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1

Annual Faculty Review Guidelines Department of Soil and Crop Science  

E-print Network

Annual Faculty Review Guidelines Department of Soil and Crop Science Texas A&M University (Revised December 2012) INTRODUCTION The Department of Soil and Crop Science (SCSC) proactively supports, extension and service missions of the Department, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Texas A&M Agri

Boas, Harold P.

2

Effects of climatic factors and soil management on the methane flux in soils from annual and perennial energy crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane flux rates were measured on a loamy sand soil within perennial and annual energy crops in northeast Germany. The study\\u000a was performed in closed chambers between 2003 and 2005 with four measurements per week. A mixed linear model including the\\u000a fixed effects of year, rotation period, crop and fertilisation was applied to determine the influence of climatic factors\\u000a and

Jürgen Kern; Hans Jürgen Hellebrand; Michael Gömmel; Christian Ammon; Werner Berg

3

Soil Fungal Resources in Annual Cropping Systems and Their Potential for Management  

PubMed Central

Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i) highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii) examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii) propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes) interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments) can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils. PMID:25247177

Esmaeili Taheri, Ahmad; Bainard, Luke D.; Yang, Chao; Navarro-Borrell, Adriana; Hamel, Chantal

2014-01-01

4

Effect of Potassium on Uptake of 137Cs in Food Crops Grown on Coral Soils: Annual Crops at Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect

In 1954 a radioactive plume from the thermonuclear device code named BRAVO contaminated the principal residential islands, Eneu and Bikini, of Bikini Atoll (11{sup o} 36 minutes N; 165{sup o} 22 minutes E), now part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The resulting soil radioactivity diminished greatly over the three decades before the studies discussed below began. By that time the shorter-lived isotopes had all but disappeared, but strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), and cesium-137, ({sup 137}Cs) were reduced by only one half-life. Minute amounts of the long-lived isotopes, plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), were present in soil, but were found to be inconsequential in the food chain of humans and land animals. Rather, extensive studies demonstrated that the major concern for human health was {sup 137}Cs in the terrestrial food chain (Robison et al., 1983; Robison et al., 1997). The following papers document results from several studies between 1986 and 1997 aimed at minimizing the {sup 137}Cs content of annual food crops. The existing literature on radiocesium in soils and plant uptake is largely a consequence of two events: the worldwide fallout of 1952-58, and the fallout from Chernobyl. The resulting studies have, for the most part, dealt either with soils containing some amount of silicate clays and often with appreciable K, or with the short-term development of plants in nutrient cultures.

Stone, E R; Robinson, W

2002-02-01

5

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

Arnold, Jonathan

6

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

Arnold, Jonathan

7

Crop Production: Annual Summary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) (described in the June 4, 1998 Scout Report for Business and Economics) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has recently released the annual summary of US crop production. Available in text or .pdf format, the summary contains "annual US data for acreage, yield, and production by crop." In addition to statistical tables, the report includes reviews of crop progress and the weather in 1998. Reports from 1995-98 are also available in text format only.

8

Carbon dioxide flux as affected by tillage and irrigation in soil converted from perennial forages to annual crops.  

PubMed

Among greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is one of the most significant contributors to regional and global warming as well as climatic change. A field study was conducted to (i) determine the effect of soil characteristics resulting from changes in soil management practices on CO(2) flux from the soil surface to the atmosphere in transitional land from perennial forages to annual crops, and (ii) develop empirical relationships that predict CO(2) flux from soil temperature and soil water content. The CO(2) flux, soil temperature (T(s)), volumetric soil water content (theta(v)) were measured every 1-2 weeks in no-till (NT) and conventional till (CT) malt barley and undisturbed soil grass-alfalfa (UGA) systems in a Lihen sandy loam soil (sandy, mixed, frigid Entic Haplustoll) under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in western North Dakota. Soil air-filled porosity (epsilon) was calculated from total soil porosity and theta(v) measurements. Significant differences in CO(2) fluxes between land management practices (irrigation and tillage) were observed on some measurement dates. Higher CO(2) fluxes were detected in CT plots than in NT and UGA treatments immediately after rainfall or irrigation. Soil CO(2) fluxes increased with increasing soil moisture (R(2)=0.15, P<0.01) while an exponential relationship was found between CO(2) emission and T(s) (R(2)=0.59). Using a stepwise regression analysis procedure, a significant multiple regression equation was developed between CO(2) flux and theta(v), T(s) (CO(2) flux = e(-3.477+0.123T(s)+6.381theta)(v); R(2)=0.68, P soil temperature was a driving factor in the equation, which accounted for approximately 59% in variation of CO(2) flux. It was concluded that less intensive tillage, such as no-till or strip tillage, along with careful irrigation management will reduce soil CO(2) evolution from land being converted from perennial forages to annual crops. PMID:17716807

Jabro, J D; Sainju, U; Stevens, W B; Evans, R G

2008-09-01

9

Role of Cover Crops in Improving Soil and Row Crop Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover crops play an important role in improving productivity of subsequent row crops by improving soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. The objective of this article is to review recent advances in cover crops practice, in the context of potential benefits and drawbacks for annual crop production and sustained soil quality. Desirable attributes of a cover crop are the ability

N. K. Fageria; V. C. Baligar; B. A. Bailey

2005-01-01

10

An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.  

