reynolds number, particle volume concentration, and particle aspect ratio, is higher near the pipe entrance than at the downstream locations. The rate of increase in Nusselt number at lower particle volume concentration is more than that at higher concentration. Finally, the expressions of friction factor and Nusselt number as a function of particle volume concentration, particle aspect ratio, and Reynolds number are derived based on the numerical data.

  5. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Rao, Chetan; Sudeep Kumara, K; Dileep, B N; Ravi, P M

    2013-10-01

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of (137)Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the (137)Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10(-1) and 1.8 × 10(-1) for (137)Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of (137)Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10(-2) d L(-1) and 4.6 × 10(-2) d L(-1), respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10(-2) d L(-1) for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10(-3) d L(-1) for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of (137)Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for (137)Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content ((40)K and stable K) in the soil and grass were also studied. In order to estimate the ingestion dose accurate data of the dietary habits of the population was necessary and this data was collected through a well planned demographic survey. The internal doses to a child due to the ingestion of (137)Cs along with the milk of the local cows and from the dairy farm were found to be 0.29 ?Sv y(-1) and 0.04 ?Sv y(-1),while that to an adult were 0.39 ?Sv y(-1) and 0.05 ?Sv y(-1), respectively. PMID:23685702

  6. The effect of long-term wastewater irrigation on accumulation and transfer of heavy metals in Cupressus sempervirens leaves and adjacent soils.

    PubMed

    Farahat, Emad; Linderholm, Hans W

    2015-04-15

    Wastewater reuse for agriculture is an important management strategy in areas with limited freshwater resources, yielding potential economic and environmental benefits. Here the effects of long-term irrigation with wastewater on the nutrient contents of green and senesced leaves of Cupressus sempervirens L. were assessed for three planted forests in Egypt. Stoichiometric ratios, transfer factors for nutrients from soil to plant and enrichment factors in contaminated soils were estimated and compared to a ground water irrigated control site. Under wastewater irrigation, C. sempervirens transferred most of the estimated nutrients, particularly heavy metals, from green to senesced leaves. This could be a self-protecting mechanism under continuous wastewater irrigation. The accumulation of four metals (Zn, Mn, Cu and Cd) with transfer factors>1 for wastewater-irrigated trees, indicated the ability for metal accumulation of C. sempervirens. Stoichiometric ratios decreased under wastewater irrigation compared to the control site and global trends, which suggests nutrient disorders in these plants. The values of enrichment factors in the wastewater-irrigated soils showed remarkable availability and distribution of metals. Decreased resorption of metals by senesced leaves of C. sempervirens will add considerable amount of these metals to the soils, which will likely have adverse affects on the desert ecosystem components. PMID:25613764

  7. Laminar heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of carbon nano tube/water nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Rathnakumar, P; Mayilsamy, K; Suresh, S; Murugesan, P

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of CNT/water nanofluid through a circular tube fitted with helical screw tape inserts with constant heat flux under laminar flow condition. Nanofluids of 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions are prepared by two step method. Thermo-physical properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity are measured by using KD2 thermal property analyzer and Brooke field cone and plate viscometer respectively. From the measurements, it is found that the viscosity increase is substantially higher than the increase in the thermal conductivity. The helical screw tape insets with twist ratios Y = 3, 2.44 and 1.78 are used to study the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics under laminar flow in the Reynolds number range of 520-2500. It is observed that, in a plain tube, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number for 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of nanofluids compared to pure water is 15% and 32% respectively. With the use of inserts, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number corresponding to twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 are obtained as 8%, 16% and 4.6% for 0.1% volume fraction of nanofluid and 5%, 4% and 12% for 0.2% volume fraction of nanofluid when compared with water in plain tube. Thermal performance factor evaluation revealed that the values at all Reynolds number for all twist ratios and both concentration of CNT nanofluid are greater than unity which indicates that helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios considered are feasible in terms of energy saving in laminar flow. PMID:24745238

  8. Transcription Factor- Plasmid Binding Modulates Microtubule Interactions and Intracellular Trafficking During Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Badding, Melissa A.; Vaughan, Erin E.; Dean, David A.

    2014-01-01

    For non-viral gene delivery to be successful, plasmids must move through the cytoplasm to the nucleus in order to be transcribed. While the cytoskeletal meshwork acts as a barrier to plasmid DNA movement in the cytoplasm, the microtubule network is required for directed plasmid trafficking to the nucleus. We have shown previously that plasmid-microtubule interactions require cytoplasmic adapter proteins such as molecular motors, transcription factors, and importins (Vaughan and Dean, 2006, Mol Ther 13;422). However, not all plasmid sequences support these interactions to allow movement to the nucleus. We now demonstrate that microtubule-DNA interactions can show sequence-specificity with promoters containing binding sites for cyclic AMP response-element binding protein (CREB), including the Cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter (CMViep). Plasmids containing CREB binding sites showed stringent interactions in an in vitro microtubule-binding assay. Using microinjection and real-time particle tracking, we show that the inclusion of transcription factor binding sites within plasmids permits cytoplasmic trafficking of plasmids during gene transfer. We found that CREB binding sites are bound by CREB in the cytoplasm during transfection, and allow for enhanced rates of movement and subsequent nuclear accumulation. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of CREB prevented this enhanced trafficking. Therefore, transcription factor binding sites within plasmids are necessary for interactions with microtubules and enhance movement to the nucleus. PMID:21716302

  9. Roche-lobe filling factor of mass-transferring red giants: the PIONIER view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffin, H. M. J.; Hillen, M.; Berger, J. P.; Jorissen, A.; Blind, N.; Le Bouquin, J. B.; Miko?ajewska, J.; Lazareff, B.

    2014-04-01

    Using the PIONIER visitor instrument that combines the light of the four Auxiliary Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer, we precisely measure the diameters of several symbiotic and related stars: HD 352, HD 190658, V1261 Ori, ER Del, FG Ser, and AG Peg. These diameters - in the range of 0.6-2.3 milli-arcsec - are used to assess the filling factor of the Roche lobe of the mass-losing giants and provide indications on the nature of the ongoing mass transfer. We also provide the first spectroscopic orbit of ER Del, based on CORAVEL and HERMES/Mercator observations. The system is found to have an eccentric orbit with a period of 5.7 years. In the case of the symbiotic star FG Ser, we find that the diameter changes by 13% over the course of 41 days, while the observations of HD 352 are indicative of an elongation. Both these stars are found to have a Roche filling factor close to 1, as is most likely the case for HD 190658 as well, while the three other stars have factors below 0.5-0.6. Our observations reveal the power of interferometry for the study of interacting binary stars; the main limitation in our conclusions is the poorly known distances of the objects. Table 7 and Figs. 9-18 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL] [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  11. Investigation of Haemonchus contortus infections in sheep. Comparison of irradiated larvae and transfer factor treatment.

    PubMed

    Ross, J G; Duncan, J L; Halliday, W G

    1979-09-01

    A comparison is made between the resistance conferred to Haemonchus contortus challenge by irradiated larval treatment and transfer factor (TF) treatment in four-month-old lambs and seven-month-old lambs. As in previous investigations the irradiated larval treatment failed to confer resistance to the four-month-old lambs challenged with 10,000 third stage larvae while similar irradiated larval treatment in seven-month-old lambs reduced the worm burdens by 40 per cent compared to controls. The TF treatment produced a 34 per cent reduction in the challenge infection in the four-month-old lambs and a 45 per cent reduction in the seven-month-old lambs compared to the control lambs. It is concluded that TF activity operates independently of immune competence. PMID:523821

  12. Necessary and sufficient factors for the import of transfer RNA into the kinetoplast mitochondrion

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Saikat; Basu, Sudarshana; Home, Pratik; Dhar, Gunjan; Adhya, Samit

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of active transport of transfer RNA (tRNA) across membranes is largely unknown. Factors mediating the import of tRNA into the kinetoplast mitochondrion of the protozoon Leishmania tropica are organized into a multiprotein RNA import complex (RIC) at the inner membrane. Here, we present the complete characterization of the identities and functions of the subunits of this complex. The complex contains three mitochondrion- and eight nuclear-encoded subunits; six of the latter are necessary and sufficient for import. Antisense-mediated knockdown of essential subunits resulted in the depletion of mitochondrial tRNAs and inhibition of organellar translation. Functional complexes were reconstituted with recombinant subunits expressed in Escherichia coli. Several essential RIC subunits are identical to specific subunits of respiratory complexes. These findings provide new information on the evolution of tRNA import and the foundation for detailed structural and mechanistic studies. PMID:17510656

  13. Modification of an impulse-factoring orbital transfer technique to account for orbit determination and maneuver execution errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibler, J. F.; Green, R. N.; Young, G. R.; Kelly, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method has previously been developed to satisfy terminal rendezvous and intermediate timing constraints for planetary missions involving orbital operations. The method uses impulse factoring in which a two-impulse transfer is divided into three or four impulses which add one or two intermediate orbits. The periods of the intermediate orbits and the number of revolutions in each orbit are varied to satisfy timing constraints. Techniques are developed to retarget the orbital transfer in the presence of orbit-determination and maneuver-execution errors. Sample results indicate that the nominal transfer can be retargeted with little change in either the magnitude (Delta V) or location of the individual impulses. Additonally, the total Delta V required for the retargeted transfer is little different from that required for the nominal transfer. A digital computer program developed to implement the techniques is described.

  14. Hispanic Student Success: Factors Influencing the Persistence and Transfer Decisions of Latino Community College Students Enrolled in Developmental Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria Crisp; Amaury Nora

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a set of theoretically-derived predictor variables on the persistence and transfer of Hispanic\\u000a community college students. Early models of student persistence have been validated primarily among 4-year college students.\\u000a While the constructs have been well-established, the relationships of those relevant factors remain unexamined among community\\u000a college transfer students, and specifically, among Hispanic students enrolled

  15. Transfer of heavy metals through terrestrial food webs: a review.

    PubMed

    Gall, Jillian E; Boyd, Robert S; Rajakaruna, Nishanta

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals are released into the environment by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Highly reactive and often toxic at low concentrations, they may enter soils and groundwater, bioaccumulate in food webs, and adversely affect biota. Heavy metals also may remain in the environment for years, posing long-term risks to life well after point sources of heavy metal pollution have been removed. In this review, we compile studies of the community-level effects of heavy metal pollution, including heavy metal transfer from soils to plants, microbes, invertebrates, and to both small and large mammals (including humans). Many factors contribute to heavy metal accumulation in animals including behavior, physiology, and diet. Biotic effects of heavy metals are often quite different for essential and non-essential heavy metals, and vary depending on the specific metal involved. They also differ for adapted organisms, including metallophyte plants and heavy metal-tolerant insects, which occur in naturally high-metal habitats (such as serpentine soils) and have adaptations that allow them to tolerate exposure to relatively high concentrations of some heavy metals. Some metallophyte plants are hyperaccumulators of certain heavy metals and new technologies using them to clean metal-contaminated soil (phytoextraction) may offer economically attractive solutions to some metal pollution challenges. These new technologies provide incentive to catalog and protect the unique biodiversity of habitats that have naturally high levels of heavy metals. PMID:25800370

  16. The effect of individual factors on the transfer of human resource management knowledge in Chinese subsidiaries : The perspective of Chinese HR managers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindy Wang-Cowham

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of individual factors on the transfer of human resource management (HRM) knowledge in Chinese subsidiaries of multinational corporations, and to explore the relationships between individual factors and introduce the concept of joint effect-integrated capability. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on the notion that certain factors can affect knowledge transfer (KT),

  17. Plasmid Transfer of Plasminogen K1-5 Reduces Subcutaneous Hepatoma Growth by Affecting Inflammatory Factors

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Lea A.; Strassburg, Christian P.; Raskopf, Esther

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that plasminogen K1-5 (PlgK1-5) directly affects tumour cells and inflammation. Therefore, we analysed if PlgK1-5 has immediate effects on hepatoma cells and inflammatory factors in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, effects of plasmid encoding PlgK1-5 (pK1-5) on Hepa129, Hepa1-6, and HuH7 cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation as well as VEGF and TNF-alpha expression and STAT3-phosphorylation were investigated. In vivo, tumour growth, proliferation, vessel density, and effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression were examined following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, pK1-5 halved cell viability; cell death was increased by up to 15% compared to the corresponding controls. Proliferation was not affected. VEGF, TNF-alpha, and STAT3-phosphorylation were affected following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, ten days after treatment initiation, pK1-5 reduced subcutaneous tumour growth by 32% and mitosis by up to 77% compared to the controls. Vessel density was reduced by 50%. TNF-alpha levels in tumour and liver tissue were increased, whereas VEGF levels in tumours and livers were reduced after pK1-5 treatment. Taken together, plasmid gene transfer of PlgK1-5 inhibits hepatoma (cell) growth not only by reducing vessel density but also by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, and triggering inflammation. PMID:24895598

  18. Factors Influencing Lava-Substrate Heat Transfer and Implications for Thermomechanical Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagents, S. A.; Greeley, R.; Lenat, J. F. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    We develop numerical simulations of basaltic lava flowing laminarly over a basalt substrate in order to examine the details of the lava dynamics and thermal boundary layers and to understand the implications for substrate heating. As the initial stage of a larger study of thermomechanical erosion in different planetary environments, we aim to understand why erosion occurs on Earth, why erosion features are not ubiquitous given the high temperatures involved, and whether it is a plausible mechanism for the formation of planetary channels such as lunar sinuous rilles and Venusian canali. Here we confine our attention to terrestrial lavas with well-known properties and eruption parameters. With relatively simple computational fluid dynamic simulations, most closely representing tube-fed hawaiian basalts (for which erosion has been documented), we demonstrate the importance of incorporating several key factors in models of lava flow/ substrate heat transfer, which have commonly been neglected in previous treatments. By addressing the interaction of the flow dynamics and heat transfer in the lava, our work suggests that the development of a temperature gradient in the base of the lava, even for undeveloped flow, has a significant influence on substrate temperature. The sensitivity of the lava-substrate interface temperature to the thermophysical properties of the lava and substrate suggests that a delicate balance is required for partial melting to occur. Thus, it might take weeks of continuous flow to initiate partial melting of the substrate at distances of several kilometers from the vent. These durations exceed the periods of stability typical of lava flowing in tubes; pauses, blockages, surges, and break-outs frequently disrupt the flow. However, natural irregularities in the flow dynamics or substrate topography might help to initiate and maintain substrate melting on shorter timescales by disturbing the intimately coupled dynamic and thermal boundary layers. Although a purely thermal mechanism cannot be ruled out, our findings support the premise that mechanical erosion may play a key role in reports of erosion based on field evidence.

  19. In Vivo and In Vitro studies on transfer factor with a protein antigen system

    E-print Network

    Kelleher, Peter Joseph

    1975-01-01

    in the guinea pig. Studies by Chase and Landsteiner (16, 17, 48, 49, 50) concern- ing delayed hypersensitivity to simple chemicals and tuberculin in guinea pigs revealed that passive transfer of sensitivity could be accomplished by the transfer of peritoneal...

  20. Transfer of embryos into the uterus: How much do technical factors affect pregnancy rates?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talha Al-Shawaf; Rajendra Dave; Joyce Harper; Deborah Linehan; Paul Riley; Ian Craft

    1993-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to identify the effect on outcome of (a) ultrasound-assisted embryo transfer, (b) the use of different embryo transfer catheters, and (c) the length of time the patients remain in the supine position after embryo transfer.

  1. An Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Academic Success of Transfer Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Moore, Donna Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Attrition is a growing concern among higher education institutions. Student retention has long been viewed as a measure of institutional effectiveness. The number of transfer students, particularly those who seek entry into postsecondary education by transfer from a two-year to a four-year institution, continues to increase. However, transfer

  2. Transfer of radiocesium to four cruciferous vegetables as influenced by organic amendment under different field conditions in Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-02-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in four cruciferous vegetables as influenced by cattle manure-based compost amendment was investigated. Komatsuna, mustard, radish and turnip were cultivated in three different (137)Cs-contaminated fields at Nihonmatsu City in Fukushima Prefecture from June to August 2012. Results revealed that organic compost amendments stimulated plant biomass production and tended to induce higher (137)Cs concentration in the cruciferous vegetables in most cases. Among the studied sites, Takanishi soil possessing low exchangeable potassium (0.10 cmolc kg(-1)) was associated with an increased concentration of (137)Cs in plants. Radiocesium transfer factor (TF) values of the vegetables ranged from 0.025 to 0.119. The increase in (137)Cs TFs was dependent on larger plant biomass production, high organic matter content, and high sand content in the studied soils. Average (137)Cs TF values for all study sites and compost treatments were higher in Komatsuna (0.072) and radish (0.059), which exhibited a higher biomass production compared to mustard and turnip. The transferability of (137)Cs to vegetables from soils was in the order Komatsuna > radish > mustard > turnip. The highest (137)Cs TF value (0.071) of all vegetables was recorded for a field where the soil had high organic matter content and a high clay proportion of 470 g kg(-1) consisting of Al-vermiculite clay mineral. PMID:25483355

  3. Largely ignored: the impact of the threshold value for a QALY on the importance of a transferability factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pepijn VemerMaureen; Maureen P. M. H. Rutten-van Mölken

    2011-01-01

    Recently, several checklists systematically assessed factors that affect the transferability of cost-effectiveness (CE) studies\\u000a between jurisdictions. The role of the threshold value for a QALY has been given little consideration in these checklists,\\u000a even though the importance of a factor as a cause of between country differences in CE depends on this threshold. In this\\u000a paper, we study the impact

  4. Learning What Matters: Exploring the Factors Affecting Learning Transfers in Child Welfare Competencies and Career Interest in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Aries Meng-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of the factors impacting MSW students' interests and motivation to learn child welfare competencies, and how they affect learning transfer of the subject is important for the development of a knowledgeable, competent, and committed workforce that serves children and families in the United States. Practitioners need to attain…

  5. Hispanic Student Success: Factors Influencing the Persistence and Transfer Decisions of Latino Community College Students Enrolled in Developmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Gloria; Nora, Amaury

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a set of theoretically-derived predictor variables on the persistence and transfer of Hispanic community college students. Early models of student persistence have been validated primarily among 4-year college students. While the constructs have been well-established, the relationships of those relevant factors

  6. Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in non-human primates (Microcebus murinus).

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Coagulation factor X mediates adenovirus type 5 liver gene transfer in non- human primates by Ad5 and FX-binding ablated Ad5 vectors in non-human primates. Ad5 vectors accumulated in and mediated particles predominantly accumulate in and transduce the liver in rodent and non-human primate models(5, 15

  7. Factors affecting the levels of protection transferred from mother to offspring following immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The transfer of antibodies from mother to offspring is key to protecting young animals from disease and can have a major impact on responses to infection and offspring fitness. Such maternal effects also allow young that may be exposed to disease in early life to focus resources on growth and development at this critical period of development. Maternally transferred antibodies are therefore an important source of phenotypic variation in host phenotype as well as influencing host susceptibility and tolerance to infection across generations. It has previously been assumed the transfer of antibodies is passive and invariant and reflects the level of circulating antibody in the mother at the time of transfer. However, whether females may vary in the relative amount of protection transferred to offspring has seldom been explored. Results Here we show that females differ widely in the relative amount of specific blood antibodies they transfer to the embryonic environment (range 9.2%-38.4% of their own circulating levels) in Chinese painted quail (Coturnix chinensis). Relative transfer levels were unrelated to the size of a female’s own immune response. Furthermore, individual females were consistent in their transfer level, both across different stages of their immune response and when challenged with different vaccine types. The amount of antibody transferred was related to female condition, but baseline antibody responses of mothers were not. However, we found no evidence for any trade-offs between the relative amount of antibody transferred with other measures of reproductive investment. Conclusions These results suggest that the relative amount of antibodies transferred to offspring can vary significantly and consistently between females. Levels of transfer may therefore be a separate trait open to manipulation or selection with potential consequences for offspring health and fitness in both wild and domesticated populations. PMID:25057280

  8. Gene Electro Transfer of Plasmid Encoding Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor for Enhanced Expression and Perfusion in the Ischemic Swine Heart

    PubMed Central

    Navare, Sagar; Stratton, Michael; Murray, Len; Li, Fanying

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia can damage heart muscle and reduce the heart's pumping efficiency. This study used an ischemic swine heart model to investigate the potential for gene electro transfer of a plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor for improving perfusion and, thus, for reducing cardiomyopathy following acute coronary syndrome. Plasmid expression was significantly greater in gene electro transfer treated tissue compared to injection of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor alone. Higher gene expression was also seen in ischemic versus non-ischemic groups with parameters 20 Volts (p<0.03), 40 Volts (p<0.05), and 90 Volts (p<0.05), but not with 60 Volts (p<0.09) while maintaining a pulse width of 20 milliseconds. The group with gene electro transfer of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor had increased perfusion in the area at risk compared to control groups. Troponin and creatine kinase increased across all groups, suggesting equivalent ischemia in all groups prior to treatment. Echocardiography was used to assess ejection fraction, cardiac output, stroke volume, left ventricular end diastolic volume, and left ventricular end systolic volume. No statistically significant differences in these parameters were detected during a 2-week time period. However, directional trends of these variables were interesting and offer valuable information about the feasibility of gene electro transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor in the ischemic heart. The results demonstrate that gene electro transfer can be applied safely and can increase perfusion in an ischemic area. Additional study is needed to evaluate potential efficacy. PMID:25545364

  9. Evidence for Horizontal Gene Transfer in Evolution of Elongation Factor Tu in Enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Danbing; Boissinot, Maurice; Huletsky, Ann; Picard, François J.; Frenette, Johanne; Ouellette, Marc; Roy, Paul H.; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2000-01-01

    The elongation factor Tu, encoded by tuf genes, is a GTP binding protein that plays a central role in protein synthesis. One to three tuf genes per genome are present, depending on the bacterial species. Most low-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria carry only one tuf gene. We have designed degenerate PCR primers derived from consensus sequences of the tuf gene to amplify partial tuf sequences from 17 enterococcal species and other phylogenetically related species. The amplified DNA fragments were sequenced either by direct sequencing or by sequencing cloned inserts containing putative amplicons. Two different tuf genes (tufA and tufB) were found in 11 enterococcal species, including Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus dispar, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus malodoratus, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus pseudoavium, and Enterococcus raffinosus. For the other six enterococcal species (Enterococcus cecorum, Enterococcus columbae, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus sulfureus, Enterococcus saccharolyticus, and Enterococcus solitarius), only the tufA gene was present. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the 11 species having two tuf genes all have a common ancestor, while the six species having only one copy diverged from the enterococcal lineage before that common ancestor. The presence of one or two copies of the tuf gene in enterococci was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Phylogenetic analysis of tuf sequences demonstrated that the enterococcal tufA gene branches with the Bacillus, Listeria, and Staphylococcus genera, while the enterococcal tufB gene clusters with the genera Streptococcus and Lactococcus. Primary structure analysis showed that four amino acid residues encoded within the sequenced regions are conserved and unique to the enterococcal tufB genes and the tuf genes of streptococci and Lactococcus lactis. The data suggest that an ancestral streptococcus or a streptococcus-related species may have horizontally transferred a tuf gene to the common ancestor of the 11 enterococcal species which now carry two tuf genes. PMID:11092850

  10. Differential evolution with dynamic adaptation of mutation factor applied to inverse heat transfer problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viviana Cocco Mariani; Vagner Jorge Neckel; Leonardo Dallegrave Afonso; Leandro dos Santos Coelho

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a Modified Differential Evolution (MDE) is proposed and its performance for solving the inverse heat transfer problem is compared with Genetic Algorithm with Floating-point representation (GAF) and classical Differential Evolution (DE). The inverse analysis of heat transfer has some practical applications, for example, the estimation of radioactive and thermal properties, such as the conductivity of material with

  11. University technology transfer: A conceptual model of impacting factors and phased process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jisun Kim; Tugrul U. Daim; Timothy R. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of literature on university technology transfer. The success of nations depends on how efficient research can be translated into commercial products. Universities play a key role in this. There are two major areas that need to be understood to build an efficient technology transfer mechanisms. First are the characteristics of each university. The literature

  12. Verification of radionuclide transfer factors to domestic-animal food products, using indigenous elements and with emphasis on iodine.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-11-01

    Recent reviews have established benchmark values for transfer factors that describe radionuclide transfer from plants to animal food product such as milk, eggs and meat. They also illustrate the paucity of data for some elements and some food products. The present study quantified transfer data using indigenous elements measured in dairy, poultry and other livestock farms in Canada. Up to 62 elements are reported, with particular emphasis on iodine (I) because of the need to accurately assess the behaviour of (129)I from disposal of nuclear fuel waste. There was remarkable agreement with the literature values, and for many elements the present study involved many more observations than were previously available. Perhaps the most important observation was that product/substrate concentration ratios (CR) were quite consistent across species, whereas the traditional fractional transfer factors (TF, units of d kg(-1) or d L(-1)) necessarily vary with body mass (feed intake). This suggests that for long-term assessments, it may be advisable to change the models to use CR rather than TF. PMID:20621399

  13. Transfer of 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb from soils to tree and shrub species in a Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Blanco Rodríguez, P; Vera Tomé, F; Lozano, J C; Pérez Fernández, M A

    2010-06-01

    The soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium isotopes ((238)U and (234)U), (230)Th, (226)Ra, and (210)Pb were studied in a disused uranium mine located in the Extremadura region in the south-west of Spain. The plant samples included trees (Quercus ilex, Quercus suber, and Eucalyptus cameldulensis) and one shrub (Cytisus multiflorus). All of them are characteristic of Mediterranean environments. The activity concentrations in leaves and fruit were determined for the tree species at different stages of growth. For the shrub, the total above-ground fraction was considered in three seasons. For old leaves and fruit, the highest activity concentrations were found in Eucalyptus cameldulensis for all the radionuclides studied, except in the case of (230)Th that presented similar activity concentrations in all of the tree species studied. In every case, the transfer to fruit was less than the transfer to leaves. In the shrub, the results depended on the season of sampling, with the highest value obtained in spring and the lowest in autumn. Important correlations were obtained for (238)U and (226)Ra between the activity ratio in soils with that in leaves or fruit. PMID:20153657

  14. Treatment of intracranial glioma with in situ interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moneeb Ehtesham; Ken Samoto; Peter Kabos; Frank L Acosta; Mervin AR Gutierrez; Keith L Black; John S Yu

    2002-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN?) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) are potent immunostimulatory cytokines with demonstrated tumoricidal effects in a variety of cancers. With the aim of investigating their ability to generate antitumor immune responses in malignant brain tumors, we describe the use of in situ adenoviral-mediated IFN? and TNF? gene transfer in glioma-bearing rodents. Survival was prolonged in mice treated with AdmIFN?

  15. Embryo quality and transcervical technique are not the limiting factors in donkey embryo transfer outcome.

    PubMed

    Panzani, D; Rota, A; Crisci, A; Kindahl, H; Govoni, N; Camillo, F

    2012-02-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) in the donkey resulted in a very low recipient pregnancy rates. The aim of these studies was to investigate if nonsurgical transfer techniques or donkey embryo quality affect donkey recipient pregnancy failure. In Study 1, the impact of transfer technique was investigated by evaluating if cervical catheterization is associated with prostaglandin release and suppression of luteal function and if donkey recipients would become pregnant after nonsurgical transfer of horse embryos. Four jennies, from 5 to 8 d after ovulation, were submitted to a sham transcervical ET and to evaluation of PGFM and progesterone plasma concentrations. Five 8 d horse embryos were nonsurgically transferred into synchronized donkey recipients (HD). Cervical stimulation caused a transient PGF(2?) release in two of four jennies in the absence of a significant decrease in progesterone plasma concentration. All transferred horse embryos resulted in pregnancies in the jenny recipients. In Study 2, donkey embryo viability was investigated by 1.2 meters, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of 10 embryos and by the transfer of 6 and 12 donkey embryos in synchronized mare (DH) and donkey (DD) recipients, respectively, of known fertility. The estimated proportion of dead cells in DAPI stained embryos was 0.9% (range 0-3.9%) and below what is considered normal (20%) for horse embryos. Three of six and six of 12 of the DH and DD ETs, respectively resulted in pregnancies at 14 and 25 d (50%), a higher pregnancy rate than previously reported after DD ET. The overall results of this study suggest that the transcervical technique for ET and donkey embryo viability are not the reasons for the low pregnancy rates that have previously been described in donkey recipients, and that nonsurgical ET in donkeys can result in acceptable results. PMID:22056016

  16. Recoil polarization measurements of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio to high momentum transfer

    E-print Network

    Puckett, Andrew James Ruehe

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electronnucleon scattering. These form factors are functions ...

  17. Factors Affecting Persistence of Undergraduate Students in a Fisheries and Wildlife Program: Transfer Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Bjorn H. K.; Millenbah, Kelly F.; Montgomery, Robert A.; Schneider, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Transfer students are of recognized importance to postsecondary education and every year feed thousands of students into natural resources programs across America. This influx of students can have a sustaining effect on many academic programs, including fisheries and wildlife programs, which are suffering from a nation-wide decrease in interest…

  18. Transfer Rates of Texas Hispanic Community College Students to 4-Year Institutions: Selected Institutional Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klement, Emily Conrady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental, quantitative study was to determine how well selected institutional characteristics explain the variance in Hispanic community college students' transfer rates to 4-year institutions. Due to the rapidly growing Texas Hispanic population, understanding challenges to their educational attainment has become…

  19. Factors associated with improving success rates with gamete intrafallopian transfer under thin-needle spinal anesthesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Silva; Abigail L. Meisch; Janene K. Meisch; Seuk B. Kang; Brenda Rooney

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: In order to reduce the risk of major anesthetic complications associated with laparoscopic gamete intrafallopian transfer procedures, we have exclusively used thin-needle spinal anesthesia over the years 19911994. This paper will review complication rates in order to further establish the safety profile of.GIFT under thinneedle anesthesia and report the changes in our GIFT protocol from 1991 to 1994 which

  20. Learning Factors Transfer Analysis: Using Learning Curve Analysis to Automatically Generate Domain Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, Philip I. Jr.; Cen, Hao; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method to create a quantitative model of an educational content domain of related practice item-types using learning curves. By using a pairwise test to search for the relationships between learning curves for these item-types, we show how the test results in a set of pairwise transfer relationships that can be…

  1. Training Design Factors Influencing Transfer of Training to the Workplace within an International Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Doo H.

    2000-01-01

    Korean human resource development practitioners (n=10) attended a training program on performance improvement technology. All showed a high perceived degree of learning, but more in skill than conceptual areas. There were different degrees of transfer, some due to lack of opportunities or lack of relevance to the job. (SK)

  2. Biotic interactions modify the transfer of cesium-137 in a soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Clémentine; Scheifler, Renaud; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hubert, Philippe; Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2008-08-01

    The present study investigated the possible influence of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata on the transfer of cesium-137 ((137)Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Standardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence of earthworms caused a two- to threefold increase in (137)Cs concentrations in snails. Transfer was low in earthworms as well as in snails, with transfer factors (TFs) lower than 3.7 x 10(-2). Activity concentrations were higher in earthworms (2.8- 4.8 Bq/kg dry mass) than in snails (<1.5 Bq/kg). In the second experiment, microcosms were used to determine the contribution of soil and lettuce in the accumulation of (137)Cs in snails. Results suggest that the contribution of lettuce and soil is 80 and 20%, respectively. Microcosms also were used to study the influence of earthworms on (137)Cs accumulation in snail tissues in the most ecologically relevant treatment (soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web). In this case, soil-to-plant transfer was high, with a TF of 0.8, and was not significantly modified by earthworms. Conversely, soil-to-snail transfer was lower (TF, approximately 0.1) but was significantly increased in presence of earthworms. Dose rates were determined in the microcosm study with the EDEN (elementary dose evaluation for natural environment) model. Dose rates were lower than 5.5 x 10(-4) mGy/d, far from values considered to have effects on terrestrial organisms (1 mGy/d). PMID:18266477

  3. Summarizing lecture: factors influencing enzymatic H-transfers, analysis of nuclear tunnelling isotope effects and thermodynamic versus specific effects

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, R.A

    2006-01-01

    In the articles in this Discussion, a wide variety of topics are treated, including reorganization energy, initially introduced for electron transfers (‘environmentally assisted tunnelling’), nuclear tunnelling, H/D and C12/C13 kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), the effect of changes of distal and nearby amino acid residues using site-directed mutagenesis, and dynamics versus statistical effects. A coordinate-free form of semi-classical theory is used to examine topics on data such as tunnelling versus ‘over-the-barrier’ paths and temperature and pressure effects on KIEs. The multidimensional semi-classical theory includes classically allowed and classically forbidden transitions. More generally, we address the question of relating kinetic to thermodynamic factors, as in the electron transfer field, so learning about specific versus thermodynamic effects in enzyme catalysis and KIEs. PMID:16873131

  4. Impact of plant and environmental factors on ALS-resistant gene transfer rate from ClearfieldTM rice to red rice biotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen-mediated transfer of ALS-resistant gene from ClearfieldTM (CL) rice to red rice can affect the population dynamics and long-term management of red rice. To mitigate gene flow, it is important to understand the plant and environmental factors which affect gene transfer rate. This experiment ai...

  5. Intravenous somatic gene transfer with antisense tissue factor restores blood flow by reducing tumor necrosis factor-induced tissue factor expression and fibrin deposition in mouse meth-A sarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Deng, Y.; Wendt, T.; Liliensiek, B.; Bierhaus, A.; Greten, J.; He, W.; Chen, B.; Hach-Wunderle, V.; Waldherr, R.; Ziegler, R.; Männel, D.; Stern, D. M.; Nawroth, P. P.

