These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Annual Faculty Review Guidelines Department of Soil and Crop Science  

E-print Network

Annual Faculty Review Guidelines Department of Soil and Crop Science Texas A&M University (Revised December 2012) INTRODUCTION The Department of Soil and Crop Science (SCSC) proactively supports, extension and service missions of the Department, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Texas A&M Agri

Boas, Harold P.

2

Managing Claypan Soils: Annual Grain Crops vs. Perennial Switchgrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Topsoil depth and landscape position are important factors in the claypan region of Missouri for agricultural productivity and soil-water conservation. Shallow topsoil reduces grain productivity and causes yield inconsistencies, while traditional grain cropping increases soil erosion and nonpoint so...

3

Effects of climatic factors and soil management on the methane flux in soils from annual and perennial energy crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane flux rates were measured on a loamy sand soil within perennial and annual energy crops in northeast Germany. The study\\u000a was performed in closed chambers between 2003 and 2005 with four measurements per week. A mixed linear model including the\\u000a fixed effects of year, rotation period, crop and fertilisation was applied to determine the influence of climatic factors\\u000a and

Jürgen Kern; Hans Jürgen Hellebrand; Michael Gömmel; Christian Ammon; Werner Berg

4

Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management: soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition, and yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extensive use of sustainable crop and soil management systems would result in profitable farms producing greater yields while maintaining or enhancing natural resources. Development of sustainable agricultural systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil management, crop mana...

5

Effect of Potassium on Uptake of 137Cs in Food Crops Grown on Coral Soils: Annual Crops at Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect

In 1954 a radioactive plume from the thermonuclear device code named BRAVO contaminated the principal residential islands, Eneu and Bikini, of Bikini Atoll (11{sup o} 36 minutes N; 165{sup o} 22 minutes E), now part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The resulting soil radioactivity diminished greatly over the three decades before the studies discussed below began. By that time the shorter-lived isotopes had all but disappeared, but strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), and cesium-137, ({sup 137}Cs) were reduced by only one half-life. Minute amounts of the long-lived isotopes, plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), were present in soil, but were found to be inconsequential in the food chain of humans and land animals. Rather, extensive studies demonstrated that the major concern for human health was {sup 137}Cs in the terrestrial food chain (Robison et al., 1983; Robison et al., 1997). The following papers document results from several studies between 1986 and 1997 aimed at minimizing the {sup 137}Cs content of annual food crops. The existing literature on radiocesium in soils and plant uptake is largely a consequence of two events: the worldwide fallout of 1952-58, and the fallout from Chernobyl. The resulting studies have, for the most part, dealt either with soils containing some amount of silicate clays and often with appreciable K, or with the short-term development of plants in nutrient cultures.

Stone, E R; Robinson, W

2002-02-01

6

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

Arnold, Jonathan

7

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

Arnold, Jonathan

8

Crop Production: Annual Summary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) (described in the June 4, 1998 Scout Report for Business and Economics) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has recently released the annual summary of US crop production. Available in text or .pdf format, the summary contains "annual US data for acreage, yield, and production by crop." In addition to statistical tables, the report includes reviews of crop progress and the weather in 1998. Reports from 1995-98 are also available in text format only.

9

Role of Cover Crops in Improving Soil and Row Crop Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover crops play an important role in improving productivity of subsequent row crops by improving soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. The objective of this article is to review recent advances in cover crops practice, in the context of potential benefits and drawbacks for annual crop production and sustained soil quality. Desirable attributes of a cover crop are the ability

N. K. Fageria; V. C. Baligar; B. A. Bailey

2005-01-01

10

An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.  

PubMed

Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900 °C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41 g N2O-N ha(-1) day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O. PMID:23490323

Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

2013-11-01

11

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Quantitative Genomics  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Quantitative Genomics Committee Membership Dr. Scott Jackson - committee chair Dr. Peng-Wah Chee Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Horticulture Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

Arnold, Jonathan

12

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Irrigation Specialist  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Irrigation Specialist Committee Membership Dr. John Beasley - committee chair Dr. Jared Whitaker Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University: (229) 386-7308 Fax: (912) 681-0376 Dr. Robert Carrow Dr. Mark Risse Department of Crop & Soil Sciences

Arnold, Jonathan

13

Soil quality in a pecan – Kura clover alley cropping system in the midwestern USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intercropping alleys in agroforestry provides an income source until the tree crop produces harvestable yields. However, cultivation of annual crops decreases soil organic matter and increases soil erosion potential, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintain a continuous soil cover,...

14

Double-cropping annual ryegrass and bermudagrass to reduce phosphorus levels in soil with history of poultry litter application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term application of poultry litter may result in excessively high soil phosphorus (P). This field study determined the\\u000a potential of ‘Coastal’ bermudagrass overseeded with ‘Marshall’ annual ryegrass and harvested for hay to reduce the level of\\u000a Mehlich-3 extractable P (M3-P) that had accumulated in a Savannah soil due to a 30-year history of broiler litter application\\u000a to bermudagrass, as well

J. J. Read; K. R. Sistani; J. L. Oldham; G. E. Brink

2009-01-01

15

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences.  

E-print Network

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences. Strategic Plan SUBMITTED TO THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL Science (Agronomy) ..........................................................page 11 Soil Science Summary The Department of Crop and Soil Sciences consists of the three major program areas of Crop Science

Guiltinan, Mark

16

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Water Policy and Management  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Water Policy and Management Committee Membership Dr. David Radcliffe - committee chair Dr. George Vellidis Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Stripling

Arnold, Jonathan

17

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Cotton Physiologist Tifton campus  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Cotton Physiologist ­ Tifton campus Committee Membership Dr. Stanley Culpepper - committee chair Dr. John Beasley Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia-SE District University

Arnold, Jonathan

18

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist Committee Membership Dr. J. Michael Moore - committee chair Dr. Clint Waltz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

Arnold, Jonathan

19

Cover Crops Soil Health Forum  

E-print Network

blinking light, onto Silk Farm Road. 4. Entrance to Center and Sanctuary is on the left. See sign. Cover Crops & Soil Health Forum February 18, 2014 NH Audubon Center 84 Silk Farm Road Concord, NH 03301

New Hampshire, University of

20

Influence of Herbicide-Desiccated Cover Crops on Biological Soil Quality in the Mississippi Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of crop residue management (CRM) systems on selected biological properties (microbial biomass\\/populations and soil enzyme activity) of Dundee soils under two cropping systems was investigated. In a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) study, the influence of conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) with and without an annual ryegrass cover crop (Lolium multiforum Lam.) on these properties was determined. Annual

S. C. Wagner; R. M. Zablotowicz; M. A. Locke; R. J. Smeda; C. T. Bryson

21

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Small Grain Breeding  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Small Grain Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Paul Raymer - committee chair Dr. Scott Jackson Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Horticulture University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

Arnold, Jonathan

22

SOIL QUALITY AND CROP Dick Wolkowski  

E-print Network

Soil test and pH "Artificial" drainage Residue management Microbial activity Salts #12;Soil biology. Drainage 2. Crop appearance 7. Soil structure 3. Earthworms 8. Soil pH 4. Erosion 9. Soil test P 5. Tillage SUBJECTIVE: Soil Health? Smell, feel, look, taste? Soil Quality Index MORE QUANTITATIVE Chemical · pH, O

Balser, Teri C.

23

Chemistry and microbial functional diversity differences in biofuel crop and grassland soils in multiple geographies  

EPA Science Inventory

As crop and non-crop lands are increasingly converted to biofuel feedstock production, it is of interest to identify potential impacts of annual and perennial feedstocks on soil ecosystem services. Soil samples were obtained from diverse regionally distributed biofuel cropping si...

24

Soil Fungal Distribution and Functionality as Affected by Grazing and Vegetation Components of Integrated Crop-Livestock Agroecosystems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integrated crop and livestock (ICL) agroecosystems are characterized by a mixture of perennial or annual vegetation grazed by livestock and annual harvested crops. Compared to annual crops, ICLs hold the potential to enhance soil organic matter (OM) inputs, carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, an...

25

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Statewide Variety Testing Program Coordinator  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Statewide Variety Testing Program Coordinator Committee Membership Dr. Jerry Johnson - committee chair Dr. Paul Raymer Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University

Arnold, Jonathan

26

Nitrogen mineralization and availability of mixed leguminous and non-leguminous cover crop residues in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas non-leguminous cover crops such as cereal rye (Secale cereale) or annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium) are capable of reducing nitrogen (N) leaching during wet seasons, leguminous cover crops such as hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) improve soil N fertility for succeeding crops. With mixtures of grasses and legumes as cover crop, the goal of reducing\\u000a N leaching while increasing soil N

S. Kuo; U. M. Sainju

1998-01-01

27

INSECTICIDE RESIDUES IN COTTON CROP SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethoate, monocrotophos, triazophos, deltamethrin, cypermethrin and endosulfan were applied to a cotton crop soil located at Nurpur village, Punjab, India. The insecticides were applied sequentially at recommended dosages in cotton fields by foliar application in 1995, 1996 and 1998. Soil samples were collected from the cotton crop farms and extracted with acetone. The extracted material was analysed by a gas

Komal Vig; Dileep K. Singh; H. C. Agarwal; A. K. Dhawan; Prem Dureja

2001-01-01

28

Soil water evaporation and crop residues  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

29

Remote sensing of crop residue cover and soil tillage intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop residues on the soil surface reduce soil erosion and affect water infiltration, evaporation, and soil temperatures. Crop residues also influence the flow of nutrients, carbon, water, and energy in agricultural ecosystems. Current methods of measuring crop residue cover are inadequate for monitoring large areas. One promising remote sensing approach for discriminating crop residues from soil is based on a

C. S. T. Daughtry; P. C. Doraiswamy; A. L. Russ

2003-01-01

30

USING WINTER COVER CROPS TO IMPROVE SOIL AND WATER QUALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews literature about the impacts of cover crops in cropping systems that affect soil and water quality and presents limited new information to help fill knowledge gaps. Cover crops grow during periods when the soil might otherwise be fallow. While actively growing, cover crops increase solar energy harvest and carbon flux into the soil, providing food for soil

S. M. Dabney; J. A. Delgado; D. W. Reeves

2001-01-01

31

Conservation tillage and cover cropping influence soil properties in San Joaquin Valley cotton-tomato crop  

E-print Network

the addition of cover- crop residues increased soil carboncover crop residues have been shown to effectively control weeds, reduce soilcover crop, soil salinity increased signi?cantly. Above, researchers evaluate no-till planting into tomato residues.

Veenstra, Jessica; Horwath, William; Mitchell, Jeffrey; Munk, Dan

2006-01-01

32

Effects of soil erosion on crop productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil erosion and the effects of soil erosion on crop productivity have become emotional issues and have attracted the attention of agriculturists, environmentalists, and the public in general. In spite of heavy investments in research and development, the global rates of accelerated erosion are now presumbly higher than ever before. However, the data from available records obtained by diverse methods

Rattan Lal; William C. Moldenhauer

1987-01-01

33

Cropping systems and control of soil erosion in a Mediterranean environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research has been carried out over the years 1996-2010 in an area of the internal hill of Sicily region (Enna, c.da Geracello, 550 m a. s. l. 37° 23' N. Lat, 14° 21' E. Long) in the center of Mediterranean Sea, mainly devoted to durum wheat cultivation, using the experimental plots, established in 1996 on a slope of 26-28%, equipped to determine surface runoff and soil losses. The establishment consists of twelve plots, having 40 m length and 8 m width. In order to study the effect of different field crop systems in controlling soil erosion in slopes subjected to water erosion, the following systems were studied: permanent crops, tilled annual crops, no-tilled annual crops, set-aside. The used crops were: durum wheat, faba bean, rapeseed, subterranean clover, Italian ryegrass, alfalfa, sweetvetch, moon trefoil, barley, sweet sorghum, sunflower. The results pointed out that the cropping systems with perennial crops allowed to keep low the soil loss, while annual crop rotation determined a high amount of soil loss. Sod seeding showed promising results also for annual crop rotations.

Cosentino, Salvatore; Copani, Venera; Testa, Giorgio; Scalici, Giovanni

2013-04-01

34

Crop Residue Removal Impacts on Soil Productivity and Environmental Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop residues are a potential source of renewable feedstocks for cellulosic ethanol production because of their high cellulose content and easy availability. Indiscriminate removal as biofuel may, however, have adverse impacts on soil, environment, and crop production. This article reviews available information on the impacts of crop residue removal on soil properties, crop yields, and soil erosion across a wide

Humberto Blanco-Canqui; R. Lal

2009-01-01

35

Winter cover crops in a vegetable cropping system: Impacts on nitrate leaching, soil water, crop yield, pests and management costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-soil relationships in the surface soil layer affect other processes in agroecosystems, including crop productivity, nitrate leaching and plant-pest interactions. This study investigated the effect of altering surface soil dynamics, using a winter cover crop rotation, on biotic and abiotic characteristics of the soil profile. Two cover crop treatments, phacelia and Merced rye (Phacelia tanacetifolia cv. ‘Phaci’, and Secale cereale

L. J. Wyland; L. E. Jackson; W. E. Chaney; K. Klonsky; S. T. Koike; B. Kimple

1996-01-01

36

Dryland Soil Carbon Dynamics under Alfalfa and Durum-Forage Cropping Sequences  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forages grown in rotation with or without cereals to sustain dryland soil water content and crop production may influence C dynamics. We evaluated the effect of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L.)-annual forage cropping sequences on above- (stems + leaves) and belowground (...

37

Management of cruciferous cover crops by mowing for soil and water conservation in southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the use of cover crops in Mediterranean olive orchards has increased due to serious soil erosion problems and surface water contamination by herbicides. In these areas, the annual precipitation regime is strongly seasonal, with dry summers that require killing the cover crop before it competes with the trees for water. Cruciferous species are being introduced as cover

C. Alcántara; A. Pujadas; M. Saavedra

2011-01-01

38

Soil Nitrogen Dynamics under Dryland Alfalfa and Durum-Forage Cropping Sequences  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forages grown in rotation with or without cereals to sustain dryland soil water content and crop production may influence N dynamics. We evaluated the effect of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L.)-annual forage cropping sequences on above- (stems + leaves) and belowground (...

39

Impacts of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the regional scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural land use and in particular crop growth dynamics can greatly affect soil quality. Both the amount of soil lost from erosion by water and soil organic matter are key indicators for soil quality. The aim was to develop a modelling framework for quantifying the impacts of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the regional scale with test case Flanders. A framework for modelling the impacts of crop growth on soil erosion and soil organic matter was developed by coupling the dynamic crop cover model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) to the PESERA soil erosion model (Kirkby et al., 2009) and to the RothC carbon model (Coleman and Jenkinson, 1999). All three models are process-based, spatially distributed and intended as a regional diagnostic tool. A geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System). Crop allometric models were developed from variety trials to calculate crop residues for common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil. Results indicate that crop growth dynamics and crop rotations influence soil quality for a very large percentage. soil erosion mainly occurs in the southern part of Flanders, where silty to loamy soils and a hilly topography are responsible for soil loss rates of up to 40 t/ha. Parcels under maize, sugar beet and potatoes are most vulnerable to soil erosion. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute most to the total carbon sequestered in agricultural soils. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil quality for a large percentage. The coupled REGCROP-PESERA-ROTHC model allows for quantifying the impact of seasonal and year-to-year crop growth dynamics on soil quality. When coupled to a multi-annual crop rotation database both spatial and temporal analysis becomes possible and allows for decision support at both farm and regional level. The framework is therefore suited for further scenario analysis and impact assessment. The research is funded by the Belgian Science Policy Organisation (Belspo) under contract nr SD/RI/03A.

Gobin, Anne

2014-05-01

40

Soil carbon sequestration via cover crops- A meta-analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural soils are depleted in soil organic carbon (SOC) and have thus a huge potential to sequester SOC. This can primarily be achieved by increasing carbon inputs into the soil. Replacing winter fallows by cover crop cultivation for green manure has many benefits for the soil and forms an additional carbon input. An increase in carbon concentration has been reported in several studies worldwide. However, the effect on SOC stocks, as well as the influence of environmental parameters and management on SOC dynamics is not known. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to investigate those issues. A total of 33 studies, comprising 47 sites and 147 plots were compiled. A pedotransfer function was used to estimate bulk densities and calculate SOC stocks. SOC stock change was found to be a linear function of time since introduction, with an annual sequestration rate of 0.32 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Since no saturation was visible in the observations, we used the model RothC to estimate a new steady state level and the resulting total SOC stock change for an artificial "average cropland". The total average SOC stock change with an annual input of 1.87 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 was 16.76 Mg C ha-1 for the average soil depth of 22 cm. We estimated a potential global SOC sequestration of 0.12±0.03 Pg C yr-1, which would compensate for 8 % of the direct annual greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.

Poeplau, Christopher; Don, Axel

2014-05-01

41

DYNAMIC CROPPING SYSTEMS INFLUENCE ON SOIL BIOCHEMISTRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the Northern Great Plains, more intensive, diverse cropping systems have been developed as a means to improve soil and water conservation in the region. A no-till field research project was conducted near Mandan, ND on a Wilton-Temvik silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, frigid Pachic and T...

42

SCHOLARSHIP APPLICATION Soil and Crop Sciences Department  

E-print Network

educational goals and your choice of a major? 16. Three letters of recommendation (2 academic, 1 personal) 17SCHOLARSHIP APPLICATION Soil and Crop Sciences Department Texas A&M University (Please PRINT words in length. Your topic: Tell us about unique aspects of your academic background, your academic

43

Pendimethalin Wash?Off from Cover Crop Residues and Degradation in a Loessial Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tillage and cover crops affect soil biological, chemical and physical properties that control the fate of herbicides in soil. Effects of conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) and either native winter annual vegetation, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) or wheat (Triticum aestivum) on degradation of pendimethalin [N?(1?ethylpropyl)?3,4?dimethyl?2,6?dinitrobenzenamine] were investigated. Effect of pendimethalin sorption on residues of these cover crops on

L. A. Gaston; D. J. Boquet; M. A. Bosch

2003-01-01

44

The use of cover crops to manage soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cover crops are used to manage soils for many different reasons. Inserting cover crops into fallow periods and spaces in cropping systems is a beneficial soil management practice. Natural ecosystems typically have some plants growing, covering the soil, transpiring water, taking up nutrients, fixing...

45

Nitrogen Fertilizer and Crop Residue Effects on Seed Mortality and Germination of Eight Annual Weed Species  

E-print Network

. Mechanisms underlying soil N fertility effects on weed seed mortality appear to be species-specific. Future control over the genetics of weed populations, a moderate amount of control over the maternal environmentNitrogen Fertilizer and Crop Residue Effects on Seed Mortality and Germination of Eight Annual Weed

Sims, Gerald K.

46

Remote sensing of crop residue cover and soil tillage intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of plant litter or crop residues in agricultural fields is an important consideration for reducing soil erosion and increasing soil organic C. Current methods of quantifying crop residue cover are inadequate for characterizing the spatial variability of residue cover within fields or across large regions. Our objectives were to evaluate several spectral indices for measuring crop residue cover using

C. S. T. Daughtry; P. C. Doraiswamy; E HUNTJR; A. J. Stern; J MCMURTREYIII; J. H. Prueger

2006-01-01

47

Discriminating Crop Residues from Soil by Shortwave Infrared Reflectance  

Microsoft Academic Search

in the line-transect method with a sensor designed to identify crop residue based on its reflectance character- Quantifying crop residue cover on the soil surface is important for istics have had only limited success. The reflectance of evaluating the effectiveness of conservation tillage practices. Current methods of measuring residue cover are inadequate in characterizing both soils and crop residues lack

Craig S. T. Daughtry

2001-01-01

48

Soil and crop nitrogen as influenced by tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil and crop management practices may influence soil mineral N, crop N uptake, and N leaching. We evaluated the effects of three tillage practices [no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)], four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secale cereale L.)],...

49

Soil water balance of annual cropnative shrub systems in Senegal's Peanut Basin: The missing link  

E-print Network

Soil water balance of annual crop­native shrub systems in Senegal's Peanut Basin: The missing link agroecosystems Intercropping Semi-arid landscapes Groundwater uptake a b s t r a c t Shrubs in the Senegal Peanut

Selker, John

50

Reducing crop injury from soil-applied herbicides  

E-print Network

Reducing crop injury from soil-applied herbicides - The Dirty Dozen & Other Stuff - Fabian Menalled Weed Management ­ Herbicide persistence restricts rotational crops #12;In Montana the risk of carryover and herbicide injury due to soil applied herbicides is particularly large because: · Soils with high pH (7

Maxwell, Bruce D.

51

Effect of Cover Crops on Soil Fungal Diversity and Biomass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of various cover crops (sordan, mustard, canola, honeysweet, and fallow) to influence soil fungal biomass and diversity were tested in a potato field in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Soil samples (0-5 cm depth) were randomly selected from each cover crop plot and soil fungal communitie...

52

Accounting for soil biotic effects on soil health and crop productivity in the design of crop rotations.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need for novel agronomic improvements capable of boosting crop yields while alleviating environmental impacts. One such approach is the use of optimized crop rotations. However, a set of measurements that can serve as guiding principles for the design of crop rotations is lacking. Crop rotations take advantage of niche complementarity, enabling the optimization of nutrient use and the reduction of pests and specialist pathogen loads. However, despite the recognized importance of plant-soil microbial interactions and feedbacks for crop yield and soil health, this is ignored in the selection and management of crops for rotation systems. We review the literature and propose criteria for the design of crop rotations focusing on the roles of soil biota and feedback on crop productivity and soil health. We consider that identifying specific key organisms or consortia capable of influencing plant productivity is more important as a predictor of soil health and crop productivity than assessing the overall soil microbial diversity per se. As such, we propose that setting up soil feedback studies and applying genetic sequencing tools towards the development of soil biotic community databases has a strong potential to enable the establishment of improved soil health indicators for optimized crop rotations. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24408021

Dias, Teresa; Dukes, Angela; Antunes, Pedro M

2015-02-01

53

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences PhD Graduate Research Assistantship: Soil Science/Soil Quality/Soil Physics  

E-print Network

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences PhD Graduate Research Assistantship: Soil Science/Soil Qualifications: · MS in Soil Science, Environmental Science, Environmental Engineering, or closely related field Quality/Soil Physics Position Summary: Plastic mulches are used in agriculture to conserve water, suppress

Flury, Markus

54

Soil physical aspects of integrated crop-livestock systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integrated crop-livestock systems are inherently more complex than the current model of specialized agricultural production in industrialized countries with clear separation of crops and animals. A movement towards integrating crops and livestock will have impacts on soils and the environment; the ...

55

Cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization impact on surface residue, soil carbon sequestration, and crop yields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Information is needed on the effect of management practices on soil C storage for obtaining C credit. The effects of tillage, cropping sequence, and N fertilization were evaluated on dryland crop and surface residue C and soil organic C (SOC) at the 0-120 cm depth in a Williams loam from 2006 to 201...

56

Producers seed cover crops to provide a soil cover or barrier against soil erosion.  

E-print Network

Producers seed cover crops to provide a soil cover or barrier against soil erosion. In addition Erosion occurs most rapidly on cropland where there is no soil cover. Cover crops can provide protection that otherwise would detach soil particles and make them prone to erosion. Surface runoff is slowed by the cover

Kaye, Jason P.

57

Cover Crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cover crops have many potential benefits for both soil and water quality in annual grain cropping systems, like the corn-soybean rotation. Studies in Iowa have shown that rye and oat winter cover crops can reduce erosion and nitrate leaching in corn-soybean rotations, which improves both water and s...

58

Impacts of crop rotations on soil organic carbon sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural land use and crop rotations can greatly affect the amount of carbon sequestered in the soil. We developed a framework for modelling the impacts of crop rotations on soil carbon sequestration at the field scale with test case Flanders. A crop rotation geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System) to elicit the most common crop rotation on major soil types in Flanders. In order to simulate the impact of crop cover on carbon sequestration, the Roth-C model was adapted to Flanders' environment and coupled to common crop rotations extracted from the IACS geodatabases and statistical databases on crop yield. Crop allometric models were used to calculate crop residues from common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil (REGSOM). The REGSOM model was coupled to Roth-C model was run for 30 years and for all combinations of seven main arable crops, two common catch crops and two common dosages of organic manure. The common crops are winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, potato, grain maize, silage maize and winter rapeseed; the catch crops are yellow mustard and Italian ryegrass; the manure dosages are 35 ton/ha cattle slurry and 22 ton/ha pig slurry. Four common soils were simulated: sand, loam, sandy loam and clay. In total more than 2.4 million simulations were made with monthly output of carbon content for 30 years. Results demonstrate that crop cover dynamics influence carbon sequestration for a very large percentage. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute largely to the total carbon sequestered. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil carbon sequestration for a large percentage. The framework is therefore suited for further scenario analysis and impact assessment in order to support agri-environmental policy decisions.

Gobin, Anne; Vos, Johan; Joris, Ingeborg; Van De Vreken, Philippe

2013-04-01

59

Aerobic decomposition of crop residues improves N availability and grain yield for three rice soils of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: A screenhouse study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, rice (Oryza sativa, L.) is usually planted two to three times annually. Limited evidence elsewhere suggests that rice crop uptake of soil nitrogen (N) under such intensive cropping can be increased by replacing the customary anaerobic decomposition of crop residues wi...

60

What Is Soil? Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course of study represents the first of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil management. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will be able to define "soil", list the soil forming agencies, define and use soil terminology, and discuss soil formation and what makes…

Miller, Larry E.

61

CUBIERTAS VEGETALES EN VIÑEDOS: COMPORTAMIENTO DE MEZCLAS DE LEGUMINOSAS FORRAJERAS ANUALES Y EFECTOS SOBRE LA FERTILIDAD DEL SUELO Cover crops in vineyards: performance of annual forage legume mixtures and effects on soil fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T With the objective of evaluating and selecting cover crops to improve soil management in vineyards (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, five cover pastures were evaluated: a) control without vegetation; b) control with spontaneous vegetation; c) legume mixture of early maturing cultivars of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) and burr medic (Medicago

Carlos Ovalle; Alejandro del Pozo; Arturo Lavín; Juan Hirzel

2007-01-01

62

Restoration of soil organic carbon with cultivation of perennial biofuel crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A biofuel crop that can restore soil quality and maximize terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration would add substantial value to the sustainability of biofuel production chains. Currently in the Midwestern USA, Zea mays is the dominant biofuel feedstock despite a history of soil degradation associated with this crop. We compared soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and microbial communities in Zea mays L. (corn), Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass), Miscanthus x giganteus Greef et Deuter (miscanthus), and native prairie sites at seven locations that spanned a range of temperatures, precipitation, and soil types in Illinois, USA. By comparing annually harvested switchgrass and miscanthus plots to conventional corn agro-ecosystems and native prairies, we determined the SOC restoration potential of perennial biofuel crops. We also calculated SOC accumulation using the ?13C isotope composition of the soil as a tracer for C4 plant-derived SOC additions. SOC differences among plant species varied significantly among sites, but on average, seven-year-old plots of miscanthus and switchgrass had 73% and 57% greater SOC in the top meter of soil than conventional corn crops, respectively, and had 50-63% greater SOC than the younger (four-year-old) miscanthus and switchgrass plots. The ?13C isotope signature of soil in miscanthus and switchgrass plots also indicated an accumulation of SOC. Plant species and SOC variability among sites explained 40-62% of the variation in microbial communities across sites. Microbial communities associated with annually harvested switchgrass and miscanthus differ from communities found in conventional corn agriculture and prairies. Thus, the potential to restore SOC to agriculturally depleted soils of the Midwest is not dependent on a soil microbial community that mimics prairie soil communities. Planting perennial grasses as biofuel crops can lead to an increase in SOC and a change in soil microbial communities. Conventional agricultural soils might be restored in less than 10 years to SOC levels of undisturbed prairies if miscanthus or switchgrass crops were planted and harvested annually, but this response varies with geographic location.

Davis, S. C.; Yannarell, A.; Masters, M.; Anderson-Teixeira, K.; Drake, J. E.; Darmody, R.; Mackie, R.; David, M.; Delucia, E. H.

2009-12-01

63

Estimation of net greenhouse gas balance using crop- and soil-based approaches: two case studies.  

PubMed

The net greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB), estimated by combining direct and indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, can reveal whether an agricultural system is a sink or source of GHGs. Currently, two types of methods, referred to here as crop-based and soil-based approaches, are widely used to estimate the NGHGB of agricultural systems on annual and seasonal crop timescales. However, the two approaches may produce contradictory results, and few studies have tested which approach is more reliable. In this study, we examined the two approaches using experimental data from an intercropping trial with straw removal and a tillage trial with straw return. The results of the two approaches provided different views of the two trials. In the intercropping trial, NGHGB estimated by the crop-based approach indicated that monocultured maize (M) was a source of GHGs (-1315 kg CO?(-eq)ha(-1)), whereas maize-soybean intercropping (MS) was a sink (107 kg CO?(-eq)ha(-1)). When estimated by the soil-based approach, both cropping systems were sources (-3410 for M and -2638 kg CO?(-eq)ha(-1) for MS). In the tillage trial, mouldboard ploughing (MP) and rotary tillage (RT) mitigated GHG emissions by 22,451 and 21,500 kg CO?(-eq)ha(-1), respectively, as estimated by the crop-based approach. However, by the soil-based approach, both tillage methods were sources of GHGs: -3533 for MP and -2241 kg CO?(-eq)ha(-1) for RT. The crop-based approach calculates a GHG sink on the basis of the returned crop biomass (and other organic matter input) and estimates considerably more GHG mitigation potential than that calculated from the variations in soil organic carbon storage by the soil-based approach. These results indicate that the crop-based approach estimates higher GHG mitigation benefits compared to the soil-based approach and may overestimate the potential of GHG mitigation in agricultural systems. PMID:23619090

Huang, Jianxiong; Chen, Yuanquan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wansheng

2013-07-01

64

Native prairie filter strips reduce runoff from hillslopes under annual row-crop systems, Iowa USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intensively managed annual cropping systems have produced high crop yields but have often produced significant ecosystem services alteration; in particular, hydrologic regulation loss. Reconversion of annual agricultural systems to perennial vegetation can lead to hydrologic function restoration, bu...

65

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Dr. Markus Flury, Professor  

E-print Network

-335-8674 E-mail: flury@wsu.edu www: http://akasha.wsu.edu Graduate Research Assistantship (Ph.D.) in Soil), Hydrology, Physics, or a related field. The Assistantship will lead to a PhD degree in Soil ScienceDepartment of Crop and Soil Sciences Dr. Markus Flury, Professor Phone: 509-335-1719 Fax: 509

Flury, Markus

66

SOIL HYDRAULIC AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES FOR DIFFERENT SOILS, SLOPES, AND CROP ROTATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop management can alter soil physical properties, but variability of these properties may mask treatment effects. The purpose of this study was to compare soil physical property variation under two crop rotations, and to examine interrelations among different soil physical properties. A six-year r...

67

Influence of cover crops and soil amendments on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) production and soil nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment to determine the effects of summer cover crops and soil amendments on okra yields and population densities of various soil nematode taxa was conducted in two consecutive growing seasons in a subtropical region. Two cover crops, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) and sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum bicolorrS. bicolor var. sudanense), were grown and returned to the soil with fallow

Qingren Wang; Yuncong Li; Waldemar Klassen; Zafar Handoo

2007-01-01

68

Long-Term Cropping System Effects on Soil Properties and on a Soil Quality Index  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intensive row-crop production can lead to soil degradation over time if insufficient biomass return, intensive tillage, or excessive erosion lead to depletion of soil organic C. Soil quality may be improved by incorporating forage crops or grazing into the rotation, adding manure or other organic so...

69

Biomass Crop Production: Benefits for Soil Quality and Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Research at three locations in the southeastern US is quantifying changes in soil quality and soil carbon storage that occur during production of biomass crops compared with row crops. After three growing seasons, soil quality improved and soil carbon storage increased on plots planted to cottonwood, sycamore, sweetgum with a cover crop, switchgrass, and no-till corn. For tree crops, sequestered belowground carbon was found mainly in stumps and large roots. At the TN site, the coarse woody organic matter storage belowground was 1.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}yr{sup {minus}1}, of which 79% was stumps and large roots and 21% fine roots. Switchgrass at the AL site also stored considerable carbon belowground as coarse roots. Most of the carbon storage occurred mainly in the upper 30 cw although coarse roots were found to depths of greater than 60 cm. Biomass crops contributed to improvements in soil physical quality as well as increasing belowground carbon sequestration. The distribution and extent of carbon sequestration depends on the growth characteristics and age of the individual biomass crop species. Time and increasing crop maturity will determine the potential of these biomass crops to significantly contribute to the overall national goal of increasing carbon sequestration and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Bandaranayake, W.; Bock, B.R.; Houston, A.; Joslin, J.D.; Pettry, D.E.; Schoenholtz, S.; Thornton, F.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Tyler, D.

1999-08-29

70

Crop and Soil Science Degree Checklist Name: ____________________________  

E-print Network

and Soil Science Degree Checklist Name: ____________________________ ID. Global Issues (3) (*soil science electives meeting requirement) _______ Science, Tech., Society (3) (**soil science electives meeting requirement) Major Core

Grünwald, Niklaus J.

71

Flupyrsulfuron soil dissipation and mobility in winter wheat crops.  

PubMed

Residues of the sulfonylurea herbicide flupyrsulfuron were extracted from cropping soils with 0.1 M NaHCO(3). The soil extracts were cleaned up by partitioning and repeated thin-layer chromatography. Flupyrsulfuron was transformed by diazomethane into N-(4, 6-dimethoxypyrimidine-2-yl)-N-(3-methoxycarbonyl-6-trifluoromet hylpyr idine-2-yl)methylamine (2), which was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography with electron capture detection, and confirmation for several samples was made by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. The sensitivity limit was 0.5 microg of flupyrsulfuron kg(-)(1) of dry soil. Bioassays using sugar beet as test plant qualitatively confirmed the results of the chemical analyses. Flupyrsulfuron [10 g of active ingredient ha(-)(1)] was applied in autumn on plots in two winter wheat crops on a sandy loam soil, the first crop being made in 1996-1997 and the second one in 1997-1998. In the 0-8 cm surface soil layer of both crops, the flupyrsulfuron soil half-lives were 123 and 92 days, respectively. Flupyrsulfuron was also applied post-emergence in March to other plots in the same crops; the half-lives in the 0-8 cm surface soil layer were similar in both seasons, that is, approximately 58 days. During all crop trials, flupyrsulfuron remained in the 0-8 cm surface soil layer and was not detected in the 8-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm surface soil layers. The surface-2 cm soil layer contained the greatest flupyrsulfuron soil concentration, but the residues progressively moved down into the 2-4 and 4-6 cm soil layers. At the winter wheat harvest date for each trial, flupyrsulfuron was not detected in any of the soil layers (<0.5 microg kg(-)(1)). PMID:10552737

Rouchaud, J; Neus, O; Cools, K; Bulcke, R

1999-09-01

72

Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Indiana Soils and Septic Systems  

E-print Network

Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Indiana Soils and Septic tank and soil absorption field. These systems rely on the soil to remove all contaminants -- including the contaminants reach our drinking water aquifers. This publication is a brief description of soil characteristics

Holland, Jeffrey

73

Guidelines for graduate students in Soil and Crop Sciences, Cornell University  

E-print Network

1 Guidelines for graduate students in Soil and Crop Sciences, Cornell University Table of Contents and concentrations. About 33 faculty have been drawn together into the field of Soil and Crop Sciences by mutual, Field Crop Science, Soil Science, and Agronomy. The field of Soil and Crop Sciences is closely linked

Chen, Tsuhan

74

Persistence of metsulfuron-methyl in wheat crop and soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible bioaccumulation of pesticides in crop produce may cause ailing effect on animal and human. Thus there is a need to\\u000a evaluate these chemicals in the soil and crop produce at harvest. Metsulfuron-methyl is a post-emergence herbicide. It is\\u000a highly active to control broad-leaf weeds in cererals, pasture and plantation crops. Metsulfuron-methyl was applied at 3,\\u000a 4, 5, and 8 g

Shobha Sondhia

2008-01-01

75

SOIL CARBON AND NITROGEN IN DRYLAND CROPPING SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The predominant cropping system in the Central Great Plains winter wheat summer fallow (W-F) is not sustainable. Losses of soil organic matter (SOM) in the Great Plains are associated with tillage and summer fallow management. Intensive cropping systems with reduced tillage and fallow frequency ar...

76

Nitrogen Mineralization of Cover Crop Residues in Calcareous Gravelly Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical legumes like sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea L.) and aeschynomene (Aeschynomene evenia L.) have potential as alternative cover crops in tropical regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the N mineralization rates of three cover crops [aeschynomene (AE), sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense L.), and sunn hemp (SH)] residues used to amend a calcareous gravelly soil in order to

R. B. Rao; Y. C. Li

2003-01-01

77

Bioenergy cropping systems for food, feed, fuel, and soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop production can meet multiple needs including food, livestock feed, and bioenergy or biofuels. Cropping systems can be developed to focus on meeting any one of these needs, or they can be developed to simultaneously meet multiple needs. In any case, these systems must also protect the soil resou...

78

Relating soil biochemistry to sustainable crop production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Amino acids, amino sugars, carbohydrates, phenols, and fatty acids together comprise appreciable proportions of soil organic matter (SOM). Their cycling contribute to soil processes, including nitrogen availability, carbon sequestration and aggregation. For example, soil accumulation of phenols has ...

79

Purdue AgronomyPurdue Agronomy CROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES  

E-print Network

Purdue AgronomyPurdue Agronomy CROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Septic System Distribution Boxes: Importance of Equal Distribution in Trenches Brad Lee and Don Jones Department of Agronomy://www.ces.purdue.edu/new Authors: Brad Lee, Assistant Professor and Soil and Land Use Extension Specialist, Department of Agronomy

Holland, Jeffrey

80

Broiler litter fertilization and cropping system impacts on soil properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 3-year study was conducted at the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Verona, MS, in a Catalpa silty clay loam soil (Fine, smectitic, thermic Fluvaquentic Hapludolls) to evaluate soil chemical, physical, and biological changes resulting from cropping systems along with broile...

81

Physical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course of study represents the second of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the subject of physical features of the soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will be able to determine the texture and structural types of soil, list the structural classes of the soil and where they…

Miller, Larry E.

82

Biological Features of the Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course of study represents the third of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to biological features of soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will: (1) realize the vast amount of life present in the soil, (2) be able to list representative animal and plant life in the soil by size,…

Miller, Larry E.

83

Field dissipation of metamitron in soil and sugar beet crop.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation of herbicides in plant produce may cause ailing effect on animals and human beings through food chain contamination. Thus oblige the investigation of newer herbicide metamitron for its persistence and degradation in sugar beet crop and soil. Metamitron persist in plant up to 15 days while up to 30 days in soil. Its dissipation followed first order reaction kinetics. On day 90, metamitron was detected in the soil at 7.0 kg a.i. ha(-1) treated plot only. It would be concluded that metamitron at 3.5 kg a.i. ha(-1) can be safely applied to the sugar beet crop for weed control. PMID:23135307

Janaki, P; Rathika, S; Chinnusamy, C; Prabhakaran, N K

2013-01-01

84

Crop Performance and Soil Properties in Two Artificially-Eroded Soils in North-Central Alberta  

SciTech Connect

Field experiments were conducted from 1991 to 1995 at Josephburg (Orthic Black Chernozem, Typic Cryoboroll) and Cooking Lake (Orthic Gray Luvisol, Typic Cryoboralf), Alberta, to determine impact of topsoil removal on selected soil properties, N-mineralization potential and crop yield, and effectiveness of various amendments for restoring the productivity of eroded soils. The simulated-erosion levels were established in the autumn of 1990 by removing 20 cm topsoil in 5-cm depth increments. The four amendments were: control, addition of 5 cm of topsoil, fertilizers to supply 100 kg N ha-1 and 20 kg P ha-1, and cattle manure at 75 Mg ha-1. Topsoil and manure were applied once in the autumn of 1990, while fertilizers were applied annually from 1991 to 1995. Available N and P, total C, N and P, and N-mineralization potential decreased, while bulk density increased with increasing depth of topsoil removal. Tiller number, plant height, spike density, thousand kernel weight, and leaf area index decreased with simulated erosion. Grain yield reductions due to simulated soil erosion were either linear or curvilinear functions of nutrient removal. Application of N and P fertilizers and manure improved grain yield and reduced the impact of yield loss due to erosion. Return of 5 cm of topsoil also increased grain yield, but to a lesser extent than manure or fertilizers. Grain yields were maximized when fertilizers were also applied to organic amendment treatments. In conclusion, the findings suggest the importance of integrated use of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers for best crop yields on severely-eroded soils.

Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Malhi, S. S.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E. D.; Quiroga Jakas, Maria C.

2006-09-01

85

Microbial Biomass and Activities in Soil Aggregates Affected by Winter Cover Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

vegetable cropping systems (Burket et al., 1997); how- ever, it is unclear whether legumes or nonlegumes are Winter cover crops may increase soil organic matter (SOM) and the most suitable for this task. Leguminous winter cover improve soil structure in intensively managed summer vegetable crop- ping systems. Our study examined the influence of three cover crop crops have the potential

I. C. Mendes; A. K. Bandick; R. P. Dick; P. J. Bottomley

1999-01-01

86

ESTIMATION OF SOIL WATER CONTENT AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION OF DRYLAND CROPS USING THE NEUTRON MOISTURE METER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In semi-arid regions, soil water availability is often more correlated with crop yields than any other soil or meteorological factor. Thus, quantification of soil water depletion by crops is important in estimating seasonal water use and evaluating alternative dryland cropping strategies, crop speci...