PubMed

Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900 °C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41 g N2O-N ha(-1) day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O. PMID:23490323

Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

2013-11-01

11

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Quantitative Genomics  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Quantitative Genomics Committee Membership Dr. Scott Jackson - committee chair Dr. Peng-Wah Chee Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Horticulture Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

Arnold, Jonathan

12

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Irrigation Specialist  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Irrigation Specialist Committee Membership Dr. John Beasley - committee chair Dr. Jared Whitaker Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University: (229) 386-7308 Fax: (912) 681-0376 Dr. Robert Carrow Dr. Mark Risse Department of Crop & Soil Sciences

Arnold, Jonathan

13

Effect of Potassium on Uptake of 137Cs in Food Crops Grown on Coral Soils: Annual Crops at Bikini Atoll  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1954 a radioactive plume from the thermonuclear device code named BRAVO contaminated the principal residential islands, Eneu and Bikini, of Bikini Atoll (11{sup o} 36 minutes N; 165{sup o} 22 minutes E), now part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The resulting soil radioactivity diminished greatly over the three decades before the studies discussed below began. By that

Earl L. Stone; W Robinson

2002-01-01

14

Simulating phosphorus responses in annual crops using APSIM: model evaluation on contrasting soil types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop simulation models have been used successfully to evaluate many systems and the impact of change on these systems, e.g.\\u000a for climatic risk and the use of alternative management options, including the use of nitrogen fertilisers. However, for low\\u000a input systems in tropical and subtropical regions where organic inputs rather than fertilisers are the predominant nutrient\\u000a management option and other

R. J. Delve; M. E. Probert; J. G. Cobo; J. Ricaurte; M. Rivera; E. Barrios; I. M. Rao

2009-01-01

15

Double-cropping annual ryegrass and bermudagrass to reduce phosphorus levels in soil with history of poultry litter application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term application of poultry litter may result in excessively high soil phosphorus (P). This field study determined the\\u000a potential of ‘Coastal’ bermudagrass overseeded with ‘Marshall’ annual ryegrass and harvested for hay to reduce the level of\\u000a Mehlich-3 extractable P (M3-P) that had accumulated in a Savannah soil due to a 30-year history of broiler litter application\\u000a to bermudagrass, as well

J. J. Read; K. R. Sistani; J. L. Oldham; G. E. Brink

2009-01-01

16

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences.  

E-print Network

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences. Strategic Plan SUBMITTED TO THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL Science (Agronomy) ..........................................................page 11 Soil Science Summary The Department of Crop and Soil Sciences consists of the three major program areas of Crop Science

Guiltinan, Mark

17

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Water Policy and Management  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Water Policy and Management Committee Membership Dr. David Radcliffe - committee chair Dr. George Vellidis Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Stripling

Arnold, Jonathan

18

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Cotton Physiologist Tifton campus  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Cotton Physiologist ­ Tifton campus Committee Membership Dr. Stanley Culpepper - committee chair Dr. John Beasley Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia-SE District University

Arnold, Jonathan

19

Cover Crops Soil Health Forum  

E-print Network

blinking light, onto Silk Farm Road. 4. Entrance to Center and Sanctuary is on the left. See sign. Cover Crops & Soil Health Forum February 18, 2014 NH Audubon Center 84 Silk Farm Road Concord, NH 03301

New Hampshire, University of

20

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist Committee Membership Dr. J. Michael Moore - committee chair Dr. Clint Waltz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

Arnold, Jonathan

21

Code -Department of Soil and Crop Sciences October 2004 DEPARTMENT OF SOIL AND CROP SCIENCES  

E-print Network

Code - Department of Soil and Crop Sciences October 2004 CODE DEPARTMENT OF SOIL AND CROP SCIENCES.6.2 of the University Code. 1 #12;Code - Department of Soil and Crop Sciences October 2004 2. Associate Department Head

22

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Small Grain Breeding  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Small Grain Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Paul Raymer - committee chair Dr. Scott Jackson Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Horticulture University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

Arnold, Jonathan

23

Nutrient management of soil grown crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of the fertilization of soil grown crops in greenhouses can be distinguished in the addition of fertilizers before cultivation, the base dressing and those added during the cultivations period of the crops, the top dressing. The growing period of the crops in greenhouse production varies strongly. Some vegetable crops like radish and lettuce have a growing period between

C. Sonneveld; W. Voogt

2007-01-01

24

Chemistry and microbial functional diversity differences in biofuel crop and grassland soils in multiple geographies  

EPA Science Inventory

As crop and non-crop lands are increasingly converted to biofuel feedstock production, it is of interest to identify potential impacts of annual and perennial feedstocks on soil ecosystem services. Soil samples were obtained from diverse regionally distributed biofuel cropping si...