    1996-01-01

    Fibrin is deposited on the endothelial cell surface in the vasculature of murine methylcholanthrene A-induced sarcomas after injection of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Capillary endothelial cells of the tumor vascular bed become positive for tissue factor after TNF injection, based on immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. Intravascular clot formation was not dependent on tissue factor derived from tumor cells, since in vessels of tumors not expressing tissue factor, TNF also induced fibrin/fibrinogen deposition. However, the time course of fibrin/fibrinogen deposition after TNF differed in tumors expressing no, little, or greater amounts of tissue factor. Fibrin/fibrinogen deposition was more rapid in tumors in which the neoplastic cells expressed tissue factor than in tumors not expressing tissue factor. In the tumors not expressing tissue factor, activation of coagulation was dependent on TNF-induced synthesis of tissue factor by host cells, i.e., endothelium or monocytes/macrophages. Intravenous somatic gene transfer with tissue factor cDNA in the antisense orientation (but not sense or vector alone) reduced intravascular fibrin/fibrinogen deposition and restored blood flow to the tumor, showing that de novo tissue factor expression is central in TNF-induced activation of the coagulation mechanism. PMID:8636400

  6. Measurements of the elastic electromagnetic form factor ratio {mu}pGEp/GMp via polarization transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier Gayou; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Andrei Afanasev; Arunava Saha; Brendan Fox; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; C. Chang; Cathleen Jones; Charles Glashausser; Charles Perdrisat; D. Crovelli; Daniel Simon; David Meekins; Demetrius Margaziotis; Dipangkar Dutta; Edgar Kooijman; Elaine Schulte; Edward Brash; Edward Kinney; Eugene Chudakov; Feng Xiong; Franco Garibaldi; Garth Huber; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Guido Urciuoli; Haiyan Gao; Jordan Hovdebo; James Kelly; Javier Gomez; Jens-Ole Hansen; Jian-Ping Chen; John Calarco; John LeRose; Joseph Mitchell; Juncai Gao; Konrad Aniol; Kamal Benslama; Kathy McCormick; Cornelis De Jager; Cornelis de Jager; Kevin Fissum; Krishni Wijesooriya; Louis Bimbot; Ludyvine Morand; Luminita Todor; Moskov Amarian; Marat Rvachev; Mark Jones; Martin Epstein; Meihua Liang; Michael Kuss; Nilanga Liyanage; Adam Sarty; Paul Ulmer; Pete Markowitz; Peter Bosted; R. Holt; Riad Suleiman; Richard Lindgren; Rikki Roche; Robert Michaels; Roman Pomatsalyuk; Ronald Gilman; Ronald Ransome; Stephen Becher; Scott Dumalski; Salvatore Frullani; Seonho Choi; Sergey Malov; Sonja Dieterich; Steffen Strauch; Steve Churchwell; Ting Chang; Viktor Gorbenko; Vina Punjabi; Wang Xu; Xiangdong Ji; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Zhengwei Chai

    2001-09-01

    We present measurements of the ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors, {mu}pGEp/GMp. The Jefferson Lab Hall A Focal Plane Polarimeter was used to determine the longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization in ep elastic scattering; the ratio of these polarization components is proportional to the ratio of the two form factors. These data reproduce the observation of Jones et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1398 (2000)], that the form factor ratio decreases significantly from unity above Q2 = 1 GeV2.

  7. DNA transfer occurs during a cell surface contact stage of F sex factor-mediated bacterial conjugation.

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, M M; Minkley, E G

    1985-01-01

    Donor bacteria containing JCFL39, a temperature-sensitive traD mutant of the F sex factor, were used at the nonpermissive temperature to accumulate stable mating pairs with recipient cells. At this stage in conjugation, extracellular F pili were removed by treatment with 0.01% sodium dodecyl sulfate. Upon then shifting to the permissive temperature for JCFL39, transfer of the F plasmid was observed. The mating pairs that were accumulated with JCFL39 at the nonpermissive temperature were readily observed by electron microscopy in wall-to-wall contact with the recipient bacteria. These results demonstrate that the traD product, which is known to be required in transferring DNA to a recipient bacterium, acts after the stage at which extracellular F pili are required. In addition, we concluded that DNA transfer takes place while donor and recipient cells are in surface contact and not necessarily through an extended F pilus as envisioned in some models of bacterial conjugation. Images PMID:2859268

  8. Two protocols to treat thin endometrium with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor during frozen embryo transfer cycles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Zhang, Qiong; Hao, Jie; Xu, Dabao; Li, Yanping

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of two granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) protocols for thin endometrium were investigated. Eighty-two patients were diagnosed with thin endometrium (<7?mm). Thirty patients with previously cancelled embryo transfers received intrauterine G-CSF in subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. Patients were divided into the G-CSF only and G-CSF with endometrial scratch subgroups. Compared with previous cycles, endometrial thickness increased from 5.7 ± 0.7?mm to 8.1 ± 2.1?mm after G-CSF treatment (P < 0.001). Endometrial thickness increases were not significantly different between the two subgroups. The G-CSF with endometrial scratch subgroup established nominally higher though non-significant clinical pregnancy and live birth rates than the G-CSF only subgroup (53.8 % versus 42.9% and 38.5% versus 28.6%, respectively). Fifty-two patients underwent FET despite edometrial thickness less than 7?mm, and were included as controls. Significantly higher embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were observed in the G-CSF group compared with the control group (31.5% versus 13.9%; P < 0.01; 48.1% versus 25.0%; P = 0.038, respectively). Endometrial scracth did not impair G-CSF treatment for thin endometrium and favoured pregnancy and live birth rates. For patients with thin endometrium, embryo transfer cancellation and G-CSF treatment in subsequent FET cycles is beneficial. PMID:25682303

  9. SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL] [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL] [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller (JNJ), John M. [JNJ-Miller PLC] [JNJ-Miller PLC

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

  10. THE LARGE MOMENTUM TRANSFER BEHAVIOUR OF MESON-PHOTON TRANSITION FORM FACTORS

    E-print Network

    P. Kroll

    1995-04-26

    It is reported on predictions for the $\\pi$-$\\gamma$ transition form factor obtained within a perturbative approach which includes transverse momentum effects and Sudakov corrections. The results clearly favor distribution amplitudes close to the asymptotic form, $\\sim x_1x_2$, and disfavor distribution amplitudes which are strongly concentrated in the end-point regions. Applications of that approach to the $\\eta$-$\\gamma$ and $\\eta^\\prime$-$\\gamma$ transition form factors are discussed as well.

  11. Processing and transfer of epidermal growth factor in developing rat jejunum and ileum.

    PubMed

    Rao, R K; Koldovský, O; Korc, M; Pollack, P F; Wright, S; Davis, T P

    1990-01-01

    Using everted sac technique we demonstrated the transfer of 125I-mEGF across the jejunal and ileal walls of suckling, weanling and adult rats. The transfer by the suckling rat jejunum and ileum was significantly inhibited by the presence of dinitrophenol and sodium azide or by the replacement of sodium with potassium or choline, RP-HPLC analysis detected carboxy-terminal processing of 125I-mEGF in suckling and adult rat jejunum and ileum. Suckling rat jejunum produced 125I-des(53)mEGF and 125I-des(49-53)mEGF, whereas 125I-des(48-53)mEGF was detected in suckling rat ileum or adult rat jejunum and ileum. All three forms of 125I-mEGF bound to anti-EGF antibody and EGF receptors. The receptor binding of 125I-des(53)mEGF was higher than that of 125I-mEGF, but those of 125I-des(49-53)mEGF and 125I-des(48-53)mEGF were greatly diminished. Results indicate a carboxy-terminal processing of mouse EGF during uptake and transfer in the small intestine of developing and adult rats, and the resulting products showed altered receptor binding. An identical amino acid sequence of the C-terminal pentapeptide of eGF from mouse, human and possibly rat may suggest a biological significance of C-terminal processing of EGF in the small intestine. PMID:2087434

  12. Factors affecting the early gene transfer step in the development of transgenic ‘Fuji’ apple plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Soo Seong; Kwan Jeong Song

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the optimal transformation conditions during early gene transfer steps necessary to\\u000a improve the efficiency of transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Fuji apple plants. The use of 200 ?M acetosyringone in the co-culture medium resulted in 4.7% transformation efficiency,\\u000a compared with different concentrations of 0–400 ?M. A 4-day co-culture period gave 1.9% transformation efficiency, compared\\u000a with

  13. Transfer students in STEM majors at a Midwestern University: Academic and social involvement factors that influence student success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Carlos

    There is soon-to-be a shortage of qualified U.S. workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As a result, many science-related jobs are being filled by technically-skilled foreign workers. If the U.S wants to maintain its global economic leadership, then it must ensure a continuous growth of highly-trained individuals in STEM disciplines. Therefore, American institutions of higher education, including community colleges, must identify potential factors that contribute to the lack of interest in STEM majors, as well as the low rate of success of students who enter STEM majors but struggle to finish their degrees. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceptions of community college transfer students who are pursuing bachelor degrees in STEM majors at Iowa State University (ISU). What were their transfer experiences and what influenced their academic success in STEM. Participants were encouraged to share their transfer experiences while at the community college as well as their experiences on the ISU campus. They were also asked about their level of academic involvement, their relationships with faculty, and their participation in peer group activities prior to and after transferring. The research design included both quantitative and qualitative components, which provided an in-depth look at the experiences of STEM non-engineering and engineering students. Quantitative data include students' background characteristics, demographic information, and college activities at the community college and ISU. Qualitative data were used to illuminate students' overall transfer experience and their successful journey in STEM fields. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed a better understanding of the strategies students put into practice once they transfer from a community college to a four-year institution in pursuit of a STEM bachelor's degree. The results of this study suggest that there is an association among the background characteristics, community college experiences, university experiences, and the overall adjustment and cumulative GPA of transfer students from STEM non-engineering and engineering majors. In addition, students reported how their early experiences in science and mathematics inspired them to pursue a career in STEM. Even though students chose to go into STEM areas at the community college and university level due to prior interest, the role of academic advisors and faculty were crucial to the adjustment process. Thus, it is vital for academic advisors and faculty to assist students in researching the transfer process to four-year institutions because students need to understand why this is essential to their academic and social adjustment process. The results indicate that it is important to encourage students to interact inside and outside the classroom with other students and instructors. Also, students should become more involved in academic and social groups since these are important factors in enhancing their academic and social adjustment.

  14. A Semi-Empirical Method to Estimate the Response Factors for VOCs in Proton-Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Leithead, A.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Graus, M.; Veres, P. R.; Murphy, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds are essential in sustaining atmospheric chemical processes which lie at the heart of most atmospheric environmental issues. Recent advances in VOC measurement technologies have allowed rapid detection of the primary VOCs and their oxidation products. Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTRMS) has been widely used to determine air concentrations of many hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons rapidly. The recent advance in PTRMS with time-of-flight mass (TOF) detection, allows hundreds of VOC compounds to be detected simultaneously and rapidly. Converting these detected signals into air concentrations is a challenge. This is usually accomplished with calibrations using a limited number of target compounds at known concentrations. However, for the hundreds of masses in the PTR mass spectrum particularly from TOF detectors, conversion to air concentration is not always practical nor possible if their compound identities are not known. Here, we have developed a new method to estimate the response factors for VOCs to convert the measured ion signals into air concentrations. This method is based on semi-empirical calculations of the rate constants for the proton transfer reactions between the hydronium ion and target hydrocarbons using polarizabilities and permanent dipole moments, and extrapolation to unknown hydrocarbons. The method is further validated with calibration results for selected hydrocarbons. Using these response factors, conversion to air concentrations for many signals in a PTR MS of unknown chemical structures can be accomplished.

  15. Enhanced angiogenesis in grafted skins by laser-induced stress wave-assisted gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Obara, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    Treatment to increase secretion of growth factors related to angiogenesis by gene transfection is a promising therapeutic solution for improving the outcome of tissue transplantation. We attempted to deliver a therapeutic vector construct carrying the human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) gene to skin grafts of rats using laser-induced stress waves (LISWs), with the objective of enhancing their adhesion. First we delivered the hHGF gene to rat native skin in vivo to determine the optimum gene transfer conditions. We then transferred the hHGF gene to excised rat skins, with which autografting was performed. We found that the density and uniformity of neovascularities were significantly enhanced in the grafted skins that were transfected using LISWs. These results suggest the efficacy of this method to improve the outcome of skin grafting. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration of a therapeutic efficacy based on LISW-mediated gene transfection. Since the present method can be applied not only to various types of tissues but also to bioengineered tissues, this technique has the potential to contribute to progress in transplantation medicine and future regenerative medicine. PMID:17614739

  16. Nonredundant Roles of IL-10 and TGF-? in Suppression of Immune Responses to Hepatic AAV-Factor IX Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Brad E; Martino, Ashley T; Sack, Brandon K; Cao, Ou; Liao, Gongxian; Terhorst, Cox; Herzog, Roland W

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic gene transfer using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has been shown to efficiently induce immunological tolerance to a variety of proteins. Regulatory T-cells (Treg) induced by this route suppress humoral and cellular immune responses against the transgene product. In this study, we examined the roles of immune suppressive cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) in the development of tolerance to human coagulation factor IX (hF.IX). Interestingly, IL-10 deficient C57BL/6 mice receiving gene transfer remained tolerant to hF.IX and generated Treg that suppressed anti-hF.IX formation. Effects of TGF-? blockade were also minor in this strain. In contrast, in C3H/HeJ mice, a strain known to have stronger T-cell responses against hF.IX, IL-10 was specifically required for the suppression of CD8+ T-cell infiltration of the liver. Furthermore, TGF-? was critical for tipping the balance toward an regulatory immune response. TGF-? was required for CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg induction, which was necessary for suppression of effector CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses as well as antibody formation. These results demonstrate the crucial, nonredundant roles of IL-10 and TGF-? in prevention of immune responses against AAV-F.IX-transduced hepatocytes. PMID:21386826

  17. Factors controlling the competition among rotational and vibrational energy transfer channels?in?glyoxal

    PubMed Central

    Parmenter, Charles S.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Krajnovich, Douglas J.; Lu, Shao-ping

    1997-01-01

    The state-to-state transfer of rotational and vibrational energy has been studied for S1 glyoxal (CHOCHO) in collisions with D2, N2, CO and C2H4 using crossed molecular beams. A laser is used to pump glyoxal seeded in He to its S1 zero point level with zero angular momentum about its top axis (K? = 0). The inelastic scattering to each of at least 26 S1 glyoxal rotational and rovibrational levels is monitored by dispersed S1–S0 fluorescence. Various collision partners are chosen to investigate the relative influences of reduced mass and the collision pair interaction potential on the competition among the energy transfer channels. When the data are combined with that obtained previously from other collision partners whose masses range from 2 to 84 amu, it is seen that the channel competition is controlled primarily by the kinematics of the collisional interaction. Variations in the intermolecular potential play strictly a secondary role. PMID:11038560

  18. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  19. Factors influencing ALS-resistant gene transfer from CL (tm) rice to red rice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice (Oryza sativa L.) is hard to control due to its genetic similarity to cultivated rice. Herbicide-resistant Clearfield ™ (CL) rice now offers an excellent option for red rice control. However, sustainability of CL technology at the producers’ level will be dictated by various factors. Promi...

  20. Near Threshold Neutral Pion Electroproduction at High Momentum Transfers and Generalized Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Puneet Khetarpal, Paul Stoler, Inna Aznauryan, Valery Kubarovsky

    2013-04-01

    We report the measurement of near threshold neutral pion electroproduction cross sections and the extraction of the associated structure functions on the proton in the kinematic range $Q^2$ from 2 to 4.5 GeV$^2$ and W from 1.08 to 1.16 GeV. These measurements allow us to access the dominant pion-nucleon s-wave multipoles $E_{0+}$ and $S_{0+}$ in the near-threshold region. In the light-cone sum-rule framework (LCSR), these multipoles are related to the generalized form factors $G_1^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$ and $G_2^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$. The data are compared to these generalized form factors and the results for $G_1^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$ are found to be in good agreement with the LCSR predictions, but the level of agreement with $G_2^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$ is poor.

  1. Hepatocyte growth factor\\/Met gene transfer in cardiac stem cells—potential for cardiac repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalinda Madonna; Gregg Rokosh; Raffaele De Caterina; Roberto Bolli

    2010-01-01

    The adult heart has been recently recognized as a self-renewing organ that contains a pool of committed resident cardiac stem\\u000a cells (CSCs) and cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). These adult CSCs and CPCs can be induced by cytokines and growth factors\\u000a to migrate, differentiate, and proliferate in situ and potentially replace lost cardiomyocytes. Ligand-receptor systems, such\\u000a as the tyrosine kinase receptor

  2. [Recipient capacity of B. alcalescens strains in the conjugation transfer of R-factors to them for E. coli strains].

    PubMed

    Man'kovski?, A V; Krosakova, L B; Khlebnikova, V I

    1975-02-01

    Unlike many enterobacteria the strains of B. alkalescens isolated from patients with the intestine dysfunction and healthy persons preserved sensitivity to the antibiotics used in the medical practice. This served as a basis for the study of the recipient competence for reception of R-factors from E. coli by 6 strains of the alkali producer. The strains of E. coli with the derepressive R-factors J 5-3 R1, J 5-3 R64 and CSH-2 R1-19 were introduced into the conjugation mixture as the donors. Only I strain of E. coli, i.e. J 5-3 R1 with multiple antibiotic resistance proved to be a competent donor. A possibility of transfering on1 I determinant of resistance (to neomycin) to 3 out of 6 strains of B. alkalescens at a low rate of10-7 and 10-9 was shown. The R+ conjugants appeared to be immune to further reception of R-factors of both the competent and the incompetent donors. The low recipient capacity of the strains of B. alkalescens must, to some extent promote circulation mainly of antibiotic sensitive strains of the microbes under natural conditions. PMID:1091203

  3. An Integrated Model of Transcription Factor Diffusion Shows the Importance of Intersegmental Transfer and Quaternary Protein Structure for Target Site Finding

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Hugo G.; Sewitz, Sven; Andrews, Steven S.; Lipkow, Karen

    2014-01-01

    We present a computational model of transcription factor motion that explains both the observed rapid target finding of transcription factors, and how this motion influences protein and genome structure. Using the Smoldyn software, we modelled transcription factor motion arising from a combination of unrestricted 3D diffusion in the nucleoplasm, sliding along the DNA filament, and transferring directly between filament sections by intersegmental transfer. This presents a fine-grain picture of the way in which transcription factors find their targets two orders of magnitude faster than 3D diffusion alone allows. Eukaryotic genomes contain sections of nucleosome free regions (NFRs) around the promoters; our model shows that the presence and size of these NFRs can be explained as their acting as antennas on which transcription factors slide to reach their targets. Additionally, our model shows that intersegmental transfer may have shaped the quaternary structure of transcription factors: sequence specific DNA binding proteins are unusually enriched in dimers and tetramers, perhaps because these allow intersegmental transfer, which accelerates target site finding. Finally, our model shows that a ‘hopping’ motion can emerge from 3D diffusion on small scales. This explains the apparently long sliding lengths that have been observed for some DNA binding proteins observed in vitro. Together, these results suggest that transcription factor diffusion dynamics help drive the evolution of protein and genome structure. PMID:25333780

  4. Exercise-induced cardioprotection is mediated by a bloodborne, transferable factor.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, M M; Støttrup, N B; Schmidt, M R; Løfgren, B; Jensen, R V; Tropak, M; St-Michel, E Jean; Redington, A N; Bøtker, H E

    2012-05-01

    Exercise protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury but the mechanism remains unclear. Protection can be transferred from a remotely preconditioned human donor to an isolated perfused rabbit heart using a dialysate of plasma. We hypothesized that physical exercise preconditioning also confers cardioprotection through a humorally mediated effector dependent on opioid receptor activation. Thirteen male volunteers performed vigorous exercise (four 2-minute bouts of high-intensity exercise) and 1 week later they underwent remote ischemic preconditioning (four cycles of 5 min upper limb ischemia and reperfusion). Dialysates were prepared from blood collected before (control) and after the two interventions. Isolated rabbit hearts were perfused with the dialysates without and with co-administration of naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist) prior to 40 min regional ischemia and 2 h reperfusion. Exercise and remote ischemic preconditioning (rIPC) reduced infarct size from 60 ± 5 to 35 ± 5 % and from 57 ± 7 to 27 ± 3 % of the area at risk, respectively (p < 0.05 and < 0.01). Furthermore, post-ischemic left ventricular developed pressure was improved compared with controls (p = 0.08 for exercise and p = 0.04 for rIPC). Co-perfusion with naloxone abrogated the protective effects of exercise and remote ischemic preconditioned dialysates. In conclusion, high-intensity exercise preconditioning elicits cardioprotection through a humorally mediated dependent on opioid receptor activation, similar to rIPC. PMID:22426795

  5. JLab Measurement of the $^4$He Charge Form Factor at Large Momentum Transfers

    E-print Network

    A. Camsonne; A. T. Katramatou; M. Olson; N. Sparveris; A. Acha; K. Allada; B. D. Anderson; J. Arrington; A. Baldwin; J. -P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; E. Cisbani; B. Craver; P. Decowski; C. Dutta; E. Folts; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; R. Gilman; J. Gomez; B. Hahn; J. -O. Hansen; D. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; J. Huang; M. Iodice; X. Jiang; A. Kelleher; E. Khrosinkova; A. Kievsky; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; B. Lee; J. J. LeRose; R. A. Lindgren; G. Lott; H. Lu; L. E. Marcucci; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; S. Marrone; D. Meekins; Z. -E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; B. Norum; G. G. Petratos; A. Puckett; X. Qian; O. Rondon; A. Saha; B. Sawatzky; J. Segal; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; P. Solvignon; R. R. Subedi; R. Suleiman; V. Sulkosky; G. M. Urciuoli; M. Viviani; Y. Wang; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; W. -M. Zhang; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

    2013-09-20

    The charge form factor of $^$4He has been extracted in the range 29 fm$^{-2}$ $\\le Q^2 \\le 77$ fm$^{-2}$ from elastic electron scattering, detecting $^4$He nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The results are in qualitative agreement with realistic meson-nucleon theoretical calculations. The data have uncovered a second diffraction minimum, which was predicted in the $Q^2$ range of this experiment, and rule out conclusively long-standing predictions of dimensional scaling of high-energy amplitudes using quark counting.

  6. Transference and "the Rebbe" idiographic and nomothetic factors in the psychoanalysis of Lubavitch Chassidim.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Martin A; Kaplan, Ricki S

    2013-12-01

    The Lubavitch Chassidim are one of several ultra-orthodox groups within Judaism. Their central focus is on their leader or Rebbe, who is seen as not only the possessor of all wisdom but also having supernatural powers. In working therapeutically with Lubavitch, one needs to distinguish if the beliefs of the individual are unique to them or reflect the belief system of the community. If the former, then it obviously needs to be analyzed. If the latter, then it is seen as an identification with the group and reflective of the need for group cohesion and often a regulator of self-esteem. The following article demonstrates these factors. PMID:23824957

  7. Transfer factor of the radionuclides in food crops from high-background radiation area of south west India.

    PubMed

    Shanthi, G; Thanka Kumaran, J Thampi; Gnana Raj, G Allen; Maniyan, C G

    2012-04-01

    It is necessary to obtain the transfer factor (TF) of long-lived radionuclides because soil type and vegetation can affect TF. We studied the food crops commonly consumed by the general public of Kanyakumari district of south India. The main focus was on rice, fruits, vegetables and tapioca because the consumption of these is high. The soil to rice TF for the radionuclides, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (238)U and (40) K are 8.8×10(-2), 14.2×10(-2), 5.8×10(-2) and 6.3×10(-2), respectively. The TF of tapioca for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (238)U and (40) K are 6.2×10(-2) , 11×10(-2), 1.9×10(-2) and 8.9×10(-2), respectively. For fruits and vegetables, the TFs are low. In the majority of the crops the non-edible parts accumulate more radionuclides than the edible parts. PMID:21680604

  8. Transfer of human hepatocyte growth factor reduces inflammation and prevents pulmonary arterial remodeling in monocrotaline-induced

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianying; Zhang, Hongzhe; Zhang, Rujun; Liu, Zhenjun; Wang, Junxian; Xiao, Mengyuan; Ba, Mingchuan; Yao, Feng; Liu, Jinghu; Huang, Shi’an; Zhong, Jixin

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis and development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene transfer on monocrotaline (MCT) induced PAH rat models. PAH was induced by injecting MCT for 4 weeks. The rats were randomly assigned to phosphate buffered saline control group, MCT group, and HGF treatment group. After 2 weeks of induction, measures of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), weight ratio of the RV to the LV plus septum, percent wall thickness index (TI) and area index (AI) were significantly increased in MCT-group and HGF treatment-group compared with those in control group (P < 0.05). Those measurements in MCT-group were significantly higher than those in HGF treatment-group (P < 0.05). IL-6 significantly decreased in HGF treatment-group compared with MCT-group, but higher than that of control group (all P < 0.05). IL-10 in HGF treatment-group significantly increased compared with MCT-group, but lower than that of control group (all P < 0.05). Endothelial microparticles (EMP) started to decrease in the HGF treatment-group 3 days after treatment and was most significant after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment (all P < 0.05). Our results showed that transfer of human HGF may attenuate the inflammatory cell infiltrate, reduce the expression of inflammatory factors, and those effects are possibly due to the inhibition of EMP production which may decrease pulmonary vascular wall damage in PAH. PMID:25674243

  9. JLab Measurement of the 4He Charge Form Factor at Large Momentum Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Camsonne, Alexandre; Katramatou, A. T.; Olson, M.; Sparveris, Nikolaos; Acha, Armando; Allada, Kalyan; Anderson, Bryon; Arrington, John; Baldwin, Alan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Decowski, Piotr; Dutta, Chiranjib; Folts, Edward; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilman, Ronald; Gomez, Javier; Hahn, Brian; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, Jian; Iodice, Mauro; Kelleher, Aidan; Khrosinkova, Elena; Kievsky, A.; Kuchina, Elena; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Lee, Byungwuek; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Lott, Gordon; Lu, H.; Marcucci, Laura; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Meekins, David; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Norum, Blaine; Petratos, Gerassimos; Puckett, Andrew; Qian, Xin; Rondon-Aramayo, Oscar; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Segal, John; Hashemi, Mitra; Shahinyan, Albert; Solvignon-Slifer, Patricia; Subedi, Ramesh; Suleiman, Riad; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Viviani, Michele; Wang, Y.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Zhang, W. -M.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.

    2014-04-01

    The charge form factor of 4He has been extracted in the range 29 fm-2 <= Q2 <= 77 fm-2 from elastic electron scattering, detecting 4He nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The results are in qualitative agreement with realistic meson-nucleon theoretical calculations. The data have uncovered a second diffraction minimum, which was predicted in the Q2 range of this experiment, and rule out conclusively long-standing predictions of dimensional scaling of high-energy amplitudes using quark counting.

  10. Somatic cell nuclear transfer is associated with altered expression of angiogenic factor systems in bovine placentomes at term.

    PubMed

    Campos, D B; Papa, P C; Marques, J E B; Garbelotti, F; Fátima, L A; Artoni, L P; Birgel, E H; Meirelles, F V; Buratini, J; Leiser, R; Pfarrer, C

    2010-01-01

    Low efficiency of somatic cell cloning by nuclear transfer has been associated with alterations of placental vascular architecture. Placental growth and function depend on the growth of blood vessels; VEGF-A and bFGF are the most important factors controlling neovascularization and vascular permeability in the placenta. We hypothesize that the VEGF-A and bFGF systems are disrupted in placentomes from cloned animals, contributing to the placental abnormalities that are common in these clones. We determined mRNA expression and protein tissue localization of VEGF-A, bFGF, and their receptors in placentomes from cloned and non-cloned bovine fetuses at term. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that VEGFR-2 mRNA was increased in cloned male-derived placentomes, while mRNA of bFGF and its receptors were decreased in placentomes of cloned females. VEGF-A system proteins were found to be located in placentomal endothelial, maternal and fetal epithelial and stromal cells; there was a variable pattern of cellular distribution of these proteins in both cloned and non-cloned animals. Alterations in the expression of VEGF-A and bFGF systems suggest that angiogenic factors are involved in abnormal placental development in cloned gestations, contributing to impaired fetal development and poor survival rates. PMID:20198587

  11. A potential screening factor for accumulation of cholesteyl ester transfer protein deficiency in East Asia: Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Shinji

    2014-04-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-deficiency manifests a unique plasma lipoprotein profile without other apparent symptoms. It is highly common in East Asia while rather rare anywhere else. A potential environmental screening factor(s) may therefore contribute to this eccentric distribution, such as its selective advantage against a regional illness, most likely an infectious disease, in relation to plasma lipoproteins. Blood flukes use the host plasma lipoproteins as nutrient sources through the lipoprotein receptor-like systems. Its Asian-specific species, Schistosoma (S) japonicum, which has been endemic in East Asia, takes up cholesteryl ester (CE) from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for the embryonation of their eggs to miracidia, a critical step of the hepatic pathogenesis of this parasite, but poorly from HDL of CETP-deficiency. CD36-related protein (CD36RP) was cloned from the adults and the eggs of S. japonicum, with 1880-bp encoding 506 amino-acid residues exhibiting the CD36 domains and two transmembrane regions. Its extracellular domain selectively bound human HDL but neither LDL nor CETP-deficiency HDL, and the antibody against the extracellular domain suppressed the selective HDL-CE uptake and embryonation of the eggs. When infected with S. japonicum, wild-type mice developed less hepatic granulomatosis than CETP-transgenic mice by the ectopic egg embryonation. CD36RP is thus a candidate receptor of S. japonicum to facilitate uptake of HDL-CE necessary for egg embryonation. Abnormal HDL caused by CETP-deficiency retards this process and thereby protects the patients from development of hepatic lesions. S. japonicum infection is a potential screening factor for high prevalence of CETP deficiency in East Asia. PMID:24388961

  12. Blocking single-stranded transferred DNA conversion to double-stranded intermediates by overexpression of yeast DNA REPLICATION FACTOR A.

    PubMed

    Dafny-Yelin, Mery; Levy, Avner; Dafny, Raz; Tzfira, Tzvi

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens delivers its single-stranded transferred DNA (T-strand) into the host cell nucleus, where it can be converted into double-stranded molecules. Various studies have revealed that double-stranded transfer DNA (T-DNA) intermediates can serve as substrates by as yet uncharacterized integration machinery. Nevertheless, the possibility that T-strands are themselves substrates for integration cannot be ruled out. We attempted to block the conversion of T-strands into double-stranded intermediates prior to integration in order to further investigate the route taken by T-DNA molecules on their way to integration. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants that overexpress three yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) protein subunits of DNA REPLICATION FACTOR A (RFA) were produced. In yeast, these subunits (RFA1-RFA3) function as a complex that can bind single-stranded DNA molecules, promoting the repair of genomic double strand breaks. Overexpression of the RFA complex in tobacco resulted in decreased T-DNA expression, as determined by infection with A. tumefaciens cells carrying the ?-glucuronidase intron reporter gene. Gene expression was not blocked when the reporter gene was delivered by microbombardment. Enhanced green fluorescent protein-assisted localization studies indicated that the three-protein complex was predominantly nuclear, thus indicating its function within the plant cell nucleus, possibly by binding naked T-strands and blocking their conversion into double-stranded intermediates. This notion was further supported by the inhibitory effect of RFA expression on the cell-to-cell movement of Bean dwarf mosaic virus, a single-stranded DNA virus. The observation that RFA complex plants dramatically inhibited the transient expression level of T-DNA and only reduced T-DNA integration by 50% suggests that double-stranded T-DNA intermediates, as well as single-stranded T-DNA, play significant roles in the integration process. PMID:25424309

  13. Plasmid-based transient human stromal cell-derived factor-1 gene transfer improves cardiac function in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, S; Miller, T J; Pastore, J M; Kiedrowski, M; Aras, R; Penn, M S

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that transient stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1) improved cardiac function when delivered via cell therapy in ischemic cardiomyopathy at a time remote from acute myocardial infarction (MI) rats. We hypothesized that non-viral gene transfer of naked plasmid DNA-expressing hSDF-1 could similarly improve cardiac function. To optimize plasmid delivery, we tested SDF-1 and luciferase plasmids driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter with (pCMVe) or without (pCMV) translational enhancers or ? myosin heavy chain (pMHC) promoter in a rodent model of heart failure. In vivo expression of pCMVe was 10-fold greater than pCMV and pMHC expression and continued over 30 days. We directly injected rat hearts with SDF-1 plasmid 1 month after MI and assessed heart function. At 4 weeks after plasmid injection, we observed a 35.97 and 32.65% decline in fractional shortening (FS) in control (saline) animals and pMHC-hSDF1 animals, respectively, which was sustained to 8 weeks. In contrast, we observed a significant 24.97% increase in animals injected with the pCMVe-hSDF1 vector. Immunohistochemistry of cardiac tissue revealed a significant increase in vessel density in the hSDF-1-treated animals compared with control animals. Increasing SDF-1 expression promoted angiogenesis and improved cardiac function in rats with ischemic heart failure along with evidence of scar remodeling with a trend toward decreased myocardial fibrosis. These data demonstrate that stand-alone non-viral hSDF-1 gene transfer is a strategy for improving cardiac function in ischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:21472007

  14. Factorize

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visualize factors through building rectangular areas on a grid. First enter all the factorizations of a number, then draw each factor set as an area on the grid. Factorize is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

  15. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of forced circulation solar water heater system fitted with helical twisted tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Jaisankar, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oxford Engineering College, Tiruchirappalli 620009, Tamil Nadu (India); Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-11-15

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance of twisted tape solar water heater with various twist ratios has been conducted and the results are compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions with Reynolds number varied from 3000 to 23,000. Experimental data from plain tube collector is validated with the fundamental equations and found that the discrepancy is less than {+-}5.35% and {+-}8.80% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Correlations have been developed for Nusselt number and friction factor with various twist ratios (Y = 3, 4, 5, 6) and are compared with the experimental values. Results conclude that, heat transfer and pressure drop are higher in twisted tape collector compared to the plain one. Among the various twist ratios, the minimum twist ratio 3 is found to enhance the heat transfer and pressure drop due to swirl generation. As the twist ratio increases, the swirl generation decreases and minimizes the heat transfer and friction factor. (author)

  16. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater system fitted with spacer at the trailing edge of twisted tapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jaisankar; T. K. Radhakrishnan; K. N. Sheeba

    2009-01-01

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater system with full- length twist, twist fitted with rod and spacer fitted at the trailing edge for lengths of 100, 200 and 300mm for twist ratio 3 and 5 has been carried out and compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions. The experimental

  17. Expression of Human Factor IX in Rabbit Hepatocytes by Retrovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer: Potential for Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna Armentano; Arthur R. Thompson; Gretchen Darlington; Savio L. C. Woo

    1990-01-01

    Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. We report the

  18. Factors That Affect Transfer of the IncI1 ?-Lactam Resistance Plasmid pESBL-283 between E. coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Händel, Nadine; Otte, Sarah; Jonker, Martijs; Brul, Stanley; ter Kuile, Benno H.