87

Winter cover cropping influence on nitrogen mineralization, presidedress soil nitrate test, and corn yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralization and availability of cover crop N to the succeeding crop are critical components in the management of soil N to reduce N leaching. The effects of several leguminous and non-leguminous cover crops on soil N availability, N mineralization potential, and corn (Zea mays L.) yield were examined. The cover crops had variable effects on soil N availability and

S. Kuo; U. M. Sainju; E. Jellum

1996-01-01

88

Long-term winter cover cropping effects on corn (Zea mays L.) production and soil nitrogen availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine effects of long-term winter cover cropping with hairy vetch, cereal rye and annual\\u000a ryegrass on soil N availability and corn productivity. From 1987 to 1995, with the exception of the first year of the study,\\u000a the cover crops were seeded each year in late September or early October after the corn harvest and incorporated

S. Kuo; E. J. Jellum

2000-01-01

89

ACCUMULATION AND CROP UPTAKE OF SOIL MINERAL NITROGEN AS INFLUEMCED BY TILLAGE, COVER CROPS, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil and crop management practices may influence soil mineral N, crop N uptake, and N leaching. We evaluated the effects of three tillage practices [no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)], four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secaele cereale L.)]...

90

Cover crops effectiveness for soil erosion control in Sicilian vineyard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vineyards, which are very common in Mediterranean area, cover crops are becoming increasingly used to reduce soil erosion. Cover crops reduce runoff by increasing infiltration and increasing roughness and then reducing the ovelandflow velocity. The aim of the present study was to quantify soil and water losses under different soil managements systems on vineyards. The study site was a Sauvignon blanc winegrape vineyard located in Southwestern Sicily. Vineyards were managed both traditionally (conventional tillage) and alternative management using cover crops: 1) Vicia faba ; 2) Vicia faba and Vicia sativa; 3) Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra; 4)Trifolium subterraneum, Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina, 5) Triticum durum, 6) Triticum durum and Vicia sativa. To monitor water and sediment yield, a Gerlach trough was installed at each treatment on the vineyard inter-row, with the row vineyard used as a border (topographical border). Runoff was measured after each rainfall event (raingauge 0.2 mm accuracy) from November 2005 to April 2007. And sediments were measured after desiccation. The results show that runoff and erosion were reduced considerably under the treatments with Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra and Trifolium subterraneum, Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina (treatments 3 and 4). The soil losses were reduced by 73% under treatment 4 compared to the tillage plot. Conventional tillage and alternative management using Vicia faba cover crop (treatment 1) result the most ineffective treatment to soil erosion. These results show that the use of a cover crop can be a simple soil and water conservation practice in Sicilian vineyards. Key words: soil erosion, cover crops, vineyard, Mediterranean area.

Gristina, L.; Novara, A.; Saladino, S.; Santoro, A.

2009-04-01

91

November 2005 Issue #2 2005 Soil Quality and Crop Production Systems  

E-print Network

being: 1. Organic matter 6. Drainage 2. Crop appearance 7. Soil structure 3. Earthworms 8. Soil pH 4 ­ 2005 Soil Quality and Crop Production Systems Dick Wolkowski Extension Soil Scientist Soil quality is a general term that describes the overall condition of the soil with respect to its intended use

Balser, Teri C.

92

[Effects of different cropping modes on crop root growth, yield, and rhizosphere soil microbes' number].  

PubMed

A multi-year field experiment was conducted to study the variation features of rhizosphere environment and crop root growth under the cropping modes of wheat-soybean (A1), wheat-sweet potato (A2), maize (A3), wheat/maize/soybean (A4), and wheat/maize/sweet potato (A). Among the five modes, A4 increased the plant biomass, root activity, and root dry mass of wheat, maize, and soybean at their flowering and maturing stages, and the quantity of rhizosphere soil bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. The biomass and quantity of rhizosphere soil microbes were relay strip intercropping > single cropping, soybean > sweet potato, and fringe row > center row. It was suggested that wheat/maize/soybean relay trip intercropping could improve rhizosphere environment, promote the crops root growth and increase their aboveground biomass, and accordingly, realize yield-increasing. PMID:22489489

Yong, Tai-Wen; Yang, Wen-Yu; Xiang, Da-Bing; Chen, Xiao-Rong

2012-01-01

93

Department of Soil and Crop Sciences Honors Program The Department of Soil and Crop Sciences (SCSC) Honors Program is designed for highly-  

E-print Network

Department of Soil and Crop Sciences Honors Program The Department of Soil and Crop Sciences (SCSC programs, Plant and Environmental Soil Science (PSSC), or Turfgrass Science (TGSC), to enhance learning the distinction of Plant and Environmental Soil Science Honors, or Turfgrass Science Honors. Admission

Behmer, Spencer T.

94

Modified Soil Adjusted Crop Residue Index (MSACRI): a new index for mapping crop residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a new index for mapping and estimating the crop residue cover fraction: the MSACRI (Modified Soil Adjusted Crop Residue Index). This index exploits the mid infrared channels: 1.55 ?m to 1.75 ?m and 2.10 ?m to 2.35 ?m. Compared to the visible, these channels are characterized by large transparence in relation to atmospheric constituents. In extreme atmospheric

K. Bannari; D. Haboudane; H. McNairn; F. Bonn

2000-01-01

95

Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality  

SciTech Connect

Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

2014-06-01

96

Remote sensing of agricultural crops and soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research in the correlative and noncorrelative approaches to image registration and the spectral estimation of corn canopy phytomass and water content is reported. Scene radiation research results discussed include: corn and soybean LANDSAT MSS classification performance as a function of scene characteristics; estimating crop development stages from MSS data; the interception of photosynthetically active radiation in corn and soybean canopies; costs of measuring leaf area index of corn; LANDSAT spectral inputs to crop models including the use of the greenness index to assess crop stress and the evaluation of MSS data for estimating corn and soybean development stages; field research experiment design data acquisition and preprocessing; and Sun-view angles studies of corn and soybean canopies in support of vegetation canopy reflection modeling.

Bauer, M. E. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

97

Soil type influences crop mineral composition in Malawi.  

PubMed

Food supply and composition data can be combined to estimate micronutrient intakes and deficiency risks among populations. These estimates can be improved by using local crop composition data that can capture environmental influences including soil type. This study aimed to provide spatially resolved crop composition data for Malawi, where information is currently limited. Six hundred and fifty-two plant samples, representing 97 edible food items, were sampled from >150 sites in Malawi between 2011 and 2013. Samples were analysed by ICP-MS for up to 58 elements, including the essential minerals calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). Maize grain Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se and Zn concentrations were greater from plants grown on calcareous soils than those from the more widespread low-pH soils. Leafy vegetables from calcareous soils had elevated leaf Ca, Cu, Fe and Se concentrations, but lower Zn concentrations. Several foods were found to accumulate high levels of Se, including the leaves of Moringa, a crop not previously been reported in East African food composition data sets. New estimates of national dietary mineral supplies were obtained for non-calcareous and calcareous soils. High risks of Ca (100%), Se (100%) and Zn (57%) dietary deficiencies are likely on non-calcareous soils. Deficiency risks on calcareous soils are high for Ca (97%), but lower for Se (34%) and Zn (31%). Risks of Cu, Fe and Mg deficiencies appear to be low on the basis of dietary supply levels. PMID:25461061

Joy, Edward J M; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Chilimba, Allan D C; Ander, E Louise; Barlow, Thomas S; Watts, Michael J

2015-02-01

98

Chemical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course of study represents the fifth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to chemical features of the soil. Upon completing the four day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) list macro- and micro-nutrients, (2) define pH and its effect on plants, (3) outline Cation Exchange of the soil,…

Miller, Larry E.

99

Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. Annual progress report for FY 1985  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1985. HECP emphasizes lignocellulosic forage crops. In FY 1985 screening and selection trails began on seven species of perennial and annual grasses and legumes in five projects in the Southeast and the Midwest-Lake State regions. Research also continued on the development of winter rapeseed as a disel-fuel substitute. Activities in FY 1985 included crosses and selections to incorporate atrazine resistance and reduced vernalization requirements in genotypes with desirable seed and oil qualities. Exploratory research efforts in FY 1985 included the physiology and biochemistry of hydrocarbon production in latex bearing plants, the productivity of cattail stands under sustained harvesting, and the development of tissue culture techniques for hard-to-culture sorghum genotypes. Environmental and economic analyses in FY 1985 included completion of a resource assessment of the southwestern United States, a study on successful new crop introductions, and initiation of studies on near-term markets for lignocellulosic energy crops and on vegetable oil extraction facilities. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Cushman, J.H.; Turhollow, A.F.; Johnston, J.W.

1986-04-01

100

Soil, Plant, and Crop Science. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This package contains an instructor's manual, an instructor's resource package, and a student workbook for a course in agricultural production and management as it relates to crop production. The module contains 17 units of instruction, each of which contains some or all of the following components: objective sheet, instructor's guide, information…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

101

TILLAGE AND GRAZING EFFECTS ON SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP YIELD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water conservation using deficit irrigation and dryland cropping systems are being implemented where the Ogallala aquifer limits irrigation capacity. Decreased crop productivity and profitability has encouraged integration of cattle grazing to supplement crop income, but potential soil compaction ma...

102

Cover crops influence soil microorganisms and phytoextraction of copper from a moderately contaminated vineyard.  

PubMed

We investigated the ability of summer (Avena sativa [oat], Trifolium incarnatum [crimson clover], Chenopodium [goosefoot]) and winter (Vicia villosa [hairy vetch], Secale Cereale L. [Rye], Brassica napus L. partim [rape]) cover crops, including a mixed species treatment, to extract copper from an organic vineyard soil in situ and the microbial communities that may support it. Clover had the highest copper content (14.3mgCukg(-1) DM). However, it was the amount of total biomass production that determined which species was most effective at overall copper removal per hectare. The winter crop rye produced significantly higher amounts of biomass (3532kgDMha(-1)) and, therefore, removed significantly higher amounts of copper (14,920mgCuha(-1)), despite less accumulation of copper in plant shoots. The maximum annual removal rate, a summation of best performing summer and winter crops, would be 0.033kgCuha(-1)y(-1). Due to this low annual extraction efficiency, which is less than the 6kgCuha(-1)y(-1) permitted for application, phytoextraction cannot be recommended as a general method of copper extraction from vineyards. Copper concentration did not influence aboveground or belowground properties, as indicated by sampling at two distances from the grapevine row with different soil copper concentrations. Soil microorganisms may have become tolerant to the copper levels at this site. Microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities (arylsulfatase and phosphatase) were instead driven by seasonal fluxes of resource pools. Gram+ bacteria were associated with high soil moisture, while fungi seemed to be driven by extractable carbon, which was linked to high plant biomass. There was no microbial group associated with the increased phytoextraction of copper. Moreover, treatment did not influence the abundance, activity or community structure of soil microorganisms. PMID:25217742

Mackie, K A; Schmidt, H P; Müller, T; Kandeler, E

2014-12-01

103

Spectral properties of agricultural crops and soils measured from space, aerial, field, and laboratory sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations of the multispectral reflectance characteristics of crops and soils as measured from laboratory, field, aerial, and satellite sensor systems are reviewed. The relationships of important biological and physical characteristics to the spectral properties of crops and soils are addressed.

Bauer, M. E. (principal investigator); Vanderbilt, V. C.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

1981-01-01

104

Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Fractions and Crop Yields Affected by Residue Placement and Crop Types  

PubMed Central

Soil labile C and N fractions can change rapidly in response to management practices compared to non-labile fractions. High variability in soil properties in the field, however, results in nonresponse to management practices on these parameters. We evaluated the effects of residue placement (surface application [or simulated no-tillage] and incorporation into the soil [or simulated conventional tillage]) and crop types (spring wheat [Triticum aestivum L.], pea [Pisum sativum L.], and fallow) on crop yields and soil C and N fractions at the 0–20 cm depth within a crop growing season in the greenhouse and the field. Soil C and N fractions were soil organic C (SOC), total N (STN), particulate organic C and N (POC and PON), microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN), potential C and N mineralization (PCM and PNM), NH4-N, and NO3-N concentrations. Yields of both wheat and pea varied with residue placement in the greenhouse as well as in the field. In the greenhouse, SOC, PCM, STN, MBN, and NH4-N concentrations were greater in surface placement than incorporation of residue and greater under wheat than pea or fallow. In the field, MBN and NH4-N concentrations were greater in no-tillage than conventional tillage, but the trend reversed for NO3-N. The PNM was greater under pea or fallow than wheat in the greenhouse and the field. Average SOC, POC, MBC, PON, PNM, MBN, and NO3-N concentrations across treatments were higher, but STN, PCM and NH4-N concentrations were lower in the greenhouse than the field. The coefficient of variation for soil parameters ranged from 2.6 to 15.9% in the greenhouse and 8.0 to 36.7% in the field. Although crop yields varied, most soil C and N fractions were greater in surface placement than incorporation of residue and greater under wheat than pea or fallow in the greenhouse than the field within a crop growing season. Short-term management effect on soil C and N fractions were readily obtained with reduced variability under controlled soil and environmental conditions in the greenhouse compared to the field. Changes occurred more in soil labile than non-labile C and N fractions in the greenhouse than the field. PMID:25119381

Wang, Jun; Sainju, Upendra M.

2014-01-01

105

Soil phosphorus changes impacted by potato cropping management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato crops generally require high amounts of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to reach economically acceptable yields as the low root density of potato plants makes mobilization and acquisition of phosphate a key factor in potato plant growth. In this work, we evaluated soil P changes in 10 potato fields...

106

Capturing residual soil nitrogen with winter cereal cover crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wide-spread drought during the 2012 summer has resulted in reduced crop growth, poor yields, and an anticipated increase in residual nitrate (NO3) nitrogen (N) in the soil profile. This residual N can potentially increase NO3-N losses to ground and/or surface waters, as well as increase carry-ov...

107

Purdue AgronomyPurdue Agronomy CROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES  

E-print Network

-chamber tanks includes #12;2 Septic Tanks: The Primary Treatment Device of Your Septic System--HENV-5-W 2Purdue AgronomyPurdue Agronomy CROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Septic Tanks: The Primary Treatment Device of Your Septic System Brad Lee and Don Jones Department of Agronomy and Department

Holland, Jeffrey

108

ANIMAL WASTE EFFECTS UPON CROP PRODUCTION, SOIL AND RUNOFF WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This investigation was initiated to study the effects of application of differing rates of manure to land on crops, soil, and runoff water. The study was conducted under field conditions in the sub-humid climate of the Northern Great Plains. Manure application rates included leve...

109

LINKING WITHIN-FIELD CROP RESPONSE WITH SOIL CHARACTERISTICS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management zones for precision farming can be determined by identifying areas where soil, water, and management factors result in similar crop responses. Given the spatial distribution of LAI of a field, factors determining response patterns may be obtained via inversion of a model linking environme...

110

DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences Purdue University Five Year Strategic Plan 2004 - 2009 #12;Department of Agronomy Strategic Plan 2004-2009 Mission The mission of the Agronomy Department at Purdue University is to serve our broad- based clientele by providing progressive

111

Original article Evolution of soil carbon with various cropping  

E-print Network

after 60 years of cropping: wheat monoculture (Triticum aes- tivum L.), maize monoculture (Zea mays L.), wheat/soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat/soybean-maize and wheat/soy- bean-sunflower (Helianthus annuus L]. Loss of organic matter usually leads to a reduction in cer- tain components of soil fertility [34, 38

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

112

Matrices to Revise Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate curricula for natural resource and agronomic programs have been introduced and revised during the past several decades with a desire to stay current with emerging issues and technologies relevant to constituents. For the past decade, the Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences (CSES) faculty at the University of Arkansas…

Savin, Mary C.; Longer, David; Miller, David M.

2005-01-01

113

Aminopyralid soil residues affect rotational vegetable crops in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field experiments were conducted to determine the sensitivity of bell pepper, eggplant, tomato, muskmelon, and watermelon to aminopyralid soil residues. Aminopyralid was applied at six rates ranging from 0.0014 kg ae ha 1 to 0.0448 kg ae ha 1, and vegetable crops were planted in the treated areas. ...

114

Soil microarthropods (Acari and Collembola) in two crop rotations on a heavy marine clay soil  

E-print Network

Brunoy, France Synopsis: In 1983 and 1984 an inventory was made of the mites and springtails in crops and springtails to determine whether certain species or ecological feeding groups might indicate soil ecological

Boyer, Edmond

115

ECONOMICS OF ANNUAL CROPPING VERSUS CROP-FALLOW IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS AS INFLUENCED BY TILLAGE AND NITROGEN.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Annual yields with more intensive cropping (IC) systems tend to be greater than those of spring wheat-fallow (SW-F), however, little economic comparison information is available. The long-term (12 yr) effects of tillage system and N fertilization on the economic returns from two dryland cropping s...

116

SOIL CONDUCTIVITY AS A MEASURE OF SOIL AND CROP STATUS--A FOUR YEAR SUMMARY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal manure can be an important resource in providing soil available N for plant needs. Management of animal manure to match crop needs throughout the crop growing season is one challenge for sustainable agriculture. This study was conducted to examine changes in electromagnetic induction (EMI) ...

117

Simulation of nitrous oxide emissions from wheat-cropped soils using CERES  

E-print Network

Simulation of nitrous oxide emissions from wheat-cropped soils using CERES B. Gabriellea, , P2O) emissions from arable soils, in relation to crop fertilization,2 is essential to devise-NGAS) were tested against exper-7 imental data collected on three contrasting wheat-cropped soils

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

118

Crop & Soil Science Seminar Series Mondays at 4:00 pm in Ag Life Sciences  

E-print Network

Crop & Soil Science Seminar Series Fall 2013 Mondays at 4:00 pm in Ag Life Sciences 4000 September 30 NO SEMINAR October 7 Dan Sullivan Crop & Soil Science Dept. "Phosphorus: Now and Then" October 14/CSSA/SSSA meetings) November 11 Chris Klatt Crop & Soil Science Dept. "Tracking Microbial Use of C and N

Tullos, Desiree

119

Effects of soil composition and mineralogy on remote sensing of crop residue cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of crop residues (non-photosynthetic vegetation) in agricultural fields influences soil erosion and soil carbon sequestration. Remote sensing methods can efficiently assess crop residue cover and related tillage intensity over many fields in a region. Although the reflectance spectra of soils and crop residues are often similar in the visible, near infrared, and the lower part of the shortwave

Guy Serbin; Craig S. T. Daughtry; E. Raymond Hunt; James B. Reeves; David J. Brown

2009-01-01

120

A soil moisture availability model for crop stress prediction  

E-print Network

-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. Peter J. H. Sharpe Dr. Hs1n-i Wu This thesis presents three 1mportant components of a soil- moisture accounting method--evaporat1on, transpiration, and root water uptake--that have been developed for crop water stress predict1on... root 10 water uptake is not restricted by horizontal moisture gradients in the soil. The average root and water content of a compartment (soil layer) are the variables determining the rate of water withdrawal. When part of the root system...

Gay, Roger Franklin

2012-06-07

121

Rye cover crop effects on soil quality in no-till corn silage-soybean cropping systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn and soybean farmers in the upper Midwest are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. Known benefits of winter cover crops include reductions in nutrient leaching, erosion prevention, and weed suppression; however, the effects of winter cover crops on soil quality in this region have ...

122

Selenium status in soil, water and essential crops of Iran  

PubMed Central

Abstracts As a contributing factor to health, the trace element selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient of special interest for humans and all animals. It is estimated that 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency. In spite of the important role of Se, its concentrations in soil, water and essential crops have not been studied in Iran. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to determine the Se content of soil, water, and essential crops (rice in North, wheat in Center, date, and pistachio in South) of different regions of Iran. Sampling was performed in the North, South, and Central regions of Iran. In each selected area in the three regions, 17 samples of surface soil were collected; samples of water and essential crops were also collected at the same sampling points. Upon preliminary preparation of all samples, the Se concentrations were measured by ICP-OES Model Varian Vista-MPX. The amount of soil-Se was found to be in the range between 0.04 and 0.45 ppm in the studied areas; the Se content of soil in the central region of Iran was the highest compared to other regions (p<0.0001). The average Se concentration in irrigation water of different areas was less than 0.01 mg/L, and the mean concentrations of Se in the rice, wheat, date, and pistachio samples were 0.95, 0.74, 0.46, and 0.40 ppm, respectively. Although Se-soil and water-Se level in different regions were low, the typical levels of Se in the essential crops were relatively high. PMID:23369199

2012-01-01

123

Remote sensing of agricultural crops and soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research results and accomplishments of sixteen tasks in the following areas are described: (1) corn and soybean scene radiation research; (2) soil moisture research; (3) sampling and aggregation research; (4) pattern recognition and image registration research; and (5) computer and data base services.

Bauer, M. E. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

124

Water use efficiency of perennial and annual bioenergy crops in central Illinois  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable bioenergy production depends upon the efficiency with which crops use available water to produce biomass and store carbon belowground. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE; productivity vs. annual evapotranspiration, ET) is a key metric of bioenergy crop performance. We evaluate WUE of three potential perennial grass bioenergy crops, Miscanthus × giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), and an assemblage of prairie species (28 species), and Zea mays-Glycine max rotation, during the establishment phase in Illinois. Ecosystem WUE (EWUE; net ecosystem productivity vs. ET) was highest in miscanthus, reaching a maximum value of 12.8 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1 in the third year, followed by switchgrass (7.5 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1) and prairie (3.9 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1); the row crop was the lowest. Besides EWUE, harvest-WUE (HWUE, harvested biomass vs. ET) and net biome productivity-WUE (BWUE, calculated as net ecosystem production - harvest vs. ET) were also estimated for all crops and years. After three years of establishment, HWUE and BWUE were highest in miscanthus (9.0 ± 2 and 3.8 ± 2.9 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively) providing a net benefit to the carbon balance, while the row crops had a negative carbon balance and a negative BWUE. BWUE for maize/soybean indicate that this ecosystem would deplete the soil carbon stocks while using the water resources. Switchgrass had the second highest BWUE, while prairie was almost neutral indicating that long-term carbon sequestration for this agro-ecosystem would be sensitive to harvest timing with an early harvest removing more biomass, and thus carbon, from the field.

Zeri, Marcelo; Hussain, Mir Zaman; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Delucia, Evan; Bernacchi, Carl J.

2013-06-01

125

Lime effects on soil acidity, crop yield and aluminum chemistry in inland Pacific Northwest direct-seed cropping systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pH of agricultural soils in the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) has declined below established critical levels for cereal and grain legume crops. Our objective was to assess the effects of broadcast or subsurface banded lime treatments on soil acidity, crop yield, and aluminum (Al) chemistry in ...

126

Residue and soil carbon sequestration in relation to crop yield as affected by irrigation, tillage, cropping system and nitrogen fertilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...

127

Haiti Soil Fertility Analysis and Crop Interpretations for Principal Crops in the Five WINNER Watershed Zones of Intervention  

E-print Network

1 Haiti Soil Fertility Analysis and Crop Interpretations for Principal Crops in the Five WINNER degradation dominate the landscape in Haiti and there is little accurate soil-fertility research available in five major watershed regions of Haiti: Gonaives, Archaie/Cabaret, Cul-de-Sac, Kenscoff, and Mirebalais

Ma, Lena

128

Soil Erosion: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course of study represents the last of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil erosion. Upon completion of the two day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) define conservation, (2) understand how erosion takes place, and (3) list ways of controlling wind and water erosion.…

Miller, Larry E.

129

The Challenges of Implementing Conservation Tillage and Cover Crops in Clay Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conservation practices, such as reduced tillage and cover crops, can improve soil quality and increase soil moisture for crop production. Benefits to production, soil quality, and water conservation have been observed especially in areas with rapidly draining soils. While historically enjoying high ...

130

Soil quality differences in a mature alley cropping system in temperate North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alley cropping in agroforestry practices has been shown to improve soil quality, however information on long-term effects (>10 years) of alley cropping on soils in the temperate zone is very limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth on soil...

131

Four-year summary of the use of soil conductivity as a measure of soil and crop status  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil nutrient N needs for crop production can be met with animal manure; however, management of animal manure to match crop needs throughout the crop growing season can be a challenge. This study was conducted to examine changes in electromagnetic induction (EMI) soil conductivity and available N...

132

Short-term effects of cover crop incorporation on soil carbon pools and nitrogen availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter cover crops are increasingly used to maintain water quality and\\u000a agoecosystem productivity. Cover crop incorporation influences transient\\u000a soil microbial dynamics and nutrient availability at an early growth\\u000a stage of subsequent crops. Short-term (less than or equal to 35 d)\\u000a effects of cover crop incorporation on soil C pools and N availability\\u000a were evaluated using sandy loam soils from organically

S Hu; NJ Grunwald; AHC vanBruggen; GR Gamble; LE Drinkwater; C Shennan; MW Demment

1997-01-01

133

The short-term cover crops increase soil labile organic carbon in southeastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available about the effects of cover crops on soil labile organic carbon (C), especially in Australia.\\u000a In this study, two cover crop species, i.e., wheat and Saia oat, were broadcast-seeded in May 2009 and then crop biomass was\\u000a crimp-rolled onto the soil surface at anthesis in October 2009 in southeastern Australia. Soil and crop residue samples were

Xiaoqi Zhou; Chengrong Chen; Shunbao Lu; Yichao Rui; Hanwen Wu; Zhihong Xu

134

Effects of agricultural practices of three crops on the soil communities under Mediterranean conditions: field evaluation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable agricultural production relies on soil communities as the main actors in key soil processes necessary to maintain sustainable soil functioning. Soil biodiversity influences soil physical and chemical characteristics and thus the sustainability of crop and agro-ecosystems functioning. Agricultural practices (e.g.: soil tillage, pesticides and fertilizer applications, irrigation) may affects negatively or positively soil biodiversity and abundances by modifying the relationships between organisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices of three crops (potato, onion and maize) under Mediterranean climate conditions on soil macro- and mesofauna during their entire crop cycles. Effects on soil communities were assessed at a higher tier of environmental risk assessment comprising field testing of indigenous edaphic communities in a selected study-site located in a major agriculture region of Central Portugal, Ribatejo e Oeste, neighbouring protected wetlands. A reference site near the agricultural field site was selected as a Control site to compare the terrestrial communities' composition and variation along the crop cycle. The field soil and Control site soil are sandy loam soils. Crops irrigation was performed by center-pivot (automated sprinkler that rotates in a half a circle area) and by sprinklers. Soil macro- and mesofauna were collected at both sites (field and Control) using two methodologies through pitfall trapping and soil sampling. The community of soil macro- and mesofauna of the three crops field varied versus control site along the crops cycles. Main differences were due to arachnids, coleopterans, ants and adult Diptera presence and abundance. The feeding activity of soil fauna between control site and crop areas varied only for potato and onion crops vs. control site but not among crops. Concentration of pesticides residues in soil did not cause apparent negative effects on the soil communities. Significant differences of soil communities from potato and onion crops with the one from control site were observed at the beginning and during the crop cycle, but similarities were observed at the last sampling date after harvesting. The same was observed for the maize crop, indicating that soil communities recovered from the agricultural disturbances associated with crops management. An integrated approach such as the one adopted in present study, taking into consideration soil community's abundances, feeding activity and time variations along entire crop cycles of several crops under Mediterranean conditions, as well as soil exposure to pesticides residues, may contribute to decision making towards a sustainability of crop areas, including pesticide use and management practices.

Leitão, Sara; José Cerejeira, Maria; Abreu, Manuela; Sousa, José Paulo

2014-05-01

135

Soil management for sustainable crop disease control: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive use of agrochemicals in conventional crop management has caused serious environmental and health problems including\\u000a loss of biodiversity and human disorders. A number of chemical biocides have shown complex chronic effects such as change\\u000a in endocrine functions and immune systems. Application of different chemical biocides to the soil and plants have increased\\u000a substantially over the last five decades. Total

R. Ghorbani; S. Wilcockson; A. Koocheki; C. Leifert

2008-01-01

136

Using stable isotopes to characterize differential depth of water uptake based on environmental conditions in perennial biofuel and traditional annual crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change related to fossil fuel consumption coupled with the necessity for secure, cost-effective, and renewable domestic energy is continuing to drive the development of a bioenergy industry. Numerous second-generation biofuel crops have been identified that hold promise as sustainable feedstocks for the industry, including perennial grasses that utilize the highly water and energy efficient C4 photosynthetic pathway. Among the perennial grasses, miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) stand out as having high biomass, minimal maintenance, low nutrient input requirements, and positive environmental benefits. These grasses are able to withstand a wide range of growing season temperatures and precipitation regimes, particularly in reference to the annual row crops that they are likely to replace. During the drought of 2012 traditional row crops suffered major reductions in yield whereas the perennial grasses retained relatively high biomass yields. We hypothesize that this is due to the ability of the perennial grasses to access water from deeper soil water relative to the annual row crops. To test this hypothesis, we use isotopic techniques to determine the soil depth from which the various species obtain water. Data from summer 2013 suggests that the perennial grasses preferentially use surface water when available but can extract water from depths that the annual row crops are unable to reach. These results indicate that perennial grasses, with deeper roots, will likely sustain growth under conditions when annual row crops are unable.

Miller, J. N.; Nystrom, R.; Bernacchi, C.

2013-12-01

137

The partitioning of fertilizer-N between soil and crop: Comparison of ammonium and nitrate applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were carried out in 1987 on winter wheat crops grown on three types of soil. 15N-labelled urea, 15NH4NO3 or NH415NO3 (80 kg N ha-1) was applied at tillering. The soils (chalky soil, hydromorphic loamy soil, sandy clay soil) were chosen to obtain a range of nitrogen dynamics, particularly nitrification. Soil microbial N immobilization and crop N uptake were

Sylvie Recous; J. M. Machet; B. Mary

1992-01-01

138

[Effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals].  

PubMed

Transgenic Bt crops are widely planted around the world. With the quick development and extension of genetically modified crops, it is needed to make a deep study on the effects of Bt crops on soil ecosystem. This paper reviewed the research progress on the effects of transgenic Bt crops on the population dynamics and community structure of soil animals, e.g., earthworm, nematode, springtail, mite, and beetle, etc. The development history of Bt crops was introduced, the passway the Bt protein comes into soil as well as the residual and degradation of Bt protein in soil were analyzed, and the critical research fields about the ecological risk analysis of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals in the future were approached, which would provide a reference for the research of the effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals. PMID:20707123

Yuan, Yi-gang; Ge, Feng

2010-05-01

139

Soil carbon accumulation after short-term use of rye as a winter cover crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of winter cover crops has been proposed to protect and enhance soil resources. Cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) can be an effective cover crop since it can produce large amounts of biomass in certain climates. However, short-term benefits of cover crop use on soil carbon accumulation are not w...

140

Early response of soil organic fractions to tillage and integrated crop-livestock production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tillage, cropping system, and cover cropping are important management variables that control the quantity, quality, and placement of organic matter inputs to soil. How soil organic matter and its different fractions respond to management has not been comprehensively studied in integrated crop-lives...

141

A simulation model linking crop growth and soil biogeochemistry for sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting impacts of climate change or alternative management on both food production and environment safety in agroecosystems is drawing great attention in the scientific community. Most of the existing agroecosystem models emphasize either crop growth or soil processes. This paper reports the latest development of an agroecosystem model (Crop-DNDC) by integrating detailed crop growth algorithms with an existing soil biogeochemical

Yu Zhang; Changsheng Li; Xiuji Zhou; Berrien Moore

2002-01-01

142

SOIL WATER USE AND GRAIN YIELD OF THREE DRYLAND CROPS UNDER DIFFERING TILLAGE SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Combining the use of drought-adapted and early maturing crops with reduced tillage practices in dryland cropping systems can increase soil water storage, water-use efficiency and crop yields. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil water use by cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), grain sorghum [So...

143

The effects of cover crops on soil physical properties and nutrient cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover crops improve soil aggregate stability, increase water infiltration, and legume cover crops also fix nitrogen and scavenge nutrients that are subject to leaching. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in Indiana to measure growth of different cover crops and their effects on soil properties. The objective of the greenhouse experiment was to study the response of three varieties of

Mohammad Zaman Amini

2011-01-01

144

Soil properties and crop productivity as influenced by flyash incorporation in soil.  

PubMed

Field experiments were carried out during 1996-97 at Gulawathi, Muthiani and Salarpur Villages, IARI Farm, New Delhi and NCPP Campus, Dadri to evaluate changes in soil characteristics and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), lentil (Lence esculenta Moench.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) by varying amounts of flyash addition (up to 50t ha(-1)) in soils at sowing/transplanting time of crops. Flyash addition in areas adjoining NCPP Thermal Power Plant, Dadri, Ghaziabad, U.P. ranged from 5-12 t ha(-1)] yr(-1) in 1995-96. Shoot and root growth and yield of test crops at different locations after flyash incorporation resulted in beneficial effects of flyash addition in most cases. The silt dominant texture of flyash improved loamy sand to sandy loam textures of the surface soils at the farmers' fields. The increased growth in yield of crops with flyash incorporation was possibly due to modifications in soil moisture retention and transmission characteristics, bulk density, physico-chemical characters such as pH and EC and organic carbon content. The response of flyash addition in the soil on soil health and crop productivity needs to be evaluated on long-term sustainable aspects. PMID:12889638

Kalra, Naveen; Jain, M C; Joshi, H C; Chaudhary, R; Kumar, Sushil; Pathak, H; Sharma, S K; Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Ravindra; Harit, R C; Khan, S A; Hussain, M Z

2003-09-01

145

Carbon input to soil from oilseed and pulse crops on the Canadian prairies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of carbon (C) in soil is fundamentally affected by crop mix in diverse cropping systems, yet, little is known about C inputs from oilseed and pulse crops. This study determined carbon allocation coefficients in grain, straw, roots, and rhizodeposits for important oilseed and pulse crops in comparison with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under low-water (rainfall only) and

Y. T. Gan; C. A. Campbell; H. H. Janzen; R. L. Lemke; P. Basnyat; C. L. McDonald

2009-01-01

146

Effects of irrigation on crops and soils with Raft River geothermal water  

SciTech Connect

The Raft River Irrigation Experiment investigated the suitability of using energy-expended geothermal water for irrigation of selected field-grown crops. Crop and soil behavior on plots sprinkled or surface irrigated with geothermal water was compared to crop and soil behavior on plots receiving water from shallow irrigation wells and the Raft River. In addition, selected crops were produced, using both geothermal irrigation water and special management techniques. Crops irrigated with geothermal water exhibited growth rates, yields, and nutritional values similar to comparison crops. Cereal grains and surface-irrigated forage crops did not exhibit elevated fluoride levels or accumulations of heavy metals. However, forage crops sprinkled with geothermal water did accumulate fluorides, and leaching experiments indicate that new soils receiving geothermal water may experience increased salinity, exchangeable sodium, and decreased permeability. Soil productivity may be maintained by leaching irrigations.

Stanley, N.E.; Schmitt, R.C.

1980-01-01

147

Soil organic carbon across a Coastal Plain landscape: Effects of tillage and crop management systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effective employment of conservation tillage (CT) and crop management practices to obtain significant amounts of C sequestration will require an understanding of quantitative relationships between crop residue inputs under different rotations and potential changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) conten...

148

Dedicated bioenergy crop impacts on soil wind erodibility and organic carbon in Kansas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dedicated bioenergy crops such as perennial warm-season grasses (WSGs) may reduce soil erosion and improve soil properties while providing biomass feedstock for biofuel. We quantified impacts of perennial WSGs and row crops on soil wind erodibility parameters (erodible fraction, geometric mean diame...

149

Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra  

SciTech Connect

A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States). Center for Tropical Research & Education

2006-04-15

150

Department of Crop and Soil Science Internship, Research and Thesis Topic Possibilities  

E-print Network

Department of Crop and Soil Science Internship, Research and Thesis Topic Possibilities Academic-Ridge, Corvallis (Specialty Area: Soils) Mineral identification in rocks and soils using x-ray diffraction Prof-chemical prevention tools are working for fruit growers? Prof. Jennifer Parke, Corvallis (Special Area: Soils) Soil

Grünwald, Niklaus J.

151

Carbonaceous soil amendments to biofortify crop plants with zinc.  

PubMed

Carbonaceous soil amendments, comprising mixtures of biosolids and biochar, have been demonstrated to improve fertility while reducing nitrate leaching. We aimed to determine the efficacy of a biosolids/biochar soil amendment in biofortification of vegetables with Zn, an element that is deficient in one third of humanity. We grew beetroot (Beta vulgaris), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus), broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), leek (Allium ampeloprsum), onion (Allium cepa), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), corn (Zea mays), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and courgette (also called zucchini - Cucurbita pepo) in an unamended soil (silt loam, pH 5.6), and soil amended (by volume) with 10% biosolids, 20% biochar, and 10% biosolids+20% biochar. The biosolids and biosolids+biochar treatments significantly increased the biomass and Zn concentration of most species, with a large interspecific variation. Beetroot showed the greatest increase, with dry weight Zn concentrations of up to 178 and 1200 mg kg(-1) in the bulbs and leaves respectively. Cadmium, Cu and Pb were below guideline levels in all samples, except the leaves of spinach and beetroot, which slightly exceeded the World Health Organisation's maximum permitted concentration of 0.1 mg Cd kg(-1) fresh weight. A mixture of biosolids and biochar is an effective means to biofortify crops with edible leaves as well as beetroot with Zn. Future research should investigate the efficacy of the system in other soil types and the role of biochar in the immobilisation/inactivation of organic contaminants and pathogens contained within the biosolids. PMID:23146312

Gartler, Jörg; Robinson, Brett; Burton, Karen; Clucas, Lynne

2013-11-01

152

Soil and water quality implications of production of herbaceous and woody energy crops  

SciTech Connect

Field-scale studies in three physiographic regions of the Tennessee Valley in the Southeastern US are being used to address the environmental effects of producing biomass energy crops on former agricultural lands. Comparison of erosion, surface water quality and quantity, and subsurface movement of water and nutrients from woody crops, switchgrass and agricultural crops began with crop establishment in 1994. Nutrient cycling, soil physical changes, and productivity of the different crops are also being monitored at the three sites.

Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lindberg, J.E. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, TN (United States); Green, T.H. [Alabama A and M Univ., Normal, AL (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science] [and others

1997-10-01

153

USDA-ARS WHEAT, PEANUT AND FIELD CROPS RESEARCH UNIT ANNUAL REPORT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This annual report is a summary of objectives and current research accomplishments of the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK, concerning aphids and cereal aphid resistance. Personnel and recent publications are also listed. ...

154

Annual Medicago: From a Model Crop Challenged by a Spectrum of Necrotrophic Pathogens to a Model Plant to Explore the Nature of Disease Resistance  

PubMed Central

• Background Annual Medicago spp., including M. truncatula, play an important agronomic role in dryland farming regions of the world where they are often an integral component of cropping systems, particularly in regions with a Mediterranean or Mediterranean-type climate where they grow as winter annuals that provide both nitrogen and disease breaks for rotational crops. Necrotrophic foliar and soil-borne pathogens dominate these regions and challenge the productivity of annual Medicago and crop legume species. • Scope This review outlines some of the major and/or widespread diseases these necrotrophic pathogens cause on Medicago spp. It then explores the potential for using the spectrum of necrotrophic pathogen–host interactions, with annual Medicago as the host plant, to better understand and model pathosystems within the diseases caused by nectrotrophic pathogens across forage and grain legume crops. • Conclusions Host resistance clearly offers the best strategy for cost-effective, long-term control of necrotrophic foliar and soil-borne pathogens, particularly as useful resistance to a number of these diseases has been identified. Recently and initially, the annual M. truncatula has emerged as a more appropriate and agronomically relevant substitute to Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant for legumes, and is proving an excellent model to understand the mechanisms of resistance both to individual pathogens and more generally to most forage and grain legume necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:16803846

TIVOLI, B.; BARANGER, A.; SIVASITHAMPARAM, K.; BARBETTI, M. J.

2006-01-01

155

Neural network simulation of soil NO3 dynamic under potato crop system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate leaching is a major issue in sandy soils intensively cropped to potato. Modelling could test and improve management practices, particularly as regard to the optimal N application rates. Lack of input data is an important barrier for the application of classical process-based models to predict soil NO3 content (SNOC) and NO3 leaching (NOL). Alternatively, data driven models such as neural networks (NN) could better take into account indicators of spatial soil heterogeneity and plant growth pattern such as the leaf area index (LAI), hence reducing the amount of soil information required. The first objective of this study was to evaluate NN and hybrid models to simulate SNOC in the 0-40 cm soil layer considering inter-annual variations, spatial soil heterogeneity and differential N application rates. The second objective was to evaluate the same methodology to simulate seasonal NOL dynamic at 1 m deep. To this aim, multilayer perceptrons with different combinations of driving meteorological variables, functions of the LAI and state variables of external deterministic models have been trained and evaluated. The state variables from external models were: drainage estimated by the CLASS model and the soil temperature estimated by an ICBM subroutine. Results of SNOC simulations were compared to field data collected between 2004 and 2011 at several experimental plots under potato cropping systems in Québec, Eastern Canada. Results of NOL simulation were compared to data obtained in 2012 from 11 suction lysimeters installed in 2 experimental plots under potato cropping systems in the same region. The most performing model for SNOC simulation was obtained using a 4-input hybrid model composed of 1) cumulative LAI, 2) cumulative drainage, 3) soil temperature and 4) day of year. The most performing model for NOL simulation was obtained using a 5-input NN model composed of 1) N fertilization rate at spring, 2) LAI, 3) cumulative rainfall, 4) the day of year and 5) the percentage of clay content. The MAE was 22% for SNOC simulation and 23% for NOL simulation. High sensitivity to LAI suggests that the model may take into account field and sub-field spatial variability and support N management. Further studies are needed to fully validate the method, particularly in the case of NOL simulation.

Goulet-Fortin, Jérôme; Morais, Anne; Anctil, François; Parent, Léon-Étienne; Bolinder, Martin

2013-04-01

156

Estimating the Soil Thermal Conductivity in a Agricultural Crop Site in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal conductivity is higher when the heat storage is higher and the soil surface temperature is lower. The soil thermal conductivity is also dependant on the soil texture, porosity and moisture. Therefore, it varies from soil to soil and in the same soil, depending on its soil moisture. In the present work, it is shown soil thermal conductivity estimates in a agricultural crop located at the Cruz Alta city in southern Brazil. Also the dynamic of soil heat flux (G) is analyzed and the soil thermal conductivity (Ks) is estimated using experimental data form soil heat flux and soil temperature in a agricultural crop farm in a subtropical location in Southern Brazil. In this specific site, there is a crop rotation scheme along the year. The soil type is Rhodic Hapludox (FAO) or Typic Haplorthox (US Soil Taxonomy), characterized as a deep, clay soil. The experimental soil heat flux was compared with estimated soil heat flux by two forms: (1) using a known Ks from literature for this type of soil; (2) using Ks estimated using the inversion of the equation Qg=-ks* ((T2-T1)/ (Z2-Z1)), where T1 and T2 are the temperature in different layers above the soil and Z2-Z1 is the difference between the positions in temperature measurement. The general results agree with the literature for the specific agricultural crop for Ks values in the current study for the measurement period.