25

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Statewide Variety Testing Program Coordinator  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Statewide Variety Testing Program Coordinator Committee Membership Dr. Jerry Johnson - committee chair Dr. Paul Raymer Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University

Arnold, Jonathan

26

Nitrogen mineralization and availability of mixed leguminous and non-leguminous cover crop residues in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas non-leguminous cover crops such as cereal rye (Secale cereale) or annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium) are capable of reducing nitrogen (N) leaching during wet seasons, leguminous cover crops such as hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) improve soil N fertility for succeeding crops. With mixtures of grasses and legumes as cover crop, the goal of reducing\\u000a N leaching while increasing soil N

S. Kuo; U. M. Sainju

1998-01-01

27

A review of no-till systems and soil management for sustainable crop production in the subhumid and semiarid Pampas of Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western part of the Argentine Pampas is a subhumid and semiarid region consisting of extensive plain with deep sandy and sandy-loam soils. The agricultural system includes pastures in rotation with annual grain crops and grazed crops or continuous annual row cropping. The objective of this review was to present and discuss changes in soil properties due to different soil

Mart??n D??az-Zorita; Gustavo A Duarte; John H Grove

2002-01-01

28

The relative roles of N fixation, fertilizer, crop residues and soil in supplying N in multiple cropping systems in a humid, tropical upland cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work provides information relevant to the nitrogen (N) management strategy of multiple cropping in upland systems in the humid tropics of the transmigration areas of Sumatra, Indonesia. The experiment was conducted on a red yellow podzolic (orthoxic palehumult) soil at Kota Bumi in Lampung Province, Indonesia, where the annual rainfall of 2430 mm allows three consecutive crops per year

Widjang H. Sisworo; M. M. Mitrosuhardjo; Havid Rasjid; R. J. K. Myers

1990-01-01

29

Crop responses to applied soil compaction and to compaction repair treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop responses to annual compaction treatments (applied to whole plots) and management treatments to ameliorate compacted soil were determined in a field experiment on a Vertisol. Initially, all treatments except a control were compacted with a 10Mg axle load on wet soil (26% gravimetric water content compared with a plastic limit of 22%). Annually applied axle loads of 10 and

B. J Radford; D. F Yule; D McGarry; C Playford

2001-01-01

30

Soil mineral nitrogen and nitrate leaching losses in soil tillage systems combined with a catch crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual nitrogen leaching losses from arable land in south Sweden usually amount to 15–45kgha?1. The objective of this three-year study was to investigate the timing effect of mouldboard ploughing (early autumn, late autumn or spring) on soil mineral nitrogen content and nitrate leaching in a cropping system with spring-sown small grain crops (barley, oats and wheat). Late autumn ploughing was

Maria Stenberg; Helena Aronsson; Börje Lindén; Tomas Rydberg; Arne Gustafson

1999-01-01

31

Effects of long-term phosphorus fertilization and winter cover cropping on soil phosphorus transformations in less weathered soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information concerning sources and sinks of available P in soil is needed to improve soil P management and protect water quality. This study, conducted from 1989 to 1998 on a Sultan silt loam soil (Aquantic Xerochrept), determined the annual P removal rate by corn ( Zea mays L.) and P transformation as affected by P rate and winter cover cropping.

S. Kuo; B. Huang; R. Bembenek

2005-01-01

32

Differential Soil Acidity Tolerance of Tropical Legume Cover Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tropical regions, soil acidity and low soil fertility are the most important yield?limiting factors for sustainable crop production. Using legume cover crops as mulch is an important strategy not only to protect the soil loss from erosion but also to ameliorate soil fertility. Information is limited regarding tolerances of tropical legume cover crops to acid soils. A greenhouse experiment

N. K. Fageria; V. C. Baligar; Y. C. Li

2009-01-01

33

Prediction of time variation in water and chloride profiles in a soil subject to cropping and annual application of sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model of discrete type was applied for simulating water and chloride movement through the upper 100 cm of unsaturated soils treated with sewage sludge and planted with Italian ryegrass. The model simulation indicated that the time required for washing out the chloride from the soil depended on the amount of precipitation rather than the number of repetitions of sludge application. When the precipitation exceeded the sum of the evaporation and the water taken up by the plant, the distribution of the chloride concentration reached an equilibrium within several years. When the precipitation was less than the sum of the evaporation and the water taken up, the concentration of chloride in soil increased annually and the water deficit was critical during the period of active plant growth. A part of the chloride transported by the unsteady flow of water reached the soil layers at a depth below 100 cm, even though the net amount of water leached was equal to or less than zero.