    2015-01-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria worldwide presents a major health threat to human health care that results in therapy failure and increasing costs. The transfer of resistance conferring plasmids by conjugation is a major route by which resistance genes disseminate at the intra- and interspecies level. High similarities between resistance genes identified in foodborne and hospital-acquired pathogens suggest transmission of resistance conferring and transferrable mobile elements through the food chain, either as part of intact strains, or through transfer of plasmids from foodborne to human strains. To study the factors that affect the rate of plasmid transfer, the transmission of an extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) plasmid from a foodborne Escherichia coli strain to the ?-lactam sensitive E. coli MG1655 strain was documented as a function of simulated environmental factors. The foodborne E. coli isolate used as donor carried a CTX-M-1 harboring IncI1 plasmid that confers resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics. Cell density, energy availability and growth rate were identified as factors that affect plasmid transfer efficiency. Transfer rates were highest in the absence of the antibiotic, with almost every acceptor cell picking up the plasmid. Raising the antibiotic concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) resulted in reduced transfer rates, but also selected for the plasmid carrying donor and recombinant strains. Based on the mutational pattern of transconjugant cells, a common mechanism is proposed which compensates for fitness costs due to plasmid carriage by reducing other cell functions. Reducing potential fitness costs due to maintenance and expression of the plasmid could contribute to persistence of resistance genes in the environment even without antibiotic pressure. Taken together, the results identify factors that drive the spread and persistence of resistance conferring plasmids in natural isolates and shows how these can contribute to transmission of resistance genes through the food chain. PMID:25830294

  19. Soil to rice transfer factors for (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs: a study on rice grown in India.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Kumara, Sudeep; Ravi, P M

    2013-04-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is an essential component of the diet for a majority of the population in India. However, detailed studies aimed at the evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F(v)) for the rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents the soil to rice transfer factors for natural ((226)Ra, (228)Ra, (40)K, and (210)Pb) and artificial ((137)Cs) radionuclides for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant and the water required for this field was drawn from the cooling water discharge canal of the power plant. For a comparative study of the radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The study showed that the (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were below detection levels in different organs of the rice plant. The soil to un-hulled rice grain (40)K transfer factor varied in the range of 6.5 × 10(-1) to 2.9 with a mean of 0.15 × 10(1), and of (210)Pb varied in the range of <1.2 × 10(-2) to 8.1 × 10(-1) with a mean of 1.4 × 10(-1), and of (137)Cs varied in the range of 6.6 × 10(-2) to 3.4 × 10(-1) with a mean of 2.1 × 10(-1). The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F(r)) were 0.12 for (40)K, 0.03 for (210)Pb, and 0.14 for (137)Cs. Using these processing retention factors, the soil to white rice transfer factors were estimated and these were found to have mean values of 1.8 × 10(-1), 4.2 × 10(-3), and 3.0 × 10(-2) for (40)K, (210)Pb, and (137)Cs, respectively. The study has shown that the transfer of (40)K was higher for above the ground organs than for the root, but (210)Pb and (137)Cs were retained in the root and their transfer to above the ground organs of the rice plant is significantly lower. PMID:23266913

  20. Development of a Cell-Based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Reporter for Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, R H; Steenblock, E R; Camarero, J A

    2007-03-22

    We report the construction of a cell-based fluorescent reporter for anthrax lethal factor (LF) protease activity using the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). This was accomplished by engineering an Escherichia coli cell line to express a genetically encoded FRET reporter and LF protease. Both proteins were encoded in two different expression plasmids under the control of different tightly controlled inducible promoters. The FRET-based reporter was designed to contain a LF recognition sequence flanked by the FRET pair formed by CyPet and YPet fluorescent proteins. The length of the linker between both fluorescent proteins was optimized using a flexible peptide linker containing several Gly-Gly-Ser repeats. Our results indicate that this FRET-based LF reporter was readily expressed in E. coli cells showing high levels of FRET in vivo in the absence of LF. The FRET signal, however, decreased 5 times after inducing LF expression in the same cell. These results suggest that this cell-based LF FRET reporter may be used to screen genetically encoded libraries in vivo against LF.

  1. BASELINE PARAMETER UPDATE FOR HUMAN HEALTH INPUT AND TRANSFER FACTORS FOR RADIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Coffield, T; Patricia Lee, P

    2007-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to update parameters utilized in Human Health Exposure calculations and Bioaccumulation Transfer Factors utilized at SRS for Performance Assessment modeling. The reason for the update is to utilize more recent information issued, validate information currently used and correct minor inconsistencies between modeling efforts performed in SRS contiguous areas of the heavy industrialized central site usage areas called the General Separations Area (GSA). SRS parameters utilized were compared to a number of other DOE facilities and generic national/global references to establish relevance of the parameters selected and/or verify the regional differences of the southeast USA. The parameters selected were specifically chosen to be expected values along with identifying a range for these values versus the overly conservative specification of parameters for estimating an annual dose to the maximum exposed individual (MEI). The end uses are to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data and maintain it via review of any future issued national references to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released. These reviews are to be added to this document by revision.

  2. Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q2 = 3.5 GeV2 by polarization transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Vina Punjabi; Konrad Aniol; F. Baker; J. Berthot; Martine Bertin; William Bertozzi; Auguste Besson; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Edward Brash; Daniel Brown; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Zhengwei Chai; C. Chang; Jian-ping Chen; Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; Evaristo Cisbani; Daniel Dale; Raffaele De Leo; Alexandre Deur; Brian Diederich; John Domingo; Martin Epstein; Lars Ewell; Kevin Fissum; A. Fleck; Helene Fonvieille; Salvatore Frullani; Juncai Gao; Franco Garibaldi; Ashot Gasparian; Gerstner; Shalev Gilad; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Alphonza Green; Jens-ole Hansen; Calvin Howell; Garth Huber; Mauro Iodice; Cornelis De Jager; Stephanie Jaminion; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; W. Kahl; J.J. Kelly; M. Khayat; L.H. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; E. Lakuriki; G. Lavessiere; J.J. LeRose; M. Liang; R.A. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; G.J. Lolos; R. Macri; R. Madey; S. Malov; D.J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; J.I. McIntyre; R.L.J. van der Meer; R. Michaels; B.D. Milbrath; J.Y. Mougey; S.K. Nanda; E.A.J.M. Offermann; Z. Papandreou; L. Pentchev; C.F. Perdrisat; G.G. Petratos; N.M. Piskunov; R.I. Pomatsalyuk; D.L. Prout; G. Quemener; R.D. Ransome; B.A. Raue; Y. Roblin; R. Roche; G. Rutledge; P.M. Rutt; A. Saha; T. Saito; A.J. Sarty; T.P. Smith; P. Sorokin; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; K. Takahashi; J.A. Templon; L. Todor; P.E. Ulmer; G.M. Urciuoli; P. Vernin; B. Vlahovic; H. Voskanyan; K. Wijesooriya; B.B. Wojtsekhowski; R.J. Woo; F. Xiong; G.D. Zainea; Z.-L. Zhou

    2003-05-01

    The ratio of the proton's elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic {rvec e}p {yields} e{rvec p} reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. In the single photon exchange approximation, the ratio G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} is directly proportional to the ratio P{sub t}/P{sub {ell}}. The simultaneous measurement of P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}} in a polarimeter reduces systematic uncertainties. The results for the ratio G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} show a systematic decrease with increasing Q{sup 2}, indicating for the first time a definite difference in the distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. The data have been reanalyzed and systematic uncertainties have become significantly smaller than previously published results.

  3. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (P<0.001) in Transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1st sec (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) and slow vital capacity (SVC) after yoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body. PMID:23029966

  4. Factoring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr Clark

    2012-10-31

    Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

  5. Analysis of linear energy transfers and quality factors of charged particles produced by spontaneous fission neutrons from 252Cf and 244Pu in the human body.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akira; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2013-04-01

    Absorbed doses, linear energy transfers (LETs) and quality factors of secondary charged particles in organs and tissues, generated via the interactions of the spontaneous fission neutrons from (252)Cf and (244)Pu within the human body, were studied using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHITS) coupled with the ICRP Reference Phantom. Both the absorbed doses and the quality factors in target organs generally decrease with increasing distance from the source organ. The analysis of LET distributions of secondary charged particles led to the identification of the relationship between LET spectra and target-source organ locations. A comparison between human body-averaged mean quality factors and fluence-averaged radiation weighting factors showed that the current numerical conventions for the radiation weighting factors of neutrons, updated in ICRP103, and the quality factors for internal exposure are valid. PMID:22908356

  6. Expression of human factor IX in rabbit hepatocytes by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer: Potential for gene therapy of hemophilia B

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.R. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA) Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA (USA)); Darlington, G. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA)); Armentano, D.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1990-08-01

    Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. The authors report the construction of an N2-based recombinant retroviral vector, NCMVFIX, for efficient transfer and expression of human factor IX cDNA in primary rabbit hepatocytes. In this construct the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter directs the expression of factor IX. Hepatocytes were isolated from 3-week-old New Zealand White rabbits, infected with the recombinant virus, and analyzed for secretion of active factor IX. The infected rabbit hepatocytes produced human factor IX that is indistinguishable from enzyme derived from normal human plasma. The recombinant protein is sufficiently {gamma}-carboxylated and is functionally active in clotting assays. These results establish the feasibility of using infected hepatocytes for the expression of this protein and are a step toward the goal of correcting hemophilia B by hepatic gene transfer.

  7. Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Characteristics in a Circular Tube Fitted with V-Cut Twisted Tape Inserts

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5?cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5?cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration. PMID:24078795

  8. Trace element mobility and transfer to vegetation within the Ethiopian Rift Valley lake areas.

    PubMed

    Kassaye, Yetneberk A; Skipperud, Lindis; Meland, Sondre; Dadebo, Elias; Einset, John; Salbu, Brit

    2012-10-26

    To evaluate critical trace element loads in native vegetation and calculate soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs), 11 trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb and Mn) have been determined in leaves of 9 taxonomically verified naturally growing terrestrial plant species as well as in soil samples collected around 3 Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes (Koka, Ziway and Awassa). The Cr concentration in leaves of all the plant species was higher than the "normal" range, with the highest level (8.4 mg per kg dw) being observed in Acacia tortilis from the Lake Koka area. Caper species (Capparis fascicularis) and Ethiopian dogstooth grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) from Koka also contained exceptionally high levels of Cd (1 mg per kg dw) and Mo (32.8 mg per kg dw), respectively. Pb, As and Cu concentrations were low in the plant leaves from all sites. The low Cu level in important fodder plant species (Cynodon aethiopicus, Acacia tortilis and Opuntia ficus-indicus) implies potential deficiency in grazing and browsing animals. Compared to the Canadian environmental quality guideline and maximum allowable concentration in agricultural soils, the total soil trace element concentrations at the studied sites are safe for agricultural crop production. Enrichment factor was high for Zn in soils around Lakes Ziway and Awassa, resulting in moderate to high transfer of Zn to the studied plants. A six step sequential extraction procedure on the soils revealed a relatively high mobility of Cd, Se and Mn. Strong association of most trace elements with the redox sensitive fraction and mineral lattice was also confirmed by partial redundancy analysis. TF (mg per kg dw plants/mg per kg dw soil) values based on the total (TF(total)) and mobile fractions (TF(mobile)) of soil trace element concentrations varied widely among elements and plant species, with the averaged TF(total) and TF(mobile) values ranging from 0.01-2 and 1-60, respectively. Considering the mobile fraction in soils should be available to plants, TF(mobile) values could reflect trace elements transfer to plants in the most realistic way. However, the present study indicates that TF(total) values also reflect the transfer of elements such as Mn, Cd and Se to plants more realistically than TF(mobile) values did. PMID:22907177

  9. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  10. In-Hospital Mortality among Rural Medicare Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: The Influence of Demographics, Transfer, and Health Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muus, Kyle J.; Knudson, Alana D.; Klug, Marilyn G.; Wynne, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Context/Purpose: Most rural hospitals can provide medical care to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, but a need for advanced cardiac care requires timely transfer to a tertiary hospital. There is little information on AMI in-hospital mortality predictors among rural transfer patients. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective analyses on…

  11. Plane-wave-factor, molecular-state treatment of electron transfer in collisions of He/sup 2 +/ ions with H atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, T.G.; Hatton, G.J.

    1980-03-01

    Total cross sections are reported for electron transfer into the individual states 2s, 2p/sub 0/, and 2p/sub 1/, and into all bound states of He/sup +/ in collisions of 1- to 70-keV /sup 4/He/sup 2 +/ ions with H atoms. Following Bates and McCarroll, plane-wave factors have been fully incorporated in a coupled-molecular-state approximation. All velocity-dependent matrix elements have been evaluated as power series in the nuclear velocity. The bases used include up to 10 states 1ssigma, 2ssigma, ..., 3ddelta of the frozen HeH/sup 2 +/ molecule. Convergence of cross sections with respect to the size of the bound-state basis was studied: fewer basis functions are needed than when plane-wave factors are omitted. To test the convergence of the latter results with respect to the size of the bound-state basis, the two potentially important states 5gsigma and 5g..pi.. have been added to the previously used 20-state (1ssigma, 2ssigma, ..., 4fphi) basis, and were found to affect the cross section for transfer into all states by at most 6%. For transfer into all states, results with and without plane-wave factors converge at low energies, agreeing to within 5% at 1 keV. The agreement of the plane-wave-factor results with the experimental data for transfer into all states is excellent at /sup 4/He/sup 2 +/ energies down to 8 keV, but poor at the lower energies, where the coupled-state results are believed to be more fully converged. For capture into the 2s state, the plane-wave-factor results lie above the upper bound of the experimental values by 25% at 20 keV.

  12. Factors influencing the efficiency of generating genetically engineered pigs by nuclear transfer: multi-factorial analysis of a large data set

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using genetically engineered donor cells is currently the most widely used strategy to generate tailored pig models for biomedical research. Although this approach facilitates a similar spectrum of genetic modifications as in rodent models, the outcome in terms of live cloned piglets is quite variable. In this study, we aimed at a comprehensive analysis of environmental and experimental factors that are substantially influencing the efficiency of generating genetically engineered pigs. Based on a considerably large data set from 274 SCNT experiments (in total 18,649 reconstructed embryos transferred into 193 recipients), performed over a period of three years, we assessed the relative contribution of season, type of genetic modification, donor cell source, number of cloning rounds, and pre-selection of cloned embryos for early development to the cloning efficiency. Results 109 (56%) recipients became pregnant and 85 (78%) of them gave birth to offspring. Out of 318 cloned piglets, 243 (76%) were alive, but only 97 (40%) were clinically healthy and showed normal development. The proportion of stillborn piglets was 24% (75/318), and another 31% (100/318) of the cloned piglets died soon after birth. The overall cloning efficiency, defined as the number of offspring born per SCNT embryos transferred, including only recipients that delivered, was 3.95%. SCNT experiments performed during winter using fetal fibroblasts or kidney cells after additive gene transfer resulted in the highest number of live and healthy offspring, while two or more rounds of cloning and nuclear transfer experiments performed during summer decreased the number of healthy offspring. Conclusion Although the effects of individual factors may be different between various laboratories, our results and analysis strategy will help to identify and optimize the factors, which are most critical to cloning success in programs aiming at the generation of genetically engineered pig models. PMID:23688045

  13. A compilation of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways and the suggested default values for the RESRAD code

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.Y.; Biwer, B.M.; Yu, C.

    1993-08-01

    The ongoing development and revision of the RESRAD computer code at Argonne National Laboratory requires update of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways. Default values for these transfer factors used in published radiological assessment reports are compiled and compared with values used in RESRAD. The differences among the reported default values used in different radiological assessment codes and reports are also discussed. In data comparisons, values used in more recent reports are given more weight because more recent experimental work tends to be conducted under better-defined laboratory or field conditions. A new default value is suggested for RESRAD if one of the following conditions is met: (1) values used in recent reports are an order of magnitude higher or lower than the default value currently used in RESRAD, or (2) the same default value is used in several recent radiological assessment reports.

  14. Inhibition of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor1? and Endothelial Progenitor Cell Differentiation by Adenoviral Transfer of Small Interfering RNA in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng Jiang; Binyao Wang; Changqian Wang; Ben He; Huahua Fan; Taylor B. Guo; Qin Shao; Li Gao; Yan Liu

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference is applied to study gene function in different organisms and in various cell types. Little is known about the effect of RNA interference on human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in vitro. To address this issue, short hairpin RNA targeting the human hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) was transferred into human EPCs by an adenoviral vector. HIF-1? mRNA and protein

  15. Measurements of the proton elastic-form-factor ratio mu pG p E/G p M at low momentum transfer.

    PubMed

    Ron, G; Glister, J; Lee, B; Allada, K; Armstrong, W; Arrington, J; Beck, A; Benmokhtar, F; Berman, B L; Boeglin, W; Brash, E; Camsonne, A; Calarco, J; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Coman, L; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; Dumas, J; Dutta, C; Feuerbach, R; Freyberger, A; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilman, R; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Ilieva, Y; de Jager, C W; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Kang, H; Kelleher, A; Khrosinkova, E; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Markowitz, P; May-Tal Beck, S; McCullough, E; Meekins, D; Meziane, M; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Norum, B E; Oh, Y; Olson, M; Paolone, M; Paschke, K; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Pomatsalyuk, R; Pomerantz, I; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R; Reyhan, M; Roche, J; Rousseau, Y; Saha, A; Sarty, A J; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Shneor, R; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Song, J; Sparks, R; Subedi, R; Strauch, S; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zhan, X; Zhu, X

    2007-11-16

    High-precision measurements of the proton elastic form-factor ratio, mu pG p E/G p M, have been made at four-momentum transfer, Q2, values between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to G p E being smaller than expected. PMID:18233135

  16. Antitumor effect of nuclear factor-?B decoy transfer by mannose-modified bubble lipoplex into macrophages in mouse malignant ascites.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yusuke; Kawakami, Shigeru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Maruyama, Kazuo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    Patients with malignant ascites (MAs) display several symptoms, such as dyspnea, nausea, pain, and abdominal tenderness, resulting in a significant reduction in their quality of life. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a crucial role in MA progression. Because TAMs have a tumor-promoting M2 phenotype, conversion of the M2 phenotypic function of TAMs would be promising for MA treatment. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a master regulator of macrophage polarization. Here, we developed targeted transfer of a NF-?B decoy into TAMs by ultrasound (US)-responsive, mannose-modified liposome/NF-?B decoy complexes (Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes) in a mouse peritoneal dissemination model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. In addition, we investigated the effects of NF-?B decoy transfection into TAMs on MA progression and mouse survival rates. Intraperitoneal injection of Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure transferred the NF-?B decoy into TAMs effectively. When the NF-?B decoy was delivered into TAMs by this method in the mouse peritoneal dissemination model, mRNA expression of the Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in TAMs was decreased significantly. In contrast, mRNA levels of Th1 cytokines (IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-?, and IL-6) were increased significantly. Moreover, the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor in ascites was suppressed significantly, and peritoneal angiogenesis showed a reduction. Furthermore, NF-?B decoy transfer into TAMs significantly decreased the ascitic volume and number of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in ascites, and prolonged mouse survival. In conclusion, we transferred a NF-?B decoy efficiently by Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes with US exposure into TAMs, which may be a novel approach for MA treatment. PMID:24850474

  17. Effect of Nuclear Factor ?B Inhibition on Serotype 9 Adeno-Associated Viral (AAV9) Minidystrophin Gene Transfer to the mdx Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Reay, Daniel P; Niizawa, Gabriela A; Watchko, Jon F; Daood, Molly; Reay, Ja’Nean C; Raggi, Eugene; Clemens, Paula R

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy studies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have focused on viral vector-mediated gene transfer to provide therapeutic protein expression or treatment with drugs to limit dystrophic changes in muscle. The pathological activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling pathway has emerged as an important cause of dystrophic muscle changes in muscular dystrophy. Furthermore, activation of NF-?B may inhibit gene transfer by promoting inflammation in response to the transgene or vector. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of pathological NF-?B activation in muscle would complement the therapeutic benefits of dystrophin gene transfer in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Systemic gene transfer using serotype 9 adeno-associated viral (AAV9) vectors is promising for treatment of preclinical models of DMD because of vector tropism to cardiac and skeletal muscle. In quadriceps of C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx/J (mdx) mice, the addition of octalysine (8K)–NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO)-binding domain (8K-NBD) peptide treatment to AAV9 minidystrophin gene delivery resulted in increased levels of recombinant dystrophin expression suggesting that 8K-NBD treatment promoted an environment in muscle tissue conducive to higher levels of expression. Indices of necrosis and regeneration were diminished with AAV9 gene delivery alone and to a greater degree with the addition of 8K-NBD treatment. In diaphragm muscle, high-level transgene expression was achieved with AAV9 minidystoophin gene delivery alone; therefore, improvements in histological and physiological indices were comparable in the two treatment groups. The data support benefit from 8K-NBD treatment to complement gene transfer therapy for DMD in muscle tissue that receives incomplete levels of transduction by gene transfer, which may be highly significant for clinical applications of muscle gene delivery. PMID:22231732

  18. Factorize

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    This interactive applet allows a student to visually explore the concept of factors by creating different rectangular arrays for a number. The user constructs the array by clicking and dragging on a grid. The length and width of the array are factors of the number. A student can elect an option of a randomly selected number or the student selects his own number between 2 and 50. Exploration questions are included to promote student discovery of mathematical concepts with factors.

  19. Study of complement regulatory factor H based on Forster resonance energy transfer and investigation of disease-linked genetic variants 

    E-print Network

    Pechtl, Isabell C.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma protein complement factor H (fH, 155 kDa) regulates the activity of the alternative pathway of complement activation. Factor H is monomeric, and its 20 CCP modules are arranged in a predominantly elongated ...

  20. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer for Parkinson’s disease: Anterograde distribution of AAV2 vectors in the primate brain

    PubMed Central

    Kells, Adrian P.; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof S.

    2011-01-01

    Delivery of neurotrophic factors to treat neurodegenerative diseases has not been efficacious in clinical trials despite their known potency for promoting neuronal growth and survival. Direct gene delivery to the brain offers an approach for establishing sustained expression of neurotrophic factors but is dependent on accurate surgical procedures to target specific anatomical regions of the brain. Serotype-2 adeno-associated viral (AAV2) vectors have been investigated in multiple clinical studies for neurological diseases without adverse effects, however the absence of significant clinical efficacy after neurotrophic factor gene transfer has been largely attributed to insufficient coverage of the target region. Our pre-clinical development of AAV2-glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for Parkinson’s disease involved real-time image guided delivery and optimization of delivery techniques to maximize gene transfer in the putamen. We have demonstrated that AAV2 vectors are anterogradely transported in the primate brain with GDNF expression observed in the substantia nigra after putaminal delivery in both intact and nigrostriatal lesioned primates. Direct midbrain delivery of AAV2-GDNF resulted in extensive anterograde transport to multiple brain regions and significant weight loss. PMID:22019719

  1. Heat transfer, development length, and friction factor correlations for the asymptotic region of a laminar arc constrictor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Bower; F. P. Incropera

    1969-01-01

    A rigorous equilibrium model is formulated for the laminar flow of plasma through the heating region of a constricted arc plasma generator. The resulting equations are solved for an argon gas using an implicit finite-difference scheme, and the wall shear stress and heat transfer are computed from momentum and energy balances for a wide range of flow rates and arc

  2. Investigation of twisted tape inserted solar water heaters—heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Kumar; B. N Prasad

    2000-01-01

    Heat transfer in a solar water heater could be enhanced by means of twisted tapes, inserted inside the fluid flow tubes, which induce swirl flow and act as turbulence promoters. Experimental investigations for a solar water heater with twisted tape inserts having twist pitch to tube diameter ratio ranging from 3–12 have been carried out for varying mass flow rates.

  3. Factors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-24

    This lesson is designed to develop students' abilities to find factors of whole numbers. The lesson also introduces prime numbers. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to factors as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, reading level is not indicated because the lesson does not include student reading material.

  4. Factoring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Taylor

    2010-10-19

    In this lesson we will explore prime numbers and factors A prime number has only two factors, 1 and itself. The Greek scholar, Eratosthenes of Cyrene lived from approximately 275 to 195 BC. He is know for being the first to have computed the size of the Earth and served as the director of the famous library in

  5. Recombinant factor VIIa to correct coagulopathy in patients with traumatic brain injury presenting to outlying facilities before transfer to the regional trauma center.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carlos V R; Sowery, Lauren; Curry, Eardie; Valadka, Alex B; Glover, Cynthia S; Grabarkewitz, Kim; Green, Terry; Hail, Steve; Admire, John

    2012-01-01

    Timely correction of coagulopathy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) improves mortality. Recombinant, activated factor VII (VIIa) has been identified as an effective method to correct coagulopathy in patients with TBI. We performed a retrospective study (January 1, 2008-December 31, 2009) of all patients with TBI and coagulopathy (international normalized ratio (INR) > 1.5) transferred to our Level I trauma center. Twenty-three patients with coagulopathy and TBI were transferred to our trauma center, 100 per cent sustained a fall, and 100 per cent were taking warfarin at the time of injury. Ten patients received VIIa to correct coagulopathy before transfer, whereas 13 did not. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes in patients who received VIIa with those who did not. When comparing the VIIa group with the no-VIIa group there was no difference in age, gender, Glasgow Coma Scale score, injury severity score, transfer time, or INR at outlying facility. Both groups received one unit of plasma before arrival at our trauma center; patients in the VIIa group received a single 1.2 mg dose of VIIa at the outlying facility. Upon arrival to our trauma center the VIIa group had a lower INR (1.0 vs 3.0, P = 0.02) and lower mortality (0% vs 39%, P = 0.03). In coagulopathic patients with TBI presenting to outlying institutions with limited resources to quickly provide plasma, VIIa efficiently corrects coagulopathy before transfer to definitive care at the regional trauma center. More rapid correction of coagulopathy with VIIa in this patient population may improve mortality. PMID:22273315

  6. Exploring the Contextual Factors Related to Transfer of Learning in a High School Implementation of the eMINTS Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lorie F.

    2011-01-01

    Truly impacting teacher practices is a challenge for educational professional development (PD) providers. Typically, little attention is paid to the factors within the environment to which the educators return and how those factors will impact participants' ability to integrate what they have learned into their teaching practices. Even for…

  7. Prediction of heat transfer coefficients and friction factors for evaporation of R-134a flowing inside corrugated tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laohalertdecha, S.; Aroonrat, K.; Dalkilic, A. S.; Mahian, O.; Kaewnai, S.; Wongwises, S.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, experimental and simulation studies of the evaporation heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of R-134a flowing through corrugated tubes are conducted. The test section is a horizontal counter-flow concentric tube-in-tube heat exchanger 2.0 m in length. A smooth tube and corrugated tubes with inner diameters of 8.7 mm are used as the inner tube. The outer tube is made from a smooth copper tube with an inner diameter of 21.2 mm. The corrugation pitches used in this study are 5.08, 6.35, and 8.46 mm. Similarly, the corrugation depths are 1, 1.25, and 1.5 mm, respectively. The results show that the maximum heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop obtained from the corrugated tube are up to 22 and 19 % higher than those obtained from the smooth tube, respectively. In addition, the average difference of the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop between the simulation model and experimental data are about 10 and 15 %, respectively.

  8. Insulin-like growth factor-1 prevents miR-122 production in neighbouring cells to curtail its intercellular transfer to ensure proliferation of human hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sudarshana; Bhattacharyya, Suvendra N.

    2014-01-01

    miRNAs are 20–22 nt long post-transcriptional regulators in metazoan cells that repress protein expression from their target mRNAs. These tiny regulatory RNAs follow tissue and cell-type specific expression pattern, aberrations of which are associated with various diseases. miR-122 is a liver-specific anti-proliferative miRNA that, we found, can be transferred via exosomes between human hepatoma cells, Huh7 and HepG2, grown in co-culture. Exosomal miR-122, expressed and released by Huh7 cells and taken by miR-122 deficient HepG2 cells, was found to be effective in repression of target mRNAs and to reduce growth and proliferation of recipient HepG2 cells. Interestingly, in a reciprocal process, HepG2 secretes Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) that decreases miR-122 expression in Huh7 cells. Our observations suggest existence of a reciprocal interaction between two different hepatic cells with distinct miR-122 expression profiles. This interaction is mediated via intercellular exosome-mediated miR-122 transfer and countered by a reciprocal IGF1-dependent anti-miR-122 signal. According to our data, human hepatoma cells use IGF1 to prevent intercellular exosomal transfer of miR-122 to ensure its own proliferation by preventing expression of growth retarding miR-122 in neighbouring cells. PMID:24813441

  9. Adoptive Transfer of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1)–Modified Macrophages Rescues the Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2–Related Factor (Nrf2) Antiinflammatory Phenotype in Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Shen, Xiu-Da; Yue, Shi; Zhu, Jianjun; Gao, Feng; Zhai, Yuan; Busuttil, Ronald W; Ke, Bibo; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are instrumental in the pathophysiology of liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Although Nrf2 regulates macrophage-specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) antioxidant defense, it remains unknown whether HO-1 induction might rescue macrophage Nrf2-dependent antiinflammatory functions. This study explores the mechanisms by which the Nrf2–HO-1 axis regulates sterile hepatic inflammation responses after adoptive transfer of ex vivo modified HO-1 overexpressing bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMMs). Livers in Nrf2-deficient mice preconditioned with Ad-HO-1 BMMs, but not Ad-?-Gal-BMMs, ameliorated liver IRI (at 6 h of reperfusion after 90 min of warm ischemia), evidenced by improved hepatocellular function (serum alanine aminotransferase [sALT] levels) and preserved hepatic architecture (Suzuki histological score). Treatment with Ad-HO-1 BMMs decreased neutrophil accumulation, proinflammatory mediators and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis in ischemic livers. Moreover, Ad-HO-1 transfection of Nrf2-deficient BMMs suppressed M1 (Nos2+) while promoting the M2 (Mrc-1/Arg-1+) phenotype. Unlike in controls, Ad-HO-1 BMMs increased the expression of Notch1, Hes1, phosphorylation of Stat3 and Akt in IR-stressed Nrf2-deficient livers as well as in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BMMs. Thus, adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated Ad-HO-1 BMMs rescued Nrf2-dependent antiinflammatory phenotype by promoting Notch1/Hes1/Stat3 signaling and reprogramming macrophages toward the M2 phenotype. These findings provide the rationale for a novel clinically attractive strategy to manage IR liver inflammation/damage. PMID:25014792

  10. Long-Term Expression of Human Coagulation Factor VIII and Correction of Hemophilia A after in vivo Retroviral Gene Transfer in Factor VIII-Deficient Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Vandendriessche; Veerle Vanslembrouck; Inge Goovaerts; Hans Zwinnen; Marie-Line Vanderhaeghen; Desire Collen; Marinee K. L. Chuah

    1999-01-01

    Hemophilia A is caused by a deficiency in coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and predisposes to spontaneous bleeding that can be life-threatening or lead to chronic disabilities. It is well suited for gene therapy because a moderate increase in plasma FVIII concentration has therapeutic effects. Improved retroviral vectors expressing high levels of human FVIII were pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus

  11. Rapid detection of the factor V Leiden (1691 G > A) and haemochromatosis (845 G > A) mutation by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and real time PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Neoh, S H; Brisco, M J; Firgaira, F A; Trainor, K J; Turner, D R; Morley, A A

    1999-01-01

    A rapid method based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify the haemochromatosis genotype in 112 individuals and the factor V genotype in 134 individuals. The results were compared with conventional methods based on restriction enzyme digestion of PCR products. The two methods agreed in 244 of the 246 individuals; for the other two individuals, sequencing showed that they had been incorrectly genotyped by the standard method but correctly genotyped by FRET. The simplicity, speed, and accuracy of real time PCR analysis using FRET probes make it the method of choice in the clinical laboratory for genotyping the haemochromatosis and factor V genes. PMID:10674036

  12. Targeted gene transfer of human hepatocyte growth factor into rat skin by the use of laser-induced stress waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuhiro Terakawa; Shunichi Sato; Daizoh Saitoh; Hiroshi Ashida; Hideyuki Okano; Minoru Obara

    2006-01-01

    We successfully delivered therapeutic gene, Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), to rat skin in vivo. The level of hHGF protein increased by the application of LISWs when compared with that of control samples without LISW application.

  13. Targeted gene transfer of human hepatocyte growth factor into rat skin by the use of laser-induced stress waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Ashida, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Obara, Minoru

    2006-02-01

    We successfully delivered therapeutic gene, Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), to rat skin in vivo. The level of hHGF protein increased by the application of LISWs when compared with that of control samples without LISW application.

  14. Accelerated adhesion of grafted skin by laser-induced stress wave-based gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuya Aizawa; Shunichi Sato; Mitsuhiro Terakawa; Daizoh Saitoh; Hitoshi Tsuda; Hiroshi Ashida; Minoru Obara

    2009-01-01

    Gene therapy using wound healing-associated growth factor gene has received much attention as a new strategy for improving the outcome of tissue transplantation. We delivered plasmid DNA coding for human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) to rat free skin grafts by the use of laser-induced stress waves (LISWs); autografting was performed with the grafts. Systematic analysis was conducted to evaluate the

  15. Experimental determination of average turbulent heat transfer and friction factor in stator internal rib-roughened cooling channels.

    PubMed

    Battisti, L; Baggio, P

    2001-05-01

    In gas turbine cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to the hot stream are based on the increase of the inner heat transfer areas and on the promotion of the turbulence of the cooling flow. This is currently obtained by casting periodic ribs on one or more sides of the serpentine passages into the core of the blade. Fluid dynamic and thermal behaviour of the cooling flow have been extensively investigated by means of experimental facilities and many papers dealing with this subject have appeared in the latest years. The evaluation of the average value of the heat transfer coefficient most of the time is inferred from local measurements obtained by various experimental techniques. Moreover the great majority of these studies are not concerned with the overall average heat transfer coefficient for the combined ribs and region between them, but do focus just on one of them. This paper presents an attempt to collect information about the average Nusselt number inside a straight ribbed duct. Series of measurements have been performed in steady state eliminating the error sources inherently connected with transient methods. A low speed wind tunnel, operating in steady state flow, has been built to simulate the actual flow condition occurring in a rectilinear blade cooling channel. A straight square channel with 20 transverse ribs on two sides has been tested for Re of about 3 x 10(4), 4.5 x 10(4) and 6 x 10(4). The ribbed wall test section is electrically heated and the heat removed by a stationary flow of known thermal and fluid dynamic characteristics. PMID:11460662

  16. Gene transfer of human hepatocyte growth factor by the use of nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Hasegawa, Makoto; Ashida, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Obara, Minoru

    2006-05-01

    We successfully delivered a therapeutic vector construct, which carries hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene, to rat skin in vivo. After HGF expression vector had been intradermally injected to rat skin, LISWs were generated by irradiating the laser target put on the rat skin with nanosecond pulses from the second harmonics (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Concentration of HGF protein increased by a factor of four by the application of LISWs when compared with that of control samples without LISW application. We also investigated the effects of LISWs on the integrity of plasmid DNA.

  17. Assessment of selenium food chain transfer and critical exposure factors for avian wildlife species: Need for site-specific data

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.J. [Kennecott Utah Copper, Magna, UT (United States); Brix, K.V.; Cothern, K.A.; Tear, L.M.; Cardwell, R.D.; Toll, J.E. [Parametrix, Inc., Kirkland, WA (United States); Fairbrother, A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Observations of selenium poisoning in Belews Lake, NC in the mid-1970s and Kesterson Reservoir, CA in the mid-1980s precipitated a large number of selenium studies. Numerous authors have evaluated the potential for selenium to cause ecologically significant effects via food chain transfer in aquatic ecosystems, especially wetlands. Additionally, bioaccumulation models have been proposed for estimating selenium concentrations in food chains and water that should not be exceeded in order to avoid reproductive effects in avian and aquatic species. The current national chronic ambient water quality criterion (WQC) for protection of aquatic life is 5 {micro}g/L. Scientists with the US Fish and Wildlife Service have recommended setting the ambient water quality criterion at 2 {micro}g/L for both aquatic and wildlife protection.

