Sample records for soils annual crops

  1. Annual Faculty Review Guidelines Department of Soil and Crop Science

    E-print Network

    Boas, Harold P.

    Annual Faculty Review Guidelines Department of Soil and Crop Science Texas A&M University (Revised December 2012) INTRODUCTION The Department of Soil and Crop Science (SCSC) proactively supports, extension and service missions of the Department, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Texas A&M Agri

  2. Managing Claypan Soils: Annual Grain Crops vs. Perennial Switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Topsoil depth and landscape position are important factors in the claypan region of Missouri for agricultural productivity and soil-water conservation. Shallow topsoil reduces grain productivity and causes yield inconsistencies, while traditional grain cropping increases soil erosion and nonpoint so...

  3. Soil Fungal Resources in Annual Cropping Systems and Their Potential for Management

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili Taheri, Ahmad; Bainard, Luke D.; Yang, Chao; Navarro-Borrell, Adriana; Hamel, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i) highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii) examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii) propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes) interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments) can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils. PMID:25247177

  4. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management: soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive use of sustainable crop and soil management systems would result in profitable farms producing greater yields while maintaining or enhancing natural resources. Development of sustainable agricultural systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil management, crop mana...

  5. Effect of Potassium on Uptake of 137Cs in Food Crops Grown on Coral Soils: Annual Crops at Bikini Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, E R; Robinson, W

    2002-02-01

    In 1954 a radioactive plume from the thermonuclear device code named BRAVO contaminated the principal residential islands, Eneu and Bikini, of Bikini Atoll (11{sup o} 36 minutes N; 165{sup o} 22 minutes E), now part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The resulting soil radioactivity diminished greatly over the three decades before the studies discussed below began. By that time the shorter-lived isotopes had all but disappeared, but strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), and cesium-137, ({sup 137}Cs) were reduced by only one half-life. Minute amounts of the long-lived isotopes, plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), were present in soil, but were found to be inconsequential in the food chain of humans and land animals. Rather, extensive studies demonstrated that the major concern for human health was {sup 137}Cs in the terrestrial food chain (Robison et al., 1983; Robison et al., 1997). The following papers document results from several studies between 1986 and 1997 aimed at minimizing the {sup 137}Cs content of annual food crops. The existing literature on radiocesium in soils and plant uptake is largely a consequence of two events: the worldwide fallout of 1952-58, and the fallout from Chernobyl. The resulting studies have, for the most part, dealt either with soils containing some amount of silicate clays and often with appreciable K, or with the short-term development of plants in nutrient cultures.

  6. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

  7. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

  8. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management: soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive use of sustainable and intensive agricultural systems would result in profitable farms producing greater yields while maintaining or enhancing natural resources. Development of sustainable crop and soil management systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil managem...

  9. Crop Production: Annual Summary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) (described in the June 4, 1998 Scout Report for Business and Economics) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has recently released the annual summary of US crop production. Available in text or .pdf format, the summary contains "annual US data for acreage, yield, and production by crop." In addition to statistical tables, the report includes reviews of crop progress and the weather in 1998. Reports from 1995-98 are also available in text format only.

  10. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Quantitative Genomics

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Quantitative Genomics Committee Membership Dr. Scott Jackson - committee chair Dr. Peng-Wah Chee Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Horticulture Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

  11. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Irrigation Specialist

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Irrigation Specialist Committee Membership Dr. John Beasley - committee chair Dr. Jared Whitaker Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University: (229) 386-7308 Fax: (912) 681-0376 Dr. Robert Carrow Dr. Mark Risse Department of Crop & Soil Sciences

  12. An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900 °C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41 g N2O-N ha(-1) day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O. PMID:23490323

  13. Winter Annual Cover crops for the Home Food Garden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Schonbeck; Peggy Elder; Ralph DeGregorio

    1996-01-01

    Cover crops add organic matter, improve soil fertility, prevent soil erosion and compaction and suppress weeds, but they can be difficult to manage at the home garden scale. Because incorporating the entire cover crop into the soil with garden tools can be problematic, two alternative strategies were explored: 1. clipping and removing aboveground vegetation before spading. 2. killing winter annual

  14. Double-cropping annual ryegrass and bermudagrass to reduce phosphorus levels in soil with history of poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-cropping forages may help to ameliorate excess soil nutrients in manure-impacted fields. Studies were conducted on Savannah soil with a 30+ yr history of broiler litter to determine the yield of biomass and P in bermudagrass (summer) and ryegrass-bermudagrass (year-round) forage systems. Duri...

  15. Strategies for Crop Improvement in Saline Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Munns

    With increasing salinization and desertification of previously productive land, new sources of salt tolerance are needed for\\u000a crops grown in areas with saline sub-soils, or with rising water tables that bring salts to the surface. Salt tolerance is\\u000a needed in perennial species that might be used to lower the water tables and so control salinization, and also for annual\\u000a crops

  16. A Centralized Regional Database for Winter Cover Crops in Annual Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops have the potential to reduce erosion, minimize losses of nitrogen and phosphorus, and increase soil carbon in annual cropping systems in the Midwest. Public support, however, for incentives to farmers to adopt cover crops is minimal. Therefore, development of location-specific rec...

  17. Department of Crop and Soil Sciences.

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    Department of Crop and Soil Sciences. Strategic Plan SUBMITTED TO THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL Science (Agronomy) ..........................................................page 11 Soil Science Summary The Department of Crop and Soil Sciences consists of the three major program areas of Crop Science

  18. Double-cropping annual ryegrass and bermudagrass to reduce phosphorus levels in soil with history of poultry litter application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Read; K. R. Sistani; J. L. Oldham; G. E. Brink

    2009-01-01

    Long-term application of poultry litter may result in excessively high soil phosphorus (P). This field study determined the\\u000a potential of ‘Coastal’ bermudagrass overseeded with ‘Marshall’ annual ryegrass and harvested for hay to reduce the level of\\u000a Mehlich-3 extractable P (M3-P) that had accumulated in a Savannah soil due to a 30-year history of broiler litter application\\u000a to bermudagrass, as well

  19. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Water Policy and Management

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Water Policy and Management Committee Membership Dr. David Radcliffe - committee chair Dr. George Vellidis Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Stripling

  20. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Cotton Physiologist Tifton campus

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Cotton Physiologist ­ Tifton campus Committee Membership Dr. Stanley Culpepper - committee chair Dr. John Beasley Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia-SE District University

  1. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist Committee Membership Dr. J. Michael Moore - committee chair Dr. Clint Waltz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

  2. Cover Crops Soil Health Forum

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    blinking light, onto Silk Farm Road. 4. Entrance to Center and Sanctuary is on the left. See sign. Cover Crops & Soil Health Forum February 18, 2014 NH Audubon Center 84 Silk Farm Road Concord, NH 03301

  3. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Small Grain Breeding

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Small Grain Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Paul Raymer - committee chair Dr. Scott Jackson Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Horticulture University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

  4. Crop & Soil Science Degree Checklist Name: ____________________________

    E-print Network

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    ­ English Composition (3) _______ WR II (3) _______ COMM (3) _______ Writing. Global Issues (3) (*agronomy courses meeting requirement) _______ Science, Technology) ________ SOIL 205 ­ Soil Science (4) Experiential Learning ________ CROP 401, 403

  5. Chemistry and microbial functional diversity differences in biofuel crop and grassland soils in multiple geographies

    EPA Science Inventory

    As crop and non-crop lands are increasingly converted to biofuel feedstock production, it is of interest to identify potential impacts of annual and perennial feedstocks on soil ecosystem services. Soil samples were obtained from diverse regionally distributed biofuel cropping si...

  6. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Statewide Variety Testing Program Coordinator

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Statewide Variety Testing Program Coordinator Committee Membership Dr. Jerry Johnson - committee chair Dr. Paul Raymer Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University

  7. Soil Fungal Distribution and Functionality as Affected by Grazing and Vegetation Components of Integrated Crop-Livestock Agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated crop and livestock (ICL) agroecosystems are characterized by a mixture of perennial or annual vegetation grazed by livestock and annual harvested crops. Compared to annual crops, ICLs hold the potential to enhance soil organic matter (OM) inputs, carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, an...

  8. Herbaceous energy crops and the potential for soil conservation

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Planning for a national scale up of biofuels feedstock production and utilization has raised many issues about potential environmental impacts. This article focuses on some of the more obvious tradeoffs in soil conservation involved in replacing annual row crops with perennial grasses, such as switchgrass.

  9. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  10. Peat amendment and production of different crop plants affect earthworm populations in field soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanna Kukkonen; Ansa Palojärvi; Mauri Räkköläinen; Mauritz Vestberg

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of peat amendment and crop production system on earthworms. The experiment was established on a field previously cultivated with oats and with silt as the main soil type. Perennial crops strawberry, timothy and caraway, and annual crops rye, turnip rape, buckwheat, onion and fiddleneck were cultivated with conventional methods. All the

  11. Chemistry and microbial functional diversity differences in biofuel crop and grassland soils in multiple geographies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As crop and non-crop lands are increasingly becoming converted to biofuel feedstock production, it is of interest to identify potential impacts of annual and perennial feedstocks on soil ecosystem services. Soil samples obtained from 6 regional sets of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and 3 regiona...

  12. Soil mineral nitrogen and nitrate leaching losses in soil tillage systems combined with a catch crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Stenberg; Helena Aronsson; Börje Lindén; Tomas Rydberg; Arne Gustafson

    1999-01-01

    Annual nitrogen leaching losses from arable land in south Sweden usually amount to 15–45kgha?1. The objective of this three-year study was to investigate the timing effect of mouldboard ploughing (early autumn, late autumn or spring) on soil mineral nitrogen content and nitrate leaching in a cropping system with spring-sown small grain crops (barley, oats and wheat). Late autumn ploughing was

  13. Soil Moisture as an Estimator for Crop Yield in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Michael; Meyer, Volker; Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Annual crop yield depends on various factors such as soil properties, management decisions, and meteorological conditions. Unfavorable weather conditions, e.g. droughts, have the potential to drastically diminish crop yield in rain-fed agriculture. For example, the drought in 2003 caused direct losses of 1.5 billion EUR only in Germany. Predicting crop yields allows to mitigate negative effects of weather extremes which are assumed to occur more often in the future due to climate change. A standard approach in economics is to predict the impact of climate change on agriculture as a function of temperature and precipitation. This approach has been developed further using concepts like growing degree days. Other econometric models use nonlinear functions of heat or vapor pressure deficit. However, none of these approaches uses soil moisture to predict crop yield. We hypothesize that soil moisture is a better indicator to explain stress on plant growth than estimations based on precipitation and temperature. This is the case because the latter variables do not explicitly account for the available water content in the root zone, which is the primary source of water supply for plant growth. In this study, a reduced form panel approach is applied to estimate a multivariate econometric production function for the years 1999 to 2010. Annual crop yield data of various crops on the administrative district level serve as depending variables. The explanatory variable of major interest is the Soil Moisture Index (SMI), which quantifies anomalies in root zone soil moisture. The SMI is computed by the mesoscale Hydrological Model (mHM, www.ufz.de/mhm). The index represents the monthly soil water quantile at a 4 km2 grid resolution covering entire Germany. A reduced model approach is suitable because the SMI is the result of a stochastic weather process and therefore can be considered exogenous. For the ease of interpretation a linear functionality is preferred. Meteorological, phenological, geological, agronomic, and socio-economic variables are also considered to extend the model in order to reveal the proper causal relation. First results show that dry as well as wet extremes of SMI have a negative impact on crop yield for winter wheat. This indicates that soil moisture has at least a limiting affect on crop production.

  14. Crop Residue Removal Impacts on Soil Productivity and Environmental Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Humberto Blanco-Canqui; R. Lal

    2009-01-01

    Crop residues are a potential source of renewable feedstocks for cellulosic ethanol production because of their high cellulose content and easy availability. Indiscriminate removal as biofuel may, however, have adverse impacts on soil, environment, and crop production. This article reviews available information on the impacts of crop residue removal on soil properties, crop yields, and soil erosion across a wide

  15. Cropping systems and control of soil erosion in a Mediterranean environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Salvatore; Copani, Venera; Testa, Giorgio; Scalici, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    The research has been carried out over the years 1996-2010 in an area of the internal hill of Sicily region (Enna, c.da Geracello, 550 m a. s. l. 37° 23' N. Lat, 14° 21' E. Long) in the center of Mediterranean Sea, mainly devoted to durum wheat cultivation, using the experimental plots, established in 1996 on a slope of 26-28%, equipped to determine surface runoff and soil losses. The establishment consists of twelve plots, having 40 m length and 8 m width. In order to study the effect of different field crop systems in controlling soil erosion in slopes subjected to water erosion, the following systems were studied: permanent crops, tilled annual crops, no-tilled annual crops, set-aside. The used crops were: durum wheat, faba bean, rapeseed, subterranean clover, Italian ryegrass, alfalfa, sweetvetch, moon trefoil, barley, sweet sorghum, sunflower. The results pointed out that the cropping systems with perennial crops allowed to keep low the soil loss, while annual crop rotation determined a high amount of soil loss. Sod seeding showed promising results also for annual crop rotations.

  16. Soil heterotrophic respiration responses to meteorology, soil types and cropping systems in a temperate agricultural watershed.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buysse, Pauline; Viaud, Valérie; Fléchard, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Within the context of Climate Change, a better understanding of soil organic matter dynamics is of considerable importance in agro-ecosystems, due to their large mitigation potential. This study aims at better understanding the process of soil heterotrophic respiration at the annual scale and at the watershed scale, with these temporal and spatial scales allowing an integration of the most important drivers: cropping systems and management, topography, soil types, soil organic carbon content and meteorological conditions. Twenty-four soil CO2 flux measurement sites - comprising three PVC collars each - were spread over the Naizin-Kervidy catchment (ORE AgrHys, 4.9 km², W. France) in March 2014. These sites were selected in order to represent most of the diversity in drainage classes, soil types and cropping systems. Soil CO2 flux measurements were performed about every ten to fifteen days at each site, starting from 20 March 2014, using the dynamic closed chamber system Li-COR 8100. Soil temperature and soil moisture content down to 5 cm depth were measured simultaneously. An empirical model taking the influence of meteorological drivers (soil temperature and soil water content) on soil CO2 fluxes was applied to each site and the different responses were analyzed with regard to site characteristics (topography, soil organic carbon content, soil microbial biomass, crop type, crop management,…) in order to determine the most important driving variables of soil heterotrophic respiration. The modeling objective is then to scale the fluxes measured at all sites up to the full watershed scale.

  17. Carbon dynamics of perennial grassland conversion for annual cropping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Trevor J.

    Sequestering atmospheric carbon in soil is an attractive option for mitigation of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations through agriculture. Perennial crops are more likely to gain carbon while annual crops are more likely to lose carbon. A pair of eddy covariance towers were set up near Winnipeg Manitoba, Canada to measure carbon flux over adjacent fertilized long-term perennial grass hay fields with high soil organic carbon. In 2009 the forage stand of one field (Treatment) was sprayed with herbicide, cut and bailed; following which cattle manure was applied and the land was tilled. The forage stand in the other field (Control) continued to be cut and bailed. Differences between net ecosystem productivity of the fields were mainly due to gross primary productivity; ecosystem respiration was similar for both fields. When biomass removals and manure applications are included in the carbon balance, the Treatment conversion lost 149 g C m-2 and whereas the Control sequestered 96 g C m-2, for a net loss of 245 g C m-2 over the June to December period (210 days). This suggests that perennial grass converted for annual cropping can lose more carbon than perennial grasses can sequester in a season.

  18. Soil microarthropods (Acari and Collembola) in two crop rotations on a heavy marine clay soil

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Soil microarthropods (Acari and Collembola) in two crop rotations on a heavy marine clay soil and disinfection of the soil. Keywords: soil mesofauna, microarthropods, Acari, Collembola, agro-ecosystem, crop

  19. Management of cruciferous cover crops by mowing for soil and water conservation in southern Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Alcántara; A. Pujadas; M. Saavedra

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the use of cover crops in Mediterranean olive orchards has increased due to serious soil erosion problems and surface water contamination by herbicides. In these areas, the annual precipitation regime is strongly seasonal, with dry summers that require killing the cover crop before it competes with the trees for water. Cruciferous species are being introduced as cover

  20. Aggregate Carbon Pools after 13 Years of Integrated Crop-Livestock Management in Semiarid Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semi-arid regions have the potential to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) but the magnitude and rate of sequestration is highly management specific. Integrated crop-livestock (ICL) systems that utilize perennial or high-residue no-till annual forage crops as part of the overall agronomic system ma...

  1. DYNAMIC CROPPING SYSTEMS INFLUENCE ON SOIL BIOCHEMISTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Northern Great Plains, more intensive, diverse cropping systems have been developed as a means to improve soil and water conservation in the region. A no-till field research project was conducted near Mandan, ND on a Wilton-Temvik silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, frigid Pachic and T...

  2. Soil carbon sequestration via cover crops- A meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Don, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural soils are depleted in soil organic carbon (SOC) and have thus a huge potential to sequester SOC. This can primarily be achieved by increasing carbon inputs into the soil. Replacing winter fallows by cover crop cultivation for green manure has many benefits for the soil and forms an additional carbon input. An increase in carbon concentration has been reported in several studies worldwide. However, the effect on SOC stocks, as well as the influence of environmental parameters and management on SOC dynamics is not known. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to investigate those issues. A total of 33 studies, comprising 47 sites and 147 plots were compiled. A pedotransfer function was used to estimate bulk densities and calculate SOC stocks. SOC stock change was found to be a linear function of time since introduction, with an annual sequestration rate of 0.32 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Since no saturation was visible in the observations, we used the model RothC to estimate a new steady state level and the resulting total SOC stock change for an artificial "average cropland". The total average SOC stock change with an annual input of 1.87 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 was 16.76 Mg C ha-1 for the average soil depth of 22 cm. We estimated a potential global SOC sequestration of 0.12±0.03 Pg C yr-1, which would compensate for 8 % of the direct annual greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.

  3. Tillage Management and Previous Crop Effects on Soil Physical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the potential positive effects of diverse crop rotations and no-till soil management on crop productivity and soil resource conservation, research to remove the constraints to widespread adoption of these crop and soil management practices in eastern South Dakota and western Minnesota is ...

  4. Soil Quality and the Solar Corridor Crop System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity based on highly efficient use of solar radiation by integrating row crops with drilled or solid-seeded crops in broad strips (corridors) that also facilitate establishment of cover crops for year-round soil cover. The S...

  5. Soil Physical Aspects of Integrated Crop-Livestock Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan J. Franzluebbers

    Integrated crop-livestock systems are inherently more complex than the current model of specialized agricultural production in industrialized countries with clear separation of crops and animals. A movement towards integrating crops and livestock will have impacts on soils and the environment; the key is to understand whether those impacts will be negative or positive. Literature is reviewed on the soil physical

  6. Modelling effects of soil structure on the water balance of soil–crop systems: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D Connolly

    1998-01-01

    Poor soil structure, i.e. aggregation and porosity, is widely acknowledged as a major limitation to infiltration, redistribution and storage of water in a soil profile, leading to more runoff and erosion, reduced available water for plants and reduced crop production. Models of soil–crop systems are useful tools for evaluating interactions between soil physical condition, climate, management and crop growth. An

  7. Changes in soil organic carbon under biofuel crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRISTINA J. ANDERSON-TEIXEIRA; SARAH C. DAVIS; MICHAEL D. MASTERS; EVAN H. DELUCIA

    2009-01-01

    One potentially significant impact of growing biofuel crops will be the sequestration or release of carbon (C) in soil. Soil organic carbon (SOC) represents an important C sink in the lifecycle C balances of biofuels and strongly influences soil quality. We assembled and analyzed published estimates of SOC change following conversion of natural or agricultural land to biofuel crops of

  8. SOIL RESPONSES UNDER INTEGRATED CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan J. Franzluebbers; John A. Stuedemann

    Integration of crops and livestock could be either detrimental or beneficial to soil properties, depending upon timing and intensity of animal traffic and initial condition of the soil surface. We evaluated the surface-soil properties of a Typic Kanhapludult in Georgia during the first three years of an experiment evaluating the effect of tillage (conventional (CT), conservation (NT)), cropping system (summer

  9. TILLAGE, CROP ROTATIONS, AND CULTURAL PRACTICES EFFECTS ON DRYLAND SOIL AND CROP RESIDUE CARBON AND NITROGEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable soil and crop management practices are needed to conserve soil C and N and to improve dryland soil quality and productivity in Northern Great Plains. The effects of two tillage [conventional till (CT) and no-till (NT)], four crop rotations [continuous spring wheat (CW), spring wheat-pea ...

  10. Soil property sensing for site-specific crop management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Hummel; L. D. Gaultney; K. A. Sudduth

    1996-01-01

    Site-specific crop management (SSCM) aims to improve production efficiency by adjusting crop inputs, especially fertilizers and agro-chemicals, to varying local conditions within a field. Sensors are needed to obtain site-specific data on factors affecting crop growth and yields, such as nutrient status, weed pressure, soil moisture status, landscape position, soil organic matter (SOM) content, soil acidity, and depth to a

  11. Abundance and diversity of soil invertebrates in annual crops, agroforestry and forest ecosystems in the Nilgiri biosphere reserve of Western Ghats, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Mujeeb Rahman; R. V. Varma; G. W. Sileshi

    Biologically mediated soil processes rely on soil biota to provide vital ecosystem services in natural and managed ecosystems.\\u000a However, land use changes continue to impact on assemblages of soil biota and the ecosystem services they provide. The objective\\u000a of the present study was to assess the effect of land use intensification on the distribution and abundance of soil invertebrate\\u000a communities

  12. Modelling decision-making processes for annual crop management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Aubry; F. Papy; A. Capillon

    1998-01-01

    On-farm technical management of annual crops is a recurrent task, so farmers can to a large extent plan their cropping operations. Taking winter wheat on arable farms in one part of France as an example, this planning is represented in a conceptual model consisting of a set of descriptive variables and decision-making rules. Six descriptive variables and five types of

  13. Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. Annual progress report for FY 1985

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Cushman; A. F. Turhollow; J. W. Johnston

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1985. HECP emphasizes lignocellulosic forage crops. In FY 1985 screening and selection trails began on seven species of perennial and annual grasses and legumes in five projects in the Southeast and the Midwest-Lake State regions. Research also continued on the

  14. Global patterns of the trends in satellite-derived crop yield proxy, temperature and soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, T.; Iizumi, T.; Sakurai, G.; Okada, M.; Nishimori, M.

    2014-12-01

    Crop productivity (yield) is sensitive to climate variability and change. To inform stakeholders, including food agencies in food-importing countries, about future variations in food supply associated with climate variability and change, understanding major climatic drivers of the spatiotemporal variations in crop yield over global cropland during the last few decades is crucial. Although remote sensing has difficulty distinguishing individual crops and misses entire cropping cycles in areas where extensive cloud cover during the monsoon limits satellite observations, it is still useful in deriving a proxy of crop yield over large spatial domain and estimating the impacts on crop yield proxy due to climate, including land-surface temperature and surface-layer soil moisture. This study presents an attempt to globally depict the impact of climate change on crop yield proxy by applying a time series analysis to MODIS and AMSR-E satellite images. The crop yield proxy used was the annual maximum or integrated MODIS-derived NDVI during the growing period predefined on the basis of the global crop calendar. The trends in the crop yield proxy in the interval 2001-2013 appeared positive in higher latitudes and negative in lower latitudes. In higher latitudes (and thus colder regions), the increased land-surface temperature led to an increase in crop yield in part due to the enhanced photosynthesis rate. In contrast, the crop yield proxy showed negative correlation with land-surface temperature in lower latitudes. The increased temperature might decrease crop yield by increasing evapotranspiration rate, plant respiration and/or heat stress. The crop yield proxy was also correlated with the AMSR-E-derived soil moisture, although the geographical distribution of soil moisture was highly heterogeneous.

  15. BIOENERGY PROGRAM Agronomics is the science of soil management and the production of field crops. Key ele-

    E-print Network

    Agronomics BIOENERGY PROGRAM Agronomics is the science of soil management and the production of field crops. Key ele- ments of a production and delivery system include high-tonnage feedstocks, proven, and strip-till systems (annual and perennial crops) Precision Placement systems for inputs (seed

  16. RESEARCH ARTICLE Management of soil nitrate heterogeneity resulting from crop

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Management of soil nitrate heterogeneity resulting from crop rows in a lettuce Abstract Vegetable crops grown under plastic tunnels in the Mediterranean region are intensively managed and winter. Lettuce cropping in these systems can generate significant nitrate losses. Thus, nitrogen must

  17. Soil physical aspects of integrated crop-livestock systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated crop-livestock systems are inherently more complex than the current model of specialized agricultural production in industrialized countries with clear separation of crops and animals. A movement towards integrating crops and livestock will have impacts on soils and the environment; the ...

  18. LLWR techniques for quantifying potential soil compaction consequences of crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvesting crop residues for bioenergy or bio-product production may decrease soil organic matter (SOM), resulting in the degradation of soil physical properties and ultimately soil productivity. Using the Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR) to evaluate improvement or degradation of soil physical pro...

  19. Changes in soil organic carbon under biofuel crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Anderson-Teixei; S. Davis; M. Masters; E. Delucia

    2008-01-01

    One potentially significant impact of growing biofuel crops will be the sequestration or release of soil organic carbon (SOC), as SOC represents the second largest potential carbon sink in the lifecycle of biofuels and strongly influences soil quality. We assembled and analyzed published estimates of SOC change following conversion of natural or agricultural land to biofuel crops of corn (with

  20. Cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization impact on surface residue, soil carbon sequestration, and crop yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information is needed on the effect of management practices on soil C storage for obtaining C credit. The effects of tillage, cropping sequence, and N fertilization were evaluated on dryland crop and surface residue C and soil organic C (SOC) at the 0-120 cm depth in a Williams loam from 2006 to 201...

  1. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under cover crop management had lower N2O fluxes than soils that did not have a cover crop. Results from this study concluded that it is important to allow crop residues to return to the soil as they help to improve soil quality indicators. The presence of cover crops also will contribute to the improvement of these indicators once established and may help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Long-term effects of agronomic practices on soil organic carbon and crop productivity in the internal hills of Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Salvatore; Copani, Venera; Testa, Giorgio; Scordia, Danilo

    2013-04-01

    In the hilly areas of Mediterranean environment the high intensity of autumnal rains determines high level of soil erosion losses in agricultural field reducing the soil fertility in the long run. In Sicily region this phenomenon have been emphasized by the crop management and by the orography of the territory. The experimental farm of UNICT for the collection of surface runoff is located in the c.da Manca di Geracello, Enna (550 m a.s.l, 37° 21'N, 14°16'E). The establishment consists of 12 plots. In the last sixteen years (1996-2011) the study of the impact assessment of various herbaceous cropping systems, both in terms of crop rotation (one crop, alternating different crops), crop habit (annual or perennials), types of soil tillage (traditional, minimum tillage, no tillage) on the dynamics of soil organic matter was carried out. The soil organic matter content, according to the depth of measurement (0-30 and 31-60 cm), the portion on the plot where the sample was taken (high, medium, low), and the season (winter and summer), was found significantly different according to the different cropping systems. The variation of organic matter in time was depending upon the soil tillage (plowing or not and sod seeding), the habitus of crop (annual or perennial). In the case of perennial the organic matter increased from 1.2 to 2.2%. The sod seeding allowed to take the organic matter around 1.8-2.0%

  3. Impacts of crop rotations on soil organic carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Vos, Johan; Joris, Ingeborg; Van De Vreken, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Agricultural land use and crop rotations can greatly affect the amount of carbon sequestered in the soil. We developed a framework for modelling the impacts of crop rotations on soil carbon sequestration at the field scale with test case Flanders. A crop rotation geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System) to elicit the most common crop rotation on major soil types in Flanders. In order to simulate the impact of crop cover on carbon sequestration, the Roth-C model was adapted to Flanders' environment and coupled to common crop rotations extracted from the IACS geodatabases and statistical databases on crop yield. Crop allometric models were used to calculate crop residues from common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil (REGSOM). The REGSOM model was coupled to Roth-C model was run for 30 years and for all combinations of seven main arable crops, two common catch crops and two common dosages of organic manure. The common crops are winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, potato, grain maize, silage maize and winter rapeseed; the catch crops are yellow mustard and Italian ryegrass; the manure dosages are 35 ton/ha cattle slurry and 22 ton/ha pig slurry. Four common soils were simulated: sand, loam, sandy loam and clay. In total more than 2.4 million simulations were made with monthly output of carbon content for 30 years. Results demonstrate that crop cover dynamics influence carbon sequestration for a very large percentage. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute largely to the total carbon sequestered. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil carbon sequestration for a large percentage. The framework is therefore suited for further scenario analysis and impact assessment in order to support agri-environmental policy decisions.

  4. Impact of Corn Residue Removal on Crop and Soil Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. M.; Wilhelm, W. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Voorhees, W. B.; Linden, D.

    2003-12-01

    Over-reliance on imported fuels, increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouses and sustaining food production for a growing population are three of the most important problems facing society in the mid-term. The US Department of Energy and private enterprise are developing technology necessary to use high cellulose feedstock, such as crop residues, for ethanol production. Based on production levels, corn (Zea mays L.) residue has potential as a biofuel feedstock. Crop residues are a renewable and domestic fuel source, which can reduce the rate of fossil fuel use (both imported and domestic) and provide an additional farm commodity. Crop residues protect the soil from wind and water erosion, provide inputs to form soil organic matter (a critical component determining soil quality) and play a role in nutrient cycling. Crop residues impact radiation balance and energy fluxes and reduce evaporation. Therefore, the benefits of using crop residues as fuel, which removes crop residues from the field, must be balanced against negative environmental impacts (e.g. soil erosion), maintaining soil organic matter levels, and preserving or enhancing productivity. All ramifications of new management practices and crop uses must be explored and evaluated fully before an industry is established. There are limited numbers of long-term studies with soil and crop responses to residue removal that range from negative to negligible. The range of crop and soil responses to crop residue removal was attributed to interactions with climate, management and soil type. Within limits, corn residue can be harvested for ethanol production to provide a renewable, domestic source of energy feedstock that reduces greenhouse gases. Removal rates must vary based on regional yield, climatic conditions and cultural practices. Agronomists are challenged to develop a protocol (tool) for recommending maximum permissible removal rates that ensure sustained soil productivity.

  5. THE ROLE OF ORGANIC MATTER QUALITY IN NITROGEN CYCLING AND YIELD TRENDS IN INTENSIVELY CROPPED PADDY SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term multiple annual cropping of tropical lowland rice has resulted in a decrease in available soil nitrogen (N) and grain yield and an accumulation of soil phenols, which under laboratory conditions chemically stabilize N. In a new field experiment, relationships were quantified between phenol...

  6. Restoration of soil organic carbon with cultivation of perennial biofuel crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. C.; Yannarell, A.; Masters, M.; Anderson-Teixeira, K.; Drake, J. E.; Darmody, R.; Mackie, R.; David, M.; Delucia, E. H.

    2009-12-01

    A biofuel crop that can restore soil quality and maximize terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration would add substantial value to the sustainability of biofuel production chains. Currently in the Midwestern USA, Zea mays is the dominant biofuel feedstock despite a history of soil degradation associated with this crop. We compared soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and microbial communities in Zea mays L. (corn), Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass), Miscanthus x giganteus Greef et Deuter (miscanthus), and native prairie sites at seven locations that spanned a range of temperatures, precipitation, and soil types in Illinois, USA. By comparing annually harvested switchgrass and miscanthus plots to conventional corn agro-ecosystems and native prairies, we determined the SOC restoration potential of perennial biofuel crops. We also calculated SOC accumulation using the ?13C isotope composition of the soil as a tracer for C4 plant-derived SOC additions. SOC differences among plant species varied significantly among sites, but on average, seven-year-old plots of miscanthus and switchgrass had 73% and 57% greater SOC in the top meter of soil than conventional corn crops, respectively, and had 50-63% greater SOC than the younger (four-year-old) miscanthus and switchgrass plots. The ?13C isotope signature of soil in miscanthus and switchgrass plots also indicated an accumulation of SOC. Plant species and SOC variability among sites explained 40-62% of the variation in microbial communities across sites. Microbial communities associated with annually harvested switchgrass and miscanthus differ from communities found in conventional corn agriculture and prairies. Thus, the potential to restore SOC to agriculturally depleted soils of the Midwest is not dependent on a soil microbial community that mimics prairie soil communities. Planting perennial grasses as biofuel crops can lead to an increase in SOC and a change in soil microbial communities. Conventional agricultural soils might be restored in less than 10 years to SOC levels of undisturbed prairies if miscanthus or switchgrass crops were planted and harvested annually, but this response varies with geographic location.

  7. Instances of Soil and Crop Heavy Metal Contamination in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Qingren Y. Dong; Y. Cui; X. Liu

    2001-01-01

    Both general and specific investigations of soil and crop heavy metal contamination were carried out across China. The former was focused mainly on Cd, Hg, As, Pb, and Cr in soils and vegetables in suburbs of four large cities; the latter investigated Cd levels in both soils and rice or wheat in contaminated areas throughout 15 provinces of the country.

  8. Heavy metals in soils and crops in Southeast Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard A. Zarcinas; Che Fauziah Ishak; Mike J. McLaughlin; Gill Cozens

    2004-01-01

    In a reconnaissance soil geochemical and plant survey undertaken to study the heavy metal uptake by major food crops in Malaysia, 241 soils were analysed for cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (C), pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and available phosphorus (P) using appropriate procedures. These soils were also analysed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu),

  9. Long-Term Cropping System Effects on Soil Properties and on a Soil Quality Index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive row-crop production can lead to soil degradation over time if insufficient biomass return, intensive tillage, or excessive erosion lead to depletion of soil organic C. Soil quality may be improved by incorporating forage crops or grazing into the rotation, adding manure or other organic so...

  10. SOIL HYDRAULIC AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES FOR DIFFERENT SOILS, SLOPES, AND CROP ROTATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop management can alter soil physical properties, but variability of these properties may mask treatment effects. The purpose of this study was to compare soil physical property variation under two crop rotations, and to examine interrelations among different soil physical properties. A six-year r...

  11. Crop and Soil Science Degree Checklist Name: ____________________________

    E-print Network

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    and Soil Science Degree Checklist Name: ____________________________ ID. Global Issues (3) (*soil science electives meeting requirement) _______ Science, Tech., Society (3) (**soil science electives meeting requirement) Major Core

  12. Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Indiana Soils and Septic Systems

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Indiana Soils and Septic tank and soil absorption field. These systems rely on the soil to remove all contaminants -- including the contaminants reach our drinking water aquifers. This publication is a brief description of soil characteristics

  13. A crops and soils data base for scene radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biehl, L. L.; Bauer, M. E.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Silva, L. F.; Pitts, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    Management and planning activities with respect to food production require accurate and timely information on crops and soils on a global basis. The needed information can be obtained with the aid of satellite-borne sensors, if the relations between the spectral properties and the important biological-physical parameters of crops and soils are known. In order to obtain this knowledge, the development of a crops and soils scene radiation research data base was initiated. Work related to the development of this data base is discussed, taking into account details regarding the conducted experiments, the performed measurements, the calibration of spectral data, questions of data base access, and the expansion of the crops and soils scene radiation data base for 1982.

  14. Investigating Root Zone Soil Moisture Using Electrical Resistivity and Crop Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diker, K.; Van Dam, R. L.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.; Bhardwaj, A. K.; Hamilton, S. K.; Basso, B.

    2011-12-01

    An accurate understanding of soil moisture variability is critical for agroecological modeling and for understanding the implications of climate change for agriculture. In recent years, electrical resistivity (ER) methods have successfully been used to characterize soil moisture in a range of environments, but there remains a need to better link these data to climate variability, soil textural properties, and vegetation and root dynamics. We present results for a novel ER measurement system at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) in southwest Michigan. Permanent multi-electrode arrays were installed beneath a range of annual and perennial biofuel crop types including corn, soybean, various grasses, and poplars. The ER arrays provide both high spatial resolution 2D and high temporal resolution 1D apparent resistivity data (4 week and 2 hour intervals, respectively). These data, along with a forward simulation of electrical resistivity in the soil column, are used to calibrate and refine root growth dynamics modules within the crop growth and soil hydrologic model SALUS (System Approach to Land Use Sustainability). Simulations are compared to 1D TDR-inferred soil moisture data. Variability in root zone dynamics among different biofuel cropping systems is explored. Total water use and efficiency, along with profile root water extraction, vary considerably among the crops.

  15. Coupling Cover Crops and Manure Injection: Soil Inorganic N Changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of a rye/oat cover crop with liquid swine manure application may enhance retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil inorganic N following injection of liquid swine manure to plots seeded with a rye/oat co...

  16. Soil carbon levels in irrigated Western Corn Belt cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An irrigated monoculture corn, monoculture soybean, and soybean-corn cropping systems study was initiated in 1991 on a uniform site in the Platte Valley near Shelton, Nebraska. The objective was to determine the long-term effects of these cropping systems on soil organic carbon levels. Four corn hyb...

  17. A Crops and Soils Data Base for Scene Radiation Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Biehl; M. E. Bauer; B. F. Robinson; C. S. T. Daughtry; L. F. Silva; D. E. Pitts

    1982-01-01

    Development of a crops and soils field research data base was initiated in 1972 at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing and expanded in the fall of 1974 by the NASA Johnson Space Center as part of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment. The primary purpose for the data base is to provide fully annotated and calibrated multispectral

  18. Soil Nitrogen Response to Coupling Cover Crops with Manure Injection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coupling winter small grain cover crops (CC) with manure (M) application may increase retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this research was to quantify soil N changes after application of liquid swine M (Sus scrofa L.) at target N rates of 112, 224, an...

  19. Native prairie filter strips reduce runoff from hillslopes under annual row-crop systems, Iowa USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensively managed annual cropping systems have produced high crop yields but have often produced significant ecosystem services alteration; in particular, hydrologic regulation loss. Reconversion of annual agricultural systems to perennial vegetation can lead to hydrologic function restoration, bu...

  20. Fertiliser induced nitrous oxide emissions during energy crop cultivation on loamy sand soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellebrand, Hans J.; Scholz, Volkhard; Kern, Jürgen

    Nitrous oxide (N 2O) fluxes from a loamy sand soil have been collected at an experimental field since 1999. To study the nitrogen (N) fertiliser induced emissions, annual crops and perennial plants received three different levels of N fertilisation: 0, 75, and 150 kg N ha -1. N 2O was measured by gas chromatography and closed chamber technique. Water content of the soil was determined gravimetrically and the soil content of mineral N by ion chromatography. The N 2O fluxes were below 30 ?g N 2O m -2 h -1 during the winter season and varied from 10 to more than 1000 ?g N 2O m -2 h -1 in the course of the vegetation season. N 2O emissions after N fertilisation were assigned to fertiliser induced emissions. High N 2O emissions at the end of the vegetation period are the result of increased mineralisation of soil organic matter. N 2O emissions from freeze-thaw cycles gave only a small contribution to the total annual N 2O emission budget from all blocks studied. Since the mean soil moisture content is very low (10%) and the water-filled pore space (WFPS) correlates negatively with N 2O emissions, nitrification is considered the main source for N 2O emissions. Evaluation of the data regarding dependence on fertilisation level indicates that N 2O fluxes are positively correlated to soil NO 3-N content. The N 2O fluxes from annual crop plots are higher than those from plots with perennial plants (grass, willow, poplar). The mean N 2O-N emission factor for fertiliser induced emissions from tilled soil is 1.0% in contrast to that of non-tilled soil with 0.7%. The mean fertiliser induced N 2O-N emissions, averaged over all crops and the total period of nine years, are in the range of 0.8 ± 0.2% of the N fertiliser applied.

  1. Using a Crop\\/Soil Simulation Model and GIS Techniques to Assess Methane Emissions from Rice Fields in Asia. IV. Upscaling to National Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Matthews; R. Wassmann; J. W. Knox; L. V. Buendia

    2000-01-01

    The process-based crop\\/soil model MERES (Methane Emissions from Rice EcoSystems) was used together with daily weather data, spatial soil data, and rice-growing statistics to estimate the annual methane (CH4) emissions from China, India, Indonesia, Philippines, and Thailand under various crop management scenarios. Four crop management scenarios were considered: (a) a 'baseline' scenario assuming no addition of organic amendments or field

  2. Soil Compaction, Corn Yield Response, and Soil Nutrient Pool Dynamics within an Integrated Crop-Livestock System in Illinois

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin F. Tracy; Yan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Integrated crop-livestock systems directly link crop and livestock production together to gen- erate positive economic and environmental outcomes. Some methods used in integrated systems, like winter grazing on cropland, could negatively affect soil properties and crop produc- tivity. We compared soil compaction, corn (Zea mays L.) yield, and soil nutrient pools between an integrated crop-livestock system and continuous corn system

  3. IRRIGATED CROP MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON PRODUCTIVITY, SOIL NITROGEN, AND SOIL CARBON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ardell D. Halvorson; Arvin R. Mosier; Curtis A. Reule

    Crop management practices that optimize crop yields and reduce soil erosion tend to have positive effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration, but may also affect residual soil nitrate-N (NO3-N) levels and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The influence of N fertility on corn grain yields, residue C inputs to the soil, SOC sequestration, NO3-N leaching potential, and N2O emissions under

  4. Relating soil biochemistry to sustainable crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids, amino sugars, carbohydrates, phenols, and fatty acids together comprise appreciable proportions of soil organic matter (SOM). Their cycling contribute to soil processes, including nitrogen availability, carbon sequestration and aggregation. For example, soil accumulation of phenols has ...

  5. Soil carbon and soil organic matter quality in soil size fractions from crop and livestock systems in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton based rotations and monocultures in the Southern High Plains have resulted in soil quality degradation because the semiarid environment combined with low crop residue returns has diminished soil C. Integrated crop-livestock systems and no-till based rotations can increase soil C when used as ...

  6. Soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon content under dryland crops. II. Effects of tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices are needed to reduce soil CO2 emission and increase C sequestration under dryland cropping system. The effects of tillage, cropping sequence, and N fertilization were evaluated on soil surface CO2 flux, soil total C content at 0- to 120-cm depth, and soil temperature and water c...