Otoma, Suehiro; Kuboi, Toru

1988-05-01

34

Micronutrients in Soils, Crops, and Livestock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micronutrient concentrations are generally higher in the surface soil and decrease with soil depth. In spite of the high concentration of most micronutrients in soils, only a small fraction is available to plants. Micronutrients, also known as trace elements, are required in microquantities but their lack can cause serious crop production and animal health problems. Crops vary considerably in their response to various micronutrients. Brassicas and legumes are highly responsive to molybdenum (Mo) and boron (B), whereas corn and other cereals are more responsive to zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Micronutrient deficiencies are more common in humid temperate regions, as well as in humid tropical regions, because of intense leaching associated with high precipitation. Soil pH is one of the most important factors affecting the availability of micronutrients to plants. With increasing pH, the availability of these nutrients is reduced with the exception of Mo whose availability increases as soil pH increases. In most plant species, leaves contain higher amounts of nutrients than other plant parts. Therefore, whenever possible, leaves should be sampled to characterize the micronutrient status of crops. Deficiency symptoms for most micronutrients appear on the younger leaves at the top of the plant, whereas toxicity symptoms generally appear on the older leaves of plants. As summarized by Deckers and Steinnes, micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in developing countries, which have much poorer soil resources than the fertile soils of Europe and North America. Many of these areas lie in the humid tropics with extremely infertile, highly weathered, and/or highly leached soils, which are intensely deficient in nutrients. The rest of such soils are in the semiarid and areas adjacent to the latter, where alkaline and calcareous soil conditions severely limit the availability of micronutrients to plants. Frequently, the Cu, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), Zn, and selenium (Se) levels in forages, which are sufficient for optimum crop yields, are not adequate to meet the needs of livestock. Selenium is a trace mineral, which is not required by plants, and maximum forage yields can be obtained on soils with very low amounts of soil Se. However, if animals are fed feed crops and forages with low Se, they could suffer from serious muscular disorders and other diseases. White muscle disease caused by Se deficiency is the most common disorder and is found in calves and lambs. Sufficiency levels of micronutrients for crops have been discussed in relation to the animal requirement.

Gupta, Umesh C.; Wu, Kening; Liang, Siyuan

35

Management of cruciferous cover crops by mowing for soil and water conservation in southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the use of cover crops in Mediterranean olive orchards has increased due to serious soil erosion problems and surface water contamination by herbicides. In these areas, the annual precipitation regime is strongly seasonal, with dry summers that require killing the cover crop before it competes with the trees for water. Cruciferous species are being introduced as cover

C. Alcántara; A. Pujadas; M. Saavedra

2011-01-01

36

Legume Based Cropping and Soil Biodiversity Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The soil is home to an enormous diversity of organisms, many of which are beneficial, while a small and equally diverse proportion\\u000a contains harmful organisms. Legume cropping and husbandry practices impact negatively or positively on diversity. These changes\\u000a in biodiversity may be quantitative and\\/or qualitative. Sustainable management of diversity in soils involves an ecosystem\\u000a approach which encourages the establishment of

N. K. Karanja; J. M. Kimenju; A. O. Esilaba; J. Jefwa; F. Ayuke

37

Effects of bioenergy crop cultivation on earthworm communities—A comparative study of perennial ( Miscanthus) and annual crops with consideration of graded land-use intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy crops are of growing importance in agriculture worldwide. This field study aimed to investigate earthworm communities of different intensively cultivated soils during a 2-year period, with special emphasis on annual and perennial energy crops like rapeseed, maize, and Miscanthus. These were compared with cereals, grassland, and fallow sites. Distribution patterns of earthworm abundance, species, and ecological categories were analysed

Daniel Felten; Christoph Emmerling

2011-01-01

38

Phosphorus management for perennial crops in central Amazonian upland soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present contribution discusses the soil P status of central Amazonian upland soils, the effects of tree crops on soil P availability and the factors controlling soil P cycling in land use systems with tree crops. Soil fertility management has to target the prevalent P deficiency by adequate P fertilization, especially in southern and northern municipalities of central Amazônia where

Johannes Lehmann; Manoel da Silva Cravo; Jeferson Luiz Vasconselos de Macêdo; Adônis Moreira; Götz Schroth

2001-01-01

39

Soil carbon sequestration via cover crops- A meta-analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural soils are depleted in soil organic carbon (SOC) and have thus a huge potential to sequester SOC. This can primarily be achieved by increasing carbon inputs into the soil. Replacing winter fallows by cover crop cultivation for green manure has many benefits for the soil and forms an additional carbon input. An increase in carbon concentration has been reported in several studies worldwide. However, the effect on SOC stocks, as well as the influence of environmental parameters and management on SOC dynamics is not known. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to investigate those issues. A total of 33 studies, comprising 47 sites and 147 plots were compiled. A pedotransfer function was used to estimate bulk densities and calculate SOC stocks. SOC stock change was found to be a linear function of time since introduction, with an annual sequestration rate of 0.32 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Since no saturation was visible in the observations, we used the model RothC to estimate a new steady state level and the resulting total SOC stock change for an artificial "average cropland". The total average SOC stock change with an annual input of 1.87 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 was 16.76 Mg C ha-1 for the average soil depth of 22 cm. We estimated a potential global SOC sequestration of 0.12±0.03 Pg C yr-1, which would compensate for 8 % of the direct annual greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.

Poeplau, Christopher; Don, Axel

2014-05-01

40

Cropping Systems Management, Soil Microbial Communities, and Soil Biological Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Consumers are demanding more organic products, in part because of concerns over environmental issues in conventional agriculture.\\u000a Modern, high-input agriculture can cause groundwater contamination, soil erosion, and eutrophication of surface waters. It\\u000a may be possible to enhance natural nutrient cycling and reduce our dependence on inorganic fertilizers in cropping systems.\\u000a To do so, we have to manage our cropping systems

Alison G. Nelson; Dean Spaner

41

Topographic and soil influences on root productivity of three bioenergy cropping systems.  