  18. Enhanced angiogenesis in grafted skins by gene transfer of human hepatocyte growth factor using laser-induced stress waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Obara, Minoru

    2007-02-01

    We delivered a therapeutic gene, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), to skin grafts of rats using laser-induced stress waves (LISWs) with the objective of enhancing their adhesion. The density and uniformity of neovascularities were enhanced significantly in the grafted skins that were transfected using LISWs, suggesting the efficacy of this method to improve the outcome of skin transplantation.

  19. Improving plant drought, salt, and freezing tolerance by gene transfer of a single stress-inducible transcription factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mie Kasuga; Qiang Liu; Setsuko Miura; Kazuo Shinozaki; Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki

    1999-01-01

    Plant productivity is greatly affected by environmental stresses such as drought, salt loading, and freezing. We reported previously that a cis -acting promoter element, the dehydration response element (DRE), plays an important role in regulating gene expression in response to these stresses. The transcription factor DREB1A specifically interacts with the DRE and induces expression of stress tolerance genes. We show

  20. Gene transfer of human hepatocyte growth factor by the use of nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuhiro Terakawa; Shunichi Sato; Daizoh Saitoh; Makoto Hasegawa; Hiroshi Ashida; Hideyuki Okano; Minoru Obara

    2006-01-01

    We successfully delivered a therapeutic vector construct, which carries hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene, to rat skin in vivo. After HGF expression vector had been intradermally injected to rat skin, LISWs were generated by irradiating the laser target put on the rat skin with nanosecond pulses from the second harmonics (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Concentration of HGF

  1. Enhanced angiogenesis in grafted skins by gene transfer of human hepatocyte growth factor using laser-induced stress waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuhiro Terakawa; Shunichi Sato; Daizoh Saitoh; Hitoshi Tsuda; Hiroshi Ashida; Hideyuki Okano; Minoru Obara

    2007-01-01

    We delivered a therapeutic gene, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), to skin grafts of rats using laser-induced stress waves (LISWs) with the objective of enhancing their adhesion. The density and uniformity of neovascularities were enhanced significantly in the grafted skins that were transfected using LISWs, suggesting the efficacy of this method to improve the outcome of skin transplantation.

  2. Real-time measurement in living cells of insulin-like growth factor activity using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisbeth S. Laursen; Claus Oxvig

    2005-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II function in normal physiology to control growth, development, and differentiation, but are also important in pathophysiological conditions, particularly in cancer. The biological effects of the IGFs are mediated by the IGF-I receptor (IGFR), a covalent homodimer composed of two alpha and two beta chains, similar in structure to the insulin receptor (IR). To allow

  3. Molecular tissue engineering: Applications for modulation of mesenchymal stem cells proliferation by transforming growth factor ? 1 gene transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo Xiaodong; Du Jingyuan; Zheng Qixin; Liu Yong; Duan Deyu; Wu Yongchao

    2001-01-01

    Summary  The effect of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) gene transfection on the proliferation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the mechanism was investigated\\u000a to provide basis for accelerating articular cartilage repairing using molecular tissue engineering technology. TGF-?1 gene at different doses was transduced into the rat bone marrow-derived MSCs to examine the effects of TGF-?1 gene transfection on

  4. Accelerated adhesion of grafted skins by laser-induced stress wave-based gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuya Aizawa; Shunichi Sato; Daizoh Saitoh; Hitoshi Tsuda; Hiroshi Ashida; Minoru Obara

    2009-01-01

    In our previous study, we delivered plasmid DNA coding for human hepatocyto growth factor (hHGF) to rat skin grafts based on laser-induced stress wave (LISW), by which production of CD31-positive cells in the grafted skins was found to be enhanced, suggesting improved angiogenesis. In this study, we validated the efficacy of this method to accelerate adhesion of grafted skins; reperfusion

  5. Geometric radiation exchange factors for axial radiative transfer in an LWR core filled with absorbing-emitting gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.H.; Cho, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A reactor core filled with an emitting-absorbing mixture (like steam, hydrogen gas and fission gases) is considered. Analysis is provided to evaluate axial radiative heat exchange of a rod bundle with a nonuniform axial temperature distribution. The necessary radiation exchange shape factors (geometric mean absorptance, emittance and transmittance) between segments of the complex rod bundle arrangement are presented. They are applicable to arbitrary sizes of segments, well suited for numerical computations.

  6. Transfer form

    Cancer.gov

    10/02 Transfer Investigational Agent Form This form is to be used for an intra-institutional transfer, one transfer/form. Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health TRANSFER FROM: Investigator transferring agent:

  7. Risks associated with the transfer of toxic organo-metallic mercury from soils into the terrestrial feed chain.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Bruno; Rodrigues, S M; Coelho, C; Cruz, N; Duarte, A C; Römkens, P F A M; Pereira, E

    2013-09-01

    Although the transfer of organo-metallic mercury (OrgHg) in aquatic food webs has long been studied, it has only been recently recognized that there is also accumulation in terrestrial systems. There is still however little information about the exposure of grazing animals to OrgHg from soils and feed as well as on risks of exposure to animal and humans. In this study we collected 78 soil samples and 40 plant samples (Lolium perenne and Brassica juncea) from agricultural fields near a contaminated industrial area and evaluated the soil-to-plant transfer of Hg as well as subsequent trophic transfer. Inorganic Hg (IHg) concentrations ranged from 0.080 to 210mgkg(-1) d.w. in soils, from 0.010 to 84mgkg(-1) d.w. in roots and from 0.020 to 6.9mgkg(-1) d.w. in shoots. OrgHg concentrations in soils varied between 0.20 and 130?gkg(-1) d.w. representing on average 0.13% of the total Hg (THg). In root and shoot samples OrgHg comprised on average 0.58% (roots) and 0.66% (shoots) of THg. Average bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for OrgHg in relation to soil concentrations were 3.3 (for roots) and 1.5 (for shoots). The daily intake (DI) of THg in 33 sampling sites exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of THg of both cows (ADI=1.4mgd(-1)) and sheep (ADI=0.28mgd(-1)), in view of food safety associated with THg in animal kidneys. Estimated DI of OrgHg for grazing animals were up to 220?gd(-1) (for cows) and up to 33?gd(-1) (for sheep). This study suggested that solely monitoring the levels of THg in soils and feed may not allow to adequately taking into account accumulation of OrgHg in feed crops and properly address risks associated with OrgHg exposure for animals and humans. Hence, the inclusion of limits for OrgHg in feed quality and food safety legislation is advised. PMID:23917441

  8. Proton spectroscopic factor of the 12C ground state from the 12C (11B,12C) 11B elastic transfer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, E. T.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Y. J.; Guo, B.; Wang, Y. B.; Pang, D. Y.; Su, J.; Yan, S. Q.; Zeng, S.; Gan, L.; Li, Z. C.; Liu, J. C.; Bai, X. X.; Wu, Z. D.; Jin, S. J.; Zhang, L. Y.; Yu, X. Q.; Li, L.; Sun, H. B.; Lian, G.; Fan, Q. W.; Liu, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    The angular distributions of the 12C (11B,11B) 12C and 12C (11B,12C) 11B reactions have been measured at an incident energy of 50 MeV by using the high resolution Q3D magnetic spectrometer of the HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing. The optical potential parameters of the 11B +12C system are determined by fitting the angular distribution of the elastic scattering and then used to predict the cross sections of the elastic transfer reaction leading to the ground state in 12C based on distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) analysis. Taking into account the interference between the elastic scattering and the elastic transfer processes, the proton spectroscopic factor of the 12C ground state is extracted to be 2.15 ± 0.23 by constraining the geometrical parameters r0 and a using the rms radius of the valence proton in the 12C ground state.

  9. Determination of nicotine in tobacco with second-order spectra data of charge-transfer complex in ethanol-water binary solvents processed by parallel factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shuqin; Liao, Lifu; Xiao, Xilin; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Du, Nan; Du, Jiangfeng

    2010-05-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of nicotine in mixtures without pre-separation has been proposed. Nicotine could react with 2,4-dinitrophenol through a charge-transfer reaction to form a colored complex. The second-order data from the visible absorption spectra of the complex in a series of ethanol-water binary solvents with various water volume fractions could be expressed as the combination of two bilinear data matrices. With the bilinear model, the second-order spectra data of mixtures containing nicotine and other interferents could be analysed by using second-order calibration algorithms, and the determination of nicotine in the mixtures could be achieved. The algorithm used here was parallel factor analysis. The method has been successfully used to determine nicotine in tobacco samples with satisfactory results.

  10. Determination of field related transfer factors for Cs-137 and Sr-90, from the fallout of the reactor accident in Chernobyl (USSR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artner, Christoph; Gerzabek, Martin H.; Horak, Othmar; Mueck, Konrad

    1991-05-01

    The plant ground transfer factor (TF) is defined. The resulting activity of the ground after radionuclide distribution causes a measurable absorption of both isotopes, Cs-137 and Sr-90, by the plants and allows to obtain TF in field conditions. Two hundred specimens of various plants were chosen. The corresponding ground specimens were taken from a zero to twenty centimeters ground layer. A survey of Cs-137 TF of various plants is given. The TF's for Sr-90 are, at least, an order of magnitude higher than those for Cs-137. In most cases, the correlation between Cs-137 TF and the measured ground activity concentration is negative. The TF's obtained for Cs-137 and Sr-90 are, in general, comparable with data which were determined long before the reactor accident by various tests with artificially contaminated grounds.

  11. Accelerated adhesion of grafted skin by laser-induced stress wave-based gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Kazuya; Sato, Shunichi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2009-11-01

    Gene therapy using wound healing-associated growth factor gene has received much attention as a new strategy for improving the outcome of tissue transplantation. We delivered plasmid DNA coding for human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) to rat free skin grafts by the use of laser-induced stress waves (LISWs); autografting was performed with the grafts. Systematic analysis was conducted to evaluate the adhesion properties of the grafted tissue; angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and reepithelialization were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and reperfusion was measured by laser Doppler imaging as a function of time after grafting. Both the level of angiogenesis on day 3 after grafting and the increased ratio of blood flow on day 4 to that on day 3 were significantly higher than those in five control groups: grafting with hHGF gene injection alone, grafting with control plasmid vector injection alone, grafting with LISW application alone, grafting with LISW application after control plasmid vector injection, and normal grafting. Reepithelialization was almost completed on day 7 even at the center of the graft with LISW application after hHGF gene injection, while it was not for the grafts of the five control groups. These findings demonstrate the validity of our LISW-based HGF gene transfection to accelerate the adhesion of grafted skins.

  12. Accelerated adhesion of grafted skin by laser-induced stress wave-based gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Kazuya; Sato, Shunichi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Gene therapy using wound healing-associated growth factor gene has received much attention as a new strategy for improving the outcome of tissue transplantation. We delivered plasmid DNA coding for human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) to rat free skin grafts by the use of laser-induced stress waves (LISWs); autografting was performed with the grafts. Systematic analysis was conducted to evaluate the adhesion properties of the grafted tissue; angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and reepithelialization were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and reperfusion was measured by laser Doppler imaging as a function of time after grafting. Both the level of angiogenesis on day 3 after grafting and the increased ratio of blood flow on day 4 to that on day 3 were significantly higher than those in five control groups: grafting with hHGF gene injection alone, grafting with control plasmid vector injection alone, grafting with LISW application alone, grafting with LISW application after control plasmid vector injection, and normal grafting. Reepithelialization was almost completed on day 7 even at the center of the graft with LISW application after hHGF gene injection, while it was not for the grafts of the five control groups. These findings demonstrate the validity of our LISW-based HGF gene transfection to accelerate the adhesion of grafted skins. PMID:20059281

  13. Accelerated adhesion of grafted skins by laser-induced stress wave-based gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Kazuya; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2009-02-01

    In our previous study, we delivered plasmid DNA coding for human hepatocyto growth factor (hHGF) to rat skin grafts based on laser-induced stress wave (LISW), by which production of CD31-positive cells in the grafted skins was found to be enhanced, suggesting improved angiogenesis. In this study, we validated the efficacy of this method to accelerate adhesion of grafted skins; reperfusion and reepithelialization in the grafted skins were examined. As a graft, dorsal skin of a rat was exsected and its subcutaneous fat was removed. Plasmid DNA expression vector for hHGF was injected into the graft; on its back surface a laser target with a transparent sheet for plasma confinement was placed, and irradiated with three nanosecond laser pulses at a laser fluence of 1.2 J/cm2 (532 nm; spot diameter, 3 mm) to generate LISWs. After the application of LISWs, the graft was transplanted onto its donor site. We evaluated blood flow by laser Doppler imaging and analyzed reepithelialization based on immunohistochemistry as a function of postgrafting time. It was found that both reperfusion and reepithelialization were significantly enhanced for the grafts with gene transfection than for normal grafts; reepithelialization was completed within 7 days after transplantation with the transfected grafts. These findings demonstrate that adhesion of grafted skins can be accelerated by delivering HGF gene to the grafts based on LISWs.

  14. A multi-site study for detection of the factor V (Leiden) mutation from genomic DNA using a homogeneous invader microtiter plate fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay.

    PubMed

    Ledford, M; Friedman, K D; Hessner, M J; Moehlenkamp, C; Williams, T M; Larson, R S

    2000-05-01

    The goal of this multicenter study was to evaluate the second-generation Invader technology for detecting the factor V (Leiden) mutation directly from genomic DNA of different sample types. Invader assay results were compared with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) analysis. The Invader assay is a PCR-independent methodology that uses a microtiter plate format. In the assay, a specific upstream Invader oligonucleotide and a downstream probe hybridize in tandem to a complementary DNA template and form a partially overlapping structure. The Cleavase VIII enzyme recognizes and cuts this structure to release the 5' flap of the probe. This flap then serves as an Invader oligonucleotide to direct cleavage of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe in a second invasive cleavage reaction. Cleavage of this FRET probe results in the generation of a fluorescent signal. The results of the Invader assay were 99.5% concordant with the PCR-based methods. Of the 372 samples tested once, only two gave discordant results (one from operator error and one from unknown causes), but were concordant on retesting. These results indicate that a simple microtiter plate-based Invader assay can reliably genotype clinical patient samples for the factor V (Leiden) point mutation directly from genomic DNA without prior target amplification. PMID:11272895

  15. Sites involved in intra- and interdomain allostery associated with the activation of factor viia pinpointed by hydrogen-deuterium exchange and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongjian; Olsen, Ole H; Persson, Egon; Rand, Kasper D

    2014-12-19

    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) is a trypsin-like protease that plays an important role in initiating blood coagulation. Very limited structural information is available for the free, inactive form of FVIIa that circulates in the blood prior to vascular injury and the molecular details of its activity enhancement remain elusive. Here we have applied hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry coupled to electron transfer dissociation to pinpoint individual residues in the heavy chain of FVIIa whose conformation and/or local interaction pattern changes when the enzyme transitions to the active form, as induced either by its cofactor tissue factor or a covalent active site inhibitor. Identified regulatory residues are situated at key sites across one continuous surface of the protease domain spanning the TF-binding helix across the activation pocket to the calcium binding site and are embedded in elements of secondary structure and at the base of flexible loops. Thus these residues are optimally positioned to mediate crosstalk between functional sites in FVIIa, particularly the cofactor binding site and the active site. Our results unambiguously show that the conformational allosteric activation signal extends to the EGF1 domain in the light chain of FVIIa, underscoring a remarkable intra- and interdomain allosteric regulation of this trypsin-like protease. PMID:25344622

  16. The Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the $^{2}\\vec{\\rm H}(\\vec{\\rm e},{\\rm e}'{\\rm n}){\\rm p}$ Reaction

    E-print Network

    E. Geis; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhoevel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. DeGrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; M. Kohl; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; A. Shinozaki; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; E. Six; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart

    2008-04-08

    We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form factor ratio $G^{n}_{E}/G^{n}_{M}$ was extracted from the beam-target vector asymmetry $A_{ed}^{V}$ at four-momentum transfers $Q^{2}=0.14$, 0.20, 0.29 and 0.42 (GeV/c)$^{2}$.

  17. Periluminal expression of a secreted transforming growth factor-? type II receptor inhibits in-stent neointima formation following adenovirus-mediated stent-based intracoronary gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Clare E; Ranjzad, Parisa; Williams, Paul D; Kakar, Salik J; Driessen, Anita; Tijsma, Edze; Fernandes, Brian; Heagerty, Anthony M; Kingston, Paul A

    2014-05-01

    Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) has been shown unequivocally to enhance neointima formation in carotid and ileo-femoral arteries. In our previous studies, however, TGF-?1 expression in coronary arteries actually reduced neointima formation without affecting luminal loss postangioplasty, while expression of a TGF-?1 antagonist (RIIs) in balloon-injured coronary arteries reduced luminal loss without affecting neointima formation. These observed effects may be a consequence of the mode of coronary artery gene transfer employed, but they may also represent differences in the modes of healing of coronary, carotid, and ileo-femoral arteries after endoluminal injury. To help clarify whether a gene therapy strategy to antagonize TGF-? might have application within the coronary vasculature, we have investigated the effect of high-level periluminal expression of RIIs using stent-based adenovirus-mediated intracoronary gene transfer. Porcine coronary arteries were randomized to receive a custom-made CoverStent preloaded with saline only, or with 1×10(9) infectious units of adenovirus expressing RIIs or ?-galactosidase (lacZ). Vessels were analyzed 28 days poststenting, at which time angiographic in-stent diameter was significantly greater in RIIs-treated arteries, and in-stent luminal loss significantly reduced. Computerized morphometric minimum in-stent lumen area was ~300% greater in RIIs-exposed vessels than in lacZ or saline-only groups. This was because of significantly reduced neointima formation in the RIIs group. RIIs had no demonstrable effect on cellular proliferation or apoptosis, but greater normalized neointimal/medial collagen content was observed in RIIs-exposed arteries. These data highlight the qualitatively similar effect of TGF-? antagonism on neointima formation in injured coronary and noncoronary arteries, and suggest that since cellular proliferation is unaffected, TGF-?1 antagonism might prevent in-stent restenosis without the delayed healing that is associated with drug-eluting stents in current clinical use. PMID:24483849

  18. Gas-liquid transfer data used to analyze hydrophobic hydration and find the nature of the Kauzmann-Tanford hydrophobic factor

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophobic free energy for protein folding is currently measured by liquid-liquid transfer, based on an analogy between the folding process and the transfer of a nonpolar solute from water into a reference solvent. The second part of the analogy (transfer into a nonaqueous solvent) is dubious and has been justified by arguing that transfer out of water probably contributes the major part of the free energy change. This assumption is wrong: transfer out of water contributes no more than half the total, often less. Liquid-liquid transfer of the solute from water to liquid alkane is written here as the sum of 2 gas-liquid transfers: (i) out of water into vapor, and (ii) from vapor into liquid alkane. Both gas-liquid transfers have known free energy values for several alkane solutes. The comparable values of the two different transfer reactions are explained by the values, determined in 1991 for three alkane solutes, of the cavity work and the solute-solvent interaction energy. The transfer free energy is the difference between the positive cavity work and the negative solute-solvent interaction energy. The interaction energy has similar values in water and liquid alkane that are intermediate in magnitude between the cavity work in water and in liquid alkane. These properties explain why the transfer free energy has comparable values (with opposite signs) in the two transfers. The current hydrophobic free energy is puzzling and poorly defined and needs a new definition and method of measurement. PMID:22529345

  19. Transfer factors to Whitetail deer: comparison of stomach-content, plant-sample and soil-sample concentrations as the denominator.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C

    2013-12-01

    A recent study measured transfer factors for 49 elements in hunter-killed Whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), using concentrations in the stomach content as the substrate/denominator to compute muscle/vegetation concentration ratios (CR(m-stomach)) and daily fractional transfer factors (Ff). Using the stomach content ensured an accurate representation of what the deer ate, except that it was limited in time to the vegetation selected by the animal just before it was killed. Here, two alternatives are considered, one where the feed is represented by samples of 21 different vegetation types that deer may have eaten in the area (CR(m-plant)), and the other is using soil concentration in the region as the denominator (CR(m-soil)). The latter is the formulation used in the ERICA tool, and other sources, for risk assessment to non-human biota. Across elements, (log) concentrations in all the media were highly correlated. The stomach contents had consistently higher ash and rare earth element concentrations than the sampled (and washed) vegetation and this was attributed to soil or dust ingestion. This lends credence to the use of soil-based CRm-soil values, despite (or more accurately because of) the inclusive yet gross simplicity of the approach. However, it was clear that variation of CR(m-soil) values was larger than for CR(m-stomach) or CR(m-plant), even if soil load on vegetation was included in the latter values. It was also noted that the variation in CR(m-soil) computed from the product of CR(m-plant) and CR(plant-soil) (where CR(plant-soil) is the plant/soil concentration ratio) was somewhat larger than the variation inherent in CR(m-soil) data. Thus it is reasonable to estimate CR(m-soil) from CR(m-plant) and CR(plant-soil) if observed CR(m-soil) values are not available, but this introduces further uncertainty. PMID:23287432

  20. Circadian Regulation of Intestinal Lipid Absorption by Apolipoprotein AIV Involves Forkhead Transcription Factors A2 and O1 and Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyue; Munshi, Mohamed Khalid; Iqbal, Jahangir; Queiroz, Joyce; Sirwi, Alaa Ahmed; Shah, Shrenik; Younus, Abdullah; Hussain, M. Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    We have shown previously that Clock, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), and nocturnin are involved in the circadian regulation of intestinal lipid absorption. Here, we clarified the role of apolipoprotein AIV (apoAIV) in the diurnal regulation of plasma lipids and intestinal lipid absorption in mice. Plasma triglyceride in apoAIV?/? mice showed diurnal variations similar to apoAIV+/+ mice; however, the increases in plasma triglyceride at night were significantly lower in these mice. ApoAIV?/? mice absorbed fewer lipids at night and showed blunted response to daytime feeding. To explain reasons for these lower responses, we measured MTP expression; intestinal MTP was low at night, and its induction after food entrainment was less in apoAIV?/? mice. Conversely, apoAIV overexpression increased MTP mRNA in hepatoma cells, indicating transcriptional regulation. Mechanistic studies revealed that sequences between ?204/?775 bp in the MTP promoter respond to apoAIV and that apoAIV enhances expression of FoxA2 and FoxO1 transcription factors and their binding to the identified cis elements in the MTP promoter at night. Knockdown of FoxA2 and FoxO1 abolished apoAIV-mediated MTP induction. Similarly, knockdown of apoAIV in differentiated Caco-2 cells reduced MTP, FoxA2, and FoxO1 mRNA levels, cellular MTP activity, and media apoB. Moreover, FoxA2 and FoxO1 expression showed diurnal variations, and their expression was significantly lower in apoAIV?/? mice. These data indicate that apoAIV modulates diurnal changes in lipid absorption by regulating forkhead transcription factors and MTP and that inhibition of apoAIV expression might reduce plasma lipids. PMID:23729668

  1. Credit risk transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2003-01-01

    Executive summary Techniques for transferring credit risk, such as financial guarantees and credit insurance, have been a long-standing feature of financial markets. In the past few years, however, the range of credit risk transfer (CRT) instruments and the circumstances in which they are used have widened considerably. A number of factors have contributed to this growth, including: greater focus by

  2. Complete and sustained phenotypic correction of hemophilia B in mice following hepatic gene transfer of a high-expressing human factor IX plasmid.

    PubMed

    Ye, X; Loeb, K R; Stafford, D W; Thompson, A R; Miao, C H

    2003-01-01

    Therapeutic correction of hemophilia B was achieved by rapid infusion of a large-volume solution containing a high-expressing human factor IX (hFIX) plasmid into the tail vein of hemophilia B mice. hFIX circulated at therapeutic levels (1-5 micro g mL-1) in all animals for more than 1 year as determined by both species-specific antigen assay and an activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)-based clotting assay. There was acute, transient hepatic tissue damage by the infusion procedure and no significant inhibitory anti-hFIX antibodies developed. No bleeding episode was observed during or after treatment. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that the hFIX gene was exclusively expressed in hepatocytes, and that transduced cells had readily detectable hFIX protein at 4 h postinfusion, and stainable protein persisted for up to 1 year. Repeated infusions of hFIX plasmids boosted the hFIX expression to higher levels. These results demonstrate that hemophilia B can be treated by gene transfer of naked hFIX plasmids. PMID:12871546

  3. Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q{sup 2}=3.5 GeV{sup 2} by polarization transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Punjabi, V. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States); Perdrisat, C.F.; Gerstner, G.; Pentchev, L.; Rutledge, G.; Strauch, S.; Wijesooriya, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States); Aniol, K.A.; Epstein, M.B.; Margaziotis, D.J. [California State University, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90032 (United States); Baker, F.T.; Templon, J.A. [University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States); Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Besson, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Jaminion, S.; Laveissiere, G. [Universite Blaise Pascal/CNRS-IN2P3, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Bertozzi, W.; Chai, Z. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [and others

    2005-05-01

    The ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub l}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic e{sup {yields}}p{yields}ep{sup {yields}}reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. In the single-photon exchange approximation, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} is directly proportional to P{sub t}/P{sub l}. The simultaneous measurement of P{sub t} and P{sub l} in a polarimeter reduces systematic uncertainties. The results for G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} show a systematic decrease with increasing Q{sup 2}, indicating for the first time a definite difference in the distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. The data have been reanalyzed and their systematic uncertainties have become significantly smaller than those reported previously.

  4. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake

    E-print Network

    -series publications; Federal Register notices; applicant, licensee, and vendor documents and correspondence; NRC, NRC regulations, and Title 10, "Energy," in the Code of Federal Regulations may also be purchased from, Federal Register notices, Federal and State legislation, and congressional reports. Such documents

  5. Theories supporting transfer of training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siriporn Yamnill; Gary N. McLean

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews theories and conceptual frameworks necessary to describe three factors affecting transfer of training. This information helps HRD pro- fessionals understand why people wish to change their performance after attending a training program, what training design contributes to people's ability to transfer skills successfully, and what kind of organizational environment supports the transfer. This article also provides HRD

  6. Nerve Growth Factor Delivery by Gene Transfer Induces Differential Outgrowth of Sensory, Motor, and Noradrenergic Neurites after Adult Spinal Cord Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark H. Tuszynski; Katie Gabriel; Fred H. Gage; Steve Suhr; Scott Meyer; Angela Rosetti

    1996-01-01

    Several neurotrophic factors have been identified that influence neuronal populations during central nervous system development, maturation, and senescence. To examine the responsiveness of the intact and the lesioned adult mammalian spinal cord to neurotrophic factors, primary rat fibroblasts were genetically modified to produce and secrete human nerve growth factor (NGF). These NGF-producing cells were then grafted to nonlesioned or lesioned

  7. The human element in technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A transfer model composed of three roles and their linkages was considered. This model and a growing body of experience was analyzed to provide guidance in the human elements of technology transfer. For example, criteria for selection of technology transfer agents was described, and some needed working climate factors were known. These concepts were successfully applied to transfer activities.

  8. Transfer Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Stephen Pollock

    2011-01-01

    In statistical time-series analysis, signal processing and control engineering, a transfer function is a mathematical relationship between a numerical input to a dynamic system and the resulting output. The theory of transfer functions describes how the input\\/output relationship is affected by the structure of the transfer function. The theory of the transfer functions of linear time-invariant (LTI) systems has been

  9. Astrophysical S factor for the radiative capture (12)N(p,gamma)(13)O determined from the (14)N((12)N,(13)O)(13)C proton transfer reaction

    E-print Network

    Banu, A.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.; Zhai, Y.; Carstoiu, F.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.

    2009-01-01

    The cross section of the radiative proton capture reaction on the drip line nucleus (12)N was investigated using the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. We have used the (14)N((12)N,(13)O)(13)C proton transfer reaction at 12 Me...

  10. Factors affecting the concentration in seven-spotted ladybirds ( Coccinella septempunctata L.) of Cd and Zn transferred through the food chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Green; A. Diaz; M. Tibbett

    2010-01-01

    The transfer of Cd and Zn from soils amended with sewage sludge was followed through a food chain consisting of wheat, aphids and the predator Coccinella septempunctata. Multiple regression models were generated to predict the concentrations of Cd and Zn in C. septempunctata. No significant model could be generated for Cd, indicting that the concentration of this metal was maintained

  11. SOLID-LIQUID PHASE TRANSFER CATALYZED SYNTHESIS OF CINNAMYL ACETATE-KINETICS AND ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE REACTION IN A BATCH REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis has an advantage of carrying out reaction between two immiscible substrates, one in solid phase and the other in liquid phase, with high selectivity and at relatively low temperatures. In this study we investigated the synthesis ci...

  12. Technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for a successful technology transfer program and what such a program would look like are discussed. In particular, the issues associated with technology transfer in general, and within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) environment specifically are addressed. The section on background sets the stage, identifies the barriers to successful technology transfer, and suggests actions to address the barriers either generally or specifically. The section on technology transfer presents a process with its supporting management plan that is required to ensure a smooth transfer process. Viewgraphs are also included.

  13. Nitrogen supply as a factor influencing photoinhibition and photosynthetic acclimation after transfer of shade-grown Solanum dulcamara to bright light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Ferrar; C. B. Osmond

    1986-01-01

    We have compared the ability of shadegrown clones of Solamum dulcamara L. from shade and sun habitats to acclimate to bright light, as a function of nitrogen nutrition before and after transfer to bright light. Leaves of S. dulcamara grown in the shade with 0.6 mM NO3-have similar photosynthetic properties as leaves of plants grown with 12.0 mM NO3-. When

  14. Factors associated with serum immunoglobulin levels in beef calves from Alberta and Saskatchewan and association between passive transfer and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Waldner, Cheryl L.; Rosengren, Leigh B.

    2009-01-01

    Inadequate consumption of colostrum can negatively affect calf health and survival. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations of 935 beef calves from 152 herds in Alberta and Saskatchewan have been described, using radial immunodiffusion. The determinants and health effects of serum IgG concentrations were studied in 601 calves sampled between 2 and 8 days of age. Of these calves, 6% had failure of passive transfer and an additional 10% had marginal passive transfer. Serum IgG concentrations were lower in calves born to a heifer, as a twin, or experiencing dystocia. The odds of both calf death and treatment were increased in calves with serum IgG concentrations below 24 g/L; a threshold notably higher than the 16 g/L usually considered as providing adequate passive transfer. The finding of 1/3 of calves with serum IgG concentrations less than 24 g/L suggests that calfhood treatments and mortality could be decreased by ensuring that high risk calves consume colostrum. PMID:19436479

  15. Heat Transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students explore heat transfer and energy efficiency using the context of energy efficient houses. They gain a solid understanding of the three types of heat transfer: radiation, convection and conduction, which are explained in detail and related to the real world. They learn about the many ways solar energy is used as a renewable energy source to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses and operating costs. Students also explore ways in which a device can capitalize on the methods of heat transfer to produce a beneficial result. They are given the tools to calculate the heat transferred between a system and its surroundings.

  16. Comparison of Passively Transferred Antibodies in Bighorn and Domestic Lambs Reveals One Factor in Differential Susceptibility of These Species to Mannheimia haemolytica-Induced Pneumonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes fatal bronchopneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin is the primary virulence factor of this organism. BHS are more susceptible to developing fatal pneumonia than the related species Ovis aries...

  17. Measurement of the electric form factor of the neutron at low momentum transfers using a vector polarized deuterium gas target at BLAST

    E-print Network

    Ziskin, Vitaliy

    2005-01-01

    Elastic form factors are fundamental quantities that characterize the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon. High precision measurements of these quantities are essential in understanding the structure of hadronic matter. ...

  18. Long-term correction of canine hemophilia B by gene transfer of blood coagulation factor IX mediated by adeno-associated viral vector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland W. Herzog; Edmund Y. Yang; Linda B. Couto; J. Nathan Hagstrom; Dan Elwell; Paul A. Fields; Melissa Burton; Dwight A. Bellinger; Marjorie S. Read; Kenneth M. Brinkhous; Gregory M. Podsakoff; Timothy C. Nichols; Gary J. Kurtzman; Katherine A. High

    1999-01-01

    Hemophilia B is a severe X-linked bleeding diathesis caused by the absence of functional blood coagulation factor IX, and is an excellent candidate for treatment of a genetic disease by gene therapy. Using an adeno-associated viral vector, we demonstrate sustained expression (>17 months) of factor IX in a large-animal model at levels that would have a therapeutic effect in humans

  19. Rehabilitation following motor nerve transfers.

    PubMed

    Novak, Christine B

    2008-11-01

    Cortical mapping and relearning are key factors in optimizing patient outcome following motor nerve transfers. To maximize function following nerve transfers, the rehabilitation program must include motor reeducation to initiate recruitment of the weak reinnervated muscles and to establish new motor patterns and cortical mapping. Patient education and a home program are essential to obtain the optimal functional result. PMID:18928890

  20. Accumulation of heavy metals from contaminated soil to plants and evaluation of soil remediation by vermiculite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mery Malandrino; Ornella Abollino; Sandro Buoso; Agnese Giacomino; Carmela La Gioia; Edoardo Mentasti

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the distribution of 15 metal ions, namely Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zn and Zr, in the soil of a contaminated site in Piedmont (Italy). This area was found to be heavily contaminated with Cu, Cr and Ni. The availability of these metal ions was studied using Tessier’s sequential extraction

  1. Optimality and Conductivity for Water Flow: From Landscapes, to Unsaturated Soils, to Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.H.

    2012-02-23

    Optimality principles have been widely used in many areas. Based on an optimality principle that any flow field will tend toward a minimum in the energy dissipation rate, this work shows that there exists a unified form of conductivity relationship for three different flow systems: landscapes, unsaturated soils and plant leaves. The conductivity, the ratio of water flux to energy gradient, is a power function of water flux although the power value is system dependent. This relationship indicates that to minimize energy dissipation rate for a whole system, water flow has a small resistance (or a large conductivity) at a location of large water flux. Empirical evidence supports validity of the relationship for landscape and unsaturated soils (under gravity dominated conditions). Numerical simulation results also show that the relationship can capture the key features of hydraulic structure for a plant leaf, although more studies are needed to further confirm its validity. Especially, it is of interest that according to this relationship, hydraulic conductivity for gravity-dominated unsaturated flow, unlike that defined in the classic theories, depends on not only capillary pressure (or saturation), but also the water flux. Use of the optimality principle allows for determining useful results that are applicable to a broad range of areas involving highly non-linear processes and may not be possible to obtain from classic theories describing water flow processes.