  7. 7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...materials to maintain or improve soil organic matter content in...that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients...that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant...

  8. 7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...materials to maintain or improve soil organic matter content in...that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients...that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant...

  9. 7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...materials to maintain or improve soil organic matter content in...that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients...that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant...

  10. 7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...materials to maintain or improve soil organic matter content in...that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients...that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant...

  11. Dieldrin uptake by vegetable crops grown in contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Donnarumma; Valter Pompi; Alessandro Faraci; Elisa Conte

    2009-01-01

    The aim of these trials was to study the distribution of dieldrin in soil and its translocation to roots and the aerial parts of vegetable crops grown in greenhouses and fields. The main objectives were to characterize dieldrin accumulation in plant tissues in relation to the levels of soil contamination; uptake capability among plants belonging to different species, varieties and

  12. Cover cropping impacts on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil aggregation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are a management tool which can extend the period of time that a living plant is growing and conducting photosynthesis. This is critical for soil health, because most of the soil organisms, particularly the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, are limited by carbon. Research, on-farm, and demon...

  13. RESPONSE OF THE SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY TO SOIL FUMIGATION AND MUSTARD COVER CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigants such as metam-sodium, used in potato production of the Columbia Basin of WA, are very effective for the control of soil borne pathogens, weeds, and nematodes that reduce crop yield and quality. Soil fumigation has been assumed to have minor impacts on the general soil microbial commun...

  14. Soil Water: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the fourth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil water. Upon completing the three day module, the student will be able to classify water as to its presence in the soil, outline the hydrological cycle, list the ways water is lost from the soil,…

  15. ESTIMATION OF SOIL WATER CONTENT AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION OF DRYLAND CROPS USING NEUTRON MOISTURE METER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In semi-arid regions, crop yield is often more correlated with soil water availability than any other soil or meteorological factor. Thus, quantification of soil water depletion by crops is important in estimating seasonal water use and evaluating alternative dryland cropping strategies, crop specie...

  16. Crop Performance and Soil Properties in Two Artificially-Eroded Soils in North-Central Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Malhi, S. S.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E. D.; Quiroga Jakas, Maria C.

    2006-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted from 1991 to 1995 at Josephburg (Orthic Black Chernozem, Typic Cryoboroll) and Cooking Lake (Orthic Gray Luvisol, Typic Cryoboralf), Alberta, to determine impact of topsoil removal on selected soil properties, N-mineralization potential and crop yield, and effectiveness of various amendments for restoring the productivity of eroded soils. The simulated-erosion levels were established in the autumn of 1990 by removing 20 cm topsoil in 5-cm depth increments. The four amendments were: control, addition of 5 cm of topsoil, fertilizers to supply 100 kg N ha-1 and 20 kg P ha-1, and cattle manure at 75 Mg ha-1. Topsoil and manure were applied once in the autumn of 1990, while fertilizers were applied annually from 1991 to 1995. Available N and P, total C, N and P, and N-mineralization potential decreased, while bulk density increased with increasing depth of topsoil removal. Tiller number, plant height, spike density, thousand kernel weight, and leaf area index decreased with simulated erosion. Grain yield reductions due to simulated soil erosion were either linear or curvilinear functions of nutrient removal. Application of N and P fertilizers and manure improved grain yield and reduced the impact of yield loss due to erosion. Return of 5 cm of topsoil also increased grain yield, but to a lesser extent than manure or fertilizers. Grain yields were maximized when fertilizers were also applied to organic amendment treatments. In conclusion, the findings suggest the importance of integrated use of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers for best crop yields on severely-eroded soils.

  17. Tillage and liming effects on crop and labile soil nitrogen in an acid soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. K. Soon; M. A. Arshad

    2005-01-01

    Limited information is available on soil management effects on crop production and nitrogen (N) cycling in acid soils. The effects of conventional tillage (CT) versus no-till (NT) and liming (0 versus 7.5Mgha?1), and their interaction, on labile N pools in an acid soil were evaluated during the 7th to 10th year of a 3-course small grain rotation. Crop production and

  18. Department of Soil and Crop Sciences Honors Program The Department of Soil and Crop Sciences (SCSC) Honors Program is designed for highly-

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    Department of Soil and Crop Sciences Honors Program The Department of Soil and Crop Sciences (SCSC programs, Plant and Environmental Soil Science (PSSC), or Turfgrass Science (TGSC), to enhance learning the distinction of Plant and Environmental Soil Science Honors, or Turfgrass Science Honors. Admission

  19. Evaluating Transpiration in an Annual Crop and Perennial Prairie Species Using the Heat Balance Method in Central Iowa, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incorporation of native perennial plants into landscapes dominated by annual cropping systems in the Midwestern United States may enhance water quality and promote stable provision of water supply by regulating water flows in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Design of mixed annual-perennial...

  20. [Use of Remote Sensing for Crop and Soil Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, Chris J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary agricultural objective of this research is to determine what soil and crop information can be verified from remotely sensed images during the growing season. Specifically: (1) Elements of crop stress due to drought, weeds, disease and nutrient deficiencies will be documented with ground truth over specific agricultural sites and (2) Use of remote sensing with GPS and GIS technology for providing a safe and environmentally friendly application of fertilizers and chemicals will be documented.

  1. Estimating Annual Soil Carbon Loss in Agricultural Peatland Soils Using a Nitrogen Budget Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Emilie R.; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R.; Linquist, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 – 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 – 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 – 81 % of plant N uptake (129 – 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 – 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 – 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices. PMID:25822494

  2. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Emilie R; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R; Linquist, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices. PMID:25822494

  3. Corn residue removal and cover crop impacts on soil parameters under a corn-soybean cropping system of South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of crop residue has been shown to degrade soil organic carbon (SOC), and hence soil quality. The present study was conducted to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality parameters. The experimental site was located in Brookings County, ...

  4. Soil Fertility, Yield and Nutrient Contents of Vegetable Crops after 12 Years of Compost or Fertilizer Amendments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Warman

    2005-01-01

    A study of compost- versus conventionally-fertilized vegetable plots was conducted for 12 years in a sandy loam soil near Truro, Nova Scotia. The fertility treatments have been applied annually to six rotation plots planted with six to eight different vegetable crops. The composts consist of animal manure, food waste, yard waste and straw or racetrack manure bedding. This paper investigated

  5. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

    2014-06-01

    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  6. Belowground environmental effects of transgenic crops: a soil microbial perspective.

    PubMed

    Turrini, Alessandra; Sbrana, Cristiana; Giovannetti, Manuela

    2015-04-01

    Experimental studies investigated the effects of transgenic crops on the structure, function and diversity of soil and rhizosphere microbial communities playing key roles in belowground environments. Here we review available data on direct, indirect and pleiotropic effects of engineered plants on soil microbiota, considering both the technology and the genetic construct utilized. Plants modified to express phytopathogen/phytoparasite resistance, or traits beneficial to food industries and consumers, differentially affected soil microorganisms depending on transformation events, experimental conditions and taxa analyzed. Future studies should address the development of harmonized methodologies by taking into account the complex interactions governing soil life. PMID:25728596

  7. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) Combined with Soil Solarization as a Methyl Bromide Alternative: Vegetable Crop Performance and Soil Nutrient Dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil treatment by anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) combined with soil solarization can effectively control soilborne plant pathogens and plant-parasitic nematodes in specialty crop production systems. At the same time, research is limited on the impact of soil treatment by ASD + solarization on c...

  8. Remote sensing of agricultural crops and soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (principal investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Research in the correlative and noncorrelative approaches to image registration and the spectral estimation of corn canopy phytomass and water content is reported. Scene radiation research results discussed include: corn and soybean LANDSAT MSS classification performance as a function of scene characteristics; estimating crop development stages from MSS data; the interception of photosynthetically active radiation in corn and soybean canopies; costs of measuring leaf area index of corn; LANDSAT spectral inputs to crop models including the use of the greenness index to assess crop stress and the evaluation of MSS data for estimating corn and soybean development stages; field research experiment design data acquisition and preprocessing; and Sun-view angles studies of corn and soybean canopies in support of vegetation canopy reflection modeling.

  9. Cropping system and broiler litter application impacts on soil nutrient dynamics and soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop rotation and broiler litter applications can influence and maintain high yield production of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), but relative impact of these management practices on soil nutrient dynamics and soil quality is lacking in the literature. The effects on soil of b...

  10. Boron Levels in Soils Cropped to Coffee and their Relationships to some Soil Properties in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Afrifa; K. Ofori-Frimpong; M. K. Abekoe

    Studies on boron levels in soils cropped to coffee were carried out in Ghana due to widespread reports on boron deficiency in soils of some coffee producing countr ies. Leaves and soils were sampled from Cocobod coffee plantations at Bogoso, Suhuma, Manso-Mim, Bunso and Bepong, which represent the main coffee growing areas in the Western, Ashanti and Eastern regions of

  11. Detection of anomalous crop condition and soil variability mapping using a 26 year Landsat record and the Palmer crop moisture index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venteris, E. R.; Tagestad, J. D.; Downs, J. L.; Murray, C. J.

    2015-07-01

    Cost-effective and reliable vegetation monitoring methods are needed for applications ranging from traditional agronomic mapping, to verifying the safety of geologic injection activities. A particular challenge is defining baseline crop conditions and subsequent anomalies from long term imagery records (Landsat) in the face of large spatiotemporal variability. We develop a new method for defining baseline crop response (near peak growth) using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 26 years (1986-2011) of Landsat data for 400 km2 surrounding a planned geologic carbon sequestration site near Jacksonville, Illinois. The normal score transform (yNDVI) was applied on a field by field basis to accentuate spatial patterns and level differences due to planting times. We tested crop type and soil moisture (Palmer crop moisture index (CMI)) as predictors of expected crop condition. Spatial patterns in yNDVI were similar between corn and soybeans - the two major crops. Linear regressions between yNDVI and the cumulative CMI (CCMI) exposed complex interactions between crop condition, field location (topography and soils), and annual moisture. Wet toposequence positions (depressions) were negatively correlated to CCMI and dry positions (crests) positively correlated. However, only 21% of the landscape showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) linear relationship. To map anomalous crop conditions, we defined a tolerance interval based on yNDVI statistics. Tested on an independent image (2013), 63 of 1483 possible fields showed unusual crop condition. While the method is not directly suitable for crop health assessment, the spatial patterns in correlation between yNDVI and CCMI have potential applications for pest damage detection and edaphological soil mapping, especially in the developing world.

  12. Crop Management for Soil Carbon Sequestration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek K. Jarecki; Rattan Lal

    2003-01-01

    Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from agriculture is related to increasing and protecting soil organic matter (SOM) concentration. Agricultural soils can be a significant sink for atmospheric carbon (C) through increase of the SOM concentration. The natural ecosystems such as forests or prairies, where C gains are in equilibrium with losses, lose a large fraction of the antecedent C

  13. Soil, Plant, and Crop Science. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains an instructor's manual, an instructor's resource package, and a student workbook for a course in agricultural production and management as it relates to crop production. The module contains 17 units of instruction, each of which contains some or all of the following components: objective sheet, instructor's guide, information…

  14. Manganese in Texas Soils and its Relation to Crops

    E-print Network

    Carlyle, E. C. (Elmer Cardinal)

    1931-01-01

    , and by Schreiner and Damison (15) in testing for deficiency of manganese in the glade soils of Florida. 10 BULLETIN NO. 432. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION Method for Pot Experiments Glazed earthenware pots of two gallons capacity were used in this work... pouncls. Rye without manganese bage ldecl lfate I nn cal- nat- )en- ?nn- ob- eat, ~eri- sul- tin : MANGANESE IN TEXAS SOILS AND ITS RELATION TO CROPS 9 yieldecl 3456 pouncls per acre; with manganese, 3424 pounds. Corn without manganese...

  15. Tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization effects on dryland soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon content.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Jabro, Jalal D; Caesar-Tonthat, Thecan

    2010-01-01

    Management practices are needed to reduce dryland soil CO(2) emissions and to increase C sequestration. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combinations and N fertilization on dryland crop biomass (stems + leaves) and soil surface CO(2) flux and C content (0- to 120-cm depth) in a Williams loam from May to October, 2006 to 2008, in eastern Montana. Treatments were no-tilled continuous malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) (NTCB), no-tilled malt barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) (NTB-P), no-tilled malt barley-fallow (NTB-F), and conventional-tilled malt barley-fallow (CTB-F), each with 0 and 80 kg N ha(-1). Measurements were made both in Phase I (malt barley in NTCB, pea in NTB-P, and fallow in NTB-F and CTB-F) and Phase II (malt barley in all sequences) of each cropping sequence in every year. Crop biomass varied among years, was greater in the barley than in the pea phase of the NTB-P treatment, and greater in NTCB and NTB-P than in NTB-F and CTB-F in 2 out of 3 yr. Similarly, biomass was greater with 80 than with 0 kg N ha(-1) in 1 out of 3 yr. Soil CO(2) flux increased from 8 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in early May to 239 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in mid-June as temperature increased and then declined to 3 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in September-October. Fluxes peaked immediately following substantial precipitation (>10 mm), especially in NTCB and NTB-P. Cumulative CO(2) flux from May to October was greater in 2006 and 2007 than in 2008, greater in cropping than in fallow phases, and greater in NTCB than in NTB-F. Tillage did not influence crop biomass and CO(2) flux but N fertilization had a variable effect on the flux in 2008. Similarly, soil total C content was not influenced by treatments. Annual cropping increased CO(2) flux compared with crop-fallow probably by increasing crop residue returns to soils and root and rhizosphere respiration. Inclusion of peas in the rotation with malt barley in the no-till system, which have been known to reduce N fertilization rates and sustain malt barley yields, resulted in a CO(2) flux similar to that in the CTB-F sequence. PMID:20400589

  16. Cover crops influence soil microorganisms and phytoextraction of copper from a moderately contaminated vineyard.

    PubMed

    Mackie, K A; Schmidt, H P; Müller, T; Kandeler, E

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the ability of summer (Avena sativa [oat], Trifolium incarnatum [crimson clover], Chenopodium [goosefoot]) and winter (Vicia villosa [hairy vetch], Secale Cereale L. [Rye], Brassica napus L. partim [rape]) cover crops, including a mixed species treatment, to extract copper from an organic vineyard soil in situ and the microbial communities that may support it. Clover had the highest copper content (14.3mgCukg(-1) DM). However, it was the amount of total biomass production that determined which species was most effective at overall copper removal per hectare. The winter crop rye produced significantly higher amounts of biomass (3532kgDMha(-1)) and, therefore, removed significantly higher amounts of copper (14,920mgCuha(-1)), despite less accumulation of copper in plant shoots. The maximum annual removal rate, a summation of best performing summer and winter crops, would be 0.033kgCuha(-1)y(-1). Due to this low annual extraction efficiency, which is less than the 6kgCuha(-1)y(-1) permitted for application, phytoextraction cannot be recommended as a general method of copper extraction from vineyards. Copper concentration did not influence aboveground or belowground properties, as indicated by sampling at two distances from the grapevine row with different soil copper concentrations. Soil microorganisms may have become tolerant to the copper levels at this site. Microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities (arylsulfatase and phosphatase) were instead driven by seasonal fluxes of resource pools. Gram+ bacteria were associated with high soil moisture, while fungi seemed to be driven by extractable carbon, which was linked to high plant biomass. There was no microbial group associated with the increased phytoextraction of copper. Moreover, treatment did not influence the abundance, activity or community structure of soil microorganisms. PMID:25217742

  17. Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Bini, Claudio; Haefele, Stephan; Abooei, Monireh

    2013-04-01

    Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems Soil quality, by definition, reflects the capacity to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and promote plant and animal health. Soil quality assessment is an essential issue in soil management for agriculture and natural resource protection. This study was conducted to detect the effects of four crop rotation systems (rice-rice-rice, soya-rice-rice, fallow-rice and pea-soya-rice) on soil quality indicators (soil moisture, porosity, bulk density, water-filled pore space, pH, extractable P, CEC, OC, OM, microbial respiration, active carbon) in paddy soils of Verona area, Northern Italy. Four adjacent plots which managed almost similarly, over five years were selected. Surface soil samples were collected from each four rotation systems in four times, during growing season. Each soil sample was a composite of sub-samples taken from 3 points within 350 m2 of agricultural land. A total of 48 samples were air-dried and passed through 2mm sieve, for some chemical, biological, and physical measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Statistical results revealed that frequency distribution of most data was normal. The lowest CV% was related to pH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and comparison test showed that there are significant differences in soil quality indicators among crop rotation systems and sampling times. Results of multivariable regression analysis revealed that soil respiration had positively correlation coefficient with soil organic matter, soil moisture and cation exchange capacity. Overall results indicated that the rice rotation with legumes such as bean and soybean improved soil quality over a long time in comparison to rice-fallow rotation, and this is reflected in rice yield. Keywords: Soil quality, Crop Rotation System, Paddy Soils, Italy

  18. Tillage and cropping effects on soil quality indicators in the northern Great Plains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Liebig; D. L. Tanaka; B. J. Wienhold

    2004-01-01

    The extreme climate of the northern Great Plains of North America requires cropping systems to possess a resilient soil resource in order to be sustainable. This paper summarizes the interactive effects of tillage, crop sequence, and cropping intensity on soil quality indicators for two long-term cropping system experiments in the northern Great Plains. The experiments, located in central North Dakota,

  19. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Fractions and Crop Yields Affected by Residue Placement and Crop Types

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Sainju, Upendra M.

    2014-01-01

    Soil labile C and N fractions can change rapidly in response to management practices compared to non-labile fractions. High variability in soil properties in the field, however, results in nonresponse to management practices on these parameters. We evaluated the effects of residue placement (surface application [or simulated no-tillage] and incorporation into the soil [or simulated conventional tillage]) and crop types (spring wheat [Triticum aestivum L.], pea [Pisum sativum L.], and fallow) on crop yields and soil C and N fractions at the 0–20 cm depth within a crop growing season in the greenhouse and the field. Soil C and N fractions were soil organic C (SOC), total N (STN), particulate organic C and N (POC and PON), microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN), potential C and N mineralization (PCM and PNM), NH4-N, and NO3-N concentrations. Yields of both wheat and pea varied with residue placement in the greenhouse as well as in the field. In the greenhouse, SOC, PCM, STN, MBN, and NH4-N concentrations were greater in surface placement than incorporation of residue and greater under wheat than pea or fallow. In the field, MBN and NH4-N concentrations were greater in no-tillage than conventional tillage, but the trend reversed for NO3-N. The PNM was greater under pea or fallow than wheat in the greenhouse and the field. Average SOC, POC, MBC, PON, PNM, MBN, and NO3-N concentrations across treatments were higher, but STN, PCM and NH4-N concentrations were lower in the greenhouse than the field. The coefficient of variation for soil parameters ranged from 2.6 to 15.9% in the greenhouse and 8.0 to 36.7% in the field. Although crop yields varied, most soil C and N fractions were greater in surface placement than incorporation of residue and greater under wheat than pea or fallow in the greenhouse than the field within a crop growing season. Short-term management effect on soil C and N fractions were readily obtained with reduced variability under controlled soil and environmental conditions in the greenhouse compared to the field. Changes occurred more in soil labile than non-labile C and N fractions in the greenhouse than the field. PMID:25119381

  20. Matrices to Revise Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin, Mary C.; Longer, David; Miller, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Undergraduate curricula for natural resource and agronomic programs have been introduced and revised during the past several decades with a desire to stay current with emerging issues and technologies relevant to constituents. For the past decade, the Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences (CSES) faculty at the University of Arkansas…

  1. Amendment of Acid Soils with Crop Residues and Biochars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Hua YUAN; Ren-Kou XU; Ning WANG; Jiu-Yu LI

    2011-01-01

    The liming potential of some crop residues and their biochars on an acid Ultisol was investigated using incubation experiments. Rice hulls showed greater liming potential than rice hull biochar, while soybean and pea straws had less liming potential than their biochars. Due to their higher alkalinity, biochars from legume materials increased soil pH much compared to biochars from non-legume materials.

  2. LINKING WITHIN-FIELD CROP RESPONSE WITH SOIL CHARACTERISTICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management zones for precision farming can be determined by identifying areas where soil, water, and management factors result in similar crop responses. Given the spatial distribution of LAI of a field, factors determining response patterns may be obtained via inversion of a model linking environme...

  3. Soil phosphorus changes impacted by potato cropping management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato crops generally require high amounts of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to reach economically acceptable yields as the low root density of potato plants makes mobilization and acquisition of phosphate a key factor in potato plant growth. In this work, we evaluated soil P changes in 10 potato fields...

  4. DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences

    E-print Network

    DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences Purdue University Five Year Strategic Plan 2004 - 2009 #12;Department of Agronomy Strategic Plan 2004-2009 Mission The mission of the Agronomy Department at Purdue University is to serve our broad- based clientele by providing progressive

  5. Phytoremediation of Soil Polluted by Nickel Using Agricultural Crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesare Giordani; Stefano Cecchi; Camillo Zanchi

    2005-01-01

    Soil pollution due to heavy metals is widespread; on the world scale, it involves about 235 million hectares. The objectives of this research were to establish the uptake efficiency of nickel by some agricultural crops. In addition, we wanted to establish also in which part of plants the metal is stored for an eventual use of biomass or for recycling

  6. Dieldrin uptake by vegetable crops grown in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Lucia; Pompi, Valter; Faraci, Alessandro; Conte, Elisa

    2009-06-01

    The aim of these trials was to study the distribution of dieldrin in soil and its translocation to roots and the aerial parts of vegetable crops grown in greenhouses and fields. The main objectives were to characterize dieldrin accumulation in plant tissues in relation to the levels of soil contamination; uptake capability among plants belonging to different species, varieties and cultivars. The presence of the contaminant was quantified by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results showed a translocation of residues in cucurbitaceous fruits and flowers confirming that zucchini, cucumber and melon are crops with high uptake capability. The maximum level of dieldrin residue at 0.01 mg/kg was found to be a threshold value to safeguard the quality production of cucurbits. Tomato, lettuce and celery were identified as substitute crops to grow in contaminated fields. PMID:20183049

  7. Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. Annual progress report for FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.; Turhollow, A.F.; Johnston, J.W.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1985. HECP emphasizes lignocellulosic forage crops. In FY 1985 screening and selection trails began on seven species of perennial and annual grasses and legumes in five projects in the Southeast and the Midwest-Lake State regions. Research also continued on the development of winter rapeseed as a disel-fuel substitute. Activities in FY 1985 included crosses and selections to incorporate atrazine resistance and reduced vernalization requirements in genotypes with desirable seed and oil qualities. Exploratory research efforts in FY 1985 included the physiology and biochemistry of hydrocarbon production in latex bearing plants, the productivity of cattail stands under sustained harvesting, and the development of tissue culture techniques for hard-to-culture sorghum genotypes. Environmental and economic analyses in FY 1985 included completion of a resource assessment of the southwestern United States, a study on successful new crop introductions, and initiation of studies on near-term markets for lignocellulosic energy crops and on vegetable oil extraction facilities. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. RELATIONSHIP OF SOIL PROFILE STRENGTH AND APPARENT SOIL ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY TO CROP YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding characteristics of claypan soils has long been an issue for researchers and farmers because the high-clay subsoil has a pronounced effect on grain crop productivity. The claypan restricts water infiltration and storage within the crop root zone, but these effects are not uniform within...

  9. Crop & Soil Science Seminar Series Mondays at 4:00 pm in Ag Life Sciences

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Crop & Soil Science Seminar Series Fall 2013 Mondays at 4:00 pm in Ag Life Sciences 4000 September 30 NO SEMINAR October 7 Dan Sullivan Crop & Soil Science Dept. "Phosphorus: Now and Then" October 14/CSSA/SSSA meetings) November 11 Chris Klatt Crop & Soil Science Dept. "Tracking Microbial Use of C and N

  10. Long-term tillage frequency and cropping intensity effects on dryland residue and soil carbon fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term soil and crop management practices are needed to increase dryland C sequestration for C trading and C fractions to improve soil quality. We evaluated the 21-yr effects of combinations of three tillage frequencies and three cropping systems on dryland crop biomass returned to the soil, resi...

  11. SOIL COVERAGE BY RESIDUE IN DIVERSE CROP SEQUENCES UNDER NO-TILLAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil coverage by crop residue protects soil health and prevents damaging soil erosion. Coverage was studied in a central North Dakota (400 mm avg. precip.) crop sequence experiment under no-till management in which all possible combinations of 10 crops (safflower, sunflower (Sun), flax, spring wheat...

  12. Effect of alley cropping on soil aggregate stability of a tropical Alfisol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Mapa; H. P. M. Gunasena

    1995-01-01

    The beneficial effect of organic matter on soil aggregate stability is well documented. Alley cropping has been suggested as a possible alternative to maintain soil organic matter content in cropping systems without fallowing the land. The objective of this study was to asses the effect of alley cropping on dry and wet soil aggregate stability on land degraded by shifting

  13. Influence of cover crops and crop residue treatment on soil organic carbon stocks evaluated in Swedish long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kätterer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in agricultural soils are strongly controlled by management. In this study we quantified the effect of cover crops and crop residue management on SOC stocks in Swedish long-term experiments. Eight pairs of cover crop (undersown ryegrass) vs. no cover crop were investigated in Swedish long-term field experiments (16 to 24 years). Yields of the main crop were not affected by the cover crop. Cover crops significantly increased SOC stocks, with a mean carbon sequestration rate in all experiments (excluding one) of 0.32±0.29 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Interestingly, this sequestration is similar to that estimated for a U.S.experiment, where ryegrass growth is much less temperature- and light-limited than under Swedish conditions. This sequestration rate is also the same as that recently reported for many other cover crops in a global meta-analysis but less than SOC changes in ley-dominated rotations which under Nordic conditions were shown to accumulate in average 0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 more carbon compared to exclusively annual cropping systems. Thus, originally introduced in agricultural rotations to reduce nitrate leaching, cover crops are also an effective practice to increase SOC stocks, even at relatively high latitudes. The effect of crop residue treatment was studied in 16 pairs of straw incorporated (SI) vs. straw removed (SR) treatments in six Swedish long-term field experiments. Data series on SOC with 5-28 sampling dates during 27-53 years were analysed using ICBM, a dynamic SOC model. At five out of six sites, the humification coefficient for straw (hlitter; the fraction of straw C that is entering the slow C pool) was much smaller (0-0.09) than the ICBM default h-value for plant material estimated in previous studies (0.125). The derived hlitter-values and thus the stabilization of straw-derived carbon increased significantly with clay content. For an Italian site (with five pairs of SI vs. SR) that was used for model validation we found the best model fits with hlitter-values ranging from 0 to 0.05, increasing with nitrogen fertilization. We explained this with increased substrate use efficiency of microbes due to increasing N availability. We conclude that i) the efficiency of incorporating straw to increase SOC stocks depends on soil texture and nitrogen availability, ii) using straw for bioenergy production could be a more sustainable and climate-smart option, especially in coarse textured soils, and iii) the introduction of cover crops may be a more efficient strategy for C sequestration in cereal-dominated rotations rather than incorporation of crop residues.

  14. EVALUATION OF THE LONG-TERM EFFECT OF CROP ROTATION ON WATER RUNOFF, SOIL AND NUTRIENT LOSSES IN THE MOLDAVIAN PLATEAU

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria ZBAN?

    The goal of the experiments carried out during 1981-2008, at the Podu-Iloaiei Agricultural Research Station, Ia?i County, was the study of water runoff and soil losses, caused by erosion, in different crops, the annual rate of erosion processes under the influence of anti-erosion protection of different crops, the influence of water and soil erosion on the losses of organic matter

  15. Soil aggregates and their associated carbon and nitrogen content in winter annual pastures using different tillage management options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, winter annual pastures are established on grazing areas that are steeply sloping and not regarded as suitable for row-crop production. Using conventional (CT) tillage methods to prepare these fragile lands for winter annual pastures leads to increased erosion and rapid soil degradatio...

  16. Accumulation and Crop Uptake of Soil Mineral Nitrogen as Influenced by Tillage, Cover Crops, and Nitrogen Fertilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Upendra M. Sainju; Bharat P. Singh; Wayne F. Whitehead; Shirley Wang

    2007-01-01

    Management practices may influence soil N levels due to crop up- take and leaching. We evaluated the effects of three tillage practices (no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)), four cover crops (hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), rye (Secale cereale L.), vetch 1 rye biculture, and winter weeds or no cover crop), and three N fertilization rates (0,

  17. Lime effects on soil acidity, crop yield and aluminum chemistry in inland Pacific Northwest direct-seed cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pH of agricultural soils in the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) has declined below established critical levels for cereal and grain legume crops. Our objective was to assess the effects of broadcast or subsurface banded lime treatments on soil acidity, crop yield, and aluminum (Al) chemistry in ...

  18. Threshold dynamics in soil carbon storage for bioenergy crops.

    PubMed

    Woo, Dong K; Quijano, Juan C; Kumar, Praveen; Chaoka, Sayo; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2014-10-21

    Because of increasing demands for bioenergy, a considerable amount of land in the midwestern United States could be devoted to the cultivation of second-generation bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass and miscanthus. The foliar carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) in these bioenergy crops at harvest is significantly higher than the ratios in replaced crops, such as corn or soybean. We show that there is a critical soil organic matter C/N ratio, where microbial biomass can be impaired as microorganisms become dependent upon net immobilization. The simulation results show that there is a threshold effect in the amount of aboveground litter input in the soil after harvest that will reach a critical organic matter C/N ratio in the soil, triggering a reduction of the soil microbial population, with significant consequences in other microbe-related processes, such as decomposition and mineralization. These thresholds are approximately 25 and 15% of aboveground biomass for switchgrass and miscanthus, respectively. These results suggest that values above these thresholds could result in a significant reduction of decomposition and mineralization, which, in turn, would enhance the sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the topsoil and reduce inorganic nitrogen losses when compared to a corn-corn-soybean rotation. PMID:25207669

  19. Crop rotation and soil temperature influence the community structure of Aspergillus flavus in soil

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    Crop rotation and soil temperature influence the community structure of Aspergillus flavus in soil s t r a c t Aspergillus flavus, the most important cause of aflatoxin contamination, has two major the strain L isolates. The S strain has been implicated as the primary causal agent of several contamination

  20. Crop Performance and Soil Properties in Two Artificially Eroded Soils in North-Central Alberta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Izaurralde; S. S. Malhi; M. Nyborg; E. D. Solberg; M. C. Quiroga Jakas

    2006-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted from 1991 to 1995 at Josephburg (Orthic Black Chernozem, Typic Cryoboroll) and Cooking Lake (Orthic Gray Luvisol, Typic Cryoboralf), Alberta, to determine the impact of topsoil removal on selected soil properties, N-mineralization potential, and crop yield, and the effectiveness of various amendments for restoring the productivity of eroded soils. The simulated-erosion levels were established in the

  1. Soil physical properties, water depletion and crop development under traditional and conservation tillage in southern Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Moreno; F. Pelegrín; J. E. Fernández; J. M. Murillo

    1997-01-01

    Tillage methods affect soil physical properties and, thus, have a direct influence on the replenishment and depletion of soil water storage and crop performance. This study was conducted to determine the effects of traditional and conservation tillage on soil physical properties, soil water replenishment and depletion, and crop development and yield under southern Spanish conditions. The experiments were carried out

  2. Soil quality differences in a mature alley cropping system in temperate North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alley cropping in agroforestry practices has been shown to improve soil quality, however information on long-term effects (>10 years) of alley cropping on soils in the temperate zone is very limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth on soil...

  3. [CO2 emission from soil-crop system as influenced by crop growth and tissue N content].

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-juan; Huang, Yao; Chen, Shu-tao; Yang, Zhao-fang; Zheng, Xun-hua

    2004-05-01

    To understand the CO2 emission from soil-crop system as influenced by crop growth and tissue N content, pot and field experiments were carried out during 2001-02 wheat and rice growing seasons. Black chambers were used to take gas samples within a closed soil-crop system. The CO2 emission rate was detected by a gas chromatograph. Seasonal change of the CO2 emission was observed from the soil-crop system. Respiration from the soil-rice system was higher than that from the soil-wheat system. Dark respiration of the crop shoot was positively correlated to the shoot biomass. The respiration coefficient Rd, defined as the amount of CO2-C respired by per unit biomass C within one day under a reference temperature of 25 degrees C, can be well quantitatively expressed by shoot N content for either wheat or rice crop. Relationship between the Rd and the N content can be described as a linear regression of Rd = 0.0124N - 0.0076 (R2=0.9879, p<0.001) for the wheat crop and as a quadratic equation of Rd = 0.0085N2 - 0.0049N (R2=0.9776, p<0.001) for the rice crop, respectively. The crop roots promoted the soil respiration greatly, which increased by 178% for the wheat and 338% for the rice in comparison with the respiration from root-free soil. A further calculation of the root respiration, including root autotrophic respiration and rhizosphere respiration, suggested that the contribution of crop rhizosphere respiration to the total soil respiration was greater in the upland soil than that in the irrigated paddy soil. PMID:15327243

  4. Water use efficiency of perennial and annual bioenergy crops in central Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeri, Marcelo; Hussain, Mir Zaman; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Delucia, Evan; Bernacchi, Carl J.

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable bioenergy production depends upon the efficiency with which crops use available water to produce biomass and store carbon belowground. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE; productivity vs. annual evapotranspiration, ET) is a key metric of bioenergy crop performance. We evaluate WUE of three potential perennial grass bioenergy crops, Miscanthus × giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), and an assemblage of prairie species (28 species), and Zea mays-Glycine max rotation, during the establishment phase in Illinois. Ecosystem WUE (EWUE; net ecosystem productivity vs. ET) was highest in miscanthus, reaching a maximum value of 12.8 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1 in the third year, followed by switchgrass (7.5 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1) and prairie (3.9 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1); the row crop was the lowest. Besides EWUE, harvest-WUE (HWUE, harvested biomass vs. ET) and net biome productivity-WUE (BWUE, calculated as net ecosystem production - harvest vs. ET) were also estimated for all crops and years. After three years of establishment, HWUE and BWUE were highest in miscanthus (9.0 ± 2 and 3.8 ± 2.9 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively) providing a net benefit to the carbon balance, while the row crops had a negative carbon balance and a negative BWUE. BWUE for maize/soybean indicate that this ecosystem would deplete the soil carbon stocks while using the water resources. Switchgrass had the second highest BWUE, while prairie was almost neutral indicating that long-term carbon sequestration for this agro-ecosystem would be sensitive to harvest timing with an early harvest removing more biomass, and thus carbon, from the field.

  5. Effects of agricultural practices of three crops on the soil communities under Mediterranean conditions: field evaluation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Sara; José Cerejeira, Maria; Abreu, Manuela; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable agricultural production relies on soil communities as the main actors in key soil processes necessary to maintain sustainable soil functioning. Soil biodiversity influences soil physical and chemical characteristics and thus the sustainability of crop and agro-ecosystems functioning. Agricultural practices (e.g.: soil tillage, pesticides and fertilizer applications, irrigation) may affects negatively or positively soil biodiversity and abundances by modifying the relationships between organisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices of three crops (potato, onion and maize) under Mediterranean climate conditions on soil macro- and mesofauna during their entire crop cycles. Effects on soil communities were assessed at a higher tier of environmental risk assessment comprising field testing of indigenous edaphic communities in a selected study-site located in a major agriculture region of Central Portugal, Ribatejo e Oeste, neighbouring protected wetlands. A reference site near the agricultural field site was selected as a Control site to compare the terrestrial communities' composition and variation along the crop cycle. The field soil and Control site soil are sandy loam soils. Crops irrigation was performed by center-pivot (automated sprinkler that rotates in a half a circle area) and by sprinklers. Soil macro- and mesofauna were collected at both sites (field and Control) using two methodologies through pitfall trapping and soil sampling. The community of soil macro- and mesofauna of the three crops field varied versus control site along the crops cycles. Main differences were due to arachnids, coleopterans, ants and adult Diptera presence and abundance. The feeding activity of soil fauna between control site and crop areas varied only for potato and onion crops vs. control site but not among crops. Concentration of pesticides residues in soil did not cause apparent negative effects on the soil communities. Significant differences of soil communities from potato and onion crops with the one from control site were observed at the beginning and during the crop cycle, but similarities were observed at the last sampling date after harvesting. The same was observed for the maize crop, indicating that soil communities recovered from the agricultural disturbances associated with crops management. An integrated approach such as the one adopted in present study, taking into consideration soil community's abundances, feeding activity and time variations along entire crop cycles of several crops under Mediterranean conditions, as well as soil exposure to pesticides residues, may contribute to decision making towards a sustainability of crop areas, including pesticide use and management practices.

  6. Impact of rapeseed cropping on the soil carbon balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, Antje Maria; Herbst, Mathias; Huth, Vytas; Andres, Monique; Augustin, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Winter oilseed rape is the dominant biofuel crop in the young moraine landscape in Northern Germany. Since the cultivation of biofuel crops requires sustainability compared to fossil fuels by law, detailed knowledge about their green house gas (GHG) balance is necessary. The soil carbon balance is one of the key contributors to the total GHG balance and also very important for the assessment of soil fertility. However, the knowledge about the impact of different management practices on the soil carbon balance is very limited up to now. Therefore, we investigated the carbon fluxes of winter oilseed rape at field plots near Dedelow/Uckermark in NE Germany with different treatments of fertilization (mineral versus organic) and tillage (no-till and mulch-till versus ploughing). The dynamics of the carbon fluxes are mainly driven by the current climatic conditions but the overall response depends strongly on the ecosystem state (with its physiological and microbiological properties) which is affected by management. To get the full carbon flux dynamics but also the impact of the different management practices, two different approaches were used: The eddy covariance technique to get continuous fluxes throughout the year and the manual chamber technique to detect flux differences between specific management practices. The manual chamber measurements were conducted four-weekly as all-day campaigns using a flow-through non-steady-state closed chamber system. The fluxes in-between campaigns were gap-filled based on functional relationships with soil and air temperature (for the ecosystem respiration) and photosynthetic active radiation (for the gross primary production). All results presented refer to the cropping season 2012-2013. The combination of the two measurement techniques allows the evaluation of chamber fluxes including an independent estimate of the error on the overall balances. Despite the considerable errors, there are significant differences in the soil carbon balance between the tillage and fertilization treatments - ranging from net losses to net gains in the soil carbon stock.

  7. Effect of different crops on soil organic matter and biological activity in Oxisols under three different crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, Diana Marcela; Arzuaga, Silvia; Dalurzo, Humberto; Zornoza, Raúl; Vazquez, Sara

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate changes in soil organic matter in Oxisols under different crops compared to native rainforest, and to assess if acid phosphatase activity (APA) could be a good indicator for SOC changes and soil quality. The experimental design consisted of four completely randomized blocks with four treatments: subtropical rainforest (F); yerba mate crop (I) (Ilex paraguariensis SH.); citrus crop (C) (Citrus unshiu Marc); and tobacco crop (T) (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Soil samples were taken at 0-10; 10-20 and 20-30 cm depths. The variables measured were soil organic carbon (SOC), APA, clay content, pH, total nitrogen (Nt), available phosphorus (P) and CO2 emissions. All data were analyzed by ANOVA to assess the effects of land-use changes. The treatment means were compared through Duncan's multiple range tests (p<0.05). The relationship between variables was determined with a simple correlation analysis and with a multiple linear regression analysis through the stepwise method. These soils showed an acid reaction and their clay content was over 650 g kg-1 for the three depths. SOC and N contents were higher in native soils, intermediate for the citrus crop, and lower under both tobacco and yerba mate crops. CO2 emissions were higher in the rainforest (47.32 kg ha-1 of CO2) than in cultivated soils, which indicates that biological activity is enhanced in rainforest soils where substrates for soil biota and fauna are more readily available. The variability of 76% in APA was explained by total nitrogen, which is closely related to soil organic matter, and by available P. Conversion of subtropical rainforests into agricultural lands reduced SOC content and acid phosphatase activity, thereby lowering soil quality. In this study, acid phosphatase activity proved to be a sensitive indicator to detect changes from pristine to cropped soils, but it failed to distinguish differences among crop systems.