PubMed

Successful modeling of the carbon (C) cycle requires empirical data regarding species-specific root responses to edaphic characteristics. We address this need by quantifying annual root production of three bioenergy systems (continuous corn, triticale/sorghum, switchgrass) in response to variation in soil properties across a toposequence within a Midwestern agroecosystem. Using ingrowth cores to measure annual root production, we tested for the effects of topography and 11 soil characteristics on root productivity. Root production significantly differed among cropping systems. Switchgrass root productivity was lowest on the floodplain position, but root productivity of annual crops was not influenced by topography or soil properties. Greater switchgrass root production was associated with high percent sand, which explained 45% of the variation. Percent sand was correlated negatively with soil C and nitrogen and positively with bulk density, indicating this variable is a proxy for multiple important soil properties. Our results suggest that easily measured soil parameters can be used to improve model predictions of root productivity in bioenergy switchgrass, but the edaphic factors we measured were not useful for predicting root productivity in annual crops. These results can improve C cycling modeling efforts by revealing the influence of cropping system and soil properties on root productivity. PMID:23692583

Ontl, Todd A; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Cambardella, Cynthia A; Schulte, Lisa A; Kolka, Randall K

2013-08-01

42

Modelling effects of soil structure on the water balance of soil–crop systems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor soil structure, i.e. aggregation and porosity, is widely acknowledged as a major limitation to infiltration, redistribution and storage of water in a soil profile, leading to more runoff and erosion, reduced available water for plants and reduced crop production. Models of soil–crop systems are useful tools for evaluating interactions between soil physical condition, climate, management and crop growth. An

R. D Connolly

1998-01-01

43

Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. Annual progress report for FY 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1985. HECP emphasizes lignocellulosic forage crops. In FY 1985 screening and selection trails began on seven species of perennial and annual grasses and legumes in five projects in the Southeast and the Midwest-Lake State regions. Research also continued on the

J. H. Cushman; A. F. Turhollow; J. W. Johnston

1986-01-01

44

Effect of Crop Residues on Soil Properties, Plant Growth, and Crop Yield. Agronomy Farm, Lincoln, Nebraska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported in a study designed to evaluate the effects of quantity of crop residues left on soil surface on soil properties, plant growth, and crop yield and to determine the effects of quantity of surface residues upon soil, fertilizer, and res...

J. F. Power

1981-01-01

45

Reducing crop injury from soil-applied herbicides  

E-print Network

Reducing crop injury from soil-applied herbicides - The Dirty Dozen & Other Stuff - Fabian Menalled Weed Management ­ Herbicide persistence restricts rotational crops #12;In Montana the risk of carryover and herbicide injury due to soil applied herbicides is particularly large because: · Soils with high pH (7

Maxwell, Bruce D.

46

Soil Organic Matter in a West Bengal Inceptisol after 30 Years of Multiple Cropping and Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice-based multiple cropping systems are predominant in the Indo- Gangetic Plains of Indian subcontinent. A decline in yield of such systems has been observed and ascribed to quantitative and qualitative variations of soil organic matter (SOM). We evaluated the impact of the annual rotation: rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), jute (Corchorus olitorius L.), with and without fertilizer

M. C. Manna; A. Swarup; R. H. Wanjari; Y. V. Singh; P. K. Ghosh; K. N. Singh; A. K. Tripathi; M. N. Saha

2006-01-01

47

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences PhD Graduate Research Assistantship: Soil Science/Soil Quality/Soil Physics  

E-print Network

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences PhD Graduate Research Assistantship: Soil Science/Soil Quality/Soil Physics Position Summary: Plastic mulches are used in agriculture to conserve water, suppress Qualifications: � MS in Soil Science, Environmental Science, Environmental Engineering, or closely related field

Flury, Markus

48

Manganese in Texas Soils and its Relation to Crops.  

E-print Network

on the weight of the crops can be seen by comparing the weights of the crops grown on the portions of soil which received no addition, with the weights of the crops grown on the portions which received manganese sulfate (Mn) and also the crops that received... ....................... Manganese (Mn). .................. Average ....................... Nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potash (NDK) I Average ..................... Nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potash and manganese (NDKMn) / Average ..................... Miller clay, 0...

Carlyle, E. C. (Elmer Cardinal)

1931-01-01

49

Producers seed cover crops to provide a soil cover or barrier against soil erosion.  

E-print Network

, and weather conditions. recycling or scavenging unused nutrients Unused soil nitrogen left at the endProducers seed cover crops to provide a soil cover or barrier against soil erosion. In addition, cover crops can improve the soil by adding organic matter, nutrients, and stability and by acting

Kaye, Jason P.

50

Impact of Corn Residue Removal on Crop and Soil Productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over-reliance on imported fuels, increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouses and sustaining food production for a growing population are three of the most important problems facing society in the mid-term. The US Department of Energy and private enterprise are developing technology necessary to use high cellulose feedstock, such as crop residues, for ethanol production. Based on production levels, corn (Zea mays L.) residue has potential as a biofuel feedstock. Crop residues are a renewable and domestic fuel source, which can reduce the rate of fossil fuel use (both imported and domestic) and provide an additional farm commodity. Crop residues protect the soil from wind and water erosion, provide inputs to form soil organic matter (a critical component determining soil quality) and play a role in nutrient cycling. Crop residues impact radiation balance and energy fluxes and reduce evaporation. Therefore, the benefits of using crop residues as fuel, which removes crop residues from the field, must be balanced against negative environmental impacts (e.g. soil erosion), maintaining soil organic matter levels, and preserving or enhancing productivity. All ramifications of new management practices and crop uses must be explored and evaluated fully before an industry is established. There are limited numbers of long-term studies with soil and crop responses to residue removal that range from negative to negligible. The range of crop and soil responses to crop residue removal was attributed to interactions with climate, management and soil type. Within limits, corn residue can be harvested for ethanol production to provide a renewable, domestic source of energy feedstock that reduces greenhouse gases. Removal rates must vary based on regional yield, climatic conditions and cultural practices. Agronomists are challenged to develop a protocol (tool) for recommending maximum permissible removal rates that ensure sustained soil productivity.