Zimmer, Tamíres; Roberti, Debora; Moreira, Virnei; Silveira, Marcos

157

Native cover crops suppress exotic annuals and favor native perennials in a greenhouse competition experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a greenhouse experiment, we examined the effectiveness of four native cover crops for controlling four exotic, invasive\\u000a species and increasing success of four western North American grassland species. Planting the annual cover crops, annual ragweed\\u000a (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and common sunflower (Helianthus annuus), reduced the biomass of the exotic species cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus), Canada thistle (Cirsium

Laura G. Perry; Spencer A. Cronin; Mark W. Paschke

2009-01-01

158

Effects of Continuous Cropping of Rye on Soil Biota and Biochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term studies on the ecological effects of continuous rye cultivations carried out in Poland are summarized. It was shown that in continuous cropping of rye, despite the decrease of crop yields, no significant difference was observed in annual primary production rates compared with estimates found for rye fields cultivated in diversified crop rotation patterns. In continuous cultivation of rye fauna

Lech Ryszkowski; Lech Szajdak; Jerzy Karg

1998-01-01

159

Agricultural management practices to sustain crop yields and improve soil and environmental qualities.  

PubMed

In the past several decades, agricultural management practices consisting of intensive tillage and high rate of fertilization to improve crop yields have resulted in the degradation of soil and environmental qualities by increasing erosion and nutrient leaching in the groundwater and releasing greenhouses gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), that cause global warming in the atmosphere by oxidation of soil organic matter. Consequently, management practices that sustain crop yields and improve soil and environmental qualities are needed. This paper reviews the findings of the effects of tillage practices, cover crops, and nitrogen (N) fertilization rates on crop yields, soil organic carbon (C) and N concentrations, and nitrate (NO3)-N leaching from the soil. Studies indicate that conservation tillage, such as no-till or reduced till, can increase soil organic C and N concentrations at 0- to 20-cm depth by as much as 7-17% in 8 years compared with conventional tillage without significantly altering crop yields. Similarly, cover cropping and 80-180 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) fertilization can increase soil organic C and N concentrations by as much as 4-12% compared with no cover cropping or N fertilization by increasing plant biomass and amount of C and N inputs to the soil. Reduced till, cover cropping, and decreased rate of N fertilization can reduce soil N leaching compared with conventional till, no cover cropping, and full rate of N fertilization. Management practices consisting of combinations of conservation tillage, mixture of legume and nonlegume cover crops, and reduced rate of N fertilization have the potentials for sustaining crop yields, increasing soil C and N storage, and reducing soil N leaching, thereby helping to improve soil and water qualities. Economical and social analyses of such practices are needed to find whether they are cost effective and acceptable to the farmers. PMID:12941975

Sainju, Upendra M; Whitehead, Wayne F; Singh, Bharat P

2003-08-20

160

NATIONAL CROP LOSS ASSESSMENT NETWORK (NCLAN) 1985 ANNUAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) consists of a group of organizations cooperating in field work, crop modeling, and economic studies to assess the immediate and long-term economic consequences of air pollution on crop production. Two primary objectives are (1) to...

161

NATIONAL CROP LOSS ASSESSMENT NETWORK (NCLAN) 1983 ANNUAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) consists of a group of organizations cooperating in field work, crop modeling, and economic studies to assess the immediate and long-term consequences of air pollution on crop production. Two primary objectives are (1) to define r...

162

Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Gravel and Gravelless Trench Soil Absorption Fields  

E-print Network

Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Gravel and Gravelless Trench Soil Absorption Fields Brad Lee, Don Jones, and Chris Bourke Department of Agronomy and Department into the soil for treatment. Where soil and site conditions permit, many Indiana homeowners use conventional

Holland, Jeffrey

163

Interaction between soil mineralogy and the application of crop residues on aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity of the soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main goals of modern agriculture is to achieve sustainability by maintaining crop productivity while avoiding soil degradation. Intensive cultivation could lead to a reduction in soil organic matter that could affect the structure stability and hydraulic conductivity of the soil. Moreover, crops extract nutrients from the soil that are taken away from the field when harvested, and as a consequence, the addition of fertilizers to the soil is necessary to maintain crop productivity. One way to deal with these problems is to incorporate crop residues into the soil after harvest. Crop residues are a source of organic matter that could improve soil physical properties, such as aggregate stability and soil hydraulic conductivity. However, this effect could vary according to other soil properties, such as clay content, clay mineralogy, and the presence of other cementing materials in the soil (mainly carbonates and aluminum and iron oxides). In the present work, the interaction between the addition of chickpea crop residues to the soil and clay mineralogy on aggregate stability and saturated hydraulic conductivity were studied. Chickpea plant residues were added at a rate of 0.5% (w/w) to smectitic, kaolinitic, illitic and non-phyllosilicate soils from different regions. The soils without (control) and with chickpea residues were incubated for 0, 3, 7 and 30 days, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soils was measured in columns after each incubation time. The response of hydraulic conductivity to the addition of residues and incubation time was different in the soils with various mineralogies, although in general, the addition of chickpea residues increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity as compared with the control soils. This positive effect of crop residues on hydraulic conductivity was mainly a result of improved aggregate stability and resistance to slaking during wetting.

Lado, M.; Kiptoon, R.; Bar-Tal, A.; Wakindiki, I. I. C.; Ben-Hur, M.

2012-04-01

164

Long term effects of annual additions of animal manure on soil chemical, physical, and biological properties in the Great Plains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of long-term annual beef manure amendments and wheat and rye cover crops on selected chemical, physical and biological properties of a typical Midwest U.S. soil under corn silage production. The treatments included: manure application/cover cr...

165

National Crop Loss Assessment network (NCLAN) 1981 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) consists of a group of cooperating organizations engaged in field work, crop modeling, and economic studies to assess the immediate and long-term economic consequences of the effects of air pollution on crop production. The program's primary objectives are (1) to define the relationship between yields of major agricultural crops and does of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and their mixtures using state-of-the-art technology in the field with realistic pollutant exposure regimes and (2) to utilize these relationships in assessing the economic consequences of exposure of agricultural crops to these pollutants.

Heck, W.W.; Taylor, O.C.; Adams, R.M.; Bingham, G.; Miller, J.E.

1983-06-01

166

Separating soil evaporation and crop transpiration to improve crop water use efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network of a FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on "Managing Irrigation Water to Enhance Crop Productivity under Water-Limiting Conditions: A Role for Isotopic Techniques", involving seven countries was implemented from 2007 to 2012, to identify approaches to improve crop water productivity (production per unit of water input) under water-limiting conditions using isotopic and related techniques. This paper presents findings from the two of the studied sites, one in China and another in Morocco, in using both isotopic and conventional techniques to separate soil evaporation (E) and crop transpiration (T) from total water losses in evapotranspiration (ET) for winter wheat grown under different climatic conditions and methods of irrigation management practices. In the North China Plain (NCP), the estimated E/ET of winter wheat by the isotopic method (Keeling plot using delta oxygen-18 (?18O)) was in agreement with that obtained by conventional methods (eddy covariance and micro-lysimeter). The high correlation between these methods (R2=0.85, n=27) showed that the E from wheat-growing field contributes an average of 30% of water losses for the whole growing season (Nov-June), with higher E percentage (68%) can be expected before elongation stage due to incomplete canopy cover. The results also showed that through deficit irrigation and improved irrigation scheduling, soil E losses could be reduced by 10-30% of the total water loss compared with full irrigation. In Morocco, field Keeling plot isotopic E and T separation study was carried out for two days in spring of 2012 at Sidi Rahal. The percentage contribution of T to total ET was approximately 73%. The experimental results obtained from both China and Moroccan sites were used to validate FAO's AquaCrop model for E and T, and for improving irrigation scheduling and agronomic practices. Good correlation (R2=0.83) was obtained between measured (isotopic) and AquaCrop simulated ET from NCP. The measured and simulated E and T results from Morocco also compared well; the difference in E between the two approaches was only 5-12% over the two-day study.

Heng, Lee; Nguyen, Long; Gong, Daozhi; Mei, Xurong; Amenzou, Noureddine

2014-05-01

167

Microbial community structure and abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil of a tomato cropping system that includes cover crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this report we use Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (TRFLP) in a tomato production system to “finger printing” the soil microbial community structure with Phylum specific primer sets. Factors influencing the soil microbes are a cover crop of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) or Rye (...

168

Small Grain Winter Cover Crops for Corn and Soybean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Winter cover crops are plants that cover the soil between harvest and planting of summer annual grain crops. While doing this, cover crops perform important environmental functions that include reducing soil erosion, accumulating nutrients, and increasing soil carbon. This educational module provide...

169

Standing crop and production in annual grass communities in Washington and California: a comparison  

SciTech Connect

An annual grass community in eastern Washington comprised mostly of cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum L., produced a yearly average of 226 g dry wt per m/sup 2/ of shoot biomass over a four-year period. Litter averaged 408 g per m/sup 2/ and belowground biomass 776 g. Total standing crop averaged 1400 g per m/sup 2/. Seventy percent of the root biomass was concentrated in the upper 10 cm of soil profile and 88% was in the upper 20 cm. An annual grass community in the central valley of California was about two times more productive than the cheatgrass community. The major botanical difference between the two communities, other than a more diverse species composition and greater productivity in the California community was the proportion of litter in the total aboveground biomass. The litter component of the cheatgrass community amounted to 30% of aboveground biomass as compared to only 14% for the California community. Litter accumulation in the cheatgrass community may indicate a slower decomposition rate but differences in grazing histories between the Washington cheatgrass and the California communities could have accounted for the difference in litter accumulation. 14 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Rickard, W.H.

1983-07-01

170

Annual Crop Type Classification of the U.S. Great Plains for 2000 - 2011: An Application of Classification Tree Modeling using Remote Sensing and Ancillary Environmental Data (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to increase spatial and temporal availability of crop classification data using reliable source data that have the potential of being applied on local, regional, national, and global levels. This study implemented classification tree modeling to map annual crop types throughout the U.S. Great Plains from 2000 - 2011. Classification tree modeling has been shown in numerous studies to be an effective tool for developing classification models. In this study, nearly 18 million crop observation points, derived from annual U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agriculture Statistics Service (NASS) Cropland Data Layers (CDLs), were used in the training, development, and validation of a classification tree crop type model (CTM). Each observation point was further defined by weekly Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) readings, annual climatic conditions, soil conditions, and a number of other biogeophysical environmental characteristics. The CTM accounted for the most prevalent crop types in the area, including, corn, soybeans, winter wheat, spring wheat, cotton, sorghum, and alfalfa. Other crops that did not fit into any of these classes were identified and grouped into a miscellaneous class. An 87% success rate was achieved on the classification of 1.8 million observation points (10% of total observation points) that were withheld from training. The CTM was applied to create annual crop maps of the U.S. Great Plains for 2000 - 2011 at a spatial resolution of 250 meters. Product validation was performed by comparing county acreage derived from the modeled crop maps and county acreage data from the USDA NASS Survey Program for each crop type and each year. Greater than 15,000 county records from 2001 - 2010 were compared with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = 0.87.

Howard, D. M.; Wylie, B. K.

2013-12-01

171

Populations of methanogenic bacteria in paddy field soil under double cropping conditions (rice-wheat)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanogenic populations able to use H2-CO2, methanol, and acetate were investigated in paddy field soil in situ under double cropping conditions [rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a summer crop under flooded conditions and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as an upland winter crop] over 2 years approximately bimonthly by the most probable number method. Three fields, one without fertilizer, one

S. Asakawa; K. Hayano

1995-01-01

172

Cover crop effects on the fate of N following soil application of swine manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal grain cover crops increase surface cover, anchor corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] residues, increase infiltration, reduce both rill and interrill erosion, scavenge excess nutrients from the soil, and are easily obtained and inexpensive compared to other cover crop options. The use of cereal grain cover crops in fields where manure application occurs should increase

T. B. Parkin; T. C. Kaspar; J. W. Singer

2006-01-01

173

IRRIGATED CROPPING SYSTEM EFFECTS ON SOIL ORGANIC MATTER VALUES DETERMINED BY WEIGHT-LOSS-ON-IGNITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding N fertility and crop rotation effects on changes in soil organic matter in irrigated cropping systems is required before producers or regulators can make informed decisions regarding management or policy. An experiment initiated in 1991 with 3 cropping systems, (i) continuous corn, (ii...

174

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Increase Following the Termination of a Perennial Legume Phase of an Annual Crop Rotation within the Red River Valley, Manitoba  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perennial legume forages may have the potential to increase soil carbon sequestration and decrease nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere when introduced into annual cropping systems. However, little is known about what short-term effect the return to annual cropping following termination of perennial legume forage would have on carbon dioxide (CO2) and N2O emissions. Furthermore, there are few quantitative measurements about this impact on the Canadian Prairies. A long-term field experiment to continuously measure CO2 and N2O fluxes was established at the Trace Gas Manitoba (TGAS-MAN) Long Term Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Site at Glenlea, Manitoba using the flux gradient micrometeorlogical technique with a tunable diode laser analyzer. The soil is poorly drained clay in the Red River Valley. The field experiment consisted of four 4-hectare plots planted to corn in 2006 and faba bean in 2007. In 2008, grass-alfalfa forage was introduced to two plots (annual - perennial) and grown until 2011 whereas the other two plots (annual) were planted to annual crops: spring wheat, rapeseed, barley and spring wheat in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. In late September of 2011 the grass-alfalfa forage was killed and in 2012 all four plots were planted with corn. Termination of the grass-alfalfa forage resulted in greater fall CO2 emissions in 2011, greater spring melt CO2 emissions and net annual N2O emissions in 2012 from the annual-perennial plots when compared to the annual plots. Over seven crop years (2006-2012), the annual - perennial system increased carbon uptake by 3.4 Mg C ha-1 and reduced N2O emissions by 3.0 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 compared to the annual system. However after accounting for harvest removals both the annual and annual-perennial systems were net carbon sources of 5.7 and 2.5 Mg C ha-1 and net GHG sources of 38 and 24 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 respectively. We are currently following the long-term impacts of inclusion of perennial forages in an annual cropping system.

Hanis, K. L.; Tenuta, M.; Amiro, B. D.; Glenn, A. J.; Maas, S.; Gervais, M.

2013-12-01

175

Role of Soil Organic Matter in Maintaining Sustainability of Cropping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter (SOM) has long been recognized as an important indicator of soil productivity. The SOM refers to the organic fraction of the soil exclusive of undecayed plant and animal residues. It plays a crucial role in maintaining sustainability of cropping systems by improving soil physical (texture, structure, bulk density, and water-holding capacity), chemical (nutrient availability, cation exchange capacity,

N. K. Fageria

2012-01-01

176

The Role of Soil Organic Matter in Maintaining Sustainability of Cropping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter (SOM) has long been recognized as an important indicator of soil productivity. The SOM refers to the organic fraction of the soil exclusive of undecayed plant and animal residues. It plays a crucial role in maintaining sustainability of cropping systems by improving soil physical (texture, structure, bulk density and water holding capacity), chemical (nutrient availability, cation exchange

N. K. Fageria

2012-01-01

177

Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

178

Water, carbon and nitrogen cycling in a rendzina soil cropped with winter oilseed rape  

E-print Network

Short note Water, carbon and nitrogen cycling in a rendzina soil cropped with winter oilseed rape.) Internet database / nitrogen cycle / rendzina / oilseed rape Résumé - Une base de données sur les cycles on the dynamic fluxes of water, carbon and nitrogen within a soil-crop system at the field-scale, conducted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

179

Developing a Foundation for Constructing New Curricula in Soil, Crop, and Turfgrass Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some soil and crop science university programs undergo curricula revision to maintain relevancy with their profession and/or to attract the best students to such programs. The Department of Soil and Crop Sciences at Texas A&M University completed a thorough data gathering process as part of its revision of the undergraduate curriculum and degree…

Jarvis, Holly D.; Collett, Ryan; Wingenbach, Gary; Heilman, James L.; Fowler, Debra

2012-01-01

180

Effects of soil type on soybean crop water use in weighing lysimeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate estimation of crop evaporation from a range of soil types is fundamental to the continued improvement of irrigation management. In this experiment soybean crop evaporation was measured using two weighing lysimeters, one with an undisturbed block of Hanwood loam (L1), the other with undisturbed Mundiwa clay loam (L2). Although both soils have clay profiles the Hanwood loam was much

W. S. Meyer; W. A. Dugas; H. D. Barrs; R. C. G. Smith; R. J. Fleetwood

1990-01-01

181

Rye cover crop effects on soil properties in no-till corn silage/soybean agroecosystems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmers in the U.S. Corn Belt are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. The known benefits of winter cover crops include reduced nitrate leaching, soil erosion, and weed germination, but evidence of improvements in soil productivity would provide further incentive for famers to implemen...

182

Integrated Field Crop, Soil and Pest Management Program Work Team FY 2011 Member Listing  

E-print Network

Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology gcb3@cornell.edu Ron Robbins North Harbor Dairy Science lec7@cornell.edu Jerry Cherney Cornell - Crop & Soil Science jhc5@cornell.edu Bill Cox Cornell - Crop & Soil Science wjc3@cornell.edu Larry Geohring

Lazzaro, Brian

183

A New Record of Pseudallescheria boydii Isolated from Crop Field Soil in Korea  

PubMed Central

Pseudallescheria boydii KNU13-2 was isolated from crop field soil and identified by analysis of internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA and morphological characteristics. In the literature, P. boydii has been mentioned as a human pathogen. This is the first record of P. boydii isolated from crop field soil in Korea. PMID:25606013

Babu, A. Giridhar; Kim, Sang Woo; Yadhav, Dil Raj; Adhikari, Mahesh; Kim, Changmu; Lee, Hyang Burm

2014-01-01

184

COMPARISON OF NITROGEN MINERALIZATION FOLLOWING US AND BRAZILIAN COVER CROPS FOR A SOUTHERN PIEDMONT SOIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Winter cover crops are essential in conservation tillage systems to protect soils from erosion and for improving soil productivity. Black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb) and oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) could be useful cover crops in the Southeastern USA but successful adoption requires underst...

185

Effect of environmentally degraded soil on crop yield: the role of conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the effect of fertile top soil degraded by environmental factors such as acid rain and wind on crop yield is studied by considering a single-sector economic growth model. It is shown that if these environmental factors continue to increase without control, the fertile top soil depth tends to zero and consequently the crop yield becomes negligible. However,

A. Shukla; B. Dubey; J. B. Shukla

1996-01-01

186

Best management practices: Managing cropping systems for soil protection and bioenergy production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in renewable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased. Crop residue such as corn stover or wheat straw can be used for bioenergy including a substitution for natural gas or coal. Harvesting crop residue needs to be managed to protect the soil and future soil productivity. The amount of bi...

187

The Effects of Tillage, Cropping and Fertilization on Extractable Soil Nutrients in Four Agro-Ecosystems in Ghana, West Africa  

E-print Network

of crop residues. 1.2.2 Cropping systems and soil amendments A wide diversity of staple crops such as maize, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum (sorghum L.), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), banana (Musa × paradisiaca), 6 wheat (Triticum), rice...

Davies, Benjamin

2014-08-10

188

Soil nitrous oxide emissions in long-term cover crops-based rotations under subtropical climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that cover crops can enhance soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, but the magnitude of increase depends on the quantity and quality of the crop residues. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of long-term (19 and 21 years) no-till maize crop rotations including grass [black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb)] and legume cover crops [vetch (Vigna

Juliana Gomes; Cimélio Bayer; Falberni de Souza Costa; Marisa de Cássia Piccolo; Josiléia Acordi Zanatta; Frederico Costa Beber Vieira; Johan Six

2009-01-01

189

Crop residue management to reduce erosion and improve soil quality: Northern Great plains. Conservation research report  

SciTech Connect

This publication summarizes research and experience that show the potential benefits and problems related to decreasing tillage and leaving more residues on the soil surface. Experts discuss the equipment, management practices, crop protection chemicals, crop rotations, cover crops, and cropping systems that will enable farmers to control erosion on their lands-so they are in Federal conservation compliance-while simultaneously optimizing their net returns and improving the environment and natural resources.

Moldenhauer, W.C.; Black, A.L.

1994-09-01

190

COVER CROP SYSTEM EFFECTS ON CARBON/NITROGEN SEQUESTRATION AND THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COASTAL PLAIN SOILS UNDER CONSERVATION TILLAGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop growth and water/solute movement are affected by soil properties. Crop growth is affected by soil moisture retention, which relates to soil structure (particle and pore size distribution), which is greatly affected by soil C levels. Soil hydraulic conductivity depends on particle size distrib...

191

ACCUMULATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF NITRATE–NITROGEN AND EXTRACTABLE PHOSPHORUS IN THE SOIL PROFILE UNDER VARIOUS ALTERNATIVE CROPPING SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cropping systems can influence the accumulation and distribution of plant nutrients in the soil profile, which can affect their utilization efficiency by crops and pollution potential in the environment. A field experiment was conducted on a Dark Brown loam soil at Scott, Saskatchewan, Canada to assess the effects of input level, cropping diversity and crop phase on the accumulation and

S. S. Malhi; S. A. Brandt; D. Ulrich; R. Lemke; K. S. Gill

2002-01-01

192

Carbon mineralization in the soils under different cover crops and residue management in an intensive protected vegetable cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous cropping under plastic greenhouses, a common practice in intensive Chinese vegetable production systems, has led to the decline of soil productivity and crop yields. A 4-year greenhouse experiment on cucumber double-cropping systems was conducted in Changping country, Beijing, China, to investigate the effects of summer cover crops and residue management on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), C mineralization and

Yongqiang Tian; Juan Liu; Xuhui Wang; Lihong Gao

2011-01-01

193

Effects of long-term soil and crop management on soil hydraulic properties for claypan soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Regional and national soil maps have been developed along with associated soil property databases to assist users in making land management decisions based on soil characteristics. These soil properties include average values from soil characterization for each soil series. In reality, these propert...

194

SOIL CO2 FLUX IN CONVENTIONAL AND ORGANIC CROPPING SYSTEMS: COMPARISON OF MEASUREMENT METHODS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH SOIL MOISTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate measurement of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux is necessary to evaluate the effects of cropping systems on global warming potential and to provide accurate estimates of carbon (C) budgets. Soil CO2 fluxes, soil temperature and volumetric water content (VWC) were measured in no till, chisel ...

195

No-tillage, crop residue additions, and legume cover cropping effects on soil quality characteristics under maize in Patzcuaro watershed (Mexico)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive maize (Zea mays L.) cropping based on conventional tillage practices has resulted in soil quality degradation in the Patzcuaro Watershed in central Mexico. A field experiment with seven soil management treatments was implemented on a sandy loam Andisol to evaluate the impact on soil quality of maize cropping with conventional tillage, no-tillage with varying percentages of surface residue coverage

A. Roldán; F. Caravaca; M. T. Hernández; C. Garc??a; C. Sánchez-Brito; M. Velásquez; M. Tiscareño

2003-01-01

196

Changes of Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon and Nitrogen with Cover Crops and Irrigation in a Tomato Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand how soil microbial biomass was influenced by incorporated residues of summer cover crops and by water regimes, soil microbial biomass carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) were investigated in tomato field plots in which three leguminous and a non-leguminous cover crop had been grown and incorporated into the soil. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea

Q. R. Wang; Y. C. Li; W. Klassen

2007-01-01

197

Soil Organic Matter in Long-Term Tillage and Cropping System Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some reports advocate that no-tillage (NT) management builds up soil organic matter (SOM) compared with conventional tillage, (CT) while others disagreefor some environments. The purposeof this study was to determine the influence of cropping history and soil type on changes in SOM as affected by long-termNT and CT treatments. Three soil types and six cropping systems from seven experiments in

R. N. Gallaher; J. F. Corella; R. A. Ortiz; M. Ferrer; G. C. de Bruniard; S. Dya; H. Marelli; A. Lattanzi

198

Soil heterogeneity at the field scale: a challenge for precision crop protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop protection seldom takes into account soil heterogeneity at the field scale. Yet, variable site characteristics affect\\u000a the incidence of pests as well as the efficacy and fate of pesticides in soil. This article reviews crucial starting points\\u000a for incorporating soil information into precision crop protection (PCP). At present, the lack of adequate field maps is a\\u000a major drawback. Conventional

Stefan Patzold; Franz Michael Mertens; Ludger Bornemann; Britta Koleczek; Jonas Franke; Hannes Feilhauer; Gerhard Welp

2008-01-01

199

COTORAN WASH-OFF FROM COVER CROP RESIDUES AND DEGRADATION IN GIGGER SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover crop residues on no-till soil will intercept a portion of applied herbicides. Thus, herbicide efficacy in no-till systems depends,in part, on rainfall to wash the herbicide onto the soil. Tillage and cover crop residue may also influence degradation of a herbicide in soil. This series of studies examined Cotoran (fluometuron, N,N ­ dimethyl-Nr-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) urea) wash- off from native vegetation,

L. A. Gaston; D. J. Boquet; S. D. Dotch; M. A. Bosch

200

Soils, crop nutrient status and nutrient dynamics on small-holder farms in central Tibet, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the soils that support agriculture in Tibet. The aim of this paper is to investigate the physical and\\u000a chemical properties of Tibet’s agricultural soils, the nutritional status of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crops, and the sustainability of current soil management practices. Physical descriptions of Tibet’s agricultural soils\\u000a were based on soil

Nicholas G. Paltridge; Samantha P. P. Grover; Liu Gouyi; Jin Tao; Murray J. Unkovich; Nyima Tashi; David R. Coventry

201

Distribution of antibiotics in wastewater-irrigated soils and their accumulation in vegetable crops in the Pearl River Delta, southern China.  

PubMed

Wastewater is increasingly being used to irrigate agricultural land in many countries around the world. However, limited research has examined the occurrence of antibiotics in soil irrigated with wastewater and their accumulation in plants. This study aimed to determine the distribution of various types of antibiotics in different environmental matrices in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and to evaluate their accumulation and translocation in edible crops. Samples were collected from six sites in the PRD where either domestic wastewater or fishpond water was used for irrigation. Results showed that fishpond water irrigated soils had higher concentrations of antibiotics than wastewater-irrigated soils. Different trends were observed in the accumulation of antibiotics in the different edible parts of various crops. Despite the low human annual exposure to antibiotics through the consumption of edible crops (1.10 to 7950 ?g/y), the potential adverse effects of antibiotics along the food chain should not be neglected. PMID:25356527

Pan, Min; Wong, Chris K C; Chu, L M

2014-11-19

202

Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) allelochemicals that interfere with crop growth and the soil microbial community.  

PubMed

Three chemicals, veratric acid, maltol, and (?)-loliolide, were isolated from crabgrass and their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. The chemicals were detected in crabgrass root exudates and rhizosphere soils, and their concentrations ranged from 0.16 to 8.10 ?g/g. At an approximate concentration determined in crabgrass root exudates, all chemicals significantly inhibited the growth of wheat, maize, and soybean and reduced soil microbial biomass carbon. Phospholipid fatty acid profiling showed that veratric acid, maltol, and (?)-loliolide affected the signature lipid biomarkers of soil bacteria, actinobacteria, and fungi, resulting in changes in soil microbial community structures. There were significant relationships between crop growth and soil microbes under the chemicals' application. Chemical-specific changes in the soil microbial community generated negative feedback on crop growth. The results suggest that veratric acid, maltol, and (?)-loliolide released from crabgrass may act as allelochemicals interfering with crop growth and the soil microbial community. PMID:23678893

Zhou, Bin; Kong, Chui-Hua; Li, Yong-Hua; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xiao-Hua

2013-06-01

203

Biochar application to temperate soils - effects on soil fertility and crop yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar (BC) application to soil as a potential soil amendment is currently intensively explored. Depending on feedstock and highest treatment temperature (HTT), BC application to soil may contribute to the soil nutrient status by directly adding nutrients to the soil as well as by increasing pH, cation exchange and water holding capacity. These parameters are known to play an important role in the soil nutrient status and nutrient availability. A positive effect on plant growth after BC application to tropical soils has been observed repeatedly; however, the effect of BC application to soils in temperate climate regions is much less explored. We investigated the effect of BC to temperate soils and crop yield using a randomized pot experiment in a greenhouse with three agricultural soils (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) and four BC types (from straw, mixed woodchips and vineyard pruning, all pyrolyzed at 525°C). In order to analyze the effect of pyrolysis temperature, we additionally applied vineyard pruning BC pyrolyzed at 400°C. Selected treatments were planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.), followed by barley (Hordeum vulgare). Soil sampling was carried out after barley harvest. Investigated soil parameters included pH, electrical conductivity (EC), C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity (CEC), CAL-extractable P and K, EDTA extractable Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn as well as nitrogen supplying potential (NSP). Biomass production of the two crops was determined as well as its elemental composition. Biochar application (3% wood-based BC) caused a considerable pH increase for the acidic Planosol. The effect of BC application on CEC was dependent on the original status of the soil, notably soil pH and texture. 3 % BC application (wood) decreased CEC by 3.5 % and 10 % for the Chernozem and Cambisol, respectively, but increased CEC by 35 % for the acidic, sandy Planosol, which may be due to the strong liming effect found for the Planosol. BC application significantly raised CAL-extractable K for all soils. CAL-extractable P only increased in the Planosol and Cambisol at 3% application rate. Mustard yield decreased by 67% for vineyard pruning BC if nitrogen deficiency was not compensated for, straw-derived BC only caused a 2 % decrease of mustard yield. Barley yield was still significantly lower in most BC-treated pots compared to the controls, however, plant yields were less reduced for the second crop. Only straw-derived BC treatments showed a significantly higher barley yield (1955 ± 40 g m-2) compared to the control (1837 ± 70 g m-2). The results of the elemental composition of the barley grains showed that Al uptake in the Planosol significantly decreased after application of wood and straw BC, which may be due to the pH increase after BC application. In addition, Ca uptake in barley grains was significantly higher in the 3% wood BC treatment compared to the control. This may be caused by a higher Ca content of the wood BC as revealed by XRF. Mn uptake, on the other hand, was significantly reduced after BC application.

Kloss, S.; Zehetner, F.; Feichtmair, S.; Wimmer, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Kitzler, B.; Watzinger, A.; Soja, G.

2012-04-01

204

Water extractable phosphorus in soils as impacted by cropping system, tillage practice, and amendment history  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water extracted phosphorus (P) is the most labile P pool in soil. Thus, the level of water extracted P is an important parameter in evaluating the runoff potential of soil P. This work compared the water extracted inorganic P (WEPi) and organic P (WEPo) levels in three soils as impacted by crop man...

205

TECHNOLOGIES AND CROP ROTATIONS TO MANAGE VARIABILITY AND CONSERVE SOIL AND WATER QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The San Luis Valley region is dominated by sandy coarse soils with low nutrient and soil organic matter (SOM) content. The dominant crop rotation is small grain ' potato. With over 70,000 acres in potato, this is one of the leading areas of fresh-market potatoes in the USA. These soils are susceptib...

206

Effects of Potato Cropping Systems and Irrigation on Soil Organic Matter Composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role in soil fertility, thus in sustaining potato production. To investigate the impact of crop rotation on SOM composition, we sequentially extracted organic matter by water (WEOM) and sodium pyrophosphate solution (PEOM) from 10 potato field soils whic...

207

Examining Changes in Soil Organic Carbon with Oat and Rye Cover Crops Using Terrain Covariates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter cover crops have the potential to increase soil organic C in the corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation in the upper Midwest. Management effects on soil C, however, are often difficult to measure because of the spatial variation of soil C across the landscape. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of oat

T. C. Kaspar; T. B. Parkin; D. B. Jaynes; C. A. Cambardella; D. W. Meek; Y. S. Jung

2006-01-01

208

Soil quality indicators of a mature alley-cropping agroforestry system in temperate North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although agroforestry practices are believed to improve soil quality, reports on long-term effects of alley cropping on soils within agroforestry in the temperate zone are limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth of an established agrofores...

209

Spectral properties of agricultural crops and soils measured from space, aerial, field and laboratory sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that in order to develop the full potential of multispectral measurements acquired from satellite or aircraft sensors to monitor, map, and inventory agricultural resources, increased knowledge and understanding of the spectral properties of crops and soils are needed. The present state of knowledge is reviewed, emphasizing current investigations of the multispectral reflectance characteristics of crops and soils as measured from laboratory, field, aerial, and satellite sensor systems. The relationships of important biological and physical characteristics to their spectral properties of crops and soils are discussed. Future research needs are also indicated.

Bauer, M. E.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

1980-01-01

210

Effect of crop sequence, soil sample location and depth on soil water holding capacity under center pivot irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the changes that may occur to the soil water holding capacity under center pivot irrigation systems when grown with different crop patterns over a long period of time. The changes of water holding capacity were checked as affected by crop location and depth. The study was carried out in a dominantly sandy loam

Yousef A. Al-Rumikhani

2002-01-01

211

Thermography for estimating near-surface soil moisture under developing crop canopies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous investigations of thermal infrared techniques using remote sensors (thermography) for estimating soil water content have been limited primarily to bare soil. Ground-based and aircraft investigations were conducted to evaluate the potential for extending the thermography approach to developing crop canopies. A significant exponential relationship was found between the volumetric soil water content in the 0-4 cm soil layer and the diurnal difference between surface soil temperature measured at 0230 and 1330 LST (satellite overpass times of NASA's Heat Capacity Mapping Mission - HCMM). Surface soil temperatures were estimated using minimum air temperature, percent cover of the canopy and remote measurements of canopy temperature. Results of the investigation demonstrated that thermography can potentially be used to estimate soil temperature and soil moisture throughout a complete growing season for a number of different crops and soils.

Heilman, J. L.; Moore, D. G.

1980-01-01

212

Measurement of the fluorescence of crop residues: A tool for controlling soil erosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of crop residues, the portion of a crop left in the field after harvest, is an important conservation practice for minimizing soil erosion and for improving water quality. Quantification of crop residue cover is required to evaluate the effectiveness of conservation tillage practices. Methods are needed to quantify residue cover that are rapid, accurate, and objective. The fluorescence of crop residue was found to be a broadband phenomenon with emission maxima at 420 to 495 nm for excitations of 350 to 420 nm. Soils had low intensity broadband emissions over the 400 to 690 nm region for excitations of 300 to 600 nm. The range of relative fluorescence intensities for the crop residues was much greater than the fluorescence observed of the soils. As the crop residues decompose their blue fluorescence values approach the fluorescence of the soil. Fluorescence techniques are concluded to be less ambiguous and better suited for discriminating crop residues and soils than reflectance methods. If properly implemented, fluorescence techniques can be used to quantify, not only crop residue cover, but also photosynthetic efficiency in the field.

Daughtry, C. S. T.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Chappelle, E. W.; Hunter, W. J.

1994-01-01

213

[Continuous remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by co-cropping system enhanced with chelator].  

PubMed

In order to elucidate the continuous effectiveness of co-cropping system coupling with chelator enhancement in remediating heavy metal contaminated soils and its environmental risk towards underground water, soil lysimeter (0.9 m x 0.9 m x 0.9 m) experiments were conducted using a paddy soil affected by Pb and Zn mining in Lechang district of Guangdong Province, 7 successive crops were conducted for about 2.5 years. The treatments included mono-crop of Sedum alfredii Hance (Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator), mono-crop of corn (Zea mays, cv. Yunshi-5, a low-accumulating cultivar), co-crop of S. alfredii and corn, and co-crop + MC (Mixture of Chelators, comprised of citric acid, monosodium glutamate waste liquid, EDTA and KCI with molar ratio of 10: 1:2:3 at the concentration of 5 mmol x kg(-1) soil). The changes of heavy metal concentrations in plants, soil and underground water were monitored. Results showed that the co-cropping system was suitable only in spring-summer seasons and significantly increased Zn and Cd phytoextraction. In autumn-winter seasons, the growth of S. alfredii and its phytoextraction of Zn and Cd were reduced by co-cropping and MC application. In total, the mono-crops of S. alfredii recorded a highest phytoextraction of Zn and Cd. However, the greatest reduction of soil Zn, Cd and Pb was observed with the co-crop + MC treatment, the reduction rates were 28%, 50%, and 22%, respectively, relative to the initial soil metal content. The reduction of this treatment was mainly attributed to the downwards leaching of metals to the subsoil caused by MC application. The continuous monitoring of leachates during 2. 5 year's experiment also revealed that the addition of MC increased heavy metal concentrations in the leaching water, but they did not significantly exceed the III grade limits of the underground water standard of China. PMID:25639110

Wei, Ze-Bin; Guo, Xiao-Fang; Wu, Qi-Tang; Long, Xin-Xian

2014-11-01

214

Microbial community composition and carbon cycling within soil microenvironments of conventional, low-input, and organic cropping systems  

PubMed Central

This study coupled stable isotope probing with phospholipid fatty acid analysis (13C-PLFA) to describe the role of microbial community composition in the short-term processing (i.e., C incorporation into microbial biomass and/or deposition or respiration of C) of root- versus residue-C and, ultimately, in long-term C sequestration in conventional (annual synthetic fertilizer applications), low-input (synthetic fertilizer and cover crop applied in alternating years), and organic (annual composted manure and cover crop additions) maize-tomato (Zea mays – Lycopersicum esculentum) cropping systems. During the maize growing season, we traced 13C-labeled hairy vetch (Vicia dasycarpa) roots and residues into PLFAs extracted from soil microaggregates (53–250 ?m) and silt-and-clay (<53 ?m) particles. Total PLFA biomass was greatest in the organic (41.4 nmol g-1 soil) and similar between the conventional and low-input systems (31.0 and 30.1 nmol g-1 soil, respectively), with Gram-positive bacterial PLFA dominating the microbial communities in all systems. Although total PLFA-C derived from roots was over four times greater than from residues, relative distributions (mol%) of root- and residue-derived C into the microbial communities were not different among the three cropping systems. Additionally, neither the PLFA profiles nor the amount of root- and residue-C incorporation into the PLFAs of the microaggregates were consistently different when compared with the silt-and-clay particles. More fungal PLFA-C was measured, however, in microaggregates compared with silt-and-clay. The lack of differences between the mol% within the microbial communities of the cropping systems and between the PLFA-C in the microaggregates and the silt-and-clay may have been due to (i) insufficient differences in quality between roots and residues and/or (ii) the high N availability in these N-fertilized cropping systems that augmented the abilities of the microbial communities to process a wide range of substrate qualities. The main implications of this study are that (i) the greater short-term microbial processing of root- than residue-C can be a mechanistic explanation for the higher relative retention of root- over residue-C, but microbial community composition did not influence long-term C sequestration trends in the three cropping systems and (ii) in spite of the similarity between the microbial community profiles of the microaggregates and the silt-and-clay, more C was processed in the microaggregates by fungi, suggesting that the microaggregate is a relatively unique microenvironment for fungal activity. PMID:22267876

Kong, Angela Y.Y.; Scow, Kate M.; Córdova-Kreylos, Ana Lucía; Holmes, William E.; Six, Johan

2012-01-01

215

Microbial community composition and carbon cycling within soil microenvironments of conventional, low-input, and organic cropping systems.  

PubMed

This study coupled stable isotope probing with phospholipid fatty acid analysis ((13)C-PLFA) to describe the role of microbial community composition in the short-term processing (i.e., C incorporation into microbial biomass and/or deposition or respiration of C) of root- versus residue-C and, ultimately, in long-term C sequestration in conventional (annual synthetic fertilizer applications), low-input (synthetic fertilizer and cover crop applied in alternating years), and organic (annual composted manure and cover crop additions) maize-tomato (Zea mays - Lycopersicum esculentum) cropping systems. During the maize growing season, we traced (13)C-labeled hairy vetch (Vicia dasycarpa) roots and residues into PLFAs extracted from soil microaggregates (53-250 ?m) and silt-and-clay (<53 ?m) particles. Total PLFA biomass was greatest in the organic (41.4 nmol g(-1) soil) and similar between the conventional and low-input systems (31.0 and 30.1 nmol g(-1) soil, respectively), with Gram-positive bacterial PLFA dominating the microbial communities in all systems. Although total PLFA-C derived from roots was over four times greater than from residues, relative distributions (mol%) of root- and residue-derived C into the microbial communities were not different among the three cropping systems. Additionally, neither the PLFA profiles nor the amount of root- and residue-C incorporation into the PLFAs of the microaggregates were consistently different when compared with the silt-and-clay particles. More fungal PLFA-C was measured, however, in microaggregates compared with silt-and-clay. The lack of differences between the mol% within the microbial communities of the cropping systems and between the PLFA-C in the microaggregates and the silt-and-clay may have been due to (i) insufficient differences in quality between roots and residues and/or (ii) the high N availability in these N-fertilized cropping systems that augmented the abilities of the microbial communities to process a wide range of substrate qualities. The main implications of this study are that (i) the greater short-term microbial processing of root- than residue-C can be a mechanistic explanation for the higher relative retention of root- over residue-C, but microbial community composition did not influence long-term C sequestration trends in the three cropping systems and (ii) in spite of the similarity between the microbial community profiles of the microaggregates and the silt-and-clay, more C was processed in the microaggregates by fungi, suggesting that the microaggregate is a relatively unique microenvironment for fungal activity. PMID:22267876

Kong, Angela Y Y; Scow, Kate M; Córdova-Kreylos, Ana Lucía; Holmes, William E; Six, Johan

2011-01-01

216

Predicting Soil Moisture Dynamics and Crop Yield Using Electrical Geophysical Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our research at the USDA's Agricultural Research Center (OPE3 field site) located in Beltsville, MD is motivated by the need to develop efficient and non-invasive methods for characterizing the soil properties that control soil moisture dynamics and crop yield. Soil moisture dynamics are controlled by hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention rate, which in turn are controlled by the soil texture (sand and clay content). In this study, we use time-domain reflectometery (TDR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to measure the spatial and temporal variability in soil moisture on an experimental corn field. Electromagnetic induction (EM) and induced polarization (IP) measurements are observed to be highly correlated with soil texture, and can therefore be used to make high-resolution soil texture maps. We have found that the correlation of crop yield with the geophysically derived soil texture maps depends on the overall soil water availability. For example, the crop yield is positively correlated with clay content in 1999 (drought year), but is negatively correlated with clay content in 2000 (wet year). This ground based geophysical methodology provides a framework for the prediction of soil moisture dynamics and its effects on crop yield, and may allow for the optimization of fertilizer and pesticide applications so as to minimize non-point source pollution.