  8. Toxicity of naturally-contaminated manganese soil to selected crops.

    PubMed

    Ková?ik, Jozef; Št?rbová, Dagmar; Babula, Petr; Švec, Pavel; Hedbavny, Josef

    2014-07-23

    The impact of manganese excess using naturally contaminated soil (Mn-soil, pseudototal Mn 6494 vs 675 ?g g(-1) DW in control soil) in the shoots of four crops was studied. Mn content decreased in the order Brassica napus > Hordeum vulgare > Zea mays > Triticum aestivum. Growth was strongly depressed just in Brassica (containing 13696 ?g Mn g(-1) DW). Some essential metals (Zn, Fe) increased in Mn-cultured Brassica and Zea, while macronutrients (K, Ca, Mg) decreased in almost all species. Toxic metals (Ni and Cd) were rather elevated in Mn-soil. Microscopy of ROS, NO, lipid peroxidation, and thiols revealed stimulation in all Mn-cultured crops, but changes were less visible in Triticum, a species with low shoot Mn (2363 ?g g(-1) DW). Antioxidative enzyme activities were typically enhanced in Mn-cultured plants. Soluble phenols increased in Brassica only while proteins rather decreased in response to Mn excess. Inorganic anions (chloride, sulfate, and phosphate) were less accumulated in almost all Mn-cultured crops, while the nitrate level rather increased. Organic anions (malate, citrate, oxalate, acetate, and formate) decreased or remained unaffected in response to Mn-soil culture in Brassica, Hordeum, and Triticum but not in Zea. However, the role of organic acids in Mn uptake in these species is not assumed. Because control and Mn-soil differed in pH (6.5 and 3.7), we further studied its impact on Mn uptake in solution culture (using Mn concentration ?5 mM deducted from water-soluble fraction of Mn-soil). Shoot Mn contents in Mn-treated plants were similar to those observed in soil culture (high in Brassica and low in Triticum) and pH had negligible impact. Fluorescence indicator of "general ROS" revealed no extensive or pH-dependent impact either in control or Mn-cultured roots. Observed toxicity of Mn excess to common crops urges for selection of cultivars with higher tolerance. PMID:24965550

  9. Soil Management for Sustainable Crop Disease Control: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ghorbani; S. Wilcockson; A. Koocheki; C. Leifert

    \\u000a Excessive use of agrochemicals in conventional crop management has caused serious environmental and health problems, including\\u000a loss of biodiversity and human disorders. A number of chemical biocides show complex chronic effects, such as changes in endocrine\\u000a functions and immune systems. Application of different chemical biocides to the soil and plants has increased substantially\\u000a over the last five decades. Total consumption

  10. Soil management for sustainable crop disease control: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ghorbani; S. Wilcockson; A. Koocheki; C. Leifert

    2008-01-01

    Excessive use of agrochemicals in conventional crop management has caused serious environmental and health problems including\\u000a loss of biodiversity and human disorders. A number of chemical biocides have shown complex chronic effects such as change\\u000a in endocrine functions and immune systems. Application of different chemical biocides to the soil and plants have increased\\u000a substantially over the last five decades. Total

  11. Nitrogen Yield and Land Use Efficiency in Annual Sole Crops and Intercrops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony R. Szumigalski; Rene C. Van Acker

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for crop production on the northern Great Plains of North America. This study was initiated to determine if N yield and land use efficiency for N could be improved by manipulating crop diversity using three annual crops (wheat, Triticum aestivum L.; canola, Brassica napus L.; and field pea, Pisum arvense L.) commonly grown on

  12. Diversification in Agricultural Production: A Dynamic Model of Optimal Cropping to Manage Soil Erosion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renan U. Goetz

    1997-01-01

    A dynamic economic model of soil erosion is presented where the intensity of use of inputs and the choice of crops allow the farmer to control soil losses. The results show that it is predominately optimal to approach the singular-path\\/steady-state equilibrium most rapidly by the cultivation of a single crop. At the steady state, however, a mix of crops is

  13. Early response of soil organic fractions to tillage and integrated crop-livestock production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage, cropping system, and cover cropping are important management variables that control the quantity, quality, and placement of organic matter inputs to soil. How soil organic matter and its different fractions respond to management has not been comprehensively studied in integrated crop-lives...

  14. Mapping crop Residue Cover and Soil Tillage Intensity Using Remote Sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently crop residues were managed primarily to reduce soil erosion and increase soil organic carbon, but demands for biofuels may remove much of the residue. Current methods of measuring crop residue cover are inadequate for characterizing the temporal and spatial variability of crop residu...

  15. RUNOFF, EROSION, AND SOIL EORDIBILITY ON CRP LANDS CONVERTED TO CROP AND HAY PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is concern that soil conservation and quality be preserved on CRP lands that are returned to crop production. Purified water was used for rainfall simulation study conducted after crop harvest in central North Dakota on Typic Argiustoll soil that had been converted to crop production 6 years ...

  16. Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poffenbarger, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops

  17. Response of soil respiration to climate across biofuel crops and land use histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Chen, J.; Shao, C.; Shen, W.; Zenone, T.; John, R.; Deal, M.; Hamilton, S. K.; Robertson, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    Land use change (LUC) due to the worldwide increasing production of biofuel crops creates carbon debt that would require decades to repay. The payback time depends on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and more determined by the carbon loss, such as soil respiration, than photosynthesis offset. Soil respiration is not only an important part of ecosystem respiration, but is also highly correlated with ecosystem production, via substrate subsidies from plants. Both autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration were regulated by climated-induced factors (e.g. soil temperature and soil water content) and also affected by substrate supply. In 2009, three sites in conservation reserve program (CRP) and conventional corn-soybean rotation agricultural lands (AG), were converted to soybean production, in experimental sites at Kellogg Biological Station, MI. In 2010, the three sites of differential previous land uses were then converted to corn (Cr), switchgrass (Sw) and prairie mixture (Pr) production. A reference site has been maintained CRP status since then. We used chamber-based method to assess total and heterotrophic soil respirations rate (SRRt and SRRh) from control treatment (C) and root exclusion treatment (E) at all sites, in 2011 and 2012, to explore how soil respiration rate (SRR) respond to the change of abiotic and biotic factors. Our results show that soil temperature (Ts) are important factors that affect SRR patterns. At the beginning of growing season, SRRs are low (average SRRt and SRRh are 3.19 and 3.11 umol CO2/m2s, respectively, on April 10th, 2011) when soil temperature is low. SRRs in general increased over time in a year, peaked in late July- early August, 1-2 weeks after soil temperature arrive its peak (maximum average SRRt and SRRh are 8.64 and 5.68, respectively, on August 3rd/4th, 2011). Soil water content (VWC) did not affect the time of SRR peak but limited its amount; when VWCs were extremely low in 2012 (average VWC at C and E treatment decreased 2.25% and 8.55%, respectively, in mid-summer between 2011 and 2012), SRRs were also comparatively low (average SRRt and SRRh decreased 5.57 and 3.12 umol CO2/m2s, respectively, in 2012). Besides, substrate supply importantly regulates SRRs; the patterns of SRR coincide that of crop growth through a growing season. SRRs of annual plan (corn) sites have very narrow peaks while SRRs of perennial crops (all of the rest crops in the experiment) have extended periods of highest SRRs. This may be a consequence of the difference between the phenology of annual and perennial crops. Generally, SRRh are lower than SRRt at all AG and reference sites (the difference between SRRh and SRRt are 5.23, 2.32, 3.87 and 6.03 at AG-Cr, AG-Sw, AG-Pr and reference site, respectively) in mid-summer in 2011, however, the difference between SRRh and SRRt are close at CRP sites (the difference are 1.42, 1.87 and -0.07 at CRP-Cr, CRP-Sw and CRP-Pr site). Large amount of carbon released into soil due to land use change at CRP sites would lead to high SRRh.

  18. Cropping systems modulate the rate and magnitude of soil microbial autotrophic CO2 fixation in soil

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaohong; Ge, Tida; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Hongzhao; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Zhu, Zhenke; Whiteley, Andrew S.; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different cropping systems on CO2 fixation by soil microorganisms was studied by comparing soils from three exemplary cropping systems after 10 years of agricultural practice. Studied cropping systems included: continuous cropping of paddy rice (rice-rice), rotation of paddy rice and rapeseed (rice-rapeseed), and rotated cropping of rapeseed and corn (rapeseed-corn). Soils from different cropping systems were incubated with continuous 14C-CO2 labeling for 110 days. The CO2-fixing bacterial communities were investigated by analyzing the cbbL gene encoding ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RubisCO). Abundance, diversity and activity of cbbL-carrying bacteria were analyzed by quantitative PCR, cbbL clone libraries and enzyme assays. After 110 days incubation, substantial amounts of 14C-CO2 were incorporated into soil organic carbon (14C-SOC) and microbial biomass carbon (14C-MBC). Rice-rice rotated soil showed stronger incorporation rates when looking at 14C-SOC and 14C-MBC contents. These differences in incorporation rates were also reflected by determined RubisCO activities. 14C-MBC, cbbL gene abundances and RubisCO activity were found to correlate significantly with 14C-SOC, indicating cbbL-carrying bacteria to be key players for CO2 fixation in these soils. The analysis of clone libraries revealed distinct cbbL-carrying bacterial communities for the individual soils analyzed. Most of the identified operational taxonomic units (OTU) were related to Nitrobacter hamburgensis, Methylibium petroleiphilum, Rhodoblastus acidophilus, Bradyrhizobium, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Rubrivivax, Burkholderia, Stappia, and Thiobacillus thiophilus. OTUs related to Rubrivivax gelatinosus were specific for rice-rice soil. OTUs linked to Methylibium petroleiphilum were exclusively found in rice-rapeseed soil. Observed differences could be linked to differences in soil parameters such as SOC. We conclude that the long-term application of cropping systems alters underlying soil parameters, which in turn selects for distinct autotrophic communities. PMID:26005435

  19. The Relationship Between Carbon Input, Aggregation, and Soil Organic Carbon Stabilization in Sustainable Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, A. Y.; Six, J.; Bryant, D. C.; Denison, R.; van Kessel, C.

    2003-12-01

    Approximately 10% of the earth's soil C is stored within agricultural soil ecosystems. Because farming systems hold promise for sequestering C, their sustainability, environmental impact, and potential role in mitigating rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations must be addressed. Our current challenges are to provide credible evidence that agricultural practices can sequester significant amounts of C and to quantify the mechanisms, capacity, and longevity of agricultural lands as C sinks. Agronomic practices that influence yield and, therefore, affect the proportion of crop residues returned to the soil (e.g. cover cropping, irrigation, fertilizer addition, and compost application) are likely to influence soil organic carbon (SOC). The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the influence of C input on C sequestration in SOC fractions and (2) to evaluate how aggregation (MWD) relates to SOC and cumulative C input, across 10 different cropping systems. Using SOM fractionation techniques, soil samples from 10 cropping systems at LTRAS (Long-term Research on Agricultural Systems, Davis, CA) were separated into four aggregate size classes (LM: >2000? m, sM: 250-2000? m, m: 53-250? m, and silt&clay: <53? m) and into three SOM fractions within LM and sM (cPOM:250-2000? m, mM: 53-250? m, and silt&clay: <53? m). All fractions were analyzed for their C content. Empirically derived relationships between yield and aboveground biomass-C plus yield and belowground biomass-C were used to quantify C input from corn, wheat, and tomato residues as well as for legume cover crops and compost for the different cropping systems. We found a positive correlation between cumulative C input and SOC (R2=0.45, P<0.0001). After 9 years, MWD increased linearly with greater C input (R2=0.64, P<0.0001) and SOC (R2=0.61, P<0.0001), respectively. We observed that aggregate-C shifts from the microaggregate fraction (53-250? m) in low C input systems to macroaggregate fractions (>2000? m and 250-2000? m) in high C input systems. Our findings indicate that management practices directed towards improving annual production, thereby, increasing residue C input would result in greater aggregate stability and aggregate associated SOC levels and have the capability of long-term C stabilization.

  20. Soil Physical Properties as Influenced by Cropping and Residue Management1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Skidmore; J. B. Layton; D. V. Armbrust; M. L. Hooker

    1986-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alternate methods of residue management for reduced tillage un- der irrigation and in double cropping systems are constantly being sought. One method that is becoming increasingly popular is residue burning. Knowing how to best manage crop residues to maintain desirable soil physical properties for decreasing erosion and increas- ing crop yields in these cropping systems is a problem. This

  1. Using stable isotopes to characterize differential depth of water uptake based on environmental conditions in perennial biofuel and traditional annual crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. N.; Nystrom, R.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change related to fossil fuel consumption coupled with the necessity for secure, cost-effective, and renewable domestic energy is continuing to drive the development of a bioenergy industry. Numerous second-generation biofuel crops have been identified that hold promise as sustainable feedstocks for the industry, including perennial grasses that utilize the highly water and energy efficient C4 photosynthetic pathway. Among the perennial grasses, miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) stand out as having high biomass, minimal maintenance, low nutrient input requirements, and positive environmental benefits. These grasses are able to withstand a wide range of growing season temperatures and precipitation regimes, particularly in reference to the annual row crops that they are likely to replace. During the drought of 2012 traditional row crops suffered major reductions in yield whereas the perennial grasses retained relatively high biomass yields. We hypothesize that this is due to the ability of the perennial grasses to access water from deeper soil water relative to the annual row crops. To test this hypothesis, we use isotopic techniques to determine the soil depth from which the various species obtain water. Data from summer 2013 suggests that the perennial grasses preferentially use surface water when available but can extract water from depths that the annual row crops are unable to reach. These results indicate that perennial grasses, with deeper roots, will likely sustain growth under conditions when annual row crops are unable.

  2. Impacts of integrated crop-livestock systems on nitrogen dynamics and soil erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, M. R.; James, D. E.; Liebman, M. Z.; Herndl, C. G.

    2005-12-01

    Agricultural land uses impact leachable nitrogen (N) and erosion, indicators of the potential for nitrate and sediment contamination of water resources. This paper evaluates the potential impact of alternative land uses on leachable N, soil organic nitrogen (SON) and erosion in western Iowa watersheds using a combination of widely available models and georeferenced data. The alternative land uses increase land area under perennial cover, integrate livestock with cropping systems, and reduce inorganic fertilizer use. We used the Water Erosion Prediction Program (WEPP) to estimate erosion and a N-budget model to estimate leachable N and changes in SON. The N model described here is widely applicable because it utilizes commonly available georeferenced data on soils, crops, and livestock. Maximum annual erosion rates were estimated to be 22 Mg ha-1 under current conditions, double the regional maximum at which soil is maintained as a medium for plant growth (T). Under alternative land uses, erosion was between 1.1 Mg ha-1 and 5.5 Mg ha-1, well below T. Annual leachable N was as much as 43 kg ha-1 for current conditions, but consistently less than15 kg ha-1 under alternative land uses. Maximum SON losses were 23 kg N ha-1 under current conditions while SON increased by as much as 18 kg N ha -1 under alternative land uses. These results indicate that erosion may be minimized, leachable N could be decreased and SON may be increased by better accounting of N inputs and altering the distribution and species composition of crop and pasture systems.

  3. Integrating pasture-based livestock production with annual crop production on the Great Plains to reduce loss of grassland wildlife

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tallgrass prairie has been replaced by corn and soybeans and mixed-grass prairie is being replaced by various annual crops. Annual crop fields support vegetarian diets but not much wildlife. Alternatively, integrating pastured livestock farming with annual crops can provide wildlife habitat. For ...

  4. Chemical control of perennial and annual weeds in herbicide resistant soybean crops.

    PubMed

    Sarpe, N; Roibu, C; Negrila, E; Bodescu, F; Fuia, S; Popa, C; Beraru, C

    2001-01-01

    In Romania, the first tests with Roundup Ready on soybean crops were performed in 1998, on 2 soil types: a) at Teleorman Station on chernozem containing 3.5% humus, 4.5% clay b) at Br?ila Station placed in Danube Meadow on alluvial soil containing 3.90% humus and 46% clay. In every locality cultivated soybean cultivar S.2254 was resistant to glyphosate. During the three years of experiments (1998-2000) the crop of soybean was infested with various species of weeds (both annual and perennial) of which the most important are: Sorghum halepense (60-80%), Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria glauca, Amaranthus retroflexus, Solarium nigrum, Yanthium italicum, Abutilon theoprasthi, Sinapis arvensis, Datum stramonium, Polygonum persicaria, Calystegia sepium, Cirsium arvense. In 3 years of experience the best weed control and the highest soybean production were obtained in the variants treated 2 times postemergent with Roundup Ready at a dose of 3 + 3 l/ha. Similar results were also obtained in the farms of the Academy of Agricultural Forestry Sciences, where GMO soybean was cultivated on 1500 hectares. PMID:12425098

  5. Effects of irrigation on crops and soils with Raft River geothermal water

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, N.E.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Raft River Irrigation Experiment investigated the suitability of using energy-expended geothermal water for irrigation of selected field-grown crops. Crop and soil behavior on plots sprinkled or surface irrigated with geothermal water was compared to crop and soil behavior on plots receiving water from shallow irrigation wells and the Raft River. In addition, selected crops were produced, using both geothermal irrigation water and special management techniques. Crops irrigated with geothermal water exhibited growth rates, yields, and nutritional values similar to comparison crops. Cereal grains and surface-irrigated forage crops did not exhibit elevated fluoride levels or accumulations of heavy metals. However, forage crops sprinkled with geothermal water did accumulate fluorides, and leaching experiments indicate that new soils receiving geothermal water may experience increased salinity, exchangeable sodium, and decreased permeability. Soil productivity may be maintained by leaching irrigations.

  6. SOIL ORGANIC CARBON AND NITROGEN FRACTIONS IN TEMPERATE ALLEY CROPPING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alley cropping may promote greater sequestration of soil organic carbon. The objective of this study was to examine spatial variability of soil organic C and N fractions relative to tree rows in established alley cropping systems in north central Missouri. Soils were collected to a depth of 30 cm fr...

  7. Soil physical and hydrological properties under three biofuel crops in Ohio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Bonin; Rattan Lal; Matthias Schmitz; Stan D Wullschleger

    2012-01-01

    While biofuel crops are widely studied and compared for their energy and carbon footprints, less is known about their effects on other soil properties, particularly hydrologic characteristics. Soils under three biofuel crops, corn (Zea mays), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and willow (Salix spp.), were analyzed seven years after establishment to assess the effects on soil bulk density (?b), penetration resistance (PR),

  8. Restoration of soil organic carbon with cultivation of perennial biofuel crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Davis; A. Yannarell; M. Masters; K. Anderson-Teixeira; J. E. Drake; R. Darmody; R. Mackie; M. David; E. H. Delucia

    2009-01-01

    A biofuel crop that can restore soil quality and maximize terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration would add substantial value to the sustainability of biofuel production chains. Currently in the Midwestern USA, Zea mays is the dominant biofuel feedstock despite a history of soil degradation associated with this crop. We compared soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and microbial communities in Zea mays

  9. Tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil nitrogen and cotton and sorghum yields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Upendra M. Sainju; Wayne F. Whitehead; Bharat P. Singh; Shirley Wang

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable soil and crop management practices that reduce soil erosion and nitrogen (N) leaching, conserve soil organic matter, and optimize cotton and sorghum yields still remain a challenge. We examined the influence of three tillage practices (no-till, strip till and chisel till), four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secaele cereale L.)], vetch\\/rye biculture and winter

  10. Biochemical properties of a Mediterranean soil as affected by long-term crop management systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Riffaldi; A Saviozzi; R Levi-Minzi; R Cardelli

    2002-01-01

    Soil biochemical properties under long-term crop management systems may be useful indicators of soil quality. We measured seven enzyme activities and six calculated biological indices at four adjacent study sites on an andosol in a semiarid area of eastern Sicily. Soils were sampled under natural grassland (NG), orange-grove (OG), winter wheat (WW) and horticultural crop (HC) managed according to local

  11. Quantification of compaction effects on soil physical properties and crop growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lipiec; R. Hatano

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative description of soil compaction effects is required to improve soil management for reducing compaction problems in crop production and environment. Our objective is to provide a review of indices and methods used to quantify the effects of compaction on soil physical properties and crop growth. The paper starts with the description of available methods to quantify stress and

  12. Soil-profile distribution of inorganic N during 6 years of integrated crop-livestock management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive accumulation of soil nitrate-N can threaten water and air quality. How integrated crop-livestock systems might influence soil-profile nitrate-N accumulation has not been investigated. Therefore, we determined soil nitrate-N accumulation during 6 years of evaluation of diverse cropping sy...

  13. Soil carbon and nitrogen changes as influenced by tillage and cropping systems in some Iowa soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahdi M. Al-Kaisi; Xinhua Yin; Mark A. Licht

    2005-01-01

    Soil organic C (SOC) and total N (TN) contents play a crucial role in sustaining agricultural production systems. Short-term (?10-year) management effects on SOC and TN dynamics are often complex and variable. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate short-term tillage and cropping system effects on SOC and TN within the 0–30cm soil depth across Iowa. The first experiment with no-tillage

  14. Effects of fertilization and soil management on crop yields and carbon stabilization in soils. A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ludwig; D. Geisseler; K. Michel; R. G. Joergensen; E. Schulz; I. Merbach; J. Raupp; R. Rauber; K. Hu; L. Niu; X. Liu

    2011-01-01

    The study of sustainable land use is complex and long-term experiments are required for a better understanding of the processes\\u000a of carbon stabilization. Objectives were (i) to describe for four long-term experiments the effects of fertilization and soil\\u000a management on crop yields and the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N, and (ii) to discuss the usefulness of

  15. Department of Crop and Soil Science Internship, Research and Thesis Topic Possibilities

    E-print Network

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    Department of Crop and Soil Science Internship, Research and Thesis Topic Possibilities Academic-Ridge, Corvallis (Specialty Area: Soils) Mineral identification in rocks and soils using x-ray diffraction Prof-chemical prevention tools are working for fruit growers? Prof. Jennifer Parke, Corvallis (Special Area: Soils) Soil

  16. Sequence effects among crops on alluvial-derived soil compared with those on glacial till-derived soil in the northern Great Plains, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To implement the dynamic cropping systems concept, agriculturalists need information about how crop species affect following years’ crops. Little research exists about how soil type affects crop sequence dynamics. Sandy loam, alluvial soil in North Dakota was the site of a crop sequence experiment u...

  17. Evaluation of Garden Crop Mercury Uptake and Potential Exposure from Consumption of Garden Crops Grown on Floodplain Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Berti; Annette Guiseppi-Elie; Elizabeth Quinn; Richard H. Jensen; Dean Cocking

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated Hg uptake from soil into garden crops to help assess the significance of human consumption of crops as a potential route of exposure to Hg. Locations for both a floodplain and a control garden were identified within the Augusta Forestry Center near Crimora, VA, USA, which is about 16 river-km downstream from the city of Waynesboro, along

  18. Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Fractions in Temperate Alley Cropping Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. W. Mungai; P. P. Motavalli; R. J. Kremer

    2006-01-01

    Alley cropping may promote greater sequestration of soil organic carbon. The objective of this study was to examine spatial variability of soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fractions relative to tree rows in established alley cropping systems in north central Missouri. Soils were collected to a depth of 30 cm from two alley cropped sites, a 19?yr?old pecan (Carya illinoinensis)\\/bluegrass

  19. Soil and water quality implications of production of herbaceous and woody energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lindberg, J.E. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, TN (United States); Green, T.H. [Alabama A and M Univ., Normal, AL (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Field-scale studies in three physiographic regions of the Tennessee Valley in the Southeastern US are being used to address the environmental effects of producing biomass energy crops on former agricultural lands. Comparison of erosion, surface water quality and quantity, and subsurface movement of water and nutrients from woody crops, switchgrass and agricultural crops began with crop establishment in 1994. Nutrient cycling, soil physical changes, and productivity of the different crops are also being monitored at the three sites.

  20. Soil macrofauna under integrated crop-livestock systems in a Brazilian Cerrado Ferralsol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robélio Leandro Marchão; Patrick Lavelle; Leonide Celini; Luiz Carlos Balbino; Lourival Vilela; Thierry Becquer

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the effects of integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with two tillage and two fertilization regimes, on the abundance and diversity of the soil macrofauna. Four different management systems were studied: continuous pasture (mixed grass); continuous crop; two crop- livestock rotations (crop\\/pasture and pasture\\/crop); and native Cerrado as a control. Macrofauna was sampled using

  1. Long-term tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics 

    E-print Network

    Dou, Fugen

    2006-08-16

    Management practices that may increase soil organic matter (SOM) storage include conservation tillage, especially no till (NT), enhanced cropping intensity, and fertilization. My objectives were to evaluate management ...

  2. Integrating soil conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crops: impacts on soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From an environmental perspective, conservation management (CM) practices such as reduced tillage help improve soil conditions. Literature concerning effects of CM on the environment is building, and many of those studies include glyphosate resistant crops (GRC) or glyphosate as a management compon...

  3. Neural network simulation of soil NO3 dynamic under potato crop system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulet-Fortin, Jérôme; Morais, Anne; Anctil, François; Parent, Léon-Étienne; Bolinder, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Nitrate leaching is a major issue in sandy soils intensively cropped to potato. Modelling could test and improve management practices, particularly as regard to the optimal N application rates. Lack of input data is an important barrier for the application of classical process-based models to predict soil NO3 content (SNOC) and NO3 leaching (NOL). Alternatively, data driven models such as neural networks (NN) could better take into account indicators of spatial soil heterogeneity and plant growth pattern such as the leaf area index (LAI), hence reducing the amount of soil information required. The first objective of this study was to evaluate NN and hybrid models to simulate SNOC in the 0-40 cm soil layer considering inter-annual variations, spatial soil heterogeneity and differential N application rates. The second objective was to evaluate the same methodology to simulate seasonal NOL dynamic at 1 m deep. To this aim, multilayer perceptrons with different combinations of driving meteorological variables, functions of the LAI and state variables of external deterministic models have been trained and evaluated. The state variables from external models were: drainage estimated by the CLASS model and the soil temperature estimated by an ICBM subroutine. Results of SNOC simulations were compared to field data collected between 2004 and 2011 at several experimental plots under potato cropping systems in Québec, Eastern Canada. Results of NOL simulation were compared to data obtained in 2012 from 11 suction lysimeters installed in 2 experimental plots under potato cropping systems in the same region. The most performing model for SNOC simulation was obtained using a 4-input hybrid model composed of 1) cumulative LAI, 2) cumulative drainage, 3) soil temperature and 4) day of year. The most performing model for NOL simulation was obtained using a 5-input NN model composed of 1) N fertilization rate at spring, 2) LAI, 3) cumulative rainfall, 4) the day of year and 5) the percentage of clay content. The MAE was 22% for SNOC simulation and 23% for NOL simulation. High sensitivity to LAI suggests that the model may take into account field and sub-field spatial variability and support N management. Further studies are needed to fully validate the method, particularly in the case of NOL simulation.

  4. Agricultural management practices to sustain crop yields and improve soil and environmental qualities.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Whitehead, Wayne F; Singh, Bharat P

    2003-08-20

    In the past several decades, agricultural management practices consisting of intensive tillage and high rate of fertilization to improve crop yields have resulted in the degradation of soil and environmental qualities by increasing erosion and nutrient leaching in the groundwater and releasing greenhouses gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), that cause global warming in the atmosphere by oxidation of soil organic matter. Consequently, management practices that sustain crop yields and improve soil and environmental qualities are needed. This paper reviews the findings of the effects of tillage practices, cover crops, and nitrogen (N) fertilization rates on crop yields, soil organic carbon (C) and N concentrations, and nitrate (NO3)-N leaching from the soil. Studies indicate that conservation tillage, such as no-till or reduced till, can increase soil organic C and N concentrations at 0- to 20-cm depth by as much as 7-17% in 8 years compared with conventional tillage without significantly altering crop yields. Similarly, cover cropping and 80-180 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) fertilization can increase soil organic C and N concentrations by as much as 4-12% compared with no cover cropping or N fertilization by increasing plant biomass and amount of C and N inputs to the soil. Reduced till, cover cropping, and decreased rate of N fertilization can reduce soil N leaching compared with conventional till, no cover cropping, and full rate of N fertilization. Management practices consisting of combinations of conservation tillage, mixture of legume and nonlegume cover crops, and reduced rate of N fertilization have the potentials for sustaining crop yields, increasing soil C and N storage, and reducing soil N leaching, thereby helping to improve soil and water qualities. Economical and social analyses of such practices are needed to find whether they are cost effective and acceptable to the farmers. PMID:12941975

  5. Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Gravel and Gravelless Trench Soil Absorption Fields

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Gravel and Gravelless Trench Soil Absorption Fields Brad Lee, Don Jones, and Chris Bourke Department of Agronomy and Department into the soil for treatment. Where soil and site conditions permit, many Indiana homeowners use conventional

  6. Tillage-induced seasonal changes in soil physical properties affecting soil CO 2 evolution under intensive cropping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Franzluebbers; F. M. Hons; D. A. Zuberer

    1995-01-01

    Crop management practices impact soil productivity by altering the soil environment, which in turn affects microbial growth and decomposition processes that transform plant-produced C to soil organic matter (SOM) or CO2. Reduced tillage increases SOM in the long term, but there is limited information on the in situ seasonal changes in soil physical and biological properties that affect SOM dynamics.

  7. The role of irrigation in the soil-crop system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Széles, Adrienn; Ragán, Péter; Nagy, János

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural production is performed in 85.5% of the total area of Hungary. Yearly average precipitation is 550-600 mm. Due to global warming, flooding, inland inundation and drought are frequent within a year. Extreme weather circumstances pose new challenges for crop producers. The results of long-term field experiments provide guidance to how each production technological intervention affects crop production, average yield and yield security. Examinations were performed on mid-heavy calcareous chenozem soil in a multifactorial small plot long-term field experiment under natural precipitation supply and irrigated circumstances to analyse the effect of irrigation and N fertilisation on soil moisture and maize grain yield. Drought and optimal years were involved in the examination. Six fertiliser treatments were used (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 kg N ha-1) each year. Irrigation was performed with a Valmont linear equipment. Changes in soil moisture balance were examined with TDR-based soil moisture probes in the 0-120 cm profile. Evaluation was performed with SPSS. The moisture profiles of the 1.2 m soil profile show contrasting tendencies in different crop years in both irrigation treatments. In drought years, the 0-0.15 m layer showed the lowest moisture values (8.3-9.6 v/v%), increasing towards deeper layers. The significant (p<0.05) moisture content difference of 11-12 v/v% measured at the 12-leaf-stage constantly decreased by the end of the growing season as soil moisture stock decreased. In wet years, the highest moisture content was observed in the 0.15-0.30 m layer (37-39v/v%), decreasing towards deeper layers (13-16 v/v%). At natural precipitation supply, yield linearly increased until 60 kg ha-1 N in both years, but no yield surplus was obtained above this dose. Our results show that increasing N doses do not always cause yield increase if the water needed for nutrient uptake is limited. In irrigated treatments, the highest statistically significant yield was observed at 120 kg ha-1 N in dry years. Irrigation had a significant yield-increasing effect (4.2 t ha-1) (P<0.001). However, in wet years, irrigation caused yield decrease (-1.8 t ha-1), significance level: 0.1%. Yield decrease caused by irrigation was the highest on plots with natural nutrient supply and the lowest N dose (30 kg ha-1) (2.6-2.7 t ha-1) and constantly decreased with decreasing fertiliser doses. Severe water deficit was observed in the environment of the seedling without irrigation and under dry circumstances, but there was favourable water supply in deeper layers. From the silking stage and especially during grain filling, the water deficit of the examined profile greatly reduced yield. Optimum water supply was observed in wet crop years. In irrigated treatments, the impact of irrigation water could be shown until early grain filling, but the resulting yield surplus seemingly contradicts this fact. Moisture content is lower from the last third of grain filling in the upper soil layers as opposed to non-irrigated treatments, showing the increased water uptake of irrigated maize. In wet years, the irrigated soil profile had lower moisture from sowing to harvesting, similarly to the end of the previous year.

  8. Isotopic Tracer Study of Hydraulic Transfer Between Native Woody Shrubs and Associated Annual Crops Under Dry Conditions in the Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogie, Nathaniel; Bayala, Roger; Diedhiou, Ibrahima; Fogel, Marilyn; Dick, Richard; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.

    2015-04-01

    Erratic precipitation at the beginning and end of the rainy season combined with short drought periods during the cropping season pose a major challenge for rain-fed agriculture and food security in the Sahel. Research has shown that intercropping annual crops with native evergreen woody shrubs in Senegal can greatly increase crop productivity. Hydraulic redistribution (HR), or the diurnal rewetting of dry soil by the pathway of the root system that extends into wetter soil has been found in many plants and climates worldwide. The HR pathway could be a factor in Senegal where water provided by shrubs aids crop growth during dry periods but this has not been confirmed. Therefore, the objective was to determine the ability of shrubs to provide water to millet plants using the deuterium tracer. Penisetum glaucum (Pearl Millet) was grown in association with the native woody shrub Guiera senegalensis under drip irrigation until 68 days after sowing, followed by a with holding of water during late flowering and early grain-filling stage. Within 10 days the soils in the stressed plots became extremely dry with water potentials ranging from -0.5 Mpa to -3.0 Mpa at 20cm depth. Twenty days after the initiation of water stress, vials of isotopically enriched deuterium tracer was sealed around cut roots of three separate shrubs at a depth of 1.0 m followed by sampling of aboveground tissue from injection shrubs and closely growing crop plants over a period of five days. Using cryogenic vacuum distillation, plant water samples were extracted from plant tissue. With lab work completed on two replications, a highly enriched deuterium signal was observed in the tissue water of the shrub beginning twelve hours after the injection. In the same replication thirty-six hours after the beginning of injection, a highly enriched pulse of deuterium in the crop growing directly adjacent to the injection shrub was observed. In a concurrent injection to a nearby shrub under much drier conditions, slight pulses of enrichment were found in the shrub and crop, though with much lower magnitudes. Although this was a simulated drought experiment, we were able to recreate conditions similar to those experienced at this site under rain-fed conditions, where the presence of drought is a constant threat at the beginning and the end of the season. These findings support the hypothesis that there is transfer of hydraulically lifted water from native woody shrubs to annual food crops in the region.

  9. USDA-ARS WHEAT, PEANUT AND FIELD CROPS RESEARCH UNIT ANNUAL REPORT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This annual report is a summary of objectives and current research accomplishments of the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK, concerning aphids and cereal aphid resistance. Personnel and recent publications are also listed. ...

  10. Native cover crops suppress exotic annuals and favor native perennials in a greenhouse competition experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura G. Perry; Spencer A. Cronin; Mark W. Paschke

    2009-01-01

    In a greenhouse experiment, we examined the effectiveness of four native cover crops for controlling four exotic, invasive\\u000a species and increasing success of four western North American grassland species. Planting the annual cover crops, annual ragweed\\u000a (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and common sunflower (Helianthus annuus), reduced the biomass of the exotic species cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus), Canada thistle (Cirsium

  11. NATIONAL CROP LOSS ASSESSMENT NETWORK (NCLAN) 1981 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) consists of a group of cooperating organizations engaged in field work, crop modeling, and economic studies to assess the immediate and long-term economic consequences of the effects of air pollution on crop production. The progra...

  12. NATIONAL CROP LOSS ASSESSMENT NETWORK (NCLAN) 1985 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) consists of a group of organizations cooperating in field work, crop modeling, and economic studies to assess the immediate and long-term economic consequences of air pollution on crop production. Two primary objectives are (1) to...

  13. NATIONAL CROP LOSS ASSESSMENT NETWORK (NCLAN) 1983 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) consists of a group of organizations cooperating in field work, crop modeling, and economic studies to assess the immediate and long-term consequences of air pollution on crop production. Two primary objectives are (1) to define r...

  14. Small Grain Winter Cover Crops for Corn and Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops are plants that cover the soil between harvest and planting of summer annual grain crops. While doing this, cover crops perform important environmental functions that include reducing soil erosion, accumulating nutrients, and increasing soil carbon. This educational module provide...

  15. Water use efficiency of perennial and annual bioenergy crops in central Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable bioenergy production depends upon the efficiency with which crops use available water to produce biomass and store carbon belowground. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE; productivity vs. annual evapotranspiration, ET) is a key metric of bioenergy crop performance. We evaluate WUE of t...

  16. Eight Years of Annual No-Till Cropping in Washington's Winter Wheat- Summer Fallow Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tillage-based winter wheat – summer fallow (WW-SF) cropping system has dominated dryland farming in the Pacific Northwest for 125 years. We conducted a large-scale multidisciplinary 8-year study of annual no-till cropping systems as an alternative to WW-SF. Soft white and hard white classes of w...

  17. Maize Yield as Affected by Water Availability, Soil Depth, and Crop Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Calviño; F. H. Andrade; V. O. Sadras

    2003-01-01

    els. However, standard statistics may be limited in bio- logical meaning while crop simulation models have their The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of rainfall, own problems (Monteith, 1996; Passioura, 1996; Sinclair soil depth, and crop management practices on the yield of dryland maize (Zea mays L.) crops of the Argentine Pampas. We were con- and

  18. Impact of crop management on intraspecific diversity of Pseudomonas corrugata in bulk soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wafa Achouak; Jean M Thiéry; Patrick Roubaud; Thierry Heulin

    2000-01-01

    The genetic structure of Pseudomonas corrugata populations was investigated in bulk soil to evaluate the impact of crop management on the intraspecific diversity of this bacterium stimulated in plant rhizosphere. As these bacteria are rare in bulk soil, an immunotrapping assay was developed to isolate them from soils located in Grignon (France), where adjacent plots with similar soil features were

  19. Effect of soil spectral properties on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage practices have been shown to improve soil structure, enhance soil organic carbon content (SOC), and reduce soil erosion. Conservation tillage practices include reduced- and no-till methods, which often leave appreciable amounts of crop residues over the soil surfaces after harv...

  20. Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

  1. Soil quality in integrated crop-livestock systems with conservation and conventional tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of crops and livestock could be either detrimental or beneficial to soil quality, depending upon timing and intensity of animal traffic and residue cover of the soil surface. Key soil properties (reflective of soil quality) of a Typic Kanhapludult in Georgia USA were analyzed in a 12-ha...

  2. Soil Quality in Integrated Crop-Livestock Systems with Conservation and Conventional Tillage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan J. FRANZLUEBBERS

    Integration of crops and livestock could be either detrimental or beneficial to soil quality, depending upon timing and intensity of animal traffic and residue cover of the soil surface. Key soil properties (reflective of soil quality) of a Typic Kanhapludult in Georgia USA were analyzed in a 12- ha field experiment testing the effect of tillage (conventional tillage (CT), no

  3. Assessing Production and Ecosystem Function for Grain and Bioenergy Feedstock Crops Across Variable Soil Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some soils in the U.S. Midwest region have been especially negatively impacted by grain cropping. The result has been lost productivity and diminished resiliency for ecosystem function. Of note are the degraded soils of the Midwest classed as “claypan soils.” These soils are disproportionate sources...

  4. HOW DO CROP PLANTS TOLERATE ACID SOILS? MECHANISMS OF ALUMINUM TOLERANCE AND PHOSPHOROUS EFFICIENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acid soils are a significant limitation to crop production worldwide, as approximately 50% of the world's potentially arable soils are acidic. Because acid soils are such an important constraint to agriculture, understanding the mechanisms and genes conferring tolerance to acid soil stress has been ...

  5. The Role of Soil Organic Matter in Maintaining Sustainability of Cropping Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Fageria

    2012-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) has long been recognized as an important indicator of soil productivity. The SOM refers to the organic fraction of the soil exclusive of undecayed plant and animal residues. It plays a crucial role in maintaining sustainability of cropping systems by improving soil physical (texture, structure, bulk density and water holding capacity), chemical (nutrient availability, cation exchange

  6. Role of Soil Organic Matter in Maintaining Sustainability of Cropping Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Fageria

    2012-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) has long been recognized as an important indicator of soil productivity. The SOM refers to the organic fraction of the soil exclusive of undecayed plant and animal residues. It plays a crucial role in maintaining sustainability of cropping systems by improving soil physical (texture, structure, bulk density, and water-holding capacity), chemical (nutrient availability, cation exchange capacity,

  7. Regional estimation of soil C stocks and CO2 emissions as influenced by cropping systems and soil type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, Roberta; Marchetti, Alessandro; Di Bene, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is of crucial importance for agricultural soil quality and fertility. At global level soil contains about three times the carbon stored in the vegetation and about twice that present in the atmosphere. Soil could act as source and sink of carbon, influencing the balance of CO2 concentration and consequently the global climate. The sink/source ratio depends on many factors that encompass climate, soil characteristics and different land management practices. Thus, the relatively large gross exchange of GHGs between atmosphere and soils and the significant stocks of carbon in soils, may have significant impact on climate and on soil quality. To quantify the dynamics of C induced by land cover change and the spatial and temporal dynamics of C sources and sinks at regional and, potentially, at national and global scales, we propose a methodology, based on a bio-physical model combined with a spatial explicit database to estimate C stock changes and emissions/removals. The study has been conducted in a pilot region in Italy (Apulia, Foggia province), considering the typical cropping systems of the area, namely rainfed cereals, tomato, vineyard and olives. For this purpose, the model RothC10N (Farina et al., 2013), that simulates soil C dynamics, has been modified to work directly in batch using data of climate, soil (over 290 georeferenced soil profiles), annual agriculture land use (1200 observations) The C inputs from crops have been estimated using statistics and data from literature. The model was run to equilibrium for each point of soil, in order to make all the data homogeneous in terms of time. The obtained data were interpolate with geostatisical procedures, obtaining a set of 30x30 km grid with the initial soil C. The new layer produced, together with soil and land use layers, were used for a long-term run (12 years). Results showed that olive groves and vineyards were able to stock a considerable amount of C (from 0.4 to 1.5 t ha-1 y-1). The continuous wheat lead to a reduction of C stock, ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 t ha-1 y-1, in sandy and clayey soils respectively. When the cereal rotation included irrigated tomato the C stock decline was about 0.4 t ha-1 y-1. In terms of emissions of CO2 the release to atmosphere was in average 6.5, 4.4, 3.6 and 3.3 t ha-1 y-1 for wheat-irrigated tomato rotation, continuous wheat, vineyards and olive groves respectively. The method proposed to estimate at regional level the C stocks and emissions has proved to be efficient and could be used to supply key information for climate and agricultural policies.

  8. Soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition and yield in diverse crop rotations under no-till conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of sustainable agricultural systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil attributes, crop rotations, and crop yield. Objectives were to measure how soil chemical and physical attributes as well as soybean (Glycine max Merr.) stover dry weight and mineral concentra...

  9. Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Rates by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global Data Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tristram O. West; Wilfred M. Post

    2002-01-01

    tices include, but are not limited to, reducing tillage intensity, decreasing or ceasing the fallow period, using Changes in agricultural management can potentially increase the a winter cover crop, changing from monoculture to rota- accumulation rate of soil organic C (SOC), thereby sequestering CO2 from the atmosphere. This study was conducted to quantify potential tion cropping, or altering soil inputs

  10. A New Record of Pseudallescheria boydii Isolated from Crop Field Soil in Korea.

    PubMed

    Babu, A Giridhar; Kim, Sang Woo; Yadhav, Dil Raj; Adhikari, Mahesh; Kim, Changmu; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Youn Su

    2014-12-01

    Pseudallescheria boydii KNU13-2 was isolated from crop field soil and identified by analysis of internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA and morphological characteristics. In the literature, P. boydii has been mentioned as a human pathogen. This is the first record of P. boydii isolated from crop field soil in Korea. PMID:25606013

  11. Early changes due to sorghum biofuel cropping systems in soil microbial communities and metabolic functioning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of biofuel production cropping systems should address not only energy yields but also the impacts on soil attributes are important for long-term sustainability. In this study, forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cropping systems were initiated on a low organic matter soil (< 0.9%)...