  2. Factors affecting the concentration in seven-spotted ladybirds (Coccinella septempunctata L.) of Cd and Zn transferred through the food chain.

    PubMed

    Green, I D; Diaz, A; Tibbett, M

    2010-01-01

    The transfer of Cd and Zn from soils amended with sewage sludge was followed through a food chain consisting of wheat, aphids and the predator Coccinella septempunctata. Multiple regression models were generated to predict the concentrations of Cd and Zn in C. septempunctata. No significant model could be generated for Cd, indicting that the concentration of this metal was maintained within relatively narrow limits. A model predicting 64% of the variability in the Zn concentration of C. septempunctata was generated from of the concentration of Zn in the diet, time and rate of Zn consumption. The results suggest that decreasing the rate of food consumption is an effective mechanism to prevent the accumulation of Zn and that the availability of Zn in the aphid prey increased with the concentration in the aphids. The results emphasise the importance of using ecologically relevant food chains and exposure pathways during ecotoxicological studies. PMID:19683847

  3. Nitrogen supply as a factor influencing photoinhibition and photosynthetic acclimation after transfer of shade-grown Solanum dulcamara to bright light.

    PubMed

    Ferrar, P J; Osmond, C B

    1986-09-01

    We have compared the ability of shadegrown clones of Solamum dulcamara L. from shade and sun habitats to acclimate to bright light, as a function of nitrogen nutrition before and after transfer to bright light. Leaves of S. dulcamara grown in the shade with 0.6 mM NO 3 (-) have similar photosynthetic properties as leaves of plants grown with 12.0 mM NO 3 (-) . When transferred to bright light for 1-2 d the leaves of these plants show substantial photoinhibition which is characterized by about 50% decrease in apparent quantum yield and a reduction in the rate of photosynthesis in air at light saturation. Photoinhibition of leaf photosynthesis is associated with reduction in the variable component of low-temperature fluorescence emission, and with loss of in-vitro electron transport, especially of photosystem II-dependent processes.We find no evidence for ecotypic differentiation in the potential for photosynthetic acclimation among shade and sun clones of S. dulcamara, or of differentiation with respect to nitrogen requirements for acclimation. Recovery from photoinhibition and subsequent acclimation of photosynthesis to bright light only occurs in leaves of plants provided with 12.0 mM NO 3 (-) . In these, apparent quantum yield is fully restored after 14 d, and photosynthetic acclimation is shown by an increase in light-saturated photosynthesis in air, of light-and CO2-saturated photosynthesis, and of the initial slope of the CO2-response curve. The latter changes are highly correlated with changes in ribulose-bisphosphate-carboxylase activity in vitro. Plants supplied with 0.6 mM NO 3 (-) show incomplete recovery of apparent quantum yield after 14 d, but CO2-dependent leaf photosynthetic parameters return to control levels. PMID:24232334

  4. Risk and Prevention of Anti-factor IX Formation in AAV-Mediated Gene Transfer in the Context of a Large Deletion of F9

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Fields; Valder R. Arruda; Elina Armstrong; Kirk Chu; Federico Mingozzi; J. Nathan Hagstrom; Roland W. Herzog; Katherine A. High

    2001-01-01

    The safety of several gene therapy approaches for treatment of the severe, X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia is currently being evaluated in early phase clinical trials. One strategy seeks to correct deficiency of functional coagulation factor IX (hemophilia B) by intramuscular (IM) administration of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector. A potentially serious complication of any treatment for hemophilia is formation of

  5. I k B a Gene Transfer Is Cytotoxic to Squamous-Cell Lung Cancer Cells and Sensitizes Them to Tumor Necrosis Factor a -Mediated Cell Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raj K. Batra; Denis C. Guttridge; David A. Brenner; Steven M. Dubinett; Albert S. Baldwin; Richard C. Boucher

    Current paradigms in cancer therapy suggest that activation of nuclear factor- k B (NF- k B) by a variety of stimuli, including some cytoreductive agents, may inhibit apoptosis. Thus, inhibiting NF- k B activation may sensitize cells to anticancer therapy, thereby providing a more effective treatment for certain cancers. E-1-deleted adenoviral (Ad) vectors encoding a \\

  6. Flexible transfer lines. Pressure drop analysis.

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Flexible transfer lines. Pressure drop analysis. Yury Ivanyushenkov, RAL #12;Proposed flexible transfer lines Flow in Flow return #12;Pressure drop in a flexible line · Friction factor for a flexible nitrogen cooling system: Diagram Drawn by Peter Titus Fill pipe Cold vent pipe #12;Flexible transfer line

  7. Can't swallow, can't transfer, can't toilet: factors predicting infections in the first week post stroke.

    PubMed

    Brogan, Emily; Langdon, Claire; Brookes, Kim; Budgeon, Charley; Blacker, David

    2015-01-01

    Post stroke infections are a significant clinical problem. Dysphagia occurs in approximately half of stroke patients and is associated with respiratory infections; however it is unclear what other factors contribute to an increased risk. This study aimed to determine which factors are most strongly predictive of infections in the first 7 days post stroke admission. A retrospective review of 536 stroke patients admitted to Australian hospitals in 2010 was conducted. Data were collected on 37 clinical and demographic parameters. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. The overall incidence of infection was 21%. Full assistance with mobility and incontinence on admission were associated with increased odds of general infection. Nil by mouth and presence of a nasogastric tube were significantly associated with patients developing respiratory infections. Urinary incontinence was a significant predictor for a urinary tract infection. Incidence of infection was highest on day two post admission. This study found enteral feeding, requiring full assistance with mobility and incontinence were significantly associated with developing infections in acute stroke. It contributes valuable new data from a large cohort of stroke patients demonstrating a period of susceptibility to infection in the very acute post stroke period. PMID:25174763

  8. Applying a Transfer Model to Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garavaglia, Paul L.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews five transfer models that are effective in organizing knowledge sources and stimulating understanding in the process of transferring training skills to the job. Highlights include trainee characteristics, design factors, work environment, a systemic model of factors that predict employee training, trainers becoming performance…

  9. Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

    2012-04-01

    Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as: soil pH< available phosphorus < humus content < exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ < exchangeable K+. Inorganic fertilizers in high and temperate rates decrease 137Cs transfer to crops in 2.3-5.5 times. Organic fertilizers are less efficient, but its application can decrease 137Cs accumulation by farm crops during 2-3 years. Correlation analysis shows inversely proportional dependence between organic matter content and exchangeable form of 137Cs in soil (r2 = 0.81). A linear relation between 137Cs transfer factors (TF) to plants and exchangeable radionuclide content has been found (r2=0.68). Inversely proportional relation between the mobility level of potassium, its mobile form content and TF 137Cs was detected (r2 = 0.78).

  10. Impaired neoangiogenesis in ?2–adrenoceptor gene-deficient mice: restoration by intravascular human ?2–adrenoceptor gene transfer and role of NF?B and CREB transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciccarelli, Michele; Sorriento, Daniela; Cipolletta, Ersilia; Santulli, Gaetano; Fusco, Anna; Zhou, Rui-Hai; Eckhart, Andrea D; Peppel, Karsten; Koch, Walter J; Trimarco, Bruno; Iaccarino, Guido

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There is much evidence supporting the role of ?2-adrenoceptors (?2AR) in angiogenesis but the mechanisms underlying their effects have not been elucidated. Hence, we studied post-ischaemic angiogenesis in the hindlimb (HL) of ?2AR knock-out mice (?2AR?/?) in vivo and explored possible molecular mechanisms in vitro. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Femoral artery resection (FAR) was performed in wild-type and ?2AR?/? mice and adaptive responses to chronic HL ischaemia were explored; blood flow was measured by ultrasound and perfusion of dyed beads, bone rarefaction, muscle fibrosis and skin thickness were evaluated by immunoflourescence and morphometric analysis. Intrafemoral delivery of an adenovirus encoding the human ?2AR (AD?2AR) was used to reinstate ?2ARs in ?2AR?/? mice. Molecular mechanisms were investigated in mouse-derived aortic endothelial cells (EC) in vitro, focusing on NF?B activation and transcriptional activity. RESULTS Angiogenesis was severely impaired in ?2AR?/? mice subjected to FAR, but was restored by gene therapy with AD?2AR. The proangiogenic responses to a variety of stimuli were impaired in ?2AR?/? EC in vitro. Moreover, removal of ?2ARs impaired the activation of NF?B, a transcription factor that promotes angiogenesis; neither isoprenaline (stimulates ?ARs) nor TNF? induced NF?B activation in ?2AR?/? EC. Interestingly, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor that counter regulates NF?B, was constitutively increased in ?2AR?/? ECs. AD?2AR administration restored ?2AR membrane density, reduced CREB activity and reinstated the NF?B response to isoprenaline and TNF?. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results suggest that ?2ARs control angiogenesis through the tight regulation of nuclear transcriptional activity. PMID:20958287

  11. Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can reach their maximum effectiveness.

  12. Transfer of the Amino-Terminal Nuclear Envelope Targeting Domain of Human MX2 Converts MX1 into an HIV-1 Resistance Factor

    PubMed Central

    Moncorgé, Olivier; Bauby, Hélène; Doyle, Tomas; Barclay, Wendy S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) protein of humans has been identified recently as an interferon (IFN)-inducible inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that acts at a late postentry step of infection to prevent the nuclear accumulation of viral cDNA (C. Goujon et al., Nature 502:559–562, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12542; M. Kane et al., Nature 502:563–566, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12653; Z. Liu et al., Cell Host Microbe 14:398–410, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2013.08.015). In contrast, the closely related human MX1 protein, which suppresses infection by a range of RNA and DNA viruses (such as influenza A virus [FluAV]), is ineffective against HIV-1. Using a panel of engineered chimeric MX1/2 proteins, we demonstrate that the amino-terminal 91-amino-acid domain of MX2 confers full anti-HIV-1 function when transferred to the amino terminus of MX1, and that this fusion protein retains full anti-FluAV activity. Confocal microscopy experiments further show that this MX1/2 fusion, similar to MX2 but not MX1, can localize to the nuclear envelope (NE), linking HIV-1 inhibition with MX accumulation at the NE. MX proteins are dynamin-like GTPases, and while MX1 antiviral function requires GTPase activity, neither MX2 nor MX1/2 chimeras require this attribute to inhibit HIV-1. This key discrepancy between the characteristics of MX1- and MX2-mediated viral resistance, together with previous observations showing that the L4 loop of the stalk domain of MX1 is a critical determinant of viral substrate specificity, presumably reflect fundamental differences in the mechanisms of antiviral suppression. Accordingly, we propose that further comparative studies of MX proteins will help illuminate the molecular basis and subcellular localization requirements for implementing the noted diversity of virus inhibition by MX proteins. IMPORTANCE Interferon (IFN) elicits an antiviral state in cells through the induction of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). The human MX2 protein has been identified as a key effector in the suppression of HIV-1 infection by IFN. Here, we describe a molecular genetic approach, using a collection of chimeric MX proteins, to identify protein domains of MX2 that specify HIV-1 inhibition. The amino-terminal 91-amino-acid domain of human MX2 confers HIV-1 suppressor capabilities upon human and mouse MX proteins and also promotes protein accumulation at the nuclear envelope. Therefore, these studies correlate the cellular location of MX proteins with anti-HIV-1 function and help establish a framework for future mechanistic analyses of MX-mediated virus control. PMID:24899177

  13. Ultrasound-Microbubble-Mediated Gene Transfer of Inducible Smad7 Blocks Transforming Growth Factor-? Signaling and Fibrosis in Rat Remnant Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Wansheng; Huang, Xiao R.; Fu, Ping; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Lan, Hui Y.

    2005-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 has been shown to play a critical role in hypertensive nephropathy. We hypothesized that blocking TGF-?1 signaling could attenuate renal fibrosis in a rat model of remnant kidney disease. Groups of six rats were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy and received renal arterial injection of a doxycycline-regulated Smad7 gene or control empty vector using an ultrasound-microbubble-mediated system. Smad7 transgene expression within the kidney was tightly controlled by the addition of doxycycline in the daily drinking water. All animals were euthanized at week 4 for renal functional and histological examination. Hypertension of equivalent magnitude (190 to 200 mmHg) developed in both Smad7- and empty vector-treated rats. However, treatment with Smad7 substantially inhibited Smad2/3 activation and prevented progressive renal injury by inhibiting the rise of 24-hour proteinuria (P < 0.001) and serum creatinine (P < 0.001), preserving creatinine clearance (P < 0.05), and attenuating renal fibrosis and vascular sclerosis such as collagen I and III expression (P < 0.01) and myofibroblast accumulation (P < 0.001). In conclusion, TGF-?/Smad signaling plays a critical role in renal fibrosis in a rat remnant kidney model. The ability of Smad7 to block Smad2/3 activation and attenuate renal and vascular sclerosis demonstrates that ultrasound-mediated Smad7 gene therapy may be a useful therapeutic strategy for the prevention of renal fibrosis in association with hypertension. PMID:15743788

  14. Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor in critical limb ischemia: safety results from a phase I trial.

    PubMed

    Mohler, Emile R; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Olin, Jeffrey W; Trachtenberg, Jeffrey D; Rasmussen, Henrik; Pak, Raphael; Crystal, Ronald G

    2003-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is typified by rest pain and/or tissue necrosis secondary to advanced peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is characterized by diminution in limb perfusion at rest. We tested the safety of an angiogenic strategy with CI-1023 (Ad(GV)VEGF121.10), a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding human vascular endothelial growth factor isoform 121 in patients with CLI as part of a phase I trial. Fifteen subjects >35 years of age with CLI and angiographic disease involving the infra-inguinal vessels underwent intramuscular injection of CI-1023 (4 x 10(8) to 4 x 10(10) particle units, n = 13) or placebo (n = 2). All of the patients tolerated the injection well and there were no serious complications related to the procedure. Transient edema was noted in one patient. A total of 79 adverse events were reported over the course of one year. One death (day 136) and one malignancy (day 332) occurred in the CI-1023 group. CI-1023 appears to be well tolerated and safe for single-dose administration in patients with critical limb ischemia due to PAD. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of this form of therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:12866606

  15. Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio From Elastic e + p -> e + p Scattering at Momentum Transfer Q^2 = 2.5, 5.2, 6.7 and 8.5 (GeV/c)^2

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur Mkrtchyan

    2012-05-31

    Among the fundamental observables of nucleon structure, electromagnetic form factors are a crucial benchmark for modern calculations describing the strong interaction dyna mics of the nucleon's quark constituents. Electromagnetic probes are traditionally preferered to the hadronic beams. The electromagnetic interaction is a powerful tool for investigating the nucleon structure since it is well understood and it reveals observables that can be directly interpreted in terms of the current carried by the quarks. Elastic scattering leads to the form factors that describe the spatial charge a nd current distributions inside the nucleon. The reaction mechanism is assumed to be one photon exchange, the electromagnetic interaction is exactly calculable in QED, and one can safely extract the information on the hadronic vertex. The most important feature of early measurements of proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} with recoil polarization technique at Q{sup 2} up to 5.6 (GeV/c){sup 2} is the sharp decline of the ratio with Q{sup 2} increases, indicating that G{sub E}{sup p} falls much faster than G{sub M}{sup p}. This contradicts to data obtained by Rosenbluth separation method. An intriguing question was whether G{sub E}{sup p} will continue to decrease or become constant when Q{sup 2} increases. New set of measurements of proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} at Q{sup 2} = 2.5, 5.2, 6.7 and 8.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} have been conducted at JLab Hall C using {approx}85% longitudinally polarized electron elastic scattering from unpolarized hydrogen target. Recoil protons were detected in the HMS magnetic spectrometer with the standard detector package, combined with newly installed trigger scintillators and Focal Plane Polarimeter. The BigCal electromagnetic calorimeter (1744 channel) have been used for electron detection. Data obtained in this experiment show that G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} ratio continued to drop with Q{sup 2} and may cross 'zero' at Q{sup 2} > 10-15 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Intensive theoretical and experimental efforts over the past decade have aimed at explaining the discrepancy between data for the proton form factor ratio G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} obtained from cross section and polarization measurements. It was assumed that the two photon exchange contribution might be responsible for difference of G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} ratio obtained by Rosenbluth separation method and recoil polarization technique. The kinematical dependence of polarization transfer observables in elastic electron-proton scattering at Q{sup 2} = 2.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} have been used in search of effects of 2{gamma} contribution. For a wide range of values of the virtual photon polarization {epsilon} ({epsilon} = 0.15, 0.63, and 0.77), the proton form factor ratio and longitudinal polarization transfer component were measured with statistical uncertainties of {+-}0.01 and {+-}0.005, respectively. Our data provide significant constraints on models of nucleon structure.

  16. Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Animal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been adopted for use by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for use in transferring animals for research transferring the animal) Recipient: (name of laboratory/institution receiving the animal) The Provider agrees

  17. New Empirical Equation for the Atomic Form Factor Function in the Momentum Transfer Range, q?=?0–50 Å?1 for the Elements in the Range 1? Z ?30

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Wazir; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The importance of Atomic Form Factors (f) is well-known to the scientific community. Tabulated values for f are mostly used in calculating cross-sections and Monte Carlo sampling for the coherent scattering of photons. The uses of these values are subjected to different approximations and interpolation techniques because the available data points for f in the literature for specified momentum-transfer-grids are very limited. In order to make it easier to accurately use the tabulated data, a mathematical expression for f functions would be a great achievement. Therefore, the current study was designed to suggest an empirical expression for the f functions. In the results, an empirical equation for Hubbell's tabulated data for f is created in the momentum transfer range, q?=?0–50 Å?1 for the elements in the range 1? Z ?30. The number of applied parameters was seven. The fitting to f showed that the maximum deviation was within 3%, 4% and 5% for the element having, Z?=?1–11, Z?=?12–22 and Z?=?23–30, respectively, while the average deviations were within 0.3–2.25% for all elements (i.e., Z?=?1–30). The values generated by the analytical equation were used in the Monte Carlo code instead of Hubbell’s tabulated values. The statistical noise in the Probability Distribution Functions of coherently scattered photons was efficiently removed. Furthermore, it also reduced the dependence on different interpolation techniques and approximations, and on the use of large tabulated data for f with the specified elements. PMID:23936339

  18. Soil-plant-animal transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines: a case study from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S M; Pereira, M E; Duarte, A C; Römkens, P F A M

    2012-02-01

    Food chain models are essential tools to assess risks of soil contamination in view of product quality including fodder crops and animal products. Here we link soil to plant transfer (SPT) models for potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, U and Zn with models describing accumulation in animal organs. Current EU standards for food products and acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) for humans were used as critical limits. The combined model is used to assess the impact of soil contamination on animal health, product quality and human health using data from 100 arable fields. Results indicate that 42 existing arable fields near industrial and mining sites are unsuitable for animal grazing in view of food safety due to elevated intake of Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb by cows and sheep. At 10 sites daily intake levels of As by cows exceeded threshold concentrations regarding the quality of animal products. The food chain model also was used inversely to derive soil threshold concentrations in view of EU fodder standards. Calculated threshold levels in soil for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn appear to be in line with those proposed or used in other EU countries. As such the approach applied here can form a conceptual basis for a more harmonized risk assessment strategy regarding the protection of animal and human health. PMID:22208740

  19. Nonadiabatic anharmonic electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, P. P. [Molecular Physics Research, 6547 Kristina Ursula Court, Falls Church, Virginia 22044 (United States)

    2013-03-28

    The effect of an inner sphere, local mode vibration on an electron transfer is modeled using the nonadiabatic transition probability (rate) expression together with both the anharmonic Morse and the harmonic oscillator potential. For an anharmonic inner sphere mode, a variational analysis uses harmonic oscillator basis functions to overcome the difficulties evaluating Morse-model Franck-Condon overlap factors. Individual matrix elements are computed with the use of new, fast, robust, and flexible recurrence relations. The analysis therefore readily addresses changes in frequency and/or displacement of oscillator minimums in the different electron transfer states. Direct summation of the individual Boltzmann weighted Franck-Condon contributions avoids the limitations inherent in the use of the familiar high-temperature, Gaussian form of the rate constant. The effect of harmonic versus anharmonic inner sphere modes on the electron transfer is readily seen, especially in the exoergic, inverted region. The behavior of the transition probability can also be displayed as a surface for all temperatures and values of the driving force/exoergicity {Delta}=-{Delta}G. The temperature insensitivity of the transfer rate is clearly seen when the exoergicity equals the collective reorganization energy ({Delta}={Lambda}{sub s}) along a maximum ln (w) vs. {Delta} ridge of the surface. The surface also reveals additional regions for {Delta} where ln (w) appears to be insensitive to temperature, or effectively activationless, for some kinds of inner sphere contributions.

  20. Heat Transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Leslie Van (Montgomery Blair High School)

    2006-04-01

    In this inquiry activity students explore how heat transfers from one substance to another This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2006 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  1. Transfer functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taback, I.

    1979-01-01

    The vulnerability of electronic equipment to carbon fibers is studied. The effectiveness of interfaces, such as filters, doors, window screens, and cabinets, which affect the concentration, exposure, or deposition of carbon fibers on both (internal and external) sides of the interface is examined. The transfer function of multilayer aluminum mesh, wet and dry, polyurethane foam, and window screen are determined as a function of air velocity. FIlters installed in typical traffic control boxes and air conditioners are also considered.

  2. Large momentum transfer electroproduction of mesons

    E-print Network

    H. W. Huang; P. Kroll

    2000-05-31

    Assuming the proton's light-cone wave function to be dominated by small parton virtualities and small intrinsic transverse momenta, we show that the electroproduction amplitudes at large momentum transfer factorize into parton-level subprocess amplitudes and form factors representing 1/x-moments of skewed parton distributions. On the basis of a wave function overlap model for the form factors we present detailed predictions for the electroproduction cross sections. We also comment on large momentum transfer photoproduction.

  3. The transfer of analytical procedures.

    PubMed

    Ermer, J; Limberger, M; Lis, K; Wätzig, H

    2013-11-01

    Analytical method transfers are certainly among the most discussed topics in the GMP regulated sector. However, they are surprisingly little regulated in detail. General information is provided by USP, WHO, and ISPE in particular. Most recently, the EU emphasized the importance of analytical transfer by including it in their draft of the revised GMP Guideline. In this article, an overview and comparison of these guidelines is provided. The key to success for method transfers is the excellent communication between sending and receiving unit. In order to facilitate this communication, procedures, flow charts and checklists for responsibilities, success factors, transfer categories, the transfer plan and report, strategies in case of failed transfers, tables with acceptance limits are provided here, together with a comprehensive glossary. Potential pitfalls are described such that they can be avoided. In order to assure an efficient and sustainable transfer of analytical procedures, a practically relevant and scientifically sound evaluation with corresponding acceptance criteria is crucial. Various strategies and statistical tools such as significance tests, absolute acceptance criteria, and equivalence tests are thoroughly descibed and compared in detail giving examples. Significance tests should be avoided. The success criterion is not statistical significance, but rather analytical relevance. Depending on a risk assessment of the analytical procedure in question, statistical equivalence tests are recommended, because they include both, a practically relevant acceptance limit and a direct control of the statistical risks. However, for lower risk procedures, a simple comparison of the transfer performance parameters to absolute limits is also regarded as sufficient. PMID:23978903

  4. AAV-dominant negative tumor necrosis factor (DN-TNF) gene transfer to the striatum does not rescue medium spiny neurons in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Alto, Laura Taylor; Chen, Xi; Ruhn, Kelly A; Treviño, Isaac; Tansey, Malú G

    2014-01-01

    CNS inflammation is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease, and recent studies suggest that the inflammatory response may contribute to neuronal demise. In particular, increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling is implicated in the pathology of both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown that localized gene delivery of dominant negative TNF to the degenerating brain region can limit pathology in animal models of PD and AD. TNF is upregulated in Huntington's disease (HD), like in PD and AD, but it is unknown whether TNF signaling contributes to neuronal degeneration in HD. We used in vivo gene delivery to test whether selective reduction of soluble TNF signaling could attenuate medium spiny neuron (MSN) degeneration in the YAC128 transgenic (TG) mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD). AAV vectors encoding cDNA for dominant-negative tumor necrosis factor (DN-TNF) or GFP (control) were injected into the striatum of young adult wild type WT and YAC128 TG mice and achieved 30-50% target coverage. Expression of dominant negative TNF protein was confirmed immunohistologically and biochemically and was maintained as mice aged to one year, but declined significantly over time. However, the extent of striatal DN-TNF gene transfer achieved in our studies was not sufficient to achieve robust effects on neuroinflammation, rescue degenerating MSNs or improve motor function in treated mice. Our findings suggest that alternative drug delivery strategies should be explored to determine whether greater target coverage by DN-TNF protein might afford some level of neuroprotection against HD-like pathology and/or that soluble TNF signaling may not be the primary driver of striatal neuroinflammation and MSN loss in YAC128 TG mice. PMID:24824433

  5. AAV-Dominant Negative Tumor Necrosis Factor (DN-TNF) Gene Transfer to the Striatum Does Not Rescue Medium Spiny Neurons in the YAC128 Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alto, Laura Taylor; Chen, Xi; Ruhn, Kelly A.; Treviño, Isaac; Tansey, Malú G.

    2014-01-01

    CNS inflammation is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease, and recent studies suggest that the inflammatory response may contribute to neuronal demise. In particular, increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling is implicated in the pathology of both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown that localized gene delivery of dominant negative TNF to the degenerating brain region can limit pathology in animal models of PD and AD. TNF is upregulated in Huntington's disease (HD), like in PD and AD, but it is unknown whether TNF signaling contributes to neuronal degeneration in HD. We used in vivo gene delivery to test whether selective reduction of soluble TNF signaling could attenuate medium spiny neuron (MSN) degeneration in the YAC128 transgenic (TG) mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD). AAV vectors encoding cDNA for dominant-negative tumor necrosis factor (DN-TNF) or GFP (control) were injected into the striatum of young adult wild type WT and YAC128 TG mice and achieved 30–50% target coverage. Expression of dominant negative TNF protein was confirmed immunohistologically and biochemically and was maintained as mice aged to one year, but declined significantly over time. However, the extent of striatal DN-TNF gene transfer achieved in our studies was not sufficient to achieve robust effects on neuroinflammation, rescue degenerating MSNs or improve motor function in treated mice. Our findings suggest that alternative drug delivery strategies should be explored to determine whether greater target coverage by DN-TNF protein might afford some level of neuroprotection against HD-like pathology and/or that soluble TNF signaling may not be the primary driver of striatal neuroinflammation and MSN loss in YAC128 TG mice. PMID:24824433

  6. Genetic information transfer promotes cooperation in bacteria

    E-print Network

    Misevic, Dusan

    Genetic information transfer promotes cooperation in bacteria Tatiana Dimitriua , Chantal Lottona levels of hori- zontal transfer may promote mobile genetic elements purely as molecular parasites mobile genetic elements and can be virulence factors from a bio- medical perspective. Here, we present

  7. Load transfer mechanism in carbon nanotube ropes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Qian; Rodney S. Ruoff

    2003-01-01

    We used molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics to study the nature of load transfer in a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundle consisting of seven (10,10) SWCNTs: one core tube surrounded by six tubes on the perimeter. The surface tension and the inter-tube corrugation are identified as the two factors that contribute to load transfer. The surface tension effectively acts

  8. Food chain transfer and potential renal toxicity of mercury to small mammals at a contaminated terrestrial field site.

    PubMed

    Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

    1993-12-01

    Mercury concentrations were determined in surface soil and biota at a contaminated terrestrial field site and were used to calculate transfer coefficients of mercury through various compartments of the ecosystem based on trophic relationships. Mercury concentrations in all compartments (soil, vegetation, invertebrates, and small mammals) were higher than mercury concentrations in corresponding samples at local reference sites. Nonetheless, mercury concentrations in biota did not exceed concentrations in the contaminated surface soil, which averaged 269 ?g g(-1). Plant tissue concentrations of mercury were low (0.01 to 2.0 ?g g(-1)) and yielded soil to plant transfer coefficients ranging from 3.7×10(-5) for seeds to 7.0×10(-3) for grass blades. Mercury concentrations in invertebrates ranged from 0.79 for harvestmen (Phalangida) to 15.5 ?g g(-1) for undepurated earthworms (Oligochaeta). Mean food chain transfer coefficients for invertebrates were 0.88 for herbivores/omnivores and 2.35 for carnivores. Mean mercury concentrations in target tissue (kidney) were 1.16±1.16 ?g g(-1) for the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), a granivore, and 38.8±24.6 ?g g(-1) for the shorttail shrew (Blarina brevicauda), an insectivore. Transfer coefficients for diet to kidney were 0.75 and 4.40 for P. leucopus and B. brevicauda, respectively. A comparison of kidney mercury residues measured in this study with values from controlled laboratory feeding studies from the literature indicate that B. brevicauda but not P. leucopus may be ingesting mercury at levels that are nephrotoxic. PMID:24201735

  9. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD): The mass spectrometric breakthrough essential for O-GlcNAc protein site assignments – A study of the O-GlcNAcylated protein Host Cell Factor C1

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Samuel A.; Daou, Salima; Affar, El Bachir; Burlingame, AL

    2014-01-01

    The development of electron-based, unimolecular dissociation mass spectrometric methods, i.e. electron capture and electron transfer dissociation (ECD and ETD, respectively), has greatly increased the speed and reliability of labile post-translational modification (PTM) site assignment. The field of intracellular O-GlcNAc (O-linked N-acetylglucosamine) signaling has especially advanced with the advent of ETD mass spectrometry. Only within the last five years have proteomic-scale experiments utilizing ETD allowed the assignment of hundreds of O-GlcNAc sites within cells and subcellular structures. Our ability to identify and unambiguously assign the site of O-GlcNAc modifications using ETD is rapidly increasing our understanding of this regulatory glycosylation and its potential interaction with other PTMs. Here, we discuss the advantages of using ETD, complimented with collisional-activation mass spectrometry (CID/CAD), in a study of O-GlcNAc modified peptides of the extensively O-GlcNAcylated protein Host Cell Factor C1 (HCF-1). HCF-1 is a transcriptional co-regulator, forms a stable complex with O-GlcNAc transferase and is involved in control of cell cycle progression. ETD, along with higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) mass spectrometry, was employed to assign the PTMs of the HCF-1 protein isolated from HEK293T cells. These include nineteen sites of O-GlcNAcylation, two sites of phosphorylation and two sites bearing dimethylarginine, and showcase the residue-specific, PTM complexity of this regulator of cell proliferation. PMID:23335398

  10. Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, Kimberly R.

    1995-01-01

    The development and application of new technologies in the United States has always been important to the economic well being of the country. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been an important source of these new technologies for almost four decades. Recently, increasing global competition has emphasized the importance of fully utilizing federally funded technologies. Today NASA must meet its mission goals while at the same time, conduct research and development that contributes to securing US economic growth. NASA technologies must be quickly and effectively transferred into commercial products. In order to accomplish this task, NASA has formulated a new way of doing business with the private sector. Emphasis is placed on forming mutually beneficial partnerships between NASA and US industry. New standards have been set in response to the process that increase effectiveness, efficiency, and timely customer response. This summer I have identified potential markets for two NASA inventions: including the Radially Focused Eddy Current Sensor for Characterization of Flaws in Metallic Tubing and the Radiographic Moire. I have also worked to establish a cooperative program with TAG, private industry, and a university known as the TAG/Industry/Academia Program.

