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Sample records for soils annual crops

  1. Managing Claypan Soils: Annual Grain Crops vs. Perennial Switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Topsoil depth and landscape position are important factors in the claypan region of Missouri for agricultural productivity and soil-water conservation. Shallow topsoil reduces grain productivity and causes yield inconsistencies, while traditional grain cropping increases soil erosion and nonpoint so...

  2. The green manure value of seven clover species grown as annual crops on low and high fertility temperate soils.

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Shirley M.; King, Jane R.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; O'Donovan, John T.

    2009-05-01

    Annual and perennial clover species may differ in green manure value. Seven clover (Trifolium) species were grown as annual crops on low fertility (Breton) and high fertility 15 (Edmonton) soils in Alberta

  3. Comparison of soil microbial respiration and carbon turnover under perennial and annual biofuel crops in two agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, L. M.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Sanford, G. R.; Jackson, R. D.; Heckman, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Bioenergy crops have the potential to provide a low carbon-intensive alternative to fossil fuels. More than a century of agricultural research has shown that conventional cropping systems can reduce soil organic matter (SOM) reservoirs, which cause long-term soil nutrient loss and C release to the atmosphere. In the face of climate change and other human disruptions to biogeochemical cycles, identifying biofuel crops that can maintain or enhance soil resources is desirable for the sustainable production of bioenergy. The objective of our study was to compare the effects of four biofuel crop treatments on SOM dynamics in two agricultural soils: Mollisols at Arlington Agricultural Research Station in Wisconsin and Alfisols at Kellogg Biological Station in Michigan, USA. We used fresh soils collected in 2013 and archived soils from 2008 to measure the effects of five years of crop management. Using a one-year long laboratory soil incubation coupled with a regression model and radiocarbon measurements, we separated soils into three SOM pools and their corresponding C turnover times. We found that the active pool, or biologically available C, was more sensitive to management and is an earlier indicator of changes to soil C dynamics than bulk soil C measurements. There was no effect of treatment on the active pool size at either site; however, the percent C in the active pool decreased, regardless of crop type, in surface soils with high clay content. At depth, the response of the slow pool differed between annual and perennial cropping systems. The distribution of C among SOM fractions varied between the two soil types, with greater C content associated with the active fraction in the coarser textured-soil and greater C content associated with the slow-cycling fraction in the soils with high clay content. These results suggest that the effects of bioenergy crops on soil resources will vary geographically, with implications for the carbon-cost of biocrop production.

  4. Carbon Sequestration in Native Prairie, Perennial Grass, and No-Tilled and Cultivated Annual Crops in Palouse Silt Loam Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial vegetation and annual cropping with low soil disturbance are often considered the best alternatives to tillage-based cropping systems for increasing C sequestration in soil. Our main objective was to evaluate soil organic C (SOC) and various measures of SOC characteristics in Palouse silt ...

  5. Soil fungal resources in annual cropping systems and their potential for management.

    PubMed

    Ellouze, Walid; Esmaeili Taheri, Ahmad; Bainard, Luke D; Yang, Chao; Bazghaleh, Navid; Navarro-Borrell, Adriana; Hanson, Keith; Hamel, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i) highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii) examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii) propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes) interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments) can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils. PMID:25247177

  6. Soil Fungal Resources in Annual Cropping Systems and Their Potential for Management

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili Taheri, Ahmad; Bainard, Luke D.; Yang, Chao; Navarro-Borrell, Adriana; Hamel, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i) highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii) examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii) propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes) interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments) can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils. PMID:25247177

  7. Effect of Potassium on Uptake of 137Cs in Food Crops Grown on Coral Soils: Annual Crops at Bikini Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, E R; Robinson, W

    2002-02-01

    In 1954 a radioactive plume from the thermonuclear device code named BRAVO contaminated the principal residential islands, Eneu and Bikini, of Bikini Atoll (11{sup o} 36 minutes N; 165{sup o} 22 minutes E), now part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The resulting soil radioactivity diminished greatly over the three decades before the studies discussed below began. By that time the shorter-lived isotopes had all but disappeared, but strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), and cesium-137, ({sup 137}Cs) were reduced by only one half-life. Minute amounts of the long-lived isotopes, plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), were present in soil, but were found to be inconsequential in the food chain of humans and land animals. Rather, extensive studies demonstrated that the major concern for human health was {sup 137}Cs in the terrestrial food chain (Robison et al., 1983; Robison et al., 1997). The following papers document results from several studies between 1986 and 1997 aimed at minimizing the {sup 137}Cs content of annual food crops. The existing literature on radiocesium in soils and plant uptake is largely a consequence of two events: the worldwide fallout of 1952-58, and the fallout from Chernobyl. The resulting studies have, for the most part, dealt either with soils containing some amount of silicate clays and often with appreciable K, or with the short-term development of plants in nutrient cultures.

  8. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of crop rotations that support sustainable agriculture depends on understanding complex relationships between soils, crops, and yield. Objectives were to measure how soil chemical and physical attributes as well as maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] stover dry weig...

  9. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management: soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive use of sustainable and intensive agricultural systems would result in profitable farms producing greater yields while maintaining or enhancing natural resources. Development of sustainable crop and soil management systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil managem...

  10. Inorganic Nutrients Increase Humification Efficiency and C-Sequestration in an Annually Cropped Soil.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, Clive A; Richardson, Alan E; Wade, Len J; Conyers, Mark; Kirkegaard, John A

    2016-01-01

    Removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and storing the carbon (C) in resistant soil organic matter (SOM) is a global priority to restore soil fertility and help mitigate climate change. Although it is widely assumed that retaining rather than removing or burning crop residues will increase SOM levels, many studies have failed to demonstrate this. We hypothesised that the microbial nature of resistant SOM provides a predictable nutrient stoichiometry (C:nitrogen, C:phosphorus and C:sulphur-C:N:P:S) to target using supplementary nutrients when incorporating C-rich crop residues into soil. An improvement in the humification efficiency of the soil microbiome as a whole, and thereby C-sequestration, was predicted. In a field study over 5 years, soil organic-C (SOC) stocks to 1.6 m soil depth were increased by 5.5 t C ha-1 where supplementary nutrients were applied with incorporated crop residues, but were reduced by 3.2 t C ha-1 without nutrient addition, with 2.9 t C ha-1 being lost from the 0-10 cm layer. A net difference of 8.7 t C ha-1 was thus achieved in a cropping soil over a 5 year period, despite the same level of C addition. Despite shallow incorporation (0.15 m), more than 50% of the SOC increase occurred below 0.3 m, and as predicted by the stoichiometry, increases in resistant SOC were accompanied by increases in soil NPS at all depths. Interestingly the C:N, C:P and C:S ratios decreased significantly with depth possibly as a consequence of differences in fungi to bacteria ratio. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of the C-input, it is essential to balance the nutrient stoichiometry of added C to better match that of resistant SOM to increase SOC sequestration. This has implications for global practices and policies aimed at increasing SOC sequestration and specifically highlight the need to consider the hidden cost and availability of associated nutrients in building soil-C. PMID:27144282

  11. Inorganic Nutrients Increase Humification Efficiency and C-Sequestration in an Annually Cropped Soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Alan E.; Wade, Len J.; Conyers, Mark; Kirkegaard, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and storing the carbon (C) in resistant soil organic matter (SOM) is a global priority to restore soil fertility and help mitigate climate change. Although it is widely assumed that retaining rather than removing or burning crop residues will increase SOM levels, many studies have failed to demonstrate this. We hypothesised that the microbial nature of resistant SOM provides a predictable nutrient stoichiometry (C:nitrogen, C:phosphorus and C:sulphur–C:N:P:S) to target using supplementary nutrients when incorporating C-rich crop residues into soil. An improvement in the humification efficiency of the soil microbiome as a whole, and thereby C-sequestration, was predicted. In a field study over 5 years, soil organic-C (SOC) stocks to 1.6 m soil depth were increased by 5.5 t C ha-1 where supplementary nutrients were applied with incorporated crop residues, but were reduced by 3.2 t C ha-1 without nutrient addition, with 2.9 t C ha-1 being lost from the 0–10 cm layer. A net difference of 8.7 t C ha-1 was thus achieved in a cropping soil over a 5 year period, despite the same level of C addition. Despite shallow incorporation (0.15 m), more than 50% of the SOC increase occurred below 0.3 m, and as predicted by the stoichiometry, increases in resistant SOC were accompanied by increases in soil NPS at all depths. Interestingly the C:N, C:P and C:S ratios decreased significantly with depth possibly as a consequence of differences in fungi to bacteria ratio. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of the C-input, it is essential to balance the nutrient stoichiometry of added C to better match that of resistant SOM to increase SOC sequestration. This has implications for global practices and policies aimed at increasing SOC sequestration and specifically highlight the need to consider the hidden cost and availability of associated nutrients in building soil-C. PMID:27144282

  12. An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900 °C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41 g N2O-N ha(-1) day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O. PMID:23490323

  13. Annual cover crops do not inhibit early growth of perennial grasses on a disturbed restoration soil in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agricultural, rangeland, and forest system revegetation projects, cover crops are used for competitive exclusion of weeds and to stabilize soil. Within revegetation projects, annual or short-lived perennial grasses are often sown at the same time as the perennial grasses that are the desired spec...

  14. Soil quality in a pecan – Kura clover alley cropping system in the midwestern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intercropping alleys in agroforestry provides an income source until the tree crop produces harvestable yields. However, cultivation of annual crops decreases soil organic matter and increases soil erosion potential, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintain a continuous soil cover,...

  15. Double-cropping annual ryegrass and bermudagrass to reduce phosphorus levels in soil with history of poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-cropping forages may help to ameliorate excess soil nutrients in manure-impacted fields. Studies were conducted on Savannah soil with a 30+ yr history of broiler litter to determine the yield of biomass and P in bermudagrass (summer) and ryegrass-bermudagrass (year-round) forage systems. Duri...

  16. A Centralized Regional Database for Winter Cover Crops in Annual Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops have the potential to reduce erosion, minimize losses of nitrogen and phosphorus, and increase soil carbon in annual cropping systems in the Midwest. Public support, however, for incentives to farmers to adopt cover crops is minimal. Therefore, development of location-specific rec...

  17. Effects of dairy manure management in annual and perennial cropping systems on soil microbial communities associated with in situ N2O fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunfield, Kari; Thompson, Karen; Bent, Elizabeth; Abalos, Diego; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Liquid dairy manure (LDM) application and ploughing events may affect soil microbial community functioning differently between perennial and annual cropping systems due to plant-specific characteristics stimulating changes in microbial community structure. Understanding how these microbial communities change in response to varied management, and how these changes relate to in situ N2O fluxes may allow the creation of predictive models for use in the development of best management practices (BMPs) to decrease nitrogen (N) losses through choice of crop, plough, and LDM practices. Our objectives were to contrast changes in the population sizes and community structures of genes associated with nitrifier (amoA, crenamoA) and denitrifier (nirK, nirS, nosZ) communities in differently managed annual and perennial fields demonstrating variation in N2O flux, and to determine if differences in these microbial communities were linked to the observed variation in N2O fluxes. Soil was sampled in 2012 and in 2014 in a 4-ha spring-applied LDM grass-legume (perennial) plot and two 4-ha corn (annual) treatments under fall or spring LDM application. Soil DNA was extracted and used to target N-cycling genes via qPCR (n=6) and for next-generation sequencing (Illumina Miseq) (n=3). Significantly higher field-scale N2O fluxes were observed in the annual plots compared to the perennial system; however N2O fluxes increased after plough down of the perennial plot. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated differences in N-cycling communities between annual and perennial cropping systems, and some communities became similar between annual and perennial plots after ploughing. Shifts in these communities demonstrated relationships with agricultural management, which were associated with differences in N2O flux. Indicator species analysis was used to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) most responsible for community shifts related to management. Nitrifying and denitrifying soil

  18. Crop Residue and Soil Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop yield is greatly influenced by the amount of water that moves from the soil, through the plant, and out into the atmosphere. Winter wheat yield responds linearly to available soil water content at planting (bu/a = 5.56 + 5.34*inches). Therefore, storing precipitation in the soil during non-crop...

  19. Dryland crop sequence and tillage influences on soil water storage: First 15 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices and cropping systems have greatly changed over the past half century. In the northern Great Plains, soil water storage during the non-crop period of annual cropping systems helps to stabilize crop yields. Our objectives were to determine the influences of six crop sequences an...

  20. Carbon dioxide flux as affected by tillage and irrigation in soil converted from perennial forages to annual crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the most significant contributors to regional and global warming as well as climatic change. However, CO2 flux from the soil surface to the atmosphere can be affected by modifications in soil physical properties resulting from changes in land ma...

  1. Cropping system effects on soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping systems can affect a range of soil properties depending on the specific crop rotation, nutrient amendments, and tillage practices employed. A soil quality index can be use to interpret changes in soil properties and assess improvement or degradation of soil quality. We evaluated a range of ...

  2. Chemistry and microbial functional diversity differences in biofuel crop and grassland soils in multiple geographies

    EPA Science Inventory

    As crop and non-crop lands are increasingly converted to biofuel feedstock production, it is of interest to identify potential impacts of annual and perennial feedstocks on soil ecosystem services. Soil samples were obtained from diverse regionally distributed biofuel cropping si...

  3. Annual Weeds, Alternative Crops for Alternative Fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All cropland acreage in Alabama is infested with one or more species of annual weeds. Weeds are estimated to cost producers in the state approximately 8% of their potential yield, even with the current weed control technology available. Weed management continues to be the most expensive row crop pr...

  4. Amazon basin soils: management for continuous crop production.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, P A; Bandy, D E; Villachica, J H; Nicholaides, J J

    1982-05-21

    Technology has been developed which permits continuous production of annual crops in some of the acid, infertile soils of the Amazon Basin. Studies in Yurimaguas, Peru, show that three grain crops can be produced annually with appropriate fertilizer inputs. Twenty-one crops have been harvested during the past 8(1/2) years in the same field, with an average annual production of 7.8 tons of grain per hectare. Soil properties are improving with continuous cultivation. The technology has been validated by local farmers, who normally practice shifting cultivation. Economic interpretations indicate large increases in annual family farm income and a high return on the investment of chemical inputs. Other promising land use alternatives include low-input crop production systems, paddy rice production in fertile alluvial soils, and pastures or agroforestry in rolling areas. Stable, continuous food crop production is an attractive alternative to shifting cultivation in humid tropical regions experiencing severe demographic pressures. For each hectare of land managed in a highly productive manner, there may be less need for clearing additional tropical forests to meet food demands. PMID:17819134

  5. Tolerance of Soybean Crops to Soil Waterlogging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monoculture of irrigated paddy rice, common in the Mississippi delta of the United States and in Asia, diminishes soil nutrients, compacts soils, contaminates water supplies, and increases pest and diseases. While the addition of soybean crops to this cropping ecosystem can attenuate many of these p...

  6. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  7. Integrating soil solarization into crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil solarization remains one of but a handful of nonchemical soil disinfestation methods suitable for high-value crops such as cut-flowers, strawberry and fresh market tomato and pepper. Recognition of soil solarization within the context of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach is paramoun...

  8. Chemistry and microbial functional diversity differences in biofuel crop and grassland soils in multiple geographies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As crop and non-crop lands are increasingly becoming converted to biofuel feedstock production, it is of interest to identify potential impacts of annual and perennial feedstocks on soil ecosystem services. Soil samples obtained from 6 regional sets of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and 3 regiona...

  9. Dryland soil chemical properties and crop yields affected by long-term tillage and cropping sequence.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Allen, Brett L; Caesar-TonThat, Thecan; Lenssen, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effect of long-term management on soil nutrients and chemical properties is scanty. We examined the 30-year effect of tillage frequency and cropping sequence combination on dryland soil Olsen-P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, SO4-S, and Zn concentrations, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) at the 0-120 cm depth and annualized crop yield in the northern Great Plains, USA. Treatments were no-till continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (NTCW), spring till continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall and spring till continuous spring wheat (FSTCW), fall and spring till spring wheat-barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 1984-1999) followed by spring wheat-pea (Pisum sativum L., 2000-2013) (FSTW-B/P), and spring till spring wheat-fallow (STW-F, traditional system). At 0-7.5 cm, P, K, Zn, Na, and CEC were 23-60% were greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Ca were 6-31% lower in NTCW, STCW, and FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 7.5-15 cm, K was 23-52% greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Mg were 3-21% lower in NTCW, STCW, FSTCW, FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 60-120 cm, soil chemical properties varied with treatments. Annualized crop yield was 23-30% lower in STW-F than the other treatments. Continuous N fertilization probably reduced soil pH, Ca, and Mg, but greater crop residue returned to the soil increased P, K, Na, Zn, and CEC in NTCW and STCW compared to STW-F. Reduced tillage with continuous cropping may be adopted for maintaining long-term soil fertility and crop yields compared with the traditional system. PMID:26171303

  10. Soil carbon changes for bioenergy crops.

    SciTech Connect

    Andress, D.

    2004-04-22

    Bioenergy crops, which displace fossil fuels when used to produce ethanol, biobased products, and/or electricity, have the potential to further reduce atmospheric carbon levels by building up soil carbon levels, especially when planted on lands where these levels have been reduced by intensive tillage. The purpose of this study is to improve the characterization of the soil carbon (C) sequestration for bioenergy crops (switchgrass, poplars, and willows) in the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model (Wang 1999) by using the latest results reported in the literature and by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Because soil carbon sequestration for bioenergy crops can play a significant role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for cellulosic ethanol, it is important to periodically update the estimates of soil carbon sequestration from bioenergy crops as new and better data become available. We used the three-step process described below to conduct our study.

  11. Soil Moisture as an Estimator for Crop Yield in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Michael; Meyer, Volker; Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Annual crop yield depends on various factors such as soil properties, management decisions, and meteorological conditions. Unfavorable weather conditions, e.g. droughts, have the potential to drastically diminish crop yield in rain-fed agriculture. For example, the drought in 2003 caused direct losses of 1.5 billion EUR only in Germany. Predicting crop yields allows to mitigate negative effects of weather extremes which are assumed to occur more often in the future due to climate change. A standard approach in economics is to predict the impact of climate change on agriculture as a function of temperature and precipitation. This approach has been developed further using concepts like growing degree days. Other econometric models use nonlinear functions of heat or vapor pressure deficit. However, none of these approaches uses soil moisture to predict crop yield. We hypothesize that soil moisture is a better indicator to explain stress on plant growth than estimations based on precipitation and temperature. This is the case because the latter variables do not explicitly account for the available water content in the root zone, which is the primary source of water supply for plant growth. In this study, a reduced form panel approach is applied to estimate a multivariate econometric production function for the years 1999 to 2010. Annual crop yield data of various crops on the administrative district level serve as depending variables. The explanatory variable of major interest is the Soil Moisture Index (SMI), which quantifies anomalies in root zone soil moisture. The SMI is computed by the mesoscale Hydrological Model (mHM, www.ufz.de/mhm). The index represents the monthly soil water quantile at a 4 km2 grid resolution covering entire Germany. A reduced model approach is suitable because the SMI is the result of a stochastic weather process and therefore can be considered exogenous. For the ease of interpretation a linear functionality is preferred. Meteorological

  12. Cropping systems and control of soil erosion in a Mediterranean environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Salvatore; Copani, Venera; Testa, Giorgio; Scalici, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    The research has been carried out over the years 1996-2010 in an area of the internal hill of Sicily region (Enna, c.da Geracello, 550 m a. s. l. 37° 23' N. Lat, 14° 21' E. Long) in the center of Mediterranean Sea, mainly devoted to durum wheat cultivation, using the experimental plots, established in 1996 on a slope of 26-28%, equipped to determine surface runoff and soil losses. The establishment consists of twelve plots, having 40 m length and 8 m width. In order to study the effect of different field crop systems in controlling soil erosion in slopes subjected to water erosion, the following systems were studied: permanent crops, tilled annual crops, no-tilled annual crops, set-aside. The used crops were: durum wheat, faba bean, rapeseed, subterranean clover, Italian ryegrass, alfalfa, sweetvetch, moon trefoil, barley, sweet sorghum, sunflower. The results pointed out that the cropping systems with perennial crops allowed to keep low the soil loss, while annual crop rotation determined a high amount of soil loss. Sod seeding showed promising results also for annual crop rotations.