  12. Early Changes Due to Sorghum Biofuel Cropping Systems in Soil Microbial Communities and Metabolic Functioning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of biofuel production cropping systems needs to address not only energy yields but also the impacts on soil attributes important for long-term sustainability. In this study, forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cropping systems were initiated on a low organic matter soil (<0.9%) wi...

  13. Integrated crops and livestock in central North Dakota, USA: Agroecosystem management to buffer soil change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated crop-livestock systems have been purported to have numerous agronomic and environmental benefits, yet information documenting their long-term impact on the soil resource is lacking. This study sought to quantify the effects of an integrated crop-livestock system on near-surface soil prop...

  14. Soil Microbial, Chemical and Physical Properties in Continuous Cotton and Integrated Crop–Livestock Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Acosta-Martínez; T. M. Zobeck; Vivien Allen

    2004-01-01

    aquifer and that provide more conservative sustainable agricultural practices. Continuous monoculture systems can reduce soil organic matter Crop rotations have positive effects on soil properties because of low organic inputs and disturbance from tillage practices. related to the higher C inputs and diversity of plant resi- Integrated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cropping and livestock pro-

  15. Best management practices: Managing cropping systems for soil protection and bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in renewable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased. Crop residue such as corn stover or wheat straw can be used for bioenergy including a substitution for natural gas or coal. Harvesting crop residue needs to be managed to protect the soil and future soil productivity. The amount of bi...

  16. Tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice effects on dryland soil carbon fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information is needed on novel management practices to increase dryland C sequestration and soil quality in the northern Great Plains. We evaluated the effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice on dryland crop biomass (stems and leaves) yield, surface residue, and soil C fractions at ...

  17. Tillage, cropping systems,and nitrogen fertilizer source effects on soil carbon sequestration and fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantification of soil C cycling as influenced by management practices is needed for C sequestration, greenhouse gas mitigation, soil quality improvement, and crop production. We evaluated the 10-yr effect of combinations of tillage (no-tillage, mulch tillage, and conventional tillage), cover crop [...

  18. Cover crop and tillage effects on soil enzyme activities following tomato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Said A. Hamido; K. Kpomblekou-A

    2009-01-01

    Increasing numbers of vegetable growers are adopting conservation tillage practices and including cover crops into crop rotations. The practice helps to increase or maintain an adequate level of soil organic matter and improves vegetable yields. The effects of the practices, however, on enzyme activities in southeastern soils of the United States have not been well documented. Thus, the objectives of

  19. Analysis of soil moisture probability in a tree cropped watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejo-Perez, Antonio Jesus; Giraldez Cervera, Juan Vicente; Pedrera, Aura; Vanderlinden, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Probability density functions (pdfs) of soil moisture were estimated for an experimental watershed in Southern Spain, cropped with olive trees. Measurements were made using a capacitance sensors network from June 2011 until May 2013. The network consisted of 22 profiles of sensors, installed close to the tree trunk under the canopy and in the adjacent inter-row area, at 11 locations across the watershed to assess the influence of rain interception and root-water uptake on the soil moisture distribution. A bimodal pdf described the moisture dynamics at the 11 sites, both under and in-between the trees. Each mode represented the moisture status during either the dry or the wet period of the year. The observed histograms could be decomposed into a Lognormal pdf for dry period and a Gaussian pdf for the wet period. The pdfs showed a larger variation among the different locations at inter-row positions, as compared to under the canopy, reflecting the strict control of the vegetation on soil moisture. At both positions this variability was smaller during the wet season than during the dry period.

  20. COVER CROP SYSTEM EFFECTS ON CARBON/NITROGEN SEQUESTRATION AND THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COASTAL PLAIN SOILS UNDER CONSERVATION TILLAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop growth and water/solute movement are affected by soil properties. Crop growth is affected by soil moisture retention, which relates to soil structure (particle and pore size distribution), which is greatly affected by soil C levels. Soil hydraulic conductivity depends on particle size distrib...

  1. Imputing historical statistics, soils information, and other land-use data to crop area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, C. R., Jr.; Willis, R. W.; Lautenschlager, L.

    1982-01-01

    In foreign crop condition monitoring, satellite acquired imagery is routinely used. To facilitate interpretation of this imagery, it is advantageous to have estimates of the crop types and their extent for small area units, i.e., grid cells on a map represent, at 60 deg latitude, an area nominally 25 by 25 nautical miles in size. The feasibility of imputing historical crop statistics, soils information, and other ancillary data to crop area for a province in Argentina is studied.

  2. Standing crop and production in annual grass communities in Washington and California: a comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.

    1983-07-01

    An annual grass community in eastern Washington comprised mostly of cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum L., produced a yearly average of 226 g dry wt per m/sup 2/ of shoot biomass over a four-year period. Litter averaged 408 g per m/sup 2/ and belowground biomass 776 g. Total standing crop averaged 1400 g per m/sup 2/. Seventy percent of the root biomass was concentrated in the upper 10 cm of soil profile and 88% was in the upper 20 cm. An annual grass community in the central valley of California was about two times more productive than the cheatgrass community. The major botanical difference between the two communities, other than a more diverse species composition and greater productivity in the California community was the proportion of litter in the total aboveground biomass. The litter component of the cheatgrass community amounted to 30% of aboveground biomass as compared to only 14% for the California community. Litter accumulation in the cheatgrass community may indicate a slower decomposition rate but differences in grazing histories between the Washington cheatgrass and the California communities could have accounted for the difference in litter accumulation. 14 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Effects of long-term soil and crop management on soil hydraulic properties for claypan soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regional and national soil maps have been developed along with associated soil property databases to assist users in making land management decisions based on soil characteristics. These soil properties include average values from soil characterization for each soil series. In reality, these propert...

  4. Organic amendment of crop soil and its relation to hotspots of bacterial nitrogen cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereg, Lily; McMillan, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Crop production in Australian soils requires a high use of fertilisers, including N, P and K for continues utilisation of the soil. Growers often grow crops in rotation of summer crop, such as cotton with winter crop, such as wheat in the same field. Growers are getting more and more aware about sustainability of the soil resources and the more adventurous ones use soil amendments, such as organic supplements in addition to the chemical fertilisers. We have collected soil samples from fields that were cultivated in preparation for planting cotton and tested the soil for its bacterial populations with potential to perform different functions, including those related to the nitrogen cycling. One of our aims was to determine whether organic amendments create hotspots for bacterial functions related to bacterial nitrogen cycling. This pan of the project will be discussed in this presentation.

  5. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  6. Effects of Different Soil and Crop Management Strategies on Soil Microbial Communities and Soilborne Diseases of Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four different potato cropping systems, designed to address specific management goals of soil conservation (SC), soil improvement (SI), disease suppression (DS), and a standard rotation control (SR), were evaluated for their effects on soilborne diseases of potato and soil microbial community charac...

  7. Comparison of soil phosphorus status and organic matter composition in potato fields with different crop rotation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping management practices influence soil phosphorus (P) availability and soil organic matter (SOM) quality. This chapter summarizes the impact of cropping systems and water management on soil phosphorus status and organic matter characteristics after the first full cycle of the 3-y crop rotation...

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Increase Following the Termination of a Perennial Legume Phase of an Annual Crop Rotation within the Red River Valley, Manitoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanis, K. L.; Tenuta, M.; Amiro, B. D.; Glenn, A. J.; Maas, S.; Gervais, M.

    2013-12-01

    Perennial legume forages may have the potential to increase soil carbon sequestration and decrease nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere when introduced into annual cropping systems. However, little is known about what short-term effect the return to annual cropping following termination of perennial legume forage would have on carbon dioxide (CO2) and N2O emissions. Furthermore, there are few quantitative measurements about this impact on the Canadian Prairies. A long-term field experiment to continuously measure CO2 and N2O fluxes was established at the Trace Gas Manitoba (TGAS-MAN) Long Term Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Site at Glenlea, Manitoba using the flux gradient micrometeorlogical technique with a tunable diode laser analyzer. The soil is poorly drained clay in the Red River Valley. The field experiment consisted of four 4-hectare plots planted to corn in 2006 and faba bean in 2007. In 2008, grass-alfalfa forage was introduced to two plots (annual - perennial) and grown until 2011 whereas the other two plots (annual) were planted to annual crops: spring wheat, rapeseed, barley and spring wheat in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. In late September of 2011 the grass-alfalfa forage was killed and in 2012 all four plots were planted with corn. Termination of the grass-alfalfa forage resulted in greater fall CO2 emissions in 2011, greater spring melt CO2 emissions and net annual N2O emissions in 2012 from the annual-perennial plots when compared to the annual plots. Over seven crop years (2006-2012), the annual - perennial system increased carbon uptake by 3.4 Mg C ha-1 and reduced N2O emissions by 3.0 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 compared to the annual system. However after accounting for harvest removals both the annual and annual-perennial systems were net carbon sources of 5.7 and 2.5 Mg C ha-1 and net GHG sources of 38 and 24 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 respectively. We are currently following the long-term impacts of inclusion of perennial forages in an annual cropping system.

  9. COMPARISONS OF THE EFFECTS OF TEN CROP SPECIES AND CROP SEQUENCES ON SOIL COVERAGE BY RESIDUE UNDER NO-TILLAGE IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coverage of soil by crop residues is necessary for protection against erosion, for maintaining soil quality, and for conserving soil water. Crop diversification in northern Great Plains dryland agriculture has featured increased use of species that produce significantly less residue coverage than sm...

  10. Simulation for response of crop yield to soil moisture and salinity with artificial neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoqin Dai; Zailin Huo; Huimin Wang

    2011-01-01

    In saline fields, irrigation management often requires understanding crop responses to soil moisture and salt content. Developing models for evaluating the effects of soil moisture and salinity on crop yield is important to the application of irrigation practices in saline soil. Artificial neural network (ANN) and multi-linear regression (MLR) models respectively with 10 (ANN-10, MLR-10) and 6 (ANN-6, MLR-6) input

  11. Soil heterogeneity at the field scale: a challenge for precision crop protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Patzold; Franz Michael Mertens; Ludger Bornemann; Britta Koleczek; Jonas Franke; Hannes Feilhauer; Gerhard Welp

    2008-01-01

    Crop protection seldom takes into account soil heterogeneity at the field scale. Yet, variable site characteristics affect\\u000a the incidence of pests as well as the efficacy and fate of pesticides in soil. This article reviews crucial starting points\\u000a for incorporating soil information into precision crop protection (PCP). At present, the lack of adequate field maps is a\\u000a major drawback. Conventional

  12. Integration of soil structure variations with time and space into models for crop management. A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Roger-Estrade; G. Richard; A. R. Dexter; H. Boizard; S. De Tourdonnet; M. Bertrand; J. Caneill

    2009-01-01

    Soil structure plays a major role in the design of new crop management systems. For instance, the transition from conventional\\u000a to no-tillage changes soil structure, which, in turn, has implications on crop yield greenhouse gas emissions, and pesticide\\u000a and nitrate leaching. Modelling soil structure at field scale faces two main issues: (1) the spatial variability and (2) the\\u000a temporal variability.

  13. Integration of Soil Structure Variations with Time and Space into Models for Crop Management: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Roger-Estrade; G. Richard; A. R. Dexter; H. Boizard; S. Tourdonnet; M. Bertrand; J. Caneill

    Soil structure plays a major role in the design of new crop management systems. For instance, the transition from conventional\\u000a to no-tillage changes soil structure, which, in turn, has implications on crop yield greenhouse gas emissions, and pesticide\\u000a and nitrate leaching. Modelling soil structure at field scale faces two main issues: (1) the spatial variability and (2) the\\u000a temporal variability.

  14. Phosphorus availability for three crop species as a function of soil type and fertilizer history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dang T. Vu; Roger D. Armstrong; Peter W. G. Sale; Caixian Tang

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the capacity of a soil to supply phosphorus (P), and the variation in the ability of different crops to access\\u000a soil P, is critical to successfully managing P in modern cropping systems. Isotopic dilution techniques were used to examine\\u000a the capacity of three contrasting soil types (Calcarosol, Vertosol and Chromosol) to supply P, and to compare the ability

  15. NATIONAL CROP LOSS ASSESSMENT NETWORK (NCLAN) 1982 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) is a group of organizations cooperating in research to assess the short- and long-term economic impact of air pollution on crop production. The primary objectives are (1) to define relationships between yield of major agricultural...

  16. Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. Annual progress report for 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.; Elmore, J.L.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1985-11-01

    This report describes activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1984. The goal of the HECP is to provide the technology base that will allow industry to develop systems for producing herbaceous crops for fuels and energy feedstocks. The program began in FY 1984 with a planning phase that lasted from October 1, 1983, until March 1, 1984. The program emphasizes evaluation and selection of lignocellulosic energy crops. It also includes studies coordinated by the US Department of Agriculture to evaluate the use of winter rapeseed as an energy crop and limited research on hydrocarbon and wetland crops. The HECP is supported by the US Department of Energy's Biomass Energy Technology Division. Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides field management. 12 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Soils, crop nutrient status and nutrient dynamics on small-holder farms in central Tibet, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas G. Paltridge; Samantha P. P. Grover; Liu Gouyi; Jin Tao; Murray J. Unkovich; Nyima Tashi; David R. Coventry

    Little is known about the soils that support agriculture in Tibet. The aim of this paper is to investigate the physical and\\u000a chemical properties of Tibet’s agricultural soils, the nutritional status of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crops, and the sustainability of current soil management practices. Physical descriptions of Tibet’s agricultural soils\\u000a were based on soil

  18. Long-term tillage and cropping sequence influence on dryland soil aggregate-carbon dynam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainju, U.; Tonthat, T.-C.; Jabro, J. D.

    2009-04-01

    Sequestration and transformation of soil C as a result of long-term management practices occur mainly in aggregates. This study evaluated the 21-yr effect of tillage and cropping sequence combinations on dryland soil C sequestration and transformation into various C fractions in aggregates at the 0-20 cm depth in eastern Montana, USA. Tillage and cropping sequences were no-tilled continuous spring wheat (NTCW), spring-tilled continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall- and spring-tilled continuous spring wheat (FSTCW), fall- and spring-tilled spring wheat-barley (1984-1999) followed by spring wheat-pea (2000-2004) (FSTW-B/P), and spring-tilled spring wheat-fallow (STW-F). Carbon fractions were soil organic C (SOC), particulate organic C (POC), microbial biomass C (MBC), and potential C mineralization (PCM). Total amount of crop biomass (stems + leaves) residue returned to soil from 1984 to 2004 was lower in STW-F than in other treatments. Aggregate proportion was greater in NTCW than in FSTCW in 4.75-2.00 mm aggregate-size class at 0-5 cm but was greater in STW-F than in STCW in 2.00-0.25 mm size class at 5-20 cm. The SOC and POC were greater in NTCW and STCW than in STW-F in all aggregate-size classes at 0-5 cm and greater in NTCW than in STW-F in 4.75-2.00 mm and <0.25 mm size classes at 5-20 cm. The PCM was greater in STCW and FSTCW than in STW-F in all aggregate-size classes at 0-5 cm and greater in STCW than in NTCW, FSTCW, and STW-F in 4.75-2.00 mm size class at 5-20 cm. Similarly, MBC was greater in NTCW and STCW than in STW-F in <2.00 mm size class at 0-5 cm and greater in STCW and FSTCW than in STW-F in 4.75-0.25 mm class size at 5-20 cm. No-till increased aggregate proportion and POC but reduced PCM and MBC compared with tilled practices in the continuous spring wheat system in 4.75-2.00 mm size class. Aggregate proportion was greater in 2.00-0.25 mm size class than in other aggregate-size classes. The SOC, POC, and PCM were greater in 4.75-2.00 mm than in <0.25 mm at 0-5 cm but MBC was greater in <0.25 mm than in 4.75-0.25 mm size class at both depths. Reduced tillage with annual cropping increased crop residue production, soil aggregation, C sequestration, and microbial biomass and activities in 4.75-0.25 mm size class compared with the conventional system, such as STW-F. Because of greater aggregate proportion and C concentration between 4.75-2.00 mm and <0.25 mm, C sequestration occurred mainly in 2.00-0.25 mm size class but C transformation varied among aggregate-size classes in the dryland cropping system.

  19. Biochar application to temperate soils - effects on soil fertility and crop yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloss, S.; Zehetner, F.; Feichtmair, S.; Wimmer, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Kitzler, B.; Watzinger, A.; Soja, G.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar (BC) application to soil as a potential soil amendment is currently intensively explored. Depending on feedstock and highest treatment temperature (HTT), BC application to soil may contribute to the soil nutrient status by directly adding nutrients to the soil as well as by increasing pH, cation exchange and water holding capacity. These parameters are known to play an important role in the soil nutrient status and nutrient availability. A positive effect on plant growth after BC application to tropical soils has been observed repeatedly; however, the effect of BC application to soils in temperate climate regions is much less explored. We investigated the effect of BC to temperate soils and crop yield using a randomized pot experiment in a greenhouse with three agricultural soils (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) and four BC types (from straw, mixed woodchips and vineyard pruning, all pyrolyzed at 525°C). In order to analyze the effect of pyrolysis temperature, we additionally applied vineyard pruning BC pyrolyzed at 400°C. Selected treatments were planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.), followed by barley (Hordeum vulgare). Soil sampling was carried out after barley harvest. Investigated soil parameters included pH, electrical conductivity (EC), C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity (CEC), CAL-extractable P and K, EDTA extractable Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn as well as nitrogen supplying potential (NSP). Biomass production of the two crops was determined as well as its elemental composition. Biochar application (3% wood-based BC) caused a considerable pH increase for the acidic Planosol. The effect of BC application on CEC was dependent on the original status of the soil, notably soil pH and texture. 3 % BC application (wood) decreased CEC by 3.5 % and 10 % for the Chernozem and Cambisol, respectively, but increased CEC by 35 % for the acidic, sandy Planosol, which may be due to the strong liming effect found for the Planosol. BC application significantly raised CAL-extractable K for all soils. CAL-extractable P only increased in the Planosol and Cambisol at 3% application rate. Mustard yield decreased by 67% for vineyard pruning BC if nitrogen deficiency was not compensated for, straw-derived BC only caused a 2 % decrease of mustard yield. Barley yield was still significantly lower in most BC-treated pots compared to the controls, however, plant yields were less reduced for the second crop. Only straw-derived BC treatments showed a significantly higher barley yield (1955 ± 40 g m-2) compared to the control (1837 ± 70 g m-2). The results of the elemental composition of the barley grains showed that Al uptake in the Planosol significantly decreased after application of wood and straw BC, which may be due to the pH increase after BC application. In addition, Ca uptake in barley grains was significantly higher in the 3% wood BC treatment compared to the control. This may be caused by a higher Ca content of the wood BC as revealed by XRF. Mn uptake, on the other hand, was significantly reduced after BC application.

  20. Distribution of antibiotics in wastewater-irrigated soils and their accumulation in vegetable crops in the Pearl River Delta, southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min; Wong, Chris K C; Chu, L M

    2014-11-19

    Wastewater is increasingly being used to irrigate agricultural land in many countries around the world. However, limited research has examined the occurrence of antibiotics in soil irrigated with wastewater and their accumulation in plants. This study aimed to determine the distribution of various types of antibiotics in different environmental matrices in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and to evaluate their accumulation and translocation in edible crops. Samples were collected from six sites in the PRD where either domestic wastewater or fishpond water was used for irrigation. Results showed that fishpond water irrigated soils had higher concentrations of antibiotics than wastewater-irrigated soils. Different trends were observed in the accumulation of antibiotics in the different edible parts of various crops. Despite the low human annual exposure to antibiotics through the consumption of edible crops (1.10 to 7950 ?g/y), the potential adverse effects of antibiotics along the food chain should not be neglected. PMID:25356527

  1. Can Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies Be Accurately Quantified if Crop Models Are Annually Re-Initialized?

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W.; Kendall, Anthony D.; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of climate change impacts on global food production are generally based on statistical or process-based models. Process-based models can provide robust predictions of agricultural yield responses to changing climate and management. However, applications of these models often suffer from bias due to the common practice of re-initializing soil conditions to the same state for each year of the forecast period. If simulations neglect to include year-to-year changes in initial soil conditions and water content related to agronomic management, adaptation and mitigation strategies designed to maintain stable yields under climate change cannot be properly evaluated. We apply a process-based crop system model that avoids re-initialization bias to demonstrate the importance of simulating both year-to-year and cumulative changes in pre-season soil carbon, nutrient, and water availability. Results are contrasted with simulations using annual re-initialization, and differences are striking. We then demonstrate the potential for the most likely adaptation strategy to offset climate change impacts on yields using continuous simulations through the end of the 21st century. Simulations that annually re-initialize pre-season soil carbon and water contents introduce an inappropriate yield bias that obscures the potential for agricultural management to ameliorate the deleterious effects of rising temperatures and greater rainfall variability. PMID:26043188

  2. Soil respiration and microbial biomass in a pecan — cotton alley cropping system in Southern USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-H. Lee; S. Jose

    2003-01-01

    Little information is available on soil respiration and microbial biomass in soils under agroforestry systems. We measured soil respiration rate and microbial biomass under two age classes (young and old) of a pecan (Carya illinoinensis) — cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) alley cropping system, two age classes of pecan orchards, and a cotton monoculture on a well-drained, Redbay sandy loam (a fine-loamy,

  3. Soil greenhouse gas emissions affected by sheep grazing under dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep grazing to control weeds during fallow may influence soil greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O, and CH4) emissions by consuming crop residue and returning feces and urine to the soil. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of sheep grazing compared to herbicide application on soil temperature ...

  4. Accounting for green vegetation and soil spectral properties to improve remote sensing of crop residue cover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage methods are beneficial as they disturb soil less and leaves increased crop residue cover (CRC) after planting on the soil surface. CRC helps reduce soil erosion, evaporation, and the need for tillage operations in fields. Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced to due to less fos...

  5. Evaluation of Spectral Indices for Estimating Crop Residue Cover and Soil Carbon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term use of conservation tillage practices can lead to increased soil organic carbon (SOC) compared to intensively tilled soils. However, monitoring soil tillage intensity over large areas for assessing changes in SOC is difficult. Remote sensing can potentially estimate crop residue cover, a...

  6. Soil quality indicators of a mature alley-cropping agroforestry system in temperate North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although agroforestry practices are believed to improve soil quality, reports on long-term effects of alley cropping on soils within agroforestry in the temperate zone are limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth of an established agrofores...

  7. Spatial Variability of Soil Properties along a Transect of CRP and Continuously Cropped Land

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuewen Huang; E. L. Skidmore; G. Tibhz

    Knowledge of soil spatial variability and relationships among soil properties is important for the evaluation of agricultural land management practices. This study was to characterize the spatial variation of selected soil properties along a transect across a field that was partially grassed Conservation Reserve Program land for 10 years (CRP) and partially continuously cropped land (CCL). The sample field, located

  8. SOIL PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO CATTLE GRAZING OF COVER CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of crops and livestock could be either detrimental or beneficial to soil properties, depending upon timing and intensity of animal traffic and residue cover of the soil surface. We determined surface-soil properties of a Typic Kanhapludult in northeastern Georgia USA during the first thr...

  9. Establishment of five cover crops and total soil nutrient extraction in a humid tropical soil in the Peruvian Amazon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to evaluate the establishment of five cover crops and their potential to increase soil fertility through nutrient extraction, an experiment was installed in the Research Station of Choclino, San Martin, Peru. Five cover crops were planted: Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Greg, Calopogonium m...

  10. Effect of crop sequence, soil sample location and depth on soil water holding capacity under center pivot irrigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yousef A. Al-Rumikhani

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the changes that may occur to the soil water holding capacity under center pivot irrigation systems when grown with different crop patterns over a long period of time. The changes of water holding capacity were checked as affected by crop location and depth. The study was carried out in a dominantly sandy loam

  11. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon from changing pasture to an energy crop.

    PubMed

    Duval, Benjamin D; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Davis, Sarah C; Keogh, Cindy; Long, Stephen P; Parton, William J; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46-76 Mg dry mass · ha(-1)). Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq · m(-2) over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions. PMID:23991028

  12. Measurement of the fluorescence of crop residues: A tool for controlling soil erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Chappelle, E. W.; Hunter, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    Management of crop residues, the portion of a crop left in the field after harvest, is an important conservation practice for minimizing soil erosion and for improving water quality. Quantification of crop residue cover is required to evaluate the effectiveness of conservation tillage practices. Methods are needed to quantify residue cover that are rapid, accurate, and objective. The fluorescence of crop residue was found to be a broadband phenomenon with emission maxima at 420 to 495 nm for excitations of 350 to 420 nm. Soils had low intensity broadband emissions over the 400 to 690 nm region for excitations of 300 to 600 nm. The range of relative fluorescence intensities for the crop residues was much greater than the fluorescence observed of the soils. As the crop residues decompose their blue fluorescence values approach the fluorescence of the soil. Fluorescence techniques are concluded to be less ambiguous and better suited for discriminating crop residues and soils than reflectance methods. If properly implemented, fluorescence techniques can be used to quantify, not only crop residue cover, but also photosynthetic efficiency in the field.

  13. Occurrence of chloramphenicol in crops through natural production by bacteria in soil.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Bjorn; Pikkemaat, Mariel; Römkens, Paul; Wegh, Robin; van Sisseren, Maarten; Stolker, Linda; Nielen, Michel

    2013-05-01

    Due to the unexpected findings of the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol in products of animal origin, feed, and straw, the hypothesis was studied that the drug is naturally present in soil, through production by soil bacteria, and subsequently can be transferred to crops. First, the stability of chloramphenicol in soil was studied. The fate of chloramphenicol highly depends on soil type and showed a half-life of approximately one day in nonsterile topsoil. It was found to be more stable in subsoil and sterile soils. Second, the production of chloramphenicol in soil was studied, and it was confirmed that Streptomyces venezuelae can produce chloramphenicol at appreciable amounts in nonsterile soil. Third, a transfer study was carried out using wheat and maize grown on three different soils that were weekly exposed to aqueous chloramphenicol solutions at different levels. Chloramphenicol was taken up by crops as determined by chiral liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometric analysis, and the levels in crops were found to be bioavailability related. It was concluded that chloramphenicol residues can occur naturally in crops as a result of the production of chloramphenicol by soil bacteria in their natural environment and subsequent uptake by crops. PMID:23570678

  14. Soil carbon dynamics and crop residue yields of cropping systems in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Burkina Faso

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. McNair Bostick; Vincent B. Bado; Andre Bationo; Cecilia Tojo Soler; Gerrit Hoogenboom; James W. Jones

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about effects of increasing atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) on climate has given rise to the possibility of emission credits for soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. The goal of this study was to analyze SOC sequestration options in cropping systems of the Northern Guinea Savanna of West Africa. An 11-year experiment from the region, which consisted of 56

  15. Dryland crop yields and soil organic matter as influenced by long-term tillage and cropping sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term management practices are needed to sustain dryland crop yields and maintain soil organic matter in the northern Great Plains. We evaluated the 21-yr effects of no-till continuous spring wheat (NTCW), spring till continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall and spring till continuous spring wheat (...

  16. Microbial metabolic profiles in Australian soils with varying crop management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldorri, Sind; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2015-04-01

    Cotton production belt in Australia is covering vast areas from subtropical to temperate and grassland. Soil types are mostly different variations of clay with mainly black, grey and red clay soil containing variable proportions of sand in it. Growers often grow cotton in rotation with other crops, such as wheat, beans and corn, and soil fertilization vary with a number of growers using organic amendments as a main or supplementary source of nutrients. We have collected soil samples from farms in different regions and with different crop management strategies and studied the metabolic signature of microbial communities using the Biolog Ecoplate system. The metabolic patterns, supplemented with molecular analysis of the community will further the understanding of the influence of crop and soil management on soil functions carried out by microbes.

  17. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments of edible crops grown in biosolids-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Andrea C; Rich, Courtney D; Sedlacko, Erin M; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Kumar, Kuldip; Lau, Christopher; Mills, Marc A; Harris, Kimberly M; Higgins, Christopher P

    2014-07-15

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids-amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA; 232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root-soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with increasing chain length (0.11 to 0.36 log decrease per CF2 group). The biggest decrease (0.54-0.58 log decrease per CF2 group) was seen in fruit-soil concentration factors (FCFs). Crop anatomy and PFAA properties were utilized to explain data trends. In general, fruit crops were found to accumulate fewer long-chain PFAAs than shoot or root crops presumably due to an increasing number of biological barriers as the contaminant is transported throughout the plant (roots to shoots to fruits). These data were incorporated into a preliminary conceptual framework for PFAA accumulation in edible crops. In addition, these data suggest that edible crops grown in soils conventionally amended for nutrients with biosolids (that are not impacted by PFAA industries) are unlikely a significant source of long-chain PFAA exposure to humans. PMID:24918303

  18. Effects of crop management, soil type, and climate on N2O emissions from Austrian Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Sigmund, Elisabeth; Kasper, Martina; Kitzler, Barbara; Haas, Edwin; Wandl, Michael; Strauss, Peter; Poetzelsberger, Elisabeth; Dersch, Georg; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Amon, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Within the project FarmClim ("Farming for a better climate") we assessed recent N2O emissions from two selected regions in Austria. Our aim was to deepen the understanding of Austrian N2O fluxes regarding region specific properties. Currently, N2O emissions are estimated with the IPCC default emission factor which only considers the amount of N-input as an influencing factor for N2O emissions. We evaluated the IPCC default emission factor for its validity under spatially distinct environmental conditions. For this two regions for modeling with LandscapeDNDC have been identified in this project. The benefit of using LandscapeDNDC is the detailed illustration of microbial processes in the soil. Required input data to run the model included daily climate data, vegetation properties, soil characteristics and land management. The analysis of present agricultural practices was basis for assessing the hot spots and hot moments of nitrogen emissions on a regional scale. During our work with LandscapeDNDC we were able to adapt specific model algorithms to Austrian agricultural conditions. The model revealed a strong dependency of N2O emissions on soil type. We could estimate how strongly soil texture affects N2O emissions. Based on detailed soil maps with high spatial resolution we calculated region specific contribution to N2O emissions. Accordingly we differentiated regions with deviating gas fluxes compared to the predictions by the IPCC inventory methodology. Taking region specific management practices into account (tillage, irrigation, residuals) calculation of crop rotation (fallow, catch crop, winter wheat, barley, winter barley, sugar beet, corn, potato, onion and rapeseed) resulted in N2O emissions differing by a factor of 30 depending on preceding crop and climate. A maximum of 2% of N fertilizer input was emitted as N2O. Residual N in the soil was a major factor stimulating N2O emissions. Interannual variability was affected by varying N-deposition even in case of constant management practices. High temporal resolution of model outputs enabled us to identify hot moments of N-turnover and total N2O emissions according to extreme weather events. We analysed how strongly these event based emissions, which are not accounted for by classical inventories, affect emission factors. The evaluation of the IPCC default emission factor for its validity under spatially distinct environmental conditions revealed which environmental conditions are responsible for major deviations of actual emissions from the theoretical values. Scrutinizing these conditions can help to improve climate reporting and greenhouse gas mitigation measures.

  19. Guidelines for graduate students in Soil and Crop Sciences, Cornell University

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    to the field, maintaining records of graduate student progress, nominating students for awards and fellowships1 Guidelines for graduate students in Soil and Crop Sciences, Cornell University Table of Contents Guidelines for Degree Program..................................4 Responsibilities of Graduate Students

  20. Adapting the CROPGRO model for saline soils: the case for a common bean crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Webber; C. A. Madramootoo; M. Bourgault; M. G. Horst; G. Stulina; D. L. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Water scarcity and severe environmental degradation are causing water managers in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan to re-evaluate\\u000a irrigation water use. Crop models could play an important role in helping farmers decide which systems (crops and irrigation\\u000a technologies) are feasible. CROPGRO is a physiologically robust agronomic model, although the current version does not consider\\u000a the effects of soil salinity on crop

  1. Bio-fuel Cropping Systems Effects on Soil Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted to determine the effect of nutrient management practices on bio-fuel crop production, and to evaluate long term effects of bio-fuel crop production on selected chemical, physical and microbiological properties. Experimental plots for research on bio-fuel crops production were ...

  2. The Effects of Tillage, Cropping and Fertilization on Extractable Soil Nutrients in Four Agro-Ecosystems in Ghana, West Africa

    E-print Network

    Davies, Benjamin

    2014-08-10

    (Oryza glaberrima) and cassava (Manihot esculenta), are found across Africa. Fasinmirin et al. (2011) examined the effects of different tillage and mulch treatments on crop yield and soil physical properties such as compaction, bulk density and soil... porosity on cassava production. Mulching has been shown to be a beneficial practice across Africa. For example, crop residue studies have shown that leaving the crop residue on the field may result in lower soil bulk density at the soil surface (0 – 5 cm...

  3. Transfer of cadmium, lead, and zinc from industrially contaminated soil to crop plants: A field study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dudka; M. Piotrowska; H. Terelak

    1996-01-01

    The documeneed adverse health effects of soil Cd and Pb have led to public concern over soil contamination with metals. A 4-year field experiment was conducted to study the transfer of Cd, Pb, and Zn from soil contaminated by smelter flue-dust to crop plants grown in a rotation. The soil was amended with Pb?Zn smelter flue-dust (2–66.8 kg per 10

  4. SOIL CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION AS INFLUENCED BY IRRIGATION, TILLAGE, CROPPING SYSTEM, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and crop management practices can influence CO2 emission from crop and grasslands and therefore on global warming. We examined the effects of two irrigation systems (irrigated vs. non-irrigated) and six management practices [no-till malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) with 67 or 134 kg N ha-1 (NT...

  5. Use of Poor Quality Drainage Water for Crop Production and Its Impact on Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Chaudhry; M. Iqbal; K. M. Subhani

    1 ABSTRACT : Use of brackish drainage water effluent to augment the short canal supplies for crop production was studied in Fordwah Eastern Sadiqia South (FESS) Bahawalnagar area during the year 1998-99 to 2002- 03. The salt tolerant crop cultivars of wheat and cotton were grown on normal soils using canal\\/brackish drainage water for irrigation in a farmer's field with

  6. Long-term tillage and cropping sequence effects on dryland residue and soil carbon fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dryland soil N conservation and mineralization as influenced by long-term management practices is needed to reduce N fertilization rate, N leaching, and N2O (a greenhouse gas) emission. We evaluated the 21-yr effects of combinations of tillage and cropping sequences on dryland crop biomass (stems + ...

  7. Soil Type, Climatic Regime, and the Response of Water Use Efficiency to Crop Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Gregory; Lester P. Simmonds; Colin J. Pilbeam

    2000-01-01

    sandy, evaporation from the soil surface normally ex- ceeds transpiration (Wallace et al., 1993) and drainage In many rainfed regions of the world, only a small fraction of the is, in many cases, almost equal to the water lost as total water available for crop production is transpired and water use efficiency (WUE) is low. Changes in crop management practice

  8. Influence of agricultural traffic and crop management on collembola and microbial biomass in arable soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus Heisler; Ernst-August Kaiser

    1995-01-01

    Collembola and microbial biomass C were investigated in a field experiment with controlled agricultural traffic and crop rotation over a period of 27 months. The wheel-induced compactive efforts were applied according to management practices within the crop rotation of sugar beet, winter wheat, and winter barley. Increasing wheel traffic produced increasing soil compaction, mainly due to a reduction in surface

  9. Integration of soil, crop and weed management in low-external-input farming systems

    E-print Network

    Sims, Gerald K.

    Integration of soil, crop and weed management in low-external-input farming systems M LIEBMAN diversi®cation are basic components of LEI systems. Weed scientists can improve the use of these practices for weed management by improving knowledge of four relevant ecological mechanisms. First, multispecies crop

  10. Integrating choice of variety, soil amendments, and cover crops to optimize organic rice production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have completed our first year of this project to determine the impact of winter cover crops, soil amendments, and rice varieties on organic rice production at Beaumont, TX. Two winter cover crops were established successfully and the amounts of dry biomass produced were 4,690 and 5,157 lb/acre f...

  11. Soil and rainfall factors influencing yields of a dryland cropping system in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The semi-arid Great Plains of the United States experience a large variation in crop yields due to variability in rainfall, soil, and other factors. We analyzed crop yields (24-year period) from a no-till rotation of wheat(Triticum aestivum)-corn (Zea mays L.) or sorghum[Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]...

  12. Irrigation with treated wastewater: Effects on soil, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crop and dynamics of microorganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pilar Mañas; Elena Castro; Jorge de las Heras

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of treated wastewater for horticultural crops, assess the effects of continuous use of treated water on soil and crops, and analyse the physical, chemical and biological effects of irrigation with recycled water. Two lettuce plots watered with drinking water and treated wastewater were monitored over a three year period. Nutrients,

  13. Alley cropping for managing soil erosion of hilly lands in the Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. Paningbatan; C. A. Ciesiolka; K. J. Coughlan; C. W. Rose

    1995-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a hillslope to test three soil conservation-oriented alley cropping treatments, and to compare them with farmer's practice in terms of their effects on soil erosion and runoff. The alley cropping treatments had 1-m-wide, leguminous shrub hedgerows (Desmanthus virgatus) established along the contour, with an alley width of 5 m. Besides the effect of hedgerows,

  14. A GPS Backpack System for Mapping Soil and Crop Parameters in Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, J. V.; Lebars, J. M.

    Farmers are having to gather increasing amounts of data on their soils and crops. Precision agriculture metre-by-metre is based on a knowledge of the spatial variation of soil and crop parameters across a field. The data has to be spatially located and GPS is an effective way of doing this. A backpack data logging system with GPS position tagging is described which has been designed to aid a fanner in the manual collection of data.

  15. Soil water relations, crop production and root pruning of a belt of trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Woodall; B. H. Ward

    2002-01-01

    In southwestern Australia extensive revegetation with perennial plants is required to reverse hydrological imbalance and associated secondary salinity. The effect of a Pinus radiata\\/Schinus areira belt on soil water relations and crop production on a duplex soil in a medium rainfall area (480mm) was studied. Root pruning was used to manage tree–crop competition for resources. The tree belt altered the

  16. Soil and Crop Contamination Through Wastewater Irrigation and Options for Risk Reduction in Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Abaidoo; Bernard Keraita; Pay Drechsel; Priyanka Dissanayake; Akple S. Maxwell

    \\u000a Wastewater irrigation is becoming a global phenomenon, as a result of global water scarcity and increased pollution of water\\u000a sources. While this practice offers many opportunities, human health risks from contaminated soils and crops irrigated with\\u000a wastewater pose the greatest challenges to this practice. In this chapter, contaminants in wastewater of most relevance to\\u000a soil and crop, such as pathogens,

  17. C and N accumulations in soil aggregates determine nitrous oxide emissions from cover crop treated rice paddy soils during fallow season.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Prabhat; Haque, Md Mozammel; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-08-15

    Combination of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues are preferably applied in rice paddy soils to increase the rate of organic matter mineralization and to improve plant growth. However, organic matter addition facilitates methane (CH4) emission from rice paddy soil. Mineralization of organic nitrogen (N) increases NO3-N concentrations in soil, which are precursors for the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O). However, N2O is a minor greenhouse gas emitted from submerged rice field and hence is not often considered during calculation of total global warming potential (GWP) during rice cultivation. The hypothesis of this study was that fluxes of N2O emissions might be changed after removal of flooded water from rice field and the effect of cover crops on N2O emissions in the fallow season might be interesting. However, the effects of N-rich plant residues on N2O emission rates in the fallow season and its effect on annual GWP were not studied before. In this experiment, combination of barley (non-leguminous) and hairy vetch (leguminous) biomasses were applied at 9 Mg ha(-1) and 27 Mg ha(-1) rates in rice paddy soil. Cover crop application significantly increased CH4 emission flux while decreased N2O emissions during rice cultivation. The lowest N2O emission was observed in 27 Mg ha(-1) cover crop treated plots. Cover crop applications increased N contents in soil aggregates especially in smaller aggregates (<250 ?m), and that proportionately increased the N2O emission potentials of these soil aggregates. Fluxes of N2O emissions in the fallow season were influenced by the N2O emission potentials of soil aggregates and followed opposite trends as those observed during rice cultivation. Therefore, it could be concluded that the doses of cover crop applications for rice cultivation should not be optimized considering only CH4, but N2O should also be considered especially for fallow season to calculate total GWP. PMID:24880551

  18. Crop productivity and soil resilience observed on short-term corn stover or cob harvest on several northern soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly productive soils are found throughout the US Corn Belt, in part due to their inherently high soil organic matter. Their productivity contributes to the high corn grain and stover yields; hence, this crop residue is predicted to be a significant bioenergy feedstock within this region. The obje...

  19. Estimating Evaporation from Bare Soil and the Crop Coefficient for the Initial Period Using Common Soils Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard G. Allen; William O. Pruitt; Dirk Raes; Martin Smith

    2005-01-01

    The crop coefficient during the initial period sKc inid varies with wetting frequency, evaporative demand, and water-holding capacity of the upper soil layer. It is possible to develop a semitheoretical integrated function to predict the average Kc ini representing the initial period of a growing season when the soil is mostly bare and that incorporates these three factors. The function

  20. Effects of cover crops, compost, and manure amendments on soil microbial community structure in tomato production systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Carrera; J. S. Buyer; B. Vinyard; A. A. Abdul-Baki; L. J. Sikora; J. R. Teasdale

    2007-01-01

    Soil microbial community structure and crop yield was investigated in field tomato production systems that compared black polyethylene mulch to hairy vetch mulch and inorganic N to organic N. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) hairy vetch cover cropping increases crop yield and significantly affects soil microbial community structure when compared to the standard plastic mulch and synthetic fertilizer-based system;

  1. Cover crops tillage and glyphosate effects on chemical and biological properties of a Lower Mississippi Delta soil and soybean yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adoption of sustainable cropping systems, including cover crops and no-tillage practices can promote soil conservation and improve soil quality. However, the selection of the best management practices to increase crop production is needed. A field study was conducted from 2001 to 2005 at Stone...