Lesmes, D.; Wertz, D.; Gish, T.; Dulaney, W.

2004-05-01

217

Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments of edible crops grown in biosolids-amended soils.  

PubMed

Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids-amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA; 232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root-soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with increasing chain length (0.11 to 0.36 log decrease per CF2 group). The biggest decrease (0.54-0.58 log decrease per CF2 group) was seen in fruit-soil concentration factors (FCFs). Crop anatomy and PFAA properties were utilized to explain data trends. In general, fruit crops were found to accumulate fewer long-chain PFAAs than shoot or root crops presumably due to an increasing number of biological barriers as the contaminant is transported throughout the plant (roots to shoots to fruits). These data were incorporated into a preliminary conceptual framework for PFAA accumulation in edible crops. In addition, these data suggest that edible crops grown in soils conventionally amended for nutrients with biosolids (that are not impacted by PFAA industries) are unlikely a significant source of long-chain PFAA exposure to humans. PMID:24918303

Blaine, Andrea C; Rich, Courtney D; Sedlacko, Erin M; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Kumar, Kuldip; Lau, Christopher; Mills, Marc A; Harris, Kimberly M; Higgins, Christopher P

2014-07-15

218

Native prairie filter strips reduce runoff from hillslopes under annual row-crop systems in Iowa, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryIntensively managed annual cropping systems have produced high crop yields but have often produced significant ecosystem services alteration, in particular hydrologic regulation loss. Reconversion of annual agricultural systems to perennial vegetation can lead to hydrologic function restoration, but its effect is still not well understood. Therefore, our objective was to assess the effects of strategic introduction of different amounts and location of native prairie vegetation (NPV) within agricultural landscapes on hydrological regulation. The study was conducted in Iowa (USA), and consisted of a fully balanced, replicated, incomplete block design whereby 12 zero-order ephemeral flow watersheds received four treatments consisting of varying proportions (0%, 10%, and 20%) of prairie vegetation located in different watershed positions (footslope vs. contour strips). Runoff volume and rate were measured from 2008 to 2010 (April-October) with an H-Flume installed in each catchment, and automated ISCO samplers. Over the entire study period, we observed a total of 129 runoff events with an average runoff volume reduction of 37% based on the three treatments with NPV compared to watersheds with row crops. We observed a progressively greater reduction across the 3 years of the study as the perennial strips became established with the greatest differences among treatments occurring in 2010. The differences among the watersheds were attributed mainly to NPV amount and position, with the 10% NPV at footslope treatment having the greatest runoff reduction probably because the portion of NPV filter strip that actually contacted watershed runoff was greater with the 10% NPV at footslope. We observed greater reductions in runoff in spring and fall likely because perennial prairie plants were active and crops were absent or not fully established. High antecedent soil moisture sometimes led to little benefit of the NPV treatments but in general the NPV treatments were effective during both small and large events. We conclude that, small amounts of NPV strategically incorporated into corn-soybean watersheds in the Midwest US can be used to effectively reduce runoff.

Hernandez-Santana, V.; Zhou, X.; Helmers, M. J.; Asbjornsen, H.; Kolka, R.; Tomer, M.

2013-01-01

219

Spectral Reflectance Features in Crop State and Yield Models Considering Soil and Anthropogenic Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural models for estimating plant processes and growth require explicit information of soil, vegetation, climate, etc. Remote sensing is a tool that can be used to measure vegetation parameters for input into these models. Especially valuable are temporal data about crop state and crop development under different conditions. This paper is devoted to spectral-biophysical modeling of agricultural plants considering crop ontogenesis and dependency on soil properties (organic matter, pH-factor, nutrient accessibility) and anthropogenic impacts (fertilization, contamination). Ground-based VIS and NIR measurements have been performed to establish and statistically validate empirical relationships between crop reflectance and agronomic parameters taking into account the specific growing conditions. These relationships provide crop state assessment over the growing season. The estimated from spectral data bioparameters have been used in yield-predicting models linking crop production with plant agronomic variables. The results have been compared to the approach of using reflectance temporal behavior for yield assessment.

Kancheva, R.; Borisova, D.

220

Soil Eenzyme Activities and Physical Properties in a Watershed Managed Under Agrogorestry and Row-Crop Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil aggregate stability and diverse microbial activity influence soil quality, crop growth, nutrient retention, water infiltration, and surface runoff. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that permanent vegetative buffers improve selected soil physical properties, which contribu...

221

Collection Policy: SOIL, CROP AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Subject Scope | Priority Tables | Other policies . . .  

E-print Network

genetic engineering of crop and microbial species, simulation modeling and data acquisition, storage statistics, soil mechanics, engineering related to flow in porous media, groundwater hydrology, microbiology. q Microclimatology. q Air pollution. q Atmospheric modeling. q The Engineering Library has

Angenent, Lars T.

222

Exploring soil bacterial communities in different peanut-cropping sequences using multiple molecular approaches.  

PubMed

Soil bacterial communities have significant influence on soilborne plant pathogens and, thus, crop health. The present study focuses on ribotyping soil bacterial communities in different peanut-cropping sequences in Alabama. The objective was to identify changes in microbial assemblages in response to cropping sequences that can play a role in managing soilborne plant pathogens in peanut. Four peanut-cropping sequences were sampled at the Wiregrass Research Station, Headland, AL in 2006 and 2007, including continuous peanut, 4 years of bahiagrass followed by peanut, peanut-cotton, and peanut-corn-cotton. Soil sampling was done at early and mid-season and at harvest. Bacterial community structure was assessed using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) combined with 16S rRNA cloning and sequencing. RISA results indicated >70% dissimilarities among different cropping sequences. However, 90% similarities were noticed among replicated plots of the same cropping sequences. Cropping sequences and time of soil sampling had considerable effect on soil microbial community structure. Bahiagrass rotation with peanut was found to have the highest bacterial diversity, as indicated by a high Shannon Weaver Diversity index. Overall, higher bacterial diversity was observed with bahiagrass and corn rotations compared with continuous peanut. The bacterial divisions Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinomycetes were the predominant bacterial phyla found in all peanut-cropping sequences. The Proteobacteria taxa in these soils were negatively correlated with the abundance of members of division Firmicutes but, conversely, had a significant positive correlation with Gemmatimonadetes taxa. The prevalence of the division Actinomycetes was negatively correlated with the relative abundance of members of division Verrucomicrobia. These results indicate complex interactions among soil bacteria that are important contributors to crop health. PMID:21281114

Sudini, Hari; Liles, Mark R; Arias, Covadonga R; Bowen, Kira L; Huettel, Robin N

2011-07-01

223

Soil organic carbon across a Coastal Plain landscape: Effects of tillage and crop management systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effective employment of conservation tillage (CT) and crop management practices to increase C sequestration will require an understanding of quantitative relationships between crop residue inputs under different rotations and potential changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) content. A field study was ...

224

SITE-SPECIFIC EVALUATION OF CROP MODELS ON MISSOURI CLAYPAN SOILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop yield is affected by many factors, primarily encompassing soil and weather conditions, and agronomic management practices. Crop modeling can be used to help understand how multiple factors interact and impact yield. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of the CERES-Mai...

225

Soil and rainfall factors influencing yields of a dryland cropping system in Colorado  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The semi-arid Great Plains of the United States experience a large variation in crop yields due to variability in rainfall, soil, and other factors. We analyzed crop yields (24-year period) from a no-till rotation of wheat(Triticum aestivum)-corn (Zea mays L.) or sorghum[Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]...

226

The threat of soil erosion to long-term crop production  

Microsoft Academic Search

National increases in row crops at the expense of hay and pasture crops, particularly on steeper slopes, have made the control of erosion a difficult prospect. Management practices that fit the various field conditions are needed to accomplish effective erosion control. These measures should be selected on the basis of soil characteristics, landscape type, and the amount of ongoing erosion.

W. E. Larson; F. J. Pierce; R. H. Dowdy

1983-01-01

227

Dryland residue and soil orgranic matter as influenced by tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Novel management practices are needed to increase dryland soil organic matter and crop yields that have been declining due to long-term conventional tillage with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system in the northern Great Plains, USA. The effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural p...

228

Cropping Intensity Impacts on Soil Aggregation and Carbon Sequestration in the Central Great Plains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The predominant cropping system in the Central Great Plains is conventional tillage (CT) winter wheat–summer fallow. We investigated the effect 15 yrs of variable cropping intensity, fallow frequency, and tillage (CT and no-till [NT]) had on soil organic C (SOC) sequestration, particulate organic ma...

229

Fertilizer Facts: January 1997, Number 9 Nitrates in Soil and Ground Water Under Irrigated Crops  

E-print Network

, and safflower cropping systems after recommended fertilization. The crops were planted in three fields of about 20 acres each with a rotation of sugarbeet -- safflower -- small grain. Conventional procedures/bu for barley, and 240 lb N/a for irrigated safflower. Fields were irrigated as needed based on soil core

Lawrence, Rick L.

230

SOIL CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION AS INFLUENCED BY IRRIGATION, TILLAGE, CROPPING SYSTEM, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil and crop management practices can influence CO2 emission from crop and grasslands and therefore on global warming. We examined the effects of two irrigation systems (irrigated vs. non-irrigated) and six management practices [no-till malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) with 67 or 134 kg N ha-1 (NT...

231

Improvement of Soil Phosphorus Availability by Green Fertilization with Catch Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient use of phosphorus (P) is a main task in sustainable agriculture. In pot and field experiments, the effects of green fertilization with catch crops and P supply with organic and inorganic fertilizers on plant and soil parameters were investigated on a P?poor loamy sand. For the field experiment, the catch crops were sown in September and remained on

Renata Gaj; Ewald Schnug

2009-01-01

232

Selenium content of Belgian cultivated soils and its uptake by field crops and vegetables.  

PubMed

A series of 695 food crops were collected on 539 soils throughout Belgium. All samples were collected on commercial production fields, omitting private gardens. All crops were analyzed for their selenium (Se) concentration. The soils represent different soil types occurring in Belgium, with soil textures ranging from sand to silt loam, and including a few clay soils. They were analyzed for Se concentration, organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity and extractable sulphur (S) concentration. The Se concentrations in the soils were low (range 0.14-0.70 mg kg(-1) dw), but increasing soil Se concentrations were observed with increasing clay content. Stepwise multiple regressions were applied to determine relations between Se concentrations in crops and soil characteristics. Among field crops, wheat is the most important accumulator of selenium but the concentration remains rather low on the Belgian low Se-soils. Based on dry weight, leafy vegetables contain more Se than wheat. The soil is the most important source of Se and the element is transported with the water stream to the leaves, where it is accumulated. Vegetables rich in S, e.g. some Brassica and Allium species, have a higher capacity to accumulate Se as it can replace S in the proteins, although this accumulation is still limited at low soil Se concentrations. In loamy soils, weak correlations were found between the soil Se concentration and its concentration in wheat and potato. The uptake of Se increased with increasing pH. The Se concentrations in Belgian soils are far too low to generate a driving force on Se uptake. General climatic conditions such as temperature, air humidity and soil moisture are also important for the transfer of Se within the plant, and plant linked factors such as cultivar, growth stage and edible part are important as well, although their influence remains limited at low soil Se concentrations. PMID:24013513

De Temmerman, Ludwig; Waegeneers, Nadia; Thiry, Céline; Du Laing, Gijs; Tack, Filip; Ruttens, Ann

2014-01-15

233

Effect of crop residue harvest on long-term crop yield, soil erosion, and carbon balance: tradeoffs for a sustainable bioenergy feedstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural residues are a potential feedstock for bioenergy production, if residue harvest can be done sustainably. The relationship between crop residue harvest, soil erosion, crop yield and carbon balance was modeled with the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator\\/ Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) using a factorial design. Four crop rotations (winter wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] sunflower [Helianthus annuus]; spring wheat [Triticum

Jay S. Gregg; Roberto C. Izaurralde

2010-01-01

234

Micronutrient Constraints to Crop Production in Soils with Mediterranean-type Characteristics: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mediterranean-type soils generally have free CaCO3, high pH, and low organic matter. Consequently, nutrient disorders in these soils are the most important limiting factor to crop production, second only to moisture stress. Major problems are deficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus; however, recent research has revealed that micronutrient problems are also hampering crop production. Unlike major nutrient deficiencies, micronutrient problems are

A. Rashid; J. Ryan

2004-01-01

235

The effect of irrigated cropping systems on certain soil physical properties of Willacy fine sandy loam  

E-print Network

the iuportaace of cropping systeas ia coatrolling the type aad stability of soil structure. Olustead (17) calculated that in 50 years, soils cropped coatinuously with snail graias or cora would lose about 80 percent of their iaitial aggregation. Iehr (16... Of the croppiag systeas were relatively snail whea conpared with aggregates sweller than 0. 5 zzz. ln fact, the overall enouat of both groups of water- stable aggregates was snail. The nunber of larger aggregates decreased with depth, while the snaller...

Khan, Shiraj Hossain

2012-06-07

236

Modeling the possible impact of increased CO2 and temperature on soil water balance, crop yield and soil erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modeling approach was utilized to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 and temperature on water balance, crop production, plant growth, and soil erosion. For the given scenario and the site tested, the increase of temperature resulted in a significant increase of ET, reduction of soybean canopy cover and yield, a slight increase in soil loss, and a reduction

M. Reza Savabi; Claudio O. Stockle

2001-01-01

237

Crop productivity and soil resilience observed on short-term corn stover or cob harvest on several northern soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Highly productive soils are found throughout the US Corn Belt, in part due to their inherently high soil organic matter. Their productivity contributes to the high corn grain and stover yields; hence, this crop residue is predicted to be a significant bioenergy feedstock within this region. The obje...

238

Long-term tillage and cropping sequence effects on soil physical properties under dryland conditions in Northeastern Montana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the effect of long-term tillage and cropping sequence on soil physical properties is essential for cropping systems sustainability. We evaluated a 21-yr effect of combination of tillage and cropping sequence on soil bulk density (Bd), gravimetric moisture content (GMC) and saturated h...

239

CARBON SUPPLY AND STORAGE IN TILLED AND NON-TILLED SOILS AS INFLUENCED BY COVER CROPS AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carbon sequestration, as a process to reduce atmospheric CO2 level, can be influenced by crop management practices in tilled and non-tilled soils due to differences in crop residue C returned to the soil and rate of mineralization. We examined the influence of four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (...

240

Changes in Soil Moisture, Microbial Biomass, Mineralization and Nitrification Explain Increases in N2O Emissions from a Spring Barley Crop Under Combined Reduced Tillage and Cover Crop Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effect of conventional tillage (CT), combined reduced tillage-cover crop (RT-CC), and reduced N application on crop yield and N2O emissions from spring barley. Reduced tillage plots were established for seven years, the final four incorporating a mustard cover crop. Higher N2O fluxes were from fertilized, RT-CC plots due to higher WFPS, soil nitrate, and soil carbon. Fluxes during the non-growing season were variable and the main source of cumulative emissions. Emission factors were in the range of IPCC default values. Low N fertilization reduced cumulative emissions, however during the wetter growing season this reduction was smaller than the reduction in barley production particular in the conventional tillage plots. Adopting RT-CC management for cereal crops may be problematic in reducing GHG emissions due to high N2O fluxes. Reducing N fertilizer in order to reduce N2O emissions is not feasible due to high inter-annual variation in crop yield. N2O flux in all plots was positively correlated with microbial biomass carbon, net nitrification and mineralization determined in the field. Increased emissions of N2O in the RT-CC plots are accounted for by increases in organic carbon in the soil and increases in mineralization.

Rueangritsarakul, K.; Jones, M.; Roth, B.; Abdalla, M.; Williams, M.

2012-04-01

241

Reproductive Allocation of Biomass and Nitrogen in Annual and Perennial Lesquerella Crops  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims The use of perennial crops could contribute to increase agricultural sustainability. However, almost all of the major grain crops are herbaceous annuals and opportunities to replace them with more long-lived perennials have been poorly explored. This follows the presumption that the perennial life cycle is associated with a lower potential yield, due to a reduced allocation of biomass to grains. The hypothesis was tested that allocation to perpetuation organs in the perennial L. mendocina would not be directly related to a lower allocation to seeds. • Methods Two field experiments were carried on with the annual Lesquerella fendleri and the iteroparous perennial L. mendocina, two promising oil-seed crops for low-productivity environments, subjected to different water and nitrogen availability. • Key Results Seed biomass allocation was similar for both species, and unresponsive to water and nitrogen availability. Greater root and vegetative shoot allocation in the perennial was counterbalanced by a lower allocation to other reproductive structures compared with the annual Lesquerella. Allometric relationships revealed that allocation differences between the annual and the perennial increased linearly with plant size. The general allocation patterns for nitrogen did not differ from those of biomass. However, nitrogen concentrations were higher in the vegetative shoot and root of L. mendocina than of L. fendleri but remained stable in seeds of both species. • Conclusions It is concluded that vegetative organs are more hierarchically important sinks in L. mendocina than in the annual L. fendleri, but without disadvantages in seed hierarchy. PMID:15863469

PLOSCHUK, E. L.; SLAFER, G. A.; RAVETTA, D. A.

2005-01-01

242

Greenhouse gas fluxes and budget for an annual cropping system in the Red River Valley, Manitoba, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture contributes significantly to national and global greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories but there is considerable control over management decisions and changes in production methods could lead to a significant reduction and possible mitigation of emissions from the sector. For example, conservation tillage practices have been suggested as a method of sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), however, many questions remain unanswered regarding the short-term efficacy of the production method and knowledge gaps exist regarding possible interactions with essential nutrient cycles, and the production of non-CO2 GHGs, such as nitrous oxide (N2O). Between autumn 2005 and 2009, a micrometeorological flux system was used to determine net CO2 and (N2O exchange from an annual cropping system situated on clay soil in the Red River Valley of southern Manitoba. Four plots (4-ha each) were independently evaluated and planted to corn in 2006 and faba bean in 2007; in 2008, two spring wheat plots were monitored. As well, during the non-growing season in 2006-2007 following corn harvest, a second micrometeorological flux system capable of simultaneously measuring stable C isotopologue (12CO2 and 13CO 2) fluxes was operated at the site. Tillage intensity and crop management practices were examined for their influence on GHG emissions. Significant inter-annual variability in CO2 and (N2O fluxes as a function of crop and related management activities was observed. Tillage intensity did not affect GHG emissions from the site. After accounting for harvest removals, the net ecosystem C budgets were 510 (source), 3140 (source) and -480 (sink) kg C/ha/year for the three respective crop years, summing to a three-year loss of 3170 kg C/ha. Stable C isotope flux measurements during the non-growing season following corn harvest indicated that approximately 70 % and 20 -- 30 % of the total respiration flux originated from crop residue C during the fall of 2006 and spring of 2007, respectively. The (N2O emissions at the site further exacerbated the net global warming potential of this annual agroecosystem.

Glenn, Aaron James

243

Phytotoxicity of Ryegrass and Clover Cover Crops, and a Lucerne Alley Crop for No-till Vegetable Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions to test whether the residues of cover crops or alley crops were phytotoxic to vegetable seedlings in a no-tillage cropping system. Soil and residue samples were collected from a field experiment where subterranean clover Trifolium subterrcmeum L. var. brachycalycinum and annual ryegrass Lolium rigidum Gand. were grown as cover crops, and lucerne Medicago sativa

R. J. Stirzaker; D. G. Bunn

1996-01-01

244

Estimating soil moisture and the relationship with crop yield using surface temperature and vegetation index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture availability affects rainfed crop yield. Therefore, the development of methods for pre-harvest yield prediction is essential for the food security. A study was carried out to estimate regional crop yield using the Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI). Triangular scatters from land surface temperature (LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) space from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) were utilized to obtain TVDI and to estimate soil moisture availability. Then soybean and wheat crops yield was estimated on four agro-climatic zones of Argentine Pampas. TVDI showed a strong correlation with soil moisture measurements, with R2 values ranged from 0.61 to 0.83 and also it was in agreement with spatial pattern of soil moisture. Moreover, results showed that TVDI data can be used effectively to predict crop yield on the Argentine Pampas. Depending on the agro-climatic zone, R2 values ranged from 0.68 to 0.79 for soybean crop and 0.76 to 0.81 for wheat. The RMSE values were 366 and 380 kg ha-1 for soybean and they varied between 300 and 550 kg ha-1 in the case of wheat crop. When expressed as percentages of actual yield, the RMSE values ranged from 12% to 13% for soybean and 14% to 22% for wheat. The bias values indicated that the obtained models underestimated soybean and wheat yield. Accurate crop grain yield forecast using the developed regression models was achieved one to three months before harvest. In many cases the results were better than others obtained using only a vegetation index, showing the aptitude of surface temperature and vegetation index combination to reflect the crop water condition. Finally, the analysis of a wide range of soil moisture availability allowed us to develop a generalized model of crop yield and dryness index relationship which could be applicable in other regions and crops at regional scale.

Holzman, M. E.; Rivas, R.; Piccolo, M. C.

2014-05-01

245

Differentiating Soil Types Using Electromagnetic Conductivity and Crop Yield Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

soil maps. Robert (1993) discusses the viability and cost- effectiveness of a number of options available for creat- Variable rate technology enables management of individual soil ing these maps. In the mid-Atlantic coastal plain, soil types within fields. However, correct classification of soil types for mid-Atlantic coastal plain soils are currently impractically expensive property changes within fields are often abrupt

C. M. Anderson-Cook; M. M. Alley; J. K. F. Roygard; R. Khosla; R. B. Noble; J. A. Doolittle

2002-01-01

246

Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When soil nitrate levels are low, plants suffer nitrogen (N) deficiency but when the levels are excessive, soil nitrates can pollute surface and subsurface waters. Strategies to reduce the nitrate pollution are necessary to reach a sustainable use of resources such as soil, water and plant. Buffer strips and cover crops can contribute to the management of soil nitrates, but little is known of their effectiveness in semiarid vineyards plantations. The research was carried out in the south coast of Sicily (Italy) to evaluate nitrate trends in a vineyard managed both conventionally and using two different cover crops (Triticum durum and Vicia sativa cover crop). A 10 m-wide buffer strip was seeded with Lolium perenne at the bottom of the vineyard. Soil nitrate was measured monthly and nitrate movement was monitored by application of a 15N tracer to a narrow strip between the bottom of vineyard and the buffer and non-buffer strips. Lolium perenne biomass yield in the buffer strips and its isotopic nitrogen content were monitored. Vicia sativa cover crop management contributed with an excess of nitrogen, and the soil management determined the nitrogen content at the buffer areas. A 6 m buffer strip reduced the nitrate by 42% with and by 46% with a 9 m buffer strip. Thanks to catch crops, farmers can manage the N content and its distribution into the soil over the year, can reduced fertilizer wastage and reduce N pollution of surface and groundwater.

Novara, A.; Gristina, L.; Guaitoli, F.; Santoro, A.; Cerdà, A.

2013-08-01

247

Detecting crop yield reduction due to irrigation-induced soil salinization in South-West Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South-European part of the Russian Federation has experienced serious land degradation in the form of soil salinization since the 1960s. This land degradation was caused by intensive, large-scale irrigation on reclaimed land in combination with the salt-rich nature of the substrate. Alkaline soil salinity is believed to be an important factor decreasing crop yield in this area. A large research effort has been directed to the effects of soil salinity on crops, there is a need for simple, easily determinable indicators of crop health and soil salinity in irrigated systems, that can help to detect crop water stress in an early stage. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of soil salinity and vegetation water stress on the performance of alfalfa crop yield and physiological crop properties, and to study the possibility to measure soil salinity and alkalinity and the crop water stress index at plot level using a thermal gun and a regular digital camera. The study area was located in Saratov District, in the South-West part of Russia. Variables on the surface energy balance, crop properties, soil properties and visible reflectance were measured on plots with alfalfa cultures in two fields with and without signs of alkaline soil salinity, and with and without irrigation in July 2009. The research showed no clear adverse effects of soil salinity and soil alkalinity on crop yield and physiological crop properties. Soil salinity, as reflected by the electric conductivity, positively affected the root biomass of alfalfa in the range of 0.15 to 1.52 dS/m . This was a result of EC levels being below the documented threshold to negatively affect Alfalfa, as would be the case in truly saline soils. The soil pH also showed a positive correlation with root biomass within the range of pH 6.2 and 8.5 . From the literature these pH values are generally believed to be too high to exhibit a positive relationship with root biomass. No relationship was found between EC and pH on the one hand , and soil moisture content on the other. However, soil moisture content in the topsoil appeared to have a major influence on the crop water stress index, which on its turn affected the leaf area index, the fresh biomass and the mean plant height. The crop leaf color as detected by a regular digital camera appeared to be correlated with pH and EC properties of the soil. The visible light band ratios red/green and blue/green correlated well with the crop water stress index. More research is necessary to prove if this relation is applicable in different environments, and for different crops. A confirmation of these findings would offer scope to increase the spatial support of this technique using satellite images.

Argaman, E.; Beets, W.; Croes, J.; Keesstra, S.; Verzandvoort, S.; Zeiliguer, A.

2012-04-01

248

Response of soil phosphorus content, growth and yield of wheat to long-term phosphorus fertilization in a conventional cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of annual banding of superphosphate (0–45 kg P ha?1) on soil phosphorus (P) content, growth, and yield of wheat was investigated from 1982 to 1998 in a major rainfed wheat production\\u000a area of South Africa. Conventional tillage practices in a wheat monoculture cropping system were followed under summer rainfall\\u000a conditions. The responses of wheat growth to fertilizer P

W. M. Otto; W. H. Kilian

2001-01-01

249

Effect of crop residue incorporation on soil organic carbon (SOC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in European agricultural soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic matter (SOM) improves soil physical (e.g. increased aggregate stability), chemical (e.g. cation exchange capacity) and biological (e.g. biodiversity, earthworms) properties. The sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) may mitigate climate change. However, as much as 25-75% of the initial SOC in world agricultural soils may have been lost due to intensive agriculture (Lal, 2013). The European Commission has described the decline of organic matter (OM) as one of the major threats to soils (COM(2006) 231). Incorporation of crop residues may be a sustainable and cost-efficient management practice to maintain the SOC levels and to increase soil fertility in European agricultural soils. Especially Mediterranean soils that have low initial SOC concentrations, and areas where stockless croplands predominate may be suitable for crop residue incorporation. In this study, we aim to quantify the effects of crop residue incorporation on SOC and GHG emissions (CO2 and N2O) in different environmental zones (ENZs, Metzger et al., 2005) in Europe. Response ratios for SOC and GHG emissions were calculated from pairwise comparisons between crop residue incorporation and removal. Specifically, we investigated whether ENZs, clay content and experiment duration influence the response ratios. In addition, we studied how response ratios of SOM and crop yields were correlated. A total of 718 response ratios (RR) were derived from a total of 39 publications, representing 50 experiments (46 field and 4 laboratory) and 15 countries. The SOC concentrations and stocks increased by approximately 10% following crop residue incorporation. In contrast, CO2 emissions were approximately six times and N2O emissions 12 times higher following crop residue incorporation. The effect of ENZ on the response ratios was not significant. For SOC concentration, the >35% clay content had significantly approximately 8% higher response ratios compared to 18-35% clay content. As the duration of the experiment rose, RR for SOC concentration and stock increased. For N2O emissions, RR was significantly higher in <5 years experiment duration compared to 11-15 years experiment duration. For GHG emissions, the RRs were significantly higher when vegetable crop residues were incorporated instead of cereal crop residues. No significant correlations were found between RR for SOC concentration and yields, but differences between sites could be detected. We conclude that crop residue incorporation is an important management practice for maintaining SOC concentrations and stocks. Its influence in increasing GHG emissions should not be overlooked as the data availability from field experiments on GHG emissions is still scarce.

Lehtinen, Taru; Schlatter, Norman; Baumgarten, Andreas; Bechini, Luca; Krüger, Janine; Grignani, Carlo; Zavattaro, Laura; Costamagna, Chiara; Spiegel, Heide

2014-05-01

250

Salt and N leaching and soil accumulation due to cover cropping practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate leaching beyond the root zone can increase water contamination hazards and decrease crop available N. Cover crops used in spite of fallow are an alternative to reduce nitrate contamination in the vadose zone, because reducing drainage and soil mineral N accumulation. Cover crops can improve important characteristics in irrigated land as water retention capacity or soil aggregate stability. However, increasing evapotranspiration and consequent drainage below the root system reduction, could lead to soil salt accumulation. Salinity affects more than 80 million ha of arable land in many areas of the world, and one of the principal causes for yield reduction and even land degradation in the Mediterranean region. Few studies dealt with both problems at the same time. Therefore, it is necessary a long-term evaluation of the potential effect on soil salinity and nitrate leaching, in order to ensure that potential disadvantages that could originate from soil salt accumulation are compensated with all advantages of cover cropping. A study of the soil salinity and nitrate leaching was conducted during 4 years in a semiarid irrigated agricultural area of Central Spain. Three treatments were studied during the intercropping period of maize (Zea mays L.): barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), vetch (Vicia villosa L.) and fallow. Cover crops were killed in March allowing seeding of maize of the entire trial in April, and all treatments were irrigated and fertilised following the same procedure. Before sowing, and after harvesting maize and cover crops, soil salt and nitrate accumulation was determined along the soil profile. Soil analysis was conducted at six depths every 0.20 m in each plot in samples from four 0 to 1.2-m depth holes dug. The electrical conductivity of the saturated paste extract and soil mineral nitrogen was measured in each soil sample. A numerical model based on the Richards water balance equation was applied in order to calculate drainage at 1.2 m depth, using daily soil water content measurements, based on calibrated capacitance probes. Our results showed that drainage during the irrigated period was minimized, because irrigation water was adjusted to crop needs, leading to soil salt and nitrate accumulation on the upper layers after maize harvest. Then, during the intercrop period, most of salt and nitrate leaching occurred. Cover crops use led to shorter drainage period, lower drainage water amount and lower nitrate and salt leaching than treatment with fallow. These effects were related with a larger nitrate accumulation in the upper layers of the soil after cover crop treatments. But there was not soil salt accumulation increase in treatments with cover crops, and even decreased after years with a large cover crop biomass production. Then, adoption of cover crops in this kind of irrigated cropping system reduced water drainage beyond the root zone, salt and nitrate leaching diminished as a consequence but did not lead to salt accumulation in the upper soil layers. Acknowledgements: Financial support by CICYT, Spain (ref. AGL2005-00163 and AGL 2011-24732) and Comunidad de Madrid (project AGRISOST, S2009/AGR-1630).

Gabriel, J. L.; Quemada, M.

2012-04-01

251

Energy Crops and their Implications on Soil Carbon Sequestration, Surface Energy and Water Balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quest to meet growing energy demand with low greenhouse gas emissions has increased attention on the potential of existing and advanced biomass energy crops. Potential energy crops include row crops such as corn, and perennial grasses such as switchgrass. However, a massive expansion of bioenergy crops raises many questions such as: how and where to grow energy crops; and what will be the impacts of growing large scale biofuel crops on the terrestrial hydrological cycle, the surface energy budget, soil carbon sequestration and the concurrent effects on the climate system. An integrated modeling system is being developed with in the framework of a land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), and being applied to address these questions.This framework accounts for the biophysical, physiological and biogeochemical systems governing important processes that regulate crop growth including water, energy and nutrient cycles within the soil-plant-atmosphere system. One row crop (Corn) and two energy crops (Switchgrass and Miscanthus) are studied in current framework. Dynamic phenology processes and parameters for simulating each crop have been developed using observed data from a north to south gradient of field trial sites. This study will specifically focus on the agricultural regions in the US and in Europe. The potential productivity of these three crops will be assessed in terms of carbon sequestration, surface energy and water balance and their spatial variability. This study will help to quantify the importance of various environmental aspects towards modeling bioenergy crops and to better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of bioenergy crop yields.

Song, Y.; Barman, R.; Jain, A. K.

2011-12-01

252

Remediation of Stratified Soil Acidity Through Surface Application of Lime in No-Till Cropping Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yield reduction and reduced crop vigor, resulting from soil acidification, are of increasing concern in eastern Washington and northern Idaho. In this region, soil pH has been decreasing at an accelerated rate, primarily due to the long-term use of ammonium based fertilizers. In no-till systems, the...

253

Tillage, Cropping Sequence, and Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Dryland Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission and Carbon Content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management practices are needed to reduce dryland soil CO2 emission and increase C sequestration that can influence global warming. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland soil surface CO2 flux, temperature and water content at the 0- to 1...

254

Long term effects of profile-modifying deep plowing on soil properties and crop yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insufficient plant available soil water limits dryland crop yields on the semiarid Southern Great Plains. Deep plowing to eliminate dense subsoil layers may increase soil water by increased infiltration and rooting, but the duration of treatment effects must be sufficiently long to recoup plowing co...

255

Changes in Soil Moisture with Cover Crops and Tillage: Impact on Cotton Yield and Quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The alluvial soils of the lower Mississippi River flood plain are highly productive, but low in organic matter. Use of irrigation in the area has increased in order to ensure adequate yield return. Use of cover crops has been used in other areas to increase soil organic matter and improve infiltrati...

256

Lower limits of crop water use in three soil textural classes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate knowledge of the amount of soil water available for crop use allows better management of limited water supplies. Using neutron scattering, we determined the mean lower limit of field soil water use (LL*F, m**3 m**-3) to a depth of 2.2 m at harvest (three seasons each) of short-season maize...

257

Comparison of soil bacterial communities under diverse agricultural land management and crop production practices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The composition and structure of bacterial communities was examined in soil subjected to a range of diverse agricultural land management and crop production practices. Length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) of bacterial DNA extracted from soil was used to generate amplicon profile...

258

RESPONSES OF LEGUME AND NONLEGUME CROP SPECIES TO HEAVY METALS IN SOILS WITH MULTIPLE METAL CONTAMINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and glasshouse investigations were conducted on the responses of two legumes (field pea and fodder vetch) and three non-leguminous crops (maize, wheat and rapeseed) to the heavy metals Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cu and Mn in soil with multiple metal contamination. In general, the results indicate that the two legumes and wheat were more susceptible to soil metals than

Qing-Ren Wang; Xiu-Mei Liu; Yan-Shan Cui; Yi-Ting Dong; Peter Christie

2002-01-01

259

Tillage and crop rotation effects on soil quality in two Iowa fields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil quality is affected by inherent (parent material, climate, and topography) and anthropogenic (tillage and crop rotation) factors. We evaluated effects of five tillage treatments on 23 potential soil quality indicators after 31 years in a corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotat...

260

DEEP TILLAGE EFFECTS ON CROP PRODUCTIVITY AND SOIL PROPERTIES 30 YEARS AFTER TREATMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Limited plant available soil water decreases dryland crop yields on the southern Great Plains. Deep tillage to disrupt dense subsoil layers may increase rooting and infiltration for greater soil water availability, but the duration of treatment efficacy may not offset costs. Objectives were to quant...

261

Soil-profile organic carbon stock changes with increased cropping intensity and reduced tillage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decades of wheat-fallow rotation with intensive tillage have resulted in reduced soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in the Pacific Northwest dryland region. Research is needed to assess the impact of reduced tillage and intensified alternative cropping systems on soil-profile C accretion. Our objecti...

262

Effects of cement kiln dust on soil and potato crop quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cement kiln dust is a potential source of K and Ca for crops on acidic soils in Eastern Canada. The objective of this study\\u000a was to assess the effect of cement kiln dust on soil chemical properties and potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Superior) yield and quality on two Spodosols. Four rates of cement kiln dust, commercial K fertilizers, and

J. Lafond; R. R. Simard

1999-01-01

263

Linking Soil Microbial Ecology to Ecosystem Functioning in Integrated Crop-Livestock Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enhanced soil stability, nutrient cycling and C sequestration potential are important ecosystem functions driven by soil microbial processes and are directly influenced by agricultural management. Integrated crop-livestock agroecosystems (ICL) can enhance these functions via high-residue returning c...

264

Soil N cycling and phenols accumulation under continuous rice cropping in the Grand Prairie region, Arkansas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil C stocks in the Grand Prairie region of eastern Arkansas have declined under the prevalent two-year rotation of rice (Orzya sativa L.) soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Continuous rice cropping could promote soil C sequestration, but in previous work continuous rice averaged 19% less grain yiel...

265

Soil Sample Questionnaire --Field Crops Sample No. Field Identification Field Size acres  

E-print Network

Soil Sample Questionnaire -- Field Crops Date Sample No. Field Identification Field Size acres A completed questionnaire must accompany each sample. Retain a duplicate copy for your records. Number the samples and questionnaires for your own identification. Directions for obtaining soil samples

Norton, Jay B.

266

Soil test and microbial biomass phosphorus levels impacted by potato cropping system and water management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato crops generally require high amounts of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to reach economically acceptable yields. However, high inputs of P not only increase production cost, but also may increase the environmental risk of P runoff. We evaluated soil test P and microbial biomass P in soils from fiv...

267

Soil microbial activity under different grass species: Underground impacts of biofuel cropping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial and plant communities interact to determine local nutrient cycling rates. As lands are converted to bioenergy crops, including corn and cellulosic grasses, focus has been on changes in soil carbon sequestration. Little attention has been paid to impacts of such land conversion on the activity of belowground communities. We hypothesized that in addition to affecting soil organic carbon (SOC),

Richard L. Haney; James R. Kiniry; Mari-Vaughn V. Johnson

2010-01-01

268

Impacts of an integrated crop-livestock system on soil properties to enhance precipitation capture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cropping/Livestock systems alter soil properties that are important in enhancing capture of precipitation by developing and maintaining water infiltration and storage. In this paper we will relate soil hydraulic conductivity and other physical properties on managed Old World Bluestem grassland, whea...

269

Won’t soil be damaged if cattle graze cover crops?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integration of crops and livestock could provide economic benefits to producers by intensifying land use and improving resource efficiency, but how this management might affect soil compaction, water infiltration, and soil strength has not been well documented. Key factors in balancing cattle produ...

270

Farmers' Perception of Integrated Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Crop Production: A Study of Rural Areas in Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to determine farmers' perception of integrated soil fertility and nutrient management for sustainable crop production. Integrated soil fertility (ISF) and nutrient management (NM) is an advanced approach to maintain soil fertility and to enhance crop productivity. A total number of 120 farmers from eight villages in four districts…

Farouque, Md. Golam; Takeya, Hiroyuki

2007-01-01

271

Mitigating the effects of soil and residue water contents on remotely sensed estimates of crop residue cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop residues on the soil surface decrease soil erosion and increase soil organic carbon and the management of crop residues is an integral part of many conservation tillage systems. Current methods of measuring residue cover are inadequate for characterizing the spatial variability of residue cover over large fields. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of water

C. S. T. Daughtry; E HUNTJR

2008-01-01

272

Effects of tillage and winter cover cropping on microbial substrate-induced respiration and soil aggregation in two Japanese fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that cover cropping could increase soil microbial activities under various tillage systems and that increased microbial activities would improve soil properties. Soil sampling was conducted at two fields in Japan in 2009. At the Ibaraki field (Andosol, clay loam), three tillage practices (no-tillage, plowing to 30?cm, and rotary tillage to 15?cm) and three types of winter cover cropping

Tomomi Nakamoto; Masakazu Komatsuzaki; Toshiyuki Hirata; Hajime Araki

2012-01-01

273

Soil microbial diversity and community structure under wheat as influenced by tillage and crop rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil microbial diversity is important to sustainable agriculture because microbes mediate many processes that support agricultural production. The BIOLOG™ system for detection of specific patterns of substrate utilization by bacteria was used to investigate the effects of tillage and crop rotation on the diversity and community structure of soil bacteria. In each of 2yr, soil was sampled (0–7.5cm) in the

N. Z. Lupwayi; W. A. Rice; G. W. Clayton

1998-01-01

274

Effect of Cropping System and Contouring or Download Sowing on Soil Water Erosion under no Tillage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water erosion is the main responsible factor of soil and water losses, thus also causing soil degradation, especially on agricultural land, and it is also one factor of degradation outside the place of the origin of erosion. No tillage agriculture has been practiced in the last few decades for the purposes of water erosion control in various regions of Brazil. However, it has been shown that no tillage does not adequately control water erosion unless other complementary conservationist practices such as contour tillage or terracement. Although the erosion problem is widely recognized, there are still difficulties in estimating their magnitude, the environmental impact and the economic consequences, especially when it occurs in a conservation system like no tillage. The aim of this study was to quantify runoff and soil losses by water erosion under five different soil tillage treatments at Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. A field study was carried out using a rotating-boom rainfall simulator with 64 mmh-1 rainfall intensity for 90 minutes. Four rainfall tests were applied over the experimental period, one in each of the successive soybean and maize crop stages. Both soil cover by surface crop residue and soil cover by soybean and maize plant canopy were measured immediately before each rainfall test. Soil and water losses were smaller when sowing in contour than when sowing downslope. Contouring has promoted an average reduction of 42% in soil losses and 20% in water losses. Maize crop has promoted an average reduction of 19% in soil losses and 12% in water losses, in relation to the soybean crop. Therefore runoff rates and soil losses were higher in the downslope plots and in the soybean crop. Soil cover by previous crop residue was an important factor for reducing soil losses. Runoff rates were influenced by the soil water content before each rainfall test (R2= 0.78). The highest runoff occurred during the third simulated rainfall test, with the 83% of the total rain applied; immediately before the test the soil moisture was 36%. The smallest losses occurred in the fourth test, with 55% of the total rain applied where the soil moisture immediately before the rainfall test was 25%.

Marioti, J.; Padilha, J.; Bertol, I.; Barbosa, F. T.; Ramos, J. C.; Werner, R. S.; Vidal Vázquez, E.; Tanaka, M. S.