  13. The interactive effects of soil transplant into colder regions and cropping on soil microbiology and biogeochemistry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Feng; Xue, Kai; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Yuguang; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2015-03-01

    Soil transplant into warmer regions has been shown to alter soil microbiology. In contrast, little is known about the effects of soil transplant into colder regions, albeit that climate cooling has solicited attention in recent years. To address this question, we transplanted bare fallow soil over large transects from southern China (subtropical climate zone) to central (warm temperate climate zone) and northern China (cold temperate climate zone). After an adaptation period of 4 years, soil nitrogen components, microbial biomass and community structures were altered. However, the effects of soil transplant on microbial communities were dampened by maize cropping, unveiling a negative interaction between cropping and transplant. Further statistical analyses with Canonical correspondence analysis and Mantel tests unveiled annual average temperature, relative humidity, aboveground biomass, soil pH and NH4 (+) -N content as environmental attributes closely correlated with microbial functional structures. In addition, average abundances of amoA-AOA (ammonia-oxidizing archaea) and amoA-AOB (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) genes were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with soil nitrification capacity, hence both AOA and AOB contributed to the soil functional process of nitrification. These results suggested that the soil nitrogen cycle was intimately linked with microbial community structure, and both were subjected to disturbance by soil transplant to colder regions and plant cropping. PMID:24548455

  14. Soil heterotrophic respiration responses to meteorology, soil types and cropping systems in a temperate agricultural watershed.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buysse, Pauline; Viaud, Valérie; Fléchard, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Within the context of Climate Change, a better understanding of soil organic matter dynamics is of considerable importance in agro-ecosystems, due to their large mitigation potential. This study aims at better understanding the process of soil heterotrophic respiration at the annual scale and at the watershed scale, with these temporal and spatial scales allowing an integration of the most important drivers: cropping systems and management, topography, soil types, soil organic carbon content and meteorological conditions. Twenty-four soil CO2 flux measurement sites - comprising three PVC collars each - were spread over the Naizin-Kervidy catchment (ORE AgrHys, 4.9 km², W. France) in March 2014. These sites were selected in order to represent most of the diversity in drainage classes, soil types and cropping systems. Soil CO2 flux measurements were performed about every ten to fifteen days at each site, starting from 20 March 2014, using the dynamic closed chamber system Li-COR 8100. Soil temperature and soil moisture content down to 5 cm depth were measured simultaneously. An empirical model taking the influence of meteorological drivers (soil temperature and soil water content) on soil CO2 fluxes was applied to each site and the different responses were analyzed with regard to site characteristics (topography, soil organic carbon content, soil microbial biomass, crop type, crop management,…) in order to determine the most important driving variables of soil heterotrophic respiration. The modeling objective is then to scale the fluxes measured at all sites up to the full watershed scale.

  15. Micronutrients in Soils, Crops, and Livestock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Umesh C.; Wu, Kening; Liang, Siyuan

    Micronutrient concentrations are generally higher in the surface soil and decrease with soil depth. In spite of the high concentration of most micronutrients in soils, only a small fraction is available to plants. Micronutrients, also known as trace elements, are required in microquantities but their lack can cause serious crop production and animal health problems. Crops vary considerably in their response to various micronutrients. Brassicas and legumes are highly responsive to molybdenum (Mo) and boron (B), whereas corn and other cereals are more responsive to zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Micronutrient deficiencies are more common in humid temperate regions, as well as in humid tropical regions, because of intense leaching associated with high precipitation. Soil pH is one of the most important factors affecting the availability of micronutrients to plants. With increasing pH, the availability of these nutrients is reduced with the exception of Mo whose availability increases as soil pH increases. In most plant species, leaves contain higher amounts of nutrients than other plant parts. Therefore, whenever possible, leaves should be sampled to characterize the micronutrient status of crops. Deficiency symptoms for most micronutrients appear on the younger leaves at the top of the plant, whereas toxicity symptoms generally appear on the older leaves of plants. As summarized by Deckers and Steinnes, micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in developing countries, which have much poorer soil resources than the fertile soils of Europe and North America. Many of these areas lie in the humid tropics with extremely infertile, highly weathered, and/or highly leached soils, which are intensely deficient in nutrients. The rest of such soils are in the semiarid and areas adjacent to the latter, where alkaline and calcareous soil conditions severely limit the availability of micronutrients to plants. Frequently, the Cu, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), Zn, and selenium (Se) levels

  16. Soil moisture monitoring for crop management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Dale

    2015-07-01

    The 'Risk management through soil moisture monitoring' project has demonstrated the capability of current technology to remotely monitor and communicate real time soil moisture data. The project investigated whether capacitance probes would assist making informed pre- and in-crop decisions. Crop potential and cropping inputs are increasingly being subject to greater instability and uncertainty due to seasonal variability. In a targeted survey of those who received regular correspondence from the Department of Primary Industries it was found that i) 50% of the audience found the information generated relevant for them and less than 10% indicted with was not relevant; ii) 85% have improved their knowledge/ability to assess soil moisture compared to prior to the project, with the most used indicator of soil moisture still being rain fall records; and iii) 100% have indicated they will continue to use some form of the technology to monitor soil moisture levels in the future. It is hoped that continued access to this information will assist informed input decisions. This will minimise inputs in low decile years with a low soil moisture base and maximise yield potential in more favourable conditions based on soil moisture and positive seasonal forecasts

  17. Freeze-thaw effects on phosphorus loss in runoff from manured and catch-cropped soils.

    PubMed

    Bechmann, Marianne E; Kleinman, Peter J A; Sharpley, Andrew N; Saporito, Lou S

    2005-01-01

    Concern over nonpoint source P losses from agricultural lands to surface waters in frigid climates has focused attention on the role of freezing and thawing on P loss from catch crops (cover crops). This study evaluated the effect of freezing and thawing on the fate of P in bare soils, soils mixed with dairy manure, and soils with an established catch crop of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.). Experiments were conducted to evaluate changes in P runoff from packed soil boxes (100 by 20 by 5 cm) and P leaching from intact soil columns (30 cm deep). Before freezing and thawing, total P (TP) in runoff from catch-cropped soils was lower than from manured and bare soils due to lower erosion. Repeated freezing and thawing significantly increased water-extractable P (WEP) from catch crop biomass and resulted in significantly elevated concentrations of dissolved P in runoff (9.7 mg L(-1)) compared with manured (0.18 mg L(-1)) and bare soils (0.14 mg L(-1)). Catch crop WEP was strongly correlated with the number of freeze-thaw cycles. Freezing and thawing did not change the WEP of soils mixed with manures, nor were differences observed in subsurface losses of P between catch-cropped and bare soils before or after manure application. This study illustrates the trade-offs of establishing catch crops in frigid climates, which can enhance P uptake by biomass and reduce erosion potential but increase dissolved P runoff. PMID:16275731

  18. Tillage and grazing impact on annual crop yields following a conversion from perennial grass to annual crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in methods to transition from perennial grasses to annual crops should continue to increase because of expiration of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contracts in the USA and a desire by some to include a perennial phase in annual crop rotations. A four-year study was initiated in 2005 at...

  19. Blending soil conservation with production: Assessment of diverse crop rotations under no-till soil management for agronomic yield and soil C sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversified crop rotations, which reduce risk associated with adoption of no-till soil management, may influence soil C sequestration and soil quality. This study measured effects of corn-soybean (C-S), corn-soybean-oat/pea hay (C-S-H), or corn-soybean-oat/pea hay-alfalfa-alfalfa (C-S-H-A-A) annual...

  20. Benefits of annual and perennial forages in row crop rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of crop rotations that support sustainable agriculture depends on understanding complex relationships between soils, crops, and yield. Objectives were to measure how soil chemical and physical attributes as well as corn and soybean stover dry weight, stover mineral concentrations, seed ...

  1. Cover crop effects on soil carbon and nitrogen under bioenergy sorghum crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops can increase soil C and N storage and reduce the potential for N leaching under agronomic crops, but information on their benefits under bioenergy crops is scanty due to the removal of aboveground biomass. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of cover crops on soil organ...

  2. Impacts of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural land use and in particular crop growth dynamics can greatly affect soil quality. Both the amount of soil lost from erosion by water and soil organic matter are key indicators for soil quality. The aim was to develop a modelling framework for quantifying the impacts of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the regional scale with test case Flanders. A framework for modelling the impacts of crop growth on soil erosion and soil organic matter was developed by coupling the dynamic crop cover model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) to the PESERA soil erosion model (Kirkby et al., 2009) and to the RothC carbon model (Coleman and Jenkinson, 1999). All three models are process-based, spatially distributed and intended as a regional diagnostic tool. A geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System). Crop allometric models were developed from variety trials to calculate crop residues for common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil. Results indicate that crop growth dynamics and crop rotations influence soil quality for a very large percentage. soil erosion mainly occurs in the southern part of Flanders, where silty to loamy soils and a hilly topography are responsible for soil loss rates of up to 40 t/ha. Parcels under maize, sugar beet and potatoes are most vulnerable to soil erosion. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute most to the total carbon sequestered in agricultural soils. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil quality for a large percentage. The coupled REGCROP-PESERA-ROTHC model allows for quantifying the impact of seasonal and year-to-year crop growth dynamics on soil quality. When coupled to a multi-annual crop

  3. The use of cover crops to manage soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are used to manage soils for many different reasons. Inserting cover crops into fallow periods and spaces in cropping systems is a beneficial soil management practice. Natural ecosystems typically have some plants growing, covering the soil, transpiring water, taking up nutrients, fixing...

  4. Tillage Management and Previous Crop Effects on Soil Physical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the potential positive effects of diverse crop rotations and no-till soil management on crop productivity and soil resource conservation, research to remove the constraints to widespread adoption of these crop and soil management practices in eastern South Dakota and western Minnesota is ...

  5. Soil Quality and the Solar Corridor Crop System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity based on highly efficient use of solar radiation by integrating row crops with drilled or solid-seeded crops in broad strips (corridors) that also facilitate establishment of cover crops for year-round soil cover. The S...

  6. Soil quality and the solar corridor crop system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity based on highly efficient use of solar radiation by integrating row crops with drilled or solid-seeded crops in broad strips (corridors) that also facilitate establishment of cover crops for year-round soil cover. The S...

  7. Soil phosphorus compounds in integrated crop-livestock systems of subtropical Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil phosphorus (P) utilization and loss mechanisms may be affected by agricultural complexity, in particular when combining annual and perennial crops and livestock grazing on the same land area and at overlapping time periods. Our objectives were to (i) qualify and quantify soil organic and inorga...

  8. Differential Soil Acidity Tolerance of Tropical Legume Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In tropical regions, soil acidity and low soil fertility are the most important yield limiting factors for sustainable crop production. Using legume cover crops as mulch is an important strategy not only to protect the soil loss from erosion but also ameliorating soil fertility. Information is limit...

  9. Soil and crop nitrogen as influenced by tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and crop management practices may influence soil mineral N, crop N uptake, and N leaching. We evaluated the effects of three tillage practices [no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)], four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secale cereale L.)],...

  10. Cover cropping and no-tillage improve soil health in arid irrigated cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact on soil health of long-term no-tillage (NT) and cover cropping (CC) practices, alone and in combination, was measured and compared with standard tillage (ST) with and without cover crops (NO) in irrigated row crops after 15 years of management in the San Joaquin Valley, CA. Soil aggregat...

  11. No-till bioenergy cropping systems effect on soil aeration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy cropping systems have been proposed as a way to enhance United States energy security. However, research on soil quality, such as the effects of maize stover harvesting on soil aeration and the relationships to soil structure and water, associated with bioenergy cropping systems has been l...

  12. Effect of Cover Crops on Soil Fungal Diversity and Biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of various cover crops (sordan, mustard, canola, honeysweet, and fallow) to influence soil fungal biomass and diversity were tested in a potato field in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Soil samples (0-5 cm depth) were randomly selected from each cover crop plot and soil fungal communitie...

  13. Accounting for soil biotic effects on soil health and crop productivity in the design of crop rotations.

    PubMed

    Dias, Teresa; Dukes, Angela; Antunes, Pedro M

    2015-02-01

    There is an urgent need for novel agronomic improvements capable of boosting crop yields while alleviating environmental impacts. One such approach is the use of optimized crop rotations. However, a set of measurements that can serve as guiding principles for the design of crop rotations is lacking. Crop rotations take advantage of niche complementarity, enabling the optimization of nutrient use and the reduction of pests and specialist pathogen loads. However, despite the recognized importance of plant-soil microbial interactions and feedbacks for crop yield and soil health, this is ignored in the selection and management of crops for rotation systems. We review the literature and propose criteria for the design of crop rotations focusing on the roles of soil biota and feedback on crop productivity and soil health. We consider that identifying specific key organisms or consortia capable of influencing plant productivity is more important as a predictor of soil health and crop productivity than assessing the overall soil microbial diversity per se. As such, we propose that setting up soil feedback studies and applying genetic sequencing tools towards the development of soil biotic community databases has a strong potential to enable the establishment of improved soil health indicators for optimized crop rotations. PMID:24408021

  14. Phytoremediation of high phosphorus soil by annual ryegrass and common bermudagrass harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of soil phosphorus (P) in crop harvest is a remediation option for soils high in P. This four-year field-plot study determined P uptake by annual ryegrass (ARG, Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and common bermudagrass (CB, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) from Ruston soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic...

  15. Uncertainty in soil data can outweigh climate impact signals in global crop yield simulations.

    PubMed

    Folberth, Christian; Skalský, Rastislav; Moltchanova, Elena; Balkovič, Juraj; Azevedo, Ligia B; Obersteiner, Michael; van der Velde, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    Global gridded crop models (GGCMs) are increasingly used for agro-environmental assessments and estimates of climate change impacts on food production. Recently, the influence of climate data and weather variability on GGCM outcomes has come under detailed scrutiny, unlike the influence of soil data. Here we compare yield variability caused by the soil type selected for GGCM simulations to weather-induced yield variability. Without fertilizer application, soil-type-related yield variability generally outweighs the simulated inter-annual variability in yield due to weather. Increasing applications of fertilizer and irrigation reduce this variability until it is practically negligible. Importantly, estimated climate change effects on yield can be either negative or positive depending on the chosen soil type. Soils thus have the capacity to either buffer or amplify these impacts. Our findings call for improvements in soil data available for crop modelling and more explicit accounting for soil variability in GGCM simulations. PMID:27323866

  16. Uncertainty in soil data can outweigh climate impact signals in global crop yield simulations

    PubMed Central

    Folberth, Christian; Skalský, Rastislav; Moltchanova, Elena; Balkovič, Juraj; Azevedo, Ligia B.; Obersteiner, Michael; van der Velde, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    Global gridded crop models (GGCMs) are increasingly used for agro-environmental assessments and estimates of climate change impacts on food production. Recently, the influence of climate data and weather variability on GGCM outcomes has come under detailed scrutiny, unlike the influence of soil data. Here we compare yield variability caused by the soil type selected for GGCM simulations to weather-induced yield variability. Without fertilizer application, soil-type-related yield variability generally outweighs the simulated inter-annual variability in yield due to weather. Increasing applications of fertilizer and irrigation reduce this variability until it is practically negligible. Importantly, estimated climate change effects on yield can be either negative or positive depending on the chosen soil type. Soils thus have the capacity to either buffer or amplify these impacts. Our findings call for improvements in soil data available for crop modelling and more explicit accounting for soil variability in GGCM simulations. PMID:27323866

  17. Uncertainty in soil data can outweigh climate impact signals in global crop yield simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folberth, Christian; Skalský, Rastislav; Moltchanova, Elena; Balkovič, Juraj; Azevedo, Ligia B.; Obersteiner, Michael; van der Velde, Marijn

    2016-06-01

    Global gridded crop models (GGCMs) are increasingly used for agro-environmental assessments and estimates of climate change impacts on food production. Recently, the influence of climate data and weather variability on GGCM outcomes has come under detailed scrutiny, unlike the influence of soil data. Here we compare yield variability caused by the soil type selected for GGCM simulations to weather-induced yield variability. Without fertilizer application, soil-type-related yield variability generally outweighs the simulated inter-annual variability in yield due to weather. Increasing applications of fertilizer and irrigation reduce this variability until it is practically negligible. Importantly, estimated climate change effects on yield can be either negative or positive depending on the chosen soil type. Soils thus have the capacity to either buffer or amplify these impacts. Our findings call for improvements in soil data available for crop modelling and more explicit accounting for soil variability in GGCM simulations.

  18. Global patterns of the trends in satellite-derived crop yield proxy, temperature and soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, T.; Iizumi, T.; Sakurai, G.; Okada, M.; Nishimori, M.

    2014-12-01

    Crop productivity (yield) is sensitive to climate variability and change. To inform stakeholders, including food agencies in food-importing countries, about future variations in food supply associated with climate variability and change, understanding major climatic drivers of the spatiotemporal variations in crop yield over global cropland during the last few decades is crucial. Although remote sensing has difficulty distinguishing individual crops and misses entire cropping cycles in areas where extensive cloud cover during the monsoon limits satellite observations, it is still useful in deriving a proxy of crop yield over large spatial domain and estimating the impacts on crop yield proxy due to climate, including land-surface temperature and surface-layer soil moisture. This study presents an attempt to globally depict the impact of climate change on crop yield proxy by applying a time series analysis to MODIS and AMSR-E satellite images. The crop yield proxy used was the annual maximum or integrated MODIS-derived NDVI during the growing period predefined on the basis of the global crop calendar. The trends in the crop yield proxy in the interval 2001-2013 appeared positive in higher latitudes and negative in lower latitudes. In higher latitudes (and thus colder regions), the increased land-surface temperature led to an increase in crop yield in part due to the enhanced photosynthesis rate. In contrast, the crop yield proxy showed negative correlation with land-surface temperature in lower latitudes. The increased temperature might decrease crop yield by increasing evapotranspiration rate, plant respiration and/or heat stress. The crop yield proxy was also correlated with the AMSR-E-derived soil moisture, although the geographical distribution of soil moisture was highly heterogeneous.

  19. Soil carbon and crop yields affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...

  20. Cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization impact on surface residue, soil carbon sequestration, and crop yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information is needed on the effect of management practices on soil C storage for obtaining C credit. The effects of tillage, cropping sequence, and N fertilization were evaluated on dryland crop and surface residue C and soil organic C (SOC) at the 0-120 cm depth in a Williams loam from 2006 to 201...

  1. Effect of Cropping Pattern and Crop Residue on Herbicide Binding to Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The binding of herbicides to soil is dependent on many factors, including soil texture, organic matter, and pH. In 2007 we were conducting an experiment to determine the effect of cropping patterns on atrazine efficacy and fate, and found that there was a significant relationship between cropping p...

  2. LLWR techniques for quantifying potential soil compaction consequences of crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvesting crop residues for bioenergy or bio-product production may decrease soil organic matter (SOM), resulting in the degradation of soil physical properties and ultimately soil productivity. Using the Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR) to evaluate improvement or degradation of soil physical pro...

  3. Managing Soil Properties through Dryland Cropping System Intensities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modification of soil functioning/quality parameters (i.e., organic matter content) is important to improve the capacity of soil as a water storage-reservoir for crop production in dryland. A long-term dryland cropping research study was established at the USDA-ARS farm near Lubbock, Texas in 2003, ...

  4. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  5. Site-Specific Compaction, Soil Physical Property, and Crop Yield Relationships for Claypan Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil compaction is a concern in crop production and environmental protection. Compaction is most often quantified in the field, albeit indirectly, using cone penetrometer measurements of soil strength. The objective of this research was to relate soil compaction to soil physical properties and crop ...

  6. Micrometeorological measurements over 3 years reveal differences in N2 O emissions between annual and perennial crops.

    PubMed

    Abalos, Diego; Brown, Shannon E; Vanderzaag, Andrew C; Gordon, Robert J; Dunfield, Kari E; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Perennial crops can deliver a wide range of ecosystem services compared to annual crops. Some of these benefits are achieved by lengthening the growing season, which increases the period of crop water and nutrient uptake, pointing to a potential role for perennial systems to mitigate soil nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. Employing a micrometeorological method, we tested this hypothesis in a 3-year field experiment with a perennial grass-legume mixture and an annual corn monoculture. Given that N2 O emissions are strongly dependent on the method of fertilizer application, two manure application options commonly used by farmers for each crop were studied: injection vs. broadcast application for the perennial; fall vs. spring application for the annual. Across the 3 years, lower N2 O emissions (P < 0.001) were measured for the perennial compared to the annual crop, even though annual N2 O emissions increased tenfold for the perennial after ploughing. The percentage of N2 O lost per unit of fertilizer applied was 3.7, 3.1 and 1.3 times higher for the annual for each consecutive year. Differences in soil organic matter due to the contrasting root systems of these crops are probably a major factor behind the N2 O reduction. We found that a specific manure management practice can lead to increases or reductions in annual N2 O emissions depending on environmental variables. The number of freeze-thaw cycles during winter and the amount of rainfall after fertilization in spring were key factors. Therefore, general manure management recommendations should be avoided because interannual weather variability has the potential to determine if a specific practice is beneficial or detrimental. The lower N2 O emissions of perennial crops deserve further research attention and must be considered in future land-use decisions. Increasing the proportion of perennial crops in agricultural landscapes may provide an overlooked opportunity to regulate N2 O emissions. PMID:26491961

  7. Impacts of crop rotations on soil organic carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Vos, Johan; Joris, Ingeborg; Van De Vreken, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Agricultural land use and crop rotations can greatly affect the amount of carbon sequestered in the soil. We developed a framework for modelling the impacts of crop rotations on soil carbon sequestration at the field scale with test case Flanders. A crop rotation geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System) to elicit the most common crop rotation on major soil types in Flanders. In order to simulate the impact of crop cover on carbon sequestration, the Roth-C model was adapted to Flanders' environment and coupled to common crop rotations extracted from the IACS geodatabases and statistical databases on crop yield. Crop allometric models were used to calculate crop residues from common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil (REGSOM). The REGSOM model was coupled to Roth-C model was run for 30 years and for all combinations of seven main arable crops, two common catch crops and two common dosages of organic manure. The common crops are winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, potato, grain maize, silage maize and winter rapeseed; the catch crops are yellow mustard and Italian ryegrass; the manure dosages are 35 ton/ha cattle slurry and 22 ton/ha pig slurry. Four common soils were simulated: sand, loam, sandy loam and clay. In total more than 2.4 million simulations were made with monthly output of carbon content for 30 years. Results demonstrate that crop cover dynamics influence carbon sequestration for a very large percentage. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute largely to the total carbon sequestered. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil carbon sequestration for a large percentage. The framework is therefore

  8. Impact of Corn Residue Removal on Crop and Soil Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. M.; Wilhelm, W. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Voorhees, W. B.; Linden, D.