  2. Uncertainties in crop, soil and weather inputs used in growth models: Implications for simulated outputs and their applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Aggarwal

    1995-01-01

    Deterministic crop growth models require several inputs relating to crop\\/variety, soil physical properties, weather and crop management. The input values used could be significantly uncertain due to random and systematic measurement errors and spatial and temporal variation observed in many of these inputs. Often soil and weather data are approximated using GIS and\\/or weather generators. In this paper total uncertainty

  3. The estimation of soil parameters using observations on crop biophysical variables and the crop model STICS improve the predictions of agro environmental variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-V. Varella

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic crop models are very useful to predict the behavior of crops in their environment and are widely used in a lot of agro-environmental work. These models have many parameters and their spatial application require a good knowledge of these parameters, especially of the soil parameters. These parameters can be estimated from soil analysis at different points but this is

  4. Allelopathic potential of an annual weed, Polypogon monspeliensis , in crops in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inderjit; K. M. M. Dakshini

    1995-01-01

    The question of whether annual weeds are allelopathic under natural conditions still remains to be critically answered. Investigations were carried out to understand the involvement and mode of operation of allelopathy in an annual weed, Polypogon monspeliensis. Comparative studies of soils associated with and without the weed under field conditions revealed that there was no significant difference in toxicity of

  5. The impact of a low humus level in arable soils on microbial properties, soil organic matter quality and crop yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Beyer; K. Sieling; K. Pingpank

    1999-01-01

    In arable soils in Schleswig-Holstein (Northwest Germany) nearly 30% of the total organic C (TOC) stored in former times\\u000a in the soil has been mineralized in the last 20 years. Microbial biomass, enzyme activities and the soil organic matter (SOM)\\u000a composition were investigated in order to elucidate if a low TOC level affects microbial parameters, SOM quality and crop\\u000a yield.

  6. Monitoring crop growth inter-annual variability from MODIS time series: Performance comparison between crop specific green area index and current global leaf area index products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Duveiller; Frederic Baret; Pierre Defourny

    2011-01-01

    Optical remote sensing time series can be used to retrieve biophysical variables indicating crop status, such as leaf area index (LAI) or, more appropriately, green are index (GAI). If these variables are sensible to inter-annual seasonal variations, they can be of great value for crop growth monitoring, especially if they can be coupled with ecophysiological models using data assimilation. This

  7. Crop residue management to reduce erosion and improve soil quality: North central. Conservation research report

    SciTech Connect

    Moldenhauer, W.C.; Mielke, L.N.

    1995-11-01

    Leaving crop residue on the soil surface has a number of clear advantages over tillage that leaves the soil surface bare. Most notable is the greatly reduced erosion from wind and water. Mandated conservation compliance by 1995 is an additional incentive for farmers to adopt crop residue management. This is one of six regional publications that assemble research results and experience for use by farmers and their advisers as they consider the factors involved in changing from tillage to a system of crop residue management.

  8. Impacts of integrated crop-livestock systems on nitrogen dynamics and soil erosion in western Iowa watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, M.; James, D.; Liebman, M.; Herndl, C.

    2005-09-01

    Agricultural land uses impact leachable nitrogen (N) and erosion, indicators of the potential for nitrate and sediment contamination of water resources. This paper evaluates the potential impact of alternative land uses on leachable N, soil organic nitrogen (SON) and erosion in western Iowa watersheds using a combination of widely available models and georeferenced data. The alternative land uses increase land area under perennial cover, integrate livestock with cropping systems, and reduce inorganic fertilizer use. We used the Water Erosion Prediction Program (WEPP) to estimate erosion and a N-budget model to estimate leachable N and changes in SON. The N model described here is widely applicable because it utilizes commonly available georeferenced data on soils, crops, and livestock. Maximum annual erosion rates were estimated to be 22 Mg ha-1 under current conditions, double the regional maximum at which soil is maintained as a medium for plant growth (T). Under alternative land uses, erosion was between 1.1 Mg ha-1 and 5.5 Mg ha-1, well below T. Annual leachable N was as much as 43 kg ha-1 for current conditions, but consistently less than15 kg ha-1 under alternative land uses. Maximum SON losses were 23 kg N ha-1 under current conditions while SON increased by as much as 18 kg N ha-1 under alternative land uses. These results indicate that erosion may be minimized, leachable N could be decreased and SON may be increased by better accounting of N inputs and altering the distribution and species composition of crop and pasture systems.

  9. Seasonal Soil Nitrogen Mineralization within an Integrated Crop and Livestock System in Western North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Pfenning, Lauren; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Protecting natural resources while maintaining or maximizing crop yield potential is of utmost importance for sustainable crop and livestock production systems. Since soil organic matter and its decomposition by soil organisms is at the very foundation of healthy productive soils, systems research at the North Dakota State University Dickinson Research Extension Center is evaluating seasonal soil nitrogen fertility within an integrated crop and livestock production system. The 5-year diverse crop rotation is: sunflower (SF) - hard red spring wheat (HRSW) - fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (THV; spring harvested for hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop (CC) - Corn (C) (85-90 day var.) - field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF are harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC are harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers graze the PBY and C before feedlot entry and after weaning, gestating beef cows graze the CC. Since rotation establishment, four crop years have been harvested from the crop rotation. All crops have been seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill except C and SF. Corn and SF were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter. The HRSW, PBY, and CC were seeded at a soil depth of 3.8 cm and a row width of 19.1 cm. Seed placement for the C and SF crops was at a soil depth of 5.1 cm and the row spacing was 0.762 m. The plant population goal/ha for C, SF, and wheat was 7,689, 50,587, and 7,244 p/ha, respectively. During the 3rd cropping year, soil bulk density was measured and during the 4th cropping year, seasonal nitrogen fertility was monitored throughout the growing season from June to October. Seasonal nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), total season mineral nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N), cropping system NO3-N, and bulk density were measured in 3 replicated non-fertilized field plot areas within each 10.6 ha triple replicated crop fields. Within each plot area, 6 - 20.3 cm x 0.61 m aluminum irrigation pipes were pressed into the soil as enclosures to restrict root access to soil nitrogen. Soil samples were taken as close to 2-week intervals as possible from both inside and outside the enclosures. The crop rotation N values were also compared to triple replicated perennial native grassland plot areas (predominate sp. Western wheatgrass - Pascopyrum smithii, Blue grama - Bouteloua gracilis, Little bluestem - Schizachyrium scoparium, Switchgrass - Panicum virgatum). Trends identified for both NH4-N and NO3-N indicate that the values are relatively similar with respect to seasonal change over time. There was a greater amount of soil nitrogen accumulation inside the enclosures indicating that outside the enclosures roots scavenge nitrogen for plant growth and production. Seasonally, comparing the cropping system crops, NO3-N declined mid-July and then rebounded by mid-August and continued to increase until leveling off in September. Corn NO3-N, however, did not follow this pattern, but increased from early June to the end of June and remained high until the first of September. We will present the results of bulk density data and seasonal N fertility data providing evidence for the impact of previous CC on corn production. Probable explanation for the mid-summer nitrogen decline will be presented and justification for reduced fertilizer application will be discussed.

  10. Energy Crops and their Implications on Soil Carbon Sequestration, Surface Energy and Water Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Barman, R.; Jain, A. K.

    2011-12-01

    The quest to meet growing energy demand with low greenhouse gas emissions has increased attention on the potential of existing and advanced biomass energy crops. Potential energy crops include row crops such as corn, and perennial grasses such as switchgrass. However, a massive expansion of bioenergy crops raises many questions such as: how and where to grow energy crops; and what will be the impacts of growing large scale biofuel crops on the terrestrial hydrological cycle, the surface energy budget, soil carbon sequestration and the concurrent effects on the climate system. An integrated modeling system is being developed with in the framework of a land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), and being applied to address these questions.This framework accounts for the biophysical, physiological and biogeochemical systems governing important processes that regulate crop growth including water, energy and nutrient cycles within the soil-plant-atmosphere system. One row crop (Corn) and two energy crops (Switchgrass and Miscanthus) are studied in current framework. Dynamic phenology processes and parameters for simulating each crop have been developed using observed data from a north to south gradient of field trial sites. This study will specifically focus on the agricultural regions in the US and in Europe. The potential productivity of these three crops will be assessed in terms of carbon sequestration, surface energy and water balance and their spatial variability. This study will help to quantify the importance of various environmental aspects towards modeling bioenergy crops and to better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of bioenergy crop yields.

  11. Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine spill (Hunan, China)

    E-print Network

    Mailhes, Corinne

    Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine spill (Hunan, China, Zn and Cu contamination. Keywords: Heavy metals; Arsenic; Soil; Crop; Contamination; Lead/zinc mine River. After the accident, an urgent soil cleaning up was carried out in some places. Seventeen years

  12. Effects of Long-Term Compost and Fertilizer Application on Soil Phosphorus Status Under Paddy Cropping System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olayvanh Singvilay; Wansik Shin; Eunhee Kim; Jongbae Chung; Tongmin Sa

    2004-01-01

    External phosphorus (P) fertilization in intensive cropping systems often exceeds P demand by crops, which leads to P accumulation in soils. Levels of different pools of soil P have been affected not only by soil properties and climatic condition but also by rate and type of P applied. This experiment was conducted to investigate the long-term applications of compost and

  13. Tillage and crop rotation effects on soil quality in two Iowa fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil quality is affected by inherent (parent material, climate, and topography) and anthropogenic (tillage and crop rotation) factors. We evaluated effects of five tillage treatments on 23 potential soil quality indicators after 31 years in a corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotat...

  14. Soil microbial activity under different grass species: Underground impacts of biofuel cropping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Haney; James R. Kiniry; Mari-Vaughn V. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Microbial and plant communities interact to determine local nutrient cycling rates. As lands are converted to bioenergy crops, including corn and cellulosic grasses, focus has been on changes in soil carbon sequestration. Little attention has been paid to impacts of such land conversion on the activity of belowground communities. We hypothesized that in addition to affecting soil organic carbon (SOC),

  15. Lower limits of crop water use in three soil textural classes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate knowledge of the amount of soil water available for crop use allows better management of limited water supplies. Using neutron scattering, we determined the mean lower limit of field soil water use (LL*F, m**3 m**-3) to a depth of 2.2 m at harvest (three seasons each) of short-season maize...

  16. CARBON STORAGE IN SOILS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT PLAINS: EFFECT OF CROPPING FREQUENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summer fallow (fallow) is still widely used on the North American Great Plains to replenish soil moisture between crops. Our objective was to examine how fallowing affects soil organic carbon (SOC) in various agronomic and climate settings by reviewing long-term studies in the midwestern USA (five s...

  17. Impacts of an integrated crop-livestock system on soil properties to enhance precipitation capture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping/Livestock systems alter soil properties that are important in enhancing capture of precipitation by developing and maintaining water infiltration and storage. In this paper we will relate soil hydraulic conductivity and other physical properties on managed Old World Bluestem grassland, whea...

  18. Long-term tillage and cropping system effects on dryland soil carbon sequestration and fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices are needed to increase dryland soil C sequestration for C trading to reduce greenhouse gas emission and C fractions to improve soil quality. We evaluated the 21-yr effect of a combination of tillage frequency and cropping intensity [No-till continuous spring wheat (NTCW), spring...

  19. Microbial community structure and functionality under peanut based cropping systems in a sandy soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on soil microbial and biochemical properties, important for understanding nutrient cycling and organic matter (OM) dynamics, as affected by different peanut cropping systems and how they relate to soil functioning. Thus, we studied a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, ka...

  20. IMPACT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AND CROPPING SYSTEM ON SOIL QUALITY IN MIDWESTERN MOLLISOLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High grain production of corn (Zea mays L.) can be maintained by adding inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer, and also by using crop rotations that include alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), but the relative impact of these management practices on soil quality is uncertain. We examined the effects on soil o...

  1. Cropping System and Broiler Litter Application Impacts on Soil Nutrient Dynamics and Quality Characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop rotation and broiler litter applications influence and maintain high yield production of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), but relative impact of these management practices on soil nutrient dynamics and soil quality is lacking in the literature particularly in the Mississip...

  2. Tillage, Cropping Sequence, and Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Dryland Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission and Carbon Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices are needed to reduce dryland soil CO2 emission and increase C sequestration that can influence global warming. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland soil surface CO2 flux, temperature and water content at the 0- to 1...

  3. Impact of soil health management practices on soilborne pathogens, nematodes and root diseases of vegetable crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S Abawi; T. L Widmer

    2000-01-01

    Various cultural practices, including the use of cover and rotational crops, composts, tillage systems, and others have been promoted as management options for enhancing soil quality and health. All cultural practices are known to directly or indirectly affect populations of soilborne pathogens and the severity of their resultant root diseases. Soil biology is a major component and contributes significantly to

  4. Spatial variation of soil enzyme activities and microbial functional diversity in temperate alley cropping systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy W. Mungai; Peter P. Motavalli; Robert J. Kremer; Kelly A. Nelson

    2005-01-01

    Spatially dependent patterns in microbial properties may exist in temperate alley cropping systems due to differences in litter quality and microclimate in areas under trees compared to those in the alleys. The effect of tree row location was evaluated for its impact on soil enzyme activities and Biolog substrate use patterns. Soils were sampled to a depth of 30 cm at

  5. Cropping and tillage systems effects on soil erosion under climate change in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion under future climate change is very likely to increase due to projected increases in frequency and magnitude of heavy storms. The objective of this study is to quantify the effects of common cropping and tillage systems on soil erosion and surface runoff during 2010-2039 in central Okl...

  6. Effects of cropping and tillage systems on soil erosion under climate change in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion under future climate change is very likely to increase due to projected increases in frequency and magnitude of heavy storms. The objective of this study is to quantify the effects of common cropping and tillage systems on soil erosion and surface runoff during 2010-2039 in central Okl...

  7. Improved Remote Crop Residue Cover Estimation by Incorporation of Soil and Residue Information

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern agricultural practices are increasingly making use of conservation (reduced- and no-till) methods, in order to minimize soil erosion and increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content. These methods result in increased crop residue cover after planting when compared to conventional tillage metho...

  8. Hyperspectral remote sensing estimation of crop residue cover: Soil mineralogy, surface conditions, and their effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage practices can enhance soil organic carbon content (SOC), improve soil structure, and reduce erosion. However, direct assessment of tillage practice for monitoring SOC change over large regions is difficult. Remote sensing of crop residue cover (CRC) can help assess tillage pra...

  9. Legume Cover Crops are More Beneficial than Natual Fallows in MInimally Tilled Ugandan Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important to establish the various eff ects of legume cover crops on soil physicochemical properties because they have been considered for use as improved fallows (with shorter rest periods) to enhance development and maintenance of soil productivity. Our objectives were to assess: (i) abovegr...

  10. Thirty-year tillage effects on crop yield and soil fertility indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term studies are crucial for quantifying tillage system effects on crop productivity and soil fertility status. We examined 30 years of data for five tillage systems evaluated on two glacial till soils in central Iowa, USA from 1975 through 2006. Moldboard plow, chisel plow, spring disk, ridge-...

  11. Effects of legumes on soil physical quality in a maize crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Latif; G. R. Mehuys; A. F. Mackenzie; I. Alli; M. A. Faris

    1992-01-01

    The effect of intercropped legumes and three N fertilizer rates in a continuous maize (Zea mays L.) cropping system on the physical properties of two soils were investigated for three years. The legumes, being a mixture of alfalfa, clover and hairy vetch, had a significant cumulative effect on some physical properties of both soil. The lowest stability and smallest mean

  12. SOIL AGGREGATE STABILITY AND ENZYME ACTIVITY IN AGROFORESTRY AND ROW-CROP SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proportion of water-stable aggregates (WSA) influences soil quality, crop growth, nutrient retention, water infiltration, and surface runoff. Roots, fungi, and bacteria as well as numerous chemical substances secreted by these agents play important roles in soil aggregate formation, persistence...

  13. CROP-LIVESTOCK INTERACTIONS AND SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT IN NORTHWEST NIGERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Hoffmann

    This study describes an indigenous system of soil fertility management in the Zamfara Forest Reserve, Northwest Nigeria. There, the traditional crop-livestock interaction is being transformed into a more integrated system. Data were collected between 1996 and 2000, combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Methods applied include transect walks, qualitative and semi-structured interviews with farmers and key respondents, and chemical soil analyses

  14. Linking Soil Microbial Ecology to Ecosystem Functioning in Integrated Crop-Livestock Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhanced soil stability, nutrient cycling and C sequestration potential are important ecosystem functions driven by soil microbial processes and are directly influenced by agricultural management. Integrated crop-livestock agroecosystems (ICL) can enhance these functions via high-residue returning c...

  15. Tillage Management and Previous Crop Effects on Soil Physical Properties, Maize Grain Yield, and Seed Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) grown in rotation with high residue crops generally has lower grain yield under no-till than under tilled soil management in the northern US maize belt. Hence, the research objectives were to further characterize soil physical properties, maize grain yield, and seed composition u...

  16. Enhancing Potato System Sustainability: Crop Rotation Impacts on Soil Phosphatase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is a species with a low efficiency of acquiring soil P. Rotation crops may potentially influence P uptake by potato by increasing soil organic acids, phosphatase activity, and microbial biomass. However, this kind of information is very limited. We measured the activities of acid phosphatase,...

  17. Cover Crop and Manure Effects on Soil Properties in a Corn Silage System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous corn (Zea mays L.) silage production, even with no-tillage, can degrade soil quality because of nutrient depletion and minimal organic matter additions. Manure application and the use of different companion or cover crops in corn silage production systems may lessen or prevent soil qualit...

  18. Effects of cover cropping on soil and rhizosphere microbial community structure in tomato production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black polyethylene film is frequently used in vegetable farming systems to promote rapid warming of the soil in spring, conserve soil moisture, and suppress weeds. Alternative systems have been developed using cover cropping with legumes to provide a weed-suppressive mulch while also fixing nitrogen...

  19. Dynamic Succession of Soil Bacterial Community during Continuous Cropping of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Plant health and soil fertility are affected by plant–microbial interactions in soils. Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability, but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses were used to study the succession of soil bacterial communities under continuous peanut cultivation. Six libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and during its seedling and pod-maturing growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil bacterial assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. The diversity of bacterial sequences identified in each growth stage library of the three peanut cropping cycles was high and these sequences were affiliated with 21 bacterial groups. Eight phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were dominant. The related bacterial phylotypes dynamic changed during continuous cropping progress of peanut. This study demonstrated that the bacterial populations especially the beneficial populations were positively selected. The simplification of the beneficial microbial communities such as the phylotypes of Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut yield under continuous cropping. The microbial phylotypes that did not successively changed with continuous cropping, such as populations related to Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales, could potentially resist stress due to continuous cropping and deserve attention. In addition, some phylotypes, such as Acidobacteriales, Chromatiales and Gemmatimonadales, showed a contrary tendency, their abundance or diversity increased with continuous peanut cropping progress. Some bacterial phylotypes including Acidobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Bdellovibrionales, and so on, also were affected by plant age. PMID:25010658

  20. Greenhouse gas fluxes and budget for an annual cropping system in the Red River Valley, Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Aaron James

    Agriculture contributes significantly to national and global greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories but there is considerable control over management decisions and changes in production methods could lead to a significant reduction and possible mitigation of emissions from the sector. For example, conservation tillage practices have been suggested as a method of sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), however, many questions remain unanswered regarding the short-term efficacy of the production method and knowledge gaps exist regarding possible interactions with essential nutrient cycles, and the production of non-CO2 GHGs, such as nitrous oxide (N2O). Between autumn 2005 and 2009, a micrometeorological flux system was used to determine net CO2 and (N2O exchange from an annual cropping system situated on clay soil in the Red River Valley of southern Manitoba. Four plots (4-ha each) were independently evaluated and planted to corn in 2006 and faba bean in 2007; in 2008, two spring wheat plots were monitored. As well, during the non-growing season in 2006-2007 following corn harvest, a second micrometeorological flux system capable of simultaneously measuring stable C isotopologue (12CO2 and 13CO 2) fluxes was operated at the site. Tillage intensity and crop management practices were examined for their influence on GHG emissions. Significant inter-annual variability in CO2 and (N2O fluxes as a function of crop and related management activities was observed. Tillage intensity did not affect GHG emissions from the site. After accounting for harvest removals, the net ecosystem C budgets were 510 (source), 3140 (source) and -480 (sink) kg C/ha/year for the three respective crop years, summing to a three-year loss of 3170 kg C/ha. Stable C isotope flux measurements during the non-growing season following corn harvest indicated that approximately 70 % and 20 -- 30 % of the total respiration flux originated from crop residue C during the fall of 2006 and spring of 2007, respectively. The (N2O emissions at the site further exacerbated the net global warming potential of this annual agroecosystem.

  1. Effect of soil acidity factors on yields and foliar composition of tropical root crops

    SciTech Connect

    Abruna-Rodriguez, F.; Vicente-Chandler, J.I. Rivera, E.; Rodriguez, J.

    1982-09-01

    Tropical root crops, a major source of food for subsistence farmers, varied in their sensitivity to soil acidity factors. Tolerance to soil acidity is an important characteristic of crops for the humid tropics where soils are often very acid and lime-scarce and expensive. Experiments on two Ultisols and an Oxisol showed that three tropical root crops differed markedly in sensitivity to soil acicity factors. Yams (Dioscorea alata L.) were very sensitive to soil acidity with yields on a Ultisol decreasing from 70% of maximum when Al saturation of the effective cation exchange capacity of the soil was 10 to 25% of maximum when Al saturation was 40%. On the other hand, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was very tolerant to high levels of soil acidity, yielding about 85% of maximum with 60% Al saturation. Taniers (Xanthosoma sp.) were intermediate between yams and cassava in their tolerance to soil acidity yielding about 60% of maximum with 50% Al saturation of the soil. Foliar composition of cassava was not affected by soil acidity levels and that of yams and taniers was also unaffected except for Ca content which decreased with decreasing soil pH and increasing Al saturation.Response of these tropical root crops to soil acidity components was far more striking on Ultisols than on the Oxisol. For yams, soils should be limed to about pH 5.5 with essentially no exhangeable Al/sup 3 +/ present whereas high yields of taniers can be obtained at about pH 4.8 with 20% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/ and of cassava at pH as low as 4.5 with 60% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/.

  2. Sowing method and crop residue effects on overseeded annual ryegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overseeding of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) can provide valuable cool-season forage in the southern Great Plains. However, time and equipment constraints for ground preparation and sowing may limit the capacity of small and resource-limited livestock producers to take advantage of the p...

  3. CROP ROTATION, SOIL WATER CONTENT AND WHEAT YIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced and no-till dryland cropping systems in the central Great Plains have led to increased precipitation storage efficiency and more frequent cropping than the traditional wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow (W-F) system. Many producers express concern regarding the effect that more frequent cro...

  4. [Effects of straw returning on the integrated soil fertility and crop yield in southern China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Dong, Yan; Xu, Ming-Gang; Bao, Yao-Xian

    2012-11-01

    Based on the data from 94 experiments of straw returning in Anhui, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Guangxi, Sichuan, and Chongqing, and by using mathematic modeling approach, this paper evaluated the effects of straw returning on the soil fertility and crop yield in southern China. Obvious regional differences were observed in the soil fertility index (SFI) and crop yield response. In study area, the croplands with the SFI of Grade III and Grade IV were predominant, occupying 69.1% and 21.3% of the total, respectively. Averagely, straw returning increased the SFI and crop yield by 6.8% and 4.4%, respectively, as compared with the control (no straw returning). The SFI was significantly linearly correlated with rice yield, and could well reflect the integrated soil fertility in study area. At present, straw returning with decomposing agent added is one of the most important measures to improve the integrated soil fertility in southern China, which should be widely popularized. PMID:23431788

  5. Eight Years of annual No-Till Cropping in Washington's Winter Wheat - Summer Fallow Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blowing dust from excessively tilled soil is a major environmental concern in the 1.5 million ha winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow (WW-SF) region of the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA, where only one crop is produced every other year. An 8-year experiment was conducted to evaluate ...

  6. Denitrification in cropping systems at sub-zero soil temperatures. A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca L. Phillips

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) in agricultural fertilizers is denitrified by soil bacteria when oxygen is limited, which effectively removes\\u000a plant-available N from the soil to the atmosphere. Reported denitrification rates range from 0 to 239 kg N ha?1 yr?1, and, depending upon environmental conditions and management, may reduce the amount of N available for crop growth by 27%.\\u000a Denitrification in soils also

  7. Litter quality effects on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in temperate alley cropping systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy W. Mungai; Peter P. Motavalli

    2006-01-01

    Microcosm and litterbag experiments were conducted to determine the effects of litter quality, soil properties and microclimate differences on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization in alley cropping systems. Bulk soils were collected from 0 to 20cm depth at three sites: a 21-year old pecan (Carya illinoinensis)\\/bluegrass (Poa trivialis) intercrop (Pecan site) in north-central Missouri, a 12-year old silver

  8. Effects of organic fertilizers on aldicarb soil biodegradation in sugar beet crops.

    PubMed

    Rouchaud, J; Gustin, F; Roisin, C; Grevy, L; Raimond, Y

    1993-01-01

    In the present work, the influences of several organic fertilizer treatment regimens were compared as to their slowing down effect on aldicarb soil metabolism in a sugar beet crop. The organic fertilizers treatment schemes had been repeatedly applied in the past 30 years, according to a 3-year rotation cycle. The following organic fertilizers treatment regimens--which are the main ones used in the agronomy practice--were compared: Treatment 1: no organic fertilizer at all; treatment 2: 40 tons cow manure ha-1; treatment 3: 40 tons pig slurry ha-1 + green manure + crop wastes; treatment 4: green manure + crop wastes; treatment 5: straw cereal wastes alone. A sugar beet crop was sown in April 1991, 1 kg aldicarb ha-1 being applied in granulates in the sowing furrow. During the 2.9 first crop months, the soil half-lives of the sum of the insecticide S(-)+SO(-)+SO2-aldicarb in the sowing line in the 0-25 cm surface soil layer were 21.6, 44.4, 39.6, 35.7, and 30.3 days in the treatments 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 treated plots, respectively. The organic fertilizers soil treatments thus increased the persistence of the total insecticide compounds soil concentrations, and probably also the insecticide protection efficiencies. Comparison of the results obtained here with the ones previously obtained with other crop trials, herbicides and soil insecticides, suggests that the soil organic matter is the most efficient to slow down the insecticides soil biodegradation, compared to the old humus originating from the organic fertilizers treatments made more than one year ago.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8466293

  9. Effect of Tillage Practices on Soil Properties and Crop Productivity in Wheat-Mungbean-Rice Cropping System under Subtropical Climatic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Monirul; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to know cropping cycles required to improve OM status in soil and to investigate the effects of medium-term tillage practices on soil properties and crop yields in Grey Terrace soil of Bangladesh under wheat-mungbean-T. aman cropping system. Four different tillage practices, namely, zero tillage (ZT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT), and deep tillage (DT), were studied in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replications. Tillage practices showed positive effects on soil properties and crop yields. After four cropping cycles, the highest OM accumulation, the maximum root mass density (0–15?cm soil depth), and the improved physical and chemical properties were recorded in the conservational tillage practices. Bulk and particle densities were decreased due to tillage practices, having the highest reduction of these properties and the highest increase of porosity and field capacity in zero tillage. The highest total N, P, K, and S in their available forms were recorded in zero tillage. All tillage practices showed similar yield after four years of cropping cycles. Therefore, we conclude that zero tillage with 20% residue retention was found to be suitable for soil health and achieving optimum yield under the cropping system in Grey Terrace soil (Aeric Albaquept). PMID:25197702

  10. Crop response to localized organic amendment in soils with limiting physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Joan; Pascual, Miquel; Fonseca, Francisco; Villar, Josep Maria; Montilla, Victor; Papió, Josep; Rufat, Josep

    2013-04-01

    This 2-year study evaluated the use of rice husk as a localized organic amendment in a soil with limiting physical properties. The research was conducted in a commercial peach orchard planted in 2011 using a ridge planting system. Six soil and water management treatments were evaluated in 18 experimental units, which were set up in the field using a randomized complete block design. The treatments were compared both in terms of soil physical properties and crop response. Soil amendment with rice husk was the most effective technique. It improved soil conditions (soil infiltration and soil porosity), providing a better soil environment for root activity and thereby resulted in better crop performance. Concerning growth parameters, the amended treatment presented the highest overall values without negatively affecting crop water status. These techniques were suitable for mitigating the effects of soils with limiting physical conditions. Localized applications of amendments, as proposed in this work, imply an important reduction in application rates. It is important to consider an efficient use of by-products since there is a growing interest in industrial and agronomical exploitations.

  11. Mapping crop evapotranspiration by integrating vegetation indices into a soil water balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consoli, Simona; Vanella, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    The approach combines the basal crop coefficient (Kcb) derived from vegetation indices (VIs) with the daily soil water balance, as proposed in the FAO-56 paper, to estimate daily crop evapotranspiration (ETc) rates of orange trees. The reliability of the approach to detect water stress was also assessed. VIs were simultaneously retrieved from WorldView-2 imagery and hyper-spectral data collected in the field for comparison. ETc estimated were analysed at the light of independent measurements of the same fluxes by an eddy covariance (EC) system located in the study area. The soil water depletion in the root zone of the crop simulated by the model was also validated by using an in situ soil water monitoring. Average overestimate of daily ETc of 6% was obtained from the proposed approach with respect to EC measurements, evidencing a quite satisfactory agreement between data. The model also detected several periods of light stress for the crop under study, corresponding to an increase of the root zone water deficit matching quite well the in situ soil water monitoring. The overall outcomes of this study showed that the FAO-56 approach with remote sensing-derived basal crop coefficient can have the potential to be applied for estimating crop water requirements and enhancing water management strategies in agricultural contexts.

  12. Contrasting effects of silicates on cadmium uptake by three dicotyledonous crops grown in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huan-Ping; Zhuang, Ping; Li, Zhi-an; Tai, Yi-ping; Zou, Bi; Li, Ying-wen; McBride, Murray B

    2014-01-01

    The effects of several silicates (talcum powder (TP), calcium silicate (CS), sodium silicate (SS), and potassium silicate (PS)), in comparison with other amendments (quicklime (QL) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (PDP)) on cadmium (Cd) uptake by three dicotyledonous crops (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Cv. 'K112', Amaranthus tricolor L., and Brassica oleracea var. albiflora Kuntze) were investigated in Cd-contaminated soil. The effects of both application methods of amendments (singly and combined) and timing of application were also evaluated. Sodium silicate was the most effective in reducing crop Cd uptake and translocation, which was diminished by 51% in roots, 53% in stems, and 72% in leaves on average. Application of CS amendment showed greater efficiency than PDP amendment in decreasing Cd uptake by crops and resulted in increased biomass. Potassium silicate only slightly decreased shoot Cd concentration. Combination of PDP and SS was able to overcome the inhibitory effect of SS on crop yield while decreasing Cd concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of the tested crops by average rates of 52, 65, and 68% respectively. Applications of SS and PS significantly reduced the root-to-shoot Cd transfer factor. We found that Si accumulation in crops was not associated with lower Cd concentration, indicating that Si in crops may play a major role in alleviating metal stress rather than inhibiting crop Cd accumulation. We suggested that the inhibitive effect of silicates on crops Cd uptake was majorly attributed to the properties of the silicates, those were their specific effects on soil pH and cations, which increased Cd adsorption by soil and suppressed Cd uptake from soil solution by increasing the relative dissolved concentrations of competing cations. PMID:24801288

  13. Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

  14. The effect of native and introduced biofuel crops on the composition of soil biota communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hed?nec, Petr; Ustak, Sergej; Novotný, David; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Biofuel crops are an accepted alternative to fossil fuels, but little is known about the ecological impact of their production. The aim of this contribution is to study the effect of native (Salix viminalis and Phalaris arundinacea) and introduced (Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria sachalinensis and Silphium perfoliatum) biofuel crop plantations on the soil biota in comparison with cultural meadow vegetation used as control. The study was performed as part of a split plot field experiment of the Crop Research Institute in the city of Chomutov (Czech Republic). The composition of the soil meso- and macrofauna community, composition of the cultivable fraction of the soil fungal community, cellulose decomposition (using litter bags), microbial biomass, basal soil respiration and PLFA composition (incl. F/B ratio) were studied in each site. The C:N ratio and content of polyphenols differed among plant species, but these results could not be considered significant between introduced and native plant species. Abundance of the soil meso- and macrofauna was higher in field sites planted with S. viminalis and P. arundinacea than those planted with S. perfoliatum, H. tuberosus and R. sachalinensis. RDA and Monte Carlo Permutation Test showed that the composition of the faunal community differed significantly between various native and introduced plants. Significantly different basal soil respiration was found in sites planted with various energy crops; however, this difference was not significant between native and introduced species. Microbial biomass carbon and cellulose decomposition did not exhibit any statistical differences among the biofuel crops. The largest statistically significant difference we found was in the content of actinobacterial and bacterial (bacteria, G+ bacteria and G- bacteria) PLFA in sites overgrown by P. arundinacea compared to introduced as well as native biofuel crops. In conclusion, certain parameters significantly differ between various native and introduced species of biofuel crops; however, the functional importance of these differences requires further research.

  15. Calibration approaches of cosmic-ray neutron sensing for soil moisture measurement in cropped fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Villarreyes, C. A.; Baroni, G.; Oswald, S. E.

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of soil moisture at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose-zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. This study evaluates the applicability of the cosmic-ray neutron sensing for soil moisture in cropped fields. Measurements of cosmic-ray neutrons (fast neutrons) were performed at a lowland farmland in Bornim (Brandenburg, Germany) cropped with sunflower and winter rye. Three field calibration approaches and four different ways of integration the soil moisture profile to an integral value for cosmic-ray neutron sensing were evaluated in this study. The cosmic-ray sensing (CRS) probe was calibrated against a network of classical point-scale soil moisture measurements. A large CRS parameter variability was observed by choosing calibration periods within the different growing stages of sunflower and winter rye. Therefore, it was not possible to identify a single set of parameters perfectly estimating soil moisture for both sunflower and winter rye periods. On the other hand, CRS signal and its parameter variability could be understood by some crop characteristics and by predicting the attenuated neutrons by crop presence. This study proves the potentiality of the cosmic-ray neutron sensing at the field scale; however, its calibration needs to be adapted for seasonal vegetation in cropped fields.

  16. The Importance of Soil Protein Fate to PIP Crop Registration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant Incorporated Protectant (PIP) crops are registered under the authority of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and as part of this registration certain environmental fate information is required to properly judge the environmental compatibility of n...

  17. Soil health benefits using cover crops across the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils in the southeastern U.S. are very low in organic matter, which can be attributed to high temperatures, humidity, and rainfall that oxidizes organic residues very quickly. Conventional tillage exacerbates this condition and generally contributes to poor soil health. As a result, soils in the r...

  18. CROP MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON WATER INFILTRATION FOR CLAYPAN SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant water and nutrient use for claypan soils are restricted by an argillic horizon (clay content > 500 g/kg) that typically occurs 20 to 40 cm below the soil surface. Identifying water infiltration characteristics for claypan soils under different management provides crucial information needed to ...

  19. Effect of long-term phosphorus fertilization on soil Se and transfer of soil Se to crops in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Altansuvd, Javkhlantuya; Nakamaru, Yasuo M; Kasajima, Shinya; Ito, Hirotake; Yoshida, Hozumi

    2014-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) fertilizer can potentially serve as a source for Se accumulation in croplands. Furthermore, it has been reported that the addition of P fertilizer to soil may enhance Se availability. Japanese agricultural soils are typically enriched in P as a result of long-term, excessive P fertilization. Therefore, we conducted a three-year field experiment in order to evaluate the effect of P fertilization on the Se content of soils and crops. Potato, wheat and barley were cultivated with and without P fertilization at two field sites in Hokkaido (northern Japan) with different levels of historical P accumulation. The first field site consisted of an Andosol soil with low available P and the second site, a Cambisol soil with high available P. The three years of continuous P fertilization over the course of the experiment did not result in a significant increase in the Se content of soils or plants. The Se content of soils and plants, however, was higher in soil samples from the Cambisol field site than from the Andosol field site, and total soil Se was significantly correlated with available soil P. Soluble soil Se and the soil-plant transfer factor for Se were not affected by P fertilization. Thus, we concluded that the higher plant Se content at the Cambisol field site was primarily due to the higher levels of accumulated Se in the soil at the site and that historical excess P fertilization typical of agricultural soils in Japan contributes to increased Se uptake by crops. PMID:24875865

  20. Crop residues as soil amendments and feedstock for bioethanol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lal

    2008-01-01

    Traditional solid fuels account for more than 90% of the energy supply for 3 billion people in developing countries. However, liquid biofuels (e.g., ethanol) are perceived as an important alternative to fossil fuel. Global crop residue production is estimated at about 4billionMg for all crops and 3billionMg per annum for lignocellulosic residues of cereals. One Mg of corn stover can

  1. Strip-tilled Cover Cropping for Managing Nematodes, Soil Mesoarthropods, and Weeds in a Bitter Melon Agroecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Koon-Hui; Sipes, Brent S.; Hooks, Cerruti R.R.

    2010-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to examine whether strip-tilled cover cropping followed by living mulch practice could suppress root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and enhance beneficial nematodes and other soil mesofauna, while suppressing weeds throughout two vegetable cropping seasons. Sunn hemp (SH), Crotalaria juncea, and French marigold (MG), Tagetes patula, were grown for three months, strip-tilled, and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seedlings were transplanted into the tilled strips; the experiment was conducted twice (Season I and II). Strip-tilled cover cropping with SH prolonged M. incognita suppression in Season I but not in Season II where suppression was counteracted with enhanced crop growth. Sunn hemp also consistently enhanced bacterivorous and fungivorous nematode population densities prior to cash crop planting, prolonged enhancement of the Enrichment Index towards the end of both cash crop cycles, and increased numbers of soil mesoarthropods. Strip-tilled cover cropping of SH followed by clipping of the living mulch as surface mulch also reduced broadleaf weed populations up to 3 to 4 weeks after cash crop planting. However, SH failed to reduce soil disturbance as indicated by the Structure Index. Marigold suppressed M. incognita efficiently when planted immediately following a M. incognita-susceptible crop, but did not enhance beneficial soil mesofauna including free-living nematodes and soil mesoarthropods. Strip-tilled cover cropping of MG reduced broadleaf weed populations prior to cash crop planting in Season II, but this weed suppression did not last beyond the initial cash crop cycle. PMID:22736847

  2. Strip-tilled cover cropping for managing nematodes, soil mesoarthropods, and weeds in a bitter melon agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Marahatta, Sharadchandra P; Wang, Koon-Hui; Sipes, Brent S; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2010-06-01

    A field trial was conducted to examine whether strip-tilled cover cropping followed by living mulch practice could suppress root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and enhance beneficial nematodes and other soil mesofauna, while suppressing weeds throughout two vegetable cropping seasons. Sunn hemp (SH), Crotalaria juncea, and French marigold (MG), Tagetes patula, were grown for three months, strip-tilled, and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seedlings were transplanted into the tilled strips; the experiment was conducted twice (Season I and II). Strip-tilled cover cropping with SH prolonged M. incognita suppression in Season I but not in Season II where suppression was counteracted with enhanced crop growth. Sunn hemp also consistently enhanced bacterivorous and fungivorous nematode population densities prior to cash crop planting, prolonged enhancement of the Enrichment Index towards the end of both cash crop cycles, and increased numbers of soil mesoarthropods. Strip-tilled cover cropping of SH followed by clipping of the living mulch as surface mulch also reduced broadleaf weed populations up to 3 to 4 weeks after cash crop planting. However, SH failed to reduce soil disturbance as indicated by the Structure Index. Marigold suppressed M. incognita efficiently when planted immediately following a M. incognita-susceptible crop, but did not enhance beneficial soil mesofauna including free-living nematodes and soil mesoarthropods. Strip-tilled cover cropping of MG reduced broadleaf weed populations prior to cash crop planting in Season II, but this weed suppression did not last beyond the initial cash crop cycle. PMID:22736847

  3. Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, A.; Gristina, L.; Guaitoli, F.; Santoro, A.; Cerdà, A.

    2013-04-01

    When soil nitrate levels are inadequate, plants suffer nitrogen deficiency but when the levels are excessive, nitrates (NO3-N) can pollute surface and subsurface waters. Strategies to reduce the nitrate pollution are necessary to reach a sustainable use of resources such as soil, water and plant. Buffer strips and cover crops can contribute to the management of soil nitrates, but little is known of their effectiveness in semiarid vineyards plantations. The experimental site, a 10 m wide and 80 m long area at the bottom of a vineyard was selected in Sicily. The soil between vine rows and upslope of the buffer strip (seeded with Lolium perenne) and non-buffer strips (control) was managed conventionally and with one of two cover crops (Triticum durum and Vicia sativa cover crop). Soil nitrate was measured monthly and nitrate movement was monitored by application of a 15N tracer to a narrow strip between the bottom of vineyard and the buffer and non-buffer strips. L. perenne biomass yield in the buffer strips and its isotopic nitrogen content were monitored. V. sativa cover crop management contribute with an excess of nitrogen, and the soil management determined the nitrogen content at the buffer areas. A 6 m buffer strip reduce the nitrate by 42% with and by 46% with a 9 m buffer strip.