2012-04-01

275

Effect of tillage practices on soil properties and crop productivity in wheat-mungbean-rice cropping system under subtropical climatic conditions.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to know cropping cycles required to improve OM status in soil and to investigate the effects of medium-term tillage practices on soil properties and crop yields in Grey Terrace soil of Bangladesh under wheat-mungbean-T. aman cropping system. Four different tillage practices, namely, zero tillage (ZT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT), and deep tillage (DT), were studied in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replications. Tillage practices showed positive effects on soil properties and crop yields. After four cropping cycles, the highest OM accumulation, the maximum root mass density (0-15 cm soil depth), and the improved physical and chemical properties were recorded in the conservational tillage practices. Bulk and particle densities were decreased due to tillage practices, having the highest reduction of these properties and the highest increase of porosity and field capacity in zero tillage. The highest total N, P, K, and S in their available forms were recorded in zero tillage. All tillage practices showed similar yield after four years of cropping cycles. Therefore, we conclude that zero tillage with 20% residue retention was found to be suitable for soil health and achieving optimum yield under the cropping system in Grey Terrace soil (Aeric Albaquept). PMID:25197702

Alam, Md Khairul; Islam, Md Monirul; Salahin, Nazmus; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

2014-01-01

276

Crop response to localized organic amendment in soils with limiting physical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This 2-year study evaluated the use of rice husk as a localized organic amendment in a soil with limiting physical properties. The research was conducted in a commercial peach orchard planted in 2011 using a ridge planting system. Six soil and water management treatments were evaluated in 18 experimental units, which were set up in the field using a randomized complete block design. The treatments were compared both in terms of soil physical properties and crop response. Soil amendment with rice husk was the most effective technique. It improved soil conditions (soil infiltration and soil porosity), providing a better soil environment for root activity and thereby resulted in better crop performance. Concerning growth parameters, the amended treatment presented the highest overall values without negatively affecting crop water status. These techniques were suitable for mitigating the effects of soils with limiting physical conditions. Localized applications of amendments, as proposed in this work, imply an important reduction in application rates. It is important to consider an efficient use of by-products since there is a growing interest in industrial and agronomical exploitations.

Lordan, Joan; Pascual, Miquel; Fonseca, Francisco; Villar, Josep Maria; Montilla, Victor; Papió, Josep; Rufat, Josep

2013-04-01

277

Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

1984-01-01

278

Calibration approaches of cosmic-ray neutron sensing for soil moisture measurement in cropped fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of soil moisture at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose-zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. This study evaluates the applicability of the cosmic-ray neutron sensing for soil moisture in cropped fields. Measurements of cosmic-ray neutrons (fast neutrons) were performed at a lowland farmland in Bornim (Brandenburg, Germany) cropped with sunflower and winter rye. Three field calibration approaches and four different ways of integration the soil moisture profile to an integral value for cosmic-ray neutron sensing were evaluated in this study. The cosmic-ray sensing (CRS) probe was calibrated against a network of classical point-scale soil moisture measurements. A large CRS parameter variability was observed by choosing calibration periods within the different growing stages of sunflower and winter rye. Therefore, it was not possible to identify a single set of parameters perfectly estimating soil moisture for both sunflower and winter rye periods. On the other hand, CRS signal and its parameter variability could be understood by some crop characteristics and by predicting the attenuated neutrons by crop presence. This study proves the potentiality of the cosmic-ray neutron sensing at the field scale; however, its calibration needs to be adapted for seasonal vegetation in cropped fields.

Rivera Villarreyes, C. A.; Baroni, G.; Oswald, S. E.

2013-04-01

279

The Importance of Soil Protein Fate to PIP Crop Registration  

EPA Science Inventory

Plant Incorporated Protectant (PIP) crops are registered under the authority of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and as part of this registration certain environmental fate information is required to properly judge the environmental compatibility of n...

280

Soil moisture mapping in an alley cropping system in Quebec, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alley cropping is an agroforestry practice whereby trees are planted in rows, thus creating alleyways within which companion crops are grown. The alley cropping systems as we call them may not only influence the local thermal energy balance by changes in airflow and solar irradiance, but also affect water uptake in plant roots and evapotranspiration. However, our understanding of the soil water balance and regulating mechanisms in alley cropping systems is very limited compared to what we know about the more common monoculture farming. Root systems of the trees are known to interact with soil water dynamics, in that they tend to grow in the direction of soil layers with a water content corresponding to a pF between 2-2.4, and conversely, water flows in the direction of decreasing hydraulic head, which, close to the root system, is in the direction of the roots when the trees absorb water by applying a suction gradient. As such, the trees in alley cropping systems either improve the resilience to drought by retaining more water in the upper soil layers, or they compete with the crops for water. With the eye on the future environmental conditions that may result from a shift in the local climate in southern Quebec, Canada, our objective is to characterize and evaluate the influence of alley cropping systems on soil water dynamics under various climate conditions. In order to evaluate the interaction between root system and soil water dynamics, we adopt an approach divided into three steps: (i) a field campaign where we monitor soil water patterns on an alley cropping site during the growing season; (ii) simulation of these soil water patterns with the HYDRUS model for two-dimensional movement of water; and (iii) the evolution of these patterns for a given scenario of climate change. Our submission focuses on the field campaign in which we used forty-five frequency domain reflectometers (FDR) along a 25-m transect perpendicular to the tree rows in order to monitor moisture patterns within the first 100 cm of the soil. Analysis showed that the presence of trees has a pronounced influence on the water distribution within the soil. (This submission is part of Climate Change Action Plan 26 funded by Ouranos-ICAR.)

Hallema, D. W.; Rousseau, A. N.; Gumiere, S. J.

2012-12-01

281

[Crop-soil nitrogen cycling and soil organic carbon balance in black soil zone of Jilin Province based on DSSAT model].  

PubMed

By using the CERES-Maize crop model and Century soil model in Decision Support System of Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) model, this paper studied the effects of crop management parameters, fertilizer N application rate, soil initial N supply, and crop residue application on the maize growth, crop-soil N cycling, and soil organic C and N ecological balance in black soil (Mollisol) zone of Jilin Province, Northeast China. Taking 12,000-15,000 kg x hm(-2) as the target yield of maize, the optimum N application rate was 200-240 kg N x hm(-2). Under this fertilization, the aboveground part N uptake was 250-290 kg N x hm(-2), among which, 120-140 kg N x hm(-2) came from soil, and 130-150 kg N x hm(-2) came from fertilizer. Increasing the N application rate (250-420 kg N x hm(-2)) induced an obvious increase of soil residual N (63-183 kg x hm(-2)); delaying the N topdressing date also induced the increase of the residual N. When the crop residue application exceeded 6000 kg x hm(-2), the soil active organic C and N could maintain the supply/demand balance during maize growth season. To achieve the target maize yield and maintain the ecological balance of soil organic C and N in black soil zone of Jilin Province, the chemical N application rate would be controlled in the range of 200-240 kg N x hm(-2), topdressing N should be at proper date, and the application amount of crop residue would be up to 6000 kg x hm(-2). PMID:22097370

Yang, Jing-min; Dou, Sen; Yang, Jing-yi; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Zhong-qing; Jiang, Hong-wei; Jia, Li-hui

2011-08-01

282

Strip-tilled Cover Cropping for Managing Nematodes, Soil Mesoarthropods, and Weeds in a Bitter Melon Agroecosystem  

PubMed Central

A field trial was conducted to examine whether strip-tilled cover cropping followed by living mulch practice could suppress root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and enhance beneficial nematodes and other soil mesofauna, while suppressing weeds throughout two vegetable cropping seasons. Sunn hemp (SH), Crotalaria juncea, and French marigold (MG), Tagetes patula, were grown for three months, strip-tilled, and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seedlings were transplanted into the tilled strips; the experiment was conducted twice (Season I and II). Strip-tilled cover cropping with SH prolonged M. incognita suppression in Season I but not in Season II where suppression was counteracted with enhanced crop growth. Sunn hemp also consistently enhanced bacterivorous and fungivorous nematode population densities prior to cash crop planting, prolonged enhancement of the Enrichment Index towards the end of both cash crop cycles, and increased numbers of soil mesoarthropods. Strip-tilled cover cropping of SH followed by clipping of the living mulch as surface mulch also reduced broadleaf weed populations up to 3 to 4 weeks after cash crop planting. However, SH failed to reduce soil disturbance as indicated by the Structure Index. Marigold suppressed M. incognita efficiently when planted immediately following a M. incognita-susceptible crop, but did not enhance beneficial soil mesofauna including free-living nematodes and soil mesoarthropods. Strip-tilled cover cropping of MG reduced broadleaf weed populations prior to cash crop planting in Season II, but this weed suppression did not last beyond the initial cash crop cycle. PMID:22736847

Wang, Koon-Hui; Sipes, Brent S.; Hooks, Cerruti R.R.

2010-01-01

283

Intercropping enhances productivity and maintains the most soil fertility properties relative to sole cropping.  

PubMed

Yield and nutrient acquisition advantages are frequently found in intercropping systems. However, there are few published reports on soil fertility in intercropping relative to monocultures. A field experiment was therefore established in 2009 in Gansu province, northwest China. The treatments comprised maize/faba bean, maize/soybean, maize/chickpea and maize/turnip intercropping, and their correspoding monocropping. In 2011 (the 3rd year) and 2012 (the 4th year) the yields and some soil chemical properties and enzyme activities were examined after all crop species were harvested or at later growth stages. Both grain yields and nutrient acquisition were significantly greater in all four intercropping systems than corresponding monocropping over two years. Generally, soil organic matter (OM) did not differ significantly from monocropping but did increase in maize/chickpea in 2012 and maize/turnip in both years. Soil total N (TN) did not differ between intercropping and monocropping in either year with the sole exception of maize/faba bean intercropping receiving 80 kg P ha-1 in 2011. Intercropping significantly reduced soil Olsen-P only in 2012, soil exchangeable K in both years, soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) in 2012, and soil pH in 2012. In the majority of cases soil enzyme activities did not differ across all the cropping systems at different P application rates compared to monocrops, with the exception of soil acid phosphatase activity which was higher in maize/legume intercropping than in the corresponding monocrops at 40 kg ha-1 P in 2011. P fertilization can alleviate the decline in soil Olsen-P and in soil CEC to some extent. In summary, intercropping enhanced productivity and maintained the majority of soil fertility properties for at least three to four years, especially at suitable P application rates. The results indicate that maize-based intercropping may be an efficient cropping system for sustainable agriculture with carefully managed fertilizer inputs. PMID:25486249

Wang, Zhi-Gang; Jin, Xin; Bao, Xing-Guo; Li, Xiao-Fei; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Sun, Jian-Hao; Christie, Peter; Li, Long

2014-01-01

284

Intercropping Enhances Productivity and Maintains the Most Soil Fertility Properties Relative to Sole Cropping  

PubMed Central

Yield and nutrient acquisition advantages are frequently found in intercropping systems. However, there are few published reports on soil fertility in intercropping relative to monocultures. A field experiment was therefore established in 2009 in Gansu province, northwest China. The treatments comprised maize/faba bean, maize/soybean, maize/chickpea and maize/turnip intercropping, and their correspoding monocropping. In 2011 (the 3rd year) and 2012 (the 4th year) the yields and some soil chemical properties and enzyme activities were examined after all crop species were harvested or at later growth stages. Both grain yields and nutrient acquisition were significantly greater in all four intercropping systems than corresponding monocropping over two years. Generally, soil organic matter (OM) did not differ significantly from monocropping but did increase in maize/chickpea in 2012 and maize/turnip in both years. Soil total N (TN) did not differ between intercropping and monocropping in either year with the sole exception of maize/faba bean intercropping receiving 80 kg P ha?1 in 2011. Intercropping significantly reduced soil Olsen-P only in 2012, soil exchangeable K in both years, soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) in 2012, and soil pH in 2012. In the majority of cases soil enzyme activities did not differ across all the cropping systems at different P application rates compared to monocrops, with the exception of soil acid phosphatase activity which was higher in maize/legume intercropping than in the corresponding monocrops at 40 kg ha?1 P in 2011. P fertilization can alleviate the decline in soil Olsen-P and in soil CEC to some extent. In summary, intercropping enhanced productivity and maintained the majority of soil fertility properties for at least three to four years, especially at suitable P application rates. The results indicate that maize-based intercropping may be an efficient cropping system for sustainable agriculture with carefully managed fertilizer inputs. PMID:25486249

Wang, Zhi-Gang; Jin, Xin; Bao, Xing-Guo; Li, Xiao-Fei; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Sun, Jian-Hao; Christie, Peter; Li, Long

2014-01-01

285

Crop residue management to reduce erosion and improve soil quality: Appalachia and northeast. Conservation research report  

SciTech Connect

Leaving crop residue on the soil surface has a number of clear advantages over tillage that leaves the soil surface bare. Most notable is the greatly reduced erosion; this advantage alone makes the change worthwhile. Mandated conservation compliance by 1995 is a further incentive to adopt surface-crop-residue management. Other advantages are increased yield due to water conserved by surface residue; lower soil temperatures; higher quality soil over time due to increased soil organic-matter levels; and in many cases, reduced input of time, labor, and fuel. The feasibility of surface-residue management has been proven by the increasing rate of acceptance and use by farm operators. Success is due in large part to the greater effectiveness and reduced cost of herbicides and the improvement of planting equipment available on the market.

Blevins, R.L.; Moldenhauer, W.C.

1995-08-01

286

Gap filling strategies and error in estimating annual soil respiration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil respiration (Rsoil) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap-filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. While many gap-filling methodologies have been employed, there is ...

287

Food crop accumulation and bioavailability assessment for antimony (Sb) compared with arsenic (As) in contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Field samples and a 9-week glasshouse growth trial were used to investigate the accumulation of mining derived arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in vegetable crops growing on the Macleay River Floodplain in Northern New South Wales, Australia. The soils were also extracted using EDTA to assess the potential for this extractant to be used as a predictor of As and Sb uptake in vegetables, and a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) to understand potential for uptake in the human gut with soil ingestion. Metalloids were not detected in any field vegetables sampled. Antimony was not detected in the growth trial vegetable crops over the 9-week greenhouse trial. Arsenic accumulation in edible vegetable parts was <10 % total soil-borne As with concentrations less than the current Australian maximum residue concentration for cereals. The results indicate that risk of exposure through short-term vegetable crops is low. The data also demonstrate that uptake pathways for Sb and As in the vegetables were different with uptake strongly impacted by soil properties. A fraction of soil-borne metalloid was soluble in the different soils resulting in Sb soil solution concentration (10.75 ± 0.52 ?g L(-1)) that could present concern for contamination of water resources. EDTA proved a poor predictor of As and Sb phytoavailability. Oral bioaccessibility, as measured by SBET, was <7 % for total As and <3 % total Sb which is important to consider when estimating the real risk from soil borne As and Sb in the floodplain environment. PMID:24499989

Wilson, Susan C; Tighe, Matthew; Paterson, Ewan; Ashley, Paul M

2014-10-01

288

Assessment of soil biological quality index (QBS-ar) in different crop rotation systems in paddy soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New methods, based on soil microarthropods for soil quality evaluation have been proposed by some Authors. Soil microarthropods demonstrated to respond sensitively to land management practices and to be correlated with beneficial soil functions. QBS Index (QBS-ar) is calculated on the basis of microarthropod groups present in a soil sample. Each biological form found in the sample receives a score from 1 to 20 (eco-morphological index, EMI), according to its adaptation to soil environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various rotation systems and sampling periods on soil biological quality index, in paddy soils. For the purpose of this study surface soil samples (0-15 cm depth) were collected from different rotation systems (rice-rice-rice, soya-rice-rice, fallow-rice and pea-soya-rice) with three replications, and four sampling times in April (after field preparation), June (after seedling), August (after tillering stage) and October (after rice harvesting). The study area is located in paddy soils of Verona area, Northern Italy. Soil microarthropods from a total of 48 samples were extracted and classified according to the Biological Quality of Soil Index (QBS-ar) method. In addition soil moisture, Cumulative Soil Respiration and pH were measured in each site. More diversity of microarthropod groups was found in June and August sampling times. T-test results between different rotations did not show significant differences while the mean difference between rotation and different sampling times is statistically different. The highest QBS-ar value was found in the fallow-rice rotation in the forth soil sampling time. Similar value was found in soya-rice-rice rotation. Result of linear regression analysis indicated that there is significant correlation between QBS-ar values and Cumulative Soil Respiration. Keywords: soil biological quality index (QBS-ar), Crop Rotation System, paddy soils, Italy

Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Bini, Claudio; haefele, Stephan

2013-04-01

289

Overcoming soil nutrient constraints to crop production in West Africa: Importance of fertilizers and priorities in soil fertility research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Alfisols, Oxisols, Ultisols and Inceptisols which dominate the soils of West Africa have sustained crop growth for a very\\u000a long time. As a consequence, their fertility has become perilously low and the task of increasing or even maintaining the\\u000a productive capacity of these soils has become perhaps the greatest challenge to agricultural scientists in this latter half\\u000a of the

M. T. F. Wong; A. Wild; A. U. Mokwunye

290

Role of Soil, Crop Debris, and a Plant Pathogen in Salmonella enterica Contamination of Tomato Plants  

PubMed Central

Background In the U.S., tomatoes have become the most implicated vehicle for produce-associated Salmonellosis with 12 outbreaks since 1998. Although unconfirmed, trace backs suggest pre-harvest contamination with Salmonella enterica. Routes of tomato crop contamination by S. enterica in the absence of direct artificial inoculation have not been investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings This work examined the role of contaminated soil, the potential for crop debris to act as inoculum from one crop to the next, and any interaction between the seedbourne plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and S. enterica on tomato plants. Our results show S. enterica can survive for up to six weeks in fallow soil with the ability to contaminate tomato plants. We found S. enterica can contaminate a subsequent crop via crop debris; however a fallow period between crop incorporation and subsequent seeding can affect contamination patterns. Throughout these studies, populations of S. enterica declined over time and there was no bacterial growth in either the phyllosphere or rhizoplane. The presence of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria on co-colonized tomato plants had no effect on the incidence of S. enterica tomato phyllosphere contamination. However, growth of S. enterica in the tomato phyllosphere occurred on co-colonized plants in the absence of plant disease. Conclusions/Significance S. enterica contaminated soil can lead to contamination of the tomato phyllosphere. A six week lag period between soil contamination and tomato seeding did not deter subsequent crop contamination. In the absence of plant disease, presence of the bacterial plant pathogen, X. campestris pv. vesicatoria was beneficial to S. enterica allowing multiplication of the human pathogen population. Any event leading to soil contamination with S. enterica could pose a public health risk with subsequent tomato production, especially in areas prone to bacterial spot disease. PMID:18301739

Barak, Jeri D.; Liang, Anita S.

2008-01-01

291

Effect of cropping systems on adsorption of metals by soils: I. Single-metal adsorption  

SciTech Connect

The effect of long-term cropping systems on adsorption of metals was studied for soils obtained from two sites, Clarion-Webster Research Center (CWRC site) at Kanawha and Galva-Primghar Research Center (GPRC site) at Sutherland, under long-term rotation experiments in Iowa. Each experiment consisted of three cropping systems: continuous corn (CCCC), corn-soybean-corn-soybean (CSCS), and corn-oats-meadow-meadow (COMM), and treated with (+N) and without (0 N) ammoniacal fertilizer. In general, CSCS and COMM cropping systems did not significantly affect the metal adsorption maxima of soils obtained from both sites. Cadmium, Cu, and Pb adsorption were significantly correlated with pH and percentage base saturation for soils from both sites.

Basta, N.T.; Tabatabai, M.A. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

1992-02-01

292

Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil respiration (SR) constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT), irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10). We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P) is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET), annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

Bahn, M.; Reichstein, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Grünzweig, J.; Jung, M.; Carbone, M. S.; Epron, D.; Misson, L.; Nouvellon, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Savage, K.; Trumbore, S. E.; Gimeno, C.; Curiel Yuste, J.; Tang, J.; Vargas, R.; Janssens, I. A.

2010-07-01

293

Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil respiration (SR) constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. There still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 72 site-years for 58 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SR MAT), irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This convergence is to be theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10). We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P) is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET), annual SR can be predicted from wet season SR MAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it is sufficient to measure SR MAT for obtaining a highly constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution and interannual variation of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatio-temporal resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

Bahn, M.; Reichstein, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Grünzweig, J.; Jung, M.; Carbone, M. S.; Epron, D.; Misson, L.; Nouvellon, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Savage, K.; Trumbore, S. E.; Gimeno, C.; Curiel Yuste, J.; Tang, J.; Vargas, R.; Janssens, I. A.

2009-12-01

294

Root growth dynamics and biomass input by Nordic annual field crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots are an important sink for photoassimilates and carbon input to soil. Here the root growth and biomass of different spring sown annuals was determined to estimate the shoot:root (S:R) ratios and carbon inputs in the typical Nordic agroecosystem. The data, collected in southern Finland, present evidence for large difference in root growth dynamics and biomass input between spring oilseed

Liisa Pietola; Laura Alakukku

2005-01-01

295

Tillage, cropping systems, and nitrogen fertilizer source effects on soil carbon sequestration and fractions.  

PubMed

Quantification of soil carbon (C) cycling as influenced by management practices is needed for C sequestration and soil quality improvement. We evaluated the 10-yr effects of tillage, cropping system, and N source on crop residue and soil C fractions at 0- to 20-cm depth in Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Paleudults) in northern Alabama, USA. Treatments were incomplete factorial combinations of three tillage practices (no-till [NT], mulch till [MT], and conventional till [CT]), two cropping systems (cotton [Gossypium hirsutum L.]-cotton-corn [Zea mays L.] and rye [Secale cereale L.]/cotton-rye/cotton-corn), and two N fertilization sources and rates (0 and 100 kg N ha(-1) from NH(4)NO(3) and 100 and 200 kg N ha(-1) from poultry litter). Carbon fractions were soil organic C (SOC), particulate organic C (POC), microbial biomass C (MBC), and potential C mineralization (PCM). Crop residue varied among treatments and years and total residue from 1997 to 2005 was greater in rye/cotton-rye/cotton-corn than in cotton-cotton-corn and greater with NH(4)NO(3) than with poultry litter at 100 kg N ha(-1). The SOC content at 0 to 20 cm after 10 yr was greater with poultry litter than with NH(4)NO(3) in NT and CT, resulting in a C sequestration rate of 510 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) with poultry litter compared with -120 to 147 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) with NH(4)NO(3). Poultry litter also increased PCM and MBC compared with NH(4)NO(3). Cropping increased SOC, POC, and PCM compared with fallow in NT. Long-term poultry litter application or continuous cropping increased soil C storage and microbial biomass and activity compared with inorganic N fertilization or fallow, indicating that these management practices can sequester C, offset atmospheric CO(2) levels, and improve soil and environmental quality. PMID:18453410

Sainju, Upendra M; Senwo, Zachary N; Nyakatawa, Ermson Z; Tazisong, Irenus A; Reddy, K Chandra

2008-01-01

296

Towards a Process-based Representation of Annual Crops Within the Land Surface Model JULES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is to introduce a generic crop structure within the Joint UK Land surface Exchange Scheme JULES (Cox, 1998) that is able to evaluate the interaction between growing crops and the environment at large scales for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. JULES was designed to simulate land surface processes in natural ecosystems. The importance of representing agricultural land within global biosphere models has been pointed out in many studies (De Noblet-Ducoudre et al., 2004; Bondeau 2005 et al.). Prior to any model development, the sensitivity of JULES to morphological and physiological differences between natural vegetation and crops has been investigated by reparameterising a natural C3 grass into a C3 crop. For a case study of fallow versus wheat at Grignon (France), the model output shows important soil water savings after crop harvest at the beginning of the summer. Owing to the lack of a rooting system, the deeper soil moisture cannot contribute anymore to the moisture flux to the atmosphere. On a shorter timescale, the harvest, and by consequence the sudden appearance of bare soil, also disrupt the energy and momentum fluxes between surface and atmosphere. Having established the sensitivity of the JULES system to a crop-like forcing, some components from the crop model SUCROS (Goudriaan and van Laar, 1994) that are relevant to the global water, energy and carbon cycles, have been introduced in JULES. The new version of JULES, denoted by JULES-SUCROS, incorporates crops and natural vegetation within a single modelling framework, without discontinuity in the photosynthesis-assimilation scheme between both vegetation types. Simulations have been performed with JULES-SUCROS for wheat at the Grignon site in current and doubled CO2 atmospheric conditions. Changing atmospheric conditions in JULES-SUCROS affects the sowing date and the length of the growing season. The results show that the positive effect of the CO2 fertilisation partly counterbalances the negative effect on biomass production of a shorter season due to higher temperatures. Each plant organ however responds differently to these changes. The growth of an organ is affected by the environmental conditions, such as moisture availablity, temperature, atmospheric humudity deficit, amount of photosynthetic active radiation, at the time of its development, which is organ specific. The energy and momentum fluxes respond also to the faster and earlier crop development. Finally important water savings are noticed in the deeper soil layers; the crop is now harvested before the evaporative demand of the atmosphere becomes very large. This model structure allows for further development into crop management and environmental change impact studies. Once coupled back to a General Circulation Model, the fully calibrated and validated JULES-SUCROS can be used to analyse the feedback of crop production on the ecosystem with an emphasis on water availability and sustainability.

van den Hoof, C.; Vidale, P.

2008-05-01

297

Modelling soil borne fungal pathogens of arable crops under climate change.  

PubMed

Soil-borne fungal plant pathogens, agents of crown and root rot, are seldom considered in studies on climate change and agriculture due both to the complexity of the soil system and to the incomplete knowledge of their response to environmental drivers. A controlled chamber set of experiments was carried out to quantify the response of six soil-borne fungi to temperature, and a species-generic model to simulate their response was developed. The model was linked to a soil temperature model inclusive of components able to simulate soil water content also as resulting from crop water uptake. Pathogen relative growth was simulated over Europe using the IPCC A1B emission scenario derived from the Hadley-CM3 global climate model. Climate scenarios of soil temperature in 2020 and 2030 were compared to the baseline centred in the year 2000. The general trend of the response of soil-borne pathogens shows increasing growth in the coldest areas of Europe; however, a larger rate of increase is shown from 2020 to 2030 compared to that of 2000 to 2020. Projections of pathogens of winter cereals indicate a marked increase of growth rate in the soils of northern European and Baltic states. Fungal pathogens of spring sowing crops show unchanged conditions for their growth in soils of the Mediterranean countries, whereas an increase of suitable conditions was estimated for the areals of central Europe which represent the coldest limit areas where the host crops are currently grown. Differences across fungal species are shown, indicating that crop-specific analyses should be ran. PMID:24615638

Manici, L M; Bregaglio, S; Fumagalli, D; Donatelli, M

2014-12-01

298

Effects of Estimating Soil Hydraulic Properties and Root Growth Factor on Soil Water Balance and Crop Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing water use efficiency (WUE) is one of the oldest goals in agricultural sciences, yet it is still not fully understood and achieved due to the complexity of soil-weather-management interactions. System models that quantify these interactions are increasingly used for optimizing crop WUE, es...

299

The influence of crop management on the water balance of lupin and wheat crops on a layered soil in a Mediterranean climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of time of sowing and sowing density on evapotranspiration and drainage loss beneath wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Spear) and lupin (Lupinus angustifolius cv. Gungurru) crops grown on a layered soil was investigated for three seasons in a Mediterranean climate in Western Australia.\\u000a The aim of the study was to investigate whether managing crops to maximise their canopy growth

J. Eastham; P. J. Gregory

2000-01-01

300

Effects of winter cover crops residue returning on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial community in double-cropping rice fields.  

PubMed

Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice-rice-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice-rice-rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice-rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The ?-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of ?-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality. PMID:24956152

Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

2014-01-01

301

Effects of Winter Cover Crops Residue Returning on Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Microbial Community in Double-Cropping Rice Fields  

PubMed Central

Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice–rice–ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice–rice–Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice–rice–rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice–rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The ?-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of ?-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality. PMID:24956152

Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

2014-01-01

302

Simulated potato yield, and crop and soil nitrogen dynamics under different organic nitrogen management strategies in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve crop yields but limit phosphorus (P) accumulation in organic farming systems, insight into the effects of organic nitrogen (N) management on crop yield is required. After validation, an adapted model was used to explore N uptake, tuber yield and residual soil mineral N (RSMN) of a potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) for 30 years of historical

A Van Delden; J. J. Schröder; M. J. Kropff; C. Grashoff; R. Booij

2003-01-01

303

Carbon Supply and Storage in Tilled and Nontilled Soils as Influenced by Cover Crops and Nitrogen Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil carbon (C) sequestration in tilled and nontilled areas can be influenced by crop management practices due to differences in plant C inputs and their rate of mineralization. We examined the influence of four cover crops {legume (hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)), non- legume (rye (Secale cereale L.)), biculture of legume and nonlegume (vetch and rye), and no cover crops

Upendra M. Sainju; Bharat P. Singh; Wayne F. Whitehead; Shirley Wang

2006-01-01

304

Changes in soil quality and below-ground carbon storage with conversion of traditional agricultural crop lands to bioenergy crop production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berm-isolated (0.5 ha) plots have been used since 1995 to quantify changes in soil and water quality with conversion from agricultural to bioenergy crops. Soil quality improvements, including increases in soil carbon storage, have occurred on sites planted to woody or herbaceous species, and no-till corn compared with tilled corn or cotton. Initial increases in soil carbon occurred within the

V. R Tolbert; D. E Todd; L. K Mann; C. M Jawdy; D. A Mays; R Malik; W Bandaranayake; A Houston; D Tyler; D. E Pettry

2002-01-01

305

Purdue extension Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCrop, Soil, and EnvironmEntal SCiEnCES  

E-print Network

Purdue extension RW-2-W Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCrop, Soil, and EnvironmEntal SCiEnCES Soil be functioning properly to effectively remove contaminants from the wastewater and disperse it into the soil. Central to septic system performance is soil hydraulic conductivity, or the rate water flows through

Holland, Jeffrey

306

Potential soil quality impact of harvesting crop residues for biofuels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Humankind is in the midst of one of the greatest technological, environmental and social transitions since the industrial revolution, as we strive to replace fossil energy with renewable biomass resources. This presentation will (1) briefly review increased public interest in harvesting crop residue...

307

Use of compost to improve soil properties and crop productivity under low input agricultural system in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of adequate nutrient supply and poor soil structure are the principal constraints to crop production under low input agriculture systems of West Africa. Experiments at two sites (Mediga and Yimtenga) were conducted in Burkina Faso to assess the impact of compost on improving crop production and soil properties. In the first experiment, compost was applied at the rate of

E. Ouédraogo; A. Mando; N. P. Zombré

2001-01-01

308

CARBON AND NITROGEN STORAGE IN DRYLAND SOIL AGGREGATES AS INFLUNCED BY LONG-TERM TILLAGE AND CROPPING SYSTEM.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 21-yr influence of combinations of tillage and cropping systems were determined on soil organic C (SOC) and organic N (SON) contents in whole-soil and aggregates at the 0-20 cm depth in the drylands of Montana, USA. Tillage and cropping systems were no-till with continuous spring wheat (NTCW), s...

309

Soil microbial communities under different soybean cropping systems: Characterization of microbial population dynamics, soil microbial activity, microbial biomass, and fatty acid profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work analyzes the direct effect of soil management practices on soil microbial communities, which may affect soil productivity and sustainability. The experimental design consisted of two tillage treatments: reduced tillage (RT) and zero tillage (ZT), and three crop rotation treatments: continuous soybean (SS), corn–soybean (CS), and soybean–corn (SC). Soil samples were taken at soybean planting and harvest. The following

J. M. Meriles; S. Vargas Gil; C. Conforto; G. Figoni; E. Lovera; G. J. March; C. A. Guzmán

2009-01-01

310

Plant uptake and in-soil degradation of PCB-5 under varying cropping conditions.  

PubMed

A 60-d greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake and in-soil degradation of PCB-5 under single cropping and intercropping conditions involving three crop plant species: pumpkin, soybean and corn. Volatilization of PCB-5 from the soil surface was also tested. The results show that while uptake of PCB-5 by the test plant species is possible and the root concentration of PCB-5 had a control on the upward transport of PCB-5 to the above-ground portion of the plants, the PCB-5 extracted by the plants mainly accumulated in the root materials. Phytoextraction contributed insignificantly toward the loss of the soil-borne PCB-5. Volatilization of PCB-5 from the soil was recorded but it appeared that this did not result in a marked loss of PCB-5 in the bulk soil though it might cause remarkable removal of PCB-5 in a thin layer of the topsoil (1 mm). It is likely that the in-soil biodegradation contributed markedly to the observed reduction in soil-borne PCB-5. The in-soil biodegradation of PCB-5 was significantly enhanced under intercropping conditions, which appeared to be related to increased microbial activities, particularly bacterial activities. The soil residual PCB-5 was correlated with the activity of the following enzymes: catalase (CAT), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). PMID:21724228

Li, Huashou; Liu, Longyuan; Lin, Chuxia; Wang, Shaorui

2011-08-01

311

Mapping Surface Soil Organic Carbon for Crop Fields with Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organic C concentration of surface soil can be used in agricultural fields to vary crop production inputs. Organic C is often highly spatially variable, so that maps of soil organic C can be used to vary crop production inputs using precision farming technology. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping soil organic C on three fields, using remotely sensed images of the fields with a bare surface. Enough soil samples covering the range in soil organic C must be taken from each field to develop a satisfactory relationship between soil organic C content and image reflectance values. The number of soil samples analyzed in the three fields varied from 22 to 26. The regression equations differed between fields, but gave highly significant relationships with R2 values of 0.93, 0.95, and 0.89 for the three fields. A comparison of predicted and measured values of soil organic C for an independent set of 2 soil samples taken on one of the fields gave highly satisfactory results, with a comparison equation of % organic C measured + 1.02% organic C predicted, with r2 = 0.87.

Chen, Feng; Kissel, David E.; West, Larry T.; Rickman, Doug; Luvall, J. C.; Adkins, Wayne

2004-01-01

312

Global scale DAYCENT model analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation strategies for cropped soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conversion of native vegetation to cropland and intensification of agriculture typically result in increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (mainly N 2O and CH 4) and more NO 3 leached below the root zone and into waterways. Agricultural soils are often a source but can also be a sink of CO 2. Regional and larger scale estimates of GHG emissions are usually obtained using IPCC emission factor methodology, which is associated with high uncertainty. To more realistically represent GHG emissions we used the DAYCENT biogeochemical model for non-rice major crop types (corn, wheat, soybean). IPCC methodology estimates N losses from croplands based solely on N inputs. In contrast, DAYCENT accounts for soil class, daily weather, historical vegetation cover, and land management practices such as crop type, fertilizer additions, and cultivation events. Global datasets of weather, soils, native vegetation, and cropping fractions were mapped to a 1.9° × 1.9° resolution. Non-spatial data (e.g., rates and dates of fertilizer applications) were assumed to be identical within crop types across regions. We compared model generated baseline GHG emissions and N losses for irrigated and rainfed cropping with land management alternatives intended to mitigate GHG emissions. Reduced fertilizer resulted in lower N losses, but crop yields were reduced by a similar proportion. Use of nitrification inhibitors and split fertilizer applications both led to increased (~ 6%) crop yields but the inhibitor led to a larger reduction in N losses (~ 10%). No-till cultivation, which led to C storage, combined with nitrification inhibitors, resulted in reduced GHG emissions of ~ 50% and increased crop yields of ~ 7%.

Del Grosso, Stephen J.; Ojima, Dennis S.; Parton, William J.; Stehfest, Elke; Heistemann, Maik; DeAngelo, Benjamin; Rose, Steven

2009-05-01

313

Effect of Cropping Regime on Populations of Belonolaimus sp. and Pratylenchus scribneri in Sandy Soil  

PubMed Central

The host efficiencies of corn, sorghum, soybean, and wheat were compared for a Kansas population of Belonolaimus sp. under greenhouse conditions. In a related field study conducted in 1989 and 1990, the responses of Belonolaimus sp. and Pratylenchus scribneri populations to eight cropping regimes were monitored at depths of 0-30 and 31-60 cm in sandy soil. With the exception of alfalfa, all crop species examined supported substantial increases in populations of both nematodes. Largest nematode population increases in the field occurred in corn plots, whereas alfalfa did not allow reproduction by either species during the 2 years of observation. Soil populations of both nematodes remained at detectable levels after 2 years of fallow. The distribution of numbers of Belonolaimus sp. between soil depths varied with sampling date, whereas populations of P. scribneri were consistently concentrated in the top 30 cm of soil. PMID:19283178

Todd, T. C.

1991-01-01

314

DIVISION S-6—SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION Runoff, Soil Erosion, and Erodibility of Conservation Reserve Program Land under Crop and Hay Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

concern that returning CRP lands to crop production may cause accelerated wind and water erosion and soil There are concerns that restored grasslands currently under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) will experience increased soil quality deterioration unless conservation practices are erosion when they are returned to crop production. Our objective utilized. Studies by Low (1972) have shown that inten- was

Fen-li Zheng; Stephen D. Merrill; Chi-hua Huang; Donald L. Tanaka; Frederic Darboux; Mark A. Liebig; Ardell D. Halvorson

315

Management of lignite fly ash for improving soil fertility and crop productivity  

SciTech Connect

Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and bioferfertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy metal contents and in the level of gamma-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner.

Ram, L.C.; Srivastava, N.K.; Jha, S.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Masto, R.E.; Selvi, V.A. [Central Fuel Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

2007-09-15

316

Bioavailability and crop uptake of trace elements in soil columns amended with sewage sludge products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the potential impact of long-term sewage sludge application on soil health, the equivalent of about 25 years of agronomic applications of low-metal (`EQ') sewage sludge products were made to greenhouse soil columns. After a 6-year period of `equilibration', during which time successive crops were grown with irrigation by simulated acid rain, the plant-available quantities of trace elements

M. B. McBride; B. K. Richards; T. Steenhuis

2004-01-01

317

Effects of kelp ( Macrocystis integrifolia ) on soil chemical properties and crop response  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981 a two-year field plot experiment was established to assess the effects of quantities (0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 t\\u000a ha?1) of fresh kelp (Macrocystis integrifolia) on crop growth and nutritional response and chemical properties of a fine-textured soil. Soil was analyzed for NO3?N, NH4?N, electrical conductivity, pH, Cl and exchangeable cations (K, Mg, Ca, Mn and

W. D. Temple; A. A. Bomke

1988-01-01

318

Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe

2010-01-01

319

Enzyme dynamics in paddy soils of the rice district (NE Italy) under different cropping patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent widespread interest on soil enzymes is due to the need to develop sensitive indicators of soil quality that reflect the effects of land management on soil and assist land managers in promoting long-term sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems. The activities of six important enzymes involved in C, N, P, and S cycling were investigated in a paddy soil from the Veneto region, Italy, in four different rotation systems (rice-rice-rice: R-R-R; soya-rice-rice: S-R-R; fallow-rice: F-R; pea-soya-rice: P-S-R) with three replications in April (after field preparation, field moist condition), June (after seedling, waterlogged soil condition), August (after tillering stage of rice, waterlogged soil condition) and October (after rice harvesting, drained soil condition) over the 2012 growing season. Our results demonstrated that enzyme activities varied with rotation systems and growth stages in paddy soil. Compared with field moist soil, drained soil condition resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) of ?-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, alkaline and acid phosphatases, leucine aminopeptidase (except of fallow-rice), and chitinase activities in all rotations, while compared with drained soil, early waterlogging (in month of June) significantly decreased (P moist soil> late waterlogged>early waterlogged. There was an inhibitory effect of waterlogging (except P-S-R rotation) for both alkaline and acid phosphatases due to high pH and redox conditions. However, the response of enzymes to waterlogging differed with the chemical species and the cropping pattern. The best rotation system for chitinase, leucine aminopeptidase and ?-glucosidase activity (C and N cycles) proved R-R-R, while for arylsulfatase, alkaline and acid phosphatases (P and S cycles) it was the S-R-R. Key Words: enzyme activity, paddy soil, Crop Rotation System, Italy __ Corresponding Author: Mandana Nadimi-Goki, Tel.: +39 3891356251 E-mail address: mandy.nadimi@gmail.com

Bini, Claudio; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Kato, Yoichi; Fornasier, Flavio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

2014-05-01

320

Diversity of Rhizosphere Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Soybean Cultivars under Different Continuous Cropping Regimes  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that continuous cropping in soybean causes substantial changes to the microbial community in rhizosphere soil. In this study, we investigated the effects of continuous cropping for various time periods on the diversity of rhizosphere soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in various soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The soybean cultivars Heinong 37 (an intermediate cultivar), Heinong 44 (a high-fat cultivar) and Heinong 48 (a high-protein cultivar) were seeded in a field and continuously cropped for two or three years. We analyzed the diversity of rhizosphere soil AM fungi of these soybean plants at the branching stage using morphological and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The clustering analysis of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was then used to investigate the AM fungal community shifts. The results showed that increasing the number of years of continuous cropping can improve the colonization rate of AM fungi in different soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The dominant AM fungi in the experimental fields were Funneliformismosseae and Glomus spp. The number of years of continuous cropping and the soybean cultivar both had obvious effects on the diversity of AM fungi, which was consistent with the results of colonization rate analysis. This study establishes a basis for screening dominant AM fungi of soybean. In addition, the results of this study may be useful for the development of AM fungal inoculants. PMID:23977368

Jie, Weiguang; Liu, Xiaorui; Cai, Baiyan

2013-01-01

321

Soil Carbon Changes in Transitional Grain Crop Production Systems in South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corn-C (Zea Mays L.), soybean-S (Glycine max L.) and spring wheat-W (Triticum aestivum L.) crops were seeded as a component of either a C-S, S-W, or C-S-W crop rotation on silt-loam textured soils ranging from 3.0-5.0% organic matter. Conservation tillage(chisel plow-field cultivator) was applied to half of the plots. The other plots were direct seeded as a no-till (zero-tillage) treatment. Grain yield and surface crop residues were weighed from each treatment plot. Crop residue (stover and straw) was removed from half of the plots. After four years, soil samples were removed at various increments of depth and soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) was measured. The ranking of crop residue weights occurred by the order corn>>soybean>wheat. Surface residue accumulation was also greatest with residue treatments that were returned to the plots, those rotations in which maize was a component, and those without tillage. Mean soil organic carbon levels in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.41% to 3.19% (- 0.22%) with conventional tillage (chisel plow/field cultivator) as compared to a decrease from 3.19% to 3.05% (-0.14%) in plots without tillage over a four year period. Organic carbon in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.21% to 3.01% (- 0.20%) after residue removed as compared to a decrease from 3.39% to 3.23% (-0.17%) in plots without tillage applied after four years. The soil C:N ratio (0-7.5cm) decreased from 10.63 to 10.37 (-0.26 (unitless)) in the tilled plots over a four-year period. Soil C:N ratio at the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 10.72 to 10.04 (-0.68) in the no-till plots over a four year period. Differences in the soil C:N ratio comparing residue removed and residue returned were similar (-0.51 vs. -0.43 respectively). These soils are highly buffered for organic carbon changes. Many cropping cycles are required to determine how soil carbon storage is significantly impacted by production systems.