    2003-12-01

    Over-reliance on imported fuels, increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouses and sustaining food production for a growing population are three of the most important problems facing society in the mid-term. The US Department of Energy and private enterprise are developing technology necessary to use high cellulose feedstock, such as crop residues, for ethanol production. Based on production levels, corn (Zea mays L.) residue has potential as a biofuel feedstock. Crop residues are a renewable and domestic fuel source, which can reduce the rate of fossil fuel use (both imported and domestic) and provide an additional farm commodity. Crop residues protect the soil from wind and water erosion, provide inputs to form soil organic matter (a critical component determining soil quality) and play a role in nutrient cycling. Crop residues impact radiation balance and energy fluxes and reduce evaporation. Therefore, the benefits of using crop residues as fuel, which removes crop residues from the field, must be balanced against negative environmental impacts (e.g. soil erosion), maintaining soil organic matter levels, and preserving or enhancing productivity. All ramifications of new management practices and crop uses must be explored and evaluated fully before an industry is established. There are limited numbers of long-term studies with soil and crop responses to residue removal that range from negative to negligible. The range of crop and soil responses to crop residue removal was attributed to interactions with climate, management and soil type. Within limits, corn residue can be harvested for ethanol production to provide a renewable, domestic source of energy feedstock that reduces greenhouse gases. Removal rates must vary based on regional yield, climatic conditions and cultural practices. Agronomists are challenged to develop a protocol (tool) for recommending maximum permissible removal rates that ensure sustained soil productivity.

  9. What Is Soil? Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the first of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil management. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will be able to define "soil", list the soil forming agencies, define and use soil terminology, and discuss soil formation and what makes…

  10. Determination of imazosulfuron persistence in rice crop and soil.

    PubMed

    Sondhia, Shobha

    2008-02-01

    Imazosulfuron is a new post-emergence sulfonylurea herbicide. It is highly active at low application rates to control annual and perennial broad-leaf weeds and sedges in rice. There is increasing concerned about the persistence of pesticide residues in soils, crop produce and subsequent contamination of groundwater. Thus persistence of imazosulfuron residues under field condition was evaluated. Imazosulfuron was applied at 30, 40, 50 and 60 a. i. g ha (-1) rates, 4 days after transplanting of rice as post-emergence herbicide. Soil and plant samples treated with imazosulfuron were collected at 60, 90 and 120 days after herbicide application and analyzed for residues. Rice grains and straw samples were sampled at harvest (120 days). Residues of imazosulfuron in soil were not found after 90 and 120 DAS (days after spraying). Rice grains contained 0.006, 0.009 microg g(-1) residues at 50 and 60 g ha (-1) application rates. 0.009 and 0.039 microg g(-1) residues of imazosulfuron were detected at 50 and 60 g/ha rates respectively in rice straw. Residues of imazosulfuron were not detected applied at 30 and 40 g ha(-1) in rice grains and straw, respectively and can be safely applied to the transplanted rice. PMID:17562212

  11. Hyperspectral mapping of crop and soils for precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, Michael L.; Ustin, Susan L.; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia; Vanderbilt, Vern C.

    2006-08-01

    Precision agriculture requires high spectral and spatial resolution imagery for advanced analyses of crop and soil conditions to increase environmental protection and producers' sustainability. GIS models that anticipate crop responses to nutrients, water, and pesticides require high spatial detail to generate application prescription maps. While the added precision of geo-spatial interpolation to field scouting generates improved zone maps and are an improvement over field-wide applications, it is limited in detail due to expense, and lacks the high precision required for pixel level applications. Multi-spectral imagery gives the spatial detail required, but broad band indexes are not sensitive to many variables in the crop and soil environment. Hyperspectral imagery provides both the spatial detail of airborne imagery and spectral resolution for spectroscopic and narrow band analysis techniques developed over recent decades in the laboratory that will advance precise determination of water and bio-physical properties of crops and soils. For several years, we have conducted remote sensing investigations to improve cotton production through field spectrometer measurements, and plant and soil samples in commercial fields and crop trials. We have developed spectral analyses techniques for plant and soil conditions through determination of crop water status, effectiveness of pre-harvest defoliant applications, and soil characterizations. We present the most promising of these spectroscopic absorption and narrow band index techniques, and their application to airborne hyperspectral imagery in mapping the variability in crops and soils.

  12. Sustainable biochar effects for low carbon crop production: A 5-crop season field experiment on a low fertility soil from Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar's effects on improving soil fertility, enhancing crop productivity and reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission from croplands had been well addressed in numerous short-term experiments with biochar soil amendment (BSA) mostly in a single crop season / cropping year. However, the persistence of these effects, after a single biochar application, has not yet been well known due to limited long-term field studies so far. Large scale BSA in agriculture is often commented on the high cost due to large amount of biochar in a single application. Here, we try to show the persistence of biochar effects on soil fertility and crop productivity improvement as well as GHGs emission reduction, using data from a field experiment with BSA for 5 crop seasons in central North China. A single amendment of biochar was performed at rates of 0 (C0), 20 (C20) and 40 t ha-1 (C40) before sowing of the first crop season. Emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O were monitored with static closed chamber method throughout the crop growing season for the 1st, 2nd and 5th cropping. Crop yield was measured and topsoil samples were collected at harvest of each crop season. BSA altered most of the soil physic-chemical properties with a significant increase over control in soil organic carbon (SOC) and available potassium (K) content. The increase in SOC and available K was consistent over the 5 crop seasons after BSA. Despite a significant yield increase in the first maize season, enhancement of crop yield was not consistent over crop seasons without corresponding to the changes in soil nutrient availability. BSA did not change seasonal total CO2 efflux but greatly reduced N2O emissions throughout the five seasons. This supported a stable nature of biochar carbon in soil, which played a consistent role in reducing N2O emission, which showed inter-annual variation with changes in temperature and soil moisture conditions. The biochar effect was much more consistent under C40 than under C20 and with

  13. Aerobic decomposition of crop residues improves N availability and grain yield for three rice soils of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: A screenhouse study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, rice (Oryza sativa, L.) is usually planted two to three times annually. Limited evidence elsewhere suggests that rice crop uptake of soil nitrogen (N) under such intensive cropping can be increased by replacing the customary anaerobic decomposition of crop residues wi...

  14. Restoration of soil organic carbon with cultivation of perennial biofuel crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. C.; Yannarell, A.; Masters, M.; Anderson-Teixeira, K.; Drake, J. E.; Darmody, R.; Mackie, R.; David, M.; Delucia, E. H.

    2009-12-01

    A biofuel crop that can restore soil quality and maximize terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration would add substantial value to the sustainability of biofuel production chains. Currently in the Midwestern USA, Zea mays is the dominant biofuel feedstock despite a history of soil degradation associated with this crop. We compared soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and microbial communities in Zea mays L. (corn), Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass), Miscanthus x giganteus Greef et Deuter (miscanthus), and native prairie sites at seven locations that spanned a range of temperatures, precipitation, and soil types in Illinois, USA. By comparing annually harvested switchgrass and miscanthus plots to conventional corn agro-ecosystems and native prairies, we determined the SOC restoration potential of perennial biofuel crops. We also calculated SOC accumulation using the δ13C isotope composition of the soil as a tracer for C4 plant-derived SOC additions. SOC differences among plant species varied significantly among sites, but on average, seven-year-old plots of miscanthus and switchgrass had 73% and 57% greater SOC in the top meter of soil than conventional corn crops, respectively, and had 50-63% greater SOC than the younger (four-year-old) miscanthus and switchgrass plots. The δ13C isotope signature of soil in miscanthus and switchgrass plots also indicated an accumulation of SOC. Plant species and SOC variability among sites explained 40-62% of the variation in microbial communities across sites. Microbial communities associated with annually harvested switchgrass and miscanthus differ from communities found in conventional corn agriculture and prairies. Thus, the potential to restore SOC to agriculturally depleted soils of the Midwest is not dependent on a soil microbial community that mimics prairie soil communities. Planting perennial grasses as biofuel crops can lead to an increase in SOC and a change in soil microbial communities. Conventional agricultural soils might

  15. Biomass Crop Production: Benefits for Soil Quality and Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bandaranayake, W.; Bock, B.R.; Houston, A.; Joslin, J.D.; Pettry, D.E.; Schoenholtz, S.; Thornton, F.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Tyler, D.

    1999-08-29

    Research at three locations in the southeastern US is quantifying changes in soil quality and soil carbon storage that occur during production of biomass crops compared with row crops. After three growing seasons, soil quality improved and soil carbon storage increased on plots planted to cottonwood, sycamore, sweetgum with a cover crop, switchgrass, and no-till corn. For tree crops, sequestered belowground carbon was found mainly in stumps and large roots. At the TN site, the coarse woody organic matter storage belowground was 1.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}yr{sup {minus}1}, of which 79% was stumps and large roots and 21% fine roots. Switchgrass at the AL site also stored considerable carbon belowground as coarse roots. Most of the carbon storage occurred mainly in the upper 30 cw although coarse roots were found to depths of greater than 60 cm. Biomass crops contributed to improvements in soil physical quality as well as increasing belowground carbon sequestration. The distribution and extent of carbon sequestration depends on the growth characteristics and age of the individual biomass crop species. Time and increasing crop maturity will determine the potential of these biomass crops to significantly contribute to the overall national goal of increasing carbon sequestration and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. [Effects of transgenic crops on soil microorganisms: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Jun; Xie, Ming; Peng, De-Liang

    2013-09-01

    The worldwide cultivation of transgenic crops not only provides tremendous economic benefits, but also induces the concern about the potential risks of transgenic crops on soil ecosystem in which microorganisms are involved. The potential effects of transgenic crops on soil microorganisms include the direct effects of the transgenic proteins on non-target soil microorganisms, and the indirect effects of the unintentional changes in the chemical compositions of root exudates induced by the introduction of the exogenous transgenic proteins. Most of the studies on transgenic crops suggested that transgenic crops could affect the quantity and structure of soil microbial populations. However, the perceivable effects on the soil microorganisms are inconsistent, with some in significant and others in non-significant, or some with persistent and others with non-persistent. This paper summarized the effects of different transgenic crops on soil microorganisms, and discussed the factors affecting the assessment reliability, including the species of transgenic crops and the experimental technologies and principles. Some issues needed to be paid special attention to in the future studies were put forward. PMID:24417130

  17. Heavy metals in the soil-crop system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'in, V. B.

    2007-09-01

    Data on the bulk contents of heavy metals in polluted soils are not quite suitable to judge the ecological situation in an agrocenosis. According to the results of model experiments with artificial contamination of soil, the flux of zinc and lead from the starting point (from a medium loamy leached chernozem) to the final point (wheat grains) sharply decreases. It is possible to obtain an ecologically pure (uncontaminated) grain yield even on a strongly contaminated soil due to the buffering capacity of the latter and due to the self-protective capacity of agricultural crops. The ecological potential of the soil-crop system is formed mostly at the expense of the buffering capacity of soil to heavy metals; the barrier function of plants is less significant. It is argued that the existing ecological standards based on the total contents of heavy metals in soil are of little use for predicting the quality of crops.

  18. A crops and soils data base for scene radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biehl, L. L.; Bauer, M. E.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Silva, L. F.; Pitts, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    Management and planning activities with respect to food production require accurate and timely information on crops and soils on a global basis. The needed information can be obtained with the aid of satellite-borne sensors, if the relations between the spectral properties and the important biological-physical parameters of crops and soils are known. In order to obtain this knowledge, the development of a crops and soils scene radiation research data base was initiated. Work related to the development of this data base is discussed, taking into account details regarding the conducted experiments, the performed measurements, the calibration of spectral data, questions of data base access, and the expansion of the crops and soils scene radiation data base for 1982.

  19. Bioenergy cropping systems for food, feed, fuel, and soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop production can meet multiple needs including food, livestock feed, and bioenergy or biofuels. Cropping systems can be developed to focus on meeting any one of these needs, or they can be developed to simultaneously meet multiple needs. In any case, these systems must also protect the soil resou...

  20. Soil Nitrogen Response to Coupling Cover Crops with Manure Injection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coupling winter small grain cover crops (CC) with manure (M) application may increase retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this research was to quantify soil N changes after application of liquid swine M (Sus scrofa L.) at target N rates of 112, 224, an...

  1. Crop Residue Removal Effects on Production Costs and Soil Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residue has been identified as a near-term source of biomass for renewable fuel, heat, power, chemicals and other bio-materials. Our objective is to examine the potential impacts on the soil resource and nutrient replacement costs for different crop residue management strategies. Preliminary da...

  2. Soil carbon levels in irrigated Western Corn Belt cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An irrigated monoculture corn, monoculture soybean, and soybean-corn cropping systems study was initiated in 1991 on a uniform site in the Platte Valley near Shelton, Nebraska. The objective was to determine the long-term effects of these cropping systems on soil organic carbon levels. Four corn hyb...

  3. Coupling Cover Crops and Manure Injection: Soil Inorganic N Changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of a rye/oat cover crop with liquid swine manure application may enhance retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil inorganic N following injection of liquid swine manure to plots seeded with a rye/oat co...

  4. Investigating Root Zone Soil Moisture Using Electrical Resistivity and Crop Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diker, K.; Van Dam, R. L.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.; Bhardwaj, A. K.; Hamilton, S. K.; Basso, B.

    2011-12-01

    An accurate understanding of soil moisture variability is critical for agroecological modeling and for understanding the implications of climate change for agriculture. In recent years, electrical resistivity (ER) methods have successfully been used to characterize soil moisture in a range of environments, but there remains a need to better link these data to climate variability, soil textural properties, and vegetation and root dynamics. We present results for a novel ER measurement system at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) in southwest Michigan. Permanent multi-electrode arrays were installed beneath a range of annual and perennial biofuel crop types including corn, soybean, various grasses, and poplars. The ER arrays provide both high spatial resolution 2D and high temporal resolution 1D apparent resistivity data (4 week and 2 hour intervals, respectively). These data, along with a forward simulation of electrical resistivity in the soil column, are used to calibrate and refine root growth dynamics modules within the crop growth and soil hydrologic model SALUS (System Approach to Land Use Sustainability). Simulations are compared to 1D TDR-inferred soil moisture data. Variability in root zone dynamics among different biofuel cropping systems is explored. Total water use and efficiency, along with profile root water extraction, vary considerably among the crops.

  5. Relating soil biochemistry to sustainable crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids, amino sugars, carbohydrates, phenols, and fatty acids together comprise appreciable proportions of soil organic matter (SOM). Their cycling contribute to soil processes, including nitrogen availability, carbon sequestration and aggregation. For example, soil accumulation of phenols has ...

  6. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    PubMed

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row-crop

  7. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Robertson, G. Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and NO3--N levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4–5 times during each growing season and analyzed for NO3--N and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3—N. Red clover cover crop increased NO3--N by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on NO3--N in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row-crop agricultural systems. PMID:26600462

  8. Plant, soil, and shadow reflectance components of row crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Cuellar, J. A.; Gerbermann, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Data from the first Earth Resource Technology Satellite (LANDSAT-1) multispectral scanner (MSS) were used to develop three plant canopy models (Kubelka-Munk (K-M), regression, and combined K-M and regression models) for extracting plant, soil, and shadow reflectance components of cropped fields. The combined model gave the best correlation between MSS data and ground truth, by accounting for essentially all of the reflectance of plants, soil, and shadow between crop rows. The principles presented can be used to better forecast crop yield and to estimate acreage.

  9. Soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon content under dryland crops. II. Effects of tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices are needed to reduce soil CO2 emission and increase C sequestration under dryland cropping system. The effects of tillage, cropping sequence, and N fertilization were evaluated on soil surface CO2 flux, soil total C content at 0- to 120-cm depth, and soil temperature and water c...

  10. Dryland soil chemical properties and crop yields affected by long-term tillage and cropping sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on the effect of long-term management on soil nutrients and chemical properties is scanty. We examined the 30-yr effect of tillage frequency and cropping sequence combination on dryland soil Olsen-P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, SO4-S, and Zn concentrations, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and catio...

  11. Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. Annual progress report for FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.; Turhollow, A.F.; Johnston, J.W.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1985. HECP emphasizes lignocellulosic forage crops. In FY 1985 screening and selection trails began on seven species of perennial and annual grasses and legumes in five projects in the Southeast and the Midwest-Lake State regions. Research also continued on the development of winter rapeseed as a disel-fuel substitute. Activities in FY 1985 included crosses and selections to incorporate atrazine resistance and reduced vernalization requirements in genotypes with desirable seed and oil qualities. Exploratory research efforts in FY 1985 included the physiology and biochemistry of hydrocarbon production in latex bearing plants, the productivity of cattail stands under sustained harvesting, and the development of tissue culture techniques for hard-to-culture sorghum genotypes. Environmental and economic analyses in FY 1985 included completion of a resource assessment of the southwestern United States, a study on successful new crop introductions, and initiation of studies on near-term markets for lignocellulosic energy crops and on vegetable oil extraction facilities. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Broiler litter fertilization and cropping system impacts on soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3-year study was conducted at the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Verona, MS, in a Catalpa silty clay loam soil (Fine, smectitic, thermic Fluvaquentic Hapludolls) to evaluate soil chemical, physical, and biological changes resulting from cropping systems along with broile...

  13. Cover cropping impacts on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil aggregation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are a management tool which can extend the period of time that a living plant is growing and conducting photosynthesis. This is critical for soil health, because most of the soil organisms, particularly the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, are limited by carbon. Research, on-farm, and demon...

  14. Evaluating Transpiration in an Annual Crop and Perennial Prairie Species Using the Heat Balance Method in Central Iowa, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incorporation of native perennial plants into landscapes dominated by annual cropping systems in the Midwestern United States may enhance water quality and promote stable provision of water supply by regulating water flows in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Design of mixed annual-perennial...

  15. Soil-to-crop transfer factors of tellurium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-09-01

    Stable tellurium (Te) concentrations in 148 sets of agricultural soil and associated crop samples were measured in this study to obtain soil-to-crop transfer factor (TF) of Te. We used a recently developed simple method that applies digestion of samples with aqua regia and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to measure low Te levels in these samples. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of Te in soil and crops were 75μgkg(-1)-dry (range: 15-850μgkg(-1)-dry) and 1.8μgkg(-1)-dry (range: 0.1-120μgkg(-1)-dry), respectively; the Te concentration range was significantly wider in crops than in soil. Using these data, we calculated TFs and obtained their range from 1.3×10(-3) to 1.1×10(-1). The GM of TF for upland field crops was calculated to be 2.0×10(-2) and for brown rice was 3.1×10(-2); all crop types had the similar GMs of their TF values. Data comparison for TF of Te was carried out with six elements, which are present in anionic forms in soil environment like Te is, i.e. P, Br, As, Se, Mo, and I. TFs of Te and I showed the highest correlation factor for upland field crops by t-test (r=0.577, p<0.001), but no correlation was found for brown rice. We considered it likely that different water management practices in upland fields and paddy fields affected the Te transfer from soil to crops. PMID:24997965

  16. Soil carbon and soil organic matter quality in soil size fractions from crop and livestock systems in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton based rotations and monocultures in the Southern High Plains have resulted in soil quality degradation because the semiarid environment combined with low crop residue returns has diminished soil C. Integrated crop-livestock systems and no-till based rotations can increase soil C when used as ...

  17. Enhancing Soil Productivity Using a Multi-Crop Rotation and Beef Cattle Grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şentürklü, Songül; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production systems that include complimentary plant, soil and animal interaction contribute to sustainability. In sustainable livestock systems integrated with crop production, the soil resource is impacted positively. The goal of this research was to maximize beef cattle and crop economic yield, while improving the soil resource by increasing soil organic matter (SOM) and subsequently seasonal soil nitrogen fertility over a 5-year period (2011-2015). Each experimental crop field used in the study was 1.74 ha. Small-seeded crops were planted using a JD 1590 No-Till drill. Corn (C) and sunflowers (SF) were planted using a JD 7000 No-Till planter. The cropping sequence used in the study was SF, hard red spring wheat (HRSW), fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (T-HV), spring harvested for hay/mid-June seeded 7-species cover crop (CC; SF, Everleaf Oat, Flex Winter Pea, HV, Winfred Forage Rape, Ethiopian Cabbage, Hunter Leaf Turnip), C (85-day var.), and field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF were harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC were harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers grazed PBY and unharvested C before feedlot entry, and after weaning, gestating cows grazed CC. Seasonal soil nitrogen fertility was measured at 0-15, 15-30, and 30-61 cm depths approximately every two weeks from June to October, 2014. The regression illustrating the relationship between SOM and average seasonal available mineral nitrogen shows that for each percentage increase in SOM there is a corresponding N increase of 1.47 kg/ha. Nitrogen fertilizer applications for the 5-year period of the study were variable; however, the overall trend was for reduced fertilizer requirement as SOM increased. At the same time, grain, oilseed, and annual forage crop yields increased year over year (2011-2015) except for the 2014 crop year, when above average precipitation delayed seeding and early frost killed the C and SF crops prematurely

  18. Physical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the second of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the subject of physical features of the soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will be able to determine the texture and structural types of soil, list the structural classes of the soil and where they…

  19. Biological Features of the Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the third of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to biological features of soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will: (1) realize the vast amount of life present in the soil, (2) be able to list representative animal and plant life in the soil by size,…

  20. Soil Water: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the fourth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil water. Upon completing the three day module, the student will be able to classify water as to its presence in the soil, outline the hydrological cycle, list the ways water is lost from the soil,…

  1. Replacing fallow with cover crops in a semiarid soil: effects on soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replacement of fallow in crop-fallow systems with cover crops (CCs) may improve soil properties. We assessed whether replacing fallow in no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow with winter and spring CCs for five years reduced wind and water erosion, increased soil organic carbon (SOC), a...