  4. Assessment of soil biological quality index (QBS-ar) in different crop rotation systems in paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Bini, Claudio; haefele, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    New methods, based on soil microarthropods for soil quality evaluation have been proposed by some Authors. Soil microarthropods demonstrated to respond sensitively to land management practices and to be correlated with beneficial soil functions. QBS Index (QBS-ar) is calculated on the basis of microarthropod groups present in a soil sample. Each biological form found in the sample receives a score from 1 to 20 (eco-morphological index, EMI), according to its adaptation to soil environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various rotation systems and sampling periods on soil biological quality index, in paddy soils. For the purpose of this study surface soil samples (0-15 cm depth) were collected from different rotation systems (rice-rice-rice, soya-rice-rice, fallow-rice and pea-soya-rice) with three replications, and four sampling times in April (after field preparation), June (after seedling), August (after tillering stage) and October (after rice harvesting). The study area is located in paddy soils of Verona area, Northern Italy. Soil microarthropods from a total of 48 samples were extracted and classified according to the Biological Quality of Soil Index (QBS-ar) method. In addition soil moisture, Cumulative Soil Respiration and pH were measured in each site. More diversity of microarthropod groups was found in June and August sampling times. T-test results between different rotations did not show significant differences while the mean difference between rotation and different sampling times is statistically different. The highest QBS-ar value was found in the fallow-rice rotation in the forth soil sampling time. Similar value was found in soya-rice-rice rotation. Result of linear regression analysis indicated that there is significant correlation between QBS-ar values and Cumulative Soil Respiration. Keywords: soil biological quality index (QBS-ar), Crop Rotation System, paddy soils, Italy

  5. Spatial variation in carbon and nitrogen in cultivated soils in Henan Province, China: potential effect on crop yield.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuelin; Wang, Qun; Gilliam, Frank S; Wang, Yilun; Cha, Feina; Li, Chaohai

    2014-01-01

    Improved management of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in agro-ecosystems represents an important strategy for ensuring food security and sustainable agricultural development in China. Accurate estimates of the distribution of soil C and N stores and their relationship to crop yield are crucial to developing appropriate cropland management policies. The current study examined the spatial variation of soil organic C (SOC), total soil N (TSN), and associated variables in the surface layer (0-40 cm) of soils from intensive agricultural systems in 19 counties within Henan Province, China, and compared these patterns with crop yield. Mean soil C and N concentrations were 14.9 g kg(-1) and 1.37 g kg(-1), respectively, whereas soil C and N stores were 4.1 kg m(-2) and 0.4 kg m(-2), respectively. Total crop production of each county was significantly, positively related to SOC, TSN, soil C and N store, and soil C and N stock. Soil C and N were positively correlated with soil bulk density but negatively correlated with soil porosity. These results indicate that variations in soil C could regulate crop yield in intensive agricultural systems, and that spatial patterns of C and N levels in soils may be regulated by both climatic factors and agro-ecosystem management. When developing suitable management programs, the importance of soil C and N stores and their effects on crop yield should be considered. PMID:25289703

  6. N-catch crops affect soil profile nitrate-N accumulation during vegetable cultivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanzhi Ji; Xiaotang Ju; Wanzhong Feng; Lijuan Zhang; Shuqing Liu

    2011-01-01

    To reduce nitrate leaching, the effects of three N-catch crops of sweet corn (Zea mays L.), amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), and sweet sorghum (Sorghum Linn.) on nitrate-N accumulation in the soil profile were examined using an incubation experiment. Results showed that the\\u000a biomass and N absorbed by sweet corn were the largest compared with the other two N-catch crop treatments. Root

  7. The Mathematical Model as an Aid to Developing Concepts concerning the Soil-Atmosphere-Crop Relation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sydney P. S. Andrew

    1990-01-01

    The relation between light absorption rate and crop growth rate may be deduced from the kinetics of net photosynthesis showing that for a crop, such as winter wheat, growing from winter to summer this relation must be S-shaped. Altering the soil-solution nutrient level changes, in an opposite sense, the root:shoot ratio, thereby changing light interception. Destruction of live roots by

  8. Effect of cropping systems on adsorption of metals by soils: I. Single-metal adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.T.; Tabatabai, M.A. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The effect of long-term cropping systems on adsorption of metals was studied for soils obtained from two sites, Clarion-Webster Research Center (CWRC site) at Kanawha and Galva-Primghar Research Center (GPRC site) at Sutherland, under long-term rotation experiments in Iowa. Each experiment consisted of three cropping systems: continuous corn (CCCC), corn-soybean-corn-soybean (CSCS), and corn-oats-meadow-meadow (COMM), and treated with (+N) and without (0 N) ammoniacal fertilizer. In general, CSCS and COMM cropping systems did not significantly affect the metal adsorption maxima of soils obtained from both sites. Cadmium, Cu, and Pb adsorption were significantly correlated with pH and percentage base saturation for soils from both sites.

  9. Management of Lignite Fly Ash for Improving Soil Fertility and Crop Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Lal C.; Srivastava, Nishant K.; Jha, Sangeet K.; Sinha, Awadhesh K.; Masto, Reginald E.; Selvi, Vetrivel A.

    2007-09-01

    Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and biofertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. The highest yield LFA dose was 200 t/ha for one-time and repeat applications, the maximum yield being with crop III (combination treatment). One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy-metal contents and in the level of ?-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner.

  10. Role of Soil, Crop Debris, and a Plant Pathogen in Salmonella enterica Contamination of Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Jeri D.; Liang, Anita S.

    2008-01-01

    Background In the U.S., tomatoes have become the most implicated vehicle for produce-associated Salmonellosis with 12 outbreaks since 1998. Although unconfirmed, trace backs suggest pre-harvest contamination with Salmonella enterica. Routes of tomato crop contamination by S. enterica in the absence of direct artificial inoculation have not been investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings This work examined the role of contaminated soil, the potential for crop debris to act as inoculum from one crop to the next, and any interaction between the seedbourne plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and S. enterica on tomato plants. Our results show S. enterica can survive for up to six weeks in fallow soil with the ability to contaminate tomato plants. We found S. enterica can contaminate a subsequent crop via crop debris; however a fallow period between crop incorporation and subsequent seeding can affect contamination patterns. Throughout these studies, populations of S. enterica declined over time and there was no bacterial growth in either the phyllosphere or rhizoplane. The presence of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria on co-colonized tomato plants had no effect on the incidence of S. enterica tomato phyllosphere contamination. However, growth of S. enterica in the tomato phyllosphere occurred on co-colonized plants in the absence of plant disease. Conclusions/Significance S. enterica contaminated soil can lead to contamination of the tomato phyllosphere. A six week lag period between soil contamination and tomato seeding did not deter subsequent crop contamination. In the absence of plant disease, presence of the bacterial plant pathogen, X. campestris pv. vesicatoria was beneficial to S. enterica allowing multiplication of the human pathogen population. Any event leading to soil contamination with S. enterica could pose a public health risk with subsequent tomato production, especially in areas prone to bacterial spot disease. PMID:18301739

  11. Management of lignite fly ash for improving soil fertility and crop productivity.

    PubMed

    Ram, Lal C; Srivastava, Nishant K; Jha, Sangeet K; Sinha, Awadhesh K; Masto, Reginald E; Selvi, Vetrivel A

    2007-09-01

    Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and biofertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. The highest yield LFA dose was 200 t/ha for one-time and repeat applications, the maximum yield being with crop III (combination treatment). One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy-metal contents and in the level of gamma-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner. PMID:17705037

  12. Soil coverage evolution and wind erosion risk on summer crops under contrasting tillage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Mariano J.; Buschiazzo, Daniel E.

    2015-03-01

    The effectiveness of wind erosion control by soil surface conditions and crop and weed canopy has been well studied in wind tunnel experiments. The aim of this study is to assess the combined effects of these variables under field conditions. Soil surface conditions, crop and weed coverage, plant residue, and non-erodible aggregates (NEA) were measured in the field between the fallow start and the growth period of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and corn (Zea mays). Both crops were planted on a sandy-loam Entic Haplustoll with conventional-(CT), vertical-(VT) and no-till (NT) tillage systems. Wind erosion was estimated by means of the spreadsheet version the Revised Wind Erosion Equation and the soil coverage was measured each 15 days. Results indicated that wind erosion was mostly negligible in NT, exceeding the tolerable levels (estimated between 300 and 1400 kg ha-1 year-1 by Verheijen et al. (2009)) only in an year with high climatic erosivity. Wind erosion exceeded the tolerable levels in most cases in CT and VT, reaching values of 17,400 kg ha-1. Wind erosion was 2-10 times higher after planting of both crops than during fallows. During the fallows, the soil was mostly well covered with plant residues and NEA in CT and VT and with residues and weeds in NT. High wind erosion amounts occurring 30 days after planting in all tillage systems were produced by the destruction of coarse aggregates and the burying of plant residues during planting operations and rains. Differences in soil protection after planting were given by residues of previous crops and growing weeds. The growth of weeds 2-4 weeks after crop planting contributed to reduce wind erosion without impacting in crops yields. An accurate weeds management in semiarid lands can contribute significantly to control wind erosion. More field studies are needed in order to develop management strategies to reduce wind erosion.

  13. Effects of Tillage, Rotation and Cover Crop on the Physical Properties of a Silt-Loam Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruna, Samuel Idoko; Nkongolo, Nsalambi Vakanda

    2015-04-01

    Soil and crop management practices can affect the physical properties and have a direct impact on soil sustainability and crop performance. The objective of this study was to investigate how soil physical properties were affected by three years of tillage, cover crop and crop rotation treatments in a corn and soybean field. The study was conducted on a Waldron siltyloam soil at Lincoln University of Missouri. Soil physical properties studied were soil bulk density, volumetric and gravimetric water contents, volumetric air content, total pore space, air-filled and water-filled pore space, gas diffusion coefficient and pore tortuosity factor. Results showed significant interactions (p<0.05) between cover crop and crop rotation for bulk density, gravimetric and total pore space in 2013. In addition, cover crop also significantly interacted (p<0.05) with tillage for bulk density and total pore space. All soil physical properties studied were significantly affected by the depth of sampling (p<0.0001), except for bulk density, the pore tortuosity factor and total pore space in 2012, and gravimetric and volumetric in 2013. Overall, soil physical properties were significantly affected by the treatments, with the effects changing from one year to another. Addition of a cover crop improved soil physical properties better in rotation than in monoculture.

  14. Soil Modification by Native Shrubs Boosts Crop Productivity in Sudano-Sahelian Agroforestry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogie, N. A.; Bayala, R.; Diedhiou, I.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Dick, R.

    2014-12-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Significant differences in crop success have been observed in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively.We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Soil moisture and water potential data were collected during a dry season millet irrigation experiment where stress was imposed in the intercropped system. Despite lower soil moisture content, crops grown in association with shrubs have increased biomass production and a faster development cycle. Hydraulic redistribution is thought to exist in this system and we found diurnal fluctuations in water potential within the intercropped system that increased in magnitude of to 0.4 Mpa per day as the soil dried below 1.0 Mpa during the stress treatment. An isotopic tracer study investigating hydraulic redistribution was carried out by injecting labeled water into shrub roots and sampling shrubs and nearby crops for isotopic analysis of plant water. These findings build on work that was completed in 2004 at the site, but point to lower overall magnitude of diurnal soil water potential fluctuations in dry soils. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide swaths of the Sahel.

  15. Influence of crop rotation, intermediate crops, and organic fertilizers on the soil enzymatic activity and humus content in organic farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcinkeviciene, A.; Boguzas, V.; Balnyte, S.; Pupaliene, R.; Velicka, R.

    2013-02-01

    The influence of crop rotation systems with different portions of nitrogen-fixing crops, intermediate crops, and organic fertilizers on the enzymatic activity and humus content of soils in organic farming was studied. The highest activity of the urease and invertase enzymes was determined in the soil under the crop rotation with 43% nitrogen-fixing crops and with perennial grasses applied twice per rotation. The application of manure and the growing of intermediate crops for green fertilizers did not provide any significant increase in the content of humus. The activity of urease slightly correlated with the humus content ( r = 0.30 at the significance level of 0.05 and r = 0.39 at the significance level of 0.01).

  16. Crop systems and plant roots can modify the soil water holding capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doussan, Claude; Cousin, Isabelle; Berard, Annette; Chabbi, Abad; Legendre, Laurent; Czarnes, Sonia; Toussaint, Bruce; Ruy, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    At the interface between atmosphere and deep sub-soil, the root zone plays a major role in regulating the flow of water between major compartments: groundwater / surface / atmosphere (drainage, runoff, evapotranspiration). This role of soil as regulator/control of water fluxes, but also as a supporting medium to plant growth, is strongly dependent on the hydric properties of the soil. In turn, the plant roots growing in the soil can change its structure; both in the plow layer and in the deeper horizons and, therefore, could change the soil properties, particularly hydric properties. Such root-related alteration of soil properties can be linked to direct effect of roots such as soil perforation during growth, aggregation of soil particles or indirect effects such as the release of exudates by roots that could modify the properties of water or of soil particles. On an another hand, the rhizosphere, the zone around roots influenced by the activity of root and associated microorganisms, could have a high influence on hydric properties, particularly the water retention. To test if crops and plant roots rhizosphere may have a significant effect on water retention, we conducted various experiment from laboratory to field scales. In the lab, we tested different soil and species for rhizospheric effect on soil water retention. Variation in available water content (AWC) between bulk and rhizospheric soil varied from non-significant to a significant increase (to about 16% increase) depending on plant species and soil type. In the field, the alteration of water retention by root systems was tested in different pedological settings for a Maize crop inoculated or not with the bacteria Azospirillum spp., known to alter root structure, growth and morphology. Again, a range of variation in AWC was evidenced, with significant increase (~30%) in some soil types, but more linked to innoculated/non-innoculated plants rather than to a difference between rhizospheric and bulk soil. Finally, in field condition, on a larger time scale, we investigated the effect of crop alternations on the Lusignan ACBB SOERE site. That site presents on the same soil type different crop alternation treatments: an old, continuous grassland, a 8-year continuous cereal rotation and an alternation of cereal/grassland (3-years cereals and 3 to 6 years grassland). Measurements of AWC in these different crop systems setting, 8 years after implementation of the SOERE, show that AWC was different in the cereal/grassland alternation compared to the continuous cereal or grassland cropping systems (~15-20% increase). If such alteration of AWC may seem modest, modeling (in the case of ACBB SOERE) shows that this increase in AWC would increase the cereal yield but also decrease the water drainage out of the root zone, and the possible associated loss of nitrate and pesticides. As a conclusion, in line with some other literature data, roots can influence soil hydric properties and this opens a way to use plants as "soil engineers" to modulate the properties of the root zone, and thus the components of water balance, to mitigate effects of drought on crops… However, how and how much plants will modify the hydric properties, a question which mixes physics, biology, microbiology, crop system settings, is still in infancy and needs further research.

  17. Effects of topsoil and subsoil thickness on soil water content and crop production on a disturbed soil

    SciTech Connect

    Power, J.F.; Sandoval, F.M.; Ries, R.E.; Merrill, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    Data which can quantify effects of soil depth upon productivity from controlled experiments are essentially lacking for semiarid regions. In connection with mined land-reclamation research in North Dakota, an experiment was established in which soil was reconstructed by building a wedge with productive subsoil (B and upper C horizon) on top of leveled sodic mine spoils derived from shale. Thickness of the subsoil wedge ranged from 0 to 210 cm. Topsoil (A horizon) was then spread over the subsoil wedge to provide a topsoil either 0, 20, or 60 cm thick. A fourth treatment consisted of mixing subsoil and topsoil within the wedge in a 3:1 ratio (no topsoil on the surface). Four crops - alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum), native warm-season grasses (Bouteloua gracilis and Bouteloua curtipendula), and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) - were grown each year on these plots from 1975 through 1979. Yields of all crops increased as total soil thickness (topsoil plus subsoil) increased to the 90- to 150-cm range. Highest yields equaled or exceeded yields that would be expected in these years on similar undisturbed soil types under good management in the same county. Water was extracted from the upper 30 to 90 cm of spoils when the soil-spoil interface was within 90 cm of the soil surface. Thickness of topsoil had no influence on depth of water extraction. There was no evidence of any accumulation of soil water just above the soil-spoil interface under any situation.

  18. Effects of Crops on Solute Transport in Undisturbed Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garre, S.; Vanderborght, J.; Javaux, M.; Vereecken, H.

    2009-12-01

    Although numerous studies investigated soil water uptake by roots, controversy still remains about the main factor controlling the uptake, especially under non-uniform soil moisture distribution or intermediately wet soil. Root activity or root compensation factors are fitting parameters, which are used to adjust 1-D models to observations. However such parameters do not rely on real observations and they can probably hardly be extrapolated to other boundary conditions. Experiments incorporating more information on the root architecture and on the 3-D soil moisture distributions are therefore needed to better circumvent the interactions between plants, soil structure and boundary conditions and understand how plant root water uptake affects the flow field variability and vice-versa. We investigated the role of summer barley root water uptake on soil moisture in an unsaturated, undisturbed soil column (orthic Luvisol) subject to known boundary conditions. During 11 weeks, soil moisture was monitored in the lysimeter. This was done non-invasively using time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Additionally, time domain reflectometry probes (TDR), tensiometers and temperature probes were installed at several depths to monitor local soil water content and electrical conductivity. Minirhizotron tubes were inserted in the lysimeters to monitor root growth and root length density (RLD) in the different soil layers. The three dimensional ERT images allowed us to characterize the root space and time water depletion distribution during the growing season. Combined with the root monitoring method, it gave us a better insight in the way plants take up water in the soil and how they adapt there root system to changing soil moisture conditions.

  19. A comparison of measured and simulated soil water depletion in the crop root zone 

    E-print Network

    Lascano A., Roberto

    1977-01-01

    is in the inclusion, and if so, of a measured or predicted value of crop resistance, which will control transpiration in the calculations. This crop resistance can be related to th epidermal resistance, which varies with opening and closing of stomata. in turn... that the soil re- sistance controlled transpiration and that plant resistance was negligible when compared to the soil resi stance. Newman (1969) made a critical review of the theoretical and ex- perimental evidence of the work of Gardner (1960) and Cowan...

  20. Optimizing root system architecture in biofuel crops for sustainable energy production and soil carbon sequestration

    PubMed Central

    To, Jennifer PC; Zhu, Jinming; Benfey, Philip N

    2010-01-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) describes the dynamic spatial configuration of different types and ages of roots in a plant, which allows adaptation to different environments. Modifications in RSA enhance agronomic traits in crops and have been implicated in soil organic carbon content. Together, these fundamental properties of RSA contribute to the net carbon balance and overall sustainability of biofuels. In this article, we will review recent data supporting carbon sequestration by biofuel crops, highlight current progress in studying RSA, and discuss future opportunities for optimizing RSA for biofuel production and soil carbon sequestration. PMID:21173868

  1. Plant/soil concentration ratios for paired field and garden crops, with emphasis on iodine and the role of soil adhesion.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-12-01

    In the effort to predict the risks associated with contaminated soils, considerable reliance is placed on plant/soil concentration ratio (CR) values measured at sites other than the contaminated site. This inevitably results in the need to extrapolate among the many soil and plant types. There are few studies that compare CR among plant types that encompass both field and garden crops. Here, CRs for 40 elements were measured for 25 crops from farm and garden sites chosen so the grain crops were in close proximity to the gardens. Special emphasis was placed on iodine (I) because data for this element are sparse. For many elements, there were consistent trends among CRs for the various crop types, with leafy crops > root crops ? fruit crops ? seed crops. Exceptions included CR values for As, K, Se and Zn which were highest in the seed crops. The correlation of CRs from one plant type to another was evident only when there was a wide range in soil concentrations. In comparing CRs between crop types, it became apparent that the relationships differed for the rare earth elements (REE), which also had very low CR values. The CRs for root and leafy crops of REE converged to a minimum value. This was attributed to soil adhesion, despite the samples being washed, and the average soil adhesion for root crops was 500 mg soil kg?¹ dry plant and for leafy crops was 5 g kg?¹. Across elements, the log CR was negatively correlated with log Kd (the soil solid/liquid partition coefficient), as expected. Although, this correlation is expected, measures of correlation coefficients suitable for stochastic risk assessment are not frequently reported. The results suggest that r ? -0.7 would be appropriate for risk assessment. PMID:20817363

  2. Effects of soil compaction caused by tillage and seed covering techniques on soil physical properties and performance of wheat crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Latif; M. A. Khan; T. Ali

    2008-01-01

    To link the damage caused to the soil structure by the movements of machinery and other crop production operations and their effects on plant fate, a 24-plots experiment was established. The impact of two secondary tillage implements (Disc harrow and cultivator) and four seed covering techniques ranging from zero planking to double planking with 152 kg weight were studied on

  3. Chlorpyrifos soil and plant metabolisms in cauliflower crops grown on cow manure and composts soil fertilized fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Rouchaud; Fabrice Gustin; Joel Gillet; Frans Benoit; Norbert Ceustermans; Frans van de Steene; Christian Pelerents

    1991-01-01

    Several cauliflower crops were grown on fields located in different regions. Cauliflower plants were treated against the root fly by applying, some days after planting, chlorpyrifos onto the soil around the stem of the plant. Fields were divided into plots. Either one or 3.5 months before planting, one of the organic fertilizers city refuse compost, or mushroom cultivation compost, or

  4. Effects of Estimating Soil Hydraulic Properties and Root Growth Factor on Soil Water Balance and Crop Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing water use efficiency (WUE) is one of the oldest goals in agricultural sciences, yet it is still not fully understood and achieved due to the complexity of soil-weather-management interactions. System models that quantify these interactions are increasingly used for optimizing crop WUE, es...

  5. Effects of crop residue on soil and plant water evaporation in a dryland cotton system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascano, R. J.; Baumhardt, R. L.

    1996-03-01

    Dryland agricultural cropping systems emphasize sustaining crop yields with limited use of fertilizer while conserving both rain water and the soil. Conservation of these resources may be achieved with management systems that retain residues at the soil surface simultaneously modifying both its energy and water balance. A conservation practice used with cotton grown on erodible soils of the Texas High Plains is to plant cotton into chemically terminated wheat residues. In this study, the partitioning of daily and seasonal evapotranspiration ( E t) into soil and plant water evaporation was compared for a conventional and a terminated-wheat cotton crop using the numerical model ENWATBAL. The model was configured to account for the effects of residue on the radiative fluxes and by introducing an additional resistance to latent and sensible heat fluxes derived from measurements of wind speed and vapor conductance from a soil covered with wheat-stubble. Our results showed that seasonal E t was similar in both systems and that cumulative soil water evaporation was 50% of E t in conventional cotton and 31% of E t in the wheat-stubble cotton. Calculated values of E t were in agreement with measured values. The main benefit of the wheat residues was to suppress soil water evaporation by intercepting irradiance early in the growing season when the crop leaf area index (LAI) was low. In semiarid regions LAI of dryland cotton seldom exceeds 2 and residues can improve water conservation. Measured soil temperatures showed that early in the season residues reduced temperature at 0.1 m depth by as much as 5°C and that differences between systems diminished with depth and over time. Residues increased lint yield per unit of E t while not modifying seasonal E t and reducing cumulative soil water evaporation.

  6. Gap filling strategies and error in estimating annual soil respiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil respiration (Rsoil) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap-filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. While many gap-filling methodologies have been employed, there is ...

  7. Changes in soil quality and below-ground carbon storage with conversion of traditional agricultural crop lands to bioenergy crop production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R Tolbert; D. E Todd; L. K Mann; C. M Jawdy; D. A Mays; R Malik; W Bandaranayake; A Houston; D Tyler; D. E Pettry

    2002-01-01

    Berm-isolated (0.5 ha) plots have been used since 1995 to quantify changes in soil and water quality with conversion from agricultural to bioenergy crops. Soil quality improvements, including increases in soil carbon storage, have occurred on sites planted to woody or herbaceous species, and no-till corn compared with tilled corn or cotton. Initial increases in soil carbon occurred within the

  8. Effects of winter cover crops residue returning on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial community in double-cropping rice fields.

    PubMed

    Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice-rice-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice-rice-rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice-rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The ?-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of ?-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality. PMID:24956152

  9. Effects of Winter Cover Crops Residue Returning on Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Microbial Community in Double-Cropping Rice Fields

    PubMed Central

    Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice–rice–ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice–rice–Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice–rice–rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice–rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The ?-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of ?-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality. PMID:24956152

  10. Purdue extension Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCrop, Soil, and EnvironmEntal SCiEnCES

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Purdue extension RW-2-W Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCrop, Soil, and EnvironmEntal SCiEnCES Soil be functioning properly to effectively remove contaminants from the wastewater and disperse it into the soil. Central to septic system performance is soil hydraulic conductivity, or the rate water flows through

  11. Acid soil limits crop yields on many Virginia farms. With only a few exceptions, the climate in Virginia

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Acid soil limits crop yields on many Virginia farms. With only a few exceptions, the climate in Virginia causes unlimed soils to be moderately to strongly acid- ic. This soil acidity can be directly phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and nitrogen (N). Proper management of soil acidity is the foundation

  12. Effect of soil attributes on root growth and distribution in some common crops: A synthesis of knowledge and future needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of soil’s most important uses is as a medium for crop production. The primary way the soil interacts with the plant is through influences on the root system. The soil serves as an anchor for plant support and as a reservoir for water and plant nutrients. Various factors affect root extension and...

  13. Losses of glomalin-related soil protein under prolonged arable cropping: A chronosequence study in sandy soils of the South African Highveld

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne C. Preger; Matthias C. Rillig; Annika R. Johns; Chris C. Du Preez; Ingo Lobe; Wulf Amelung

    2007-01-01

    Residues of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may be important for agroecosystem functioning due to their ability to promote soil aggregation, especially in coarse textured soils with little biomass input and low capacity to conserve soil organic matter (SOM). Our aim was to assess the fate of AMF residues with prolonged arable cropping in coarse textured soils in a subtropical savannah

  14. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Khan; Q. Cao; Y. M. Zheng; Y. Z. Huang; Y. G. Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of food crops contaminated with heavy metals is a major food chain route for human exposure. We studied the health risks of heavy metals in contaminated food crops irrigated with wastewater. Results indicate that there is a substantial buildup of heavy metals in wastewater-irrigated soils, collected from Beijing, China. Heavy metal concentrations in plants grown in wastewater-irrigated soils were

  15. SURFACE-SOIL RESPONSES TO SILAGE CROPPING INTENSITY ON A TYPIC KANHAPLUDULT IN THE PIEDMONT OF NORTH CAROLINA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although reduced tillage itself is beneficial to soil quality and farm economics, the amount of crop residues returned to the soil will likely alter the success of a particular conservation tillage system within a farm operation. We investigated the impact of three cropping systems (a gradient in s...

  16. Crop and Soil Science. A Curriculum Guide for Idaho Vocational Agriculture Instructors. Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledington, Richard L.

    The 24 units that comprise this crop and soil science curriculum guide are not geared to a particular age level and must be adapted to the students for whom they are used. Units 1 through 6 are general units covering topics common to soil science. Units 7 through 24 are units covering topics common to crop production. Each unit includes objectives…

  17. Eubacterial communities in different soil macroaggregate environments and cropping systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher B. Blackwood; Curtis J. Dell; Alvin J. M. Smucker; Eldor A. Paul

    2006-01-01

    Different positions within soil macroaggregates, and macroaggregates of different sizes, have different chemical and physical properties which could affect microbial growth and interactions among taxa. The hypothesis that these soil aggregate fractions contain different eubacterial communities was tested using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the 16S ribosomal gene. Communities were characterized from two field experiments, located at the

  18. Factors Affecting Soil Microbial Community Structure in Tomato Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. We identified some of the most important factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure in an agroecosystem utilizing tomato plants with the following nine tre...

  19. Global scale DAYCENT model analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation strategies for cropped soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Grosso, Stephen J.; Ojima, Dennis S.; Parton, William J.; Stehfest, Elke; Heistemann, Maik; DeAngelo, Benjamin; Rose, Steven

    2009-05-01

    Conversion of native vegetation to cropland and intensification of agriculture typically result in increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (mainly N 2O and CH 4) and more NO 3 leached below the root zone and into waterways. Agricultural soils are often a source but can also be a sink of CO 2. Regional and larger scale estimates of GHG emissions are usually obtained using IPCC emission factor methodology, which is associated with high uncertainty. To more realistically represent GHG emissions we used the DAYCENT biogeochemical model for non-rice major crop types (corn, wheat, soybean). IPCC methodology estimates N losses from croplands based solely on N inputs. In contrast, DAYCENT accounts for soil class, daily weather, historical vegetation cover, and land management practices such as crop type, fertilizer additions, and cultivation events. Global datasets of weather, soils, native vegetation, and cropping fractions were mapped to a 1.9° × 1.9° resolution. Non-spatial data (e.g., rates and dates of fertilizer applications) were assumed to be identical within crop types across regions. We compared model generated baseline GHG emissions and N losses for irrigated and rainfed cropping with land management alternatives intended to mitigate GHG emissions. Reduced fertilizer resulted in lower N losses, but crop yields were reduced by a similar proportion. Use of nitrification inhibitors and split fertilizer applications both led to increased (~ 6%) crop yields but the inhibitor led to a larger reduction in N losses (~ 10%). No-till cultivation, which led to C storage, combined with nitrification inhibitors, resulted in reduced GHG emissions of ~ 50% and increased crop yields of ~ 7%.

  20. Fourteen Years of Diverse Annual No-Till Cropping in Washington’s Winter Wheat – Summer Fallow Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have completed the 14th year of a cropping systems experiment to evaluate diverse annual (i.e., no summer fallow) cropping systems using no-till as an alternative to tillage-intensive winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow (WW-SF). Soft white and hard white classes of winter and spri...

  1. Legacy Phosphorus Effect and Need to Re-calibrate Soil Test P Methods for Organic Crop Production.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Thanh H.; Schomberg, Harry H.; Cavigelli, Michel A.

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a required nutrient for the normal development and growth of plants and supplemental P is needed in most cultivated soils. Large inputs of cover crop residues and nutrient-rich animal manure are added to supply needed nutrients to promote the optimal production of organic grain crops and forages. The effects of crop rotations and tillage management of the near-surface zone on labile phosphorus (P) forms were studied in soil under conventional and organic crop management systems in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. after 18 years due to the increased interest in these alternative systems. Soil nutrient surpluses likely caused by low grain yields resulted in large pools of exchangeable phosphate-P and equally large pools of enzyme-labile organic P (Po) in soils under organic management. In addition, the difference in the P loading rates between the conventional and organic treatments as guided by routine soil test recommendations suggested that overestimating plant P requirements contributed to soil P surpluses because routine soil testing procedures did not account for the presence and size of the soil enzyme-labile Po pool. The effect of large P additions is long-lasting as they continued to contribute to elevated soil total bioactive P concentrations 12 or more years later. Consequently, accurate estimates of crop P requirements, P turnover in soil, and real-time plant and soil sensing systems are critical considerations to optimally manage manure-derived nutrients in organic crop production.

  2. Original article Evolution of soil carbon with various cropping

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Argentinean pampas, which are extensively cultivated, without the use of fertilisers. The organic carbon crops) and 'old' C (present at the start of the experiments) in the total reserve of organic C caused a large fall in the organic carbon (28 %) during the 13 years of soybean monoculture. The amount

  3. REVIEW ARTICLE Soil metals, chloroplasts, and secure crop production

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with metal stress, either metal deficiency or excess, this unbalance affects the whole plant. Chloroplasts or excess. Indeed, oxidative stress and several ultrastructural alterations, e.g., increase in the number concentrations are used worldwide for crop cultivation. Even though plants are able to develop strategies to cope

  4. Fertilizer Impacts on Cadmium Availability in Agricultural Soils and Crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Grant; S. C. Sheppard

    2008-01-01

    Ingestion in food is a major pathway of cadmium (Cd) exposure for humans. It is therefore desirable to ensure that Cd concentrations in crops that enter the human food chain do not increase to levels that may lead to health risks. Phosphorus fertilizers contain Cd as a contaminant at levels varying from trace amounts to as much as 300 mg

  5. Potential soil quality impact of harvesting crop residues for biofuels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humankind is in the midst of one of the greatest technological, environmental and social transitions since the industrial revolution, as we strive to replace fossil energy with renewable biomass resources. This presentation will (1) briefly review increased public interest in harvesting crop residue...

  6. The impact of long-term nitrogen fertilizer applications on soil organic carbon in a dryland cereal cropping system of the Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S.

    2011-12-01

    Concerns over food security and global climate change require an improved understanding of how to achieve optimal crop yields whilst minimizing net greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. In the semi-arid Loess Plateau region of China, as elsewhere, fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs are necessary to increase yields and improve local food security. In a dryland annual cropping system, we evaluated the effects of N fertilizers on crop yield, its long term impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations and stock sizes, and the distribution of carbon (C) within various aggregate-size fractions. A current version (RothC) of the Rothamsted model for the turnover of organic C in soil was used to simulate SOC measurements. Five N application rates [0 (N0), 45 (N45), 90 (N90), 135 (N135), and 180 (N180) kg N ha-1] were applied to plots for 25 years (1984-2009) on a loam soil (Cumulic Haplustoll) at the Changwu State Key Agro-Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, China. Crop yield varied with year, but increased over time in the fertilized plots. Average annual grain yields were 1.15, 2.46, 3.11, 3.49, and 3.55 Mg ha-1 with the increasing N application rates, respectively. Long-term N fertilizer application significantly (P<0.05) increased SOC concentrations and stocks in the 0-20 cm horizon. Using RothC, the calculated annual inputs of plant C (in roots, stubble, root exudates, etc.) to the soil were 0.61, 0.74, 0.78, 0.86, and 0.97 t C ha-1 year-1 in N0, N45, N90, N135 and N180 treatments, respectively. The modeled turnover time of SOC (excluding inert organic C) in the continuous wheat cropping system was 26 years. The SOC accumulation rate was estimated to be 40.0, 48.0, 68.0, and 100.0 kg C ha-1 year-1 for the N45, N90, N135 and N180 treatments over 25 years, respectively. As aboveground biomass was removed, the increases in SOC stocks with higher N application are attributed to increased inputs of root biomass and root exudates. Increasing N application rates significantly improved C concentrations in the macroaggregate fractions (>1 mm). The increase in SOC with N fertilizer applications contributed to improved soil quality as well as crop productivity.

  7. Accumulation and distribution of selenium in some vegetable crops grown in selenate-Se treated clay loam soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karaj S. Dhillon; Surjit K. Dhillon

    2009-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the accumulation of selenium by some vegetable crops commonly grown in the\\u000a Indian Punjab. Eleven vegetable crops were raised in an alkaline clay loam soil treated with different levels of selenate-Se,\\u000a i.e., 0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg·kg?1 soil. Dry matter yield of both edible and inedible portions of different vegetable crops decreased

  8. Influence of soil organic matter on the productivity of pearl millet?-?Wheat cropping system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AP Gupta; RP Narwal; RS Antil

    2003-01-01

    A long-term field experiment was initiated in November, 1967 at Research Area of Department of Soil Science to study the response of nitrogen to pearl millet-wheat cropping system at various doses and modes of farmyard manure application. The soil organic carbon increased with farmyard manure application and ranged from 0.68% in control to 1.82% in the plot receiving the highest

  9. Soil microbial biomass and activity under a potato crop fertilised with N with and without C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ritz; B. S. Griffiths; R. E. Wheatley

    1992-01-01

    A range of soil microbiological parameters were measured at intervals throughout the growing season of a potato crop. Treatments applied to the soil at sowing were zero N fertilisation of N fertilisation at 120 kg N ha-1, either alone or supplemented with straw or sucrose at 1200 kg C ha-1. C and N flushes determined by fumigation-incubation and fumigation-extraction, and

  10. Soil microbial tests for discriminating between different cropping systems and fertiliser regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Svensson; Mikael Pell

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a set of microbial soil tests for their ability to discriminate between different agricultural\\u000a practices. For this purpose three sites included in the Swedish Long-Term Soil Fertility Experiments were chosen. The fertility\\u000a experiments were designed to compare different cropping systems (simulating farming with and without livestock), PK-fertiliser\\u000a and N-fertiliser regimes. Six different

  11. Root growth dynamics and biomass input by Nordic annual field crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liisa Pietola; Laura Alakukku

    2005-01-01

    Roots are an important sink for photoassimilates and carbon input to soil. Here the root growth and biomass of different spring sown annuals was determined to estimate the shoot:root (S:R) ratios and carbon inputs in the typical Nordic agroecosystem. The data, collected in southern Finland, present evidence for large difference in root growth dynamics and biomass input between spring oilseed

  12. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Drip Tape Use for Annual Crops at the UBC Farm

    E-print Network

    into Drip Tape Use for Annual Crops at the UBC Farm Kevin Copes Douglas Wan APSC 262 March 31, 2011 of a project/report". #12;An Investigation into Drip Tape Use for Annual Crops at the UBC Farm APSC 262 #12;2 ABSTRACT The UBC farm currently uses two types of technology to irrigate their crops

  13. Enzyme dynamics in paddy soils of the rice district (NE Italy) under different cropping patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Kato, Yoichi; Fornasier, Flavio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    The recent widespread interest on soil enzymes is due to the need to develop sensitive indicators of soil quality that reflect the effects of land management on soil and assist land managers in promoting long-term sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems. The activities of six important enzymes involved in C, N, P, and S cycling were investigated in a paddy soil from the Veneto region, Italy, in four different rotation systems (rice-rice-rice: R-R-R; soya-rice-rice: S-R-R; fallow-rice: F-R; pea-soya-rice: P-S-R) with three replications in April (after field preparation, field moist condition), June (after seedling, waterlogged soil condition), August (after tillering stage of rice, waterlogged soil condition) and October (after rice harvesting, drained soil condition) over the 2012 growing season. Our results demonstrated that enzyme activities varied with rotation systems and growth stages in paddy soil. Compared with field moist soil, drained soil condition resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) of ?-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, alkaline and acid phosphatases, leucine aminopeptidase (except of fallow-rice), and chitinase activities in all rotations, while compared with drained soil, early waterlogging (in month of June) significantly decreased (P moist soil> late waterlogged>early waterlogged. There was an inhibitory effect of waterlogging (except P-S-R rotation) for both alkaline and acid phosphatases due to high pH and redox conditions. However, the response of enzymes to waterlogging differed with the chemical species and the cropping pattern. The best rotation system for chitinase, leucine aminopeptidase and ?-glucosidase activity (C and N cycles) proved R-R-R, while for arylsulfatase, alkaline and acid phosphatases (P and S cycles) it was the S-R-R. Key Words: enzyme activity, paddy soil, Crop Rotation System, Italy __ Corresponding Author: Mandana Nadimi-Goki, Tel.: +39 3891356251 E-mail address: mandy.nadimi@gmail.com

  14. How do soil physical conditions for crop growth vary over time under established contrasting tillage regimes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, Paul; Stobart, Ron; Valentine, Tracy; George, Timothy; Morris, Nathan; Newton, Adrian; McKenzie, Blair

    2014-05-01

    When plant breeders develop modern cereal varieties for the sustainable intensification of agriculture, insufficient thought is given to the impact of tillage on soil physical conditions for crop production. In earlier work, we demonstrated that barley varieties that perform best in ploughed soil (the approach traditionally used for breeding trials) were not the same as those performing best under shallow non-inversion or zero-tillage. We also found that the Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with improved phosphorus uptake, and hence useful for marker assisted breeding, were not robust between different tillage regimes. The impact of the soil environment had greater impact than the genetics in GxE interactions. It is obvious that soil tillage should be considered when breeding the next generation of crops. Tillage may also have important impacts on carbon storage, but we found that despite greater soil carbon at shallow depths under non-inversion tillage, the carbon stored throughout the soil profile was not affected by tillage. Studies on soil tillage impacts to crop productivity and soil quality are often performed in one season, on single sites that have had insufficient time to develop. Our current research explores multiple sites, on different soils, with temporal measurements of soil physical conditions under contrasting tillage regimes. We use the oldest established contemporary tillage experiments in the United Kingdom, with all sites sharing ploughed and shallow (7cm) non-inversion tillage treatments. In eastern Scotland (Mid Pilmore), the site also has zero tillage and deep ploughing (40 cm) treatments, and was established 11 years ago. In east England there are two sites, both also having a deep non-inversion tillage treatment, and they were established 6 (New Farm Systems) and 8 (STAR) years ago. We measure a range of crop and soil properties at sowing, one month after sowing and post-harvest, including rapid lab based assays that allow high-throughput. Samples are taken over the rooting zone in the topsoil, plough pan and subsoil. The first year's dataset from this comprehensive project will be presented. Early data identified plough pans under shallow non-inversion tillage that will limit root growth at all sites. Aggregate stabilities vary as expected, with plough soils at shallow depth being less stable than non-inversion tillage, but greater stability in plough soils at greater depth due to incorporated organic matter. Very rapidly following cultivation, the seedbeds coalesce, resulting in a more challenging physical environment for crop growth. We are exploring the mechanisms in soil structure temporal dynamics in greater detail, including the resilience of seedbeds to structural degradation through natural weathering and the action of plants. These profound differences in soil conditions will impact the root ideotype of crops for these different conditions. This has implications for the way in which breeding and genotype selection is performed in the future. Ultimately, we aim to identify crop varieties suited to local soil conditions and management, possibly with root traits that boost yields and soil physical quality.

  15. Diversity of Rhizosphere Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Soybean Cultivars under Different Continuous Cropping Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Weiguang; Liu, Xiaorui; Cai, Baiyan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that continuous cropping in soybean causes substantial changes to the microbial community in rhizosphere soil. In this study, we investigated the effects of continuous cropping for various time periods on the diversity of rhizosphere soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in various soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The soybean cultivars Heinong 37 (an intermediate cultivar), Heinong 44 (a high-fat cultivar) and Heinong 48 (a high-protein cultivar) were seeded in a field and continuously cropped for two or three years. We analyzed the diversity of rhizosphere soil AM fungi of these soybean plants at the branching stage using morphological and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The clustering analysis of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was then used to investigate the AM fungal community shifts. The results showed that increasing the number of years of continuous cropping can improve the colonization rate of AM fungi in different soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The dominant AM fungi in the experimental fields were Funneliformismosseae and Glomus spp. The number of years of continuous cropping and the soybean cultivar both had obvious effects on the diversity of AM fungi, which was consistent with the results of colonization rate analysis. This study establishes a basis for screening dominant AM fungi of soybean. In addition, the results of this study may be useful for the development of AM fungal inoculants. PMID:23977368

  16. Impact of a change in tillage and crop residue management practice on soil chemical and microbiological properties in a cereal-producing red duplex soil in NSW, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Pankhurst; C. A. Kirkby; B. G. Hawke; B. D. Harch

    2002-01-01

    The effect of a change of tillage and crop residue management practice on the chemical and microbiological properties of a cereal-producing red duplex soil was investigated by superimposing each of three management practices (CC: conventional cultivation, stubble burnt, crop conventionally sown; DD: direct-drilling, stubble retained, no cultivation, crop direct-drilled; SI: stubble incorporated with a single cultivation, crop conventionally sown), for

  17. SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY OF AN ERODED SOIL AMENDED WITH CATTLE MANURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco J. Arriaga; Birl Lowery

    2003-01-01

    Erosion changes soil properties, especially physical properties, mainly because it removes surface soil rich in organic materials and exposes lower soil layers. In 1988, a study was established to determine the effects of soil erosion and long-term manure applications on selected soil phys­ ical properties and corn (Zea mays L.) production. After 10 years of an­ nual manure applications, soil

  18. The importance of crop residue on soil aggregation and soil organic matter components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Above- and below-ground plant residues are the soil’s main sources of organic materials that bind soil particles together into aggregates and increase soil carbon storage. Serving to stabilize soil particles, soil organic matter assists in supplying plant available nutrients, increases water holding...