  11. Trends in Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starnick, Jurgen

    1988-01-01

    Various forms of technology transfer in Europe and North America are discussed including research contracts, cooperative research centers, and personnel transfer. Examples of approaches to technology transfer are given and the establishment of personnel transfer is discussed. Preconditions for successful technology transfer in the future are…

  12. Bioheat Transfer Valvano, page 1 Bioheat Transfer

    E-print Network

    phenomenological mechanisms including conduction, convection, radiation, metabolism, evaporation, and phase change a technically challenging task. First, tissue heat transfer includes conduction, convection, radiation properties that are the combination of conductive and convective heat transfer. Thermal properties

  13. Transfer of Training: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian D. Blume; J. Kevin Ford; Timothy T. Baldwin; Jason L. Huang

    2010-01-01

    Although transfer of learning was among the very first issues addressed by early psychologists, the extant literature remains characterized by inconsistent measurement of transfer and significant variability in findings. This article presents a meta-analysis of 89 empirical studies that explore the impact of predictive factors (e.g., trainee characteristics, work environment, training interventions) on the transfer of training to different tasks

  14. Investigation on Convective Heat Transfer and Flow Features of Nanofluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yimin Xuan; Qiang Li

    2003-01-01

    With progresses of thermoscience and thermal engineering, many efforts have been devoted to heat transfer enhancement. Among them, application of additives to liquids is often involved. Since the flow media themselves may be the controlling factor of limiting heat transfer performance, solid additives are suspended in the base liquids in order to change transport properties, flow and heat transfer features

  15. Risk-based analytical method transfer: application to large multi-product transfers.

    PubMed

    Raska, Christina S; Bennett, Tony S; Goodberlet, Scott A

    2010-07-15

    As pharmaceutical companies adapt their business models, a new approach to analytical method transfer is needed to efficiently handle transfers of multiple products, associated with situations such as site consolidations/closures. Using the principles of risk management, a risk-based method transfer approach is described, which defines appropriate transfer activities based on a risk assessment of the methods and experience of the receiving unit. A key step in the process is detailed knowledge transfer from the transferring unit to the receiving unit. The amount of transfer testing required can be streamlined or eliminated on the basis of a number of factors, including method capability, receiving unit familiarity, and method past performance. PMID:20557030

  16. VCCS Transfer Project: Transfer Rates, Transfer Performance, and Baccalaureate Completion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHewitt, Earl R.; Taylor, Garry

    This document analyzes a study done by the Center for the Study of Community Colleges (CSCC), which examined transfer rates in the VCCS. The document provides definitions for transfer rate, academic performance, and completion rate as they are used in the study. The study answers the following questions: (1) which pool of students were used in the…

  17. Maternal immune transfer in mollusc.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Yue, Feng; Song, Xiaorui; Song, Linsheng

    2015-02-01

    Maternal immunity refers to the immunity transferred from mother to offspring via egg, playing an important role in protecting the offspring at early life stages and contributing a trans-generational effect on offspring's phenotype. Because fertilization is external in most of the molluscs, oocytes and early embryos are directly exposed to pathogens in the seawater, and thus maternal immunity could provide a better protection before full maturation of their immunological systems. Several innate immune factors including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like lectins, and immune effectors like lysozyme, lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bacterial permeability-increasing proteins (LBP/BPI) and antioxidant enzymes have been identified as maternally derived immune factors in mollusc eggs. Among these immune factors, some maternally derived lectins and antibacterial factors have been proved to endue mollusc eggs with effective defense ability against pathogen infection, while the roles of other factors still remain untested. The physiological condition of mollusc broodstock has a profound effect on their offspring fitness. Many other factors such as nutrients, pathogens, environment conditions and pollutants could exert considerable influence on the maternal transfer of immunity. The parent molluscs which have encountered an immune stimulation endow their offspring with a trans-generational immune capability to protect them against infections effectively. The knowledge on maternal transfer of immunity and the trans-generational immune effect could provide us with an ideal management strategy of mollusc broodstock to improve the immunity of offspring and to establish a disease-resistant family for a long-term improvement of cultured stocks. PMID:24858027

  18. Wireless Power Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-07-22

    Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consump

  19. Wireless Power Transfer

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-11-19

    Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consump

  20. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    SciTech Connect

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José, E-mail: jsdehesa@upv.es

    2014-06-15

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  1. Heat transfer -- Portland 1995

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M.S. [ed.] [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This Volume contains a total of forty seven papers, plus two abstracts, divided among eleven technical sessions on the following topics: Multiphase flow in waste management and environmental restoration, Parts 1 and 2; forced convection interphase transfer with particles; thermal-hydraulics in nuclear reactor systems, heat transfer phenomena in non-commercial reactors; heat transfer in containment; erosion, corrosion, and process heat transfer in power plant systems; innovative applications of solar energy; heat transfer aspects of space power and propulsion; fundamentals of heat pipes in space applications; and heat transfer and energy conversion in dual use power systems. Papers have been abstracted separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Transfer Assembly Project, 2001: VCCS Transfer Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHewitt, Earl R.; Taylor, Garry

    This document discusses the transfer rates of students who entered Virginia's community colleges in the fall of 1995, using the methodology developed by the Center for the Study of Community Colleges. Numerous tables in the document include individual college rates with breakdowns by race/ethnicity and gender. College-specific transfer rates are…

  3. Volume conduction energy transfer for implantable devices

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Fang, Wenzhu; Zhan, Shanshan; Zhou, Yuxuan; Gao, Qing; Gao, Xingya

    2013-01-01

    A common model of power supply for implantable devices was established to study factors affecting volume conduction energy transfer. Electromagnetic and equivalent circuit models were constructed to study the effect of separation between the source electrode pairs on volume conduction energy transfer. In addition, the parameters of external signal including waveform, amplitude and frequency were analyzed. As the current amplitude did not lead to tissue injury and the current frequency did not cause nerve excitability, the recommended separation between the source electrodes was 3 cm, the proposed waveform of signal source was sinusoidal wave and the optimal frequency was 200 KHz. In agar experiment and swine skin experiment, the current transfer efficiencies were 28.13% and 20.65%, respectively, and the energy transfer efficiencies were 9.86% and 6.90%, respectively. In conclusion, we can achieve optimal efficiency of energy transfer by appropriately setting the separation between the source electrode parameters of the signal source. PMID:24285949

  4. Phonon-induced dynamic resonance energy transfer

    E-print Network

    James Lim; Mark Tame; Ki Hyuk Yee; Joong-Sung Lee; Jinhyoung Lee

    2014-05-08

    In a network of interacting quantum systems achieving fast coherent energy transfer is a challenging task. While quantum systems are susceptible to a wide range of environmental factors, in many physical settings their interactions with quantized vibrations, or phonons, of a supporting structure are the most prevalent. This leads to noise and decoherence in the network, ultimately impacting the energy-transfer process. In this work, we introduce a novel type of coherent energy-transfer mechanism for quantum systems, where phonon interactions are able to actually enhance the energy transfer. Here, a shared phonon interacts with the systems and dynamically adjusts their resonances, providing remarkable directionality combined with quantum speed- up. We call this mechanism phonon-induced dynamic resonance energy transfer and show that it enables long-range coherent energy transport even in highly disordered systems.

  5. HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    E-print Network

    Lenert, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based ...

  6. Bus network planning for transfers and the network effect in Melbourne, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham Currie; Chris Loader

    2010-01-01

    Although passengers dislike transferring, efficient transit systems should facilitate transfers to provide auto-competitive citywide access. This paper reviews bus transfer behavior in Melbourne, Australia, to understand causal factors. It also explores network effects: high ridership associated with frequent services or simple (grid) networks or both. Half of bus users make transfers, mostly to rail. The number of tram and bus

  7. Methods of Heat Transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Carlone

    2006-11-12

    To help students better understand conduction, convection, and radiation as methods of heat transfer in solids, liquids and gases. Let's look at all three methods of heat transfer ... Overview of Conduction, Convection, Radiation Conduction- 1. Explain what happens as heat energy is supplied to one part of a solid. 2. Explain how energy is transferred by conduction through a solid. Convection- 1. What is ?anything fluid? ? Include two examples. 2. Describe how and why heat is transferred in ...

  8. Ligand(s)-to-metal charge transfer as a factor controlling the equilibrium constants of late first-row transition metal complexes: revealing the Irving-Williams thermodynamical series.

    PubMed

    Varadwaj, Pradeep R; Varadwaj, Arpita; Jin, Bih-Yaw

    2015-01-14

    A unified relationship between the experimental formation constants and the ligand(s)-to-metal charge transfer values of versatile ligand complexes of late transition series first-row bivalent metal ions is uncovered. The latter property not only explicates the Irving-Williams series but also rationalizes quantitatively Pearson's concept of hard and soft acids and bases by correlating the gas-phase to aqueous solution-phase chemistry in a broad sense. PMID:25414118

  9. Journal of Enhanced Heat Transfer, 19 (5): 457476 (2012) EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HEAT

    E-print Network

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    Journal of Enhanced Heat Transfer, 19 (5): 457­476 (2012) EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HEAT microfin tubes, most of the heat transfer and friction factor studies were focused on the turbulent region. However, there is a lack of information about the heat transfer and friction factor behavior of microfin

  10. Heat Transfer Guest Editorial

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Journal of Heat Transfer Guest Editorial We are indeed delighted in bringing out this special issue was showcased in diverse areas such as traditional heat and mass transfer, lab-on-chip, sensors, biomedical applica- tions, micromixers, fuel cells, and microdevices. Selected papers in the field of heat transfer

  11. Operationalizing the Transfer Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Philip

    In statistical terms, transfer rates require two components: a numerator that represents community college students who transfer and a denominator that approximates the pool of potential transfer students. The California Task Force adopted a set of criteria to judge the appropriateness of prospective pairs of numerators and denominators. Its form…

  12. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  13. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  14. Technology Transfer Center | Technology Transfer Education

    Cancer.gov

    SKIP ALL NAVIGATION SKIP TO SUB MENU Search Site Standard Forms & Agreements Co-Development & Resources Careers & Training Intellectual Property & Inventions About TTC Overview NCI TTC Fellowship Program NIH Technology Transfer Training Programs NIH

  15. Fat transfer techniques: general concepts.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Edward D

    2015-02-01

    Facial volume loss has become widely accepted as one of the contributing factors in global facial aging. Some have even suggested that bony, muscular, fatty, and dermal/epidermal changes are more integral in the aging process than gravitational influence. Although detractors of autologous fat transfer persist, facial autologous fat transfer has become widely utilized as one option for volume restoration. Various techniques in harvesting, processing, and injecting autologous fat have been debated at length without clear guidelines emerging to maximize outcomes. This article aims to present one surgeon's experience in successful fat grafting philosophy and technique. Areas covered will include preparation, harvesting, processing, and injection techniques. The injection techniques are organized by facial region and into the general philosophy and thinking regarding the facial region as well as the specific technique that has been utilized over 7 years and hundreds of successful procedures. PMID:25763893

  16. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  17. Analysis of insertion mutants in the Escherichia coli fertility factor F transfer genes: traY, traQ, trbA, trbB and artA

    E-print Network

    Kathir, Pushpa Rani

    1989-01-01

    strains in transfer analysis. Strain C600 served as the host strain for the preparation of lambda phage lysates. These strains and their genotypes are described in Table l. Vectors used in plasmid constructions were pACYC177 (Chang and Cohen 1978... was used to identify plasmid DNA (the lowest band). This was removed with a syringe and after ethidium bromide was extracted with isoamyl alcohol the DNA was dialyzed against Tris EDTA buffer at 4 C. Restriction Digestion Analysis Plasmid DNA of F...

  18. POTENTIAL FOR TRANSFER AND ESTABLISHMENT OF ENGINEERED GENETIC SEQUENCES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The transfer of recombinant DNA molecules from the introduced organism to natural populations of bacteria may be an important factor in assessing the outcomes of planned release of genetically engineered organisms into the environment. As genetic transfer is further investigated,...

  19. Factor Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this online activity, the learner finds the prime factorization of composite numbers by building factor trees. A second level includes finding the greatest common factor and the least common multiple by sorting factors using a Venn Diagram.

  20. Factor Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Math Playground

    2009-07-29

    This virtual manipulative allows students to find the prime factorization of numbers by completing factor trees. Then they may use a venn diagram to sort the prime factors to find the greatest common factor and the least common multiple.

  1. Transferring learning from faculty development to the classroom.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kim Z

    2014-12-01

    This study’s purpose was to better understand the transfer of learning by uncovering how various factors supported the integration of health information technology knowledge and skills gleaned from the Health Resources and Services Administration–funded faculty development programs into nursing education curricula. Through interviews with 20 participants from four programs, this study confirmed the importance of findings related to faculty, program, and work environment characteristics for supporting successful transfer of learning and substantiates a variety of other transfer-of-learning research. New or seldom discussed supportive individual characteristics were found, including leadership abilities, lifelong learning, ability to recognize limitations, persistence, creativity, and risk taking. The importance of networking, diversity of perspectives, postconference support, and teams in program designs were found to positively influence transfer. The variety of supportive factors and barriers in the participants’ work environments strengthens the assertions that transfer may be context dependent. Findings provided insight for recommendations to improve learning transfer. PMID:25494191

  2. Heat transfer enhancement in metal hydride systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, M. J., Jr.; Strickland, G.

    An attempt has been made to enhance the heat transfer of hydrogen storage metal hydride systems by the addition of small fraction of high conductivity materials in various configurations. Results indicate that the form of the enhancement material rather than its composition is the more critical factor. The addition of over 6% aluminum foam enhances the effective thermal conductivity of a hydride bed by a factor of 2.6.

  3. [Nuclear transfer and reprogramming in fish].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Geng; Zhu, Zuo-Yan; Sun, Yong-Hua; Zhao, Jue

    2013-04-01

    As an important sub-field in the study of animal cloning, fish nuclear transfer was first established in the early 1960s by Chinese embryologists. Due to its advantages, zebrafish has become a unique animal model to study the mystery of reprogramming in nuclear transfer. This article summarizes the history and current situation in fish nuclear transfer technology and discusses the factors that may influence the development of the cloned embryos. A comprehensive understand-ing of the mechanism for epigenetic modification following nuclear transfer, such as genomic DNA methylation and histone acetylation and/or methylation, will likely increase the success rate and eventually lead to the future freedom of cloning technique. PMID:23659933

  4. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-03-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool. 6 figures.

  5. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA); Barbanti, Giancarlo (Cupertino, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  6. Enhancement of heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, W.

    Recent publications on enhancement of heat transfer are reviewed, emphasizing the effects of roughness elements, fins, and porous surfaces. Enhancement of forced convective heat transfer on roughened surfaces, performance evaluation of enhanced surfaces, viscous flows in cooled tubes and tubes with swirlers, and active methods of enhancement are addressed. Aspects of pool boiling heat transfer are considered, including nucleate boiling heat transfer on rough surfaces and porous surfaces, and maximum and minimum heat fluxes. Evaporative heat transfer is discussed for thin-film evaporation on structured surfaces and liquid spray cooling of a heated surface. Condensation heat transfer on external surfaces is covered, including filmwise condensation on vertical finned and fluted surfaces and on horizontal tubes. In-tube boiling and condensation are treated, discussing their enhancement by fins and inserts, as well as critical heat flux in coiled, rifled, and corrugated tubes.

  7. Heat transfer dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.M. (Marsden, Inc., Pennsauken, NJ (United States))

    1994-08-01

    As heat transfer technology increases in complexity, it becomes more difficult for those without thermal dynamics engineering training to choose between competitive heat transfer systems offered to meet their drying requirements. A step back to the basics of heat transfer can help professional managers and papermakers make informed decisions on alternative equipment and methods. The primary forms of heat and mass transfer are reviewed with emphasis on the basics, so a practical understanding of each is gained. Finally, the principles and benefits of generating infrared energy by combusting a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel are explained.

  8. Containment condensing heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gido, R. G.; Koestel, A.

    A mechanistic heat transfer model that is valid for large scale containment heat sinks was presented. The model development is based on the determination that the condensation is controlled by mass diffusion through the vapor-air boundary layer, and the application of the classic Reynolds' analog to formulate expressions for the transfer of heat and mass based on hydrodynamic measurements of the momentum transfer. As a result, the analysis depends on the quantification of the shear stress (momentum transfer) at the interface between the condensate film and the vapor-air boundary layer. In addition, the currently used Tagami and Uchida test observations and their range of applicability are explained.

  9. Information transfer in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1988-01-01

    An informal overview is given of the work in progress and the planned work in the area of information transfer that specifically addresses human factors issues in National Airspace System (NAS). The issues of how weather information will be displayed on the flight deck, the development of appropriate decision making technology, and digital datalink transmission are also briefly discussed.

  10. Maximizing profits in international technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straube, W.

    1974-01-01

    Maximum profit can be introduced into international technology transfer by observing the following: (1) ethical and open dealing between the parties; (2) maximum knowledge of all facts concerning the technology, the use of the technology, the market, competition, prices, and alternatives; (3) ability to coordinate exports, service, support activities, licensing and cross licensing; and (4) knowledgeable people which put these factors together.

  11. Factoring with the Factor Tree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Interactive Math Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny

    2011-01-01

    This Java applet presents a composite number, and prompts you to factor it -- one step at a time. Enter one factor, prime or another composite; the applet calculates the remaining factor, and branches two boxes below any composite factor so that you may proceed factoring until you obtain the full factorization into primes, which the applet colors in green. Click the "Repeat problem" button to see that different factor trees for a given number still result in the same prime factorization.

  12. Maternal transfer of antibodies: raising immuno-ecology issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Boulinier; Vincent Staszewski

    2008-01-01

    The transfer of antibodies from mother to offspring has broad potential implications in evolutionary ecology, from the adaptive value of maternal effects to the role of transgenerational plasticity in host-parasite inter- actions. Recent contributions have addressed key issues such as environmental and genetic factors affecting the amount of antibodies transferred and whether maternal antibodies affect offspring immunity, but little is

  13. Heat transfer enhancement of copper nanofluid with acoustic cavitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Zhou

    2004-01-01

    Heat transfer characteristics of copper nanofluids with and without acoustic cavitation were investigated experimentally. The effects of such factors as acoustical parameters, nanofluid concentration and fluid subcooling on heat transfer enhancement around a heated horizontal copper tube were discussed in detail. The results indicated that the copper nanoparticles and acoustic cavitation had profound and significant influence on heat transport in

  14. Learning Transfer: The Views of Practitioners in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Paul; Darcy, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable expenditure on human resource development (HRD) has not necessarily resulted in a significant impact on organizational performance, and research suggests that the failure to transfer learning may be an important explanation. The search for factors affecting transfer has been extensive, as shown in Grossman and Salas's article in this…

  15. A conceptual framework for transferring research to practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Dwayne Simpson

    2002-01-01

    Systematic evaluations of efforts to transfer research-based interventions and procedures into general practice at community drug treatment programs have been limited. However, practical experiences as well as results from studies of technology transfer and organizational behavior in related fields provide a basis for proposing a heuristic model of key factors that influence this process. The successful completion of four stages

  16. Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Learning Transfer System Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Bookter, Annette I.; Yamkovenko, V. Bogdan

    2007-01-01

    The Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) was developed to identify a select set of factors with the potential to substantially enhance or inhibit transfer of learning to the work environment. It has undergone a variety of validation studies, including construct, criterion, and crosscultural studies. However, the convergent and divergent…

  17. INFLUENCE OF NONUNIFORM TWISTED TAPE ON HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT CHARACTERISTICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smith Eiamsa-ard; Khwanchit Wongcharee; Pongjet Promvonge

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in a circular tube fitted by twisted tapes with nonuniform twist ratios is reported. The twisted tapes are used as swirl generators playing roles as heat transfer enhancers. The nonuniform twisted tapes examined in the present work have (1) sequentially increasing twist ratios (SL), (2) sequentially decreasing twist ratios (LS),

  18. Transfer Edge summer.berkeley.edu/transfer

    E-print Network

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    you have submited your SIR (Statement of Intent to Register) through my Berkeley App at: students, get used to the campus environment, and discover all the quirks that make Berkeley what it is." ­ 2012 more flexibility when making your fall and spring semester schedules.* Transfer Edge courses take place

  19. Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Intermediaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Stephen M.; Flagg, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    A standard and comprehensive model is needed to evaluate and compare technology transfer systems and the stakeholders within these systems. The principle systems considered include federal laboratories, U.S. universities, the rehabilitation engineering research centers (RERCs), and large small business innovation research programs. An earlier…

  20. Transfer involving deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

    1985-03-01

    Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Automatic microbial transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Device can transfer metabolites or inhibitory agents to broth cultures of bacteria, in various stages of growth, for study. It also has application in transfer of other micro-organisms, such as yeasts, and could be useful in clinical and research laboratories. Device has been used for wide variety of purposes in experimental situations.

  2. Transfer Study Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    Longitudinal data are presented relating to Bakersfield College (BC) students who transferred to public four-year colleges and universities. Highlighted findings include the following: (1) first-time transfers from BC to the California State University and College (CSUC) system increased by 19.4% from fall 1987 to fall 1988, the highest since the…

  3. Transferring Education for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Umer Farooque, T. K.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability stands for sustaining the past, meeting needs of the present without compromising the ability to meet future needs. It should meet the individual and social needs, present and future needs local and global needs. A sustainable education that meets this requirements surely be a transferable education; an education that transfers from…

  4. RFID Tag Ownership Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boyeon Song

    In some applications, the bearer of a radio frequency identi- fication (RFID) tag might change, with corresponding changes required in the RFID system infrastructure. We survey the security requirements for RFID tag ownership transfer, and propose novel authentication pro- tocols for tag ownership and authorisation transfer. The proposed proto- cols satisfy most of the requirements that we present, and have

  5. Mass transfer andMass transfer and Mass transfer andMass transfer and

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    strömningsteknik Biskopsgatan 8, 20500 Åbo 4/20 reaction kinetics #12;eknikarationste 24302 ochSepa 8.28.2 First chemistrychemistry Slow chemistry with negligible reaction in-rA = k ti ·cA Slow chemistry with negligible reaction transfer8. Mass transfer with chemical reactionwith chemical reaction Massöve with chemical reactionwith

  6. Reverse Transfer Student Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slark, Julie

    After a preliminary study revealed that 21% of all credit students at Santa Ana College (SAC) had previously attended a four-year institution, a further study was conducted to determine the educational interests and matriculation patterns of these reverse transfer students. A sample of 360 reverse transfer students was selected for interviews,…

  7. Sandro Rusconi Gene transfer

    E-print Network

    Málaga, Universidad de

    Research Program 37 'Somatic Gene Therapy' 2001-today Swiss Natl. Res. Program 50 'Endocrine disruptors, comparison with other doping, detection Techniques of gene transfer (Gene Therapy) problems and solutions getting oldcomp2.mov movie clip deleted Now, let's talk about Somatic Gene Therapy (somatic gene transfer

  8. Sandro Rusconi Gene transfer

    E-print Network

    Málaga, Universidad de

    Program 37 'Somatic Gene Therapy' 2001-today Swiss Natl. Res. Program 50 'Endocrine disruptors' 2002 with other doping, detection Techniques of gene transfer (Gene Therapy) problems and solutions, vectors Somatic Gene Therapy (somatic gene transfer) UNIFR Rusconi 2003 Definition of GT: 'Use genes as drugs

  9. National Technology Transfer Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Lee W.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC) are provided. The NTTC mission is to serve as a hub for the nationwide technology-transfer network to expedite the movement of federally developed technology into the stream of commerce. A description of the Center is provided.

  10. Biologic bypass with the use of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of the complementary deoxyribonucleic acid for vascular endothelial growth factor 121 improves myocardial perfusion and function in the ischemic porcine heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Mack; Shailen R. Patel; Eric A. Schwarz; Pat Zanzonico; Rebecca T. Hahn; Arzu Ilercil; Richard B. Devereux; Stanley J. Goldsmith; Timothy F. Christian; Timothy A. Sanborn; Imre Kovesdi; Neil Hackett; O. Wayne Isom; Ronald G. Crystal; Todd K. Rosengart

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic mediator, can be delivered to targeted tissues by means of a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) vector. We hypothesized that direct administration of Ad vector expressing the VEGF121 complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (AdGVVEGF121.10) into regions of ischemic myocardium would enhance collateral vessel formation and improve regional perfusion and function. Methods: Yorkshire swine underwent thoracotomy

  11. Parton distributions, form factors and Compton scattering

    E-print Network

    Peter Kroll

    1999-10-11

    The soft physics approach to form factors and Compton scattering at moderately large momentum transfer is reviewed. It will be argued that in that approach the Compton cross section is given by the Klein-Nishina cross section multiplied by a factor describing the structure of the proton in terms of two new form factors. These form factors as well as the ordinary electromagnetic form factors represent moments of skewed parton distributions.

  12. Irreversible heavy chain transfer to chondroitin.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Mark E; Hascall, Vincent C; Green, Dixy E; DeAngelis, Paul L; Calabro, Anthony

    2014-10-17

    We have recently demonstrated that the transfer of heavy chains (HCs) from inter-?-inhibitor, via the enzyme TSG-6 (tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6), to hyaluronan (HA) oligosaccharides is an irreversible event in which subsequent swapping of HCs between HA molecules does not occur. We now describe our results of HC transfer experiments to chondroitin sulfate A, chemically desulfated chondroitin, chemoenzymatically synthesized chondroitin, unsulfated heparosan, heparan sulfate, and alginate. Of these potential HC acceptors, only chemically desulfated chondroitin and chemoenzymatically synthesized chondroitin were HC acceptors. The kinetics of HC transfer to chondroitin was similar to HA. At earlier time points, HCs were more widely distributed among the different sizes of chondroitin chains. As time progressed, the HCs migrated to lower molecular weight chains of chondroitin. Our interpretation is that TSG-6 swaps the HCs from the larger, reversible sites on chondroitin chains, which function as HC acceptors, onto smaller chondroitin chains, which function as irreversible HC acceptors. HCs transferred to smaller chondroitin chains were unable to be swapped off the smaller chondroitin chains and transferred to HA. HCs transferred to high molecular weight HA were unable to be swapped onto chondroitin. We also present data that although chondroitin was a HC acceptor, HA was the preferred acceptor when chondroitin and HA were in the same reaction mixture. PMID:25135638

  13. Heat transfer coefficients for drying in pulsating flows

    SciTech Connect

    Fraenkel, S.L. [DEM/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [DEM/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nogueira, L.A.H. [IEM/EFEI, Itajuba, Minas Gerais (Brazil)] [IEM/EFEI, Itajuba, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Carvalho, J.A. Jr.; Costa, F.S. [LCP/INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [LCP/INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1998-05-01

    Pulsating flows generated by a Rijke type combustor are studied for drying of grains and food particles. It is assumed that the velocity fluctuations are the main factor in the enhancement of the drying process. The heat transfer coefficients for drying in vibrating beds are utilized to estimate the heat transfer coefficients of fixed beds in pulsating and permeating flows and are compared to the steady flow heat transfer coefficients obtained for solid porous bodies, after perturbing the main flow. The cases considered are compared to the convective heat transfer coefficients employed in non-pulsating drying.

  14. A path analysis of relationships among job stress, job satisfaction, motivation to transfer, and transfer of learning: perceptions of occupational safety and health administration outreach trainers

    E-print Network

    Nair, Prakash Krishnan

    2009-05-15

    Many researchers have examined the effect of various work-related factors on transfer of learning. However, there has been little or no focus on the effect of key workplace factors such as job stress and job satisfaction on transfer of learning...

  15. Förster energy transfer induced random lasing at unconventional excitation wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadak Alee, K.; Barik, Sabyasachi; Mujumdar, Sushil

    2013-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate efficient lasing from a Rhodamine-nanoscatterer random laser when pumped with unconventional wavelengths, at which the absorption of Rhodamine is negligible. Förster-type energy transfer was realized by using Coumarin molecules as donors. Explicit time-resolved spectroscopy provided direct evidence for the nonradiative transfer with ˜48% efficiency. We obtained lasing at reduced thresholds by a factor of over 3 and increased amplification rates by a factor of ˜4 in the Förster regime, even in samples with sub-diffusive disorder strength. We characterize the efficacy of the Förster transfer induced lasing over a range of unconventional wavelengths for the Rh-based system.

  16. Cryogenic Transfer Line Chilldown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Siegwarth, James D.

    2003-01-01

    The transient behavior of a small scale cryogenic transfer line was investigated during chilldown to cryogenic temperatures. The vacuum-jacketed apparatus consisted of a vertical tube followed by a near horizontal tube. The apparatus was equipped with view ports in the near horizontal section to allow visual observation of the flow patterns. Wall temperatures were measured at various locations along the length of the transfer line. Each test was conducted at a constant liquid volumetric flowrate at the transfer line inlet until saturation temperatures were obtained throughout the system.

  17. Heat transfer in pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbach, T.

    1985-01-01

    The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

  18. Ames Lab 101: Technology Transfer

    ScienceCinema

    Covey, Debra

    2012-08-29

    Ames Laboratory Associate Laboratory Director, Sponsored Research Administration, Debra Covey discusses technology transfer. Covey also discusses Ames Laboratory's most successful transfer, lead-free solder.

  19. Smoothness- transferred random field

    E-print Network

    Wei, Donglai

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new random field (RF) model, smoothness-transfer random field (ST-RF) model, for image modeling. In the objective function of RF models, smoothness energy is defined with compatibility function to capture the ...

  20. Investment casting heat transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Powell, Adam C., IV

    2004-12-15

    Calculate temperature profile and Biot number in mixed conduction and convection/radiation heat transfer from liquid metal through a ceramic mold to the environment, and suggest a design change to reduce the probability of shattering due to thermal stress.

  1. Technology transfer for adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  2. FLT Transfer Agreement

    Cancer.gov

    Provider: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Provider agrees to transfer to Recipient the following Production Documents (click here) for the production of 3'-deoxy-3'- [F-18] fluorothymidine ([F-18] FLT). (A) Generic Chemistry, Manufacturing and Control

  3. Enantioselective Organocatalytic Transfer Hydrogenation

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, David W. C.

    Enantioselective Organocatalytic Transfer Hydrogenation Reactions using Hantzsch Esters STÃ?PHANE G catalysis reactions involving electron-deficient imines and olefin substrates. Enantioselective LUMO, including the invention of iminium activation, has led to the discovery of many new enantioselective

  4. DCIDE Material Transfer Agreement

    Cancer.gov

    MATERIAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Development of Clinical Imaging Drugs and Enhancers Program (DCIDE) has been designed to assist academic and business investigators to acquire the data necessary for them to file an Investigational

  5. Technology transfer methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labotz, Rich; Connell, Don; Kroll, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Information on technology transfer methodology is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on new systems development, the developer's perspective, barriers to providing a home for technology, and incentives for using new technologies.

  6. Transfer Log.xls

    Cancer.gov

    ANIMAL TRANSFER LOG Date of Move: ________________ Cage Type C = Auto Water NOTES: B = Water Bottle S = SMZ M = Microisolator ASP # PI GROUP NAME # CAGES [+] ROOM TO DOB COMMENTS STRAIN CODE NEW GROUP NAME NEW ROOM CAGE TYPE PEDIGREE # EAR

  7. Goals, Family, and Community: What Drives Tribal College Transfer Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makomenaw, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This article examines success factors for American Indian tribal college students who transfer to 4-year predominantly White institutions. The study examined the experiences of 8 tribal college transfer students to Midwest universities. Using an indigenous methodology, 3 themes were found to help American Indian tribal college transfer students…

  8. Training Transfer between CD-ROM Based Instruction and Traditional Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Gregory C.; Lim, Doo H.; Zulauf, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Many research studies on the effect of organizational factors on training transfer have been conducted, but few studies have considered the effect that different training delivery methods have on training transfer. This study sought to identify if there is any difference in the perceived transfer of training between traditional classroom…

  9. Risk Analysis of Athlete Transfer in Professional Sport: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Wang; Yaqin Yang

    2011-01-01

    Athlete-club conflict risk factors in professional sports are identified through literature review and Delphi method, allowing for the probability of risks. Through sensitivity analysis, the degree of impact of transfer risks, from high to low, are risk of benefit interests, risk of transfer institution, risk of misbehavior, risk of transfer fees, risk of property, risk of labor contract, risk between

  10. Theoretical analysis of convective heat transfer enhancement of microencapsulated phase change material slurries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinping Zhang; Xianxu Hu; Xin Wang

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the convective heat transfer enhancement mechanism of microencapsulated phase change material slurries based on the analogy between convective heat transfer and thermal conduction with thermal sources. The influence of each factor affecting the heat transfer enhancement for laminar flow in a circular tube with constant wall temperature is analyzed using an effective specific heat capacity model. The

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was developed to identify critical input parameters to assess dietary intake of young children. The model was used as a framework for understanding important factors in data collection and analysis. Factors incorporated included transfer efficiencies of pest...

  12. The For-Profit Transfer Path: A Comparison of California Community College Transfer Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ommeren, Alice

    2011-01-01

    The results of this study determined that community college students who transfer to for-profit institutions are indeed different from students who follow traditional routes defined as public and non-profit institutions. This study compares the demographic characteristics, academic experiences, and socioeconomic factors of California community…

  13. Proceedings of Heat Transfer 2003: ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Proceedings of Heat Transfer 2003: ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference Las Vegas, Nevada, USA July 21-23, 2003 HT2003-47449 HEAT TRANSFER FROM A MOVING AND EVAPORATING MENISCUS ON A HEATED SURFACE meniscus with complete evaporation of water without any meniscus break-up. The experimental heat transfer

  14. Resources, framing, and transfer p. 1 Resources, framing, and transfer

    E-print Network

    Hammer, David

    Resources, framing, and transfer p. 1 Resources, framing, and transfer David Hammer Departments. #12;Resources, framing, and transfer p. 2 Resources, framing, and transfer David Hammer, Andrew Elby of activating resources, a language with an explicitly manifold view of cognitive structure. In this chapter, we

  15. Model wall and recovery temperature effects on experimental heat transfer data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throckmorton, D. A.; Stone, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    Basic analytical procedures are used to illustrate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the relative impact upon heat transfer data analysis of certain factors which may affect the accuracy of experimental heat transfer data. Inaccurate knowledge of adiabatic wall conditions results in a corresponding inaccuracy in the measured heat transfer coefficient. The magnitude of the resulting error is extreme for data obtained at wall temperatures approaching the adiabatic condition. High model wall temperatures and wall temperature gradients affect the level and distribution of heat transfer to an experimental model. The significance of each of these factors is examined and its impact upon heat transfer data analysis is assessed.

  16. Ex vivo nerve growth factor gene transfer to the basal forebrain in presymptomatic middle-aged rats prevents the development of cholinergic neuron atrophy and cognitive impairment during?aging

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Serrano, Alberto; Björklund, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is able to restore spatial learning and reverse forebrain cholinergic neuron atrophy when administered intracerebrally to behaviorally impaired aged rats. In the present study, behaviorally unimpaired, middle-aged rats (14–16 months old) received transplants of ex vivo transduced, clonal NGF-secreting immortalized neural progenitor cells, bilaterally in the nucleus basalis and septum. During the subsequent 9 months the aged control animals developed the expected impairment in spatial learning in the water maze task, whereas the animals with NGF-secreting grafts maintained a performance level not different from the 12-month-old control rats. The marked age-induced atrophy (?25%) of the cholinergic neurons in medial septum and nucleus basalis, seen in the aged control rats, was not present in the NGF-treated aged animals. 3H-labeled thymidine autoradiography showed that the transduced cells survived well and had become integrated into the host tissue surrounding the injection sites, and reverse transcription–PCR analysis revealed expression of the NGF transgene, at both 4 and 9 months postgrafting, in the grafted tissue. The results show that long-term supply of NGF from ex vivo transduced immortalized neural progenitor cells locally within the nucleus basalis and septum can prevent the subsequent development of age-dependent neuronal atrophy and behavioral impairments when the animals reach advanced age. PMID:9465107

  17. Energy transfer in plasmonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustovit, Vitaliy N.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Shahbazyan, Tigran V.

    2014-11-01

    We present our results on energy transfer between donor and acceptor molecules or quantum dots near a plasmonic nanoparticle. In such systems, the Förster resonance energy transfer is strongly modified due to plasmon-mediated coupling between donors and acceptors. The transfer efficiency is determined by a competition between transfer, radiation and dissipation that depends sensitively on system parameters. When donor and accepror spectral bands overlap with dipole surface plasmon resonance, the dominant transfer mechanism is through plasmon-enhanced radiative coupling. When transfer takes place from an ensemble of donors to an acceptor, a cooperative amplification of energy transfer takes place in a wide range of system parameters.

  18. Direct transfer of graphene onto flexible substrates

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Luiz G. P.; Song, Yi; Zeng, Tingying; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Kong, Jing; Araujo, Paulo T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the direct transfer via lamination of chemical vapor deposition graphene onto different flexible substrates. The transfer method investigated here is fast, simple, and does not require an intermediate transfer membrane, such as polymethylmethacrylate, which needs to be removed afterward. Various substrates of general interest in research and industry were studied in this work, including polytetrafluoroethylene filter membranes, PVC, cellulose nitrate/cellulose acetate filter membranes, polycarbonate, paraffin, polyethylene terephthalate, paper, and cloth. By comparing the properties of these substrates, two critical factors to ensure a successful transfer on bare substrates were identified: the substrate’s hydrophobicity and good contact between the substrate and graphene. For substrates that do not satisfy those requirements, polymethylmethacrylate can be used as a surface modifier or glue to ensure successful transfer. Our results can be applied to facilitate current processes and open up directions for applications of chemical vapor deposition graphene on flexible substrates. A broad range of applications can be envisioned, including fabrication of graphene devices for opto/organic electronics, graphene membranes for gas/liquid separation, and ubiquitous electronics with graphene. PMID:24127582

  19. Senescent cells communicate via intercellular protein transfer.

    PubMed

    Biran, Anat; Perelmutter, Meirav; Gal, Hilah; Burton, Dominick G A; Ovadya, Yossi; Vadai, Ezra; Geiger, Tamar; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2015-04-15

    Mammalian cells mostly rely on extracellular molecules to transfer signals to other cells. However, in stress conditions, more robust mechanisms might be necessary to facilitate cell-cell communications. Cellular senescence, a stress response associated with permanent exit from the cell cycle and the development of an immunogenic phenotype, limits both tumorigenesis and tissue damage. Paradoxically, the long-term presence of senescent cells can promote tissue damage and aging within their microenvironment. Soluble factors secreted from senescent cells mediate some of these cell-nonautonomous effects. However, it is unknown whether senescent cells impact neighboring cells by other mechanisms. Here we show that senescent cells directly transfer proteins to neighboring cells and that this process facilitates immune surveillance of senescent cells by natural killer (NK) cells. We found that transfer of proteins to NK and T cells is increased in the murine preneoplastic pancreas, a site where senescent cells are present in vivo. Proteomic analysis and functional studies of the transferred proteins revealed that the transfer is strictly dependent on cell-cell contact and CDC42-regulated actin polymerization and is mediated at least partially by cytoplasmic bridges. These findings reveal a novel mode of intercellular communication by which senescent cells regulate their immune surveillance and might impact tumorigenesis and tissue aging. PMID:25854920

  20. The role of the University Licensing Office in transferring intellectual property to industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Universities in the US have a significant impact on business through the transfer of technology. This transfer of technology takes various forms, including faculty communications, faculty consulting activities, and the direct transfer of technology through the licensing of patents, copyrights, and other intellectual property to industry. The topics discussed include the following: background of the MIT Technology Licensing Office (TLO), goals of the MIT TLO, MIT's technology transfer philosophy, and important factors for success in new company formation.