Woodard, H. J.

2004-12-01

322

SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY OF AN ERODED SOIL AMENDED WITH CATTLE MANURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erosion changes soil properties, especially physical properties, mainly because it removes surface soil rich in organic materials and exposes lower soil layers. In 1988, a study was established to determine the effects of soil erosion and long-term manure applications on selected soil phys­ ical properties and corn (Zea mays L.) production. After 10 years of an­ nual manure applications, soil

Francisco J. Arriaga; Birl Lowery

2003-01-01

323

Impact of paper mill wastewater on soil properties and crop yield through lysimeter studies.  

PubMed

Paper and pulp industries produce large quantities of wastewater which can have adverse effects on the receiving water systems. In the present study lysimeters were used and filled with different soils replicating natural soil horizons and provided with a leachate collection system. The physico-chemical characteristics of the soil in each lysimeter and the quality of wastewater before leaching were assessed. Treated wastewater was evaluated for crop irrigation, and was categorized according to the irrigation water class 'Increasing Problem to Severe Problem' with respect to salinity and specific ion toxicity. Sandy loam soils showed 96% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal while clay loam soils removed 99% of COD, and the colour removal in both the cases was found to be 100%. Application of wastewater resulted in an increase of pH value, ranging from 6.2-7.6; the electrical conductivity (ECe) of saturated extracts was found to be 0.6-1.7 dS m(-1), and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) ranged from 7.8-11.1% in soils. Similarly, an increase in the organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potash content of soils was observed when irrigated with wastewater. Wastewater irrigation showed increased grain and straw yield of jowar, wheat and moong. These results permit successful utilization of pulp and paper mill wastewater for crop production without damaging the soils. PMID:23837309

Singh, P K; Ladwani, K; Ladwani, K; Deshbhratar, P B; Ramteke, D S

2013-01-01

324

Adaptability of cuphea, a new oilseed crop, to climate and soil environments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cuphea, a new oilseed crop rich in medium-chain fatty acids (C8:0 to C14:0), may serve as a renewable, biodegradable source of oil for lubricants, motor oil, and aircraft fuel. Impacts of climate and soil environment on cuphea growth and development are not well understood. The objective of this stu...

325

Evaluation of Crop Water Stress Based On Soil Moisture, Evapotranspiration, and Canopy Temperature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prediction of plant water status is a key issue of water management. Water stress on crop may alter energy balance at the soil-atmosphere interface, and the change in canopy temperature, which in turn affects transpiration and photosynthesis. An experiment was conducted at the Yucheng Integrated...

326

CATTLE GRAZING EFFECTS ON DRYLAND CROPPING SYSTEM PRODUCTIVITY AND SOIL PROPERTIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On the southern Great Plains, dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are grown in a wheat-sorghum-fallow (WSF) rotation that consistently produces two crops in a three year cycle using precipitation stored in the soil. Integration of cattle grazing on wh...

327

Cover Crops and Nitrogen Matt Ruark UW Madison, Dept. of Soil  

E-print Network

in WI Cool-season grasses Green manures #12;Cool season grasses Oats, rye Grow quickly Provide ground are there other advantages? #12;oat triticale rye oat triticale rye oat triticale rye 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Corn;Legume cover crops (aka Green Manure) Add free N to soil system Take longer to establish than rye

Balser, Teri C.

328

SUITABILITY OF SELECTED CROPS AND SOIL FOR GARDEN SYMPHYLAN (SYMPHYLA, SCUTIGERELLIDAE: SCUTIGERELLA IMMACULATA NEWPORT) POPULATION GROWTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The suitability of selected crops and soil for garden symphylan (Scutigerella immaculata Newport) population growth was studied in the laboratory and field. In the laboratory, we measured the population increase of S. immaculata after 8 w from a starting density of 35 in pots of spinach (Spinacia o...

329

Soil microbial activity under different grass species: Underground impacts of biofuel cropping  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial and plant communities interact to determine local nutrient cycling rates. As lands are converted to bioenergy crops, including corn and cellulosic grasses, focus has been on changes in soil carbon sequestration. Little attention has been paid to impacts of such land conversion on the acti...

330

What Does Undergraduate Enrollment in Soil and Crop Sciences Mean for the Future of Agronomy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and crop science programs at land-grant colleges have histori- cally relied on appropriated funding from state and federal sources and tuition to support the tripartite mission of research, extension, and teaching. However, due to declining funding from state and federal sources, tuition and fees are becoming increasingly important sources. As tuition revenue becomes more important, student enrollment be- comes

Neil Hansen; Sarah Ward; Raj Khosla; Jack Fenwick; Bill Moore

2007-01-01

331

SPECTRAL DISCRIMINATION AND SEPARABILITY ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS AND SOIL ATTRIBUTES USING ASTER IMAGERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are growing interests on how Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) image data could be used for various applications. ASTER offers improved spatial, spectral and radiometric resolutions. Hence, our purpose was to evaluate the utility of multispectral ASTER imagery in the discrimination and mapping of agricultural crops, soil and related land cover types. Four agricultural land cover

Armando Apan; Rob Kelly; Troy Jensen; David Butler; Wayne Strong; Badri Basnet

332

MANURE NITROGEN TRANSFORMATIONS IN AIR, SOIL AND CROPS ON DAIRY FARMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Only 25 to 35 % of the crude protein (CP) consumed by dairy cows is converted into milk. Such poor use of dietary CP may be due to inefficiencies associated with forage nitrogen (N) capture and metabolism. Manure N excreted in feces and urine, and the transformation of manure N in air, soil and crop...

333

MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI AND FIELD CROPS Mycorrhizal fungi are very common soil microor-  

E-print Network

MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI AND FIELD CROPS Mycorrhizal fungi are very common soil microor- ganisms a symbiotic association called a mycorrhiza, which means "fungus root". Mycorrhizal fungi produce structures The fungi transfer some of these nutrients to the root and re- ceive carbohydrates from the root. The site

Kaye, Jason P.

334

The influence of cover crops and tillage on actual and potential soil erosion in an olive grove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study was carried out in an olive grove in central Spain (South of Madrid; Tagus River Basin). In this semi-arid zone, the annual mean temperature is 13.8 ºC and the annual precipitation is 395 mm. Olive groves are planted in an erosion prone area due to steep slopes up to 15%. Soil is classified as Typic Haploxerept with clay loam texture. The land studied was formerly a vineyard, but it was replaced by the studied olive grove in 2004. It covers approximately 3 ha and olive trees are planted every 6 x 7 metres. They were usually managed by tillage to decrease weed competition. This conventional practice results in a wide surface of bare soil prone to erosion processes. In the long term soil degradation may lead to increase the desertification risk in the area. Storms have important consequences in this shallow and vulnerable soil, as more than 90 Mg ha-1 have been measured after one day with 40 mm of rainfall. In order to avoid this situation, cover crops between the olive trees were planted three years ago: sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and purple false brome (Brachypodium distachyon), and they were compared with annual spontaneous vegetation after a minimum tillage treatment (ASV). The results regarding erosion control were positive. We observed (Oct. 2012/Sept. 2013) annual soil loss up to 11 Mg ha-1 in ASV, but this figure was reduced in the sown covers, being 8 Mg ha-1 in sainfoin treatment, 3,7 Mg ha-1 in barley treatment, and only 1,5 Mg ha-1 in false brome treatment. Those results are used to predict the risk of erosion in long term. Moreover, soil organic carbon (SOC) increased with treatments, this is significant as it reduces soil erodibility. The increases were found both in topsoil (up to 5 cm) and more in depth, in the root zone (from 5 to 10 cm depth). From higher to lower SOC values we found the false brome (1.05%), barley (0.92%), ASV (0.79%) and sainfoin (0.71%) regarding topsoil. In the root zone (5-10 cm depth) we found 0.76% in false brome and ASV, 0.70% in barley and 0.58% in sainfoin. Other important variable to estimate erosion processes is soil permeability. During the period of study there were no significant differences between treatments. An average of 45±20 mm h-1 was measured. This study addresses the comparison between soil erosion rates measured on the ground with soil erosion risk estimated by models. Mapping soil risk can provide the evidence to demonstrate that economic investments in research, good practices and agri-environment payments are worth to achieve sustainable land management. The use of case studies is usually recommended to help in the dissemination of research. This case also includes the influence of treatments in production and quality of olive oil to respond to the needs of land users.

Sastre, Blanca; Bienes, Ramón; García-Díaz, Andrés; Panagopoulos, Thomas; José Marqués, Maria

2014-05-01

335

Microbial activity, organic C accumulation and 13C abundance in soils under alley cropping systems after 9 years of recultivation of quaternary deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of alley cropping on post lignite mine soils developing from quaternary deposits after 9 years of recultivation was evaluated on the basis of microbial indicators, organic C and total N contents, and the isotope characteristics of soil C. Soils were sampled at the 0 to 3, 3 to 10 and 10 to 30 cm depths under black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), poplar clone (Populus spp.), the transition zone and in the middle of alley under rye (Secale cereale). There was no significant effect of vegetation on microbial properties presumably, due to the high spatial variability, whereas organic C and total N contents at the 0 to 3 cm layer were significantly higher under black locust and poplar than in the transition zone and rye field. Organic C total N contents, and basal respiration, microbial biomass and microbial quotient decreased with soil depth. Soil organic C and total N contents were more than doubled after 9 years of recultivation, with annual C and N accretion rate of 162 g Corg m-2 yr-1 and 6 g Nt m-2 yr-1. Microbial properties indicated that the soils are in early stages of development; the C isotope characteristics confirmed that the sequestered C was predominantly from C3 plants of the alley cropping.

Nii-Annang, S.; Grünewald, H.; Freese, D.; Hüttl, R. F.; Dilly, O.

2009-04-01

336

Changes in N-transforming archaea and bacteria in soil during the establishment of bioenergy crops.  

PubMed

Widespread adaptation of biomass production for bioenergy may influence important biogeochemical functions in the landscape, which are mainly carried out by soil microbes. Here we explore the impact of four potential bioenergy feedstock crops (maize, switchgrass, Miscanthus X giganteus, and mixed tallgrass prairie) on nitrogen cycling microorganisms in the soil by monitoring the changes in the quantity (real-time PCR) and diversity (barcoded pyrosequencing) of key functional genes (nifH, bacterial/archaeal amoA and nosZ) and 16S rRNA genes over two years after bioenergy crop establishment. The quantities of these N-cycling genes were relatively stable in all four crops, except maize (the only fertilized crop), in which the population size of AOB doubled in less than 3 months. The nitrification rate was significantly correlated with the quantity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) not bacteria (AOB), indicating that archaea were the major ammonia oxidizers. Deep sequencing revealed high diversity of nifH, archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA, nosZ and 16S rRNA genes, with 229, 309, 330, 331 and 8989 OTUs observed, respectively. Rarefaction analysis revealed the diversity of archaeal amoA in maize markedly decreased in the second year. Ordination analysis of T-RFLP and pyrosequencing results showed that the N-transforming microbial community structures in the soil under these crops gradually differentiated. Thus far, our two-year study has shown that specific N-transforming microbial communities develop in the soil in response to planting different bioenergy crops, and each functional group responded in a different way. Our results also suggest that cultivation of maize with N-fertilization increases the abundance of AOB and denitrifiers, reduces the diversity of AOA, and results in significant changes in the structure of denitrification community. PMID:21935454

Mao, Yuejian; Yannarell, Anthony C; Mackie, Roderick I

2011-01-01

337

Selenium concentrations in crops grown on low-selenium soils as affected by fly-ash amendment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Studies were conducted under greenhouse and field conditions to evaluate the feasibility of using fly-ash amendments to produce selenium-adequate crops (0.10 to 0.30 ppm Se) on low-Se soils without adversely affecting either the crops or the soils. Two soils, a fine-loamy Alfisol belonging to the Honeoye series and a coarse-loamy Inceptisol belonging to the Mardin series were used to

J. S. C. Mbagwu

1983-01-01

338

Interactions of soil conditioner with other limiting factors to achieve high crop yields. [Lycopersicon esculentum  

SciTech Connect

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Tropic) was used as a test plant in evaluating the interactions for simultaneously correcting deficiencies of N and P and improving physical properties of soil with a soil conditioner. The three limiting factors were improved singly and in all possible combinations. There was response to each input. The least response to the soil conditioner was with N and P, and the most response was when N and P were also used. The combined effect appeared to be synergistic. The results emphasize that the best crop management system involves overcoming as many limiting factors as possible. This is the key to high-yield agriculture.

Wallace, A.; Abouzamzam, A.M.

1986-05-01

339

Removal of arsenic from Janghang smelter site and energy crops-grown soil with soil washing using magnetic iron oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic compounds are considered carcinogen and easily enter drinking water supplies with their natural abundance. US Environmental Protection Agency is finalizing a regulation to reduce the public health risks from arsenic in drinking water by revising the current drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 ppb to 10 ppb in 2001 (USEPA, 2001). Therefore, soil remediation is also growing field to prevent contamination of groundwater as well as crop cultivation. Soil washing is adjusted as ex-situ soil remediation technique which reduces volume of the contaminated soil. The technique is composed of physical separation and chemical extraction to extract target metal contamination in the soil. Chemical extraction methods have been developed solubilizing contaminants containing reagents such as acids or chelating agents. And acid extraction is proven as the most commonly used technology to treat heavy metals in soil, sediment, and sludge (FRTR, 2007). Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, magnetic iron oxide have been used in diverse areas including information technology and biomedicine. Magnetic iron oxides also can be used as adsorbent to heavy metal enhancing removal efficiency of arsenic concentration. In this study, magnetite is used as the washing agent with acid extraction condition so that the injected oxide can be separated by magnetic field. Soil samples were collected from three separate areas in the Janghang smelter site and energy crops-grown soil to have synergy effect with phytoremediation. Each sample was air-dried and sieved (2mm). Soil washing condition was adjusted on pH in the range of 0-12 with hydrogen chloride and sodium hydroxide. After performing soil washing procedure, arsenic-extracted samples were analyzed for arsenic concentration by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). All the soils have exceeded worrisome level of soil contamination for region 1 (25mg/kg) so the soil remediation techniques are needed to be applied. The objective of this study is to investigate soil washing efficiency using magnetic iron oxide and derive the availability of the washing technique to the arsenic-contaminated field soils. Acknowledgement This study was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as 'Knowledge-based environmental service (Waste to Energy) Human Resource Development Project'.

Han, Jaemaro; Zhao, Xin; Lee, Jong Keun; Kim, Jae Young

2014-05-01

340

Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.  

PubMed

Farmers in hilly regions experience low production potential and resource use efficiency due to low valued crops and poorsoil health. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is a vegetatively propagated initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is also vegetatively propagated high demand cash crop. A field experiment was carried out in temperate climate to investigate the influence of geranium intercropping at different row strips (1:1 and 1:2) and plant density (60 x 45, 75 x 45 and 90 x 45 cm) with potato intercrop on biomass, oil yield, monetary advantage and soil quality parameters. The row spacing 60x45cm and row strip 1:1 was found to be superior and produced 92 t ha(-1) and 14 kg ha(-1) biomass and oil yield, respectively. The row strip 1:2 intercrop earned a maximum $2107, followed by $1862 with row strip 1:1 at 60 x 45 cm plant density. Significant variations were noticed in soil organic carbon (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) content. Maximum improvement of Corg (41.0%) and Nt (27.5%)with row strip 1:1 at 75 x 45 cm plant density. While higher soil respiration rate, Cmic, Nmic, and qCO2 was found with 1:2 row strip at 60 x 45 plant density. The buildup of Corg and Cmic potato intercrop can promote long term sustainability on productivity and soil health. PMID:25522521

Vermal, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Ajai; Verma, Ram Swaroop; Khan, Khushboo

2014-11-01

341

Soil physical and hydrological properties under three biofuel crops in Ohio  

SciTech Connect

While biofuel crops are widely studied and compared for their energy and carbon footprints, less is known about their effects on other soil properties, particularly hydrologic characteristics. Soils under three biofuel crops, corn (Zea mays), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and willow (Salix spp.), were analyzed seven years after establishment to assess the effects on soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), penetration resistance (PR), water-holding capacity, and infiltration characteristics. The PR was the highest under corn, along with the lowest associated water content, while PR was 50-60% lower under switchgrass. In accordance with PR data, surface (0-10 cm) bulk density also tended to be lower under switchgrass. Both water infiltration rates and cumulative infiltration amounts varied widely among and within the three crops. Because the Philip model did not fit the data, results were analyzed using the Kostiakov model instead. Switchgrass plots had an average cumulative infiltration of 69 cm over 3 hours with a constant infiltration rate of 0.28 cm min{sup -1}, compared with 37 cm and 0.11 cm min{sup -1} for corn, and 26 cm and 0.06 cm min{sup -1} for willow, respectively. Results suggest that significant changes in soil physical and hydrologic properties may require more time to develop. Soils under switchgrass may have lower surface bulk density, higher field water capacity, and a more rapid water infiltration rate than those under corn or willow.

Bonin, Catherine [Ohio State University; Lal, Dr. Rattan [Ohio State University; Schmitz, Matthias [Rheinsche Friedrich/Wilhelms Universitaet Boon; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2012-01-01

342

Winter annual cover crop has only minor effects on major corn arthropod pests.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of downy brome, Bromus tectorum L., winter cover crop on several corn, Zea mays L., pests in the summer crop after the cover crop. An experiment was conducted that consisted of two trials with two levels of irrigation, two levels of weed control, and two levels of downy brome. Corn was grown three consecutive years after the downy brome grown during the winter. Banks grass mites, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks), twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, and predatory mites from the genus Neoseiulus were present in downy brome at the beginning of the growing season. They moved into corn, but their numbers did not differ significantly across the treatments. Larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, feeding on corn roots was evaluated the second and third years of corn, production. Irrigation and herbicide treatments had no significant effects on rootworm injury levels. In one trial, rootworm injury ratings were significantly greater in treatments with a history of high versus low brome, but this effect was not significant in the other trial. Rootworm injury seemed to be similar across plots with different surface soil moistures. This suggests that the use of a winter cover crop such as downy brome will not have a major negative impact the arthropods studied. PMID:20429447

Davis, Holly N; Currie, Randall S; Klocke, Norman L; Buschman, Lawrent L

2010-04-01

343

AgRISTARS: Soil moisture/early warning and crop condition assessment. Interface control document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interactions and support functions required between the early warning/crop condition assessment (EW/CCA) project and soil moisture (SM) project are defined. The EW Project aims to develop, test and evaluate techniques and procedures for adapting remote sensing technology to provide early warning of events and the timely assessment of those factors which affect the quality and quantity of production of economically important crops. Those techniques to augment and reinforce the current assessment activities are to be developed to improve the definition of the relationship between the plant(s) and its environment. This assessment and evaluation will certainly include the need for soil moisture measurement and estimation. The SM Project aims to develop, test, and evaluate techniques and procedures to measure or predict soil moisture in the root zone using both contact and remote sensors.

1980-01-01

344

Effect of crop residue harvest on long-term crop yield, soil erosion, and carbon balance: tradeoffs for a sustainable bioenergy feedstock  

SciTech Connect

Agricultural residues are a potential feedstock for bioenergy production, if residue harvest can be done sustainably. The relationship between crop residue harvest, soil erosion, crop yield and carbon balance was modeled with the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator/ Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) using a factorial design. Four crop rotations (winter wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – sunflower [Helianthus annuus]; spring wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – canola [Brassica napus]; corn [Zea mays L.] – soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]; and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum] – peanut [Arachis hypogaea]) were simulated at four US locations each, under different topographies (0-10% slope), and management practices [crop residue removal rates (0-75%), conservation practices (no till, contour cropping, strip cropping, terracing)].

Gregg, Jay S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

2010-08-26

345

Gopher mound soil reduces growth and affects ion uptake of two annual grassland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portions of an annual serpentine grassland community in California are subject to frequent gopher mound formation. Consequently, studies were undertaken to characterize the effects of mound soils on plant growth and ion uptake. For two of the dominant annual species (Bromus mollis L. and Plantago erecta Morris), growth was reduced in gopher mound soil relative to that in inter-mound soil.

R. T. Koide; L. F. Huenneke; H. A. Mooney

1987-01-01

346

Soil carbon inventories under a bioenergy crop (switchgrass): Measurement limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 5 yr after planting, coarse root carbon (C) and soil organic C (SOC) inventories were compared under different types of plant cover at four switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production field trials in the southeastern USA. There was significantly more coarse root C under switchgrass (Alamo variety) and forest cover than tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), corn (Zea mays L.),

Charles T Garten Jr; Stan D Wullschleger

1999-01-01

347

Evaluating energy sorghum harvest thresholds and tillage cropping systems to offset negative environmental impacts and harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) could be the ideal feedstock for the cellulosic ethanol industry because of its robust establishment, broader adaptability and drought tolerance, water and nutrient use efficiency, and the relatively high annual biomass yields. Of concern, however, is the limited research data on harvest thresholds, subsequent environmental impacts and the potential cumulative effects of harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction. Indiscriminate harvests of the high volume wet energy sorghum biomass, coupled with repeated field passes, could cause irreparable damage to the soil due to compaction. Furthermore, biomass harvests result in lower soil organic matter returns to the soil, making the soil even more susceptible to soil compaction. Compacted soils result in poor root zone aeration and drainage, more losses of nitrogen from denitrification, and restricted root growth, which reduces yields. Given the many positive attributes of conservation tillage and crop residue retention, our research and extension expectations are that sustainable energy sorghum cropping systems ought to include some form of conservation tillage. The challenge is to select cropping and harvesting systems that optimize feedstock production while ensuring adequate residue biomass to sustainably maintain soil structure and productivity. Producers may have to periodically subsoil-till or plow-back their lands to alleviate problems of soil compaction and drainage, weeds, insects and disease infestations. Little, however, is known about the potential impact of these tillage changes on soil productivity, environmental integrity, and sustainability of bioenergy agro-ecosystems. Furthermore, 'safe' energy sorghum feedstock removal thresholds have yet to be established. We will apply the ALMANAC biophysical model to evaluate permissible energy sorghum feedstock harvest thresholds and the effects of subsoil tillage and periodically plowing no-tilled (NT) energy sorghum fields. The presentation will provide long-term insights into the sustainability of the proposed interventions with regards to 'safe' harvest thresholds, feedstock yields, SOC storage and rate of change, and sediment and nutrient (N&P) losses. Model calibration and validation datasets have already been compiled from rainfed and irrigated energy sorghum field studies conducted in Arkansas and Alabama during the years: 2008 to 2010. We compiled energy sorghum crop parameters based on data extracted from the literature, expert judgment and field experiments. Simulations will be made for combinations of biomass harvest rates, tillage systems, weather, soil type, and dryland production over a 51-year time series (1960-2010).

Meki, M. N.; Snider, J. L.; Kiniry, J. R.; Raper, R. L.; Rocateli, A. C.

2011-12-01

348

Pyrosequencing reveals contrasting soil bacterial diversity and community structure of two main winter wheat cropping systems in China.  

PubMed

Microbes are key components of the soil environment, playing an important role in maintaining soil health, sustainability, and productivity. The composition and structure of soil bacterial communities were examined in winter wheat-rice (WR) and winter wheat-maize (WM) cropping systems derived from five locations in the Low-Middle Yangtze River plain and the Huang-Huai-Hai plain by pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons. A total of 102,367 high quality sequences were used for multivariate statistical analysis and to test for correlation between community structure and environmental variables such as crop rotations, soil properties, and locations. The most abundant phyla across all soil samples were Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Similar patterns of bacterial diversity and community structure were observed within the same cropping systems, and a higher relative abundance of anaerobic bacteria was found in WR compared to WM cropping systems. Variance partitioning analysis revealed complex relationships between bacterial community and environmental variables. The effect of crop rotations was low but significant, and interactions among soil properties, locations, and crop rotations accounted for most of the explained variation in the structure of bacterial communities. Soil properties such as pH, available P, and available K showed higher correlations (positive or negative) with the majority of the abundant taxa. Bacterial diversity (the Shannon index) and richness (Chao1 and ACE) were higher under WR than WM cropping systems. PMID:24276539

Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Ruifu; Xue, Chao; Xun, Weibing; Sun, Li; Xu, Yangchun; Shen, Qirong

2014-02-01

349

The Effect of Cropping Upon the Active Potash of the Soil.  

E-print Network

11-24-5M TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPEWMENT s r: ATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF %'EXAS W. B. BIZZELL, President -- -- BULLETIN NO. 325 SEPTEMBER, 1924 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY EFFECT OF CROPPING UPON THE ACTIVE POTASH OF THE SOIL B...., Assistant in A' LEIDIGH' nl S" Assistant Director Cotton Breeding CHA;. A. FEL~EI< ~xief Clerk R. H. STANSEL. B. S., Assistant in Crops A. S. WARE Secretary M. P. HOLL~MAN, JR., Assistant Chid 'YN: P~$$~~U$,N~hpH~sl~~~,"~ S. W. BILSING, Ph. D...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1924-01-01

350

Cover crops under different managements vs. frequent tillage in almond orchards in semiarid conditions: Effects on soil quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent tillage has been widely used in rainfed orchards in SE Spain in order to impede weed establishment and to increase water reposition in the soil profile. However, this practice may lead to soil degradation by decreasing structural stability, organic carbon content and microbial activity. This work examines the effect of different cover crop managements and frequent tillage on soil

María E. Ramos; Emilio Benítez; Pedro A. García; Ana B. Robles

2010-01-01

351

Soil water effects on the use of heat units to predict crop residue carbon and nitrogen mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil heat units (degree days) have previously been shown to predict net N mineralization from crop residues and papermil sludge. The present study was designed to identity the effects of soil water potential on predictions of mineralization with heat units and to compare field and laboratory results of white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. ‘Ultra’) N mineralization. Lupin-amended soil and

D. S. Doel; C. W. Honeycutt; W. A. Halteman

1990-01-01

352

Modeling interplay between regional net ecosystem carbon balance and soil erosion for a crop-pasture region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The balance between erosion-induced soil carbon loss and the reduction in heterotrophic respiration caused by carbon removal in semiarid ecosystems that suffer from severe soil erosion is still largely uncertain. In this paper, we revised and applied a simulation model to analyze responses of ecosystem processes in the crop-pasture belt region of northern China to impacts of soil erosion and

Qiong Gao; Mei Yu; Yinghui Liu; Hongmei Xu; Xia Xu

2007-01-01

353

Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Seasonally High Water Tables and Septic Systems  

E-print Network

Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Seasonally High Water Tables Environment Indiana law requires septic systems to discharge wastewater into the soil for treatment and dispersal. The soil must be aerobic (contain oxygen) for treatment to occur. According to current state law

Holland, Jeffrey

354

Season and soil management affect soil microbial communities estimated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis in a continuous cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of soil management on seasonal changes in soil microbial communities were examined in a continuously cropped field of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Soil samples from each plot treated with cattle manure compost (CMC), grass compost (GRC) and chemical fertilizers (CHF) were taken at monthly intervals from April 2003 to March 2004.

Hiroyasu Tabuchi; Kotaro Kato; Ichio Nioh

2008-01-01

355

Nutrient use efficiencies and crop responses to N, P and manure applications in Zimbabwean soils: Exploring management strategies across soil fertility gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variability in crop yields commonly observed in smallholder farms of sub-Saharan Africa is often caused by gradients of declining soil fertility with increasing distance from the homestead. This heterogeneity means that recommendations based on regional soil surveys are of limited value. The variability in soil qualities within farms must be considered when designing management strategies, and their feasibility

P. A. Tittonell; S. Zingore; M. T. van Wijk; M. Corbeels; K. E. Giller

2007-01-01

356

Effect of cover crops and tillage system on symphylan (Symphlya: Scutigerella immaculata, Newport) and Pergamasus quisquiliarum Canestrini (Acari: Mesostigmata) populations, and other soil organisms in agricultural soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The garden symphylan (Scutigerella immaculata: Newport) is a common myriapod soil pest of vegetable crops in the Pacific Northwest and other regions of the US. Symphylans consume germinating seeds, plant roots, and above-ground plant parts in contact with the soil. Factors regulating symphylan populations in agricultural soil systems are poorly understood, particularly the effects of farming practices such as cover

R. E Peachey; A Moldenke; R. D William; R Berry; E Ingham; Eric Groth

2002-01-01

357

Determine metrics and set targets for soil quality on agriculture residue and energy crop pathways  

SciTech Connect

There are three objectives for this project: 1) support OBP in meeting MYPP stated performance goals for the Sustainability Platform, 2) develop integrated feedstock production system designs that increase total productivity of the land, decrease delivered feedstock cost to the conversion facilities, and increase environmental performance of the production system, and 3) deliver to the bioenergy community robust datasets and flexible analysis tools for establishing sustainable and viable use of agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops. The key project outcome to date has been the development and deployment of a sustainable agricultural residue removal decision support framework. The modeling framework has been used to produce a revised national assessment of sustainable residue removal potential. The national assessment datasets are being used to update national resource assessment supply curves using POLYSIS. The residue removal modeling framework has also been enhanced to support high fidelity sub-field scale sustainable removal analyses. The framework has been deployed through a web application and a mobile application. The mobile application is being used extensively in the field with industry, research, and USDA NRCS partners to support and validate sustainable residue removal decisions. The results detailed in this report have set targets for increasing soil sustainability by focusing on primary soil quality indicators (total organic carbon and erosion) in two agricultural residue management pathways and a dedicated energy crop pathway. The two residue pathway targets were set to, 1) increase residue removal by 50% while maintaining soil quality, and 2) increase soil quality by 5% as measured by Soil Management Assessment Framework indicators. The energy crop pathway was set to increase soil quality by 10% using these same indicators. To demonstrate the feasibility and impact of each of these targets, seven case studies spanning the US are presented. The analysis has shown that the feedstock production systems are capable of simultaneously increasing productivity and soil sustainability.

Ian Bonner; David Muth

2013-09-01

358

Soil Quality in a Pecan Agroforestry System is Improved with Intercropped Kura Clover  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intercropping alleys of agroforestry systems provides an income source until the tree crop produces harvestable yields. However, cultivation of annual crops decreases soil organic matter and increases soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintain a continuous soil cover, m...

359

The drought of 2012: Effects on photosynthesis and soil respiration in bioenergy cropping systems of the Midwest USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of drought conditions across the central US. This heightened risk on producers and economies alike also supports the need to improve our understanding of how extreme environmental conditions impact other ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, which is directly linked to net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In doing so, the scientific community aims to improve the realism of ecosystem models that are relied upon to project changes in large scale and long-term land surface-atmosphere carbon exchange as they are affected by continued land management change and climate change. One such large-scale land management change of the next several decades in the Midwest US could be the expansion of bioenergy cropping systems across the landscape. A wide range of bioenergy cropping systems (e.g., miscanthus, switchgrass, diverse prairie, hybrid poplar) are now targeted to support a feedstock supply chain for production of cellulosic biofuels. Many of these agroecosystems have only recently begun to appear as functional types in dynamic ecosystem models, and a general lack of observational data across a wide range of soils and climate has hampered model development and validation. In response to this shortcoming, from 2009 through 2012, component measurements of ecosystem carbon exchange (total soil respiration and leaf level photosynthetic rates) have been made along with measurements of other soil and meteorological variables in three model bioenergy cropping systems (continuous corn, hybrid poplar and switchgrass) at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) field trial at Arlington, Wisconsin. The three cropping systems encompass a wide range of growth (e.g. C3 vs. C4, annual vs. perennial) and management (e.g., tillage, harvesting) strategies that are predicted to impart different controls on NEE given likely varying biological responses to extreme weather events. Throughout the study period, the field site has been exposed to extreme variations in precipitation and temperature, from what might be considered an ideal/wet year in 2010 to a catastrophic drought in 2012. Measurements of soil temperature during the growing season of 2012 show an increase of 1.7°C to 4.6°C when compared to 2010 and concurrent measurements of volumetric water content decreased from 0.34 in 2010 to 0.05 in 2012. We compare and contrast component measurements of NEE (i.e. soil respiration and leaf level photosynthesis), using chamber-based methods in the field, and their responses to environmental conditions. Some preliminary results show that soil respiration measurements during summer 2012 exhibited a 20% increase to a 43% decrease compared to similar measurements taken in 2010. During the middle of the growing season, the maximum rate of photosynthesis was reduced in 2012 in comparison to 2010 by 36%, 53% and 66% for corn, switchgrass and hybrid poplar, respectively, for light saturated leaves with a temperature near 30°C. These data will aid in the development of better numerical functions in ecosystem models that aim to represent the influence of temperature and soil water potential on the exchange of CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere in agroecosystems.

Cruse, M.; Kucharik, C. J.

2012-12-01

360

Scenarios of organic amendment use to increase soil carbon stocks and nitrogen availability in cropped soils at the territory scale: spatial and temporal simulations with the NCSOIL/CERES-EGC crop model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of Exogenous Organic Matter (EOM) on cropped soils is a promising way to increase soil organic carbon and available nitrogen for crops while recycling organic agricultural and urban wastes. In peri-urban territories where the specialization of agriculture limits the resource in organic amendments since livestock farming is scarce, a better management of EOM land application from all origins at the territory scale could be thought to maximize their benefits. The objective was to predict the effect of various EOM types and uses on C and N fluxes and crop production for each homogeneous spatial unit of the territory, first step for the territorial optimization of EOM land application. The study area, located 30km west of Paris, covers 221km² and is mostly characterized by croplands. The effects of repeated EOM applications were studied using a mechanistic crop model: CERES-EGC accounting for soil characteristics, crop production systems, and climate. The whole territory was divided into homogeneous spatial units, each defined by soil and crop production system characteristics. Four different soil types were characterized, mapped and parameterized in the model. Kinetics of C and N mineralization during soil incubations were used to optimize soil organic matter characteristics and parameters in the sub-model NCSOIL of CERES-EGC. Crop production systems were defined and spatially inferred using the French land parcel identification system. Climatic data measured on the territory were used to make a 20 year-meteorological scenario. Based on these initial informations, crop yields and C and N fluxes were simulated for the actual crop productions and soil type combinations of the territory. Then, different scenarios of EOM uses were also simulated based on different EOM types, added quantities and frequencies of application within the crop successions respecting the 170kgN/ha/yr legal limit. All the parameters studied, crop yields, N outputs, carbon storage increased with increasing amounts of applied EOM but to different extents depending on added EOM, soil type and crop production system. Based on all the simulated results obtained, the EOM land application will be optimized to maximize carbon storage, crop production and limit N pollutions at the territory scale, taking into account other constraints such as EOM availability.

Noirot-Cosson, Paul-Emile; Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Aubry, Christine; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Gabrielle, Benoît; Houot, Sabine

2014-05-01

361

DEPTH DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil organic matter is a key component of soil quality that sustains many key soil functions by providing the energy, substrates, and biological diversity to support biological activity, which affects aggregation (important for habitat space, oxygen supply, and preventing soil erosion), infiltration...

362

The effects of manure and nitrogen fertilizer applications on soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a high-input cropping system.  

PubMed

With the goal of improving N fertilizer management to maximize soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and minimize N losses in high-intensity cropping system, a 6-years greenhouse vegetable experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2010 in Shouguang, northern China. Treatment tested the effects of organic manure and N fertilizer on SOC, total N (TN) pool and annual apparent N losses. The results demonstrated that SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-10cm soil layer decreased significantly without organic manure and mineral N applications, primarily because of the decomposition of stable C. Increasing C inputs through wheat straw and chicken manure incorporation couldn't increase SOC pools over the 4 year duration of the experiment. In contrast to the organic manure treatment, the SOC and TN pools were not increased with the combination of organic manure and N fertilizer. However, the soil labile carbon fractions increased significantly when both chicken manure and N fertilizer were applied together. Additionally, lower optimized N fertilizer inputs did not decrease SOC and TN accumulation compared with conventional N applications. Despite the annual apparent N losses for the optimized N treatment were significantly lower than that for the conventional N treatment, the unchanged SOC over the past 6 years might limit N storage in the soil and more surplus N were lost to the environment. Consequently, optimized N fertilizer inputs according to root-zone N management did not influence the accumulation of SOC and TN in soil; but beneficial in reducing apparent N losses. N fertilizer management in a greenhouse cropping system should not only identify how to reduce N fertilizer input but should also be more attentive to improving soil fertility with better management of organic manure. PMID:24830463

Ren, Tao; Wang, Jingguo; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Fusuo; Lu, Shuchang

2014-01-01

363

Assessment of the Impacts of Rice Cropping through a Soil Quality Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Entre Ríos (Argentina), rice cultivation is carried out mainly in Vertisols. Several factors, such as the use of sodium bicarbonate waters for irrigation, the excessive tillage required, and the lack of proper planning for land use, mainly regarding the crop sequence, cause serious impacts on the soil and have an effect on sustainable agriculture. Thus, the development of methodologies to detect these impacts has become a priority. The aim of this study was to standardize soil quality indicators (SQI) and integrate them into an index to evaluate the impacts of the rice production system on soil, at the farm scale. The study was conducted in farms of the traditional rice cultivation area of Entre Ríos province, Argentina. We evaluated a minimum data set consisting of six indicators: structural stability and percolation, total organic matter content (TOM), exchangeable sodium content (ESC), electrical conductivity of saturation extract (ECe) and reaction of the soil (pH). From a database from 75 production lots, we determined the reference values, i.e. limits to ensure the maintenance of long-term productivity and the allowable thresholds for each indicator. The indicators were standardized and integrated into a soil quality index. Five ranges of soil quality were established: very low, low, moderate, high and very high, depending on the values assigned to each SQI. This index allowed differentiating the impact of different crop sequences and showed that the increased participation of rice crop in the rotation resulted in a deterioration of the soil structure due to the decrease in the TOM and to the cumulative increase in ESC caused by the sodium bicarbonate water used for irrigation. Soil management strategies should aim to increase TOM values and to reduce the input of sodium to the exchange complex. A rotation with 50% to 60% of pasture and 40 to 50% of agriculture with a participation of rice lower than 20 to 25% would allow the sustainability of the production system. The use of the so called SQI, i.e. soil quality index, for rice crop production will allow generating early warning of degradation and thus adopting recovery measures.

Sione, S. M.; Wilson, M. G.; Paz González, A.

2012-04-01

364

Agronomy Facts 71 Hairy Vetch as a Crop Cover  

E-print Network

Agronomy Facts 71 Hairy Vetch as a Crop Cover Benefits Hairy vetch is an annual leguminous cover to high soil fertility status (phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur). Some limited variety development has

Guiltinan, Mark

365

Soil respiration, labile carbon pools, and enzyme activities as affected by tillage practices in a tropical rice-maize-cowpea cropping system.  

PubMed

In order to identify the viable option of tillage practices in rice-maize-cowpea cropping system that could cut down soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission, sustain grain yield, and maintain better soil quality in tropical low land rice ecology soil respiration in terms of CO2 emission, labile carbon (C) pools, water-stable aggregate C fractions, and enzymatic activities were investigated in a sandy clay loam soil. Soil respiration is the major pathway of gaseous C efflux from terrestrial systems and acts as an important index of ecosystem functioning. The CO2-C emissions were quantified in between plants and rows throughout the year in rice-maize-cowpea cropping sequence both under conventional tillage (CT) and minimum tillage (MT) practices along with soil moisture and temperature. The CO2-C emissions, as a whole, were 24 % higher in between plants than in rows, and were in the range of 23.4-78.1, 37.1-128.1, and 28.6-101.2 mg m(-2) h(-1) under CT and 10.7-60.3, 17.3-99.1, and 17.2-79.1 mg m(-2) h(-1) under MT in rice, maize, and cowpea, respectively. The CO2-C emission was found highest under maize (44 %) followed by rice (33 %) and cowpea (23 %) irrespective of CT and MT practices. In CT system, the CO2-C emission increased significantly by 37.1 % with respect to MT on cumulative annual basis including fallow. The CO2-C emission per unit yield was at par in rice and cowpea signifying the beneficial effect of MT in maintaining soil quality and reduction of CO2 emission. The microbial biomass C (MBC), readily mineralizable C (RMC), water-soluble C (WSC), and permanganate-oxidizable C (PMOC) were 19.4, 20.4, 39.5, and 15.1 % higher under MT than CT. The C contents in soil aggregate fraction were significantly higher in MT than CT. Soil enzymatic activities like, dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate, and ?-glucosidase were significantly higher by 13.8, 15.4, and 27.4 % under MT compared to CT. The soil labile C pools, enzymatic activities, and heterotrophic microbial populations were in the order of maize?>?cowpea?>?rice, irrespective of the tillage treatments. Environmental sustainability point of view, minimum tillage practices in rice-maize-cowpea cropping system in tropical low land soil could be adopted to minimize CO2-C emission, sustain yield, and maintain soil health. PMID:24609455

Neogi, S; Bhattacharyya, P; Roy, K S; Panda, B B; Nayak, A K; Rao, K S; Manna, M C

2014-07-01

366

Anaerobic digestate from biogas production as a resource for improving soil fertility: effects on crop yield and soil properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil fertility is fundamental in determining crops productivity in all farming systems. Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of energy crops generates residues that can represent a valuable resource to sustain and improve soil fertility and to increase soil organic matter content. Residues from anaerobic digestion contain organic fractions and available nutrients, that can thus be returned to the cultivation soil as fertilizer and soil conditioner. However, some unknown aspects of digested residues utilization remain to explore: i) the nutrient supply and the real potential for mineral fertilization substitution, ii) the impact on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities, iii) the direct and indirect effects on soil structure, organic matter and C mineralization. The aim of the present research was to gain a better understanding of these aspects, evaluating the effects of anaerobic digestate application on soil properties and maize yield. With the main focus of comparing mineral fertilization (250 Kg N ha-1) with digested residues addition (at the dose of 25 % and 50 % of mineral fertilizer), a triplicate sets of plots were designed in a field experiment on a silty-clay loam soil in the southern Po Valley (Italy). The amount of applied residues was calculated according to its N content in order to fertilizer each plots with the same amount of total nitrogen. Residues from digestion showed a N content of 0.4 % (60 % as N-NH4) and a C/N ratio of 3. Changes in soil quality after residues application were studied with a holistic approach, involving microbiological, physical and chemical aspects of soil fertility. In particular, we determined: the abundance and diversity of bacterial and fungal soil communities; the soil organic matter content, its distribution within soil aggregates and the C mineralization potential; cation exchange capacity; the main macro and micro nutrients; bulk density; aggregate stability. No significant differences among treatments were registered in the above ground maize biomass. Molecular analysis conducted on microbial soil communities suggested that the application of digested residues to soil contributes to substantial modifications of both bacterial and fungal community structure. Soil organic C and total N increased in soils treated with digested residues addition, with no significant differences between the two doses of digestate. Cation exchange capacity did not show significant differences among treatments, remaining stable during the maize vegetative cycle. Differently, some variations occurred in the exchangeable cation pool. In particular, K content increased under digestate treatments, while Na and Mg contents increased with time irrespective of the fertilization treatment. No significant variations were observed in soil microelement levels, except for an increase in Zn content at the highest digestate dose. Moreover, digested residue addition had a positive impact on aggregates stability. From the first results, the absence of negative effects in plant productivity and soil fertility after residues application, at both doses, is a promising indication for the potential use of anaerobic digestate as substitute of mineral fertilizers.