  19. Improving soybean performance in the Northern Great Plains through the use of cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are capable of providing “multiple services” for improving soil quality and enhancing annual crop growth. Maintaining continuous plant cover on agricultural fields with cover crop is of great interest to improve nutrient cycling, prevent soil degradation, and promote further adoption of...

  20. Modeling soil–root water transport and competition for single and mixed crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Lafolie; L. Bruckler; H. Ozier-Lafontaine; R. Tournebize; A. Mollier

    1999-01-01

    A knowledge of above and below ground plant interactions for water is essential to understand the performance of intercropped systems. In this work, root water potential dynamics and water uptake partitioning were compared between single crops and intercrops, using a simulation model. Four root maps having 498, 364, 431 and 431 soil-root contacts were used. In the first and second

  1. DEFINING THE CONTRACT AREA: USING SPATIAL VARIATION IN LAND, CROPPING SYSTEMS AND SOIL ORGANIC CARBON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an emerging protocol for assessment of soil organic carbon over large areas. The initial step requires an inventory of landuse and cropping systems. A map stratifying the landscape into management unites can be developed based on this inventory. Selected management unites within a region ...

  2. Particulate and active soil nitrogen fractions are reduced by sheep grazing in dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing, a cost-effective method of weed control compared to herbicide application and tillage, may influence N cycling by consuming crop residue and weeds and returning N through feces and urine to the soil. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of sheep ...

  3. Effects of Herbicide and Insecticide Interaction on Soil Entomofauna Under Maize Crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jardel Lopes Pereira; Antonio Alberto da Silva; Marcelo Coutinho PicanÇco; Emerson Cristi de Barros; Adriano Jakelaitis

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the herbicide mixture nicosulfuron+atrazine, with or without the insecticide chlorpyrifos, onto soil entomofauna under maize crop. The treatments, applied 25 days after maize emergence, were represented by a weeded control without insecticide and herbicide, a weeded control with chlorpyrifos, and mixtures of nicosulfuron+atrazine, with or without chlorpyrifos. Arthropods populations,

  4. Chapter 28: Chemigation and PAM – delivering chemicals to crops and soils using irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemicals are injected into irrigation systems in order to prevent microbial growth in drip emitters, fertilize crops, reduce pests, apply soil amendments, and for several other reasons. Advantages of chemigation include reduced traffic, reduced dosing of fertilizers and pesticides, reduced operator...

  5. CHANGES IN SOIL AFTER 14 YEARS OF NO-TILL ALTERNATIVE CROP ROTATION RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers in the Central Great Plains have asked ARS to find alternative crop rotation systems to winter wheat summer fallow (WF). The objective of this research is to evaluate alternative rotation systems for production potential and to quantify changes in soil quality measured in these alternative...

  6. DOES SOIL QUALITY SHOW AN ECONOMIC BENEFIT FOR LONG-TERM CROP ROTATION?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several soil quality indicators at three long-term crop rotation sites were measured, used to compute indices, and evaluated against net US Dollar (USD) returns. Without government payments, returns ranged from 41 USD/ha for a corn-oat/alfalfa-alfalfa-alfalfa rotation to -285 USD/ha for continuous c...

  7. Adaptability of cuphea, a new oilseed crop, to climate and soil environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea, a new oilseed crop rich in medium-chain fatty acids (C8:0 to C14:0), may serve as a renewable, biodegradable source of oil for lubricants, motor oil, and aircraft fuel. Impacts of climate and soil environment on cuphea growth and development are not well understood. The objective of this stu...

  8. A New Record of Volutella ciliata Isolated from Crop Field Soil in Korea.

    PubMed

    Babu, Anam Giridhar; Kim, Sang Woo; Yadav, Dil Raj; Adhikari, Mahesh; Kim, Changmu; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Youn Su

    2015-03-01

    During a survey of fungal species in South Korea, a species of Volutella ciliata was isolated and described based on the analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of its rDNA and its morphological characteristics. This is the first record of Volutella ciliata isolated from crop field soil in Korea. PMID:25892918

  9. Water, carbon and nitrogen cycling in a rendzina soil cropped with winter oilseed rape

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Short note Water, carbon and nitrogen cycling in a rendzina soil cropped with winter oilseed rape: the Châlons Oilseed Rape Database Ghislain Gosse Pierre Cellier Pascal Denoroy Benoit Gabriellea Patricia January 1999) Abstract - The Châlons Oilseed Rape Database holds the results of a comprehensive experiment

  10. Impact of Genetically Modified Crops and Their Management on Soil Microbially Mediated Plant Nutrient Transformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Motavalli; R. J. Kremer; M. Fang; N. E. Means

    2004-01-01

    ing that year 46% of the world's total soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) area, 7% of the corn (Zea mays L.) One of the potential environmental effects of the recent rapid area, and 20% of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) increase in the global agricultural area cultivated with transgenic crops is a change in soil microbially mediated processes and functions.

  11. Impact of shifting crop production for biofuel demand on soil and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of shifting cropping systems to dominantly corn for biofuels, in particular ethanol production, could have serious implications on soil and water quality. Proper land management for biofuels production in agriculture is critical to achieve because of maintaining the sustainability of lan...

  12. Feasibility of cuphea as a new oilseed crop to climate and soil environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea, a new oilseed crop rich in medium-chain fatty acids (C8:0 to C14:0), may serve as a renewable, biodegradable source of oil for lubricants, motor oil, and aircraft fuel. Impacts of climate and soil environment on cuphea growth and development are not well understood. The objective of this stu...

  13. Responses of Enzyme Activities in Sandy Soils to Cropping System Changes in a Semiarid Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sandy soils under agricultural production found in the Southern High Plains of the United States are typically low in organic matter (<1%) due to the low organic inputs of intensively-tilled continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) monoculture cropping over the last 50 years. This has resulted in soi...

  14. Effects of Glyphosate-resistant Crop Cultivation on Soil and Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops (GRCs) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the Western Hemisphere and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere. GRCs have generally become dominant in those countries where they can be grown. Potential effects of glyphosate on soil and water are minimal, com...

  15. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nu...

  16. Electrical conductivity monitoring of soil condition and available N with animal manure and a cover crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A Eigenberg; J. W Doran; J. A Nienaber; R. B Ferguson; B. L Woodbury

    2002-01-01

    Development of sustainable agricultural management systems will depend, in part, on the ability to better use renewable resources, such as animal manure, and to synchronize the levels of soil available N with crop plant needs during the growing season. This study was conducted at the US Meat Animal Research Center in the central USA to determine whether differences in electromagnetic

  17. Evaluation of Crop Water Stress Based On Soil Moisture, Evapotranspiration, and Canopy Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prediction of plant water status is a key issue of water management. Water stress on crop may alter energy balance at the soil-atmosphere interface, and the change in canopy temperature, which in turn affects transpiration and photosynthesis. An experiment was conducted at the Yucheng Integrated...

  18. LOW SOIL DISTURBANCE ORGANIC CROPPING SYSTEMS: LESSONS LEARNED DURING THE FIRST FOUR YEARS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few organic systems have eliminated inversion tillage. In the dryland cropping region of Eastern Washington and Northern Idaho, soil erosion hazards due to steep terrain precludes the use of primary inversion tillage in the design of sustainable organic systems. In addition, organic systems with l...

  19. Fertilizer Facts: January 1997, Number 9 Nitrates in Soil and Ground Water Under Irrigated Crops

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    or precipitation. While no widespread contamination of ground water in Montana has been attributed to fertilizer contamination of ground water. Most of the Lower Yellowstone River Valley is irrigated, and the water tableFertilizer Facts: January 1997, Number 9 Nitrates in Soil and Ground Water Under Irrigated Crops J

  20. What Does Undergraduate Enrollment in Soil and Crop Sciences Mean for the Future of Agronomy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Hansen; Sarah Ward; Raj Khosla; Jack Fenwick; Bill Moore

    2007-01-01

    Soil and crop science programs at land-grant colleges have histori- cally relied on appropriated funding from state and federal sources and tuition to support the tripartite mission of research, extension, and teaching. However, due to declining funding from state and federal sources, tuition and fees are becoming increasingly important sources. As tuition revenue becomes more important, student enrollment be- comes

  1. CATTLE GRAZING EFFECTS ON DRYLAND CROPPING SYSTEM PRODUCTIVITY AND SOIL PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the southern Great Plains, dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are grown in a wheat-sorghum-fallow (WSF) rotation that consistently produces two crops in a three year cycle using precipitation stored in the soil. Integration of cattle grazing on wh...

  2. Methods to Enhance the Parameterization of Soil, Crop, Meteorological, and Management Inputs for Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation models require a variety of inputs of soil, crop, meteorological, and management variables. These variables represent a range of spatial and temporal scales depending upon the model. Within each variable class there is a wide range of different inputs that are often required for effectiv...

  3. Soil microbial activity under different grass species: Underground impacts of biofuel cropping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial and plant communities interact to determine local nutrient cycling rates. As lands are converted to bioenergy crops, including corn and cellulosic grasses, focus has been on changes in soil carbon sequestration. Little attention has been paid to impacts of such land conversion on the acti...

  4. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TILLAGE METHODS ON SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP YIELD OF WATERMELON (Citrullus Vulgaris)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majid Rashidi; Fereydoun Keshavarzpour

    A two year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different tillage methods on soil physical properties and crop yield of watermelon. Tillage treatments in the study were moldboard plow + two passes of disk harrow as conventional tillage (CT), two passes of disk harrow as reduced tillage (RT), one pass of disk harrow as minimum tillage (MT)

  5. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-11-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emissions) over a complete year, and the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), and solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40 and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.09 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effects from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions of CH4 and N2O and increased soil carbon sequestration, resulting in the lowest NEGE (3.05-5.00 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1). Accordingly, water-saving GCRPS with organic fertilizer amendments was considered the most promising management regime for simultaneously achieving relatively high grain yield and reduced net greenhouse gas emission.

  6. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-06-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for the rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emission) over a complete year, as well as the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40% and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.087 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effect from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions of CH4 and N2O and increased soil carbon sequestration, resulting in the lowest NEGE (3.05-5.00 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1). Accordingly, water-saving GCRPS with organic fertilizer amendments was considered the most promising management regime for simultaneously achieving relatively high grain yield and reduced net greenhouse gas emission.

  7. Dynamics of verticillium species microsclerotia in field soils in response to fumigation, cropping patterns, and flooding.

    PubMed

    Short, Dylan P G; Sandoya, German; Vallad, Gary E; Koike, Steven T; Xiao, Chang-Lin; Wu, Bo-Ming; Gurung, Suraj; Hayes, Ryan J; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2015-05-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne, economically significant fungal plant pathogen that persists in the soil for up to 14 years as melanized microsclerotia (ms). Similarly, V. longisporum is a very significant production constraint on members of the family Brassicaceae. Management of Verticillium wilt has relied on methods that reduce ms below crop-specific thresholds at which little or no disease develops. Methyl bromide, a broad-spectrum biocide, has been used as a preplant soil fumigant for over 50 years to reduce V. dahliae ms. However, reductions in the number of ms in the vertical and horizontal soil profiles and the rate at which soil recolonization occurs has not been studied. The dynamics of ms in soil before and after methyl bromide + chloropicrin fumigation were followed over 3 years in six 8-by-8-m sites in two fields. In separate fields, the dynamics of ms in the 60-cm-deep vertical soil profile pre- and postfumigation with methyl bromide + chloropicrin followed by various cropping patterns were studied over 4 years. Finally, ms densities were assessed in six 8-by-8-m sites in a separate field prior to and following a natural 6-week flood. Methyl bromide + chloripicrin significantly reduced but did not eliminate V. dahliae ms in either the vertical or horizontal soil profiles. In field studies, increases in ms were highly dependent upon the crop rotation pattern followed postfumigation. In the vertical soil profile, densities of ms were highest in the top 5 to 20 cm of soil but were consistently detected at 60-cm depths. Six weeks of natural flooding significantly reduced (on average, approximately 65% in the total viable counts of ms) but did not eliminate viable ms of V. longisporum. PMID:25626074

  8. Dryland Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions Influenced by Tillage, Cropping Sequence, and Nitrogen Fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainju, U. M.; Biogeosciences

    2011-12-01

    Management practices are needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dryland agroecosystems. The effect of tillage, cropping sequence, and N fertilization on soil CO2, N2O, and CH4 fluxes was evaluated on a dryland loam soil from March to November, 2008 to 2010 in eastern Montana. Treatments were three cropping sequences [no-tilled continuous malt barley (NTCB), no-tilled malt barley-pea (NTB-P), and conventional-tilled malt barley-fallow (CTB-F)] and two N fertilization rates (0 and 80 kg N ha-1). The CO2 and N2O fluxes increased immediately following substantial precipitation during increased temperature in the summer from May to August. During this period, CO2 flux was greater in NTCB and NTB-P than in CTB-F and greater with 80 than with 0 kg N ha-1. The N2O flux varied with tillage and cropping sequence but was greater with 80 than with 0 kg N ha-1. Total CO2 flux from March to November was greater in NTCB than in CTB-F in all years and greater with 80 than with 0 kg N ha-1 in 2009 and 2010. Total N2O flux was not influenced by tillage, cropping sequence, and N fertilization. Both CO2 and N2O fluxes were greater in 2008 than in 2010. The CH4 flux remained negative at most measurement dates in all years. Increased root respiration and biomass production due to continuous cropping and N fertilization probably increased CO2 emissions under dryland cropping systems. Similarly, increased N availability probably increased N2O emissions during active crop growth. Increased soil water content due to greater rainfall probably increased CO2 and N2O emissions in 2008 than in 2010.

  9. Soil microbial substrate properties and microbial community responses under irrigated organic and reduced-tillage crop and forage production systems.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Rajan; Norton, Jay B; Stahl, Peter D; Norton, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Changes in soil microbiotic properties such as microbial biomass and community structure in response to alternative management systems are driven by microbial substrate quality and substrate utilization. We evaluated irrigated crop and forage production in two separate four-year experiments for differences in microbial substrate quality, microbial biomass and community structure, and microbial substrate utilization under conventional, organic, and reduced-tillage management systems. The six different management systems were imposed on fields previously under long-term, intensively tilled maize production. Soils under crop and forage production responded to conversion from monocropping to crop rotation, as well as to the three different management systems, but in different ways. Under crop production, four years of organic management resulted in the highest soil organic C (SOC) and microbial biomass concentrations, while under forage production, reduced-tillage management most effectively increased SOC and microbial biomass. There were significant increases in relative abundance of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, with two- to 36-fold increases in biomarker phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Under crop production, dissolved organic C (DOC) content was higher under organic management than under reduced-tillage and conventional management. Perennial legume crops and organic soil amendments in the organic crop rotation system apparently favored greater soil microbial substrate availability, as well as more microbial biomass compared with other management systems that had fewer legume crops in rotation and synthetic fertilizer applications. Among the forage production management systems with equivalent crop rotations, reduced-tillage management had higher microbial substrate availability and greater microbial biomass than other management systems. Combined crop rotation, tillage management, soil amendments, and legume crops in rotations considerably influenced soil microbiotic properties. More research will expand our understanding of combined effects of these alternatives on feedbacks between soil microbiotic properties and SOC accrual. PMID:25090235

  10. Soil Microbial Substrate Properties and Microbial Community Responses under Irrigated Organic and Reduced-Tillage Crop and Forage Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Rajan; Norton, Jay B.; Stahl, Peter D.; Norton, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Changes in soil microbiotic properties such as microbial biomass and community structure in response to alternative management systems are driven by microbial substrate quality and substrate utilization. We evaluated irrigated crop and forage production in two separate four-year experiments for differences in microbial substrate quality, microbial biomass and community structure, and microbial substrate utilization under conventional, organic, and reduced-tillage management systems. The six different management systems were imposed on fields previously under long-term, intensively tilled maize production. Soils under crop and forage production responded to conversion from monocropping to crop rotation, as well as to the three different management systems, but in different ways. Under crop production, four years of organic management resulted in the highest soil organic C (SOC) and microbial biomass concentrations, while under forage production, reduced-tillage management most effectively increased SOC and microbial biomass. There were significant increases in relative abundance of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, with two- to 36-fold increases in biomarker phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Under crop production, dissolved organic C (DOC) content was higher under organic management than under reduced-tillage and conventional management. Perennial legume crops and organic soil amendments in the organic crop rotation system apparently favored greater soil microbial substrate availability, as well as more microbial biomass compared with other management systems that had fewer legume crops in rotation and synthetic fertilizer applications. Among the forage production management systems with equivalent crop rotations, reduced-tillage management had higher microbial substrate availability and greater microbial biomass than other management systems. Combined crop rotation, tillage management, soil amendments, and legume crops in rotations considerably influenced soil microbiotic properties. More research will expand our understanding of combined effects of these alternatives on feedbacks between soil microbiotic properties and SOC accrual. PMID:25090235

  11. The influence of cover crops and tillage on actual and potential soil erosion in an olive grove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastre, Blanca; Bienes, Ramón; García-Díaz, Andrés; Panagopoulos, Thomas; José Marqués, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The study was carried out in an olive grove in central Spain (South of Madrid; Tagus River Basin). In this semi-arid zone, the annual mean temperature is 13.8 ºC and the annual precipitation is 395 mm. Olive groves are planted in an erosion prone area due to steep slopes up to 15%. Soil is classified as Typic Haploxerept with clay loam texture. The land studied was formerly a vineyard, but it was replaced by the studied olive grove in 2004. It covers approximately 3 ha and olive trees are planted every 6 x 7 metres. They were usually managed by tillage to decrease weed competition. This conventional practice results in a wide surface of bare soil prone to erosion processes. In the long term soil degradation may lead to increase the desertification risk in the area. Storms have important consequences in this shallow and vulnerable soil, as more than 90 Mg ha-1 have been measured after one day with 40 mm of rainfall. In order to avoid this situation, cover crops between the olive trees were planted three years ago: sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and purple false brome (Brachypodium distachyon), and they were compared with annual spontaneous vegetation after a minimum tillage treatment (ASV). The results regarding erosion control were positive. We observed (Oct. 2012/Sept. 2013) annual soil loss up to 11 Mg ha-1 in ASV, but this figure was reduced in the sown covers, being 8 Mg ha-1 in sainfoin treatment, 3,7 Mg ha-1 in barley treatment, and only 1,5 Mg ha-1 in false brome treatment. Those results are used to predict the risk of erosion in long term. Moreover, soil organic carbon (SOC) increased with treatments, this is significant as it reduces soil erodibility. The increases were found both in topsoil (up to 5 cm) and more in depth, in the root zone (from 5 to 10 cm depth). From higher to lower SOC values we found the false brome (1.05%), barley (0.92%), ASV (0.79%) and sainfoin (0.71%) regarding topsoil. In the root zone (5-10 cm depth) we found 0.76% in false brome and ASV, 0.70% in barley and 0.58% in sainfoin. Other important variable to estimate erosion processes is soil permeability. During the period of study there were no significant differences between treatments. An average of 45±20 mm h-1 was measured. This study addresses the comparison between soil erosion rates measured on the ground with soil erosion risk estimated by models. Mapping soil risk can provide the evidence to demonstrate that economic investments in research, good practices and agri-environment payments are worth to achieve sustainable land management. The use of case studies is usually recommended to help in the dissemination of research. This case also includes the influence of treatments in production and quality of olive oil to respond to the needs of land users.

  12. Variations in thematic mapper spectra of soil related to tillage and crop residue management - Initial evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeley, M. W.; Ruschy, D. L.; Linden, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A cooperative research project was initiated in 1982 to study differences in thematic mapper spectral characteristics caused by variable tillage and crop residue practices. Initial evaluations of radiometric data suggest that spectral separability of variably tilled soils can be confounded by moisture and weathering effects. Separability of bare tilled soils from those with significant amounts of corn residue is enhanced by wet conditions, but still possible under dry conditions when recent tillage operations have occurred. In addition, thematic mapper data may provide an alternative method to study the radiant energy balance at the soil surface in conjunction with variable tillage systems.

  13. Removal of arsenic from Janghang smelter site and energy crops-grown soil with soil washing using magnetic iron oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jaemaro; Zhao, Xin; Lee, Jong Keun; Kim, Jae Young

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic compounds are considered carcinogen and easily enter drinking water supplies with their natural abundance. US Environmental Protection Agency is finalizing a regulation to reduce the public health risks from arsenic in drinking water by revising the current drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 ppb to 10 ppb in 2001 (USEPA, 2001). Therefore, soil remediation is also growing field to prevent contamination of groundwater as well as crop cultivation. Soil washing is adjusted as ex-situ soil remediation technique which reduces volume of the contaminated soil. The technique is composed of physical separation and chemical extraction to extract target metal contamination in the soil. Chemical extraction methods have been developed solubilizing contaminants containing reagents such as acids or chelating agents. And acid extraction is proven as the most commonly used technology to treat heavy metals in soil, sediment, and sludge (FRTR, 2007). Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, magnetic iron oxide have been used in diverse areas including information technology and biomedicine. Magnetic iron oxides also can be used as adsorbent to heavy metal enhancing removal efficiency of arsenic concentration. In this study, magnetite is used as the washing agent with acid extraction condition so that the injected oxide can be separated by magnetic field. Soil samples were collected from three separate areas in the Janghang smelter site and energy crops-grown soil to have synergy effect with phytoremediation. Each sample was air-dried and sieved (2mm). Soil washing condition was adjusted on pH in the range of 0-12 with hydrogen chloride and sodium hydroxide. After performing soil washing procedure, arsenic-extracted samples were analyzed for arsenic concentration by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). All the soils have exceeded worrisome level of soil contamination for region 1 (25mg/kg) so the soil remediation techniques are needed to be applied. The objective of this study is to investigate soil washing efficiency using magnetic iron oxide and derive the availability of the washing technique to the arsenic-contaminated field soils. Acknowledgement This study was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as 'Knowledge-based environmental service (Waste to Energy) Human Resource Development Project'.

  14. Spatial distribution and controlling factors of heavy metals contents in paddy soil and crop grains of rice-wheat cropping system along highway in East China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinfei; Zhao, Jian; Bian, Xinmin; Zhang, Weijian

    2012-10-01

    There is consensus concerning the heavy metal pollution from traffic emission on roadside agricultural land. However, few efforts have been paid on examining the contamination characteristics of heavy metals in roadside paddy-upland rotation field, and especially in combination with detailed quantitative analysis. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn) in soil and crop grains of the rice-wheat cropping system along a major highway in East China in 2008 and analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of heavy metals and their influencing factors with GIS and Classification and Regression Trees (CART). Significantly elevated levels of heavy metals in soil, rice and wheat grains indicated the heavy metals contamination of traffic emission in roadside rice-wheat rotation field. The contamination levels of Cd, Cr and Zn in wheat grain were higher than rice grain, while that of Pb showed an opposite trend. Obvious dissimilarities in the spatial distributions of heavy metals contents were found between in the soil, rice and wheat grains, indicating that the heavy metals contents in the roadside crop grains were not only determined by the concentrations of heavy metals in the paddy soil. Results of CART analysis showed that the spatial variation of the heavy metals contents in crop grains was mainly affected by the soil organic matter or soil pH, followed by the distance from highway and wind direction. Our findings have important implications for the environmental assessment and crop planning for food security along the highway. PMID:22527116

  15. Sulfamethazine sorption to vegetative filter strip and row crop soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary antibiotic (VA) presence in the environment, often associated with land application of manure, has generated significant interest in VA fate and transport in soil. However, few studies have focused on land management practices, such as vegetative filter strips, that might mitigate VA loss...

  16. Soil Salinization and Management Options for Sustainable Crop Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated acreage in arid regions of the world has recently stopped increasing and it will be difficult to even maintain existing levels of irrigation in these regions. At the same time the amount of salt affected soils in the world, continues to increase, with a major part being secondary salinizat...

  17. Soil carbon inventories under a bioenergy crop (switchgrass): Measurement limitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles T Garten Jr; Stan D Wullschleger

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 5 yr after planting, coarse root carbon (C) and soil organic C (SOC) inventories were compared under different types of plant cover at four switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production field trials in the southeastern USA. There was significantly more coarse root C under switchgrass (Alamo variety) and forest cover than tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), corn (Zea mays L.),

  18. Winter annual cover crop has only minor effects on major corn arthropod pests.

    PubMed

    Davis, Holly N; Currie, Randall S; Klocke, Norman L; Buschman, Lawrent L

    2010-04-01

    We studied the effects of downy brome, Bromus tectorum L., winter cover crop on several corn, Zea mays L., pests in the summer crop after the cover crop. An experiment was conducted that consisted of two trials with two levels of irrigation, two levels of weed control, and two levels of downy brome. Corn was grown three consecutive years after the downy brome grown during the winter. Banks grass mites, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks), twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, and predatory mites from the genus Neoseiulus were present in downy brome at the beginning of the growing season. They moved into corn, but their numbers did not differ significantly across the treatments. Larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, feeding on corn roots was evaluated the second and third years of corn, production. Irrigation and herbicide treatments had no significant effects on rootworm injury levels. In one trial, rootworm injury ratings were significantly greater in treatments with a history of high versus low brome, but this effect was not significant in the other trial. Rootworm injury seemed to be similar across plots with different surface soil moistures. This suggests that the use of a winter cover crop such as downy brome will not have a major negative impact the arthropods studied. PMID:20429447

  19. Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Seasonally High Water Tables and Septic Systems

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Seasonally High Water Tables Environment Indiana law requires septic systems to discharge wastewater into the soil for treatment and dispersal. The soil must be aerobic (contain oxygen) for treatment to occur. According to current state law

  20. Effects of different potato cropping system approaches and water management on soilborne diseases and soil microbial communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four different potato cropping systems, designed to address specific management goals of soil conservation (SC), soil improvement (SI), disease suppression (DS), and a status quo standard rotation control (SQ), were evaluated for their effects on soilborne diseases of potato and soil microbial commu...

  1. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soils of yam (Dioscorea spp.) cropping systems in four agroecologies of Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Olajire Dare; Robert Abaidoo; Olajire Fagbola; Robert Asiedu

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in soils under a yam cropping system in four agroecologies of Nigeria was investigated. Soil samples were collected from yam fields at Onne (humid forest, high rainfall area), Ibadan (derived savanna), Abuja (Guinea savanna) and Ubiaja (humid forest, medium rainfall area). Soil characteristics, AM fungi species, spore abundance, Shannon diversity index, species richness

  2. Improvement of remote sensing of crop residue cover by accounting for green vegetation and soil spectral properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage methods are beneficial as they disturb soil less and leaves increased crop residue cover (CRC) after planting on the soil surface. CRC helps reduce soil erosion, evaporation, and the need for tillage operations in fields. Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced to due to less fos...

  3. Empirical modeling of the impact of Mollisol soils variation on performance of Cuphea: A potential oilseed crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production potential of many soils is affected by low supply of nutrients due to adverse constraints or spatio-temporal variation of soil physical and chemical properties. New oilseed crops differ in their nutrient needs for maximum performance in different soils and may not be able to economically ...

  4. SOIL CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION AS AFFECTED BY IRRIGATION, TILLAGE, CROPPING SYSTEM, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices can influence soil CO2 emission and C sequestration in cropland and therefore on global warming. We examined the effects of irrigation systems (irrigated vs. non-irrigated) and soil and crop management practices on soil CO2 flux, temperature, and water and C contents at the 0 to...

  5. Soil enzyme activities and physical properties in a watershed managed under agroforestry and row-crop systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjith P. Udawatta; Robert J. Kremer; Harold E. Garrett; Stephen H. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    The proportion of water-stable aggregates (WSA) and a diverse microbial activity influence soil quality, crop growth, nutrient retention, water infiltration, and surface runoff. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that permanent vegetative buffers increase WSA and contribute to increased soil enzyme activity. Soil samples (5cm diameter and 10cm long) from agroforestry (AG), grass buffer (GB), grass

  6. Select Soil Enzyme Activities In The Historic Sanborn Field As Affected By Long-term Cropping Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Eivazi; M. R. Bayan; K. Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Long-term experimental sites are expected to provide important information regarding soil properties as affected by management practices. Recent studies have shown that soil enzyme activities are sensitive in discriminating among soil management effects. This study was designed to examine the effects of long-term fertilization, tillage and crop rotation on the activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, ?-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, and urease

  7. Determine metrics and set targets for soil quality on agriculture residue and energy crop pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Bonner; David Muth

    2013-09-01

    There are three objectives for this project: 1) support OBP in meeting MYPP stated performance goals for the Sustainability Platform, 2) develop integrated feedstock production system designs that increase total productivity of the land, decrease delivered feedstock cost to the conversion facilities, and increase environmental performance of the production system, and 3) deliver to the bioenergy community robust datasets and flexible analysis tools for establishing sustainable and viable use of agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops. The key project outcome to date has been the development and deployment of a sustainable agricultural residue removal decision support framework. The modeling framework has been used to produce a revised national assessment of sustainable residue removal potential. The national assessment datasets are being used to update national resource assessment supply curves using POLYSIS. The residue removal modeling framework has also been enhanced to support high fidelity sub-field scale sustainable removal analyses. The framework has been deployed through a web application and a mobile application. The mobile application is being used extensively in the field with industry, research, and USDA NRCS partners to support and validate sustainable residue removal decisions. The results detailed in this report have set targets for increasing soil sustainability by focusing on primary soil quality indicators (total organic carbon and erosion) in two agricultural residue management pathways and a dedicated energy crop pathway. The two residue pathway targets were set to, 1) increase residue removal by 50% while maintaining soil quality, and 2) increase soil quality by 5% as measured by Soil Management Assessment Framework indicators. The energy crop pathway was set to increase soil quality by 10% using these same indicators. To demonstrate the feasibility and impact of each of these targets, seven case studies spanning the US are presented. The analysis has shown that the feedstock production systems are capable of simultaneously increasing productivity and soil sustainability.

  8. Impact Assessment of Salinization Affected Soil on Greenhouse Crops using SALTMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappa, Polyxeni; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Varouchakis, Emmanouil

    2015-04-01

    Here we assess the effects of soil salinization on greenhouse crops and the potential benefits of rainwater harvesting as a soil amelioration technology. The study deals with the following scenarios: (a) variation of irrigation water salinity from 3,000 ?S/cm to 500 ?S/cm through mixing with rainwater, (b) crop substitution for increased tolerance and (c) climatic variability to account for the impact of climate change. In order to draw meaningful conclusions, a model that takes into account vegetation interaction, soil, irrigation water and climate variables is required. The SALTMED model is a reliable and tested physical process model that simulates evapotranspiration, plant water uptake, water and solute transport to estimate crop yield and biomass production under all irrigation systems. SALTMED is tested with the above scenarios in the RECARE FP7 Project Case Study of Timpaki, in the Island of Crete, Greece. Simulations are conducted for typical cultivations of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum anuumm and Solanum melongena. Preliminary results indicate the optimal combination from a set of solutions concerning the soil and water parameters can be beneficial against the salinization threat. Future research includes the validation of the results with field experiments. Keywords: salinization, greenhouse, tomato, SALTMED, rainwater, RECARE

  9. Comparison of methods to evaluate soil and crop management-induced soil carbon changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of previous research evaluated soil organic carbon (SOC) mass using SOC concentration and soil bulk density ('b) associated with a fixed-depth (FD) without considering the soil thickness or soil mass. The objectives of this study are (i) to compare between the changes in SOC calculated...

  10. The drought of 2012: Effects on photosynthesis and soil respiration in bioenergy cropping systems of the Midwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, M.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of drought conditions across the central US. This heightened risk on producers and economies alike also supports the need to improve our understanding of how extreme environmental conditions impact other ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, which is directly linked to net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In doing so, the scientific community aims to improve the realism of ecosystem models that are relied upon to project changes in large scale and long-term land surface-atmosphere carbon exchange as they are affected by continued land management change and climate change. One such large-scale land management change of the next several decades in the Midwest US could be the expansion of bioenergy cropping systems across the landscape. A wide range of bioenergy cropping systems (e.g., miscanthus, switchgrass, diverse prairie, hybrid poplar) are now targeted to support a feedstock supply chain for production of cellulosic biofuels. Many of these agroecosystems have only recently begun to appear as functional types in dynamic ecosystem models, and a general lack of observational data across a wide range of soils and climate has hampered model development and validation. In response to this shortcoming, from 2009 through 2012, component measurements of ecosystem carbon exchange (total soil respiration and leaf level photosynthetic rates) have been made along with measurements of other soil and meteorological variables in three model bioenergy cropping systems (continuous corn, hybrid poplar and switchgrass) at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) field trial at Arlington, Wisconsin. The three cropping systems encompass a wide range of growth (e.g. C3 vs. C4, annual vs. perennial) and management (e.g., tillage, harvesting) strategies that are predicted to impart different controls on NEE given likely varying biological responses to extreme weather events. Throughout the study period, the field site has been exposed to extreme variations in precipitation and temperature, from what might be considered an ideal/wet year in 2010 to a catastrophic drought in 2012. Measurements of soil temperature during the growing season of 2012 show an increase of 1.7°C to 4.6°C when compared to 2010 and concurrent measurements of volumetric water content decreased from 0.34 in 2010 to 0.05 in 2012. We compare and contrast component measurements of NEE (i.e. soil respiration and leaf level photosynthesis), using chamber-based methods in the field, and their responses to environmental conditions. Some preliminary results show that soil respiration measurements during summer 2012 exhibited a 20% increase to a 43% decrease compared to similar measurements taken in 2010. During the middle of the growing season, the maximum rate of photosynthesis was reduced in 2012 in comparison to 2010 by 36%, 53% and 66% for corn, switchgrass and hybrid poplar, respectively, for light saturated leaves with a temperature near 30°C. These data will aid in the development of better numerical functions in ecosystem models that aim to represent the influence of temperature and soil water potential on the exchange of CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere in agroecosystems.

  11. Assessment of the Impacts of Rice Cropping through a Soil Quality Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sione, S. M.; Wilson, M. G.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    In Entre Ríos (Argentina), rice cultivation is carried out mainly in Vertisols. Several factors, such as the use of sodium bicarbonate waters for irrigation, the excessive tillage required, and the lack of proper planning for land use, mainly regarding the crop sequence, cause serious impacts on the soil and have an effect on sustainable agriculture. Thus, the development of methodologies to detect these impacts has become a priority. The aim of this study was to standardize soil quality indicators (SQI) and integrate them into an index to evaluate the impacts of the rice production system on soil, at the farm scale. The study was conducted in farms of the traditional rice cultivation area of Entre Ríos province, Argentina. We evaluated a minimum data set consisting of six indicators: structural stability and percolation, total organic matter content (TOM), exchangeable sodium content (ESC), electrical conductivity of saturation extract (ECe) and reaction of the soil (pH). From a database from 75 production lots, we determined the reference values, i.e. limits to ensure the maintenance of long-term productivity and the allowable thresholds for each indicator. The indicators were standardized and integrated into a soil quality index. Five ranges of soil quality were established: very low, low, moderate, high and very high, depending on the values assigned to each SQI. This index allowed differentiating the impact of different crop sequences and showed that the increased participation of rice crop in the rotation resulted in a deterioration of the soil structure due to the decrease in the TOM and to the cumulative increase in ESC caused by the sodium bicarbonate water used for irrigation. Soil management strategies should aim to increase TOM values and to reduce the input of sodium to the exchange complex. A rotation with 50% to 60% of pasture and 40 to 50% of agriculture with a participation of rice lower than 20 to 25% would allow the sustainability of the production system. The use of the so called SQI, i.e. soil quality index, for rice crop production will allow generating early warning of degradation and thus adopting recovery measures.

  12. The effects of manure and nitrogen fertilizer applications on soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a high-input cropping system.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tao; Wang, Jingguo; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Fusuo; Lu, Shuchang

    2014-01-01

    With the goal of improving N fertilizer management to maximize soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and minimize N losses in high-intensity cropping system, a 6-years greenhouse vegetable experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2010 in Shouguang, northern China. Treatment tested the effects of organic manure and N fertilizer on SOC, total N (TN) pool and annual apparent N losses. The results demonstrated that SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-10cm soil layer decreased significantly without organic manure and mineral N applications, primarily because of the decomposition of stable C. Increasing C inputs through wheat straw and chicken manure incorporation couldn't increase SOC pools over the 4 year duration of the experiment. In contrast to the organic manure treatment, the SOC and TN pools were not increased with the combination of organic manure and N fertilizer. However, the soil labile carbon fractions increased significantly when both chicken manure and N fertilizer were applied together. Additionally, lower optimized N fertilizer inputs did not decrease SOC and TN accumulation compared with conventional N applications. Despite the annual apparent N losses for the optimized N treatment were significantly lower than that for the conventional N treatment, the unchanged SOC over the past 6 years might limit N storage in the soil and more surplus N were lost to the environment. Consequently, optimized N fertilizer inputs according to root-zone N management did not influence the accumulation of SOC and TN in soil; but beneficial in reducing apparent N losses. N fertilizer management in a greenhouse cropping system should not only identify how to reduce N fertilizer input but should also be more attentive to improving soil fertility with better management of organic manure. PMID:24830463

  13. The Effects of Manure and Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications on Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a High-Input Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Tao; Wang, Jingguo; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Fusuo; Lu, Shuchang

    2014-01-01

    With the goal of improving N fertilizer management to maximize soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and minimize N losses in high-intensity cropping system, a 6-years greenhouse vegetable experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2010 in Shouguang, northern China. Treatment tested the effects of organic manure and N fertilizer on SOC, total N (TN) pool and annual apparent N losses. The results demonstrated that SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-10cm soil layer decreased significantly without organic manure and mineral N applications, primarily because of the decomposition of stable C. Increasing C inputs through wheat straw and chicken manure incorporation couldn't increase SOC pools over the 4 year duration of the experiment. In contrast to the organic manure treatment, the SOC and TN pools were not increased with the combination of organic manure and N fertilizer. However, the soil labile carbon fractions increased significantly when both chicken manure and N fertilizer were applied together. Additionally, lower optimized N fertilizer inputs did not decrease SOC and TN accumulation compared with conventional N applications. Despite the annual apparent N losses for the optimized N treatment were significantly lower than that for the conventional N treatment, the unchanged SOC over the past 6 years might limit N storage in the soil and more surplus N were lost to the environment. Consequently, optimized N fertilizer inputs according to root-zone N management did not influence the accumulation of SOC and TN in soil; but beneficial in reducing apparent N losses. N fertilizer management in a greenhouse cropping system should not only identify how to reduce N fertilizer input but should also be more attentive to improving soil fertility with better management of organic manure. PMID:24830463

  14. Soil carbon inventories under a bioenergy crop (switchgrass): Measurement limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Wullschleger, S.D.

    1999-08-01

    Approximately 5 yr after planting, coarse root carbon (C) and soil organic C (SOC) inventories were compared under different types of plant cover at four switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production field trials in the southeastern USA. There was significantly more coarse root C under switchgrass (Alamo variety) and forest cover than tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), corn (Zea mays L.), or native pastures of mixed grasses. Inventories of SOC under switchgrass were not significantly greater than SOC inventories under other plant covers. At some locations the statistical power associated with ANOVA of SOC inventories was low, which raised questions about whether differences in SOC could be detected statistically. A minimum detectable difference (MDD) for SOC inventories was calculated. The MDD is the smallest detectable difference between treatment means once the variation, significance level, statistical power, and sample size are specified. The analysis indicated that a difference of {approx}50 mg SOC/cm{sup 2} or 5 Mg SOC/ha, which is {approx}10 to 15% of existing SOC, could be detected with reasonable sample sizes and good statistical power. The smallest difference in SOC inventories that can be detected, and only with exceedingly large sample sizes, is {approx}2 to 3%. These measurement limitations have implications for monitoring and verification of proposals to ameliorate increasing global atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations by sequestering C in soils.

  15. Copyright 2014 -Copyright Information, Privacy Statement, and Terms of Use American Society of Agronomy | Crop Science Society of America | Soil Science Society of America

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    of Agronomy | Crop Science Society of America | Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Road | Madison Soil Biogeochemical Processes: III (includes student competition) Wednesday, November 5, 2014 Long Soil Biogeochemical Processes: III (includes student competition) Previous Abstract | Next Abstract

  16. Copyright 2014 -Copyright Information, Privacy Statement, and Terms of Use American Society of Agronomy | Crop Science Society of America | Soil Science Society of America

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    of Agronomy | Crop Science Society of America | Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Road | Madison: Chemical Concentrations, Fate, and Distribution in Soils: I (includes student competition) Monday, November: Chemical Concentrations, Fate, and Distribution in Soils: I (includes student competition)

  17. Managing soil microbial communities in grain production systems through cropping practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vadakattu

    2013-04-01

    Cropping practices can significantly influence the composition and activity of soil microbial communities with consequences to plant growth and production. Plant type can affect functional capacity of different groups of biota in the soil surrounding their roots, rhizosphere, influencing plant nutrition, beneficial symbioses, pests and diseases and overall plant health and crop production. The interaction between different players in the rhizosphere is due to the plethora of carbon and nutritional compounds, root-specific chemical signals and growth regulators that originate from the plant and are modulated by the physico-chemical properties of soils. A number of plant and environmental factors and management practices can influence the quantity and quality of rhizodeposition and in turn affect the composition of rhizosphere biota communities, microbe-fauna interactions and biological processes. Some of the examples of rhizosphere interactions that are currently considered important are: proliferation of plant and variety specific genera or groups of microbiota, induction of genes involved in symbiosis and virulence, promoter activity in biocontrol agents and genes correlated with root adhesion and border cell quality and quantity. The observation of variety-based differences in rhizodeposition and associated changes in rhizosphere microbial diversity and function suggests the possibility for the development of varieties with specific root-microbe interactions targeted for soil type and environment i.e. designer rhizospheres. Spatial location of microorganisms in the heterogeneous field soil matrix can have significant impacts on biological processes. Therefore, for rhizosphere research to be effective in variable seasonal climate and soil conditions, it must be evaluated in the field and within a farming systems context. With the current focus on security of food to feed the growing global populations through sustainable agricultural production systems there is a need to develop innovative cropping systems that are both economically and environmentally sustainable.