Johnson, J. M.; Wilhelm, W. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Voorhees, W. B.; Linden, D.

2003-12-01

51

Restoration of soil organic carbon with cultivation of perennial biofuel crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A biofuel crop that can restore soil quality and maximize terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration would add substantial value to the sustainability of biofuel production chains. Currently in the Midwestern USA, Zea mays is the dominant biofuel feedstock despite a history of soil degradation associated with this crop. We compared soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and microbial communities in Zea mays L. (corn), Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass), Miscanthus x giganteus Greef et Deuter (miscanthus), and native prairie sites at seven locations that spanned a range of temperatures, precipitation, and soil types in Illinois, USA. By comparing annually harvested switchgrass and miscanthus plots to conventional corn agro-ecosystems and native prairies, we determined the SOC restoration potential of perennial biofuel crops. We also calculated SOC accumulation using the ?13C isotope composition of the soil as a tracer for C4 plant-derived SOC additions. SOC differences among plant species varied significantly among sites, but on average, seven-year-old plots of miscanthus and switchgrass had 73% and 57% greater SOC in the top meter of soil than conventional corn crops, respectively, and had 50-63% greater SOC than the younger (four-year-old) miscanthus and switchgrass plots. The ?13C isotope signature of soil in miscanthus and switchgrass plots also indicated an accumulation of SOC. Plant species and SOC variability among sites explained 40-62% of the variation in microbial communities across sites. Microbial communities associated with annually harvested switchgrass and miscanthus differ from communities found in conventional corn agriculture and prairies. Thus, the potential to restore SOC to agriculturally depleted soils of the Midwest is not dependent on a soil microbial community that mimics prairie soil communities. Planting perennial grasses as biofuel crops can lead to an increase in SOC and a change in soil microbial communities. Conventional agricultural soils might be restored in less than 10 years to SOC levels of undisturbed prairies if miscanthus or switchgrass crops were planted and harvested annually, but this response varies with geographic location.

Davis, S. C.; Yannarell, A.; Masters, M.; Anderson-Teixeira, K.; Drake, J. E.; Darmody, R.; Mackie, R.; David, M.; Delucia, E. H.

2009-12-01

52

Estimation of net greenhouse gas balance using crop- and soil-based approaches: two case studies.  

PubMed

The net greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB), estimated by combining direct and indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, can reveal whether an agricultural system is a sink or source of GHGs. Currently, two types of methods, referred to here as crop-based and soil-based approaches, are widely used to estimate the NGHGB of agricultural systems on annual and seasonal crop timescales. However, the two approaches may produce contradictory results, and few studies have tested which approach is more reliable. In this study, we examined the two approaches using experimental data from an intercropping trial with straw removal and a tillage trial with straw return. The results of the two approaches provided different views of the two trials. In the intercropping trial, NGHGB estimated by the crop-based approach indicated that monocultured maize (M) was a source of GHGs (-1315 kg CO?(-eq)ha(-1)), whereas maize-soybean intercropping (MS) was a sink (107 kg CO?(-eq)ha(-1)). When estimated by the soil-based approach, both cropping systems were sources (-3410 for M and -2638 kg CO?(-eq)ha(-1) for MS). In the tillage trial, mouldboard ploughing (MP) and rotary tillage (RT) mitigated GHG emissions by 22,451 and 21,500 kg CO?(-eq)ha(-1), respectively, as estimated by the crop-based approach. However, by the soil-based approach, both tillage methods were sources of GHGs: -3533 for MP and -2241 kg CO?(-eq)ha(-1) for RT. The crop-based approach calculates a GHG sink on the basis of the returned crop biomass (and other organic matter input) and estimates considerably more GHG mitigation potential than that calculated from the variations in soil organic carbon storage by the soil-based approach. These results indicate that the crop-based approach estimates higher GHG mitigation benefits compared to the soil-based approach and may overestimate the potential of GHG mitigation in agricultural systems. PMID:23619090

Huang, Jianxiong; Chen, Yuanquan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wansheng

2013-07-01

53

Purdue AgronomyPurdue Agronomy CROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES  

E-print Network

Purdue AgronomyPurdue Agronomy CROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES High Water Tables and Septic in many Indiana soils, most agricultural land has been drained by subsurface tile to lower the water table of the soil absorption field to lower the water table. The water collected in the subsurface perimeter drain

Holland, Jeffrey

54

Crop and Soil Science Degree Checklist Name: ____________________________  

E-print Network

and Soil Science Degree Checklist Name: ____________________________ ID. Global Issues (3) (*soil science electives meeting requirement) _______ Science, Tech., Society (3) (**soil science electives meeting requirement) Major Core

Grünwald, Niklaus J.