Pastorelli, Roberta; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Papini, Rossella; Fabiani, Arturo; Simoncini, Stefania; Mocali, Stefano; Piccolo, Raimondo

2013-04-01

367

Soil carbon inventories under a bioenergy crop (switchgrass): Measurement limitations  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 5 yr after planting, coarse root carbon (C) and soil organic C (SOC) inventories were compared under different types of plant cover at four switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production field trials in the southeastern USA. There was significantly more coarse root C under switchgrass (Alamo variety) and forest cover than tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), corn (Zea mays L.), or native pastures of mixed grasses. Inventories of SOC under switchgrass were not significantly greater than SOC inventories under other plant covers. At some locations the statistical power associated with ANOVA of SOC inventories was low, which raised questions about whether differences in SOC could be detected statistically. A minimum detectable difference (MDD) for SOC inventories was calculated. The MDD is the smallest detectable difference between treatment means once the variation, significance level, statistical power, and sample size are specified. The analysis indicated that a difference of {approx}50 mg SOC/cm{sup 2} or 5 Mg SOC/ha, which is {approx}10 to 15% of existing SOC, could be detected with reasonable sample sizes and good statistical power. The smallest difference in SOC inventories that can be detected, and only with exceedingly large sample sizes, is {approx}2 to 3%. These measurement limitations have implications for monitoring and verification of proposals to ameliorate increasing global atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations by sequestering C in soils.

Garten, C.T. Jr.; Wullschleger, S.D.

1999-08-01

368

Multielement absorption by crops grown on Ithaca sludge-amended soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 50 million tons of municipal sewage sludge is produced annually in this country (HUDSON, 1968). It consists of a heterogenous mixture of solid wastes from domestic and industrial activities. Present means of disposal include ocean dumping and burning which can cause water and air pollution or burying in sanitary landfills. Its use as a soil conditioner and source of

A. K. Furr; W. C. Kelly; C. A. Bache; W. H. Gutenmann; D. J. Lisk

1976-01-01

369

Linking Temporal Decomposition Dynamics of Crop Residues to Soil Tillage Intensity in Manitoba, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterotrophic respiration from agricultural soils may be differentiated as originating from microbial decomposition of recent litter inputs (crop residue carbon) and resident soil organic matter (SOM) pools of varying age and stages of decomposition. Differences in preferential C isotope discrimination between C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways has application to determining temporal C cycling dynamics in agroecosystems. Addition of crop residues with a different ?13C than SOM facilitates determining the contribution of residue to soil emissions of CO2 and discrimination of SOM derived emissions. In the present study, a tunable diode laser trace gas analyzer was used to determine ?13C values and 12CO2 and 13CO 2 fluxes over an agricultural field in the Red River Valley of southern Manitoba, Canada. Soil emissions of ?13CO2 were also measured on select days using a static chamber method. Measurement campaigns were conducted in the fall/early winter of 2006 and spring of 2007 following harvest of a maize crop. Stable isotopic CO2 gradients were measured from the center of four 200 by 200m plots and fluxes were calculated using the aerodynamic flux gradient method. The soil in two of the experimental plots underwent intensive tillage, while the other two plots received reduced tillage. In fall/early winter of 2006 an increase in ?13C (becoming less negative) over plots indicates the contribution to respiration originating from the fresh corn residue. The influence of soil tillage on C sequestration is being evaluated from respiratory loss of residue and SOM from the reduced and intensive tillage treatments.

Glenn, A. J.; Tenuta, M.; Amiro, B. D.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Warland, J. S.; Drewitt, G. B.

2007-12-01

370

Cadmium and lead uptake by edible crops grown in a silt loam soil  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing public concern about health effects resulting from ingestion of food containing toxic metals such as Cd and Pb. For example, a wide range of metabolic disorders and neuropsychological deficits in children have been noted, and chronic exposure to Cd has been linked to kidney failure and bone disease. The potential harm posed by the uptake of heavy metals such as Cd and Pb by plants is dependent on their abundance, mobility and bioaccumulation. Plant uptake of heavy metals was also influenced by soil pH. There is a linear relationship between soil concentrations of heavy metal and concentrations in vegetation around a zinc-lead tailing pond. The ability of the soil to retain metals depends on several factors; pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter content, and their specific geochemical properties. Overall, the metal burden of a crop depends on: (a) uptake via the root system; (b) direct foliar uptake and translocation within the plant; and (c) surface deposition of particulate matter. Numerous studies have been conducted with agronomic crops regarding heavy metals in soils and plant uptake from sewage sludge, but only a few studies have dealt with the uptake of heavy metal mixtures in vegetables. This paper reports on germination/emergence, biomass and uptake of Cd and Pb in lettuce and radish grown in a loam soil spiked with known mixtures of CdCl{sub 2} and Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Lettuce and radish have been used in this study because they are among the two groups of vegetable crops (leafy and root) consumed by humans. Also, earlier studies have reported that lettuce and radish bioaccumulate Cd and Pb from heavy metal polluted soils. 38 refs., 7 tabs.

Nwosu, J.U.; Linder, G. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Harding, A.K. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-04-01

371

Managing soil microbial communities in grain production systems through cropping practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cropping practices can significantly influence the composition and activity of soil microbial communities with consequences to plant growth and production. Plant type can affect functional capacity of different groups of biota in the soil surrounding their roots, rhizosphere, influencing plant nutrition, beneficial symbioses, pests and diseases and overall plant health and crop production. The interaction between different players in the rhizosphere is due to the plethora of carbon and nutritional compounds, root-specific chemical signals and growth regulators that originate from the plant and are modulated by the physico-chemical properties of soils. A number of plant and environmental factors and management practices can influence the quantity and quality of rhizodeposition and in turn affect the composition of rhizosphere biota communities, microbe-fauna interactions and biological processes. Some of the examples of rhizosphere interactions that are currently considered important are: proliferation of plant and variety specific genera or groups of microbiota, induction of genes involved in symbiosis and virulence, promoter activity in biocontrol agents and genes correlated with root adhesion and border cell quality and quantity. The observation of variety-based differences in rhizodeposition and associated changes in rhizosphere microbial diversity and function suggests the possibility for the development of varieties with specific root-microbe interactions targeted for soil type and environment i.e. designer rhizospheres. Spatial location of microorganisms in the heterogeneous field soil matrix can have significant impacts on biological processes. Therefore, for rhizosphere research to be effective in variable seasonal climate and soil conditions, it must be evaluated in the field and within a farming systems context. With the current focus on security of food to feed the growing global populations through sustainable agricultural production systems there is a need to develop innovative cropping systems that are both economically and environmentally sustainable.

Gupta, Vadakattu

2013-04-01

372

Procedures for the description of agricultural crops and soils in optical and microwave remote sensing studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes procedures for characterizing agricultural crops and soils in remote sensing studies. The procedures are based on the accumulated experience of a number of researchers active in this field. Therefore, they represent a compromise between the theoretically desirable and the practically feasible, and should thus be an effective aid in further studies of this type. Although the guidelines were prepared specifically for microwave studies, adjustments were made to render the procedures applicable to optical studies as well. Given the increasing number of research teams involved in remote sensing applied to agriculture, there is an opportunity to acquire a broad data base on soils and crops in various geographic regions. To allow intercomparisons of such data, they must be obtained in a consistent manner. By following the proposed procedures and reporting results using the parameters described here, such intercomparisons should be possible on a continental or a global scale.

Cihlar, J.; Dobson, M. C.; Schmugge, T.; Hoogeboom, P.; Janse, A. R. P.

1987-01-01

373

Stable isotope analysis reveals whether soil-living elaterid larvae move between agricultural crops  

PubMed Central

Tracking the movement of soil-living herbivores is difficult, albeit important for understanding their spatial ecology as well as for pest management. In this study the movement of Agriotes obscurus larvae between plots harbouring isotopically different plants was examined. Neither between maize and wheat nor between maize and grassland movement could be detected. These data suggest that Agriotes larvae rarely disperse between crops as long as local food supply is sufficient. Moreover, the current approach provides a new means to study the dispersal of soil invertebrates in situ. PMID:21760645

Schallhart, N.; Tusch, M.J.; Staudacher, K.; Wallinger, C.; Traugott, M.

2011-01-01

374

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and soil N availability under legume crops in an arid environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Legume crops often present an important option to maintain and improve soil nitrogen (N) quality and fertility in a dryland\\u000a agroecosystem. However, the work on the integral assessment of the symbiotic N2 fixation (Nfix) and their effects on soil N availability under field conditions is scare.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Five treatments consisted of legumes (capello woolly pod vetch and field pea),

Xiaoqi Zhou; Xian Liu; Yichao Rui; Chengrong Chen; Hanwen Wu; Zhihong Xu

375

Soil carbon inventories under a bioenergy crop (switchgrass): measurement limitations  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 5 yr after planting, coarse root (>2 mm) carbon (C) and soil organic C (SOC) inventories (0-40 cm deep) were compared under different types of plant cover at four switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production field trials in the southeastern USA. There was significantly (p {le} 0.05) more coarse root C under switchgrass (Alamo variety) and forest cover than under tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), corn (Zea mays L.), or native pastures of mixed grasses. Inventories of SOC under switchgrass were not significantly greater than SOC inventories under other plant covers. At some locations the statistical power associated with ANOVA of SOC inventories was low, which raised questions about whether differences in SOC could be detected statistically. A minimum detectable difference (MDD) for SOC inventories was calculated. The MDD is the smallest detectable difference between treatment means once the variation, significance level, statistical power, and sample size are specified. The analysis indicated that a difference of {approx}50 mg SOC/cm{sup 2} or 5 Mg SOC/ha, which is {approx}10 to 15% of existing SOC, could be detected with reasonable sample sizes (n = 16) and good statistical power (1-{beta} = 0.90). The smallest difference in SOC inventories that can be detected, and only with exceedingly large sample sizes (n > 100), is {approx}2 to 3% ({approx}10 mg SOC/cm{sup 2} or 1 Mg SOC/ha). These measurement limitations have implications for monitoring and verification of proposals to ameliorate increasing global atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations by sequestering C in soils.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

1999-07-01

376

Bacterial Indicator of Agricultural Management for Soil under No-Till Crop Production  

PubMed Central

The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP) were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism, the distribution of a few taxa was shaped as well by environmental conditions related to agricultural management practices. A statistically supported approach was used to define candidates for management-indicator organisms, subsequently validated using quantitative PCR. We suggest that the ratio between the normalized abundance of a selected group of bacteria within the GP1 group of the phylum Acidobacteria and the genus Rubellimicrobium of the Alphaproteobacteria may serve as a potential management-indicator to discriminate between sustainable vs. non-sustainable agricultural practices in the Pampa region. PMID:23226466

Rosa, Silvina M.; Simonetti, Leandro; Duval, Matías E.; Galantini, Juan A.; Bedano, José C.; Wall, Luis G.; Erijman, Leonardo

2012-01-01

377

Bacterial indicator of agricultural management for soil under no-till crop production.  

PubMed

The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP) were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism, the distribution of a few taxa was shaped as well by environmental conditions related to agricultural management practices. A statistically supported approach was used to define candidates for management-indicator organisms, subsequently validated using quantitative PCR. We suggest that the ratio between the normalized abundance of a selected group of bacteria within the GP1 group of the phylum Acidobacteria and the genus Rubellimicrobium of the Alphaproteobacteria may serve as a potential management-indicator to discriminate between sustainable vs. non-sustainable agricultural practices in the Pampa region. PMID:23226466

Figuerola, Eva L M; Guerrero, Leandro D; Rosa, Silvina M; Simonetti, Leandro; Duval, Matías E; Galantini, Juan A; Bedano, José C; Wall, Luis G; Erijman, Leonardo

2012-01-01

378

Long-term tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics  

E-print Network

) has caused reductions in C contents of agricultural soils by leading to increased decomposition rates and redistribution of C (Christensen, 1996). These reductions can be mitigated by utilizing sustainable management practices such as reduced... of studies have shown that alleviation of nutrient deficiencies by the additi can enhance crop residue inputs, and consequently SOC content (Campbell et al., 1991b; Christensen, 1986; Franzluebbers et al., 1994). However, Halvorson et al. (2002) reported...

Dou, Fugen

2006-08-16

379

REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TO ASSESS THE SOIL SUTABILITY FOR CROPS IN NORTH SAINI, EGYPT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to integrate land qualities with Landsat ETM images and digital elevation model (DEM) into a geographic information system (GIS) to produce the soil map and assess the current and potential suitability for crops in El-Tina plain - South El-Kantara Shark area, north Saini. ArcGIS 9.0 software was used to produce digital elevation model

R. R. ALI; W. A. M. ABDEL

380

Chlorimuron ethyl sorption and desorption kinetics in soils and herbicide-desiccated cover crop residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction between a herbicide and plant residue on the soil surface in plant residue management systems such as no-tillage or cover crop is of interest in terms of environmental fate of the herbicide. This study was designed to evaluate sorption and desorption of chlorimuron ethyl {ethyl 2-(((((4- chloro-6-methoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)aminolc~bonyll~olsulfonyllbenzoic acid} in herbicide-desiccated rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa

Krishna N. Reddy; Martin A. Locke; Stephen C. Wagner; Robert M. Zablotowicz; Lewis A. Gaston; Reid J. Smeda

1995-01-01

381

Ecosystem-Service Tradeoffs Associated with Switching from Annual to Perennial Energy Crops in Riparian Zones of the US Midwest  

PubMed Central

Integration of energy crops into agricultural landscapes could promote sustainability if they are placed in ways that foster multiple ecosystem services and mitigate ecosystem disservices from existing crops. We conducted a modeling study to investigate how replacing annual energy crops with perennial energy crops along Wisconsin waterways could affect a variety of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. We found that a switch from continuous corn production to perennial-grass production decreased annual income provisioning by 75%, although it increased annual energy provisioning by 33%, decreased annual phosphorous loading to surface water by 29%, increased below-ground carbon sequestration by 30%, decreased annual nitrous oxide emissions by 84%, increased an index of pollinator abundance by an average of 11%, and increased an index of biocontrol potential by an average of 6%. We expressed the tradeoffs between income provisioning and other ecosystem services as benefit-cost ratios. Benefit-cost ratios averaged 12.06 GJ of additional net energy, 0.84 kg of avoided phosphorus pollution, 18.97 Mg of sequestered carbon, and 1.99 kg of avoided nitrous oxide emissions for every $1,000 reduction in income. These ratios varied spatially, from 2- to 70-fold depending on the ecosystem service. Benefit-cost ratios for different ecosystem services were generally correlated within watersheds, suggesting the presence of hotspots – watersheds where increases in multiple ecosystem services would come at lower-than-average opportunity costs. When assessing the monetary value of ecosystem services relative to existing conservation programs and environmental markets, the overall value of enhanced services associated with adoption of perennial energy crops was far lower than the opportunity cost. However, when we monitized services using estimates for the social costs of pollution, the value of enhanced services far exceeded the opportunity cost. This disparity between recoverable costs and social value represents a fundamental challenge to expansion of perennial energy crops and sustainable agricultural landscapes. PMID:24223215

Meehan, Timothy D.; Gratton, Claudio; Diehl, Erica; Hunt, Natalie D.; Mooney, Daniel F.; Ventura, Stephen J.; Barham, Bradford L.; Jackson, Randall D.

2013-01-01

382

Assessing the effect of soil management on soil functioning: a meta-regression analysis on European crop yields under conservation agriculture.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many strategies exist to combat soil degradation through erosion and compaction on agricultural fields. One of these strategies is conservation agriculture (CA). Reduced or zero tillage techniques, together with crop residue management and crop rotation are the pillars of CA. The term reduced tillage covers a range of tillage practices but it never involves inverting the soil. In this way, soil disturbance is minimised and crop residues are left on the soil. As CA also requires less wheel traffic that can increase soil bulk density and reduces infiltration rates, CA has the potential to reduce degradation and improve soil functioning. Studies in many European countries have shown that CA can indeed be very effective in combating soil erosion. However, soil and water conservation do not appear as main drivers in farmers' decisions to shift or not to CA. Economic factors tend to be more important, but there are a lot of uncertainties on this domain. Studies show that production costs are mostly reduced, mainly by reduced fuel costs. However, on production outcome, i.e. crop yield, a lot of uncertainties exist. To ensure proper functioning of agricultural soils that are prone to degradation, it is clear that these uncertainties have to be quantified. Many European studies have investigated the effect of reduced soil tillage on crop yields. However, the anecdotic evidence is often contradictory and therefore difficult to interpret. Most of them only cover a small range of field experiments, in one region. We present a meta-regression analysis (47 European studies, 565 observations) that compares crop yields under conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT) and zero tillage (ZT) techniques. We analysed the possible influence on the relative yield ((RT or ZT)/CT) of crop type, tillage depth, climate, CT yield and length of application of RT/ZT. ZT reduces crop yield on average with 8.5%. However, RT leads to a reduction in crop yields for maize and winter cereals only. By applying a linear mixed model, the importance of tillage depth and crop type as classification effects could be confirmed. Our analysis also allowed to identify some effects that are not always in agreement with common beliefs. For instance, yields under CA tend to decline with time, especially for monoculture maize. An effect of climate on relative crop yields could only be distinguished in the case of zero tillage: there is a positive relationship between crop yield and the seasonal water balance, contradicting the idea that CA is more efficient in dry areas due to more efficient water conservation.

van den Putte, An; Govers, Gerard; Diels, Jan; Gillijns, Katleen; Demuzere, Matthias

2010-05-01

383

[Variations of microbial biomass and hydrolase activities in purple soil under different cropping modes as affected by ginger planting].  

PubMed

This paper studied the variations of soil microbial biomass C, N, and P contents and soil hydrolase activities under different cropping modes, i.e., corn + sweet potato intercropping (CS), soybean mono-cropping (SM), continuous cropping of ginger (CG), and rice-milk vetch rotation (RM) , after ginger planting in the purple soil area at the lower reaches of Minjiang River. Ginger planting decreased the soil microbial biomass C, N and P contents significantly. The decrement of the soil microbial biomass C and N contents after ginger planting was lesser under CS and RM than under SM and CG, but the soil microbial biomass P content was in adverse. Ginger planting also decreased the soil acid phosphatase activity significantly, and the decrement was the greatest under CS but the least under RM. The soil invertase activity decreased significantly under CG, and the soil urease activity had a significant decrease under SM, CG and RM. After ginger planting, the soil urease and intervase activities under CS were higher, as compared with those under the other cropping modes. PMID:22586969

Wang, Xu-Xi; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Wang, Ao

2012-02-01

384

Soil Organic Matter Quality of an Oxisol Affected by Plant Residues and Crop Sequence under No-Tillage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant residues are considered the primarily resource for soil organic matter (SOM) formation and the amounts and properties of plant litter are important controlling factors for the SOM quality. We determined the amounts, quality and decomposition rate of plant residues and the effects of summer and winter crop sequences on soil organic C (TOC) content, both particulate organic C (POC) and mineral-associated organic C (MOC) pools and humic substances in a Brazilian Rhodic Eutrudox soil under a no-tillage system. The organic C analysis in specifics pools used in this study was effective and should be adopted in tropical climates to evaluate the soil quality and the sustainability of various cropping systems. Continuous growth of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) on summer provided higher contents of soil POC and continuous growth of maize (Zea mays L.) provided higher soil humic acid and MOC contents. Summer soybean-maize rotation provided the higher plant diversity, which likely improved the soil microbial activity and the soil organic C consumption. The winter sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) enhanced the soil MOC, a finding that is attributable to the higher N content of the crop residue. Sunn hemp and pigeon pea provided the higher soil POC content. Sunn hemp showed better performance and positive effects on the SOM quality, making it a suitable winter crop choice for tropical conditions with a warm and dry winter.

Cora, Jose; Marcelo, Adolfo

2013-04-01

385

QUANTIFICATION OF PYTHIUM SPECIES IN SOILS FROM DRYLAND CEREAL-BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS USING REAL-TIME PCR.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At least ten species of Pythium commonly occur in agricultural soils in eastern Washington. The cropping systems in these dryland areas are based on cereals, with rotation crops including several legumes and brassicas. Given the complex and diverse Pythium species composition, variation in species...

386

Nutrient uptake and soil erosion losses in cassava and six other crops in a Psamment in eastern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total nutrient uptake and nutrients removed in harvested plant parts were determined for cassava grown for either root or forage production, maize, sorghum, peanut, mungbean, pineapple and sugarcane. All crops were grown in replicated plots on 7% slope on a sandy loam soil in Sri Racha, Thailand, during a 4 1\\/2-year period. Erosion losses associated with each crop were also

S Putthacharoen; R. H Howeler; S Jantawat; V Vichukit

1998-01-01

387

Influence of Cover Crops and Inorganic Nitrogen Fertilization on Tomato and Snap Bean Production and Soil Nitrate Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial vegetable production depends almost solely on inorganic fertilizers. In an era of environmental sensitivity, enrichment of soils with green manures and cover crops may reduce the dependence on these fertilizers while maintaining and enhancing crop yields. The objectives of this research were to determine (1) if supplemental nitrogen (N) at 60 or 120 kg · ha following winter cover

Robert J. Dufault; Dennis R. Decoteau; J. Thomas Garrett; K. Dean Batal; Darbie Granberry; Jeanine M. Davis; Greg Hoyt; Douglas Sanders

2000-01-01

388

Effect of cover crop on soil physical and chemical properties of an alfisol in the Sudan savannah of Burkina faso  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of several leguminous and graminaceous cover crops on soil physical and chemical properties was studied on a moderately eroded Alfisol in the Sudan savannah of Burkina Faso during the growing seasons of 1986 and 1987. Cover crops sown in 1986 were Macroptilium artropurpureum, M. lathyroides, Vigna radiata var. radiata, Cajanus cajan, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Lablab purpureus, Psophocarpus palustris, Digitaria

N. R. Hulugalle

1988-01-01

389

Cover crop nitrogen availability to conventional and no?till corn: Soil mineral nitrogen, corn nitrogen status, and corn yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding seasonal soil nitrogen (N) availability patterns is necessary to assess corn (Zea mays L.) N needs following winter cover cropping. Therefore, a field study was initiated to track N availability for corn in conventional and no?till systems and to determine the accuracy of several methods for assessing and predicting N availability for corn grown in cover crop systems. The

Jeffrey D. Vaughan; Greg D. Hoyt; Arthur G. Wollum II

2000-01-01

390

A Preliminary Study of the Role of Cover Crops in Improving Soil Fertility and Yield for Potato Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the potential of cover crops (fodder rape, oats, and white lupin) to improve phosphorus (P) availability in a high P-fixing Red Ferrosol soil at Robertson, New South Wales. Of particular interest was a fourth cover crop that consisted of white lupin which has P releasing characteristics, grown in combination with fodder rape, which scavenges P with its

S. A. Little; P. J. Hocking; R. S. B. Greene

2004-01-01

391

Seasonal changes in microbial biomass in soils cropped with palmarosa ( Cymbopogon martinii L.) and Japanese mint ( Mentha arvensis L.) in subtropical India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in microbial C, N, and P were investigated for 1 year in two soils with similar physicochemical properties but supporting different crops under subtropical conditions. One was cropped with palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii L.) and the other with Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L.). Both the season and the type of cropping had a significant influence on changes in the soil

D. D. Patra; S. Chand; M. Anwar

1995-01-01

392

Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) method for measurements of soil moisture in cropped fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of soil moisture at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. However, so far only few methods are on the way to close this gap between point measurements and remote sensing. This study evaluates the applicability of the Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) for integral quantification of seasonal soil moisture in the root zone at the scale of a field or small watershed, making use of the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator relative to other landscape materials. GANS measurements were performed at two locations in Germany under different vegetative situations and seasonal conditions. Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a lowland Bornim farmland (Brandenburg) cropped with sunflower in 2011 and winter rye in 2012, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains) since middle 2011. At both sites depth profiles of soil moisture were measured at several locations in parallel by frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) for comparison and calibration. Initially, calibration parameters derived from a previous study with corn cover were tested under sunflower and winter rye periods at the same farmland. GANS soil moisture based on these parameters showed a large discrepancy compared to classical soil moisture measurements. Therefore, two new calibration approaches and four different ways of integration the soil moisture profile to an integral value for GANS were evaluated in this study. This included different sets of calibration parameters based on different growing periods of sunflower. New calibration parameters showed a good agreement with FDR network during sunflower period (RMSE = 0.023 m3 m-3), but they underestimated soil moisture in the winter rye period. The GANS approach resulted to be highly affected by temporal changes of biomass and crop types which suggest the need of neutron corrections for long-term observations with crop rotation. Finally, Bornim sunflower parameters were transferred to Schaefertal catchment for further evaluation. This study proves GANS potential to close the measurement gap between point scale and remote sensing scale; however, its calibration needs to be adapted for vegetation in cropped fields.

Andres Rivera Villarreyes, Carlos; Baroni, Gabriele; Oswald, Sascha E.

2013-04-01

393

Comparison of Two Chamber Methods for Measuring Soil Trace-gas Fluxes in Bioenergy Cropping Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas emissions from soils are often measured using trace-gas flux chamber techniques without a standardized protocol, raising concerns about measurement accuracy and consistency. To address this, we compared measurements from non-steady-state non-through-flow (NTF) chambers with a non-steady-state through-flow (TF) chamber system in three bioenergy cropping systems located in Wisconsin. Additionally, we investigated the effects of NTF flux calculation method and deployment time on flux measurements. In all cropping systems, when NTF chambers were deployed for 60 min and a linear (LR) flux calculation was used, soil CO2 and N2O fluxes were, on average, 18% and 12% lower, respectively, than fluxes measured with a 15 min deployment. Fluxes calculated with the HMR method, a hybrid of non-linear and linear approaches, showed no deployment time effects for CO2 and N2O and produced 27-32% higher CO2 fluxes and 28-33% higher N2O fluxes in all crops than the LR approach with 60 min deployment. Across all crops, CO2 fluxes measured with the TF chamber system were higher by 24.4 to 84.9 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, than fluxes measured with NTF chambers using either flux calculation method. These results suggest NTF chamber deployment time should be shortened if the LR approach is used though detection limits should be considered, and the HMR approach may be more appropriate when long deployment times are necessary. Significant differences in absolute flux values with different chamber types highlight the need for significant effort in determining the accuracy of methods or alternative flux measurement technologies. N2O fluxes with chamber deployment time for (a) all crops (switchgrass, corn, hybrid poplar) using both linear (LR) and HMR flux calculation methods, (b) each crop individually using LR approach, and (c) each crop individually using HMR approach. Given are seasonal (May-August) means + standard error. Letters indicate significant differences among deployment times (p<0.05, Tukey-Kramer test). Because there were no significant crop x deployment time interactions, significance letters are not shown in (b) and (c).

Duran, B. E.; Kucharik, C. J.

2013-12-01

394

Linking the planting of cover crops to soil and water nutrient dynamics in Shatto Ditch Watershed, IN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tile drainage systems are common in the Midwest, and facilitate the transfer of excess inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agricultural soils to adjacent streams. These non-point sources contribute to elevated nutrient loads to tributaries in the Mississippi River Basin, which have been linked to widespread hypoxia and associated ecological and economic problems in the Gulf of Mexico. In agricultural areas dominated by row-crops, the planting of cover crops after the cash crop has been harvested offers a potential mechanism to reduce nutrient leaching from fields to tile drains in the off-season. In general, cover crops retain nutrients on fields and increase soil organic matter (SOM) content after they are harvested. The planting of cover crops also promotes immobilization of soil N and reduction in losses of dissolved P from soils due to reduced erosion, resulting in significantly less leaching to surface waters through tile drains. As part of a demonstration project in the Shatto Ditch Watershed, located in the Tippecanoe River Basin, IN, we are testing whether the planting of cover crops will influence soil nutrient and organic matter, and how cover crops alter the dynamics of nutrient leaching from tile drains. We have been sampling tile drain outflows on a twice-monthly sampling regime and have been measuring dissolved inorganic N and P concentrations in tile water since November 2012. During Spring 2013, tile drain nitrate concentrations sampled synoptically throughout the watershed ranged from 2.6 - 38.9 mg NO3- L -1 (mean = 17.2 +/- 1.6 mg NO3- L -1) with the lowest concentrations coming from fields planted in cover crops (range = 2.6 - 19.0 mg NO3- L -1, mean = 9.7 +/- 1.5 mg NO3- L -1). In contrast, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations were much lower in tile drain water and ranged from 7.5 - 182.7 ?g L-1 (mean = 24.5 +/- 5.0 ?g L-1 SRP) and preliminary data suggest that there were no differences between fields with and without cover crops. In July 2012, we also sampled soils for SOM and inorganic N and P, 6 weeks after cover crop planting because the net effects of mineralization, leaching, and other potential losses that may have occurred since the cover crop was harvested are most accurately assessed at this time. Preliminary results suggest SOM content in the near-surface soil layer (i.e., 0 - 5 cm) in 3 fields planted in cover crops were similar (mean = 4.6 % +/- 0.3 %) to the mean SOM across the other 17 fields sampled without cover crops (mean = 5.8 % +/- 0.9 %). Finally, based on nutrient signatures in the tile drain samples, we predict that soil nitrate concentrations will be lower in soils planted with cover crops, but there will be little difference in soil extractable P between cover crop and non-cover crop fields. The combined sampling of both tile water and field soils will help assess whether cover crops provide a management compromise that allows farmers to improve their soil health, while at the same time improving adjacent stream water quality.

Christopher, S. F.; Tank, J. L.; Hanrahan, B. R.; Mahl, U. H.; Huang, K.

2013-12-01

395

Sweet corn production and efficiency of nitrogen use in high cover crop residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the humid, temperate mid-Atlantic area of the USA, crop production that leaves the soil uncovered can lead to undesirable\\u000a soil and nutrient losses to the surrounding Chesapeake Bay watershed. To cope with this issue, winter annual cover crops could\\u000a provide soil cover both during winter months and, as surface residue in no-tillage cropping systems, during summer months.\\u000a Legume cover

John R. Teasdale; Aref A. Abdul-Baki; Yong Bong Park

2008-01-01

396

Energy crop (Sida hermaphrodita) fertilization using digestate under marginal soil conditions: A dose-response experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global demand for energy security and the mitigation of climate change are the main drivers pushing energy-plant production in Germany. However, the cultivation of these plants can cause land use conflicts since agricultural soil is mostly used for plant production. A sustainable alternative to the conventional cultivation of food-based energy-crops is the cultivation of special adopted energy-plants on marginal lands. To further increase the sustainability of energy-plant cultivation systems the dependency on synthetic fertilizers needs to be reduced via closed nutrient loops. In the presented study the energy-plant Sida hermaphrodita (Malvaceae) will be used to evaluate the potential to grow this high potential energy-crop on a marginal sandy soil in combination with fertilization via digestate from biogas production. With this dose-response experiment we will further identify an optimum dose, which will be compared to equivalent doses of NPK-fertilizer. Further, lethal doses and deficiency doses will be observed. Two weeks old Sida seedlings were transplanted to 1L pots and fertilized with six doses of digestate (equivalent to a field application of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160t/ha) and three equivalent doses of NPK-fertilizer. Control plants were left untreated. Sida plants will grow for 45 days under greenhouse conditions. We hypothesize that the nutrient status of the marginal soil can be increased and maintained by defined digestate applications, compared to control plants suffering of nutrient deficiency due to the low nutrient status in the marginal substrate. The dose of 40t/ha is expected to give a maximum biomass yield without causing toxicity symptoms. Results shall be used as basis for further experiments on the field scale in a field trial that was set up to investigate sustainable production systems for energy crop production under marginal soil conditions.

Nabel, Moritz; Bueno Piaz Barbosa, Daniela; Horsch, David; Jablonowski, Nicolai David

2014-05-01

397

Soil chemical property changes in eggplant/garlic relay intercropping systems under continuous cropping.  

PubMed

Soil sickness is a critical problem for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under continuous cropping that affects sustainable eggplant production. Relay intercropping is a significant technique on promoting soil quality, improving eco-environment, and raising output. Field experiments were conducted from September 2010 to November 2012 in northwest China to determine the effects of relay intercropping eggplant with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on soil enzyme activities, available nutrient contents, and pH value under a plastic tunnel. Three treatments were in triplicate using randomized block design: eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG) and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). The major results are as follows: (1) the activities of soil invertase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase were generally enhanced in NG and GG treatments; (2) relay intercropping significantly increased the soil available nutrient contents, and they were mostly higher in GG than NG. On April 11, 2011, the eggplant/garlic co-growth stage, the available nitrogen content in GG was 76.30 mg·kg(-1), significantly higher than 61.95 mg·kg(-1) in NG. For available potassium on April 17, 2012, they were 398.48 and 387.97 mg·kg(-1) in NG and GG, both were significantly higher than 314.84 mg·kg(-1) in CK; (3) the soil pH showed a significantly higher level in NG treatment, but lower in GG treatment compared with CK. For the last samples in 2012, soil pH in NG and GG were 7.70 and 7.46, the highest and lowest one among them; (4) the alkaline phosphatase activity and pH displayed a similar decreasing trend with continuous cropping. These findings indicate that relay intercropping eggplant with garlic could be an ideal farming system to effectively improve soil nutrient content, increase soil fertility, and alleviate soil sickness to some extent. These findings are important in helping to develop sustainable eggplant production. PMID:25340875

Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Zhang, Mengru; Zhang, Hongjing

2014-01-01

398

Enhanced irreversible sorption of carbaryl to soils amended with crop-residue-derived biochar.  

PubMed

The irreversible sorption-desorption of carbaryl in five soil types with crop-residue-derived biochar (CBC) amendment was determined. CBC has lower surface area and micropores volume than wood-based biochar and charcoal. However, CBC amendment (0.5%) still significantly enhanced the hysteresis effect on soils, with a 1.7- to 2.8-fold increase in the hysteresis index (HI) values. The HI values increased exponentially with the increased amount of CBC but decreased exponentially with the increased amount of soil organic matter (SOM%). Furthermore, the irreversible carbaryl sorption (qirr) and the irreversibility index (Iirr) values were proportional to the amount of CBC (0-1.0%) in soils. Likewise, the SOM-rich soil (S3) was washed ten times to reduce its SOM% to evaluate the influence of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the soils on the irreversible sorption. The Iirr values of the unamended S3 increased as the number of sorption-desorption cycles increased, whereas those of the 1.0% CBC-amended S3 decreased. In addition, the Iirr values of the unwashed S3 were lower than those of the washed S3. By contrast, the Iirr values of the 1.0% CBC-amended S3 soil were higher in the unwashed samples than in the washed samples. These results suggested that DOM had opposite effects on the irreversible carbaryl sorption by unamended and CBC-amended soils. The DOM release may expose more irreversible adsorption sites in the soils and may cover the surface of the CBC to form a desorption-resistant fraction in its mesopore or macropore regions, thereby preventing the desorption of adsorbed carbaryl molecules. PMID:23711410

Qiu, Yuping; Wu, Minwei; Jiang, Jing; Li, Liang; Sheng, G Daniel

2013-09-01

399

Characterization of soil microbial communities under different potato cropping systems by microbial population dynamics, substrate utilization, and fatty acid profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 11 different 2- and 3-yr potato crop rotations on soil microbial communities were characterized over three field seasons using several techniques. Assessments included microbial populations determined by soil dilution plate counts on various general and selective culture media, microbial activity by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis, single carbon source substrate utilization (SU) profiles, and fatty acid methyl ester

Robert P Larkin

2003-01-01

400

Soil-crop dynamic depth response determined from TDR of a corn silage field compared to EMI measurements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Electromagnetic induction (EMI) mapping techniques have been used to monitor seasonal soil-crop electrical conductivity (EC) dynamics. These mapping techniques can be affected by many confounding seasonal changes in the soil profile, such as water content or salt leaching. Time domain reflectometry ...

401

FT-IR and C-13 NMR analysis of soil humic fractions from a long term cropping systems study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased knowledge of humic fractions is important due to its involvement in many soil ecosystem processes. Soil humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) from a nine-year agroecosystem study with different tillage, cropping system, and N source treatments were characterized using FT-IR andsolid-state ...

402

An Algorithm for Estimating Amounts of Rock Phosphate Needed to Meet Crop Phosphorus Requirements in West African Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An incubation study was conducted (i) to investigate the influence of soil properties on the dissolution of Tilemsi rock phosphate (PNT) and extractability of phosphorus (P) after dissolution and (ii) to develop an algorithm for estimating amounts of rock P needed to meet crop P requirements in West African soils. Subsequently, the amount of phosphate rock (PR) that had dissolved

Aminata S. Diarra; Russell S. Yost; Mamadou D. Doumbia; Tasnee Attanandana; Adama Bagayoko; Aliou B. Kouyate; Richard Kablan; Xinmin Wang

2004-01-01

403

Response of wheat to nitrogen fertilization, a data set to validate simulation models for nitrogen dynamics in crop and soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A data set originating from winter wheat experiments at three locations during two years is described. The purpose is to provide sufficient data for testing simulation models for soil nitrogen dynamics, crop growth and nitrogen uptake. Each experiment comprised three different nitrogen treatments, and observations were made at intervals of two or three weeks. The observations included measurements of soil

J. J. R. Groot; E. L. J. Verberne

1991-01-01

404

Evaluation of soil erosion protective cover by crop residues using vegetation indices and spectral mixture analysis of multispectral and hyperspectral data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop residues are efficient in reducing erosion and surface water runoff on agricultural soils. Evaluating the crop residue cover fraction and its spatial distribution is important to scientists involved in the modelling of soil erosion and surface runoff, and also to authorities wishing to assess soil conservation adoption by farmers. This study focuses on the evaluation of four remote sensing

Éric Arsenault; Ferdinand Bonn

2005-01-01

405

Use of domestic greywater for small-scale irrigation of food crops: Effects on plants and soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of greywater presents a problem in areas served with on-site sanitation or in areas with poor service provision. Such areas often also face challenges with respect to food security. Use of greywater for irrigation of food crops represents a possible beneficial use of greywater which can contribute to household food supply and to informal income generation. In this study, an above-ground crop (Swiss chard, Betavulgaris var. cicla) and a below-ground crop (carrot, Daucus carota) were irrigated in pots with mixed greywater sourced from households in an informal settlement. A simple form of sub-surface irrigation was used. Plant growth, crop yield, and levels of macro- and micronutrients in crops and soil were monitored through six growth cycles. Equivalent treatments, irrigated with either tap water or a hydroponic nutrient solution, were conducted for comparison. The same soil was used throughout to allow accumulation of greywater-derived substances in soil to be detected. The results indicated that: (i) irrigation with greywater increased plant growth and yield relative to crops irrigated with tap water only, although crops irrigated with hydroponic nutrient solution yielded the highest growth and yield; (ii) irrigation with greywater improved plant nutrient content relative to crops irrigated with tap water; (iii) soil irrigated with greywater showed increased electrical conductivity and increased concentrations of metals over time, coupled with an increase in sodium and metal concentrations in crops. Thus, provided precautions are taken with regard to salt and metal accumulation, greywater offers a potential source of water for household crop irrigation which additionally shows some fertiliser properties.

Rodda, N.; Salukazana, L.; Jackson, S. A. F.; Smith, M. T.

406

Soil Eukaryotic Microorganism Succession as Affected by Continuous Cropping of Peanut - Pathogenic and Beneficial Fungi were Selected  

PubMed Central

Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping. PMID:22808226

Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

2012-01-01

407

Simulation of nitrous oxide effluxes, crop yields and soil physical properties using the LandscapeDNDC model in managed ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of nitrous oxide emissions from soil is very complex. Many different biological and chemical processes take place in soils which determine the amount of emitted nitrous oxide. Additionaly, biogeochemical models contain many detailed factors which may determine fluxes and other simulated variables. We used the LandscapeDNDC model in order to simulate N2O emissions, crop yields and soil physical properties from mineral cultivated soils in Poland. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils were modeled for fields with winter wheat, winter rye, spring barley, triticale, potatoes and alfalfa crops. Simulations were carried out for the plots of the Brody arable experimental station of Poznan University of Life Science in western Poland and covered the period 2003 - 2012. The model accuracy and its efficiency was determined by comparing simulations result with measurements of nitrous oxide emissions (measured with static chambers) from about 40 field campaigns. N2O emissions are strongly dependent on temperature and soil water content, hence we compared also simulated soil temperature at 10cm depth and soil water content at the same depth with the daily measured values of these driving variables. We compared also simulated yield quantities for each individual experimental plots with yield quantities which were measured in the period 2003-2012. We conclude that the LandscapeDNDC model is capable to simulate soil N2O emissions, crop yields and physical properties of soil with satisfactorily good accuracy and efficiency.