  2. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Emilie R; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R; Linquist, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices. PMID:25822494

  3. Estimating Annual Soil Carbon Loss in Agricultural Peatland Soils Using a Nitrogen Budget Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Emilie R.; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R.; Linquist, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 – 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 – 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 – 81 % of plant N uptake (129 – 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 – 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 – 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices. PMID:25822494

  4. Simulating the fate of water in field soil crop environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameira, M. R.; Fernando, R. M.; Ahuja, L.; Pereira, L.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the Root Zone Water Quality Model(RZWQM) for assessing the fate of water in the soil-crop environment at the field scale under the particular conditions of a Mediterranean region. The RZWQM model is a one-dimensional dual porosity model that allows flow in macropores. It integrates the physical, biological and chemical processes occurring in the root zone, allowing the simulation of a wide spectrum of agricultural management practices. This study involved the evaluation of the soil, hydrologic and crop development sub-models within the RZWQM for two distinct agricultural systems, one consisting of a grain corn planted in a silty loam soil, irrigated by level basins and the other a forage corn planted in a sandy soil, irrigated by sprinklers. Evaluation was performed at two distinct levels. At the first level the model capability to fit the measured data was analyzed (calibration). At the second level the model's capability to extrapolate and predict the system behavior for conditions different than those used when fitting the model was assessed (validation). In a subsequent paper the same type of evaluation is presented for the nitrogen transformation and transport model. At the first level a change in the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) formulation was introduced, based upon the definition of the effective leaf area, resulting in a 51% decrease in the root mean square error of the ETc simulations. As a result the simulation of the root water uptake was greatly improved. A new bottom boundary condition was implemented to account for the presence of a shallow water table. This improved the simulation of the water table depths and consequently the soil water evolution within the root zone. The soil hydraulic parameters and the crop variety specific parameters were calibrated in order to minimize the simulation errors of soil water and crop development. At the second level crop yield was predicted with an error of 1.1 and 2.8% for

  5. Crop Performance and Soil Properties in Two Artificially-Eroded Soils in North-Central Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Malhi, S. S.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E. D.; Quiroga Jakas, Maria C.

    2006-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted from 1991 to 1995 at Josephburg (Orthic Black Chernozem, Typic Cryoboroll) and Cooking Lake (Orthic Gray Luvisol, Typic Cryoboralf), Alberta, to determine impact of topsoil removal on selected soil properties, N-mineralization potential and crop yield, and effectiveness of various amendments for restoring the productivity of eroded soils. The simulated-erosion levels were established in the autumn of 1990 by removing 20 cm topsoil in 5-cm depth increments. The four amendments were: control, addition of 5 cm of topsoil, fertilizers to supply 100 kg N ha-1 and 20 kg P ha-1, and cattle manure at 75 Mg ha-1. Topsoil and manure were applied once in the autumn of 1990, while fertilizers were applied annually from 1991 to 1995. Available N and P, total C, N and P, and N-mineralization potential decreased, while bulk density increased with increasing depth of topsoil removal. Tiller number, plant height, spike density, thousand kernel weight, and leaf area index decreased with simulated erosion. Grain yield reductions due to simulated soil erosion were either linear or curvilinear functions of nutrient removal. Application of N and P fertilizers and manure improved grain yield and reduced the impact of yield loss due to erosion. Return of 5 cm of topsoil also increased grain yield, but to a lesser extent than manure or fertilizers. Grain yields were maximized when fertilizers were also applied to organic amendment treatments. In conclusion, the findings suggest the importance of integrated use of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers for best crop yields on severely-eroded soils.

  6. Crop Management Effects on Crop Residue Production and Changes in Soil Organic Carbon in the Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop biomass has been proposed as a source stock for bioethanol production. Acceptable levels of crop residue removal must be determined to prevent loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) and the degradation of soil physical and chemical properties resulting from SOC loss. Crop residue inputs and changes ...

  7. ACCUMULATION AND CROP UPTAKE OF SOIL MINERAL NITROGEN AS INFLUEMCED BY TILLAGE, COVER CROPS, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and crop management practices may influence soil mineral N, crop N uptake, and N leaching. We evaluated the effects of three tillage practices [no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)], four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secaele cereale L.)]...

  8. Cover crops effectiveness for soil erosion control in Sicilian vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gristina, L.; Novara, A.; Saladino, S.; Santoro, A.

    2009-04-01

    In vineyards, which are very common in Mediterranean area, cover crops are becoming increasingly used to reduce soil erosion. Cover crops reduce runoff by increasing infiltration and increasing roughness and then reducing the ovelandflow velocity. The aim of the present study was to quantify soil and water losses under different soil managements systems on vineyards. The study site was a Sauvignon blanc winegrape vineyard located in Southwestern Sicily. Vineyards were managed both traditionally (conventional tillage) and alternative management using cover crops: 1) Vicia faba ; 2) Vicia faba and Vicia sativa; 3) Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra; 4)Trifolium subterraneum, Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina, 5) Triticum durum, 6) Triticum durum and Vicia sativa. To monitor water and sediment yield, a Gerlach trough was installed at each treatment on the vineyard inter-row, with the row vineyard used as a border (topographical border). Runoff was measured after each rainfall event (raingauge 0.2 mm accuracy) from November 2005 to April 2007. And sediments were measured after desiccation. The results show that runoff and erosion were reduced considerably under the treatments with Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra and Trifolium subterraneum, Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina (treatments 3 and 4). The soil losses were reduced by 73% under treatment 4 compared to the tillage plot. Conventional tillage and alternative management using Vicia faba cover crop (treatment 1) result the most ineffective treatment to soil erosion. These results show that the use of a cover crop can be a simple soil and water conservation practice in Sicilian vineyards. Key words: soil erosion, cover crops, vineyard, Mediterranean area.

  9. [Use of Remote Sensing for Crop and Soil Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, Chris J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary agricultural objective of this research is to determine what soil and crop information can be verified from remotely sensed images during the growing season. Specifically: (1) Elements of crop stress due to drought, weeds, disease and nutrient deficiencies will be documented with ground truth over specific agricultural sites and (2) Use of remote sensing with GPS and GIS technology for providing a safe and environmentally friendly application of fertilizers and chemicals will be documented.

  10. Remote sensing of agricultural crops and soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Research in the correlative and noncorrelative approaches to image registration and the spectral estimation of corn canopy phytomass and water content is reported. Scene radiation research results discussed include: corn and soybean LANDSAT MSS classification performance as a function of scene characteristics; estimating crop development stages from MSS data; the interception of photosynthetically active radiation in corn and soybean canopies; costs of measuring leaf area index of corn; LANDSAT spectral inputs to crop models including the use of the greenness index to assess crop stress and the evaluation of MSS data for estimating corn and soybean development stages; field research experiment design data acquisition and preprocessing; and Sun-view angles studies of corn and soybean canopies in support of vegetation canopy reflection modeling.

  11. Living cover crops have immediate impacts on soil microbial community structure and function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover cropping is a widely promoted strategy to enhance soil health in agricultural systems. Despite a substantial body of literature demonstrating links between cover crops and soil biology, an important component of soil health, research evaluating how specific cover crop species influence soil mi...

  12. Long-term tillage and cropping sequence influence on dryland soil carbon, nitrogen, physical properties, and crop yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel management practices are needed to improve dryland soil C and N sequestration, N mineralization, soil physical properties, and crop yields in the northern Great Plains. We evaluated the 21-yr effect of tillage and cropping sequence on dryland soil aggregation, C and N storage, N mineralization...

  13. Soil, Plant, and Crop Science. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains an instructor's manual, an instructor's resource package, and a student workbook for a course in agricultural production and management as it relates to crop production. The module contains 17 units of instruction, each of which contains some or all of the following components: objective sheet, instructor's guide, information…

  14. Soil type influences crop mineral composition in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Joy, Edward J M; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Chilimba, Allan D C; Ander, E Louise; Barlow, Thomas S; Watts, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Food supply and composition data can be combined to estimate micronutrient intakes and deficiency risks among populations. These estimates can be improved by using local crop composition data that can capture environmental influences including soil type. This study aimed to provide spatially resolved crop composition data for Malawi, where information is currently limited. Six hundred and fifty-two plant samples, representing 97 edible food items, were sampled from >150 sites in Malawi between 2011 and 2013. Samples were analysed by ICP-MS for up to 58 elements, including the essential minerals calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). Maize grain Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se and Zn concentrations were greater from plants grown on calcareous soils than those from the more widespread low-pH soils. Leafy vegetables from calcareous soils had elevated leaf Ca, Cu, Fe and Se concentrations, but lower Zn concentrations. Several foods were found to accumulate high levels of Se, including the leaves of Moringa, a crop not previously been reported in East African food composition data sets. New estimates of national dietary mineral supplies were obtained for non-calcareous and calcareous soils. High risks of Ca (100%), Se (100%) and Zn (57%) dietary deficiencies are likely on non-calcareous soils. Deficiency risks on calcareous soils are high for Ca (97%), but lower for Se (34%) and Zn (31%). Risks of Cu, Fe and Mg deficiencies appear to be low on the basis of dietary supply levels. PMID:25461061

  15. Evaluating Soil Compaction for an Annual Winter Grazing/Vegetable Production Rotation in North-Central

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degraded soils of Alabama have demonstrated the ability to respond well to conservation tillage in a large variety of crops. Winter annual grazing/sod-based rotations with summer vegetable production can offer reduced economic risks for producers but may change tillage requirements for vegetable pro...

  16. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

    2014-06-01

    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  17. Carbon dioxide exchange of a perennial bioenergy crop cultivation on a mineral soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, S. E.; Shurpali, N. J.; Peltola, O.; Mammarella, I.; Hyvönen, N.; Maljanen, M.; Räty, M.; Virkajärvi, P.; Martikainen, P. J.

    2015-10-01

    One of the strategies to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the energy sector is to increase the use of renewable energy sources such as bioenergy crops. Bioenergy is not necessarily carbon neutral because of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during biomass production, field management and transportation. The present study focuses on the cultivation of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinaceae L.), a perennial bioenergy crop, on a mineral soil. To quantify the CO2 exchange of this RCG cultivation system, and to understand the key factors controlling its CO2 exchange, the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) was measured during three years using the eddy covariance (EC) method. The RCG cultivation thrived well producing yields of 6200 and 6700 kg DW ha-1 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Gross photosynthesis (GPP) was controlled mainly by radiation from June to September. Vapour pressure deficit (VPD), air temperature or soil moisture did not limit photosynthesis during the growing season. Total ecosystem respiration (TER) increased with soil temperature, green area index and GPP. Annual NEE was -262 and -256 g C m-2 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Throughout the studied period, cumulative NEE was -575 g C m-2. When compared to the published data for RCG on an organic soil, the cultivation of this crop on a mineral soil had higher capacity to take up CO2 from the atmosphere.

  18. Detection of anomalous crop condition and soil variability mapping using a 26 year Landsat record and the Palmer crop moisture index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venteris, E. R.; Tagestad, J. D.; Downs, J. L.; Murray, C. J.

    2015-07-01

    Cost-effective and reliable vegetation monitoring methods are needed for applications ranging from traditional agronomic mapping, to verifying the safety of geologic injection activities. A particular challenge is defining baseline crop conditions and subsequent anomalies from long term imagery records (Landsat) in the face of large spatiotemporal variability. We develop a new method for defining baseline crop response (near peak growth) using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 26 years (1986-2011) of Landsat data for 400 km2 surrounding a planned geologic carbon sequestration site near Jacksonville, Illinois. The normal score transform (yNDVI) was applied on a field by field basis to accentuate spatial patterns and level differences due to planting times. We tested crop type and soil moisture (Palmer crop moisture index (CMI)) as predictors of expected crop condition. Spatial patterns in yNDVI were similar between corn and soybeans - the two major crops. Linear regressions between yNDVI and the cumulative CMI (CCMI) exposed complex interactions between crop condition, field location (topography and soils), and annual moisture. Wet toposequence positions (depressions) were negatively correlated to CCMI and dry positions (crests) positively correlated. However, only 21% of the landscape showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) linear relationship. To map anomalous crop conditions, we defined a tolerance interval based on yNDVI statistics. Tested on an independent image (2013), 63 of 1483 possible fields showed unusual crop condition. While the method is not directly suitable for crop health assessment, the spatial patterns in correlation between yNDVI and CCMI have potential applications for pest damage detection and edaphological soil mapping, especially in the developing world.

  19. Water use efficiency of perennial and annual bioenergy crops in central Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeri, Marcelo; Hussain, Mir Zaman; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Delucia, Evan; Bernacchi, Carl J.

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable bioenergy production depends upon the efficiency with which crops use available water to produce biomass and store carbon belowground. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE; productivity vs. annual evapotranspiration, ET) is a key metric of bioenergy crop performance. We evaluate WUE of three potential perennial grass bioenergy crops, Miscanthus × giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), and an assemblage of prairie species (28 species), and Zea mays-Glycine max rotation, during the establishment phase in Illinois. Ecosystem WUE (EWUE; net ecosystem productivity vs. ET) was highest in miscanthus, reaching a maximum value of 12.8 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1 in the third year, followed by switchgrass (7.5 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1) and prairie (3.9 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1); the row crop was the lowest. Besides EWUE, harvest-WUE (HWUE, harvested biomass vs. ET) and net biome productivity-WUE (BWUE, calculated as net ecosystem production - harvest vs. ET) were also estimated for all crops and years. After three years of establishment, HWUE and BWUE were highest in miscanthus (9.0 ± 2 and 3.8 ± 2.9 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively) providing a net benefit to the carbon balance, while the row crops had a negative carbon balance and a negative BWUE. BWUE for maize/soybean indicate that this ecosystem would deplete the soil carbon stocks while using the water resources. Switchgrass had the second highest BWUE, while prairie was almost neutral indicating that long-term carbon sequestration for this agro-ecosystem would be sensitive to harvest timing with an early harvest removing more biomass, and thus carbon, from the field.

  20. RELATING SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN SOIL COMPACTION TO SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP YIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil compaction is a concern in crop production and environmental protection. Compaction is most often quantified in the field, albeit indirectly, using cone penetrometer measurements of soil strength, reported as cone index (CI). The objective of this research was to relate soil compaction, measure...

  1. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) Combined with Soil Solarization as a Methyl Bromide Alternative: Vegetable Crop Performance and Soil Nutrient Dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil treatment by anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) combined with soil solarization can effectively control soilborne plant pathogens and plant-parasitic nematodes in specialty crop production systems. At the same time, research is limited on the impact of soil treatment by ASD + solarization on c...

  2. Organic fertilization for soil improvement in a vegetable cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaeghe, Micheline; De Rocker, Erwin; De Reycke, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Vegetable Research Centre East-Flanders Karreweg 6, 9770 Kruishoutem, Belgium A long term trial for soil improvement by organic fertilization was carried out in Kruishoutem from 2001 till 2010 in a vegetable rotation (carrots - leek - lettuce (2/year) - cauliflower (2/year) - leek - carrots - lettuce (2/year) - cauliflower (2/year) - leek and spinach). The trial compared yearly applications of 30 m²/ha of three types of compost (green compost, vfg-compost and spent mushroom compost) with an untreated object which did not receive any organic fertilization during the trial timescale. The organic fertilization was applied shortly before the cropping season. Looking at the soil quality, effects of organic fertilization manifest rather slow. The first four years after the beginning of the trial, no increase in carbon content of the soil is detectable yet. Although, mineralization of the soil has increased. The effect on the mineralization is mainly visible in crops with a lower N uptake (e.g. carrots) leading to a higher nitrate residue after harvest. Effects on soil structure and compaction occur rather slowly although, during the first two cropping seasons compost applications increase the water retention capacity of the soil. Compost increases the pH of the soil from the first year on till the end of the trial in 2010. Thus, organic fertilization impedes acidification in light sandy soils. Also soil fertility benefits from compost by an increase in K-, Ca- and Mg- content in the soil from the second year on. After 10 years of organic fertilization, yield and quality of spinach were increased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the untreated object. Also leek (2002 and 2009) and lettuce (2003 and 2007) benefit from organic fertilization.

  3. Soil carbon and nitrogen fractions and crop yields affected by residue placement and crop types.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Sainju, Upendra M

    2014-01-01

    Soil labile C and N fractions can change rapidly in response to management practices compared to non-labile fractions. High variability in soil properties in the field, however, results in nonresponse to management practices on these parameters. We evaluated the effects of residue placement (surface application [or simulated no-tillage] and incorporation into the soil [or simulated conventional tillage]) and crop types (spring wheat [Triticum aestivum L.], pea [Pisum sativum L.], and fallow) on crop yields and soil C and N fractions at the 0-20 cm depth within a crop growing season in the greenhouse and the field. Soil C and N fractions were soil organic C (SOC), total N (STN), particulate organic C and N (POC and PON), microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN), potential C and N mineralization (PCM and PNM), NH4-N, and NO3-N concentrations. Yields of both wheat and pea varied with residue placement in the greenhouse as well as in the field. In the greenhouse, SOC, PCM, STN, MBN, and NH4-N concentrations were greater in surface placement than incorporation of residue and greater under wheat than pea or fallow. In the field, MBN and NH4-N concentrations were greater in no-tillage than conventional tillage, but the trend reversed for NO3-N. The PNM was greater under pea or fallow than wheat in the greenhouse and the field. Average SOC, POC, MBC, PON, PNM, MBN, and NO3-N concentrations across treatments were higher, but STN, PCM and NH4-N concentrations were lower in the greenhouse than the field. The coefficient of variation for soil parameters ranged from 2.6 to 15.9% in the greenhouse and 8.0 to 36.7% in the field. Although crop yields varied, most soil C and N fractions were greater in surface placement than incorporation of residue and greater under wheat than pea or fallow in the greenhouse than the field within a crop growing season. Short-term management effect on soil C and N fractions were readily obtained with reduced variability under controlled soil and

  4. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Fractions and Crop Yields Affected by Residue Placement and Crop Types

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Sainju, Upendra M.

    2014-01-01

    Soil labile C and N fractions can change rapidly in response to management practices compared to non-labile fractions. High variability in soil properties in the field, however, results in nonresponse to management practices on these parameters. We evaluated the effects of residue placement (surface application [or simulated no-tillage] and incorporation into the soil [or simulated conventional tillage]) and crop types (spring wheat [Triticum aestivum L.], pea [Pisum sativum L.], and fallow) on crop yields and soil C and N fractions at the 0–20 cm depth within a crop growing season in the greenhouse and the field. Soil C and N fractions were soil organic C (SOC), total N (STN), particulate organic C and N (POC and PON), microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN), potential C and N mineralization (PCM and PNM), NH4-N, and NO3-N concentrations. Yields of both wheat and pea varied with residue placement in the greenhouse as well as in the field. In the greenhouse, SOC, PCM, STN, MBN, and NH4-N concentrations were greater in surface placement than incorporation of residue and greater under wheat than pea or fallow. In the field, MBN and NH4-N concentrations were greater in no-tillage than conventional tillage, but the trend reversed for NO3-N. The PNM was greater under pea or fallow than wheat in the greenhouse and the field. Average SOC, POC, MBC, PON, PNM, MBN, and NO3-N concentrations across treatments were higher, but STN, PCM and NH4-N concentrations were lower in the greenhouse than the field. The coefficient of variation for soil parameters ranged from 2.6 to 15.9% in the greenhouse and 8.0 to 36.7% in the field. Although crop yields varied, most soil C and N fractions were greater in surface placement than incorporation of residue and greater under wheat than pea or fallow in the greenhouse than the field within a crop growing season. Short-term management effect on soil C and N fractions were readily obtained with reduced variability under controlled soil and

  5. Soil aggregates and their associated carbon and nitrogen content in winter annual pastures using different tillage management options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, winter annual pastures are established on grazing areas that are steeply sloping and not regarded as suitable for row-crop production. Using conventional (CT) tillage methods to prepare these fragile lands for winter annual pastures leads to increased erosion and rapid soil degradatio...

  6. Tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization effects on dryland soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon content.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Jabro, Jalal D; Caesar-Tonthat, Thecan

    2010-01-01

    Management practices are needed to reduce dryland soil CO(2) emissions and to increase C sequestration. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combinations and N fertilization on dryland crop biomass (stems + leaves) and soil surface CO(2) flux and C content (0- to 120-cm depth) in a Williams loam from May to October, 2006 to 2008, in eastern Montana. Treatments were no-tilled continuous malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) (NTCB), no-tilled malt barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) (NTB-P), no-tilled malt barley-fallow (NTB-F), and conventional-tilled malt barley-fallow (CTB-F), each with 0 and 80 kg N ha(-1). Measurements were made both in Phase I (malt barley in NTCB, pea in NTB-P, and fallow in NTB-F and CTB-F) and Phase II (malt barley in all sequences) of each cropping sequence in every year. Crop biomass varied among years, was greater in the barley than in the pea phase of the NTB-P treatment, and greater in NTCB and NTB-P than in NTB-F and CTB-F in 2 out of 3 yr. Similarly, biomass was greater with 80 than with 0 kg N ha(-1) in 1 out of 3 yr. Soil CO(2) flux increased from 8 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in early May to 239 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in mid-June as temperature increased and then declined to 3 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in September-October. Fluxes peaked immediately following substantial precipitation (>10 mm), especially in NTCB and NTB-P. Cumulative CO(2) flux from May to October was greater in 2006 and 2007 than in 2008, greater in cropping than in fallow phases, and greater in NTCB than in NTB-F. Tillage did not influence crop biomass and CO(2) flux but N fertilization had a variable effect on the flux in 2008. Similarly, soil total C content was not influenced by treatments. Annual cropping increased CO(2) flux compared with crop-fallow probably by increasing crop residue returns to soils and root and rhizosphere respiration. Inclusion of peas in the rotation with malt barley in the no-till system, which have been known to reduce N fertilization rates and

  7. Soil surface carbon dioxide efflux of bioenergy cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy cropping systems have been proposed as a way to enhance United States energy security. However, research on greenhouse gas emissions from such systems is needed to ensure environmental sustainability in the field. Since soil aeration properties are dynamic, high-resolution data are needed ...