55

Biomass Crop Production: Benefits for Soil Quality and Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Research at three locations in the southeastern US is quantifying changes in soil quality and soil carbon storage that occur during production of biomass crops compared with row crops. After three growing seasons, soil quality improved and soil carbon storage increased on plots planted to cottonwood, sycamore, sweetgum with a cover crop, switchgrass, and no-till corn. For tree crops, sequestered belowground carbon was found mainly in stumps and large roots. At the TN site, the coarse woody organic matter storage belowground was 1.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}yr{sup {minus}1}, of which 79% was stumps and large roots and 21% fine roots. Switchgrass at the AL site also stored considerable carbon belowground as coarse roots. Most of the carbon storage occurred mainly in the upper 30 cw although coarse roots were found to depths of greater than 60 cm. Biomass crops contributed to improvements in soil physical quality as well as increasing belowground carbon sequestration. The distribution and extent of carbon sequestration depends on the growth characteristics and age of the individual biomass crop species. Time and increasing crop maturity will determine the potential of these biomass crops to significantly contribute to the overall national goal of increasing carbon sequestration and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Bandaranayake, W.; Bock, B.R.; Houston, A.; Joslin, J.D.; Pettry, D.E.; Schoenholtz, S.; Thornton, F.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Tyler, D.

1999-08-29

56

Mineralizable soil nitrogen and labile soil organic matter in diverse long-term cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable soil fertility management depends on long-term integrated strategies that build and maintain soil organic matter\\u000a and mineralizable soil N levels. These strategies increase the portion of crop N needs met by soil N and reduce dependence\\u000a on external N inputs required for crop production. To better understand the impact of management on soil N dynamics, we conducted\\u000a field and

John T. SpargoMichel; Michel A. Cavigelli; Steven B. Mirsky; Jude E. Maul; John J. Meisinger

2011-01-01

57

Mobilization of soil and fertilizer phosphate by cover crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation of cover crops into cropping systems may contribute to a more efficient utilization of soil and fertilizer P\\u000a by less P-efficient crops through exudation of P-mobilizing compounds by the roots of P-efficient plant species. The main\\u000a objective of the present work was to test this hypothesis. First a method has been developed which allows the quantification\\u000a of organic anion

Mahmoud Kamh; Walter J. Horst; Fathi Amer; Hamida Mostafa; Peter Maier

1999-01-01

58

Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Indiana Soils and Septic Systems  

E-print Network

Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Indiana Soils and Septic tank and soil absorption field. These systems rely on the soil to remove all contaminants -- including the contaminants reach our drinking water aquifers. This publication is a brief description of soil characteristics

Holland, Jeffrey

59

Guidelines for graduate students in Soil and Crop Sciences, Cornell University  

E-print Network

1 Guidelines for graduate students in Soil and Crop Sciences, Cornell University Table of Contents and concentrations. About 33 faculty have been drawn together into the field of Soil and Crop Sciences by mutual, Field Crop Science, Soil Science, and Agronomy. The field of Soil and Crop Sciences is closely linked

Chen, Tsuhan

60

[Dynamic change of soil organic matter under different cropping systems in the oasis of Tianshan Mountain northern slope].  

PubMed

Taking the oasis of lower Sangong River watershed in the Tianshan Mountain northern slope as study area, six kinds of cropping systems, including those of saline-alkaline tolerance crop, food crop, melon and vegetables, economic plants-cotton, economic plants-grape, and economic plants-hop, were selected based on the investigation of local cropping systems, and the dynamic change of soil organic matter under effects of these cropping systems was analyzed by using the laboratory data in 1982, 1999 and 2003. The results showed that land policy and market price had a direct effect on the transformation from annuals cropping system to perennials cropping system, while soil organic matter (OM) content experienced a decline in 1982-1999 owing to the transformation from planting other crops to planting cotton, and a rise in 1999-2003 resulting from the conversion from planting food crops and cotton to planting perennial crops. On the whole, the soils in the oasis presented as a carbon sink, suggesting that the change of artificial vegetation in the oasis was helpful to the accumulation of soil OM, and beneficial to the sustainable use of farmland. PMID:17650851

Xu, Wen-qiang; Chen, Xi; Luo, Ge-ping; Tang, Fei; Xiao, Lu-xiang

2007-05-01

61

Plant, soil, and shadow reflectance components of row crops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the first Earth Resource Technology Satellite (LANDSAT-1) multispectral scanner (MSS) were used to develop three plant canopy models (Kubelka-Munk (K-M), regression, and combined K-M and regression models) for extracting plant, soil, and shadow reflectance components of cropped fields. The combined model gave the best correlation between MSS data and ground truth, by accounting for essentially all of the reflectance of plants, soil, and shadow between crop rows. The principles presented can be used to better forecast crop yield and to estimate acreage.

Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Cuellar, J. A.; Gerbermann, A. H.