Nyckowiak, Jedrzej; Lesny, Jacek; Haas, Edwin; Juszczak, Radoslaw; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Olejnik, Janusz

2014-05-01

408

Evaluation of land surface model simulations of evapotranspiration over a 12 year crop succession: impact of the soil hydraulic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration has been recognized as one of the most uncertain term in the surface water balance simulated by land surface models. In this study, the SURFEX/ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration are assessed at local scale over a 12 year Mediterranean crop succession. The model is evaluated in its standard implementation which relies on the use of the ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil properties. The originality of this work consists in explicitly representing the succession of crop cycles and inter-crop bare soil periods in the simulations and assessing its impact on the dynamic of simulated and measured evapotranspiration over a long period of time. The analysis focuses on key soil parameters which drive the simulation of evapotranspiration, namely the rooting depth, the soil moisture at saturation, the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at wilting point. The simulations achieved with the standard values of these parameters are compared to those achieved with the in situ values. The portability of the ISBA pedotransfer functions is evaluated over a typical Mediterranean crop site. Various in situ estimates of the soil parameters are considered and distinct parametrization strategies are tested to represent the evapotranspiration dynamic over the crop succession. This work shows that evapotranspiration mainly results from the soil evaporation when it is continuously simulated over a Mediterranean crop succession. The evapotranspiration simulated with the standard surface and soil parameters of the model is largely underestimated. The deficit in cumulative evapotranspiration amounts to 24% over 12 years. The bias in daily daytime evapotranspiration is -0.24 mm day-1. The ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil moisture at saturation and at wilting point are overestimated which explains most of the evapotranspiration underestimation. The overestimation of the soil moisture at wilting point causes the underestimation of transpiration at the end of the crop cycles. The overestimation of the soil moisture at saturation triggers the underestimation of the soil evaporation during the wet soil periods. The use of field capacity values derived from laboratory retention measurements leads to inaccurate simulation of soil evaporation due to the lack of representativeness of the soil structure variability at the field scale. The most accurate simulation is achieved with the values of the soil hydraulic properties derived from field measured soil moisture. Their temporal analysis over each crop cycle provides meaningful estimates of the wilting point, the field capacity and the rooting depth to represent the crop water needs and accurately simulate the evapotranspiration over the crop succession. We showed that the uncertainties in the eddy-covariance measurements are significant and can explain a large part of the unresolved random differences between the simulations and the measurements of evapotranspiration. Other possible model shortcomings include the lack of representation of soil vertical heterogeneity and root profile along with inaccurate energy balance partitioning between the soil and the vegetation at low LAI.

Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Lafont, S.; Moulin, S.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Renard, D.

2014-10-01

409

Short-term cover crop decomposition in organic and conventional soils: Soil microbial and nutrient cycling indicator variables associated with different levels of soil suppressiveness to Pythium aphanidermatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stages of oat-vetch cover crop decomposition were characterized over\\u000a time in terms of carbon and nitrogen cycling, microbial activity and\\u000a community dynamics in organically and conventionally managed soils in a\\u000a field experiment and a laboratory incubation experiment. We subsequently\\u000a determined which variables describing soil microbial community dynamics,\\u000a C and N cycling could be used as predictors of Pythium aphanidermatum\\u000a damping-off

N. J. Grünwald; S. Hu; A. H. C. van Bruggen

2000-01-01

410

Groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic contamination in farming villages of Bangladesh--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

To clarify the groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic (As) contamination, As concentration was measured in tubewell (TW) water, surface soil from farmyards and paddy fields, and fresh taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaves from farmyards in the farming villages of Bangladesh. The As concentration in TW water from farmyards was at least four times higher than the Bangladesh drinking water standard, and the concentration in fresh taro leaves was equal to or higher than those reported previously for leafy vegetables in Bangladesh. As concentration of surface soils in both farmyards and paddy fields was positively correlated with that of the TW water. Further, the concentration in surface soil was positively correlated with levels in fresh taro leaves in the farmyard. This study, therefore, clarified the groundwater-soil-crop relationship in farmyards and the relationship between groundwater-soil in paddy fields to assess the extent of As contamination in Bangladeshi villages. PMID:18395311

Kurosawa, Kiyoshi; Egashira, Kazuhiko; Tani, Masakazu; Jahiruddin, M; Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md; Rahman, Zulfikar Md

2008-11-01

411

Variations in bioactive substance contents and crop yields of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivated in soils with different fertilization treatments.  

PubMed

Changes in crop yields and bioactive substance contents were studied in lettuce crop concerning the influence of soil nutritional status as a result of compost and vermicompost additions obtained from different organic substrates. Plant productions and main pigment contents in lettuce were higher in all the fertilized soils than in the untreated soil, with the exception of the one treated with urban solid waste compost. These positive effects correlate with nitrogen level increase in soil. However, the high saline input of this compost prepared from food home wastes interferes in lettuce growth and prevents it from being higher than the control. Marked decreases in lettuce phenolic contents and antiradical activity were found in most of the treatments. Composts and vermicomposts produced through the processing of cattle manures, agro-industrial organic wastes significantly increased lettuce crop yield enriching its pigment contents, although, in some cases, antioxidant value and phenolic levels were reduced. PMID:19821565

Coria-Cayupán, Yanina Soledad; Sánchez de Pinto, María Ines; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena

2009-11-11

412

Remote sensing in Iowa agriculture. [land use, crop identification, and soil mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of 1972 single-date coverage indicated that a complete crop classification was not attainable at the test sites. Good multi-date coverage during 1973 indicates that many of the problems encountered in 1972 will be minimized. In addition, the compilation of springtime imagery covering the entire state of Iowa has added a new dimension to interpretation of Iowa's natural resources. ERTS-1 has provided data necessary to achieve the broad synoptic view not attainable through other means. This should provide soils and crop researchers and land use planners a base map of Iowa. Granted and due to the resolution of ERTS-1, not all details are observable for many land use planning needs, but this gives a general and current view of Iowa.

Mahlstede, J. P. (principal investigator); Carlson, R. E.; Fenton, T. E.

1974-01-01

413

Effects of soil type and genotype on cadmium accumulation by rootstalk crops: implications for phytomanagement.  

PubMed

The variations of Cd accumulation in three rootstalk crop species (radish, carrot and potato) were investigated by using twelve cultivars grown in acidic Ferralsols and neutral Cambisols under two Cd treatments (0.3 and 0.6 mg kg(-1)) in a pot experiment The result showed that the total Cd uptake was significantly affected by genotype, soil type and interaction between them, suggesting the importance of selecting proper cultivars for phytoextraction in a given soil type. Among the cultivars tested, potato cultivar Luyin No.1 in Ferralsols and radish cultivar Zhedachang in Cambisols exhibited the highest Cd phytoextraction efficiency in aerial parts (4.45% and 0.59%, respectively) under 0.6 mg kg-1 Cd treatment. Furthermore, the Cd concentrations in their edible parts were below the National Food Hygiene Standard of China (0.1 mg kg(-1), fresh weight). Therefore, phytomanagement of slightly Cd-contaminated soils using rootstalk crops for safe food production combined with long-term phytoextraction was feasible, and potato cultivar Luyin No.1 for Ferralsols and radish cultivar Zhedachang for Cambisols were promising candidates for this approach. PMID:24933899

Ding, Changfeng; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Fen; Yang, Yiru; Yin, Yunlong

2014-01-01

414

Effect of sewage sludge-borne cadmium on crop production and on soil and plant composition  

SciTech Connect

Teller sandy loan (fine-loamy, mixed, thermic, Udic Agriustolls) and Norge loam (fine-silty, mixed, thermic, Udic Paleustolls) were used in a greenhouse study with rates of cadmium (Cd) in sewage sludge. Two sewage sludges were mixed to produce a range of Cd treatments of 7 to 120 mg Cd kg/sup -1/ in a 44 mt ha/sup -1/ sludge treatment rate. Application depths of 0 to 15 cm and 15 to 30 cm for grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and soybean (Glycine max) for two successive crops were included as experimental variables. Statistical design was a lattice square with five replications. Fresh and dry weights of plant materials were determined and analyzed for total content of Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cd after digestion. Soil samples from 0 to 7.5, 7.5 to 15, and 15 to 30 cm depths were taken after the second crop was harvested and analyzed for DTPA extractable Fe, Zn, and Cd. The soil pH and percent organic matter were determined, also, and compared to original soil analysis.

Al-Solaimani, S.G.

1986-01-01

415

Short communication Litter contribution to diurnal and annual soil respiration in a tropical  

E-print Network

Short communication Litter contribution to diurnal and annual soil respiration in a tropical soil respiration variation Tropical montane cloud forest Litter respiration a b s t r a c t Respiration in respiration rate in the litter, which were partly correlated with the soil surface air temperature. Most

Malhi, Yadvinder

416

Effects of soil and water conservation on crop productivity: Evidences from Anjenie watershed, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread soil and water conservation activities have been implemented in many parts of eastern Africa to control soil erosion by water and improve land productivity for the last few decades. Following the 1974 severe drought, soil and water conservation became more important to Ethiopia and the approach shifted to watershed based land management initiatives since the 1980s. To capture long-term impacts of these initiatives, a study was conducted in Anjenie Watershed of Ethiopia, assessing fanya juu terraces and grass strips constructed in a pilot project in 1984, and which are still functional nearly 30 years later. Data were collected from government records, field observations and questionnaire surveys administered to 60 farmers. Half of the respondents had terraced farms in the watershed former project area (with terrace technology) and the rest were outside the terraced area. The crops assessed were teff, barley and maize. Cost-benefit analyses were used to determine the economic benefits with and without terraces, including gross and net profit values, returns on labour, water productivity and impacts on poverty. The results indicated that soil and water conservation had improved crop productivity. The average yield on terraced fields was 0.95 t ha-1 for teff (control 0.49), 1.86 t ha-1 for barley (control 0.61), and 1.73 t ha-1 for maize (control 0.77). The net benefit was significantly higher on terraced fields, recording US 20.9 (US -112 control) for teff, US 185 (US -41 control) for barley and US -34.5 (US - 101 control) ha-1 yr-1 for maize. The returns on family labour were 2.33 for barley, 1.01 for teff, and 0.739 US per person-day for maize grown on terraced plots, compared to US 0.44, 0.27 and 0.16 per person-day for plots without terraces, respectively. Using a discount rate of 10%, the average net present value (NPV) of barley production with terrace was found to be about US 1542 over a period of 50 years. In addition, the average financial internal rate of return (FIRR) was 301%. Other long-term impacts of terracing included farmers' growing of maize on terraced fields as a result of water conservation. Currently, farmers also grow barley on terraced fields for two crop seasons per year unlike the experiences on farms without terraces. Household incomes and food security had improved and soil erosion drastically reduced. Many farmers had adopted terracing doubling the original area under the soil conservation pilot project and consequently improving environmental conservation in the watershed.

Adgo, Enyew; Teshome, Akalu

2014-05-01

417

Humic fractions of forest, pasture and maize crop soils resulting from microbial activity  

PubMed Central

Humic substances result from the degradation of biopolymers of organic residues in the soil due to microbial activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of three different ecosystems: forest, pasture and maize crop on the formation of soil humic substances relating to their biological and chemical attributes. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial respiratory activity, nitrification potential, total organic carbon, soluble carbon, humic and fulvic acid fractions and the rate and degree of humification were determined. Organic carbon and soluble carbon contents decreased in the order: forest > pasture > maize; humic and fulvic acids decreased in the order forest > pasture=maize. The MBC and respiratory activity were not influenced by the ecosystems; however, the nitrification potential was higher in the forest than in other soils. The rate and degree of humification were higher in maize soil indicating greater humification of organic matter in this system. All attributes studied decreased significantly with increasing soil depth, with the exception of the rate and degree of humification. Significant and positive correlations were found between humic and fulvic acids contents with MBC, microbial respiration and nitrification potential, suggesting the microbial influence on the differential formation of humic substances of the different ecosystems. PMID:25477932

Tavares, Rose Luiza Moraes; Nahas, Ely

2014-01-01

418

Soil CO2 flux in alley-cropping systems composed of black locust and poplar trees, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of soil carbon dynamics after establishment of alley-cropping systems is crucial for mitigation of greenhouse CO2 gas. This study investigates soil CO2 fluxes in alley-cropping systems composed of strips of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and poplar (Max 1) trees and adjacent to them crop strips (Lupinus). Soil CO2 flux was measured monthly over a period from March to November 2012, using a LI-COR LI-8100A automated device. Concurrently with CO2 flux measurements, soil and air temperature and soil moisture were recorded within 10 cm of each collar. Soil samples were collected nearby each soil collar for microbial C and hot water-extractable C analyses. At each study plot, root biomass was measured to a depth of 15 cm. In all vegetation types, soil CO2 flux increased from May to August, showing a significant positive correlation with air and soil temperature, which can be a reflection of increase in photosynthesis over the warm summer months. CO2 flux was the highest in poplar followed by black locust and lupines. The relationships between CO2 flux, microbial biomass and hot water-extractable carbon were not straightforward. Among the measured parameters, root density was found to be the main factor to explain the higher CO2 flux in tree strips.

Medinski, Tetiana; Freese, Dirk; Boehm, Christian

2013-04-01

419

Understanding the potential impact of climate change on long term soil carbon dynamics in tropical cropping systems - evidence from West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long term experiments offer a unique opportunity to assess sustainability and temporal dynamics of biogeochemical cycles in agriculture, as well as the gradual impact on these of relatively slow processes such as climate change. Two long term experiments on annual cropping systems representing locally common crop rotations and cultural practices were established on two contrasting agroecological zones in Ivory Coast (in 1971) and in Mali (in 1965). These experiments were designed to assess the long-term productivity of these systems under different organic matter and nutrient management regimes, applying organic and mineral soil amendments alone or in combination. Organic soil amendments - such as animal manure, compost or plant material collected from the surroundings - were included in the experiments with the double purpose of adding nutrients for immediate crop production and adding organic matter inputs to the soil to restore (or maintain) its organic C content. Here, we provide an overview of the major trends in crop productivity and soil organic C observed in these experiments that illustrates the potential impact of climate change on the effectiveness of different measures to sustain agricultural productivity. Materials and methods Both experiments compared crop productivity on control plots without any soil amendment versus plots receiving organic matter, mineral fertilisers or both combined. The experiment at Gagnoa (southern Ivory Coast) was conducted during 23 years in a zone characterised by a bimodal rainfall regime (c. 1300 mm year-1) that allows two cropping seasons per year (Alfisols 15% clay). Every year maize was planted during the first rainy season. Organic matter was added as compost at a rate of 10 t ha-1 year-1, with or without application of 160 kg N ha-1 year-1 in mineral fertiliser (Chabalier, 1986). The experiment at N'Tarla (southern Mali) was conducted during 24 years in a zone of mono-modal rainfall (c. 900 mm year-1); Alfisols 5% clay), and consisted of quadrennial/triennial rotations of cotton (2x), sorghum and groundnuts. Organic matter was added as straw collected from adjacent fallow fields at a rate of 15 t ha-1 every three years, with and without application of N-P-K mineral fertilisers at an average rate of 30, 20 and 40 kg ha-1 year-1, respectively (Kone, 1989). In both experiments crop residues were incorporated in the soil every year. Results At both sites yields of the main crops were larger than the control on plots receiving organic and/or mineral soil amendments, and in both experiments crop yields were comparable when either organic or mineral fertilisers were applied. In the case of maize, partial additive effects of organic and mineral fertilisers applied in combination were observed. In the case of cotton, plots receiving only mineral fertilisers tended to yield less than those receiving organic amendments during the second half of the experiment. Soil organic C declined in control plots and in those receiving only mineral fertilisers in Gagnoa (Ivory Coast), and less markedly also in N'Tarla (Mali). Addition of 10 t ha-1 year-1 of organic matter with or without addition of mineral N led to greater soil C contents in Gagnoa, but yet a decline was observed over the 23 years. Addition of 15 t ha-1 year-1 of organic matter with or without fertilisers in N'Tarla had only a marginal effect on soil C content. In spite of the observed decline in soil C contents, maize yields tended to increase in Gagnoa in the last years of the experiment. Discussion Important differences were observed between sites in the size of the stocks and flows of carbon in and through the cropping system, which were the result of a different agroecological potential. Maize is a C4 species that produces large amounts of biomass; two cropping seasons per year allow fixing greater amounts of C from the atmosphere through photosynthesis. Although soil C inputs via crop residues were thus larger in Gagnoa, climatic conditions at this site favoured also a faster mineralisation of soil organic matter. The addit

Cretenet, Michel; Tittonell, Pablo; Guibert, Herve

2010-05-01

420

Influence of soil properties and climate characteristics on transpirable soil water for two varieties with differences in their crop cycle timing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an analysis of soil water content in two vineyards planted with Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Penedès Designation of Origin (DO). Climate is Mediterranean with maritime influence. The main soil types are Typic Xerorthent and Fluventic Haploxerept and soil is bare most of the time to avoid the competition of weeds for water. The plantation pattern was uniform in both cultivars, 1.3*3m. Soil moisture was analysed at each area from 10 to 90 cm every 20 cm, using TDF probes during two crop growing cycles (2010-2012). Soil water balance for years with different rainfall amount and distribution throughout the year was simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Differences in phenology of about one month existed among both varieties. In addition, the soil hydrological properties variability, resulted from land levelling operations before vineyard establishment, affects crop's soil water availability. These two facts made that, under the same rainfall amount and distribution, water available during the crop cycle were different for both varieties. The transpirable soil water fraction reached very low values, close to 0.1, particularly in the variety with early phenology timing. This pattern was repeated in different years depending on rainfall distribution, which affected grape production with significant yield reductions (up to 38% in relation to the average were found in some years).

Ramos, Maria C.

2014-05-01

421

The role of vegetation and soil properties on the spatio-temporal variability of the surface soil moisture in a maize-cropped field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture dynamics are affected by complex interactions among several factors. Understanding the relative importance of these factors is still an important challenge in the study of water fluxes and solute transport in unsaturated media. In this study, the spatio-temporal variability of surface soil moisture was investigated in a 10 ha flat cropped field located in northern Italy. Soil moisture was measured on a regular 50 × 50 m grid on seven dates during the growing season. For each measurement campaign, the spatial variability of the soil moisture was compared with the spatial variability of the soil texture and crop properties. In particular, to better understand the role of the vegetation, the spatio-temporal variability of two different parameters - leaf area index and crop height - was monitored on eight dates at different crop development stages. Statistical and geostatistical analysis was then applied to explore the interactions between these variables. In agreement with other studies, the results show that the soil moisture variability changes according to the average value within the field, with the standard deviation reaching a maximum value under intermediate mean soil moisture conditions and the coefficient of variation decreasing exponentially with increasing mean soil moisture. The controls of soil moisture variability change according to the average soil moisture within the field. Under wet conditions, the spatial distribution of the soil moisture reflects the variability of the soil texture. Under dry conditions, the spatial distribution of the soil moisture is affected mostly by the spatial variability of the vegetation. The interaction between these two factors is more important under intermediate soil moisture conditions. These results confirm the importance of considering the average soil moisture conditions within a field when investigating the controls affecting the spatial variability of soil moisture. This study highlights the importance of considering the spatio-temporal variability of the vegetation in investigating soil moisture dynamics, especially under intermediate and dry soil moisture conditions. The results of this study have important implications in different hydrological applications, such as for sampling design, ranking stability application, indirect measurements of soil properties and model parameterisation.

Baroni, G.; Ortuani, B.; Facchi, A.; Gandolfi, C.

2013-05-01

422

Water Erosion in Relation with Soil Management System and Crop Sequence during 20 Years on an Inceptisol in South Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion still remains persistent at the world scale, even if big efforts have been done to control and reduce it, mainly using soil crop residues to protect soil surface. Although in South Brazil the main management system for most crops is no tillage and direct drilling, water erosion prevails as the most important soil erosion type, which is due both, to the high erosivity and the evenly distribution of rainfall over the year. Moreover, some crops are still grown under soil tillage systems consisting of ploughing, harrowing and less frequently chiselling. Starting 1992, a field experiment under natural rainfall has been conducted on an Inceptisol located in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, which objective was to assess rainfall water erosion. Two soil cover conditions and four soil management systems were studied: I) a crop rotation, which included oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), common vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under the following soil management types: 1) ploughing plus two levelling operations (CT), chiselling plus levelling (RT) and direct drilling with no tillage (NT), and II) bare soil (BS) without crop cover tilled by ploughing plus two levelling. In more than 90% of the study cases, soil losses were collected for single rain events with erosive power, whose erosivity was calculated. Total rain recorded during the 20 year experimental period was approximately 66,400 mm, which is equivalent to roughly 105,700, MJ mm ha-1 h-1 (EI30), whereas soil losses in the BS treatment were higher than 1,700 t.ha-1. On average, soil losses under RT treatment showed a 92% reduction in relation with BS, whereas under CT the reduction in relation to BS was about 66%. Soil management by direct drilling (NT) was the most efficient system to minimize water erosion, as soil losses decreased about 98% when compared with BS. Moreover, soil management systems with a crop rotation, i.e., RT, CT, and NT, showed a lower efficiency in the reduction of water losses with regard to the efficiency of soil losses decrease. So many rainfall events during our experimental period showed similar water losses for all the management and crop systems, which was mainly true for rainfalls causing high volumes of runoff and with a small time interval between successive events. During the autumn-winter seasons water losses were lower than in the spring-summer seasons, whereas greater soil losses in the spring-summer season were solely recorded in the CT and BS treatments. Heavy water losses by runoff recorder under conservation tillage, specifically in the NT management system suggest the need for adoption of additional structural conservation practices, such as for example terracing, in order to supplement the positive effect of soil cover by crop residues in controlling water erosion. Soil losses showed a positive correlation with rainfall erosivity and the significance of this relationship decreased as the efficiency of soil management system for the control of soil erosion increased.

Bertol, I.; Schick, J.; Barbosa, F. T.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Flores, M. T.; Paz González, A.

2012-04-01

423

Biofuel feedstock from claypan soils for annual grain and perennial switchgrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop production on the claypan region soils of the U.S. Midwest is an important contributor for agricultural production. However, because of their tendency for grain yield fluctuations caused by water stress, claypan soils may have potential for conversion from grain to grass production in support o...

424

Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three vegetated treatments, CT, MT and NT showed a lower efficiency in reducing water losses than soil losses. Water losses by runoff during a number of events were of the same order of magnitude for all the management systems studied here; which was mainly true when the volume of rainfall was high and the lag between successive events was small. In general, soil losses in the autumn-winter seasons were lower than under the spring-summer seasons. Soil losses showed a positive correlation with rainfall erosivity. However, the degree of dependence between these two variables decreased as the efficiency of soil management in controlling soil erosion increased. The large soil and water losses in the BS and CT treatments suggest that there is a need to implement soil conservation measures in the study region. In this context soil conservation would take advantage from soil cover by previous crop residue as well as from terrace building. Acknowledgement: This work was partly supported by Spanish Ministry of Education (Project CGL2005-08219-C02).

Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

2010-05-01

425

Contrasted nitrogen utilization in annual C 3 grass and legume crops: Physiological explorations and ecological considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is well known that legumes have unusually high levels of nitrogen in both reproductive and vegetative organs, the physiological implications of this pattern have been poorly assessed. We conducted a literature survey and used data from two (unpublished) experiments on annual legumes and C 3 grasses in order to test whether these high nitrogen concentrations in legumes are correlated to high rates of carbon gain. Three different temporal/spatial scales were considered: full growing season/stand, days to month/whole plant and seconds/leaf. At the stand level, and for plants grown under both extratropical and tropical settings, biomass per unit organic-nitrogen was lower in legume than in grass crops. At a shorter time scale, the relative growth rate per unit plant nitrogen (`nitrogen productivity') was lower in faba bean ( Vicia faba var. minor cv. Tina) than in wheat ( Triticum aestivum cv. Alexandria), and this was confirmed in a comparison of two wild, circum-Mediterranean annuals - Medicago minima, a legume, and Bromus madritensis, a grass. Finally, at the leaf level, a synthesis of published data comparing soybean ( Glycine max) and rice ( Oryza sativa) on the one hand, and our own data on faba bean and wheat on the other hand, demonstrates that the photosynthetic rate per unit leaf nitrogen (the photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency) is consistently lower in legumes than in grasses. These results demonstrate that, regardless of the scale considered and although the organic-nitrogen concentration in vegetative organs of legumes is higher than in grasses, this does not lead to higher rates of carbon gain in the former. Various physiological factors affecting the efficiency of nitrogen utilization at the three time scales considered are discussed. The suggestion is made that the ecological significance of the high nitrogen concentration in legumes may be related to a high nitrogen demand for high quality seed production at a time when nitrogen fixation is shut off rather than to a high production potential.

Del Pozo, Alejandro; Garnier, Eric; Aronson, James

2000-01-01

426

KURA CLOVER INTERCROPPED IN A PECAN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM IMPROVES SOIL QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intercropping the alleys of agroforestry systems is desirable to provide income from the field until the tree crop begins to yield. However, cultivation of annual crops in the alleys may decrease soil organic matter and increase soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintai...

427

Winter Cereal Cover Crop Removal Strategy Affects Spring Soil Nitrate Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of winter cereal cover crops in no-till row crop systems has increased in the North Central Corn Belt. Timing of the cover crop removal can be managed to improve nitrogen availability for subsequently grown crops. Growers utilizing cover crop systems have several alternatives regarding the removal strategy for the winter cereal cover crop prior to seeding rotational corn

M. R. Jewett; K. D. Thelen

2007-01-01

428

Plot scale continuous modelling of runoff in a maize cropping system with dynamic soil surface properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe evaluation of the hydrological impact of crop management practices requires models sensitive to temporal changes in surface properties and especially to changes in surface roughness and saturated hydraulic conductivity. This study reports on the development and application of a new, continuous, physically-based, spatially-distributed and plot-scale runoff model that required only five adjusted parameters. The results of the model were compared with runoff measurements taken over two years on 90 m 2 runoff plots in a continuous maize cropping system with and without winter cover crop. On the basis of the daily predicted runoff, the model gave good fits for the intercropping period (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient from 0.80 to 0.94) and poor to reasonable fits for the maize period (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient from less than 0 up to 0.33). The poor results are in part attributed to the fact that only decreases in hydraulic conductivity can be modelled at present, whereas this property may in reality increase over time in some cases. Moreover, runoff hydrograms for individual storms are relatively well predicted dynamically. The large impact of semi-permanent wheel tracks on runoff production is also pointed out. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed and the relevance of incorporating dynamic soil properties in continuous modelling of runoff is underlined.

Laloy, E.; Bielders, C. L.

2008-02-01

429

Changes in soil carbon cycling accompanying conversion of row-crop fields to grazing dairy pastures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly, the dairy industry in the eastern US is transitioning from total confinement dairy systems (TCD) toward pasture-based, management intensive grazing dairy (MiGD) systems. This transition is driven by the fact that MiGDs require substantially less operating capital and are more economically efficient than TCD systems. Consequently, the impact of this transition and shift in land-use practice on carbon dynamics may be considerable. Land-use in a Management intensive Grazing Dairy (MiGD) system is fundamentally different than conventional confinement dairies and conventional no-till pastures. The forage system involves rotational grazing at optimal digestibility, when the plants are immature (~20-days) and consequently protein-rich. MiGD cows spend >90% of their time in the field and deposit > 90% of their waste directly to the soil surface. Thus, little above ground plant residues are directly returned to the soil, but rather substantial C inputs derive from bovine manure. We sampled a MiGD-chronosequence of row-crop to MiGD conversion established in 2007 in eastern Georgia. All soils across the MiGD-chronosequence, all occur in relative (40 km) close proximity to one another, are deep, well-drained, fine and fine sandy loam Ultisols formed on Coastal Plain sediments. Prior to MiGD established, the soils were farmed for > 50 yrs using conventional tillage techniques. Our current sampling to 1m depths captures fields at 0, 2, 3, and 5 yrs since conversion. Total soil carbon (C) and the carbon concentration of the clay fraction increased following conversion, with the greatest increases occurring between 3 and 5 yrs since conversion. These C increases were limited to the upper 40cm of the soil, with minimal change occurring at depth. Characterization of the protein and ligand content of these soils via 13C NMR and chemolytic techniques as a function of soil particle density and size is in progress and will be presented along with estimates of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes across the MiGD chronosequence. Our broad goal is to quantify ruminal methane emissions and changes to soil C-stocks and stability associated with this land-use shift. Our preliminary data suggest such a land-use change will likely improve soil health and increase C-stocks. Balancing this against potential increases in methane emissions is a key knowledge gap for future southeastern U.S. C-cycling estimates.

Thompson, A.; Kramer, M. G.; Hill, N.; Machmuller, M. B.; Cyle, K.

2011-12-01

430

Spatial Variability of Near-surface Soil Moisture for Bioenergy Crops at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to monitor spatial and temporal soil moisture variability below ten different potential bioenergy cropping systems at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center's sustainability research site in Michigan, U.S.A. These crops range from high-diversity, low-input grasses and poplars to low-diversity, high-input corn-soybean-canola rotations. We equipped the 28x40m vegetation plots with permanent 2D resistivity arrays,

R. L. van Dam; K. Diker; A. K. Bhardwaj; S. K. Hamilton

2009-01-01

431

Modelling crop canopy and residue rainfall interception effects on soil hydrological components for semi-arid agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop canopies and residues have been shown to intercept a significant amount of rainfall. However, rainfall or irrigation interception by crops and residues has often been overlooked in hydrologic modelling. Crop canopy interception is controlled by canopy density and rainfall intensity and duration. Crop residue interception is a function of crop residue type, residue density and cover, and rainfall intensity and duration. We account for these controlling factors and present a model for both interception components based on Merriam's approach. The modified Merriam model and the current modelling approaches were examined and compared with two field studies and one laboratory study. The Merriam model is shown to agree well with measurements and was implemented within the Agricultural Research Service's Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM). Using this enhanced version of RZWQM, three simulation studies were performed to examine the quantitative effects of rainfall interception by corn and wheat canopies and residues on soil hydrological components. Study I consisted of 10 separate hypothetical growing seasons (1991-2000) for canopy effects and 10 separate non-growing seasons (1991-2000) for residue effects for eastern Colorado conditions. For actual management practices in a no-till wheat-corn-fallow cropping sequence at Akron, Colorado (study II), a continuous 10-year RZWQM simulation was performed to examine the cumulative changes on water balance components and crop growth caused by canopy and residue rainfall interception. Finally, to examine a higher precipitation environment, a hypothetical, no-till wheat-corn-fallow rotation scenario at Corvallis, Oregon, was simulated (study III). For all studies, interception was shown to decrease infiltration, runoff, evapotranspiration from soil, deep seepage of water and chemical transport, macropore flow, leaf area index, and crop/grain yield. Because interception decreased both infiltration and soil evapotranspiration, no significant change in soil water storage was simulated. Nonetheless, these findings and the new interception models are significant new contributions for hydrologists. Published in 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Kozak, Joseph A.; Ahuja, Lajpat R.; Green, Timothy R.; Ma, Liwang

2007-01-01

432

Simply Obtained Global Radiation, Soil Temperature and SoilMoisture in an Alley Cropping System in Semi-Arid Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture data were obtained from a 4-6 year old Cassia siamea/maize (CM) alley cropping (or hedgerow intercropping) system, at a semi-arid site at Machakos, Kenya, in the late eighties. With the growing need to explore and manage variations in agro-ecosystems these results deserve new attention. They quantify, in a simple but detailed manner, the influence of hedgerows on the microclimate of their intercrop and for comparison provide a sole maize (SM) control. Due to inhomogeneity of Cassia and maize, as well as limited budgets, the sampling methodology and the choice of appropriate equipment, including the sensors, demanded special attention. The diurnal patterns of soil temperatures at 7.5cm depth represented well the shading patterns of the hedgerows. This can be developed into an operational auxiliary methodology of integrated shade quantification. With proper precautions, the developed sampling methodologies showed appropriately the time integrated values of the three microclimatic parameters with enough detail to understand yield differences between treatments and between rows. This approach may therefore be recommended for on-farm quantification of even greater spatial variability of parameters. The limitations of the selected methods are highlighted. Experiences with some alternative methods are also discussed.

Mungai, D. N.; Stigter, C. J.; Coulson, C. L.; Ng'ang'a, J. K.

433

Feed the crop not the soil: rethinking phosphorus management in the food chain.  

PubMed

Society relies heavily on inorganic phosphorus (P) compounds throughout its food chain. This dependency is not only very inefficient and increasingly costly but is depleting finite global reserves of rock phosphate. It has also left a legacy of P accumulation in soils, sediments and wastes that is leaking into our surface waters and contributing to widespread eutrophication. We argue for a new, more precise but more challenging paradigm in P fertilizer management that seeks to develop more sustainable food chains that maintain P availability to crops and livestock but with reduced amounts of imported mineral P and improved soil function. This new strategy requires greater public awareness of the environmental consequences of dietary choice, better understanding of soil-plant-animal P dynamics, increased recovery of both used P and unutilized legacy soil P, and new innovative technologies to improve fertilizer P recovery. In combination, they are expected to deliver significant economic, environmental, and resource-protection gains, and contribute to future global P stewardship. PMID:24840064

Withers, Paul J A; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Jones, Davey L; Healey, John R; Talboys, Peter J

2014-06-17

434

Combating wind erosion of sandy soils and crop damage in the coastal deserts: Wind tunnel experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the western Negev desert of Israel frequent sandstorms cause heavy damage to young lettuce, carrot, peanut and potato plants during the planting season. The damage of plants is based mainly on the mechanical impact of saltating sand particles, which causes irreversible injuries to the plant leaves. Current agro-technique measures taken to prevent wind damage to crop in Israel are based on high frequency irrigation. Although the high-frequency irrigation helps bind soil particles together by forming a soil crust, it is associated with the large waste of water, which is not practical under the arid conditions. Application of polyacrylamide (PAM) as a chemical stabilizer has proved to be effective for prevention of soil erosion, saving irrigation water and a stable growth of plants in the early stages. Although the technique of PAM application is not yet used commercially in Israel, the preliminary studies suggested that it might have the potential to reduce the damage to the plant leaves by sandstorms, providing both environmental and agricultural benefits. In this study the effectiveness of PAM for preventing sandstorms in the western Negev was also investigated. Optimal concentration and volume of PAM solution per hectare of bare sandy soil were determined. For this purpose a wind tunnel was used to determine wind velocities of the first and continuous detachment of particles. The ability of PAM application to minimize the damage of plants by sandstorms was experimentally verified using image analysis tools.

Genis, Arthur; Vulfson, Leonid; Ben-Asher, Jiftah

2013-06-01

435

Carbon sequestration in dryland soils and plant residue as influenced by tillage and crop rotation.  

PubMed

Long-term use of conventional tillage and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow systems in the northern Great Plains have resulted in low soil organic carbon (SOC) levels. We examined the effects of two tillage practices [conventional till (CT) and no-till (NT)], five crop rotations [continuous spring wheat (CW), spring wheat-fallow (W-F), spring wheat-lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) (W-L), spring wheat-spring wheat-fallow (W-W-F), and spring wheat-pea (Pisum sativum L.)-fallow (W-P-F)], and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) planting on plant C input, SOC, and particulate organic carbon (POC). A field experiment was conducted in a mixture of Scobey clay loam (fine-loamy, mixed, Aridic Argiborolls) and Kevin clay loam (fine, montmorillonitic, Aridic Argiborolls) from 1998 to 2003 in Havre, MT. Total plant biomass returned to the soil from 1998 to 2003 was greater in CW (15.5 Mg ha(-1)) than in other rotations. Residue cover, amount, and C content in 2004 were 33 to 86% greater in NT than in CT and greater in CRP than in crop rotations. Residue amount (2.47 Mg ha(-1)) and C content (0.96 Mg ha(-1)) were greater in NT with CW than in other treatments, except in CT with CRP and W-F and in NT with CRP and W-W-F. The SOC at the 0- to 5-cm depth was 23% greater in NT (6.4 Mg ha(-1)) than in CT. The POC was not influenced by tillage and crop rotation, but POC to SOC ratio at the 0- to 20-cm depth was greater in NT with W-L (369 g kg(-1) SOC) than in CT with CW, W-F, and W-L. From 1998 to 2003, SOC at the 0- to 20-cm depth decreased by 4% in CT but increased by 3% in NT. Carbon can be sequestered in dryland soils and plant residue in areas previously under CRP using reduced tillage and increased cropping intensity, such as NT with CW, compared with traditional practice, such as CT with W-F system, and the content can be similar to that in CRP planting. PMID:16825454

Sainju, Upendra M; Lenssen, Andrew; Caesar-Thonthat, Thecan; Waddell, Jed

2006-01-01

436

Crop rotation and soil temperature influence the community structure of Aspergillus flavus in soil  

E-print Network

s t r a c t Aspergillus flavus, the most important cause of aflatoxin contamination, has two major morphotypes commonly termed `S' and `L' strains. Strain S isolates, on average, produce more aflatoxins than aflatoxin severity, and that periods of increased soil temperature drive selection of the highly toxigenic

Cotty, Peter J.

437

EFFECT OF CROP ROTATION, TILLAGE, AND SOIL SERIES ON SOIL ORGANIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farm fields in eastern Virginia with corn-soybean and corn-small grain-soybean rotations from multiple farms were sampled to depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm to measure soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration for ‘complete no-till’ (no-till) vs. ‘conventional-till’ (conv-till) (tillage prior to small gra...

438

Soil carbon and nitrogen variations in wheat-corn double cropping systems under long-term fertilization in China (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term field measurements of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) are crucial for understanding soil carbon and nitrogen cycles. In this study, we analyze SOC and TN dynamics at four long-term experiment sites under wheat-corn cropping rotation in East China. Here we choose a control (no fertilization) and two fertilization treatments: chemical fertilization (NPK) and chemical fertilization with manure (NPKM). Our study shows that both SOC and TN decrease with soil depth, which leads to similar values for C/N ratio along soil profile. Long-term fertilization effects on SOC and TN concentrations occur primarily in the surface soil (0-20 cm). Soil organic carbon appears to be sustained over time in the wheat-corn cropping system at most sites, even under no fertilization. Both SOC and TN concentrations of the surface soils are relative stable in the NPK treatments at the Changping and Zhengzhou sites but rise significantly at the Yangling site. However, TN concentration shows a declining trend in the NPK treatment at the Qiyang site. The NPKM treatment increases SOC and TN concentrations in the surface soil depth. The exception is that soil TN concentration at the Qiyang site shows little change over time, fluctuating between 1.05 and 1.48 g kg-1. As a result, at the Qiyang site, surface soil C/N ratio increase significantly over time in the NPK/NPKM treatments. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen dynamics are coupling at the Changping, Zhengzhou, and Yangling sites but uncoupling at the Qiyang site. Fig. 1. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) dynamics under long-term corn-wheat cropping system at the (a) Changping , (b) Zhengzhou, (c) Yangling and (d) Qiyang. Table 1. The experimental locations and climate characteristics. data from China meteorological sharing service system, http://cdc.cma.gov.cn/

Cong, R.; Xu, M.; Wang, X.; Zhang, W.

2010-12-01

439

Wind erosion flux measurements and variability on traditionally cultivated fields in South West Niger: crop residues and soils crust impacts.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Sahel, crop residues are well known to reduce wind erosion. But these crop residues were studied on controlled experimental plots with amounts much higher than those traditionally encountered on cultivated fields. This work aims i) to monitor crop residues on traditional field and to quantify its influence on wind erosion ii) to characterize the impacts of soils crusting on erosion flux. At Banizoumbou in Niger, crop residues cover rates (%) and wind erosion fluxes (kg m-1 per event) have been measured for six seasons on two plots: PA (1,5 ha) maintained bare and PB (1,5 ha) traditionally cultivated. Results showed that crop residues efficiently prevent cultivated fields from wind erosion during the dry season and considerably reduce erosion fluxes at the beginning of the rainy season. A minimal cover rate of about 2 % (100 Kg.ha-1) appears as critical to limit wind erosion. Below this rate, soil losses by wind erosion would dramatically increase as observed on plot PA. On this plot, the area covered with erosion crusts increased at the soil surface from the first year of measurements during each rainy season. They are due to the combined effect of wind erosion and rainfall, but not to water erosion as the plot is not sloped. After soils crusting wind erosion flux regularly decreases on plot PA. This decrease seems to be due to supply limitation in erodible sediment.

Abdourhamane Touré, A.; Rajot, J. L.; Garba, Z.; Marticorena, B.; Petit, C.; Sebag, D.; Malam Issa, O.

2012-04-01

440

Miscanthus Establishment and Overwintering in the Midwest USA: A Regional Modeling Study of Crop Residue Management on Critical Minimum Soil Temperatures  

PubMed Central

Miscanthus is an intriguing cellulosic bioenergy feedstock because its aboveground productivity is high for low amounts of agrochemical inputs, but soil temperatures below ?3.5°C could threaten successful cultivation in temperate regions. We used a combination of observed soil temperatures and the Agro-IBIS model to investigate how strategic residue management could reduce the risk of rhizome threatening soil temperatures. This objective was addressed using a historical (1978–2007) reconstruction of extreme minimum 10 cm soil temperatures experienced across the Midwest US and model sensitivity studies that quantified the impact of crop residue on soil temperatures. At observation sites and for simulations that had bare soil, two critical soil temperature thresholds (50% rhizome winterkill at ?3.5°C and ?6.0°C for different Miscanthus genotypes) were reached at rhizome planting depth (10 cm) over large geographic areas. The coldest average annual extreme 10 cm soil temperatures were between ?8°C to ?11°C across North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Large portions of the region experienced 10 cm soil temperatures below ?3.5°C in 75% or greater for all years, and portions of North and South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin experienced soil temperatures below ?6.0°C in 50–60% of all years. For simulated management options that established varied thicknesses (1–5 cm) of miscanthus straw following harvest, extreme minimum soil temperatures increased by 2.5°C to 6°C compared to bare soil, with the greatest warming associated with thicker residue layers. While the likelihood of 10 cm soil temperatures reaching ?3.5°C was greatly reduced with 2–5 cm of surface residue, portions of the Dakotas, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Wisconsin still experienced temperatures colder than ?3.5°C in 50–80% of all years. Nonetheless, strategic residue management could help increase the likelihood of overwintering of miscanthus rhizomes in the first few years after establishment, although low productivity and biomass availability during these early stages could hamper such efforts. PMID:23844244

Kucharik, Christopher J.; VanLoocke, Andy; Lenters, John D.; Motew, Melissa M.

2013-01-01