  8. Capturing residual soil nitrogen with winter cereal cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide-spread drought during the 2012 summer has resulted in reduced crop growth, poor yields, and an anticipated increase in residual nitrate (NO3) nitrogen (N) in the soil profile. This residual N can potentially increase NO3-N losses to ground and/or surface waters, as well as increase carry-ov...

  9. Matrices to Revise Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin, Mary C.; Longer, David; Miller, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Undergraduate curricula for natural resource and agronomic programs have been introduced and revised during the past several decades with a desire to stay current with emerging issues and technologies relevant to constituents. For the past decade, the Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences (CSES) faculty at the University of Arkansas…

  10. Aminopyralid soil residues affect rotational vegetable crops in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the sensitivity of bell pepper, eggplant, tomato, muskmelon, and watermelon to aminopyralid soil residues. Aminopyralid was applied at six rates ranging from 0.0014 kg ae ha 1 to 0.0448 kg ae ha 1, and vegetable crops were planted in the treated areas. ...

  11. Soil phosphorus changes impacted by potato cropping management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato crops generally require high amounts of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to reach economically acceptable yields as the low root density of potato plants makes mobilization and acquisition of phosphate a key factor in potato plant growth. In this work, we evaluated soil P changes in 10 potato fields...

  12. Cover crops influence soil microorganisms and phytoextraction of copper from a moderately contaminated vineyard.

    PubMed

    Mackie, K A; Schmidt, H P; Müller, T; Kandeler, E

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the ability of summer (Avena sativa [oat], Trifolium incarnatum [crimson clover], Chenopodium [goosefoot]) and winter (Vicia villosa [hairy vetch], Secale Cereale L. [Rye], Brassica napus L. partim [rape]) cover crops, including a mixed species treatment, to extract copper from an organic vineyard soil in situ and the microbial communities that may support it. Clover had the highest copper content (14.3mgCukg(-1) DM). However, it was the amount of total biomass production that determined which species was most effective at overall copper removal per hectare. The winter crop rye produced significantly higher amounts of biomass (3532kgDMha(-1)) and, therefore, removed significantly higher amounts of copper (14,920mgCuha(-1)), despite less accumulation of copper in plant shoots. The maximum annual removal rate, a summation of best performing summer and winter crops, would be 0.033kgCuha(-1)y(-1). Due to this low annual extraction efficiency, which is less than the 6kgCuha(-1)y(-1) permitted for application, phytoextraction cannot be recommended as a general method of copper extraction from vineyards. Copper concentration did not influence aboveground or belowground properties, as indicated by sampling at two distances from the grapevine row with different soil copper concentrations. Soil microorganisms may have become tolerant to the copper levels at this site. Microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities (arylsulfatase and phosphatase) were instead driven by seasonal fluxes of resource pools. Gram+ bacteria were associated with high soil moisture, while fungi seemed to be driven by extractable carbon, which was linked to high plant biomass. There was no microbial group associated with the increased phytoextraction of copper. Moreover, treatment did not influence the abundance, activity or community structure of soil microorganisms. PMID:25217742

  13. Spectral properties of agricultural crops and soils measured from space, aerial, field, and laboratory sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Vanderbilt, V. C.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of the multispectral reflectance characteristics of crops and soils as measured from laboratory, field, aerial, and satellite sensor systems are reviewed. The relationships of important biological and physical characteristics to the spectral properties of crops and soils are addressed.

  14. Digital Mapping of Soil Salinity and Crop Yield across a Coastal Agricultural Landscape Using Repeated Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Rongjiang; Yang, Jingsong; Wu, Danhua; Xie, Wenping; Gao, Peng; Jin, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Reliable and real-time information on soil and crop properties is important for the development of management practices in accordance with the requirements of a specific soil and crop within individual field units. This is particularly the case in salt-affected agricultural landscape where managing the spatial variability of soil salinity is essential to minimize salinization and maximize crop output. The primary objectives were to use linear mixed-effects model for soil salinity and crop yield calibration with horizontal and vertical electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements as ancillary data, to characterize the spatial distribution of soil salinity and crop yield and to verify the accuracy of spatial estimation. Horizontal and vertical EMI (type EM38) measurements at 252 locations were made during each survey, and root zone soil samples and crop samples at 64 sampling sites were collected. This work was periodically conducted on eight dates from June 2012 to May 2013 in a coastal salt-affected mud farmland. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) were applied to calibrate root zone soil salinity (ECe) and crop annual output (CAO) using ancillary data, and spatial distribution of soil ECe and CAO was generated using digital soil mapping (DSM) and the precision of spatial estimation was examined using the collected meteorological and groundwater data. Results indicated that a reduced model with EMh as a predictor was satisfactory for root zone ECe calibration, whereas a full model with both EMh and EMv as predictors met the requirement of CAO calibration. The obtained distribution maps of ECe showed consistency with those of EMI measurements at the corresponding time, and the spatial distribution of CAO generated from ancillary data showed agreement with that derived from raw crop data. Statistics of jackknifing procedure confirmed that the spatial estimation of ECe and CAO exhibited reliability and high accuracy. A general

  15. Digital Mapping of Soil Salinity and Crop Yield across a Coastal Agricultural Landscape Using Repeated Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) Surveys.

    PubMed

    Yao, Rongjiang; Yang, Jingsong; Wu, Danhua; Xie, Wenping; Gao, Peng; Jin, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Reliable and real-time information on soil and crop properties is important for the development of management practices in accordance with the requirements of a specific soil and crop within individual field units. This is particularly the case in salt-affected agricultural landscape where managing the spatial variability of soil salinity is essential to minimize salinization and maximize crop output. The primary objectives were to use linear mixed-effects model for soil salinity and crop yield calibration with horizontal and vertical electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements as ancillary data, to characterize the spatial distribution of soil salinity and crop yield and to verify the accuracy of spatial estimation. Horizontal and vertical EMI (type EM38) measurements at 252 locations were made during each survey, and root zone soil samples and crop samples at 64 sampling sites were collected. This work was periodically conducted on eight dates from June 2012 to May 2013 in a coastal salt-affected mud farmland. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) were applied to calibrate root zone soil salinity (ECe) and crop annual output (CAO) using ancillary data, and spatial distribution of soil ECe and CAO was generated using digital soil mapping (DSM) and the precision of spatial estimation was examined using the collected meteorological and groundwater data. Results indicated that a reduced model with EMh as a predictor was satisfactory for root zone ECe calibration, whereas a full model with both EMh and EMv as predictors met the requirement of CAO calibration. The obtained distribution maps of ECe showed consistency with those of EMI measurements at the corresponding time, and the spatial distribution of CAO generated from ancillary data showed agreement with that derived from raw crop data. Statistics of jackknifing procedure confirmed that the spatial estimation of ECe and CAO exhibited reliability and high accuracy. A general

  16. Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Bini, Claudio; Haefele, Stephan; Abooei, Monireh

    2013-04-01

    Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems Soil quality, by definition, reflects the capacity to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and promote plant and animal health. Soil quality assessment is an essential issue in soil management for agriculture and natural resource protection. This study was conducted to detect the effects of four crop rotation systems (rice-rice-rice, soya-rice-rice, fallow-rice and pea-soya-rice) on soil quality indicators (soil moisture, porosity, bulk density, water-filled pore space, pH, extractable P, CEC, OC, OM, microbial respiration, active carbon) in paddy soils of Verona area, Northern Italy. Four adjacent plots which managed almost similarly, over five years were selected. Surface soil samples were collected from each four rotation systems in four times, during growing season. Each soil sample was a composite of sub-samples taken from 3 points within 350 m2 of agricultural land. A total of 48 samples were air-dried and passed through 2mm sieve, for some chemical, biological, and physical measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Statistical results revealed that frequency distribution of most data was normal. The lowest CV% was related to pH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and comparison test showed that there are significant differences in soil quality indicators among crop rotation systems and sampling times. Results of multivariable regression analysis revealed that soil respiration had positively correlation coefficient with soil organic matter, soil moisture and cation exchange capacity. Overall results indicated that the rice rotation with legumes such as bean and soybean improved soil quality over a long time in comparison to rice-fallow rotation, and this is reflected in rice yield. Keywords: Soil quality, Crop Rotation System, Paddy Soils, Italy

  17. Cropping Intensity Effects on Physical Properties of a No-till Silt Loam Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till cropping systems in the semi-arid west have the potential to increase organic carbon in the soil profile and improve soil physical properties by increasing cropping intensity and crop diversity. A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing cropping intensity will improve sele...

  18. Remote sensing of agricultural crops and soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Research results and accomplishments of sixteen tasks in the following areas are described: (1) corn and soybean scene radiation research; (2) soil moisture research; (3) sampling and aggregation research; (4) pattern recognition and image registration research; and (5) computer and data base services.

  19. Lignin biochemistry and soil N determine crop residue decomposition and soil priming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping history can affect soil properties, including available N, but little is known about the interactive effects of residue biochemistry, temperature and cropping history on residue decomposition. A laboratory incubation examined the role of residue biochemistry and temperature on the decomposi...

  20. RELATIONSHIP OF SOIL PROFILE STRENGTH AND APPARENT SOIL ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY TO CROP YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding characteristics of claypan soils has long been an issue for researchers and farmers because the high-clay subsoil has a pronounced effect on grain crop productivity. The claypan restricts water infiltration and storage within the crop root zone, but these effects are not uniform within...

  1. Effects of soil composition and mineralogy on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The management of crop residues in agricultural fields influences soil erosion and soil carbon sequestration. Remote sensing methods can efficiently assess crop residue cover and tillaje intensity over many fields in a region. Although the reflectance spectra of soils and crop residues are often s...

  2. 7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and biological condition of soil and minimize soil erosion. (b) The producer must manage crop... sludge (biosolids) as defined in 40 CFR part 503; and (3) Burning as a means of disposal for crop... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soil fertility and crop nutrient management...

  3. 7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and biological condition of soil and minimize soil erosion. (b) The producer must manage crop... sludge (biosolids) as defined in 40 CFR part 503; and (3) Burning as a means of disposal for crop... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soil fertility and crop nutrient management...

  4. The integration of remotely sensed soil moisture into the USDA global crop production support system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture is a fundamental data source used in crop growth stage and crop stress models. Currently, the USDA Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division (PECAD) utilizes a modification of the Palmer two-layer soil moisture model to estimate surface soil moisture. This model uses a simplifi...

  5. Long-term tillage frequency and cropping intensity effects on dryland residue and soil carbon fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term soil and crop management practices are needed to increase dryland C sequestration for C trading and C fractions to improve soil quality. We evaluated the 21-yr effects of combinations of three tillage frequencies and three cropping systems on dryland crop biomass returned to the soil, resi...

  6. Selenium status in soil, water and essential crops of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, Lyly; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Eshraghyan, Mohammad Reza; Nasseri, Simin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Yunesian, Masoud; Sereshti, Hassan; Moameni, Aziz; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin

    2012-01-01

    As a contributing factor to health, the trace element selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient of special interest for humans and all animals. It is estimated that 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency. In spite of the important role of Se, its concentrations in soil, water and essential crops have not been studied in Iran. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to determine the Se content of soil, water, and essential crops (rice in North, wheat in Center, date, and pistachio in South) of different regions of Iran. Sampling was performed in the North, South, and Central regions of Iran. In each selected area in the three regions, 17 samples of surface soil were collected; samples of water and essential crops were also collected at the same sampling points. Upon preliminary preparation of all samples, the Se concentrations were measured by ICP-OES Model Varian Vista-MPX. The amount of soil-Se was found to be in the range between 0.04 and 0.45 ppm in the studied areas; the Se content of soil in the central region of Iran was the highest compared to other regions (p<0.0001). The average Se concentration in irrigation water of different areas was less than 0.01 mg/L, and the mean concentrations of Se in the rice, wheat, date, and pistachio samples were 0.95, 0.74, 0.46, and 0.40 ppm, respectively. Although Se-soil and water-Se level in different regions were low, the typical levels of Se in the essential crops were relatively high. PMID:23369199

  7. Impacts of Cropping Intensity on Soil C and Net Greenhouse Gas Fluxes for Dryland Cropping in Northeastern Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1985, land that was traditionally used for conventional tillage wheat/fallow cropping was converted to no till alternative cropping systems to investigate soil carbon changes. After 12 years of average to above average precipitation, continuous no till cropping with out summer fallow had stored ...

  8. Lime effects on soil acidity, crop yield and aluminum chemistry in inland Pacific Northwest direct-seed cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pH of agricultural soils in the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) has declined below established critical levels for cereal and grain legume crops. Our objective was to assess the effects of broadcast or subsurface banded lime treatments on soil acidity, crop yield, and aluminum (Al) chemistry in ...

  9. Residue and soil carbon sequestration in relation to crop yield as affected by irrigation, tillage, cropping system and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...

  10. Chemical control of perennial and annual weeds in herbicide resistant soybean crops.

    PubMed

    Sarpe, N; Roibu, C; Negrila, E; Bodescu, F; Fuia, S; Popa, C; Beraru, C

    2001-01-01

    In Romania, the first tests with Roundup Ready on soybean crops were performed in 1998, on 2 soil types: a) at Teleorman Station on chernozem containing 3.5% humus, 4.5% clay b) at Brăila Station placed in Danube Meadow on alluvial soil containing 3.90% humus and 46% clay. In every locality cultivated soybean cultivar S.2254 was resistant to glyphosate. During the three years of experiments (1998-2000) the crop of soybean was infested with various species of weeds (both annual and perennial) of which the most important are: Sorghum halepense (60-80%), Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria glauca, Amaranthus retroflexus, Solarium nigrum, Yanthium italicum, Abutilon theoprasthi, Sinapis arvensis, Datum stramonium, Polygonum persicaria, Calystegia sepium, Cirsium arvense. In 3 years of experience the best weed control and the highest soybean production were obtained in the variants treated 2 times postemergent with Roundup Ready at a dose of 3 + 3 l/ha. Similar results were also obtained in the farms of the Academy of Agricultural Forestry Sciences, where GMO soybean was cultivated on 1500 hectares. PMID:12425098

  11. Threshold dynamics in soil carbon storage for bioenergy crops.

    PubMed

    Woo, Dong K; Quijano, Juan C; Kumar, Praveen; Chaoka, Sayo; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2014-10-21

    Because of increasing demands for bioenergy, a considerable amount of land in the midwestern United States could be devoted to the cultivation of second-generation bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass and miscanthus. The foliar carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) in these bioenergy crops at harvest is significantly higher than the ratios in replaced crops, such as corn or soybean. We show that there is a critical soil organic matter C/N ratio, where microbial biomass can be impaired as microorganisms become dependent upon net immobilization. The simulation results show that there is a threshold effect in the amount of aboveground litter input in the soil after harvest that will reach a critical organic matter C/N ratio in the soil, triggering a reduction of the soil microbial population, with significant consequences in other microbe-related processes, such as decomposition and mineralization. These thresholds are approximately 25 and 15% of aboveground biomass for switchgrass and miscanthus, respectively. These results suggest that values above these thresholds could result in a significant reduction of decomposition and mineralization, which, in turn, would enhance the sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the topsoil and reduce inorganic nitrogen losses when compared to a corn-corn-soybean rotation. PMID:25207669

  12. Integrating pasture-based livestock production with annual crop production on the Great Plains to reduce loss of grassland wildlife

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tallgrass prairie has been replaced by corn and soybeans and mixed-grass prairie is being replaced by various annual crops. Annual crop fields support vegetarian diets but not much wildlife. Alternatively, integrating pastured livestock farming with annual crops can provide wildlife habitat. For ...

  13. Litter Inputs and Soil Aggregation in Midwestern Biofuel Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantola, I. B.; Masters, M. D.; Smyth, E. M.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2014-12-01

    Perennial C4 grasses represent alternatives to corn for the production of ethanol because of low management costs and high biomass production. To evaluate the effects of perennial grasses on the agricultural soils of the Midwest, native switchgrass and a sterile hybrid of the Asian grass Miscanthus were planted at the University of Illinois Energy Farm in 2008. Through five years of growth, above and belowground plant biomass, litter, and soil were compared with soils in plots growing a corn-corn-soy rotation typical of the area. Above- and belowground plant biomass in Miscanthus and switchgrass averaged higher than corn/soy following two years of perennial establishment, with belowground biomass exceeding corn/soy by approximately 5-fold in the year after establishment (2010) and 25-fold by 2012. Measurements of root distribution and turnover rates indicate that roots are the primary contribution of new carbon to soils under perennial crops. Physical fractionation of the soils into water stable aggregates showed 4-14% increases in macroaggregate fractions under perennial crops; the large aggregates are adhered together by organic material and indicative of the increased presence of labile carbon forms like plant roots, fungi, and plant and microbial exudates. Carbon and nitrogen analyses of the fractions show that while overall carbon has not increased significantly in whole soil, soils under perennial grasses are concentrating carbon by 5-17% in the macroaggregates after just 5 years. Native switchgrass roots (buried) and litter (surface-applied) decompose faster than Miscanthus roots and litter, but slower than corn roots and litter buried to simulate incorporation by tillage. Switchgrass soil shows the highest degree of macroaggregate formation, pointing to a high rate of litter and root decomposition and incorporation into soil structure. While macroaggregates are relatively labile soil structures compared to microaggregates and free silt and clay, they offer

  14. Multi-Seasonal Nitrogen Recoveries from Crop Residue in Soil and Crop in a Temperate Agro-Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoqing; Liu, Xiao; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Hongtu; Wu, Yeye; Cui, Jiehua; Sun, Ci; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    In conservation tillage systems, at least 30% of the soil surface was covered by crop residues which generally contain significant amounts of nitrogen (N). However, little is known about the multi-seasonal recoveries of the N derived from these crop residues in soil-crop systems, notably in northeastern China. In a temperate agro-ecosystem, 15N-labeled maize residue was applied to field surfaces in the 1st year (2009). From the 2nd to 4th year (2010-2012), one treatment halted the application of maize residue, whereas the soil in the second treatment was re-applied with unlabeled maize residue. Crop and soil samples were collected after each harvest, and their 15N enrichments were determined on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to trace the allocation of N derived from the initially applied maize residue in the soil-crop systems. On average, 8.4% of the maize residue N was recovered in the soil-crop in the 1st year, and the vast majority (61.9%-91.9%) was recovered during subsequent years. Throughout the experiment, the cumulative recovery of the residue N in the crop increased gradually (18.2%-20.9%), but most of the residue N was retained in the soil, notably in the 0-10 cm soil layer. Compared to the single application, the sequential residue application significantly increased the recovery of the residue N in the soil profile (73.8% vs. 40.9%) and remarkably decreased the total and the initially applied residue derived mineral N along the soil profile. Our results suggested that the residue N was actively involved in N cycling, and its release and recovery in crop and soil profile were controlled by the decomposition process. Sequential residue application significantly enhanced the retention and stabilization of the initially applied residue N in the soil and retarded its translocation along the soil profile. PMID:26192436

  15. Soil Erosion: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the last of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil erosion. Upon completion of the two day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) define conservation, (2) understand how erosion takes place, and (3) list ways of controlling wind and water erosion.…

  16. Replacing fallow with cover crops in a semiarid soil:Effects on soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replacement of fallow in crop–fallow systems with cover crops (CCs) may improve soil properties. We assessed whether replacing fallow in no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–fallow with winter and spring CCs for 5 years reduced wind and water erosion, increased soil organic carbon (SOC), and ...

  17. Using stable isotopes to characterize differential depth of water uptake based on environmental conditions in perennial biofuel and traditional annual crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. N.; Nystrom, R.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change related to fossil fuel consumption coupled with the necessity for secure, cost-effective, and renewable domestic energy is continuing to drive the development of a bioenergy industry. Numerous second-generation biofuel crops have been identified that hold promise as sustainable feedstocks for the industry, including perennial grasses that utilize the highly water and energy efficient C4 photosynthetic pathway. Among the perennial grasses, miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) stand out as having high biomass, minimal maintenance, low nutrient input requirements, and positive environmental benefits. These grasses are able to withstand a wide range of growing season temperatures and precipitation regimes, particularly in reference to the annual row crops that they are likely to replace. During the drought of 2012 traditional row crops suffered major reductions in yield whereas the perennial grasses retained relatively high biomass yields. We hypothesize that this is due to the ability of the perennial grasses to access water from deeper soil water relative to the annual row crops. To test this hypothesis, we use isotopic techniques to determine the soil depth from which the various species obtain water. Data from summer 2013 suggests that the perennial grasses preferentially use surface water when available but can extract water from depths that the annual row crops are unable to reach. These results indicate that perennial grasses, with deeper roots, will likely sustain growth under conditions when annual row crops are unable.