  1. Material Balance Assessment for Double-Shell Tank Waste Pipeline Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.; Hartley, Stacey A.; Enderlin, Carl W.

    2001-03-12

    PNNL developed a material balance assessment methodology based on conservation of mass for detecting leaks and mis-routings in pipeline transfer of double-shell tank waste at Hanford. The main factors causing uncertainty in these transfers are variable property and tank conditions of density, existence of crust, and surface disturbance due to mixer pump operation during the waste transfer. The methodology was applied to three waste transfers from Tanks AN-105 and AZ-102.

  2. Medical technologies in developing countries: Issues of technology development, transfer, diffusion and use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Bonair; Patricia Rosenfield; Karin Tengvald

    1989-01-01

    The difficulties experienced in transfer of medical technology to developing countries are aggravated by partial and incomplete understanding of the cultural, social, economic, and institutional factors affecting technology development, transfer, dissemination and use. In this paper, it is argued that a more dynamic and comprehensive approach is needed for the analysis of these factors. Such an approach would provide the

  3. Geometrical light transfer in optical waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin-Ding; Liu, Wen-Jie; Yang, Guang-Fei

    2015-03-01

    We propose to simulate the four-level stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a four-waveguide array. We find that an Abelian geometric phase factor emerges in this adiabatic passage, and the transfer of light between the waveguides can solely depend on the geometric phase. The robustness of geometric phase may bring additional benefits for high-precision light manipulation in some all-optical devices.

  4. Tech transfer outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Liebetrau, S. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This document provides an informal summary of the conference workshop sessions. Tech Transfer Outreach '' was originally designed as an opportunity for national laboratory communications and technology transfer staff to become better acquainted and to discuss matters of mutual interest. When DOE field office personnel asked if they could attend, and then when one of our keynote speakers became a participant in the discussions, the actual event grew in importance. The conference participants--the laboratories and DOE representatives from across the nation--worked to brainstorm ideas. Their objective: identify ways to cooperate for effective (and cost-effective) technology transfer outreach. Thus, this proceedings is truly a product of ten national laboratories and DOE, working together. It candidly presents the discussion of issues and the ideas generated by each working group. The issues and recommendations are a consensus of their views.

  5. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS meet the servicing requirements for ISS and could also provide the automated fluid and power interface system needed for on orbit consumable resupply of spacecraft into the new century.

  6. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  7. Making behavioral technology transferable.

    PubMed

    Pennypacker, H S; Hench, L L

    1997-01-01

    The paucity of transferred behavioral technologies is traced to the absence of strategies for developing technology that is transferable, as distinct from strategies for conducting research, whether basic or applied. In the field of engineering, the results of basic research are transformed to candidate technologies that meet standardized criteria with respect to three properties: quantification, repetition, and verification. The technology of vitrification and storage of nuclear waste is used to illustrate the application of these criteria. Examples from behavior analysis are provided, together with suggestions regarding changes in practice that will accelerate the development and application of behavioral technologies. PMID:22478284

  8. Departmental technology transfer update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Roger A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is the following: to provide the perspective of the Department of Energy (DOE); emphasize new and emerging initiatives; and address unresolved issues that might impact successful program implementation. The approach is the following: to provide a brief overview of DOE, its R&D, and its technology transfer assets; to briefly describe the evolution of DOE's enhanced technology transfer program; to report on specific progress and achievements over the past year--as the spring board for our current and future plans; to present our near and longer term plans; and to survey the remaining issues and the resolution process.

  9. Making behavioral technology transferable

    PubMed Central

    Pennypacker, H. S.; Hench, Larry L.

    1997-01-01

    The paucity of transferred behavioral technologies is traced to the absence of strategies for developing technology that is transferable, as distinct from strategies for conducting research, whether basic or applied. In the field of engineering, the results of basic research are transformed to candidate technologies that meet standardized criteria with respect to three properties: quantification, repetition, and verification. The technology of vitrification and storage of nuclear waste is used to illustrate the application of these criteria. Examples from behavior analysis are provided, together with suggestions regarding changes in practice that will accelerate the development and application of behavioral technologies. PMID:22478284

  10. Transfer of rare earth elements from natural metalliferous (copper and cobalt rich) soils into plant shoot biomass of metallophytes from Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourret, Olivier; Lange, Bastien; Jitaru, Petru; Mahy, Grégory; Faucon, Michel-Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REE) is generally assessed for the characterization of the geological systems where these elements represent the best proxies of processes involving the occurrence of an interface between different media. REE behavior is investigated according to their concentrations normalized with respect to the upper continental crust. In this study, the geochemical fingerprint of REE in plant shoot biomass of an unique metallicolous flora (i.e., Crepidorhopalon tenuis and Anisopappus chinensis) was investigated. The plants originate from extremely copper and cobalt rich soils, deriving from Cu and Co outcrops in Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Some of the species investigated in this study are able to accumulate high amounts of Cu and Co in shoot hence being considered as Cu and Co hyperaccumulators. Therefore, assessing the behavior of REE may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of metal accumulation by this flora. The data obtained in this study indicate that REE uptake by plants is not primarily controlled by their concentration and speciation in the soil as previously shown in the literature (Brioschi et al. 2013). Indeed, the REE patterns in shoots are relatively flat whereas soils patterns are Middle REE enriched. In addition, it is worth noting that Eu enrichments occur in aerial parts of the plants. These positive Eu anomalies suggest that Eu3 + can form stable organic complexes replacing Ca2 + in several biological processes as in xylem fluids associated with the general nutrient flux. Therefore, is is possible that the Eu mobility in these fluids is enhanced by its reductive speciation as Eu2 +. Eventually, the geochemical behavior of REE illustrates that metals accumulation in aerial parts of C. tenuis and A. chinensis is mainly driven by dissolved complexation. Brioschi, L., Steinmann, M., Lucot, E., Pierret, M., Stille, P., Prunier, J., Badot, P., 2013. Transfer of rare earth elements (REE) from natural soil to plant systems: implications for the environmental availability of anthropogenic REE. Plant and Soil, 366, 143-163.

  11. Technology transfer within the government

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Carissa Bryce

    1992-01-01

    The report of a workshop panel concerned with technology transfer within the government is presented. The suggested subtopics for the panel were as follows: (1) transfer from non-NASA U.S. government technology developers to NASA space missions/programs; and (2) transfer from NASA to other U.S. government civil space mission programs. Two presentations were made to the panel: Roles/Value of Early Strategic Planning Within the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to Facilitate Later Technology Transfer To and From Industry; and NOAA Satellite Programs and Technology Requirements. The panel discussion addresses the following major issues: DOD/NASA cooperation; alternative mechanisms for interagency communication and interactions; current technology transfer relationships among federal research agencies, and strategies for improving this transfer; technology transfer mechanisms appropriate to intragovernment transfer; the importance of industry as a technology transfer conduit; and measures of merit.

  12. Understanding heat transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Understanding Heat Transfer is a graduate-level professional development course designed for middle school teachers to enhance understanding and teaching of physical science. In two sessions, you will investigate physical science topics using hands-on activities and online resources including video segments, interactive activities, readings, and other multimedia materials. These resources are drawn from Teachers' Domain, WGBH's digital library service.

  13. Understanding Energy Transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Understanding Energy Transfer is a graduate-level professional development course designed for middle school teachers to enhance understanding and teaching of physical science. In two sessions, you will investigate physical science topics using hands-on activities and online resources including video segments, interactive activities, readings, and other multimedia materials. These resources are drawn from Teachers' Domain, WGBH's digital library service.

  14. Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

  15. Heat Transfer Technical Brief

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Debjyoti

    Journal of Heat Transfer Technical Brief Pool Boiling Experiments on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube with verti- cally aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) "forests" and were used for pool boiling chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The sub- strates were clamped on a cylindrical copper block

  16. Charge Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennerl, Konrad

    2010-12-01

    Charge transfer, or charge exchange, describes a process in which an ion takes one or more electrons from another atom. Investigations of this fundamental process have accompanied atomic physics from its very beginning, and have been extended to astrophysical scenarios already many decades ago. Yet one important aspect of this process, i.e. its high efficiency in generating X-rays, was only revealed in 1996, when comets were discovered as a new class of X-ray sources. This finding has opened up an entirely new field of X-ray studies, with great impact due to the richness of the underlying atomic physics, as the X-rays are not generated by hot electrons, but by ions picking up electrons from cold gas. While comets still represent the best astrophysical laboratory for investigating the physics of charge transfer, various studies have already spotted a variety of other astrophysical locations, within and beyond our solar system, where X-rays may be generated by this process. They range from planetary atmospheres, the heliosphere, the interstellar medium and stars to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, where charge transfer may even be observationally linked to dark matter. This review attempts to put the various aspects of the study of charge transfer reactions into a broader historical context, with special emphasis on X-ray astrophysics, where the discovery of cometary X-ray emission may have stimulated a novel look at our universe.

  17. Decal transfer microfabrication

    DOEpatents

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Childs, William Robert

    2004-10-19

    A method of making a microstructure includes forming a pattern in a surface of a silicon-containing elastomer, oxidizing the pattern, contacting the pattern with a substrate; and bonding the oxidized pattern and the substrate such that the pattern and the substrate are irreversibly attached. The silicon-containing elastomer may be removably attached to a transfer pad.

  18. Transfer function matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Given a multivariable system, it is proved that the numerator matrix N(s) of the transfer function evaluated at any system pole either has unity rank or is a null matrix. It is also shown that N(s) evaluated at any transmission zero of the system has rank deficiency. Examples are given for illustration.

  19. Genetic transfers in mycobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Šlosárek; M. Koní?ková-Radochová; J. Koní?ek

    1978-01-01

    Mycobacteria hold a special position among other bacterial genera, having a different composition of the cell wall, highly variable morphology of cells and colonies, specific growth properties, production of secondary metabolites etc. Mycobacteria are a group of microorganisms with a widerange of pathogenicity, varying from saprophytic to highly pathogenic species. Mycobacteria are a somewhat difficult model for studying genetic transfers,

  20. new freshmen new transfers

    E-print Network

    Koehler, Carla

    California Public Other California Private Outside California/Unknown Transfers California Community College University of California California State University California Private Outside California/Other LIVING% Number 48 81 GENDER Male Female ETHNICITY African American Am Indian/AK Native Asian Hispanic Pacific

  1. new freshmen new transfers

    E-print Network

    Jalali. Bahram

    California Public Other California Private Outside California/Other Transfers California Community College University of California California State University California Private Outside California/Other LIVING% Number 42 87 GENDER Male Female ETHNICITY African American Am Indian/AK Native Asian Hispanic Pacific

  2. General Education Transfer Guide

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    courses: Physical Education S courses: Health, Human Sexuality, Nutrition B courses: Hiking, Backpacking1 General Education Transfer Guide The chart below shows the general education requirements shows the SUNY General Education category that corresponds to each BU requirement. For instance, BU

  3. [Transference and group psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bechelli, Luiz Paulo de C; Santos, Manoel Antônio Dos

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the concept of transference, focusing on its peculiarities in the group context. The nature of the therapeutic situation and the broad freedom given to patients in order to access the unconscious material at their own pace, within a safe environment and with as little censorship as can be managed, transference gradually takes place. Through displacement, the psychotherapist and group members are perceived not as they are, with their real attributes, but as one or more objects that arouse emotions coming from the infant world, more precisely from the collection of deep affective influences. One peculiarity of the group situation when compared to individual psychotherapy is that, in the former, multiple transferences coexist, which group members establish among themselves, enabling a wide range of possible feelings. Both treatment modes share the assumption that unresolved conflicts which stimulated patients to seek for help can be reduced or even abolished through the interpretation and working through of transference, which functions as a process of change throughout the psychotherapy. PMID:16532247

  4. FMISO Transfer Agreement

    Cancer.gov

    Provider: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Provider agrees to transfer to Recipient the following FMISO Production Documents (click here) for the production of [18F]Fluoromisonidazole, 1H-1-(3-[18f]-Fluoro-2-Hydroxy-Propyl)-2-Nitro-Imidazole, [18F]FMISO.

  5. FES Transfer Agreement

    Cancer.gov

    Provider: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Provider agrees to transfer to Recipient the following FES Production Documents (click here) for the production of [16-[18F]-fluoro-17-estradiol, [18F]FES (A) Generic Chemistry, Manufacturing and Control Section(B)

  6. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  7. Heat transfer studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Boehm; Y. T. Chen; A. K. Sathappan

    1995-01-01

    Work continued from last quarter related to studies of heat transfer and fluid flow in porous media. One experiment focused on issues of drying in subresidually-saturated systems. The other experiment deals with studies of flows in a repository-like geometry around a heated horizontal annulus. In the subresidual saturation studies, elevated temperature environments were considered during this quarter. A 1 in.

  8. Horizontal Gene Transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Citizendium

    This Citizendium article offers a comprehensive review of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Topics include main features of HGT in nature, HGT in prokaryotes, HGT in eukaryotes, history and discovery of HGT, and decoding the tree of life from genomes scrambled by HGT. The image-rich text includes a list of related articles, a bibliography and external links of interest.

  9. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  10. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost-effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  11. Heat transfer between immiscible liquids enhanced by gas bubbling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, G. A.; Schwarz, C. E.; Klages, J.; Klein, J.

    1982-08-01

    The phenomena of core-concrete interactions impact upon containment integrity of light water reactors (LWR) following postulated complete meltdown of the core by containment pressurization, production of combustible gases, and basemat penetration. Experiments were performed with nonreactor materials to investigate one aspect of this problem, heat transfer between overlying immiscible liquids whose interface is disturbed by a transverse non-condensable gas flux emanating from below. Hydrodynamic studies were performed to test a criterion for onset of entrainment due to bubbling through the interface and subsequent heat transfer studies were performed to assess the effect of bubbling on interfacial heat transfer rates, both with and without bubble induced entrainment. Non entraining interfacial heat transfer data with mercury-water/oil fluid pairs were observed to be bounded from below within a factor of two to three by the Szekeley surface renewal heat transfer model.

  12. Water transfers in the west: Efficiency, equity, and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The American West faces many challenges, but none is more important than the challenge of managing its water. This book examines the role that water transfers play in managing the region's scarce water resources. It focuses on the variety of third parties, including Indians, Hispanic communities, rural communities, and the environment, that can sometimes be harmed when water rights are transferred. The committee presents recommendations to guide states, tribes, and federal agencies toward better regulation of water transfer processes. Seven in-depth case studies are presented: Nevada's Carson-Truckee basin, the Colorado Front Range, northern New Mexico, Washington's Yakima River basin, central Arizona, and the Central and Imperial valleys in California. The document presents information on factors that have encouraged water transfers, typical types of transfers, and their potential impacts--both positive and negative.

  13. Instance Transfer Learning with Multisource Dynamic TrAdaBoost

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Since the transfer learning can employ knowledge in relative domains to help the learning tasks in current target domain, compared with the traditional learning it shows the advantages of reducing the learning cost and improving the learning efficiency. Focused on the situation that sample data from the transfer source domain and the target domain have similar distribution, an instance transfer learning method based on multisource dynamic TrAdaBoost is proposed in this paper. In this method, knowledge from multiple source domains is used well to avoid negative transfer; furthermore, the information that is conducive to target task learning is obtained to train candidate classifiers. The theoretical analysis suggests that the proposed algorithm improves the capability that weight entropy drifts from source to target instances by means of adding the dynamic factor, and the classification effectiveness is better than single source transfer. Finally, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has higher classification accuracy. PMID:25152906

  14. Early Decreases in Plasma Lipid Transfer Proteins During Weight Reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Themistoklis Tzotzas; Laure Dumont; Athanasios Triantos; Michael Karamouzis; Theodoros Constantinidis; Laurent Lagrost

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of short-term weight loss in obese women on concentrations of plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), two new risk factors for cardiovascular disease.Research Methods and Procedures: Plasma CETP and PLTP mass concentrations were measured in 38 obese, non-diabetic women before and after a moderate, 4% weight loss that was obtained

  15. Long-range interactions and information transfer in spin chains

    E-print Network

    Rebecca Ronke; Tim Spiller; Irene D'Amico

    2011-01-24

    One of the main proposed tools to transfer information in a quantum computational context are spin chains. While spin chains have shown to be convenient and reliable, it has to be expected that, as with any implementation of a physical system, they will be subject to various errors and perturbative factors. In this work we consider the transfer of entangled as well as unentangled states to investigate the effects of various errors, paying particular attention to unwanted long-range interactions.

  16. Factor Findings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jamie Piecora

    2000-01-01

    In this lesson, students first create factor posters for a variety of different numbers that will be displayed in the classroom to be utilized as a resource throughout the school year. They make discoveries about factors using color tiles, represent their discoveries using graph paper, and display their information on poster board as find factors of an assigned number. The plan includes a list of materials, questions, assessment options, and extensions.

  17. Factor Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adapted with permission from "Prime Time: Factors and Multiples," Connected Mathematics Project, G. Lappan, J. Fey, W. Fitzgerald, S. Friel and E. Phillips

    2000-01-01

    This is an interactive applet game exercises a student's factoring ability. A student can play against the computer or against a friend on grids containing the numbers 1-30, 1-49, or 1-100. Each player in turn chooses a number from the board, and then the opponent claims all of its remaining proper factors. A player's score is the sum of all the numbers and factors she/he has chosen. When there are no numbers remaining with unclaimed factors, the game ends and the player with the greater total is the winner.

  18. Student Services that Promote Transfer: The Transfer Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, R.

    In an effort to improve the transfer rates of minority students from community colleges to baccalaureate granting institutions, the Illinois state legislature allocated funds to establish transfer centers at community colleges that would take a pro-active approach to reaching minority students with information about transfer. One of 26 centers…

  19. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer

    E-print Network

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01

    The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow and reverse-flow TDTH...

  20. Improving NASA's technology transfer process through increased screening and evaluation in the information dissemination program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laepple, H.

    1979-01-01

    The current status of NASA's technology transfer system can be improved if the technology transfer process is better understood. This understanding will only be gained if a detailed knowledge about factors generally influencing technology transfer is developed, and particularly those factors affecting technology transfer from government R and D agencies to industry. Secondary utilization of aerospace technology is made more difficult because it depends on a transfer process which crosses established organizational lines of authority and which is outside well understood patterns of technical applications. In the absence of a sound theory about technology transfer and because of the limited capability of government agencies to explore industry's needs, a team approach to screening and evaluation of NASA generated technologies is proposed which calls for NASA, and other organizations of the private and public sectors which influence the transfer of NASA generated technology, to participate in a screening and evaluation process to determine the commercial feasibility of a wide range of technical applications.

  1. One-nucleon transfer between heavy ions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayman, B. F.; Lenzi, S. M.; Vitturi, A.; Zardi, F.

    1994-10-01

    One-nucleon transfer processes between heavy ions at intermediate energies are studied in the framework of the eikonal distorted-wave Born approximation. Optical phase shifts describing core-core relative motion are microscopically described in the Glauber model, starting from experimental nuclear densities and nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes at the corresponding energies. The interaction responsible for the nucleon transfer is a complex energy-dependent potential obtained by the Abel transform of the nucleon-core phase shift. Applications to one-proton and one-neutron transfer reactions on 208Pb induced by 12C and 16O projectiles are discussed for both angular distributions and normalization factors.

  2. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  3. Faculty Positions Heat Transfer and

    E-print Network

    Faculty Positions Heat Transfer and Thermal/Energy Sciences Naval Postgraduate School Monterey-track faculty position at the assistant professor level in the areas of Heat Transfer and Thermal/Fluid Sciences

  4. Assessing Software Engineering Technology Transfer

    E-print Network

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    Assessing Software Engineering Technology Transfer within NASA Marvin V. Zelkowitz Institute Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and in particular emphasize the domain of technologies for software de- velopment. We examine the established NASA mechanisms for achieving technology transfer

  5. Swipe transfer assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, Robert M. (Blackfoot, ID); Mills, William C. (McKeesport, PA)

    1992-01-01

    The swipe transfer assembly is a mechanical assembly which is used in conjunction with glove boxes and other sealed containments. It is used to pass small samples into or out of glove boxes without an open breach of the containment, and includes a rotational cylinder inside a fixed cylinder, the inside cylinder being rotatable through an arc of approximately 240.degree. relative to the outer cylinder. An offset of 120.degree. from end to end allows only one port to be opened at a time. The assembly is made of stainless steel or aluminum and clear acrylic plastic to enable visual observation. The assembly allows transfer of swipes and smears from radiological and other specially controlled environments.

  6. Finding Factors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-24

    This lesson is designed to develop students' abilities to find factors of whole numbers. The lesson also introduces prime numbers. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to factors as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

  7. Heat transfer in geothermal systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Cheng

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of convective heat transfer in geothermal systems are reviewed. The governing equations for such heat transfer in geothermal systems are examined, along with heat transfer in hot-water, water-steam two-phase, and geopressured geothermal systems. Lumped-parameter analyses for predicting averaged reservoir characteristics during production are considered, heat transfer in other geothermal systems (e.g., dry hot rock and magma)

  8. Laser Generated Heat Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth R. Diller

    \\u000a The irradiation of tissue by laser light results in the absorption of energy. Since this is a fully dissipative process, the\\u000a consequence is that the increment in energy is expressed entirely as a heat transfer absorbed by the tissue. In conjunction\\u000a with this absorption, there will be an increase in the energy stored locally in the tissue as a function

  9. Technology Transfer Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Since its inception, Goddard has pursued a commitment to technology transfer and commercialization. For every space technology developed, Goddard strives to identify secondary applications. Goddard then provides the technologies, as well as NASA expertise and facilities, to U.S. companies, universities, and government agencies. These efforts are based in Goddard's Technology Commercialization Office. This report presents new technologies, commercialization success stories, and other Technology Commercialization Office activities in 1999.

  10. Plastic container bagless transfer

    DOEpatents

    Tibrea, Steven L.; D'Amelio, Joseph A.; Daugherty, Brent A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus are provided for transferring material from an isolated environment into a storage carrier through a conduit that can be sealed with a plug. The plug and conduit can then be severed to provide a hermetically sealed storage carrier containing the material which may be transported for storage or disposal and to maintain a seal between the isolated environment and the ambient environment.

  11. A Monster Transfer Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Alan

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a transfer project that involves the use of "monsters" to provide year 6 with a series of post-SATs activities which could then be built on in year 7. The project evolves from a science-based activity into a cross-curricular one. "Monsters" was used as a fun revision tool for year 6 pupils covering the area of…

  12. The Cargo Transfer Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rourke, K. H.

    1992-03-01

    NASA's Cargo Transfer Vehicle is a key element of the National Launch System currently under definition by a joint USAF and NASA development program. The CTV reference mission and configuration are described. Key mission and system requirements are analyzed and summarized including CTV electrical power and energy, main engine thrust, RCS configurations. Methods of control system validation using full 6DoF simulations are presented.

  13. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  14. AIDS and transfer factor: Myths, certainties and realities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitri Viza

    1996-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, the triumph of biology is as indisputable as that of physics was at the end of the 19th century,\\u000a and so is the might of the inductive thought. Virtually all diseases have been seemingly conquered and HIV, the cause of AIDS,\\u000a has been fully described ten years after the onset of the epidemic.

  15. Human Glycolipid Transfer Protein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Min; Malakhova, Margarita L.; Lin, Xin; Pike, Helen M.; Chung, Taeowan; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Brown, Rhoderick E.

    2008-01-01

    Glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) is a soluble 24 kDa protein that selectively accelerates the intermembrane transfer of glycolipids in vitro. Little is known about the GLTP structure and dynamics. Here, we report the cloning of human GLTP and characterize the environment of the three tryptophans (Trps) of the protein using fluorescence spectroscopy. Excitation at 295 nm yielded an emission maximum (?max) near 347 nm, indicating a relatively polar average environment for emitting Trps. Quenching with acrylamide at physiological ionic strength or with potassium iodide resulted in linear Stern—Volmer plots, suggesting accessibility of emitting Trps to soluble quenchers. Insights into reversible conformational changes accompanying changes in GLTP activity were provided by addition and rapid dilution of urea while monitoring changes in Trp or 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid fluorescence. Incubation of GLTP with glycolipid liposomes caused a blue shift in the Trp emission maximum but diminished the fluorescence intensity. The blue-shifted emission maximum, centered near 335 nm, persisted after separation of glycolipid liposomes from GLTP, consistent with formation of a GLTP—glycolipid complex at a glycolipid-liganding site containing Trp. The results provide the first insights into human GLTP structural dynamics by fluorescence spectroscopy, including global conformational changes that accompany GLTP folding into an active conformational state as well as more subtle conformational changes that play a role in GLTP-mediated transfer of glycolipids between membranes, and establish a foundation for future studies of membrane rafts using GLTP. PMID:15287756

  16. Lunar transfer vehicle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeley, Joseph T.

    1993-01-01

    Lunar transportation architectures exist for several different mission scenarios. Direct flights from Earth are possible, as the Apollo program clearly demonstrated. Alternatively, a space transfer vehicle could be constructed in space by using the Space Station as a base of operations, or multiple vehicles could be launched from Earth and dock in LEO without using a space station for support. Similarly, returning personnel could proceed directly to Earth or rendezvous at the Space Station for a ride back home on the Space Shuttle. Multiple design concepts exist which are compatible with these scenarios and which can support requirements of cargo, personnel, and mission objectives. Regardless of the ultimate mission selected, some technologies will certainly play a key role in the design and operation of advanced lunar transfer vehicles. Current technologies are capable of delivering astronauts to the lunar surface, but improvements are needed to affordably transfer the material and equipment that will be needed for establishing a lunar base. Materials and structures advances, in particular, will enable the development of more capable cryogenic fluid management and propulsion systems, improved structures, and more efficient vehicle assembly, servicing and processing.

  17. Technology transfer initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, Wayne; Schroer, Bernard J.; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) technology transfer activities with the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the period of April 1993 through December 1993. Early in 1993, the MSFC/TUO and UAH conceived of the concept of developing stand-alone, integrated data packages on MSFC technology that would serve industrial needs previously determined to be critical. Furthermore, after reviewing over 500 problem statements received by MSFC, it became obvious that many of these requests could be satisfied by a standard type of response. As a result, UAH has developed two critical area response (CAR) packages: CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) replacements and modular manufacturing and simulation. Publicity included news releases, seminars, articles and conference papers. The Huntsville Chamber of Commerce established the Technology Transfer Subcommittee with the charge to identify approaches for the Chamber to assist its members, as well as non-members, access to the technologies at the federal laboratories in North Alabama. The Birmingham Chamber of Commerce has expressed interest in establishing a similar technology transfer program. This report concludes with a section containing a tabulation of the problem statements, including CAR packages, submitted to MSFC from January 1992 through December 1993.

  18. The impact of workplace support and identity on training transfer: a case study of drug and alcohol safety training in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Pidd

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that the transfer climate of work organisations is an important factor in determining the degree to which knowledge, skills and abilities gained in training transfer to the workplace. In particular, workplace social support from supervisors and coworkers is consistently cited as an important factor that can facilitate or inhibit training transfer. However, research evidence regarding the

  19. Genetic transfers in Brevibacterium sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Rytí?; A. Šroglová; I. Holubová; M. Koní?ková-Radochová; J. Koní?ek

    1986-01-01

    A positive genetic transfer by protoplast fusion was obtained in auxotrophic mutantsBrevibacterium sp. M27his andBrevibacterium sp. M27arg. Transformation and protoplast fusion with liposomes (as genetic transfers in intact cells and their protoplasts by both\\u000a the chromosomal and plasmid DNA) did not lead to transfer of the markers followed.

  20. Bakersfield College Transfer Study Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Dave

    Data relating to the characteristics and performance of Bakersfield College (BC) students who transferred to public four-year colleges and universities in California were gathered from the transfer institutions and analyzed. Study findings included the following: (1) first-time transfers from BC to the California State University and College…

  1. Learning from Transfer Data Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Uses Transfer Consortium data to track the academic path of a transfer cohort from Macomb Community College (MCC) in Michigan to five local four-year institutions. Finds that most transfers from a community college did not earn an associate's degree and that the average ASSET scores of the cohort are higher than the mean score for everyone tested…

  2. Characterization of groundwater contamination using factor analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Subbarao; N. V. Subbarao; S. N. Chandu

    1996-01-01

    The effluent contamination of groundwater at two industrial sites at Visakhapatnam, India, was studied using factor analysis.\\u000a Thirty groundwater samples near a zinc smelter plant and 19 from the polymers plant were analyzed for specific conductance,\\u000a chloride, bicarbonate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. The data were subjected to R-mode factor analysis\\u000a and the factor scores transferred to areal maps.

  3. Investigation of heat transfer efficiency in coplanar channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelevin, F. V.; Yaroslavtsev, N. L.; Vikulin, A. V.; Orlin, S. A.; Ponomarev, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    Achieving more efficient heat transfer in heat-transfer devices is a topical problem. Heat transfer and pressure drop in paths containing coplanar channels of different shapes are experimentally studied in this work. It is found that the mutual crossing angles of coplanar channels, finning ratio, and the dimensions of coplanar channels are the main parameters influencing heat transfer enhancement. The best effect from using coplanar channels is achieved at the values of Reynolds number Re = 103-104. The coefficient of heat transfer in coplanar channels can be increased by a factor of 3-10 as compared with that for a smooth channel. The pressure drop coefficient ? increases with increasing the total mutual channel crossing angle. It is found that heat transfer in flat paths with coplanar channels becomes less efficient with decreasing the coplanar channel's equivalent hydraulic diameter to 0.5-1.0 mm, whereas more efficient heat transfer is obtained by fitting these channels with flow microturbulizers. It is shown that increasing the finning height in cylindrical paths with coplanar channels has no effect on vortex formation in them; however, it results in a higher finning ratio, due to which more efficient heat transfer is obtained

  4. A Qualitative Study of Two-To-Four-Year Transfer Practices in California Community Colleges: An Analysis of Seven Case Studies Featuring Colleges with Consistently Higher-than-Expected Transfer Rates, Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mery, Pamela; Schiorring, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Which factors promote transfer from community colleges to four-year colleges and universities? What can individuals learn about transfer from tracking cohorts of students? What can they learn from studying colleges that have a strong track record of transferring students? These questions are at the center of a study funded in 2007 by the…

  5. Heat transfer in aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Aeropropulsion heat transfer is reviewed. A research methodology based on a growing synergism between computations and experiments is examined. The aeropropulsion heat transfer arena is identified as high Reynolds number forced convection in a highly disturbed environment subject to strong gradients, body forces, abrupt geometry changes and high three dimensionality - all in an unsteady flow field. Numerous examples based on heat transfer to the aircraft gas turbine blade are presented to illustrate the types of heat transfer problems which are generic to aeropropulsion systems. The research focus of the near future in aeropropulsion heat transfer is projected.

  6. Electron transfer in weakly interacting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sutin, N.; Brunschwig, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    A recently proposed semiclassical model, in which an electronic transmission coefficient and a nuclear tunneling factor are introduced as corrections to the classical activated-complex expression, is described. The nuclear tunneling corrections are shown to be important only at low temperatures or when the electron transfer is very exothermic. By contrast, corrections for nonadiabaticity may be significant for most outer-sphere reactions of metal complexes. The rate constants for the Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/-Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 3 +/, Ru(NH/sub 3/)/sub 6//sup 2 +/-Ru(NH/sub 3/)/sub 6//sup 3 +/ and Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/-Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 3 +/ electron exchange reactions predicted by the semiclassical model are in very good agreement with the observed values. The implications of the model for optically-induced electron transfer in mixed-valence systems are noted.

  7. Respiratory electron transfer pathways in plant mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Schertl, Peter; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory electron transport chain (ETC) couples electron transfer from organic substrates onto molecular oxygen with proton translocation across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The resulting proton gradient is used by the ATP synthase complex for ATP formation. In plants, the ETC is especially intricate. Besides the “classical” oxidoreductase complexes (complex I–IV) and the mobile electron transporters cytochrome c and ubiquinone, it comprises numerous “alternative oxidoreductases.” Furthermore, several dehydrogenases localized in the mitochondrial matrix and the mitochondrial intermembrane space directly or indirectly provide electrons for the ETC. Entry of electrons into the system occurs via numerous pathways which are dynamically regulated in response to the metabolic state of a plant cell as well as environmental factors. This mini review aims to summarize recent findings on respiratory electron transfer pathways in plants and on the involved components and supramolecular assemblies. PMID:24808901

  8. Transfer of Training: Does It Truly Happen?: An Examination of Support, Instrumentality, Retention and Learner Readiness on the Transfer Motivation and Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed; Sundram, Veera Pandiyan Kaliani; Othman, Akmal Aini

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the importance of selected environmental, situational and individual factors in the training transfer process. Design/methodology/approach: This study proposes and tests a framework via structural equation modelling by including supervisor and peer support, instrumentality and learner readiness on…

  9. A Multi-Campus Study of Academic Performance and Cognitive Growth among Native Freshman, Two-Year Transfers, and Four-Year Transfers. AIR 2000 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks; Valle, Sondra; Parmley, Kelli; Blose, Gary; Zhou, Ying

    This study examined factors that affect student learning and growth in four student populations: seniors who began as freshmen immediately after high school, students who transferred from two-year colleges, students who transferred from four-year colleges, and students who entered Bachelor of Arts programs after military service or work. The data…

  10. Transferring Learning to the Workplace. Seventeen Case Studies from the Real World of Training. In Action Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad, Mary L., Ed.