  18. Effect of different kinds of crop residues on aggregate-protected soil organic matter fractions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisz, A.

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter content of soils determines many important soil properties, such as soil structure, fertility and water-management. To improve its fertility and quality, returning different kinds of organic matter to soil has a long historical tradition. Ameliorating of soil and enhancing its fertility by enhancing its carbon stock with organic matter incorporation (like farmyard manure, crop residues or green manure) are general practices, but the extent of the amelioration depends much on several factors such as quantity, quality of the used organic matters. Quality of soil organic matters is affected by their chemical build-up, which differs by their origin (i.e. plant species); and their decomposability is affected by particle-size, protection by soil aggregates and the extent of their association to mineral surfaces. In our paper we investigated the effect of three different kinds of organic matter incorporation on aggregate-protected organic matter fractions: (1) Maize stem (M), (2) Wheat straw (W), and (3) Maize stem & Wheat straw (MW). Our samples were originated from Keszthely, Western Hungary, where the texture of the investigated soil is Sandy loam, the type of soil is Eutric Cambisol (soil type FAO), or Alfisol (soil type USDA). SOM fractions might be isolated and measured by physical fractionation of soil (Cambardella and Elliott (1992), Jensen et al. (1992)). Firstly, microaggregates were separated according to their particle-size with physical fractionation (i.e. wet sieving) (Six et al. (2000a)). Each sample was pre-treated by capillary wetting and was sieved for 2 min in an analytic sieve shaker machine with the following aperture sizes: 2 mm, 250 ?m, 53 ?m. Therefore 4 fractions were resulted: (1) the >2000 ?m large macro-, (2) the 250-2000 ?m small macro-, (3) the 53-250 ?m microaggregates, and (4) the

  19. Organochlorine pesticide residues in leek (Allium porrum) crops grown on untreated soils from an agricultural environment.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Aizpún De Moreno, Julia E; Moreno, Víctor J

    2003-08-13

    Leek (Allium porrum) plants from organic farming were harvested at 15, 59, and 210 days after seed germination. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) levels were quantified by GC-ECD in vegetative tissues (roots and aerial), bulk soil and rhizosphere. Leek plant bioaccumulate OCPs efficiently in their aerial and root tissues and alter the concentration of the soil where they are grown. OCPs distribution pattern of bulk soil was endosulfans > DDTs > dieldrin, while it was endosulfans > HCHs > DDTs in leek tissues. There were statistically significant declines in DDTs, chlordane, dieldrin, and heptachlor in the rhizosphere, indicating that recalcitrant residues of OCPs may be removed from contaminated soil using leek crops under normal growing conditions. The DDE/DDT and alpha-/gamma-HCH ratios of < 1 would indicate recent inputs of DDT and lindane in the environment. The occurrence of OCPs in this farm could be the result of atmospheric deposition and/or surface runoff of these pesticides. PMID:12903964

  20. Effects of glyphosate-resistant crop cultivation on soil and water quality.

    PubMed

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Duke, Stephen O

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops (GRCs) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the Western Hemisphere and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere. GRCs have generally become dominant in those countries where they have been approved for growing. Potential effects of glyphosate on soil and water are minimal, compared the effects of the herbicides that are replaced when GRCs are adopted. Perhaps the most important indirect effect is that GRCs crops promote the adoption of reduced- or no-tillage agriculture, resulting in a significant reduction in soil erosion and water contamination. Glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonate (AMPA), residues are not usually detected in high levels in ground or surface water in areas where glyphosate is used extensively.  Furthermore, both glyphosate and AMPA are considered to be much more toxicologically and environmentally benign than most of the herbicides replaced by glyphosate. PMID:21912208

  1. Modeling the impact of conservation agriculture on crop production and soil properties in Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussadek, Rachid; Mrabet, Rachid; Dahan, Rachid; Laghrour, Malika; Lembiad, Ibtissam; ElMourid, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    In Morocco, rainfed agriculture is practiced in the majority of agricultural land. However, the intensive land use coupled to the irregular rainfall constitutes a serious threat that affect country's food security. Conservation agriculture (CA) represents a promising alternative to produce more and sustainably. In fact, the direct seeding showed high yield in arid regions of Morocco but its extending to other more humid agro-ecological zones (rainfall > 350mm) remains scarce. In order to promote CA in Morocco, differents trials have been installed in central plateau of Morocco, to compare CA to conventional tillage (CT). The yields of the main practiced crops (wheat, lentil and checkpea) under CA and CT were analyzed and compared in the 3 soils types (Vertisol, Cambisol and Calcisol). Also, we studied the effect of CA on soil organic matter (SOM) and soil losses (SL) in the 3 different sites. The APSIM model was used to model the long term impact of CA compared to CT. The results obtained in this research have shown favorable effects of CA on crop production, SOM and soil erosion. Key words: Conservation agriculture, yield, soil properties, modeling, APSIM, Morocco.

  2. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  3. Bacterial Indicator of Agricultural Management for Soil under No-Till Crop Production

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Silvina M.; Simonetti, Leandro; Duval, Matías E.; Galantini, Juan A.; Bedano, José C.; Wall, Luis G.; Erijman, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP) were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism, the distribution of a few taxa was shaped as well by environmental conditions related to agricultural management practices. A statistically supported approach was used to define candidates for management-indicator organisms, subsequently validated using quantitative PCR. We suggest that the ratio between the normalized abundance of a selected group of bacteria within the GP1 group of the phylum Acidobacteria and the genus Rubellimicrobium of the Alphaproteobacteria may serve as a potential management-indicator to discriminate between sustainable vs. non-sustainable agricultural practices in the Pampa region. PMID:23226466

  4. Role of Soil, Crop Debris, and a Plant Pathogen in Salmonella enterica Contamination of Tomato Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeri D. Barak; Anita S. Liang

    2008-01-01

    Background: In the U.S., tomatoes have become the most implicated vehicle for produce-associated Salmonellosis with 12 outbreaks since 1998. Although unconfirmed, trace backs suggest pre-harvest contamination with Salmonella enterica. Routes of tomato crop contamination by S. enterica in the absence of direct artificial inoculation have not been investigated. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: This work examined the role of contaminated soil, the potential

  5. Interannual variation in soybean yield: interaction among rainfall, soil depth and crop management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A Calviño; V. O Sadras

    1999-01-01

    Using data from large, grower-managed fields we investigated the variation in yield of dryland soybean in an area with low and variable summer rainfall, and soils that are variable in depth and poor in phosphorus (P). First, using data from unfertilised, wide-row (0.7m) crops grown under standard management between 1989 and 1992 (Series 1), we quantified the relationship between yield

  6. Soil carbon inventories under a bioenergy crop (switchgrass): measurement limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    1999-07-01

    Approximately 5 yr after planting, coarse root (>2 mm) carbon (C) and soil organic C (SOC) inventories (0-40 cm deep) were compared under different types of plant cover at four switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production field trials in the southeastern USA. There was significantly (p {le} 0.05) more coarse root C under switchgrass (Alamo variety) and forest cover than under tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), corn (Zea mays L.), or native pastures of mixed grasses. Inventories of SOC under switchgrass were not significantly greater than SOC inventories under other plant covers. At some locations the statistical power associated with ANOVA of SOC inventories was low, which raised questions about whether differences in SOC could be detected statistically. A minimum detectable difference (MDD) for SOC inventories was calculated. The MDD is the smallest detectable difference between treatment means once the variation, significance level, statistical power, and sample size are specified. The analysis indicated that a difference of {approx}50 mg SOC/cm{sup 2} or 5 Mg SOC/ha, which is {approx}10 to 15% of existing SOC, could be detected with reasonable sample sizes (n = 16) and good statistical power (1-{beta} = 0.90). The smallest difference in SOC inventories that can be detected, and only with exceedingly large sample sizes (n > 100), is {approx}2 to 3% ({approx}10 mg SOC/cm{sup 2} or 1 Mg SOC/ha). These measurement limitations have implications for monitoring and verification of proposals to ameliorate increasing global atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations by sequestering C in soils.

  7. Soil Organic Matter Quality of an Oxisol Affected by Plant Residues and Crop Sequence under No-Tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cora, Jose; Marcelo, Adolfo

    2013-04-01

    Plant residues are considered the primarily resource for soil organic matter (SOM) formation and the amounts and properties of plant litter are important controlling factors for the SOM quality. We determined the amounts, quality and decomposition rate of plant residues and the effects of summer and winter crop sequences on soil organic C (TOC) content, both particulate organic C (POC) and mineral-associated organic C (MOC) pools and humic substances in a Brazilian Rhodic Eutrudox soil under a no-tillage system. The organic C analysis in specifics pools used in this study was effective and should be adopted in tropical climates to evaluate the soil quality and the sustainability of various cropping systems. Continuous growth of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) on summer provided higher contents of soil POC and continuous growth of maize (Zea mays L.) provided higher soil humic acid and MOC contents. Summer soybean-maize rotation provided the higher plant diversity, which likely improved the soil microbial activity and the soil organic C consumption. The winter sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) enhanced the soil MOC, a finding that is attributable to the higher N content of the crop residue. Sunn hemp and pigeon pea provided the higher soil POC content. Sunn hemp showed better performance and positive effects on the SOM quality, making it a suitable winter crop choice for tropical conditions with a warm and dry winter.

  8. Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disin...

  9. Nutrient uptake and soil erosion losses in cassava and six other crops in a Psamment in eastern Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Putthacharoen; R. H Howeler; S Jantawat; V Vichukit

    1998-01-01

    Total nutrient uptake and nutrients removed in harvested plant parts were determined for cassava grown for either root or forage production, maize, sorghum, peanut, mungbean, pineapple and sugarcane. All crops were grown in replicated plots on 7% slope on a sandy loam soil in Sri Racha, Thailand, during a 4 1\\/2-year period. Erosion losses associated with each crop were also

  10. The development of a crop yield prediction equation for some soils in the Blackland and Grand Prairies of Texas

    E-print Network

    Buckmaster, Herbert Leo

    1964-01-01

    THE DEVEIOPMENT OF A CROP YIELD PREDICTION EQUATION FOR SOME SOILS IN THE BLACKLAND AND GRAND PRAIRIES OF TEXAS A Thesis By HERBERT LEO BUCKMASTER Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1964 Major Subject: Agronomy THE DEVEIDPMENT OF A CROP YIELD PREDICTION EQPATION FOR SOME SOILS IN THE BLACKLAND AND GRAND PRAIRIES OF TEXAS A Thesis By HERBERT LEO BUCKMASTER Approved...

  11. The effect of long-time cropping systems and tillage practices upon some physical properties of Abilene clay loam soil 

    E-print Network

    Perdomo M., Rodolfo

    1961-01-01

    as influenced by cropping systems and til- lage practices. ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ 0 \\ ~ 0 ZZ Soil bulk density obtained from 2 x 3 inch field cores taken at 4 different depths in different crop- ping systems and tillage practices. . . . . . , . . . ~. . . , . . Z5...) have reported from the United States Department of Agriculture Til- lage Machinery Laboratory that tractor tires caused considerable compaction effects which increased with initial looseness of the soil and the moisture content. Peak compaction...

  12. The development of a crop yield prediction equation for some soils in the Blackland and Grand Prairies of Texas 

    E-print Network

    Buckmaster, Herbert Leo

    1964-01-01

    THE DEVEIOPMENT OF A CROP YIELD PREDICTION EQUATION FOR SOME SOILS IN THE BLACKLAND AND GRAND PRAIRIES OF TEXAS A Thesis By HERBERT LEO BUCKMASTER Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1964 Major Subject: Agronomy THE DEVEIDPMENT OF A CROP YIELD PREDICTION EQPATION FOR SOME SOILS IN THE BLACKLAND AND GRAND PRAIRIES OF TEXAS A Thesis By HERBERT LEO BUCKMASTER Approved...

  13. Process-based modeling of nitrous oxide emissions from wheat-cropped soils at the subregional scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Gabrielle; P. Laville; O. Duval; B. Nicoullaud; J. C. Germon; C. Hénault

    2006-01-01

    Arable soils are a large source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, making up half of the biogenic emissions worldwide. Estimating their source strength requires methods capable of capturing the spatial and temporal variability of N2O emissions, along with the effects of crop management. Here we applied a process-based model, Crop Environmental REsources Synthesis (CERES), with geo-referenced input data on soils,

  14. Space agriculture: the effect of micro- and hypogravity on soil hydraulics and biogeochemistry in a bioregenerative soil-based cropping unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Maggi; C. E. Pallud

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Increasing interest has developed towards growing plants in soil-based cropping modules as a long-term bioregenerative life support system in space and planetary explorations. Contrary to hydroponics, zeoponics and aeroponics, soil-based cropping would offer an effective approach to sustain food and oxygen production, decompose organic wastes, sequester carbon dioxide, and filter water for the crew. The hydraulic and biogeochemical functioning

  15. Modeling the annual soil erosion rate in the mouth of river Pineios' sub-basin in Thessaly County, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilia, Ioanna; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas

    2015-04-01

    Erosion is a natural - geomorphological phenomenon, active through geological time that is considered as one of the main agents that forms the earth surface. Soil erosion models estimate the rates of soil erosion and provide useful information and guidance for the development of appropriate intervention and soil conservation practices and strategies. A significant number of soil erosion models can be found in literature; however, the most extensively applied model is the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) established in 1997 by Renard KG, Foster GR, Weesies GA, McCool DK and Yoder DC. RUSLE is an empirically based model that enables the estimation of the average annual rate of soil erosion for an area of interest providing several alternative scenarios involving cropping systems, management methods and erosion control strategies. According to RUSLE model's specifications five major factors (rainfall pattern, soil type, topography, crop system, and management practices) are utilized for estimating the average annual erosion through the following equation: A=RxKxLxSxCxP, PIC where A is the computed spatial average soil loss and temporal average soil loss per unit area (tons ha-1 year-1), R the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor (MJ mm ha-1h-1 year-1), K the soil erodibility factor (tons h MJ-1 mm-1), L the slope - length factor, S the slope steepness factor, C the cover management factor and P the conservation support practice factor. L, S, C and P factors are all dimensionless. The present study aims to utilize a GIS-based RUSLE model in order to estimate the average annual soil loss rate in the sub-basin extending at the mouth of Pineios river in Thessaly County, Greece. The area covers approximate 775.9 km2 with a mean slope angle of 7.8o. The rainfall data of 39 gauge station from 1980 to 2000 where used in order to predict the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor (R). The K-factor was estimated using soil maps available from the European Soil Portal with a grid cell size of 500 m and a soil map of Thessaly at a scale of 1:150.000. The LS-factor was calculated from a 30-m digital elevation model. The C-factor was calculated by processing a Landsat ETM satellite image, acquired on 11 November of 2014, with a spatial resolution of 30 m. The P-factor in absence of available data was set to 1. The outcomes of the analysis, in the form of annual soil loss rate maps, indicated that an extended part of the area is undergoing moderate erosion. The maximum soil loss in the area of interest was estimated to have a value of 42.86 (tons ha-1 year-1), with a close relation to areas with high LS values covered by Natural grasslands and Sclerophyllous vegetation. The results of the presented model can be used as a simple but efficient tool assisting local resource planners to optimize land management in terms of identifying areas of high erosion probability. Also the results constitute an effective tool of predicting possible future changes in land-use as well as in soil erosion evolution.

  16. Methods to evaluate soil and crop management-induced soil carbon changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout the years, many studies evaluated the changes in soil carbon (C) mass on a fixed depth (FD) using the bulk density (BD) associated with the specific depth without considering soil thickness or soil mass. However, within the same study site, different management practices can influence so...

  17. Allelopathic effect of new introduced biofuel crops on the soil biota: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hed?nec, Petr; Frouz, Jan; Ustak, Sergej; Novotny, David

    2015-04-01

    Biofuel crops as an alternative to fossil fuels are a component of the energy mix in many countries. Many of them are introduced plants, so they pose a serious threat of biological invasions. Production of allelopathic compounds can increase invasion success by limiting co-occurring species in the invaded environment (novel weapons hypothesis). In this study, we focused on plant chemistry and production of allelopathic compounds by biofuel crops (hybrid sorrel Rumex tianschanicus x Rumex patientia and miscanthus Miscanthus sinensis) in comparison with invasive knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis) and cultural meadow species. First, we tested the impact of leachates isolated from hybrid sorrel, miscanthus, knotweed and cultural meadow species compared to deionized water, used as a control, on seed germination of mustard (Sinapis arvensis) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivated on sand and soil. Secondly, we studied the effect of leachates on the growth of soil fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia solani and Cochliobolus sativus. Finally, we tested the effect of litter of hybrid sorrel, miscanthus, knotweed and cultural meadow litter mixed with soil on population growth of Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida. Miscanthus and knotweed litter had a higher C:N ratio than the control meadow and hybrid sorrel litter. Miscanthus and hybrid sorrel litter had a higher content of phenols than knotweed and cultural meadow litter. Leachates from hybrid sorrel, miscanthus and knotweed biomass significantly decreased seed germination of wheat and mustard in both substrates. Soil fungal pathogens grew less vigorously on agar enriched by leachates from both biofuel crops than on agar enriched by knotweed and leachates. Litter from hybrid sorrel, miscanthus and knotweed significantly altered (both ways) the population growth of the soil mesofauna.

  18. Accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in edible parts of four commonly grown crops in two contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Zhou, Dongmei; Wang, Yikun; Shi, Fugui; Jiang, Ping

    2011-03-01

    Soil heavy metal pollution resulting from human activities is causing major concern due to its potential risk. In this study, four crop species with different cultivars were planted in 2 levels (heavily and slightly) of heavy metal contaminated soils, and the accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the edible parts of the crops were investigated. Metal concentrations in sesame seeds grown in both soils exceeded both the Chinese Food Hygiene Standard (CFHS) and Codex Alimentarius Commission Standard (CACS), while the metal concentrations in all pepper cultivars in the slightly contaminated soil were below the CFHS and CACS. Other crops were generally in between in both soils. Among the tested crops, the order of soil-plant transfer factor (TF) was: sesame > green soybean > cowpea > pepper. Additionally, old fruit of cowpea contained larger amounts of metals than young fruit. It suggests that sesame should not be planted in the metal contaminated area, while pepper cultivar "Chaobianjiao No.1" may be an alternative to be grown in the slightly contaminated soil. There were differences in individual human susceptibilities to metals. Therefore, a comprehensive risk assessment should consider the frequency, amount and species consumed by human besides metal concentrations in crops. PMID:21598793

  19. Spatial variation in soil penetration resistance according to the structural states of the soil and soybean crop yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Marcelo; Sasal, María Carolina; Oszust, José; Gabioud, Emmanuel; Melchiori, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    The soil penetration resistance (PR) is used to identify and characterize soil layers densified by effects of tilling, and the results obtained are related to root growth and crop productivity. The aims of this work were: (i) to analyze the spatial variation in PR through resistance isolines in an Aquic Argiudoll with different long-term cropping sequences under no tillage (NT), (ii) to compare the information generated from the lines with the same PR values with the analysis of the cultural profile and (iii) to study the spatial variability in the PR and the bulk density (BD) in a 10-ha plot, and their relationship with soybean crop yield. An experiment was carried out in an Aquic Argiudoll in 100-m2 plots (4 m wide x 25 m long), with different long-term cropping sequences, under NT for 15 years. The treatments tested were: soybean and maize monocultures, wheat/soybean, wheat/soybean-maize and a permanent pasture as a reference. A digital penetrologger Eijkelkamp ® was used to take 20 measurements of the PR in each plot, through the design of a grid 5 m long and 0.66 m wide, centimeter-wise until 20 cm, totaling n= 400. In addition, an observation well (1 m wide by 30 cm deep) was analyzed by means of the technique of the cultural profiles. Besides, two sampling grids in a 10-ha plot with maize-wheat/soybean sequence were used to measure PR every 30 m and BD every 60 m. The variability in the soil properties was assessed using descriptive statistical analysis, determining normality and spatial variability with the adjustment to the theoretical semivariograms. At 10-15 and 15-20 cm, wheat/soybean-maize and wheat/soybean showed the highest PR values, differentiating from the soybeans and maize monocultures and pasture. The lines with the same PR values allowed observing structural changes in the soil profile, such as surface granular structures and subsequent layers of laminar structure, sometimes discontinuous, from 1.0 to 1.5 MPa between 5 and 8 cm in depth, and massive structures located in the profile up to 2.6 MPa. In the 10-ha plot, the PR identified a hardened layer at 05-12 cm, with a maximum value of 1.45 MPa; the PR also showed greater spatial variation in the plot than the BD, with maximum values of 2.58 MPa and 1.52 g cm-3, respectively. Although with varying thickness, platy structures were present in all the treatments of the crop sequences under NT. The identification of compaction areas at subsurface level, with reduction of macropores, coincided with the traffic. The crop sequences that presented high compaction were wheat/soybean and wheat/soybean-maize, attributable to the greater number of passes of agricultural machinery in the plot. We thus recommend controlled traffic. The results provide tools to identify areas for homogeneous soil management and detect constraints on soybean crop yield.

  20. Linking the planting of cover crops to soil and water nutrient dynamics in Shatto Ditch Watershed, IN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. F.; Tank, J. L.; Hanrahan, B. R.; Mahl, U. H.; Huang, K.

    2013-12-01

    Tile drainage systems are common in the Midwest, and facilitate the transfer of excess inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agricultural soils to adjacent streams. These non-point sources contribute to elevated nutrient loads to tributaries in the Mississippi River Basin, which have been linked to widespread hypoxia and associated ecological and economic problems in the Gulf of Mexico. In agricultural areas dominated by row-crops, the planting of cover crops after the cash crop has been harvested offers a potential mechanism to reduce nutrient leaching from fields to tile drains in the off-season. In general, cover crops retain nutrients on fields and increase soil organic matter (SOM) content after they are harvested. The planting of cover crops also promotes immobilization of soil N and reduction in losses of dissolved P from soils due to reduced erosion, resulting in significantly less leaching to surface waters through tile drains. As part of a demonstration project in the Shatto Ditch Watershed, located in the Tippecanoe River Basin, IN, we are testing whether the planting of cover crops will influence soil nutrient and organic matter, and how cover crops alter the dynamics of nutrient leaching from tile drains. We have been sampling tile drain outflows on a twice-monthly sampling regime and have been measuring dissolved inorganic N and P concentrations in tile water since November 2012. During Spring 2013, tile drain nitrate concentrations sampled synoptically throughout the watershed ranged from 2.6 - 38.9 mg NO3- L -1 (mean = 17.2 +/- 1.6 mg NO3- L -1) with the lowest concentrations coming from fields planted in cover crops (range = 2.6 - 19.0 mg NO3- L -1, mean = 9.7 +/- 1.5 mg NO3- L -1). In contrast, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations were much lower in tile drain water and ranged from 7.5 - 182.7 ?g L-1 (mean = 24.5 +/- 5.0 ?g L-1 SRP) and preliminary data suggest that there were no differences between fields with and without cover crops. In July 2012, we also sampled soils for SOM and inorganic N and P, 6 weeks after cover crop planting because the net effects of mineralization, leaching, and other potential losses that may have occurred since the cover crop was harvested are most accurately assessed at this time. Preliminary results suggest SOM content in the near-surface soil layer (i.e., 0 - 5 cm) in 3 fields planted in cover crops were similar (mean = 4.6 % +/- 0.3 %) to the mean SOM across the other 17 fields sampled without cover crops (mean = 5.8 % +/- 0.9 %). Finally, based on nutrient signatures in the tile drain samples, we predict that soil nitrate concentrations will be lower in soils planted with cover crops, but there will be little difference in soil extractable P between cover crop and non-cover crop fields. The combined sampling of both tile water and field soils will help assess whether cover crops provide a management compromise that allows farmers to improve their soil health, while at the same time improving adjacent stream water quality.

  1. Transfer of wastewater associated pharmaceuticals and personal care products to crop plants from biosolids treated soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenxi; Spongberg, Alison L; Witter, Jason D; Sridhar, B B Maruthi

    2012-11-01

    The plant uptake of emerging organic contaminants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is receiving increased attention. Biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment have been previously identified as a major source for PPCPs. Thus, plant uptake of PPCPs from biosolids applied soils needs to be understood. In the present study, the uptake of carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, and triclocarban by five vegetable crop plants was examined in a field experiment. At the time of harvest, three compounds were detected in all plants grown in biosolids-treated soils. Calculated root concentration factor (RCF) and shoot concentration factor (SCF) are the highest for carbamazepine followed by triclocarban and diphenhydramine. Positive correlation between RCF and root lipid content was observed for carbamazepine but not for diphenhydramine and triclocarban. The results demonstrate the ability of crop plants to accumulate PPCPs from contaminated soils. The plant uptake processes of PPCPs are likely affected by their physico-chemical properties, and their interaction with soil. The difference uptake behavior between plant species could not solely be attributed to the root lipid content. PMID:22921256

  2. Ecosystem-Service Tradeoffs Associated with Switching from Annual to Perennial Energy Crops in Riparian Zones of the US Midwest

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Timothy D.; Gratton, Claudio; Diehl, Erica; Hunt, Natalie D.; Mooney, Daniel F.; Ventura, Stephen J.; Barham, Bradford L.; Jackson, Randall D.

    2013-01-01

    Integration of energy crops into agricultural landscapes could promote sustainability if they are placed in ways that foster multiple ecosystem services and mitigate ecosystem disservices from existing crops. We conducted a modeling study to investigate how replacing annual energy crops with perennial energy crops along Wisconsin waterways could affect a variety of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. We found that a switch from continuous corn production to perennial-grass production decreased annual income provisioning by 75%, although it increased annual energy provisioning by 33%, decreased annual phosphorous loading to surface water by 29%, increased below-ground carbon sequestration by 30%, decreased annual nitrous oxide emissions by 84%, increased an index of pollinator abundance by an average of 11%, and increased an index of biocontrol potential by an average of 6%. We expressed the tradeoffs between income provisioning and other ecosystem services as benefit-cost ratios. Benefit-cost ratios averaged 12.06 GJ of additional net energy, 0.84 kg of avoided phosphorus pollution, 18.97 Mg of sequestered carbon, and 1.99 kg of avoided nitrous oxide emissions for every $1,000 reduction in income. These ratios varied spatially, from 2- to 70-fold depending on the ecosystem service. Benefit-cost ratios for different ecosystem services were generally correlated within watersheds, suggesting the presence of hotspots – watersheds where increases in multiple ecosystem services would come at lower-than-average opportunity costs. When assessing the monetary value of ecosystem services relative to existing conservation programs and environmental markets, the overall value of enhanced services associated with adoption of perennial energy crops was far lower than the opportunity cost. However, when we monitized services using estimates for the social costs of pollution, the value of enhanced services far exceeded the opportunity cost. This disparity between recoverable costs and social value represents a fundamental challenge to expansion of perennial energy crops and sustainable agricultural landscapes. PMID:24223215

  3. Maximum temperature accounts for annual soil CO2 efflux in temperate forests of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiyong; Xu, Meili; Kang, Fengfeng; Jianxin Sun, Osbert

    2015-01-01

    It will help understand the representation legality of soil temperature to explore the correlations of soil respiration with variant properties of soil temperature. Soil temperature at 10?cm depth was hourly logged through twelve months. Basing on the measured soil temperature, soil respiration at different temporal scales were calculated using empirical functions for temperate forests. On monthly scale, soil respiration significantly correlated with maximum, minimum, mean and accumulated effective soil temperatures. Annual soil respiration varied from 409?g C m?2 in coniferous forest to 570?g C m?2 in mixed forest and to 692?g C m?2 in broadleaved forest, and was markedly explained by mean soil temperatures of the warmest day, July and summer, separately. These three soil temperatures reflected the maximum values on diurnal, monthly and annual scales. In accordance with their higher temperatures, summer soil respiration accounted for 51% of annual soil respiration across forest types, and broadleaved forest also had higher soil organic carbon content (SOC) and soil microbial biomass carbon content (SMBC), but a lower contribution of SMBC to SOC. This added proof to the findings that maximum soil temperature may accelerate the transformation of SOC to CO2-C via stimulating activities of soil microorganisms. PMID:26179467

  4. Maximum temperature accounts for annual soil CO2 efflux in temperate forests of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiyong; Xu, Meili; Kang, Fengfeng; Jianxin Sun, Osbert

    2015-01-01

    It will help understand the representation legality of soil temperature to explore the correlations of soil respiration with variant properties of soil temperature. Soil temperature at 10?cm depth was hourly logged through twelve months. Basing on the measured soil temperature, soil respiration at different temporal scales were calculated using empirical functions for temperate forests. On monthly scale, soil respiration significantly correlated with maximum, minimum, mean and accumulated effective soil temperatures. Annual soil respiration varied from 409?g C m(-2) in coniferous forest to 570?g C m(-2) in mixed forest and to 692?g C m(-2) in broadleaved forest, and was markedly explained by mean soil temperatures of the warmest day, July and summer, separately. These three soil temperatures reflected the maximum values on diurnal, monthly and annual scales. In accordance with their higher temperatures, summer soil respiration accounted for 51% of annual soil respiration across forest types, and broadleaved forest also had higher soil organic carbon content (SOC) and soil microbial biomass carbon content (SMBC), but a lower contribution of SMBC to SOC. This added proof to the findings that maximum soil temperature may accelerate the transformation of SOC to CO2-C via stimulating activities of soil microorganisms. PMID:26179467

  5. Operational use of agro-meteorological data and GIS to derive site specific nitrogen fertilizer recommendations based on the simulation of soil and crop growth processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Kersebaum; K. Lorenz; H. I. Reuter; J. Schwarz; M. Wegehenkel; O. Wendroth

    2005-01-01

    The spatial and temporal coincidence of nutrient supply and the demand of the crops is especially important for nitrogen to prevent ground water contamination. High spatial and temporal variability of soil mineral nitrogen and high costs impede a frequent and dense soil sampling under practical conditions. Temporal dynamics of relevant state variables, such as soil–crop nitrogen dynamics, are derived in

  6. Estimating water and nitrate leaching in tree crops using inverse modelled plant and soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couvreur, Valentin; Kandelous, Maziar; Mairesse, Harmony; Baram, Shahar; Moradi, Ahmad; Pope, Katrin; Hopmans, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater quality is specifically vulnerable in irrigated agricultural lands in California and many other (semi-)arid regions of the world. The routine application of nitrogen fertilizers with irrigation water in California is likely responsible for the high nitrate concentrations in groundwater, underlying much of its main agricultural areas. To optimize irrigation/fertigation practices, it is essential that irrigation and fertilizers are applied at the optimal concentration, place, and time to ensure maximum root uptake and minimize leaching losses to the groundwater. The applied irrigation water and dissolved fertilizer, root nitrate and water uptake interact with soil and root properties in a complex manner that cannot easily be resolved. It is therefore that coupled experimental-modelling studies are required to allow for unravelling of the relevant complexities that result from typical variations of crop properties, soil texture and layering across farmer-managed fields. A combined field monitoring and modelling approach was developed to quantify from simple measurements the leaching of water and nitrate below the root zone. The monitored state variables are soil water content within the root zone, soil matric potential below the root zone, and nitrate concentration in the soil solution. Plant and soil properties of incremented complexity are optimized with the software HYDRUS in an inverse modelling scheme, which allows estimating leaching under constraint of hydraulic principles. Questions of optimal irrigation and fertilization timing can then be addressed using predictive results and global optimization algorithms.

  7. SURFACE-SOIL PROPERTIES IN RESPONSE TO SILAGE CROPPING INTENSITY UNDER NO TILLAGE ON A TYPIC KANHAPLUDULT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although reduced tillage itself is beneficial to soil quality and farm economics, the amount of crop residues returned to soil will likely alter the success of a particular conservation tillage system within a particular farm operation. There is a need for more information on multiple-year impacts ...

  8. Black oat cover crop management effects on soil temperature and biological properties on a Mollisol in Texas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This field experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of mowing (no mowing, flail mowing, or sickle mowing) management of a black oat (Avena strigosa [Schreb.]) cover crop on soil microenvironmental conditions and on microbial biomass, dissolved organic C (DOC), soil inorganic N, resin-extractable...

  9. Ground cover by three crops cultivated on marginal lands in southwestern Nigeria and implications for soil erosion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. K. Salako; F. A. Olowokere; G. Tian; G. Kirchhof; O. Osiname

    2007-01-01

    Resource-poor farmers in developing nations cultivate marginal lands, thereby exacerbating the problem of soil degradation through poor plant growth and ground coverage. An assessment of ground cover under such a practice will provide a guideline for soil conservation. Ground cover by leguminous cover crops (e.g., Mucuna pruriens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Vigna unguiculata), associated with yam, maize and rice was measured

  10. Soil-crop dynamic depth response determined from TDR of a corn silage field compared to EMI measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) mapping techniques have been used to monitor seasonal soil-crop electrical conductivity (EC) dynamics. These mapping techniques can be affected by many confounding seasonal changes in the soil profile, such as water content or salt leaching. Time domain reflectometry ...

  11. Soil properties and their relationships with crop productivity after 30 years of different fertilization in the Indian Himalayas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjan Bhattacharyya; Ved Prakash; S. Kundu; Anil K. Srivastva; H. S. Gupta

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed results of a long-term (30 year) experiment under rainfed soybean-wheat rotation to determine the effects of differences in fertilization on selected soil properties and to investigate the relationship between these properties with crop yield. The results showed that addition of farmyard manure (FYM) with N or NPK fertilizers increased soil organic carbon (SOC) content. FYM application reduced bulk

  12. Phosphorus supplying capacity of heavily fertilized soils II. Dry matter yield of successive crops and phosphorus uptake at different temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Singh; V. Subramaniam

    1996-01-01

    Nine heavily fertilized soils were collected from southern and central Norway. A greenhouse experiment in the phytotron was conducted to evaluate the P supplying capacities of these soils at different temperatures (9, 12 and 18 °C). The crops were grown in succession and the sequence was oat, rye grass (cut twice), oat, rape and oat. Effect of temperature on dry

  13. Selection pressure, cropping system and rhizosphere proximity affect atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soils are likely affected by interactions among and (or) between s-triazine application frequency, crop production system, and proximity to the rhizosphere. A field study was conducted on an s-triazine adapted soil to determine the ef...

  14. Soil and water environmental effects of fertilizer-, manure-, and compost-based fertility practices in an organic vegetable cropping system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Evanylo; Caroline Sherony; John Spargo; David Starner; Michael Brosius; Kathryn Haering

    2008-01-01

    Degraded soil quality, which decreases agricultural productivity and increases nonpoint source pollution of surface water, may be ameliorated by employing soil organic matter enhancing management, such as practiced by compost use in organic farming. The value of compost applied at rates lower than those required to supply crop nutrient needs requires investigation because applying compost at agronomic nitrogen rates may

  15. Use of domestic greywater for small-scale irrigation of food crops: Effects on plants and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodda, N.; Salukazana, L.; Jackson, S. A. F.; Smith, M. T.

    Disposal of greywater presents a problem in areas served with on-site sanitation or in areas with poor service provision. Such areas often also face challenges with respect to food security. Use of greywater for irrigation of food crops represents a possible beneficial use of greywater which can contribute to household food supply and to informal income generation. In this study, an above-ground crop (Swiss chard, Betavulgaris var. cicla) and a below-ground crop (carrot, Daucus carota) were irrigated in pots with mixed greywater sourced from households in an informal settlement. A simple form of sub-surface irrigation was used. Plant growth, crop yield, and levels of macro- and micronutrients in crops and soil were monitored through six growth cycles. Equivalent treatments, irrigated with either tap water or a hydroponic nutrient solution, were conducted for comparison. The same soil was used throughout to allow accumulation of greywater-derived substances in soil to be detected. The results indicated that: (i) irrigation with greywater increased plant growth and yield relative to crops irrigated with tap water only, although crops irrigated with hydroponic nutrient solution yielded the highest growth and yield; (ii) irrigation with greywater improved plant nutrient content relative to crops irrigated with tap water; (iii) soil irrigated with greywater showed increased electrical conductivity and increased concentrations of metals over time, coupled with an increase in sodium and metal concentrations in crops. Thus, provided precautions are taken with regard to salt and metal accumulation, greywater offers a potential source of water for household crop irrigation which additionally shows some fertiliser properties.

  16. Ten Years of Continuous Annual No-Till Cropping vs. Winter Wheat - Fallow in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-yr experiment was conducted to evaluate continuous annual (i.e., no summer fallow) cropping systems using no-till as an alternative to tillage-intensive winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow (WW-SF). Soft white and hard white classes of winter and spring wheat, spring barley (Hor...

  17. Short-term cover crop decomposition in organic and conventional soils: Soil microbial and nutrient cycling indicator variables associated with different levels of soil suppressiveness to Pythium aphanidermatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Grünwald; S. Hu; A. H. C. van Bruggen

    2000-01-01

    Stages of oat-vetch cover crop decomposition were characterized over\\u000a time in terms of carbon and nitrogen cycling, microbial activity and\\u000a community dynamics in organically and conventionally managed soils in a\\u000a field experiment and a laboratory incubation experiment. We subsequently\\u000a determined which variables describing soil microbial community dynamics,\\u000a C and N cycling could be used as predictors of Pythium aphanidermatum\\u000a damping-off

  18. Soil Compaction Varies by Crop Management System over a Claypan Soil Landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the effects of landscape position and management practices on soil compaction have been documented as individual factors, limited understanding exists of their interactions. Such understanding is needed to prevent site-specific compaction and to better optimize soil management practices using ...

  19. Evaluation of land surface model simulations of evapotranspiration over a 12 year crop succession: impact of the soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Lafont, S.; Moulin, S.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Renard, D.

    2014-10-01

    Evapotranspiration has been recognized as one of the most uncertain term in the surface water balance simulated by land surface models. In this study, the SURFEX/ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration are assessed at local scale over a 12 year Mediterranean crop succession. The model is evaluated in its standard implementation which relies on the use of the ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil properties. The originality of this work consists in explicitly representing the succession of crop cycles and inter-crop bare soil periods in the simulations and assessing its impact on the dynamic of simulated and measured evapotranspiration over a long period of time. The analysis focuses on key soil parameters which drive the simulation of evapotranspiration, namely the rooting depth, the soil moisture at saturation, the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at wilting point. The simulations achieved with the standard values of these parameters are compared to those achieved with the in situ values. The portability of the ISBA pedotransfer functions is evaluated over a typical Mediterranean crop site. Various in situ estimates of the soil parameters are considered and distinct parametrization strategies are tested to represent the evapotranspiration dynamic over the crop succession. This work shows that evapotranspiration mainly results from the soil evaporation when it is continuously simulated over a Mediterranean crop succession. The evapotranspiration simulated with the standard surface and soil parameters of the model is largely underestimated. The deficit in cumulative evapotranspiration amounts to 24% over 12 years. The bias in daily daytime evapotranspiration is -0.24 mm day-1. The ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil moisture at saturation and at wilting point are overestimated which explains most of the evapotranspiration underestimation. The overestimation of the soil moisture at wilting point causes the underestimation of transpiration at the end of the crop cycles. The overestimation of the soil moisture at saturation triggers the underestimation of the soil evaporation during the wet soil periods. The use of field capacity values derived from laboratory retention measurements leads to inaccurate simulation of soil evaporation due to the lack of representativeness of the soil structure variability at the field scale. The most accurate simulation is achieved with the values of the soil hydraulic properties derived from field measured soil moisture. Their temporal analysis over each crop cycle provides meaningful estimates of the wilting point, the field capacity and the rooting depth to represent the crop water needs and accurately simulate the evapotranspiration over the crop succession. We showed that the uncertainties in the eddy-covariance measurements are significant and can explain a large part of the unresolved random differences between the simulations and the measurements of evapotranspiration. Other possible model shortcomings include the lack of representation of soil vertical heterogeneity and root profile along with inaccurate energy balance partitioning between the soil and the vegetation at low LAI.

  20. The importance of soil drying and re-wetting in crop phytohormonal and nutritional responses to deficit irrigation.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Ian C; Puértolas, Jaime; Huber, Katrin; Pérez-Pérez, Juan Gabriel; Wright, Hannah R; Blackwell, Martin S A

    2015-04-01

    Soil drying and re-wetting (DRW) occurs at varying frequencies and intensities during crop production, and is deliberately used in water-saving irrigation techniques that aim to enhance crop water use efficiency. Soil drying not only limits root water uptake which can (but not always) perturb shoot water status, but also alters root synthesis of phytohormones and their transport to shoots to regulate leaf growth and gas exchange. Re-wetting the soil rapidly restores leaf water potential and leaf growth (minutes to hours), but gas exchange recovers more slowly (hours to days), probably mediated by sustained changes in root to shoot phytohormonal signalling. Partial rootzone drying (PRD) deliberately irrigates only part of the rootzone, while the remainder is allowed to dry. Alternating these wet and dry zones (thus re-wetting dry soil) substantially improves crop yields compared with maintaining fixed wet and dry zones or conventional deficit irrigation, and modifies phytohormonal (especially abscisic acid) signalling. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) of rice can also improve yield compared with paddy culture, and is correlated with altered phytohormonal (including cytokinin) signalling. Both PRD and AWD can improve crop nutrition, and re-wetting dry soil provokes both physical and biological changes which affect soil nutrient availability. Whether this alters crop nutrient uptake depends on competition between plant and microbes for nutrients, with the rate of re-wetting determining microbial dynamics. Nevertheless, studies that examine the effects of soil DRW on both crop nutritional and phytohormonal responses are relatively rare; thus, determining the cause(s) of enhanced crop yields under AWD and PRD remains challenging. PMID:25628330