  18. Soil organic carbon assessments in cropping systems using isotopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín De Dios Herrero, Juan; Cruz Colazo, Juan; Guzman, María Laura; Saenz, Claudio; Sager, Ricardo; Sakadevan, Karuppan

    2016-04-01

    Introduction of improved farming practices are important to address the challenges of agricultural production, food security, climate change and resource use efficiency. The integration of livestock with crops provides many benefits including: (1) resource conservation, (2) ecosystem services, (3) soil quality improvements, and (4) risk reduction through diversification of enterprises. Integrated crop livestock systems (ICLS) with the combination of no-tillage and pastures are useful practices to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) compared with continuous cropping systems (CCS). In this study, the SOC and its fractions in two cropping systems namely (1) ICLS, and (2) CCS were evaluated in Southern Santa Fe Province in Argentina, and the use of delta carbon-13 technique and soil physical fractionation were evaluated to identify sources of SOC in these systems. Two farms inside the same soil cartographic unit and landscape position in the region were compared. The ICLS farm produces lucerne (Medicago sativa Merrill) and oat (Avena sativa L.) grazed by cattle alternatively with grain summer crops sequence of soybean (Glicine max L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), and the farm under continuous cropping system (CCS) produces soybean and corn in a continuous sequence. The soil in the area is predominantly a Typic Hapludoll. Soil samples from 0-5 and 0-20 cm depths (n=4) after the harvest of grain crops were collected in each system and analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC, 0-2000 μm), particulate organic carbon (POC, 50-100 μm) and mineral organic carbon (MOC, <50 μm). Delta carbon-13 was determined by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. In addition, a site with natural vegetation (reference site, REF) was also sampled for delta carbon-13 determination. ANOVA and Tukey statistical analysis were carried out for all data. The SOC was higher in ICLS than in CCS at both depths (20.8 vs 17.7 g kg-1 for 0-5 cm and 16.1 vs 12.7 g kg-1 at 0-20 cm, respectively, P<0.05). MOC was

  19. Impact of rapeseed cropping on the soil carbon balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, Antje Maria; Herbst, Mathias; Huth, Vytas; Andres, Monique; Augustin, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Winter oilseed rape is the dominant biofuel crop in the young moraine landscape in Northern Germany. Since the cultivation of biofuel crops requires sustainability compared to fossil fuels by law, detailed knowledge about their green house gas (GHG) balance is necessary. The soil carbon balance is one of the key contributors to the total GHG balance and also very important for the assessment of soil fertility. However, the knowledge about the impact of different management practices on the soil carbon balance is very limited up to now. Therefore, we investigated the carbon fluxes of winter oilseed rape at field plots near Dedelow/Uckermark in NE Germany with different treatments of fertilization (mineral versus organic) and tillage (no-till and mulch-till versus ploughing). The dynamics of the carbon fluxes are mainly driven by the current climatic conditions but the overall response depends strongly on the ecosystem state (with its physiological and microbiological properties) which is affected by management. To get the full carbon flux dynamics but also the impact of the different management practices, two different approaches were used: The eddy covariance technique to get continuous fluxes throughout the year and the manual chamber technique to detect flux differences between specific management practices. The manual chamber measurements were conducted four-weekly as all-day campaigns using a flow-through non-steady-state closed chamber system. The fluxes in-between campaigns were gap-filled based on functional relationships with soil and air temperature (for the ecosystem respiration) and photosynthetic active radiation (for the gross primary production). All results presented refer to the cropping season 2012-2013. The combination of the two measurement techniques allows the evaluation of chamber fluxes including an independent estimate of the error on the overall balances. Despite the considerable errors, there are significant differences in the soil carbon

  20. Soil quality differences in a mature alley cropping system in temperate North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alley cropping in agroforestry practices has been shown to improve soil quality, however information on long-term effects (>10 years) of alley cropping on soils in the temperate zone is very limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth on soil...

  1. The Challenges of Implementing Conservation Tillage and Cover Crops in Clay Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation practices, such as reduced tillage and cover crops, can improve soil quality and increase soil moisture for crop production. Benefits to production, soil quality, and water conservation have been observed especially in areas with rapidly draining soils. While historically enjoying high ...

  2. Contrasting grain crop and grassland management effects on soil quality properties for a North-Central Missouri claypan soil landscape.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop management has the potential to either enhance or degrade soil quality, which in turn impacts crop production and the environment. Few studies have investigated how crop management affects soil quality over different landscape positions. The objective of this study was to investigate how 12 yea...

  3. [Effects of different cropping patterns on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial community diversity in oasis farmland].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Liu, Yu; Chu, Gui-xin

    2015-02-01

    Effects of long-term cropping patterns on the activities of peroxidase, invertase, arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase and protease were investigated in this paper. Four long-term cropping patterns included (1) 10 years continuous cropping of corn, (2) 8 years continuous cropping of wheat followed by 10 years continuous cropping of cotton, (3) 15 years continuous cropping of cotton, and (4) 6 years continuous cropping of cotton followed by 6 years of wheat/sunflower rotation. The responses of soil bacteria, fungi, ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) , and the ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) to different copping patterns were analyzed. The results showed that cropping patterns significantly affected the activities of soil peroxidase, arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase and protease, while had no significant effect on soil invertase activity. The cropping patterns significantly influenced the diversity index of AOA, but had no significant influence on that of soil bacteria, fungi and AOB. The community structures of soil fungi and AOB were more sensitive to cropping patterns than soil bacteria and AOA. In conclusion, long-term continuous cropping of cotton decreased the activities of soil enzymes activities and soil microbial diversity in oasis farmland, while crop rotation could alleviate the negative influence. PMID:26094465

  4. Effects of agricultural practices of three crops on the soil communities under Mediterranean conditions: field evaluation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Sara; José Cerejeira, Maria; Abreu, Manuela; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable agricultural production relies on soil communities as the main actors in key soil processes necessary to maintain sustainable soil functioning. Soil biodiversity influences soil physical and chemical characteristics and thus the sustainability of crop and agro-ecosystems functioning. Agricultural practices (e.g.: soil tillage, pesticides and fertilizer applications, irrigation) may affects negatively or positively soil biodiversity and abundances by modifying the relationships between organisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices of three crops (potato, onion and maize) under Mediterranean climate conditions on soil macro- and mesofauna during their entire crop cycles. Effects on soil communities were assessed at a higher tier of environmental risk assessment comprising field testing of indigenous edaphic communities in a selected study-site located in a major agriculture region of Central Portugal, Ribatejo e Oeste, neighbouring protected wetlands. A reference site near the agricultural field site was selected as a Control site to compare the terrestrial communities' composition and variation along the crop cycle. The field soil and Control site soil are sandy loam soils. Crops irrigation was performed by center-pivot (automated sprinkler that rotates in a half a circle area) and by sprinklers. Soil macro- and mesofauna were collected at both sites (field and Control) using two methodologies through pitfall trapping and soil sampling. The community of soil macro- and mesofauna of the three crops field varied versus control site along the crops cycles. Main differences were due to arachnids, coleopterans, ants and adult Diptera presence and abundance. The feeding activity of soil fauna between control site and crop areas varied only for potato and onion crops vs. control site but not among crops. Concentration of pesticides residues in soil did not cause apparent negative effects on the soil

  5. Soil Carbon Budget During Establishment of Short Rotation Woody Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, M. D.

    2003-12-01

    Carbon budgets were monitored following forest harvest and during re-establishment of short rotation woody crops. Soil CO2 efflux was monitored using infared gas analyzer methods, fine root production was estimated with minirhizotrons, above ground litter inputs were trapped, coarse root inputs were estimated with developed allometric relationships, and soil carbon pools were measured in loblolly pine and cottonwood plantations. Our carbon budget allows evaluation of errors, as well as quantifying pools and fluxes in developing stands during non-steady-state conditions. Soil CO2 efflux was larger than the combined inputs from aboveground litter fall and root production. Fine-root production increased during stand development; however, mortality was not yet equivalent to production, showing the belowground carbon budget was not yet in equilibrium and root carbon standing crop was accruing. Belowground production was greater in cottonwood than pine, but the level of pine soil CO2 efflux was equal to or greater than that of cottonwood, indicating heterotrophic respiration was higher for pine. Comparison of unaccounted efflux with soil organic carbon changes provides verification of loss or accrual.

  6. Effect of different crops on soil organic matter and biological activity in Oxisols under three different crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, Diana Marcela; Arzuaga, Silvia; Dalurzo, Humberto; Zornoza, Raúl; Vazquez, Sara

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate changes in soil organic matter in Oxisols under different crops compared to native rainforest, and to assess if acid phosphatase activity (APA) could be a good indicator for SOC changes and soil quality. The experimental design consisted of four completely randomized blocks with four treatments: subtropical rainforest (F); yerba mate crop (I) (Ilex paraguariensis SH.); citrus crop (C) (Citrus unshiu Marc); and tobacco crop (T) (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Soil samples were taken at 0-10; 10-20 and 20-30 cm depths. The variables measured were soil organic carbon (SOC), APA, clay content, pH, total nitrogen (Nt), available phosphorus (P) and CO2 emissions. All data were analyzed by ANOVA to assess the effects of land-use changes. The treatment means were compared through Duncan's multiple range tests (p<0.05). The relationship between variables was determined with a simple correlation analysis and with a multiple linear regression analysis through the stepwise method. These soils showed an acid reaction and their clay content was over 650 g kg-1 for the three depths. SOC and N contents were higher in native soils, intermediate for the citrus crop, and lower under both tobacco and yerba mate crops. CO2 emissions were higher in the rainforest (47.32 kg ha-1 of CO2) than in cultivated soils, which indicates that biological activity is enhanced in rainforest soils where substrates for soil biota and fauna are more readily available. The variability of 76% in APA was explained by total nitrogen, which is closely related to soil organic matter, and by available P. Conversion of subtropical rainforests into agricultural lands reduced SOC content and acid phosphatase activity, thereby lowering soil quality. In this study, acid phosphatase activity proved to be a sensitive indicator to detect changes from pristine to cropped soils, but it failed to distinguish differences among crop systems.

  7. Assessing the probability of infection by Salmonella due to sewage sludge use in agriculture under several exposure scenarios for crops and soil ingestion.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowski, Flávio; de Souza Lauretto, Marcelo; Nardocci, Adelaide Cássia; Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2016-10-15

    A deeper understanding about the risks involved in sewage sludge practice in agriculture is required. The aims of the present study were to determine the annual risk of infection of consuming lettuce, carrots and tomatoes cultivated in soil amended with sewage sludge. The risk to agricultural workers of accidental ingestion of sludge or amended soil was also investigated. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was conducted based on Salmonella concentrations from five WWTPs were used to estimate the probability of annual infection associated with crops and soil ingestion. The risk of infection was estimated for nine exposure scenarios considering concentration of the pathogen, sewage sludge dilution in soil, variation of Salmonella concentration in soil, soil attachment to crops, seasonal average temperatures, hours of post-harvesting exposure, Salmonella regrowth in lettuce and tomatoes, Salmonella inhibition factor in carrots, crop ingestion and frequency of exposure, sludge/soil ingestion by agricultural workers and frequency of exposure. Annual risks values varied across the scenarios evaluated. Highest values of annual risk were found for scenarios in which the variation in the concentration of Salmonella spp. in both soil and crops (scenario 1) and without variation in the concentration of Salmonella spp. in soil and variation in crops (scenario 3) ranging from 10(-3) to 10(-2) for all groups considered. For agricultural workers, the highest annual risks of infection were found when workers applied sewage sludge to agricultural soils (2.26×10(-2)). Sensitivity analysis suggests that the main drivers for the estimated risks are Salmonella concentration and ingestion rate. These risk values resulted from conservative scenarios since some assumptions were derived from local or general studies. Although these scenarios can be considered conservative, the sensitivity analysis yielded the drivers of the risks, which can be useful for managing risks from the

  8. Chemical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the fifth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to chemical features of the soil. Upon completing the four day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) list macro- and micro-nutrients, (2) define pH and its effect on plants, (3) outline Cation Exchange of the soil,…

  9. USDA-ARS WHEAT, PEANUT AND FIELD CROPS RESEARCH UNIT ANNUAL REPORT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This annual report is a summary of objectives and current research accomplishments of the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK, concerning aphids and cereal aphid resistance. Personnel and recent publications are also listed. ...

  10. Early response of soil organic fractions to tillage and integrated crop-livestock production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage, cropping system, and cover cropping are important management variables that control the quantity, quality, and placement of organic matter inputs to soil. How soil organic matter and its different fractions respond to management has not been comprehensively studied in integrated crop-lives...

  11. Mapping crop Residue Cover and Soil Tillage Intensity Using Remote Sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently crop residues were managed primarily to reduce soil erosion and increase soil organic carbon, but demands for biofuels may remove much of the residue. Current methods of measuring crop residue cover are inadequate for characterizing the temporal and spatial variability of crop residu...

  12. SOIL WATER USE AND GRAIN YIELD OF THREE DRYLAND CROPS UNDER DIFFERING TILLAGE SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combining the use of drought-adapted and early maturing crops with reduced tillage practices in dryland cropping systems can increase soil water storage, water-use efficiency and crop yields. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil water use by cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), grain sorghum [So...

  13. Soil carbon accumulation after short-term use of rye as a winter cover crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of winter cover crops has been proposed to protect and enhance soil resources. Cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) can be an effective cover crop since it can produce large amounts of biomass in certain climates. However, short-term benefits of cover crop use on soil carbon accumulation are not w...

  14. Response of soil respiration to climate across biofuel crops and land use histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Chen, J.; Shao, C.; Shen, W.; Zenone, T.; John, R.; Deal, M.; Hamilton, S. K.; Robertson, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    treatment decreased 2.25% and 8.55%, respectively, in mid-summer between 2011 and 2012), SRRs were also comparatively low (average SRRt and SRRh decreased 5.57 and 3.12 umol CO2/m2s, respectively, in 2012). Besides, substrate supply importantly regulates SRRs; the patterns of SRR coincide that of crop growth through a growing season. SRRs of annual plan (corn) sites have very narrow peaks while SRRs of perennial crops (all of the rest crops in the experiment) have extended periods of highest SRRs. This may be a consequence of the difference between the phenology of annual and perennial crops. Generally, SRRh are lower than SRRt at all AG and reference sites (the difference between SRRh and SRRt are 5.23, 2.32, 3.87 and 6.03 at AG-Cr, AG-Sw, AG-Pr and reference site, respectively) in mid-summer in 2011, however, the difference between SRRh and SRRt are close at CRP sites (the difference are 1.42, 1.87 and -0.07 at CRP-Cr, CRP-Sw and CRP-Pr site). Large amount of carbon released into soil due to land use change at CRP sites would lead to high SRRh.

  15. Cropping systems modulate the rate and magnitude of soil microbial autotrophic CO2 fixation in soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohong; Ge, Tida; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Hongzhao; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Zhu, Zhenke; Whiteley, Andrew S; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different cropping systems on CO2 fixation by soil microorganisms was studied by comparing soils from three exemplary cropping systems after 10 years of agricultural practice. Studied cropping systems included: continuous cropping of paddy rice (rice-rice), rotation of paddy rice and rapeseed (rice-rapeseed), and rotated cropping of rapeseed and corn (rapeseed-corn). Soils from different cropping systems were incubated with continuous (14)C-CO2 labeling for 110 days. The CO2-fixing bacterial communities were investigated by analyzing the cbbL gene encoding ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RubisCO). Abundance, diversity and activity of cbbL-carrying bacteria were analyzed by quantitative PCR, cbbL clone libraries and enzyme assays. After 110 days incubation, substantial amounts of (14)C-CO2 were incorporated into soil organic carbon ((14)C-SOC) and microbial biomass carbon ((14)C-MBC). Rice-rice rotated soil showed stronger incorporation rates when looking at (14)C-SOC and (14)C-MBC contents. These differences in incorporation rates were also reflected by determined RubisCO activities. (14)C-MBC, cbbL gene abundances and RubisCO activity were found to correlate significantly with (14)C-SOC, indicating cbbL-carrying bacteria to be key players for CO2 fixation in these soils. The analysis of clone libraries revealed distinct cbbL-carrying bacterial communities for the individual soils analyzed. Most of the identified operational taxonomic units (OTU) were related to Nitrobacter hamburgensis, Methylibium petroleiphilum, Rhodoblastus acidophilus, Bradyrhizobium, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Rubrivivax, Burkholderia, Stappia, and Thiobacillus thiophilus. OTUs related to Rubrivivax gelatinosus were specific for rice-rice soil. OTUs linked to Methylibium petroleiphilum were exclusively found in rice-rapeseed soil. Observed differences could be linked to differences in soil parameters such as SOC. We conclude that the long-term application of

  16. Cropping systems modulate the rate and magnitude of soil microbial autotrophic CO2 fixation in soil

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaohong; Ge, Tida; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Hongzhao; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Zhu, Zhenke; Whiteley, Andrew S.; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different cropping systems on CO2 fixation by soil microorganisms was studied by comparing soils from three exemplary cropping systems after 10 years of agricultural practice. Studied cropping systems included: continuous cropping of paddy rice (rice-rice), rotation of paddy rice and rapeseed (rice-rapeseed), and rotated cropping of rapeseed and corn (rapeseed-corn). Soils from different cropping systems were incubated with continuous 14C-CO2 labeling for 110 days. The CO2-fixing bacterial communities were investigated by analyzing the cbbL gene encoding ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RubisCO). Abundance, diversity and activity of cbbL-carrying bacteria were analyzed by quantitative PCR, cbbL clone libraries and enzyme assays. After 110 days incubation, substantial amounts of 14C-CO2 were incorporated into soil organic carbon (14C-SOC) and microbial biomass carbon (14C-MBC). Rice-rice rotated soil showed stronger incorporation rates when looking at 14C-SOC and 14C-MBC contents. These differences in incorporation rates were also reflected by determined RubisCO activities. 14C-MBC, cbbL gene abundances and RubisCO activity were found to correlate significantly with 14C-SOC, indicating cbbL-carrying bacteria to be key players for CO2 fixation in these soils. The analysis of clone libraries revealed distinct cbbL-carrying bacterial communities for the individual soils analyzed. Most of the identified operational taxonomic units (OTU) were related to Nitrobacter hamburgensis, Methylibium petroleiphilum, Rhodoblastus acidophilus, Bradyrhizobium, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Rubrivivax, Burkholderia, Stappia, and Thiobacillus thiophilus. OTUs related to Rubrivivax gelatinosus were specific for rice-rice soil. OTUs linked to Methylibium petroleiphilum were exclusively found in rice-rapeseed soil. Observed differences could be linked to differences in soil parameters such as SOC. We conclude that the long-term application of cropping systems

  17. Crop rotation effect on soil carbon and nitrogen stocks under limited irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited irrigation management practices are being used in the Central Great Plains to conserve water by optimizing crop wateruse efficiency. Limited irrigation may reduce total crop biomass production and amount of crop residue returned to the soil. Crop residue production within four no-till (NT)...

  18. Water use efficiency of perennial and annual bioenergy crops in central Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable bioenergy production depends upon the efficiency with which crops use available water to produce biomass and store carbon belowground. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE; productivity vs. annual evapotranspiration, ET) is a key metric of bioenergy crop performance. We evaluate WUE of t...

  19. Isotopic Tracer Study of Hydraulic Transfer Between Native Woody Shrubs and Associated Annual Crops Under Dry Conditions in the Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogie, Nathaniel; Bayala, Roger; Diedhiou, Ibrahima; Fogel, Marilyn; Dick, Richard; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.