    Organized in three parts, this book contains an introductory chapter and 17 case studies selected to show transfer applications in a wide range of organizational settings. In part 1, two chapters review the rationale, context, and research relating to transfer: "Transfer Concepts and Research Overview" (Mary Broad); and "Success Factors in…

  11. Factor Dazzle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This interactive online game helps students develop fluency with identifying factors while fostering strategic thinking. A student can play against the computer or against a friend on a 6 by 6 grid containing the numbers 1-36. Each player in turn chooses a number from the board, and then the opponent claims all of its remaining proper factors. A player's score is the sum of all the numbers and factors she/he has chosen. When there are no numbers remaining with unclaimed factors, the game ends and the player with the greater total is the winner. This game is part of NCTM's Calculation Nation project (cataloged separately). Users may login as a guest and play against the computer, or register (free) to challenge other players online.

  12. Rheumatoid Factor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Formal name: Rheumatoid Factor Related tests: Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody , ANA , ESR , C-Reactive Protein , Autoantibodies At ... is negative and symptoms persist. A cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody test can help diagnose RA in ...

  13. Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Delicious Reddit StubmleUpon Print About Heart Disease & Stroke Risk Factors We're all at risk for heart ... are in the southeastern United States. Americans at Risk Approximately 49% of adults have at least one ...

  14. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    DOEpatents

    Dobbins, James C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hoover, Mark A. (Idaho Falls, ID); May, Kay W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ross, Maurice J. (Pocatello, ID)

    1990-01-01

    A transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed frame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control.

  15. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, J.C.; Hoover, M.A.; May, K.W.; Ross, M.J.

    1990-01-23

    The patent describes in a manipulator system for use in hazardous environments including a manipulator adapted for reciprocal movement upon a guide device, a transfer platform. It comprises: a bed frame defining a generally horizontal bed projecting outwardly from the manipulator; and frame mounting means securing the bed frame to the manipulator in a generally cantilevered fashion, thereby essentially minimizing the structure necessary to support the platform outwardly of the manipulator while enhancing operator visibility of the platform and the manipulator during use of the manipulator system.

  16. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, J.C.; Hoover, M.A.; May, K.W.; Ross, M.J.

    1988-10-12

    This invention is comprised of a transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed fame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control. 5 figs.

  17. Adaptive Transfer Function Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Portland State Univ., OR (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1993-06-01

    Real-time pattern classification and time-series forecasting applications continue to drive artificial neural network (ANN) technology. As ANNs increase in complexity, the throughput of digital computer simulations decreases. A novel ANN, the Adaptive Transfer Function Network (ATF-Net), directly addresses the issue of throughput. ATF-Nets are global mapping equations generated by the superposition of ensembles of neurodes having arbitrary continuous functions receiving encoded input data. ATF-Nets may be implemented on parallel digital computers. An example is presented which illustrates a four-fold increase in computational throughput.

  18. Adaptive Transfer Function Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, J.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States) Portland State Univ., OR (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Real-time pattern classification and time-series forecasting applications continue to drive artificial neural network (ANN) technology. As ANNs increase in complexity, the throughput of digital computer simulations decreases. A novel ANN, the Adaptive Transfer Function Network (ATF-Net), directly addresses the issue of throughput. ATF-Nets are global mapping equations generated by the superposition of ensembles of neurodes having arbitrary continuous functions receiving encoded input data. ATF-Nets may be implemented on parallel digital computers. An example is presented which illustrates a four-fold increase in computational throughput.

  19. Potential of predominant activated sludge bacteria as recipients in conjugative plasmid transfer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2005-12-01

    We investigated the possibility of conjugative plasmid transfer to the predominant bacteria in activated sludge and the factors influencing the transfer frequency in the activated sludge process. We performed conjugative transfers of a self-transmissible, broad-host-range plasmid RP4 from Escherichia coli C600 to activated sludge bacteria by broth mating. Most of the activated sludge bacteria tested could acquire plasmid RP4, although the transfer frequencies varied from 8.8 x 10(-7) to 1.3 x 10(-2) transconjugants per recipient. The transfer frequencies in several strains were similar to, or higher than, that in intraspecific transfer to E. coli HB101. Matings under various environmental conditions showed that factors relevant to physiological activity, such as temperature and nutrient conditions, seemed to affect the transfer frequency. In addition, conjugative transfer was detected even in filtered raw and treated wastewaters. Thus, the predominant activated sludge bacteria seem to have sufficient potential as recipients in conjugative plasmid transfer under the conditions likely to occur in the activated sludge process. Transfer frequency was reduced by agitation in the presence of suspended solid. This may suggest that conjugative plasmid transfer is physically inhibited in aeration tanks. PMID:16473767

  20. Steady state theory of current transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vered Ben Moshe; Abraham Nitzan; Spiros S. Skourtis; David Beratan

    2009-01-01

    Current transfer is defined as a charge transfer process where the transferred charge carries information about its original motion. We have recently suggested that such transfer causes the asymmetry observed in electron transfer induced by circularly polarized light through helical wires. This paper presents the steady state theory of current transfer within a tight binding model of coupled wires systems.

  1. Interline transfer CCD camera

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, M.S.; McCurnin, T.W.; Stump, C.J.; Stradling, G.L.

    1993-12-31

    An interline CCD sensing device for use in a camera system, includes an imaging area sensitive to impinging light, for generating charges corresponding to the intensity of the impinging light. Sixteen independent registers R1 - R16 sequentially receive the interline data from the imaging area, corresponding to the generated charges. Sixteen output amplifiers S1 - S16 and sixteen ports P1 - P16 for sequentially transferring the interline data, one pixel at a time, in order to supply a desired image transfer speed. The imaging area is segmented into sixteen independent imaging segments A1 - A16, each of which corresponds to one register, on output amplifier, and one output port. Each one of the imaging segments A1 - A16 includes an array of rows and columns of pixels. Each pixel includes a photogate area, an interline CCD channel area, and an anti-blooming area. The anti-blooming area is, in turn, divided into an anti-blooming barrier and an anti-blooming drain.

  2. Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

  3. Finite thrust orbital transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    The finite thrust optimal transfer in the presence of the Earth's shadow and oblate planet perturbations is a problem of strong interest in modern telecommunication satellite design with plasmic propulsion. The Maximum Principle cannot be used in its standard form to deal with the Earth's shadow. In this paper, using a regularization of the Hamiltonian which expands the Maximum Principle application domain, we provide for the first time, the necessary conditions in a very general context for the finite thrust optimal transfer with limited power around an oblate planet. The costate in such problems is generally discontinuous. To obtain fast numerical solutions, the averaging of the Hamiltonian is introduced. Two classes of boundary conditions are analyzed and numerically solved: the minimum time and the minimum fuel at a fixed time. These two problems are the basic tools for designing the orbit raising of a satellite after the launcher injection into its separation orbit. Numerical solutions have been calculated for the more important applications of LEO to GEO/MEO missions and the results have been reported and discussed.

  4. Polarization transfer NMR imaging

    DOEpatents

    Sillerud, Laurel O. (Los Alamos, NM); van Hulsteyn, David B. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) image is obtained with spatial information modulated by chemical information. The modulation is obtained through polarization transfer from a first element representing the desired chemical, or functional, information, which is covalently bonded and spin-spin coupled with a second element effective to provide the imaging data. First and second rf pulses are provided at first and second frequencies for exciting the imaging and functional elements, with imaging gradients applied therebetween to spatially separate the nuclei response for imaging. The second rf pulse is applied at a time after the first pulse which is the inverse of the spin coupling constant to select the transfer element nuclei which are spin coupled to the functional element nuclei for imaging. In a particular application, compounds such as glucose, lactate, or lactose, can be labeled with .sup.13 C and metabolic processes involving the compounds can be imaged with the sensitivity of .sup.1 H and the selectivity of .sup.13 C.

  5. Mars transfer vehicle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    1993-01-01

    Earth-to-Mars distances vary from 60 to 400 million kilometers over a 14-year cycle. This complicates Mars mission design as a function of calendar time. Stay times at Mars are also strongly driven by opportunities for a return flight path which are within the limits of delta-V associated with practical space vehicles. The biggest difference between Mars and lunar transfer missions is mission time, which grows from a few days for the moon, to as much as a few hundred days for Mars missions. As a result, modules for similarly sized crews must be much larger for Mars missions that for transfer to lunar orbit. Technology challenges for one Mars mission scenario analyzed by Boeing include aerobrakes, propulsion, and life support systems. Mission performance is very sensitive to aerobrake weight fraction and, as a result, there is an incentive to use high performance materials such as advanced composites and thermal protection systems. Lander aerobrake would be used twice (for both planetary capture and descent to the Mars surface), and it would need to survive temperatures up to 3500 degrees.

  6. A research on the moderate transference of China's agricultural labor.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Wu, M; Zhu, J; Wu, G

    1990-01-01

    Examining the economic impact of large transfers of agricultural laborers to other occupations in China, this article argues in favor of moderate transference and provides specific measures for accomplishing that level of relocation. In 1979, China adopted a rural economic reform which prompted a total of 54.6 million farmers to transfer to other occupations over the next decade. Despite the transfers, the authors calculate that there remains an agricultural labor surplus of 70 million. While some maintain that accelerated transference of agricultural labor is necessary to achieve economic growth, the article points out not only the obstacles to accelerated transference but also its detrimental economic impact. 3 main factors hinder accelerated transference: the limited capacity of urban areas to absorb new labor, the limited amount of funds for investments needed to make the transfer possible, and the limited amount of energy and raw materials. Given China's current situation, accelerate transfers would only worsen the overcrowding of cities, aggravate the shortages of energy and raw materials, and retard economic progress by increasing inflation. The authors explain that China's particular situation calls for a policy of moderate transference, one that takes into account land output value, the capacity of nonagricultural sectors to absorb new labor, and the capacity of urban areas to absorb people. The authors propose the following 4 general measures that such a policy should include: 1) promoting technological development in rural areas, 2) adjusting and expanding the various structures in township enterprises, 3) favoring central townships, and 4) improving rural education. Within each of these general measures, the authors offer more specific recommendations. PMID:12343586

  7. X-ray Crystal Structure of the Bacterial Conjugation Factor PsiB, a Negative Regulator of RecA*

    E-print Network

    Cox, Michael M.

    conjugation, genetic material from one cell is transferred to another as single-stranded DNA. The introduction, the transfer of genetically diverse DNA between bacteria, was a foundational achieve- ment in molecular genetic," or "F factor," that facilitates genetic transfer (2). The F factor is a conjugative plasmid that can

  8. Investigation of heat transfer and pressure drop in an annular channel with heat transfer intensifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltenko, E. A.; Varava, A. N.; Dedov, A. V.; Zakharenkov, A. V.; Komov, A. T.; Malakhovskii, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    Results from systematic investigations of heat transfer and pressure drop for water flow in an annular channel using an efficient method for enhancing heat transfer on a convex heating surface are presented. The main technical data of the thermal-hydraulic experimental setup are given together with a brief description of the control, monitoring, and physical parameters measurement and recording systems, as well as primary experimental data processing and storage system. The test section, the enhancement method based on setting up swirl flows, the geometrical characteristics of intensifiers, their schematic design, and installation technology are described. The experimental data are obtained in a wide range of coolant flow parameters under the conditions of single-phase convection with using intensifiers having different shapes. The test measurements carried out on a smooth annular channel showed good agreement with the classic correlations both for heat transfer and pressure drop, thereby confirming reliability of the experimental data. A considerable improvement in heat removal efficiency on the convex heating surface is obtained. The value of heat transfer coefficient is a factor of 1.8 higher than it is for smooth annular channels. The region of the values of intensifier geometrical characteristics and Reynolds numbers for which the growth of heat transfer prevails over the growth of pressure drop is established. It is shown that the maximums of heat transfer and pressure drop are observed at quite definite values of intensifier geometrical characteristics. The primary experimental data are processed and presented as a dependence of the Nusselt number on the Reynolds number for different values of the intensifier's relative fin height ?. The value of ? at which heat transfer reaches its maximum is found. The experiments were carried out in the pressure range p = 3.0-10.0 MPa and at the constant temperature of liquid at the test section inlet equal to 100°C. The influence of peripheral liquid flow swirling pitch on heat transfer and pressure drop is studied. An empirical correlation describing the dependence of heat transfer on the intensifier geometrical characteristics is obtained.

  9. Quantification of convective heat transfer inside tree structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Anthony; Lamorlette, Aymeric

    2012-11-01

    Convective heat transfer between a vegetal structure and its surrounding medium remains poorly described. However, for some applications, such as forest fire propagation studies, convective heat transfer is one of the main factors responsible for vertical fire transitions, from ground level to the tree crowns. These fires are the most dangerous because their rates of spread can reach high speeds, around one meter per second. An accurate characterization of this transfer is therefore important for fire propagation modelling. This study presents an attempt to formulate a theoretical modelling of the convective heat transfer coefficient for vegetal structures generated using an Iterated Function Systems (IFS). This model depends on the IFS parameters. The results obtained using this approach were compared with previously computed numerical results in order to evaluate their accuracy. The maximal discrepancies were found to be around 12% which proves the efficiency of the present model.

  10. Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Krishen, K.

    1994-05-01

    This is the second volume of papers presented at the Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition held at the Johnson Space Center February 1-3, 1994. Possible technology transfers covered during the conference were in the areas of information access; innovative microwave and optical applications; materials and structures; marketing and barriers; intelligent systems; human factors and habitation; communications and data systems; business process and technology transfer; software engineering; biotechnology and advanced bioinstrumentation; communications signal processing and analysis; medical care; applications derived from control center data systems; human performance evaluation; technology transfer methods; mathematics, modeling, and simulation; propulsion; software analysis and decision tools; systems/processes in human support technology; networks, control centers, and distributed systems; power; rapid development; perception and vision technologies. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for some articles from this meeting.

  11. Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Krishen, K.

    1994-05-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition held at the Johnson Space Center February 1-3, 1994. Possible technology transfers covered during the conference were in the areas of information access; innovative microwave and optical applications; materials and structures; marketing and barriers; intelligent systems; human factors and habitation; communications and data systems; business process and technology transfer; software engineering; biotechnology and advanced bioinstrumentation; communications signal processing and analysis; new ways of doing business; medical care; applications derived from control center data systems; human performance evaluation; technology transfer methods; mathematics, modeling, and simulation; propulsion; software analysis and decision tools systems/processes in human support technology; networks, control centers, and distributed systems; power; rapid development perception and vision technology. Separate abstracts have beem submitted to the database for some articles from this conference.

  12. Perfect function transfer and interference effects in interacting boson lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Lianao [IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, Basque Country University (EHU/UPV), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Advanced Science Institute, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Miranowicz, Adam [Advanced Science Institute, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Wang Xiangbin [Advanced Science Institute, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu Yuxi [Advanced Science Institute, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Institute of Microelectronics and Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Center for Theoretical Physics, Physics Department, Center for the Study of Complex Systems, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    We show how to perfectly transfer, without state initialization and remote collaboration, arbitrary functions in interacting boson lattices. We describe a possible implementation of state transfer through bosonic atoms trapped in optical lattices or polaritons in on-chip coupled cavities. Significantly, a family of Hamiltonians, both linear and nonlinear, is found which are related to the Bose-Hubbard model and that enable the perfect transfer of arbitrary functions. It is shown that the state transfer between two sites in two-dimensional lattices can result in quantum interference due to the different numbers of intermediate sites in different paths. The signature factor in nuclear physics can be useful to characterize this quantum interference.

  13. Multi-neutron transfer reactions at sub-barrier energies.

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K. E.

    1998-01-20

    The optimum conditions for multi-neutron transfer have been studied in the system {sup 58}Ni + {sup 124}Sn at bombarding energies at and below the Coulomb barrier. The experiments were performed in inverse kinematics with a {sup 124}Sn beam bombarding a {sup 58}Ni target. The particles were identified with respect to mass and Z in the split-pole spectrograph with a hybrid focal plane detector with mass and Z-resolutions of A/{Delta}A = 150 and Z/{Delta}Z = 70. At all energies the transfer of up to 6 neutrons was observed. The yields for these transfer reactions are found to decrease by about a factor of four for each transferred neutron.

  14. Factor Lines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This flash applet provides students with an activity to become more familiar with factors and multiples. The challenge is to arrange the four number cards (1, 2, 3 and 21) on a square of the grid to make as many different diagonal, vertical or horizontal lines as possible. The number card can be placed on a square of the grid if the square is the same number, a multiple of that number and or a factor of that number. Users have the ability to change the difficulty level. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, key discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

  15. Experimental and theoretical studies of charge transfer and deuterium ion transfer between D2O+ and C2H4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Cai, Xiaohui; Li, Yue; Richards O'Grady, Elizabeth; Farrar, James M

    2004-08-22

    The charge transfer and deuterium ion transfer reactions between D(2)O(+) and C(2)H(4) have been studied using the crossed beam technique at relative collision energies below one electron volt and by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Both direct and rearrangement charge transfer processes are observed, forming C(2)H(4) (+) and C(2)H(3)D(+), respectively. Independent of collision energy, deuterium ion transfer accounts for approximately 20% of the reactive collisions. Between 22 and 36 % of charge transfer collisions occur with rearrangement. In both charge transfer processes, comparison of the internal energy distributions of products with the photoelectron spectrum of C(2)H(4) shows that Franck-Condon factors determine energy disposal in these channels. DFT calculations provide evidence for transient intermediates that undergo H/D migration with rearrangement, but with minimal modification of the product energy distributions determined by long range electron transfer. The cross section for charge transfer with rearrangement is approximately 10(3) larger than predicted from the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus isomerization rate in transient complexes, suggesting a nonstatistical mechanism for H/D exchange. DFT calculations suggest that reactive trajectories for deuterium ion transfer follow a pathway in which a deuterium atom from D(2)O(+) approaches the pi-cloud of ethylene along the perpendicular bisector of the C-C bond. The product kinetic energy distributions exhibit structure consistent with vibrational motion of the D-atom in the bridged C(2)H(4)D(+) product perpendicular to the C-C bond. The reaction quantitatively transforms the reaction exothermicity into internal excitation of the products, consistent with mixed energy release in which the deuterium ion is transferred in a configuration in which both the breaking and the forming bonds are extended. PMID:15303914

  16. ADAPTIVELY IMPROVING LONG DISTANCE NETWORK TRANSFERS WITH LOGISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    LaBissoniere, D.; Roche, K.

    2007-01-01

    Long distance data movement is an essential activity of modern computing. However, the congestion control mechanisms in the Internet’s Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) severely limit the bandwidth achieved by long distance data transfers. The throughput of such transfers can be improved by applying the logistical technique of breaking a single long distance transfer into multiple shorter transfers. This technique can result in signifi cantly improved throughput while still respecting the shared nature of the Internet by not attempting to circumvent the TCP congestion controls. This technique has been incorporated into an algorithm which attempts to dynamically schedule transfers for optimal throughput. The algorithm couples graph techniques with real-time latency and bandwidth measurements to discover the best path and adaptively respond to network dynamics. The algorithm shows improvements in speed and fl exibility over standard data transfer methods such as FTP. Specifi c transfers tests performed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and a destination in Sunnyvale, CA show throughput increases by a factor of two.

  17. Reproductive transfer of organochlorines in viviparous surfperch, Ditrema temmincki.

    PubMed

    Oka, Mayuko; Arai, Takaomi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2006-08-01

    To discuss the maternal-fetal transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in viviparous fish, the whole-body burdens of POPs were determined in gravid surfperches from Otsuchi Bay, Japan, and in their fetuses. The concentrations were 2.75-15.5 times higher in the maternal tissue. To compare the characteristics of the maternal-fetal transfer between species with different gestation systems, reports on the striped dolphin and long-finned pilot whales were studied. The transfer rates of POPs in surfperches were 0.6-6.0%, while in marine mammals they were 3.0-9.4%. The difference in transfer rates may derive from the difference in their reproductive systems. On the other hand, as in marine mammals, selective transfer of POPs was seen in surfperches. The transfer rates were higher in less hydrophobic compounds such as dieldrin, and lower in more hydrophobic compounds such as DDTs. A new transfer factor is also discussed which instantly indicates the difference in the concentrations between mother and fetus. PMID:16360249

  18. Shape optimization of inclined ribs as heat transfer augmentation device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Yong; Kim, Hong-Min

    2006-12-01

    This work presents numerical optimization techniques for the design of a rectangular channel with inclined ribs to enhance turbulent heat transfer. The response surface method with Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analysis is used for optimization. Shear stress transport turbulence model is used as a turbulence closure. Computational results for local heat transfer rate show a reasonable agreement with the experimental data. Width-to-rib height ratio and attack angle of the rib are chosen as design variables. The objective function is defined as a linear combination of heat-transfer and friction-loss related terms with the weighting factor. Full-factorial experimental design method is used to determine the data points. Optimum shapes of the channel have been obtained in a range of the weighting factor.

  19. Technology transfer within the government

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, John

    1992-01-01

    The report of a workshop panel concerned with technology transfer within the government is presented. The presentation is made in vugraph form. The assigned subtopic for this panel are as follows: (1) transfer from non-NASA US government technology developers to NASA space missions/programs; and (2) transfer from NASA to other US government space mission programs. A specific area of inquiry was Technology Maturation Milestones. Three areas were investigated: technology development; advanced development; and flight hardware development.

  20. Energy transfer in optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Biryukov, A S; Dianov, Evgenii M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-04-30

    The possibility of energy transfer over long distances in the form of laser radiation propagating in dielectric optical fibres is discussed. Because nonlinear-optical phenomena in glasses prevent the transfer of high radiation powers in standard two-layer fibres, the outlook for this transfer is associated with the development of the technology of microstructure fibres with a hollow core and with further progress in the development of high-power fibre lasers. (optical fibres)

  1. Technology Transfer Center | Staff Directory

    Cancer.gov

    Charlotte McGuinness - Unit Supervisor CSC and Specialist for NCCAM Tawanda Abdelmouti - Technology Development Administrative Specialist Vio Conley - Technology Transfer Specialist for NIA and NIDA Joseph M.

  2. Radiative heat transfer in arrays of parallel cylinders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Cox

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of radiative heat transfer in arrays of parallel cylinders is presented. Attention is primarily directed toward two geometries common in the nuclear industry: square arrays of cylinders on a square pitch and hexagonal arrays of cylinders on an equilibrium triangular pitch. Configuration factors for cylinders on square and eqilateral triangular pitches are derived using Hottel's

  3. Extended characterization of DMA transfers on the Cell BE processor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farshad Khunjush; Nikitas J. Dimopoulos

    2008-01-01

    The main contributors to message delivery latency in message passing environments are the copying operations needed to transfer and bind a received message to the consuming process\\/thread. A significant portion of the software communication overhead is attributed to message copying. Recently, a set of factors has been leading high- performance processor architectures toward designs that feature multiple processing cores on

  4. RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASI-MONTE CARLO METHODS

    E-print Network

    . The radiative heat exchange in such a reactor is a function of the geometry of the problem, the spectralRADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASI-MONTE CARLO METHODS A. Kersch1 W. Moroko2 A. Schuster1 1Siemens wafers, as well as many other industrial processes. Several factors are considered including surface ab

  5. RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASIMONTE CARLO METHODS \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    , corresponding to an area of 8.64 cm 2 . The radiative heat exchange in such a reactor is a functionRADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH QUASI­MONTE CARLO METHODS \\Lambda A. Kersch 1 W. Morokoff 2 A of semiconductor wafers, as well as many other industrial processes. Several factors are considered including

  6. Action Learning: How Learning Transfers from Entrepreneurs to Small Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karen; Sambrook, Sally A.; Pittaway, Luke; Henley, Andrew; Norbury, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents research with small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) owners who have participated in a leadership development programme. The primary focus of this paper is on learning transfer and factors affecting it, arguing that entrepreneurs must engage in "action" in order to "learn" and that under certain conditions…

  7. College Distance from Home: Implications for Student Transfer Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Wyatt, Jeffrey N.; Shaw, Emily J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored college distance from home, a possible contributing factor of transfer behavior. Because the distance between a student's home and college has been found to be related negatively to social integration and positively to homesickness (i.e., Brooks & DuBois, 1995; Fisher, Murray, & Frazer, 1985; Tognoli, 2003), a…

  8. Influence of oxygen transfer on lipase production by Rhizopus arrhizus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat Elibol; Dursun Ozer

    2000-01-01

    The effect of oxygen on lipase production by Rhizopus arrhizus was studied under two operating modes, controlled dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) and controlled aeration rate. Lipase production depended more extensively on oxygen than cell growth. The intrinsic factor determining cell growth and lipase production was oxygen transfer rate (OTR) rather than DO concentration. Improvements in OTR, either by aeration or

  9. The Rockefeller University Office of Technology Transfer 502 Founders Hall

    E-print Network

    de Lange, Titia

    The Rockefeller University Office of Technology Transfer 502 Founders Hall 1230 York Avenue New Disorders using Ion Channel Modulators RU 1118 Technology Summary Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include of causative factors. Every year, about 20,000 children develop ASD in the U.S. alone. About 50% of them

  10. Fast and simple model for atmospheric radiative transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. C. Seidel; A. A. Kokhanovsky; M. E. Schaepman

    2010-01-01

    Radiative transfer models (RTMs) are of utmost importance for quantitative remote sensing, especially for compensating atmospheric perturbation. A persistent trade-off exists between approaches that prefer accuracy at the cost of computational complexity, versus those favouring simplicity at the cost of reduced accuracy. We propose an approach in the latter category, using analytical equations, parameterizations and a correction factor to efficiently

  11. Bayes Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Kass; Adrian E. Raftery

    1995-01-01

    In a 1935 paper and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null is one-half. Although there has been much discussion of

  12. Methane heat transfer investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Future high chamber pressure LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines require copper base alloy main combustion chamber coolant channels similar to the SSME to provide adequate cooling and reusable engine life. Therefore, it is of vital importance to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics and coking thresholds for LNG (94% methane) cooling, with a copper base alloy material adjacent to he fuel coolant. High pressure methane cooling and coking characteristics recently evaluated at Rocketdyne using stainless steel heated tubes at methane bulk temperatures and coolant wall temperatures typical of advanced engine operation except at lower heat fluxes as limited by the tube material. As expected, there was no coking observed. However, coking evaluations need be conducted with a copper base surface exposed to the methane coolant at higher heat fluxes approaching those of future high chamber pressure engines.

  13. Technology transfer 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Technology Transfer 1995 is intended to inform the US industrial and academic sectors about the many opportunities they have to form partnerships with the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the mutual advantage of the individual institutions, DOE, and the nation as a whole. It also describes some of the growing number of remarkable achievements resulting from such partnerships. These partnership success stories offer ample evidence that Americans are learning how to work together to secure major benefits for the nation--by combining the technological, scientific, and human resources resident in national laboratories with those in industry and academia. The benefits include more and better jobs for Americans, improved productivity and global competitiveness for technology-based industries, and a more efficient government laboratory system.

  14. National Technology Transfer Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC) "provides access to federal technology information, technology and market assessment services, technology marketing and assistance in finding strategic partners." The purpose of the Center is to help make "commercialization deals happen" by fostering relationships with federal clients, showcasing technologies and facilitating partnerships between clients and US industry. The technologies showcased here have been assessed by a team of market and technology analysts for their commercial potential. This extensive database of technologies, which largely seems to come from NASA, can be searched by keyword or browsed by category, such as medical devices, communications, software, or aerodynamics. NTTC's services and programs that promote business partnerships are described further on this website.

  15. Methane heat transfer investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Future high chamber pressure LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines require copper-base alloy main combustion chamber coolant channels similar to the SSME to provide adequate cooling and resuable engine life. Therefore, it is of vital importance to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics and coking thresholds for LNG (94% methane) cooling, with a copper-base alloy material adjacent to the fuel coolant. High-pressure methane cooling and coking characteristics were recently evaluated using stainless-steel heated tubes at methane bulk temperatures and coolant wall temperatures typical of advanced engine operation except at lower heat fluxes as limited by the tube material. As expected, there was no coking observed. However, coking evaluations need be conducted with a copper-base surface exposed to the methane coolant at higher heat fluxes approaching those of future high chamber pressure engines.

  16. Heat transfer probe

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff

    2006-10-10

    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  17. Aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D. (Inventor); Nagy, Kornel (Inventor); Roberts, Barney B. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Kroll, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Gamble, Joe (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle which includes an aerobraking device which also serves as a heat shield in the shape of a raked-off elliptic or circular cone with a circular or elliptical base, and with an ellipsoid or other blunt shape nose. The aerobraking device is fitted with a toroid-like skirt and is integral with the support structure of the propulsion system and other systems of the space vehicle. The vehicle is intended to be transported in components to a space station in lower earth orbit where it is assembled for use as a transportation system from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit and return. Conventional guidance means are included for autonomous flight.

  18. Bilayer Approaches for Nanoparticle Phase Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kini, Gautam Chandrakanth

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are often synthesized in organic solvents due to advantages of superior size and shape control obtainable in a non-polar environment. However, many applications featuring NPs require them to be in aqueous media. To transfer NPs from oil to water, surfactants with amphiphilic (hydrophobic and hydrophilic) groups have been widely used. A popular phase-transfer approach involves formation of oil-in-water emulsions upon which the oil storing the NPs is boiled off. In the process, surfactants form bilayers with hydrophobic groups on the NPs rendering them water-dispersible. This transfer route however is limited in that NPs aggregate to form clusters which results in poor colloidal stability and for the specific case of quantum dots (QDs), adversely impacts optical properties. It has ever since remained a challenge to devise approaches that transfer NPs from oil to water as single particles without compromising NP stability and properties. We have discovered that by simple addition of salt to water during the step of emulsion formation, NP transfer efficiency can be greatly enhanced in "salty-micelles" of surfactants. The strength of this approach lies in its simplicity and generic nature in that the transfer scheme is valid for different NP, surfactant and salt types. Using a model system with cadmium selenide (CdSe) QDs as NPs, Aerosol-OT (AOT) as the surfactant and NaCl as the salt in water, we found >90% of CdSe QDs transferred in salty-micelles of AOT which was significantly higher than the 45-55% QDs that transferred in deionized-water (DI-water) micelles of AOT. In the salty-micelle environment, QDs were found to exist predominantly as single NPs with narrow size distribution, as established by light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy. The effects of salt were in lowering aqueous solubility of AOT through "salting-out" action and in screening repulsions between like-charged head groups of AOT molecules. Electrophoresis, thermogravimetric analysis and photoluminescence measurements using a solvatochromic dye established higher surfactant coverage with greater lateral compaction for QDs in salty-micelles over the DI-micelle counterpart. Single NP characteristics along with a hydrophobic environment in laterally compact salty-micelles resulted in better retention of optical properties of QDs. Observations of a secondary effect by salt in inducing spontaneous emulsification of a hydrocarbon (octane)/AOT/brine system were systematically investigated by tracking time-variant octane droplet size and charge. Salinity levels that determine the spontaneous curvature and phase behavior of AOT were seen to influence the initial nucleation of octane droplets and their subsequent growth. The smallest octane drops (sub 50 nm) were nucleated at the optimum cross-over salinity and emergence of the liquid crystalline phase of AOT resulted in slowest growth rates. These factors contributed towards higher transfer efficiency of NPs in salty-micelles. Two applications from formulating aqueous NP suspensions by the new phase-transfer approach are described. In the first, QD and carbon-dot (C-Dot) "nanoreporters" were formulated for oil-field reservoir characterization using Neodol 91-7 (nonionic) and Avanel S150 CGN (hybrid nonionic and anionic) as surfactants. These NPs were stable to aggregation under reservoir-representative conditions (salinities: 1M NaCl, 1M KCl and 0.55M synthetic seawater; temperatures: 70-100 °C) and demonstrated flow and transport through crushed-calcite and quartz-sand columns with high breakthrough and recovery (> 90%). In the second application, tandem assembly of a cationic polymer, multivalent salt, and NPs was investigated in a microfluidic channel where charge ratio of the polymer/salt and shear from flow and device geometry determined their assembly into higher ordered structures such as gels and capsules.

  19. LRAT: Lightning Radiative Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phanord, Dieudonne D.

    1993-01-01

    In this report, we extend to cloud physics the work done for single and multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves. We consider the scattering of light, visible or infrared, by a spherical cloud represented by a statistically homogeneous ensemble of configurations of N identical spherical water droplets whose centers are uniformly distributed in its volume V. The ensemble is specified by the average number rho of scatterers in unit volume and by rho f(R) with f(R) as the distribution function for separations R of pairs. The incident light, vector-phi(sub 0) a plane electromagnetic wave with harmonic time dependence, is from outside the cloud. The propagation parameter kappa(sub 0) and the index of refraction eta(sub 0) determine physically the medium outside the distribution of scatterers. We solve the interior problem separately to obtain the bulk parameters for the scatterer equivalent to the ensemble of spherical droplets. With the interior solution or the equivalent medium approach, the multiple scattering problem is reduced to that of an equivalent single scatterer excited from outside illumination. A dispersion relation which determines the bulk propagation parameter K and the bulk index of refraction eta of the cloud is given in terms of the vector equivalent scattering amplitude vector-G and the dyadic scattering amplitude tilde-g of the single object in isolation. Based on this transfer model we will have the ability to consider clouds composed of inhomogeneous distribution of water and/or ice particles and we will be able to take into account particle size distributions within the cloud. We will also be able to study the effects of cloud composition (i.e., particle shape, size, composition, orientation, location) on the polarization of the single or the multiple scattered waves. Finally, this study will provide a new starting point for studying the problem of lightning radiative transfer.

  20. Dual Space Technology Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowbel, W.; Loutfy, R.

    2009-03-01

    Over the past fifteen years, MER has had several NASA SBIR Phase II programs in the area of space technology, based upon carbon-carbon (C-C) composites. In addition, in November 2004, leading edges supplied by MER provided the enabling technology to reach a Mach 10 record for an air breathing engine on the X-43 A flight. The MER business model constitutes a spin-off of technologies initially by incubating in house, and ultimately creating spin-off stand alone companies. FMC was formed to provide for technology transfer in the area of fabrication of C-C composites. FMC has acquired ISO 9000 and AS9100 quality certifications. FMC is fabricating under AS9100 certification, flight parts for several flight programs. In addition, FMC is expanding the application of carbon-carbon composites to several critical military programs. In addition to space technology transfer to critical military programs, FMC is becoming the world leader in the commercial area of low-cost C-C composites for furnace fixtures. Market penetrations have been accomplished in North America, Europe and Asia. Low-cost, quick turn-around and excellent quality of FMC products paves the way to greatly increased sales. In addition, FMC is actively pursuing a joint venture with a new partner, near closure, to become the leading supplier of high temperature carbon based composites. In addition, several other spin-off companies such as TMC, FiC, Li-Tech and NMIC were formed by MER with a plethora of potential space applications.