    2015-04-01

    Erratic precipitation at the beginning and end of the rainy season combined with short drought periods during the cropping season pose a major challenge for rain-fed agriculture and food security in the Sahel. Research has shown that intercropping annual crops with native evergreen woody shrubs in Senegal can greatly increase crop productivity. Hydraulic redistribution (HR), or the diurnal rewetting of dry soil by the pathway of the root system that extends into wetter soil has been found in many plants and climates worldwide. The HR pathway could be a factor in Senegal where water provided by shrubs aids crop growth during dry periods but this has not been confirmed. Therefore, the objective was to determine the ability of shrubs to provide water to millet plants using the deuterium tracer. Penisetum glaucum (Pearl Millet) was grown in association with the native woody shrub Guiera senegalensis under drip irrigation until 68 days after sowing, followed by a with holding of water during late flowering and early grain-filling stage. Within 10 days the soils in the stressed plots became extremely dry with water potentials ranging from -0.5 Mpa to -3.0 Mpa at 20cm depth. Twenty days after the initiation of water stress, vials of isotopically enriched deuterium tracer was sealed around cut roots of three separate shrubs at a depth of 1.0 m followed by sampling of aboveground tissue from injection shrubs and closely growing crop plants over a period of five days. Using cryogenic vacuum distillation, plant water samples were extracted from plant tissue. With lab work completed on two replications, a highly enriched deuterium signal was observed in the tissue water of the shrub beginning twelve hours after the injection. In the same replication thirty-six hours after the beginning of injection, a highly enriched pulse of deuterium in the crop growing directly adjacent to the injection shrub was observed. In a concurrent injection to a nearby shrub under much drier

  20. China's crop productivity and soil carbon storage as influenced by multifactor global change.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wei; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Huang, Yao; Pan, Shufen

    2012-09-01

    Much concern has been raised about how multifactor global change has affected food security and carbon sequestration capacity in China. By using a process-based ecosystem model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), in conjunction with the newly developed driving information on multiple environmental factors (climate, atmospheric CO2 , tropospheric ozone, nitrogen deposition, and land cover/land use change), we quantified spatial and temporal patterns of net primary production (NPP) and soil organic carbon storage (SOC) across China's croplands during 1980-2005 and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Simulated results showed that both crop NPP and SOC increased from 1980 to 2005, and the highest annual NPP occurred in the Southeast (SE) region (0.32 Pg C yr(-1) , 35.4% of the total NPP) whereas the largest annual SOC (2.29 Pg C yr(-1) , 35.4% of the total SOC) was found in the Northeast (NE) region. Land management practices, particularly nitrogen fertilizer application, appear to be the most important factor in stimulating increase in NPP and SOC. However, tropospheric ozone pollution and climate change led to NPP reduction and SOC loss. Our results suggest that China's crop productivity and soil carbon storage could be enhanced through minimizing tropospheric ozone pollution and improving nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency. PMID:24501069

  1. The influence of long-term fertilization on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soil and its uptake by crops.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingyun; Zhang, Jiabao; Zhao, Bingzi; Xin, Xiuli; Zhang, Congzhi; Zhang, Hailin

    2014-09-01

    Continuous application of organic and inorganic fertilizers can affect soil and food quality with respect to heavy metal concentrations. The risk of cadmium (Cd) contamination in a long-term (over 20 years) experimental field in North China with an annual crop rotation of winter wheat and summer maize was investigated. The long-term experiment had a complete randomized block design with seven fertilizer treatments and four replications. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1) organic compost (OM), (2) half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (OM + NPK), (3) NPK fertilizer (NPK), (4-6) chemical fertilizers without one of the major nutrients (NP, PK, and NK), and (7) an unamended control (CK). Soil samples from 0 to 20 cm were collected in 1989, 1999, and 2009 to characterize Cd and other soil properties. During the past 20 years, various extents of Cd accumulation were observed in the soil, and the accumulation was mainly affected by atmospheric dry and wet deposition and fertilization. In 2009, the average Cd concentration in the soil was 148 ± 15 μg kg(-1) and decreased in the order of NPK ≈ OM + NKP ≈ PK > NP ≈ NK > OM ≈ CK. Sequential extraction of Cd showed that the acid-soluble fraction (F1, 32 ± 7 %) and the residual fraction (F4, 31 ± 5 %) were the dominant fractions of Cd in the soil, followed by the reducible fraction (F2, 22 ± 5 %) and oxidizable fraction (F3, 15 ± 6 %). The acid-soluble Cd fraction in the soil and Cd accumulation in the crops increased with soil plant available K. Fraction F3 was increased by soil organic C (SOC) and crop yields, but SOC reduced the uptake of soil Cd by crops. The long-term P fertilization resulted in more Cd buildup in the soil than other treatments, but the uptake of Cd by crops was inhibited by the precipitation of Cd with phosphate in the soil. Although soil Cd was slightly increased over the 20 years of intensive crop production, both soil and grain/kernel Cd concentrations were still

  2. Use of ERS SAR interferometric coherence and PRI images to evaluate crop height and soil moisture and to identify crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeremans, Benoit; Dautrebande, Sylvia

    1998-12-01

    The aim of the present project was to identify the capabilities of multitemporal ERS SAR interferometric coherence and PRI images to evaluate soil moisture, to estimate crop height and to identify crops for four crop types (winter wheat, potato, sugar beet and maize) and for different pilot fields. The coherence images acquired during the winter and spring seasons can be used to identify bare or nearly bare fields with a threshold value, and then PRI images were used to quantify soil moisture value for each bare field. The coherence images acquired during the growing season were used to evaluate crop height for each studied crop type. Moreover, the coherence image provided some additional information to PRI images for the crop type identification. This study was carried out in the framework of the PRODEX program financed by the Belgian Federal Office for Scientific, Technical and Cultural affairs (OSTC) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  3. Evaluation of antibiotic mobility in soil associated with swine-slurry soil amendment under cropping conditions.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, C; Flores, C; Caixach, J; Mita, L; Piña, B; Comas, J; Bayona, J M

    2014-11-01

    Interest in identifying pools of antibacterial-resistance genes has grown over the last decade, with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) receiving particular attention. In this paper, a mesoscale study aimed at evaluating the vertical transport of common VAs-namely, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and lincosamides in agricultural soil subjected to drip irrigation-was performed under greenhouse conditions. Accordingly, leachates of cropped and uncropped soil, amended with swine-slurry leading to 19-38 μg kg(-1) (dry mass) antibiotics in the soil, were analyzed over the course of the productive cycle of a lettuce (42 days) with three sampling campaigns (N = 24). High lincomycin (LCM) concentrations (30-39 μg L(-1)) were detected in the leachates collected from the swine-slurry-amended soil. The highest LCM mass recovered in the leachates (30.1 ± 1.63 %) was obtained from cropped experimental units. In addition, the LCM leaching constant and its leaching potential as obtained from the first-order model were higher in the leachates from the cropped experimental units. Lower concentrations of sulfadimethoxine were also detected in leachates and in soil. Enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline occurred only in soil, which is consistent with high soil interaction. PMID:24938815

  4. Effects of irrigation on crops and soils with Raft River geothermal water

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, N.E.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Raft River Irrigation Experiment investigated the suitability of using energy-expended geothermal water for irrigation of selected field-grown crops. Crop and soil behavior on plots sprinkled or surface irrigated with geothermal water was compared to crop and soil behavior on plots receiving water from shallow irrigation wells and the Raft River. In addition, selected crops were produced, using both geothermal irrigation water and special management techniques. Crops irrigated with geothermal water exhibited growth rates, yields, and nutritional values similar to comparison crops. Cereal grains and surface-irrigated forage crops did not exhibit elevated fluoride levels or accumulations of heavy metals. However, forage crops sprinkled with geothermal water did accumulate fluorides, and leaching experiments indicate that new soils receiving geothermal water may experience increased salinity, exchangeable sodium, and decreased permeability. Soil productivity may be maintained by leaching irrigations.

  5. Crop diversification, tillage, and management system influences on spring wheat yield and soil water use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depleted soil quality, decreased water availability, and increased weed competition constrain spring wheat production in the northern Great Plains. Integrated crop management systems are necessary for improved crop productivity. We conducted a field experiment from 2004-2010 comparing productivity...

  6. Soil organic carbon across a Coastal Plain landscape: Effects of tillage and crop management systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective employment of conservation tillage (CT) and crop management practices to obtain significant amounts of C sequestration will require an understanding of quantitative relationships between crop residue inputs under different rotations and potential changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) conten...

  7. Improved Remotely-Sensed Estimates of Crop Residue Cover by Incorporating Soils Information.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage (CT) methods, which include reduced- and no-till methods, leave substantial quantities of crop residues on the soil surface. These crop residues act as a barrier to wind and water to reduce soil erosion and evaporation. Long-term CT also increases soil organic carbon (SOC) cont...

  8. Soil-profile distribution of inorganic N during 6 years of integrated crop-livestock management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive accumulation of soil nitrate-N can threaten water and air quality. How integrated crop-livestock systems might influence soil-profile nitrate-N accumulation has not been investigated. Therefore, we determined soil nitrate-N accumulation during 6 years of evaluation of diverse cropping sy...

  9. COVER CROPS ENHANCE SOIL ORGANIC MATTER, CARBON DYNAMICS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FUNCTION IN A MEDITERRANEAN VINEYARD AGROECOSYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impacts of soil tillage and cover crops on soil carbon (C) dynamics and microbiological function were investigated in a vineyard grown in California’s Mediterranean climate. We 1) compared soil organic matter (SOM), C dynamics and microbiological activity of two cover crops [Trios 102 (Triticale x T...

  10. SOIL ORGANIC CARBON AND NITROGEN FRACTIONS IN TEMPERATE ALLEY CROPPING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alley cropping may promote greater sequestration of soil organic carbon. The objective of this study was to examine spatial variability of soil organic C and N fractions relative to tree rows in established alley cropping systems in north central Missouri. Soils were collected to a depth of 30 cm fr...

  11. Soil response to corn residue removal and cover crops in Eastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of crop residue has been shown to degrade soil organic carbon (SOC), and hence soil quality. The present study was conducted to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality parameters. The experimental site was located in Brookings County, ...

  12. Dedicated bioenergy crop impacts on soil wind erodibility and organic carbon in Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dedicated bioenergy crops such as perennial warm-season grasses (WSGs) may reduce soil erosion and improve soil properties while providing biomass feedstock for biofuel. We quantified impacts of perennial WSGs and row crops on soil wind erodibility parameters (erodible fraction, geometric mean diame...

  13. Biofuel cropping system impacts on soil C, microbial communities and N2O emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Andrew R.

    Substitution of cellulosic biofuel in place of gasoline or diesel could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation. However, emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) could have a large impact on the GHG balance of cellulosic biofuel, thus there is a need to quantify these responses in cellulosic biofuel crops. The objectives of this study were to: (i) measure changes in yield, SOC and microbial communities in potential cellulosic biofuel cropping systems (ii) measure and characterize the temporal variation in N2O emissions from these systems (iii) characterize the yield and N2O response of switchgrass to N fertilizer and to estimate the costs of production. Sweet sorghum, photoperiod-sensitive sorghum, and miscanthus yielded the highest aboveground biomass (20-32 Mg ha-1). The perennial grasses sequestered SOC over 4 yrs, while SOC stocks did not change in the annual crops. Root stocks were 4-8 times higher in the perennial crops, suggesting greater belowground C inputs. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) abundance and aggregate mean weight diameter were higher in the perennials. No consistent significant differences were found in N2O emissions between crops, though miscanthus tended to have the lowest emissions. Most N2O was emitted during large events of short duration (1-3 days) that occurred after high rainfall events with high soil NO3-. There was a weak relationship between IPCC Tier 1 N2O estimates and measured emissions, and the IPCC method tended to underestimate emissions. The response of N2O to N rate was nonlinear in 2 of 3 years. Fertilizer induced emission factor (EF) increased from 0.7% at 50 kg N ha-1 to 2.6% at 150 kg N ha-1. Switchgrass yields increased with N inputs up to 100-150 kg N ha-1, but the critical N level for maximum yields decreased each year, suggesting N was being applied in excess at higher N rates. Yield-scaled costs of production were minimized at 100 kg N ha-1 ($70.91 Mg-1

  14. Long-term impacts of cropping systems and landscape positions on grain crop production on claypan soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable grain crop production on vulnerable claypan soils requires improved knowledge of long-term impacts of conservation cropping systems (CS) with reduced inputs. Therefore, effects of CS and landscape positions (LP) on corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and wheat (Triticum...

  15. Long-term impacts of cropping systems and landscape positions on claypan-soil grain crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable grain crop production on vulnerable claypan soils requires improved knowledge of long-term impacts of conservation cropping systems (CS) with reduced inputs. Therefore, effects of CS and landscape positions (LP) on corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and wheat (Triticum...

  16. The Potato Systems Planner: Integrating Cropping System Impacts on Crop Yield and Quality, Soil Biology, Nutrient Cycling, Diseases, and Economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Finding and developing profitable cropping systems is a high priority for the potato industry. Consequently, an interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 different rotations for their impacts on crop yield and quality, nutrient availa...

  17. Organic no-till production for grain crops in Iowa: Effects on crop productivity and soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-state, long-term organic experiment was established in 6 states in 2008 to examine effects of organic no-till production on crop productivity, yields, soil quality, and economic performance. Tillage treatments included conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT), with cover crop planted in th...

  18. Long-term impacts of cropping systems and landscape positions on clay-pan soil grain crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable grain crop production on vulnerable claypan soils requires improved knowledge of long-term impacts of conservation cropping systems (CS) with reduced inputs. Therefore, effects of CS and landscape positions (LP) on corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and wheat (Triticum...

  19. Crop Rotation and Straw Residue Effects on Soil Carbon In Three Grass Seed Cropping Systems Of Western Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As grass seed crop field burning in western Oregon was phased-out, alternative non-thermal practices, such as post harvest straw residue removal or incorporation to the soil, and crop rotations were being developed. There is little information available on the practicality and impacts of non-thermal...

  20. Dryland Crop Yields and Soil Organic Matter as Influenced by Long-Term Tillage and Cropping Sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel management practices are needed to improve the declining dryland crop yields and soil organic matter using conventional farming practices in the northern Great Plains. We evaluated the 21-yr effect of tillage and cropping sequence on dryland grain and biomass (stems + leaves) yields of spring ...

  1. NATIONAL CROP LOSS ASSESSMENT NETWORK (NCLAN) 1982 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) is a group of organizations cooperating in research to assess the short- and long-term economic impact of air pollution on crop production. The primary objectives are (1) to define relationships between yield of major agricultural...

  2. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W.

    2006-04-15

    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  3. Carbonaceous soil amendments to biofortify crop plants with zinc.

    PubMed

    Gartler, Jörg; Robinson, Brett; Burton, Karen; Clucas, Lynne

    2013-11-01

    Carbonaceous soil amendments, comprising mixtures of biosolids and biochar, have been demonstrated to improve fertility while reducing nitrate leaching. We aimed to determine the efficacy of a biosolids/biochar soil amendment in biofortification of vegetables with Zn, an element that is deficient in one third of humanity. We grew beetroot (Beta vulgaris), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus), broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), leek (Allium ampeloprsum), onion (Allium cepa), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), corn (Zea mays), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and courgette (also called zucchini - Cucurbita pepo) in an unamended soil (silt loam, pH 5.6), and soil amended (by volume) with 10% biosolids, 20% biochar, and 10% biosolids+20% biochar. The biosolids and biosolids+biochar treatments significantly increased the biomass and Zn concentration of most species, with a large interspecific variation. Beetroot showed the greatest increase, with dry weight Zn concentrations of up to 178 and 1200 mg kg(-1) in the bulbs and leaves respectively. Cadmium, Cu and Pb were below guideline levels in all samples, except the leaves of spinach and beetroot, which slightly exceeded the World Health Organisation's maximum permitted concentration of 0.1 mg Cd kg(-1) fresh weight. A mixture of biosolids and biochar is an effective means to biofortify crops with edible leaves as well as beetroot with Zn. Future research should investigate the efficacy of the system in other soil types and the role of biochar in the immobilisation/inactivation of organic contaminants and pathogens contained within the biosolids. PMID:23146312

  4. Combining cropland data layers to identify alfalfa-annual crop rotation patterns and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can provide many economic and environmental benefits to crop rotations. Our objectives were to quantify alfalfa stand lengths, identify the two crops following alfalfa, and determine the soil and temporal factors affecting them. The USDA-NASS cropland data layers for 200...

  5. Annual crop type classification of the U.S. Great Plains for 2000 to 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Daniel M.; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the spatial and temporal availability of crop classification data. In this study, nearly 16.2 million crop observation points were used in the training of the US Great Plains classification tree crop type model (CTM). Each observation point was further defined by weekly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, annual climate, and a number of other biogeophysical environmental characteristics. This study accounted for the most prevalent crop types in the region, including, corn, soybeans, winter wheat, spring wheat, cotton, sorghum, and alfalfa. Annual CTM crop maps of the US Great Plains were created for 2000 to 2011 at a spatial resolution of 250 meters. The CTM achieved an 87 percent classification success rate on 1.8 million observation points that were withheld from model training. Product validation was performed on greater than 15,000 county records with a coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.76.

  6. Soil and water quality implications of production of herbaceous and woody energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Lindberg, J.E.; Green, T.H.

    1997-10-01

    Field-scale studies in three physiographic regions of the Tennessee Valley in the Southeastern US are being used to address the environmental effects of producing biomass energy crops on former agricultural lands. Comparison of erosion, surface water quality and quantity, and subsurface movement of water and nutrients from woody crops, switchgrass and agricultural crops began with crop establishment in 1994. Nutrient cycling, soil physical changes, and productivity of the different crops are also being monitored at the three sites.

  7. Soil Water Improvements with the Long Term Use of a Winter Rye Cover Crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basche, A.; Kaspar, T.; Archontoulis, S.; Jaynes, D. B.; Sauer, T. J.; Parkin, T.; Miguez, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Midwestern United States, a region that produces one-third of maize and one-quarter of soybeans globally, is projected to experience increasing rainfall variability with future climate change. One approach to mitigate climate impacts is to utilize crop and soil management practices that enhance soil water storage, reducing the risks of flooding and runoff as well as drought-induced crop water stress. While some research indicates that a winter cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation increases soil water, producers continue to be concerned that water use by cover crops will reduce water for a following cash crop. We analyzed continuous in-field soil moisture measurements over from 2008-2014 at a Central Iowa research site that has included a winter rye cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation for thirteen years. This period of study included years in the top third of wettest years on record (2008, 2010, 2014) as well as years in the bottom third of driest years (2012, 2013). We found the cover crop treatment to have significantly higher soil water storage from 2012-2014 when compared to the no cover crop treatment and in most years greater soil water content later in the growing season when a cover crop was present. We further found that the winter rye cover crop significantly increased the field capacity water content and plant available water compared to the no cover crop treatment. Finally, in 2012 and 2013, we measured maize and soybean biomass every 2-3 weeks and did not see treatment differences in crop growth, leaf area or nitrogen uptake. Final crop yields were not statistically different between the cover and no cover crop treatment in any of the years of this analysis. This research indicates that the long-term use of a winter rye cover crop can improve soil water dynamics without sacrificing cash crop growth.

  8. The role of irrigation in the soil-crop system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Széles, Adrienn; Ragán, Péter; Nagy, János

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural production is performed in 85.5% of the total area of Hungary. Yearly average precipitation is 550-600 mm. Due to global warming, flooding, inland inundation and drought are frequent within a year. Extreme weather circumstances pose new challenges for crop producers. The results of long-term field experiments provide guidance to how each production technological intervention affects crop production, average yield and yield security. Examinations were performed on mid-heavy calcareous chenozem soil in a multifactorial small plot long-term field experiment under natural precipitation supply and irrigated circumstances to analyse the effect of irrigation and N fertilisation on soil moisture and maize grain yield. Drought and optimal years were involved in the examination. Six fertiliser treatments were used (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 kg N ha-1) each year. Irrigation was performed with a Valmont linear equipment. Changes in soil moisture balance were examined with TDR-based soil moisture probes in the 0-120 cm profile. Evaluation was performed with SPSS. The moisture profiles of the 1.2 m soil profile show contrasting tendencies in different crop years in both irrigation treatments. In drought years, the 0-0.15 m layer showed the lowest moisture values (8.3-9.6 v/v%), increasing towards deeper layers. The significant (p<0.05) moisture content difference of 11-12 v/v% measured at the 12-leaf-stage constantly decreased by the end of the growing season as soil moisture stock decreased. In wet years, the highest moisture content was observed in the 0.15-0.30 m layer (37-39v/v%), decreasing towards deeper layers (13-16 v/v%). At natural precipitation supply, yield linearly increased until 60 kg ha-1 N in both years, but no yield surplus was obtained above this dose. Our results show that increasing N doses do not always cause yield increase if the water needed for nutrient uptake is limited. In irrigated treatments, the highest statistically significant yield was

  9. Sequence effects among crops on alluvial-derived soil compared with those on glacial till-derived soil in the northern Great Plains, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To implement the dynamic cropping systems concept, agriculturalists need information about how crop species affect following years’ crops. Little research exists about how soil type affects crop sequence dynamics. Sandy loam, alluvial soil in North Dakota was the site of a crop sequence experiment u...

  10. Integrating soil conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crops: impacts on soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From an environmental perspective, conservation management (CM) practices such as reduced tillage help improve soil conditions. Literature concerning effects of CM on the environment is building, and many of those studies include glyphosate resistant crops (GRC) or glyphosate as a management compon...

  11. Separating soil evaporation and crop transpiration to improve crop water use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Lee; Nguyen, Long; Gong, Daozhi; Mei, Xurong; Amenzou, Noureddine

    2014-05-01

    A network of a FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on "Managing Irrigation Water to Enhance Crop Productivity under Water-Limiting Conditions: A Role for Isotopic Techniques", involving seven countries was implemented from 2007 to 2012, to identify approaches to improve crop water productivity (production per unit of water input) under water-limiting conditions using isotopic and related techniques. This paper presents findings from the two of the studied sites, one in China and another in Morocco, in using both isotopic and conventional techniques to separate soil evaporation (E) and crop transpiration (T) from total water losses in evapotranspiration (ET) for winter wheat grown under different climatic conditions and methods of irrigation management practices. In the North China Plain (NCP), the estimated E/ET of winter wheat by the isotopic method (Keeling plot using delta oxygen-18 (δ18O)) was in agreement with that obtained by conventional methods (eddy covariance and micro-lysimeter). The high correlation between these methods (R2=0.85, n=27) showed that the E from wheat-growing field contributes an average of 30% of water losses for the whole growing season (Nov-June), with higher E percentage (68%) can be expected before elongation stage due to incomplete canopy cover. The results also showed that through deficit irrigation and improved irrigation scheduling, soil E losses could be reduced by 10-30% of the total water loss compared with full irrigation. In Morocco, field Keeling plot isotopic E and T separation study was carried out for two days in spring of 2012 at Sidi Rahal. The percentage contribution of T to total ET was approximately 73%. The experimental results obtained from both China and Moroccan sites were used to validate FAO's AquaCrop model for E and T, and for improving irrigation scheduling and agronomic practices. Good correlation (R2=0.83) was obtained between measured (isotopic) and AquaCrop simulated ET from NCP. The measured

  12. Annual Crop Type Classification of the U.S. Great Plains for 2000 - 2011: An Application of Classification Tree Modeling using Remote Sensing and Ancillary Environmental Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, D. M.; Wylie, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase spatial and temporal availability of crop classification data using reliable source data that have the potential of being applied on local, regional, national, and global levels. This study implemented classification tree modeling to map annual crop types throughout the U.S. Great Plains from 2000 - 2011. Classification tree modeling has been shown in numerous studies to be an effective tool for developing classification models. In this study, nearly 18 million crop observation points, derived from annual U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agriculture Statistics Service (NASS) Cropland Data Layers (CDLs), were used in the training, development, and validation of a classification tree crop type model (CTM). Each observation point was further defined by weekly Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) readings, annual climatic conditions, soil conditions, and a number of other biogeophysical environmental characteristics. The CTM accounted for the most prevalent crop types in the area, including, corn, soybeans, winter wheat, spring wheat, cotton, sorghum, and alfalfa. Other crops that did not fit into any of these classes were identified and grouped into a miscellaneous class. An 87% success rate was achieved on the classification of 1.8 million observation points (10% of total observation points) that were withheld from training. The CTM was applied to create annual crop maps of the U.S. Great Plains for 2000 - 2011 at a spatial resolution of 250 meters. Product validation was performed by comparing county acreage derived from the modeled crop maps and county acreage data from the USDA NASS Survey Program for each crop type and each year. Greater than 15,000 county records from 2001 - 2010 were compared with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = 0.87.

  13. Long term effects of annual additions of animal manure on soil chemical, physical, and biological properties in the Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of long-term annual beef manure amendments and wheat and rye cover crops on selected chemical, physical and biological properties of a typical Midwest U.S. soil under corn silage production. The treatments included: manure application/cover cr...

  14. Threshold Dynamics in Soil Carbon Storage for Bioenergy Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, D.; Quijano, J.; Kumar, P.; Chaoka, S.; Bernacchi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Due to increasing demands for bioenergy, a considerable amount of land in the Midwestern United States could be devoted to the cultivation of second-generation bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass and miscanthus. In this study, we attempt to explore and analyze how different amounts of above-ground biomass returned to the soil at harvest affect the below-ground dynamics of carbon and nitrogen as a comparative study between miscanthus, swichgrass, and corn-corn-soybean rotation. The simulation results show that there is a threshold effect in the amount of above-ground litter input in the soil after harvest that will reach a critical organic matter C:N ratio in the soil, triggering a reduction of the soil microbial population, with significant consequences in other microbe-related processes such as decomposition and mineralization. These thresholds are approximately 25% and 15% of above-ground biomass for switchgrass and miscanthus, respectively. However, we do not observe such threshold effects for corn-corn-soybean rotation. These results suggest that values above these thresholds could result in a significant reduction of decomposition and mineralization, which in turn would enhance the sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the topsoil and reduce inorganic nitrogen losses when compared with a corn-corn-soybean rotation.

  15. Microbial community structure and abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil of a tomato cropping system that includes cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this report we use Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (TRFLP) in a tomato production system to “finger printing” the soil microbial community structure with Phylum specific primer sets. Factors influencing the soil microbes are a cover crop of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) or Rye (...

  16. [Effect of earthworm inoculation on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics and on crop yield with application of corn residues].

    PubMed

    Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Shen, Qirong; Chen, Xiaoyun; Cang, Long; Wang, Xia

    2002-12-01

    This study was carried out in the Experimental Station of Nanjing Agricultural University, which is in a subtropical monsoon region characterized by a warm-wet spring and a hot-dry summer. The annual average temperature, precipitation and evaporation are 15.6 degrees C, 1010 mm and 1560 mm, respectively. In 1999, the experimental plots (2.8 m x 1.0 m x 0.6 m) were established by concrete frame. Soil in the plots was orthic aquisols collected from Rugao County, Jiangsu Province. Crop rotation was upland rice and winter wheat. At the beginning of the first crop (rice) season, earthworms (Pheretima sp.) were inoculated at a density of 10.m-2 and 20.m-2, respectively, in the plots with an application of corn residues at the rate of 1500 g.m-2(750 g.m-2 in the following seasons). The responses of soil carbon and nitrogen and crop yield to earthworm activity were investigated from 1999 to 2001. The results showed that earthworms had no significant influences on total soil carbon and nitrogen content, which implied that there was no depletion of soil carbon and nitrogen pools in the presence of earthworms. The maintenance of soil carbon might be explained by low assimilation efficiency of organic matter by earthworms, and by the compensation of carbon returning from plant production enhancement. Soil mineral nitrogen, soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass nitrogen were increased, and nitrogen mineralization was strengthened by earthworm activities, which was more obvious at jointing/booting and heading stages. In comparison with no-worm treatments, the yield of rice wheat increased by 9.3% and 5.1%, respectively, in the treatments inoculated with earthworms. It was concluded that earthworm was very important in promoting nitrogen recycling of crop residues and plant productivity, and in keeping the balance of soil carbon pool as well. PMID:12682972

  17. Carbon dioxide exchange of a perennial bioenergy crop cultivation on a mineral soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Saara E.; Shurpali, Narasinha J.; Peltola, Olli; Mammarella, Ivan; Hyvönen, Niina; Maljanen, Marja; Räty, Mari; Virkajärvi, Perttu; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2016-03-01

    One of the strategies to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the energy sector is to increase the use of renewable energy sources such as bioenergy crops. Bioenergy is not necessarily carbon neutral because of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during biomass production, field management and transportation. The present study focuses on the cultivation of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea L.), a perennial bioenergy crop, on a mineral soil. To quantify the CO2 exchange of this RCG cultivation system, and to understand the key factors controlling its CO2 exchange, the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) was measured from July 2009 until the end of 2011 using the eddy covariance (EC) method. The RCG cultivation thrived well producing yields of 6200 and 6700 kg DW ha-1 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Gross photosynthesis (GPP) was controlled mainly by radiation from June to September. Vapour pressure deficit (VPD), air temperature or soil moisture did not limit photosynthesis during the growing season. Total ecosystem respiration (TER) increased with soil temperature, green area index and GPP. Annual NEE was -262 and -256 g C m-2 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Throughout the study period from July 2009 until the end of 2011, cumulative NEE was -575 g C m-2. Carbon balance and its regulatory factors were compared to the published results of a comparison site on drained organic soil cultivated with RCG in the same climate. On this mineral soil site, the RCG had higher capacity to take up CO2 from the atmosphere than on the comparison site.

  18. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  19. Interaction between soil mineralogy and the application of crop residues on aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity of the soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lado, M.; Kiptoon, R.; Bar-Tal, A.; Wakindiki, I. I. C.; Ben-Hur, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main goals of modern agriculture is to achieve sustainability by maintaining crop productivity while avoiding soil degradation. Intensive cultivation could lead to a reduction in soil organic matter that could affect the structure stability and hydraulic conductivity of the soil. Moreover, crops extract nutrients from the soil that are taken away from the field when harvested, and as a consequence, the addition of fertilizers to the soil is necessary to maintain crop productivity. One way to deal with these problems is to incorporate crop residues into the soil after harvest. Crop residues are a source of organic matter that could improve soil physical properties, such as aggregate stability and soil hydraulic conductivity. However, this effect could vary according to other soil properties, such as clay content, clay mineralogy, and the presence of other cementing materials in the soil (mainly carbonates and aluminum and iron oxides). In the present work, the interaction between the addition of chickpea crop residues to the soil and clay mineralogy on aggregate stability and saturated hydraulic conductivity were studied. Chickpea plant residues were added at a rate of 0.5% (w/w) to smectitic, kaolinitic, illitic and non-phyllosilicate soils from different regions. The soils without (control) and with chickpea residues were incubated for 0, 3, 7 and 30 days, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soils was measured in columns after each incubation time. The response of hydraulic conductivity to the addition of residues and incubation time was different in the soils with various mineralogies, although in general, the addition of chickpea residues increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity as compared with the control soils. This positive effect of crop residues on hydraulic conductivity was mainly a result of improved aggregate stability and resistance to slaking during wetting.

  20. Influence of Soil Tillage Systems on Soil Respiration and Production on Wheat, Maize and Soybean Crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraru, P. I.; Rusu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Soil respiration leads to CO2 emissions from soil to the atmosphere, in significant amounts for the global carbon cycle. Soil capacity to produce CO2 varies depending on soil, season, intensity and quality of agrotechnical tillage, soil water, cultivated plant, fertilizer etc. The data presented in this paper were obtained on argic-stagnic Faeoziom (SRTS, 2003). These areas were was our research, presents a medium multiannual temperature of 8.20C, medium of multiannual rain drowns: 613 mm. The experimental variants chosen were: A. Conventional system (CS): V1-reversible plough (22-25 cm)+rotary grape (8-10 cm); B. Minimum tillage system (MT): V2 - paraplow (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); V3 - chisel (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm);V4 - rotary grape (10-12 cm); C. No-Tillage systems (NT): V5 - direct sowing. The experimental design was a split-plot design with three replications. In one variant the area of a plot was 300 m2. The experimental variants were studied in the 3 years crop rotation: maize - soy-bean - autumn wheat. To soil respiration under different tillage practices, determinations were made for each crop in four vegetative stages (spring, 5-6 leaves, bean forming, harvest) using ACE Automated Soil CO2 Exchange System. Soil respiration varies throughout the year for all three crops of rotation, with a maximum in late spring (1383 to 2480 mmoli m-2s-1) and another in fall (2141 to 2350 mmoli m-2s-1). The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration, the daily average is lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1), followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Productions obtained at MT and NT don't have significant differences at wheat and are higher at soybean. The differences in crop yields are recorded at maize and can be a direct consequence of loosening, mineralization and intensive mobilization of soil fertility. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by CNCSIS

  1. Crop modelling as a tool to separate the influence of the soil and weather on crop yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathe-Gaspar, Gabriella; Fodor, Nandor; Pokovai, Klara; Kovacs, Geza Janos

    The yield of traditional food and feed crops in a given habitat is controlled by the soil and weather conditions as the main environmental factors. In real world it is not possible to segregate the influences of the soil and the weather on the crop production. Using simulation models there are ways to analyse the effects of the changes of soil characteristics or weather elements separately. The role of different soil characteristics can be studied in a way that the first run is considered as a control, then one of the soil characteristics is changed within a realistic range while all the other soil factors and weather inputs are left original. This way all the soil characteristic and weather elements can be changed one by one or different combinations of them can be used as input series. A more practical approach is when the role of local soils and weather are compared by a series of runs applying observed weather data from different years and real soil profiles from different fields of the selected farm. The results of the simulation can be evaluated from many different aspects: biomass or yield production, vulnerability to nitrate leaching or denitrification and profitability. In this study real Hungarian soil and weather scenarios were used that are significantly different from one another. The two main crops of Hungary were used: maize and wheat plus field pea as an addition. Pea is known as a sensitive crop to weather. 4M-simulation package was used as a modelling tool. Our group at RISSAC based on CERES and CROPGRO models has developed it. The results showed that the weather differences caused more significant changes in yields then soil differences though soils could moderate the effects of the extreme weather scenarios. The measure of reactions is meaningfully different depending on the species and cultivars. Analysis of separated effects of soil and weather factors has not only theoretical and methodological importance, but useful for the practice, too

  2. Crop modelling as a tool to separate the influences of the soil and weather on crop yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathe-Gaspar, G.; Fodor, N.; Pokovai, K.; Kovacs, G. J.

    2003-04-01

    The yield of traditional food and feed crops in a given habitat is controlled by the soil and weather conditions as the main environmental factors. In real world it is not possible to segregate the influences of the soil and the weather on the crop production. Using simulation models there are ways to analyse the effects of the changes of soil characteristics or weather elements separately. The role of different soil characteristics can be studied in a way that the first run is considered as a control, then one of the soil characteristics is changed within a realistic range while all the other soil factors and weather inputs are left original. This way all the soil characteristic and weather elements can be changed one by one or different combinations of them can be used as input series. A more practical approach is when the role of local soils and weather are compared by a series of runs applying observed weather data from different years and real soil profiles from different fields of the selected farm. The results of the simulation can be evaluated from many different aspects: biomass or yield production, vulnerability to nitrate leaching or denitrification and profitability. In this study real Hungarian soil and weather scenarios were used that are significantly different from one another. The two main crops of Hungary were used: maize and wheat plus field pea as an addition. Pea is known as a sensitive crop to weather. 4M-simulation package was used as a modelling tool. Our group at RISSAC based on CERES and CROPGRO models has developed it. The results showed that the weather differences caused more significant changes in yields then soil differences though soils could moderate the effects of the extreme weather scenarios. The measure of reactions is meaningfully different depending on the species and cultivars. Analysis of separated effects of soil and weather factors has not only theoretical and methodological importance, but useful for the practice, too

  3. Cover Crop Effects on the Fate of Swine Manure-N Applied to Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal grain cover crops increase surface cover, anchor corn and soybean residues, increase infiltration, reduce both rill and interrill erosion, scavenge excess nutrients from the soil, and are easily obtained and inexpensive compared to other cover crop options. The use of cereal grain cover crops...

  4. Rye cover crop effects on soil properties in no-till corn silage/soybean agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers in the U.S. Corn Belt are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. Known benefits of winter cover crops include reductions in nutrient leaching, erosion mitigation, and weed suppression, however little research has investigated the effects of winter cover crops on soil properties. ...

  5. Can Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies Be Accurately Quantified if Crop Models Are Annually Re-Initialized?

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W.; Kendall, Anthony D.; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of climate change impacts on global food production are generally based on statistical or process-based models. Process-based models can provide robust predictions of agricultural yield responses to changing climate and management. However, applications of these models often suffer from bias due to the common practice of re-initializing soil conditions to the same state for each year of the forecast period. If simulations neglect to include year-to-year changes in initial soil conditions and water content related to agronomic management, adaptation and mitigation strategies designed to maintain stable yields under climate change cannot be properly evaluated. We apply a process-based crop system model that avoids re-initialization bias to demonstrate the importance of simulating both year-to-year and cumulative changes in pre-season soil carbon, nutrient, and water availability. Results are contrasted with simulations using annual re-initialization, and differences are striking. We then demonstrate the potential for the most likely adaptation strategy to offset climate change impacts on yields using continuous simulations through the end of the 21st century. Simulations that annually re-initialize pre-season soil carbon and water contents introduce an inappropriate yield bias that obscures the potential for agricultural management to ameliorate the deleterious effects of rising temperatures and greater rainfall variability. PMID:26043188

  6. Analysis of soil moisture probability in a tree cropped watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejo-Perez, Antonio Jesus; Giraldez Cervera, Juan Vicente; Pedrera, Aura; Vanderlinden, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Probability density functions (pdfs) of soil moisture were estimated for an experimental watershed in Southern Spain, cropped with olive trees. Measurements were made using a capacitance sensors network from June 2011 until May 2013. The network consisted of 22 profiles of sensors, installed close to the tree trunk under the canopy and in the adjacent inter-row area, at 11 locations across the watershed to assess the influence of rain interception and root-water uptake on the soil moisture distribution. A bimodal pdf described the moisture dynamics at the 11 sites, both under and in-between the trees. Each mode represented the moisture status during either the dry or the wet period of the year. The observed histograms could be decomposed into a Lognormal pdf for dry period and a Gaussian pdf for the wet period. The pdfs showed a larger variation among the different locations at inter-row positions, as compared to under the canopy, reflecting the strict control of the vegetation on soil moisture. At both positions this variability was smaller during the wet season than during the dry period.

  7. Uptake of cesium-137 by crops from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Demirel, H.; Oezer, I.; Celenk, I.; Halitligil, M.B.; Oezmen, A.

    1994-11-01

    The Turkish tea crop was contaminated following the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Finding ways to dispose of the contaminated tea (Camellia sinensis L.) without damaging the environment was the goal of this research conducted at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA). In this study, an investigation was made of {sup 137}Cs activities of the plants and the ratios of transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants when the contaminated tea was applied to the soil. Experiments were conducted in the field and in pots under greenhouse conditions. The activities of the tea applied in the field ranged from 12 500 to 72 800 Bq/m{sup 2}, whereas this activity was constant at 8000 Bq/pot in the greenhouse experiment. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from soil to the plants was between 0.037 and 1.057% for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays indentata Sturt), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and grass (Lolium perenne L.). The ratio of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants increased as the activity {sup 137}Cs in tea applied to soil was increased. The activity in the plants increased due to increased uptake of {sup 137}Cs by plants. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Soil organic carbon and water content effects on remote crop residue cover estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage (CT) systems help protect the soil and environment, and improve net farm profitability. CT methods leave increased amounts of crop residue cover (CRC) on the soil surface, minimizing soil erosion and evaporation. CT uses less fuel, disturbs soil less, and requires less fertili...

  9. The effect of total carbon on microscopic soil properties and implications for crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil structure is a dynamic property affected by physical, chemical, and microbiological processes. Addition of organic matter to soils and the use of different management practices have been reported to impact soil structure and crop production. Moderation in soil temperature and increases in mic...

  10. Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

  11. Effect of soil spectral properties on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage practices have been shown to improve soil structure, enhance soil organic carbon content (SOC), and reduce soil erosion. Conservation tillage practices include reduced- and no-till methods, which often leave appreciable amounts of crop residues over the soil surfaces after harv...

  12. Fall cover crops boost soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which can lead to reduced inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall cover crops provide multiple benefits to producers. These benefits include pathogen and pest protection, drought protection, weed control, reduced soil erosion, nutrient acquisition and retention, increased soil organic matter, and conservation of soil water by improvement of soil structure th...

  13. EPIC Simulations of Crop Yields and Soil Organic Carbon in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on management, soil organic carbon is source or sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model is a useful tool for predicting impacts of soil management on crop yields and soil organic carbon. We used EPIC-Century to simulate changes in soil o...

  14. Soil quality in integrated crop-livestock systems with conservation and conventional tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of crops and livestock could be either detrimental or beneficial to soil quality, depending upon timing and intensity of animal traffic and residue cover of the soil surface. Key soil properties (reflective of soil quality) of a Typic Kanhapludult in Georgia USA were analyzed in a 12-ha...

  15. Assessing Production and Ecosystem Function for Grain and Bioenergy Feedstock Crops Across Variable Soil Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some soils in the U.S. Midwest region have been especially negatively impacted by grain cropping. The result has been lost productivity and diminished resiliency for ecosystem function. Of note are the degraded soils of the Midwest classed as “claypan soils.” These soils are disproportionate sources...

  16. Best management practices: Managing cropping systems for soil protection and bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in renewable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased. Crop residue such as corn stover or wheat straw can be used for bioenergy including a substitution for natural gas or coal. Harvesting crop residue needs to be managed to protect the soil and future soil productivity. The amount of bi...

  17. Integrated crops and livestock in central North Dakota, USA: Agroecosystem management to buffer soil change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated crop-livestock systems have been purported to have numerous agronomic and environmental benefits, yet information documenting their long-term impact on the soil resource is lacking. This study sought to quantify the effects of an integrated crop-livestock system on near-surface soil prop...

  18. Quantifying crop water stress factors from soil water measurements in a limited irrigation experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying crop water stress factors from soil water measurements in a limited irrigation experiment. A correct simulation of crop responses to water stress is essential for a system model. In this study, we investigated three methods of quantifying water deficit stresses based on soil water meas...

  19. Developing a Foundation for Constructing New Curricula in Soil, Crop, and Turfgrass Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Holly D.; Collett, Ryan; Wingenbach, Gary; Heilman, James L.; Fowler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Some soil and crop science university programs undergo curricula revision to maintain relevancy with their profession and/or to attract the best students to such programs. The Department of Soil and Crop Sciences at Texas A&M University completed a thorough data gathering process as part of its revision of the undergraduate curriculum and degree…

  20. Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poffenbarger, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops…

  1. Early changes due to sorghum biofuel cropping systems in soil microbial communities and metabolic functioning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of biofuel production cropping systems should address not only energy yields but also the impacts on soil attributes are important for long-term sustainability. In this study, forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cropping systems were initiated on a low organic matter soil (< 0.9%)...

  2. Soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition and yield in diverse crop rotations under no-till conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of sustainable agricultural systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil attributes, crop rotations, and crop yield. Objectives were to measure how soil chemical and physical attributes as well as soybean (Glycine max Merr.) stover dry weight and mineral concentra...

  3. Soil water improvements with the long-term use of a winter rye cover crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Midwestern United States is projected to experience increasing rainfall variability. One approach to mitigate climate impacts is to utilize crop and soil management practices that enhance soil water storage, reducing the risks of flooding as well as drought-induced crop water stress. While some ...

  4. A New Record of Pseudallescheria boydii Isolated from Crop Field Soil in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Babu, A. Giridhar; Kim, Sang Woo; Yadhav, Dil Raj; Adhikari, Mahesh; Kim, Changmu; Lee, Hyang Burm

    2014-01-01

    Pseudallescheria boydii KNU13-2 was isolated from crop field soil and identified by analysis of internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA and morphological characteristics. In the literature, P. boydii has been mentioned as a human pathogen. This is the first record of P. boydii isolated from crop field soil in Korea. PMID:25606013

  5. Rye cover crop effects on soil properties in no-till corn silage/soybean agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers in the U.S. Corn Belt are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. The known benefits of winter cover crops include reduced nitrate leaching, soil erosion, and weed germination, but evidence of improvements in soil productivity would provide further incentive for famers to implemen...

  6. Dryland soil nitrogen cycling influenced by tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices may influence dryland soil N dynamics. We evaluated the effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice on dryland crop biomass (stems and leaves) N, surface residue N, and soil N fractions at the 0- to 20-cm depth in a Williams loam from 2004 to 2008 in eastern Montana...

  7. Soil carbon and nitrogen affected by perennial grass, cover crop, and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil C and N sequestration and the potential for N leaching can be influenced by the type of perennial grass, cover crop, and N fertilization due to differences in crop yields and the amount of residue returned to the soil. We evaluated the effects of the combinations of perennial grasses (energy ca...

  8. Tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice effects on dryland soil carbon fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information is needed on novel management practices to increase dryland C sequestration and soil quality in the northern Great Plains. We evaluated the effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice on dryland crop biomass (stems and leaves) yield, surface residue, and soil C fractions at ...

  9. Can novel management practice improve soil and environmental quality and sustain crop yield simultaneously?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about management practices that can simultaneously improve soil and environmental quality and sustain crop yields. The effect of a combination of tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on soil C and N, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and malt bar...

  10. Soil Carbon and Enzyme Activities as affected by Cropping Intensity and Tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat-fallow (W-F) rotation is the predominant cropping system in the Central Great Plains and it is not sustainable. Alternative cropping systems with reduced tillage are being suggested to improve soil organic matter (SOM) content and other parameters related to soil quality. Our study ev...