1975-01-01

62

Soil Organic Carbon under Native and Cropped Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil samples were collected from soil pits at depths of 0 to 5 and 5 to 10 cm and by genetic soil-horizon thereafter, with data reported to 1 m depth. Weights of soil organic carbon (SOC) by profile layer were calculated using thicknesses, bulk densities, and C analyses data. Recalculation for discrete depth increments from the horizon data was necessary to statistically analyze and report the SOC for depth increments of 0 to 10, 10 to 20, 20 to 30, 30 to 60, and 60 to 100 cm. The Soil Extent Mapping Tool of the NRCS provided a snapshot, by soil survey area, of where and the size of the areas by county of the soil series sampled in this study. Estimated combined acreage of the 21 soil series, for these 30 paired native and cropped sites, was 9 Mha within 18 states. To estimate the equivalent amount of SOC represented required that the data be area-weighted and statistically analyzed. On an area-weighted basis 131,890 and 98,470 kg SOC per ha were found in the top 100 cm of the native and cropped sites, respectively. Comparison of the difference of ‘native minus cropped’ as an estimate of area weighted SOC losses from cropped soils in for the 0-to 100 cm depth was that 43, 58, and 75% of the total was from the 0-to 10, 0-to 20, and 0-to 30 cm depths, respectively. The area-weighted average-decrease of SOC within the 0-to 100 cm depth (native minus cropped) was 3.0 Tg SOC across 9 Mha. If similar differences exist between native vs. cropped land across the entire 137.6 Mha of US cropland, a total SOC loss would be equivalent to 46 Tg SOC, or equivalent to 170 Tg (0.17 Pg) CO2.

Follett, R. F.; Kimble, J. M.; Pruessner, E.; Samson-Liebig, S.; Waltman, S. W.

2009-12-01

63

Purdue AgronomyPurdue Agronomy CROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES  

E-print Network

Purdue AgronomyPurdue Agronomy CROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Septic System Distribution Boxes: Importance of Equal Distribution in Trenches Brad Lee and Don Jones Department of Agronomy://www.ces.purdue.edu/new Authors: Brad Lee, Assistant Professor and Soil and Land Use Extension Specialist, Department of Agronomy

Holland, Jeffrey

64

REVIEW ARTICLE Soil metals, chloroplasts, and secure crop production  

E-print Network

with metal stress, either metal deficiency or excess, this unbalance affects the whole plant. Chloroplasts. As a result, unbalanced soil metal concentrations can be reflected in the plants and in the chloroplasts homeostasis in chloroplasts of crop plants grown even in soils with unbalanced metal concentrations. Keywords

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

65

SOIL QUALITY AND CROP Dick Wolkowski  

E-print Network

#12;AGGREGATE STABILITY IS A COMMON MEASURE OF SOIL QUALITY INFLUENCED BY Organic matter Nutrient availability Structure and aggregate stability Water relationships Temperature Soil biology SUBJECTIVE: Soil Health? Smell, feel, look, taste? Soil Quality Index MORE QUANTITATIVE Chemical · pH, O

Balser, Teri C.

66

Soil nitrous oxide emissions following crop residue addition: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Annual production of crop residues has reached nearly 4 billion metric tons globally. Retention of this large amount of residues on agricultural land can be beneficial to soil C sequestration. Such potential impacts, however, may be offset if residue retention substantially increases soil emissions of N(2)O, a potent greenhouse gas and ozone depletion substance. Residue effects on soil N(2)O emissions have gained considerable attention since early 1990s; yet, it is still a great challenge to predict the magnitude and direction of soil N(2)O emissions following residue amendment. Here, we used a meta-analysis to assess residue impacts on soil N(2)O emissions in relation to soil and residue attributes, i.e., soil pH, soil texture, soil water content, residue C and N input, and residue C : N ratio. Residue effects were negatively associated with C : N ratios, but generally residue amendment could not reduce soil N(2)O emissions, even for C : N ratios well above ca. 30, the threshold for net N immobilization. Residue effects were also comparable to, if not greater than, those of synthetic N fertilizers. In addition, residue effects on soil N(2)O emissions were positively related to the amounts of residue C input as well as residue effects on soil CO(2) respiration. Furthermore, most significant and stimulatory effects occurred at 60-90% soil water-filled pore space and soil pH 7.1-7.8. Stimulatory effects were also present for all soil textures except sand or clay content ?10%. However, inhibitory effects were found for soils with >90% water-filled pore space. Altogether, our meta-analysis suggests that crop residues played roles beyond N supply for N(2)O production. Perhaps, by stimulating microbial respiration, crop residues enhanced oxygen depletion and therefore promoted anaerobic conditions for denitrification and N(2)O production. Our meta-analysis highlights the necessity to connect the quantity and quality of crop residues with soil properties for predicting soil N(2)O emissions. PMID:23729165

Chen, Huaihai; Li, Xuechao; Hu, Feng; Shi, Wei

2013-10-01

67

Soil Water: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course of study represents the fourth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil water. Upon completing the three day module, the student will be able to classify water as to its presence in the soil, outline the hydrological cycle, list the ways water is lost from the soil,…

Miller, Larry E.

68

Soil microarthropods (Acari and Collembola) in two crop rotations on a heavy marine clay soil  

E-print Network

,version1-9Nov2010 #12;3 3. Data processing The species composition of the soil fauna as related to depth1 Soil microarthropods (Acari and Collembola) in two crop rotations on a heavy marine clay soil. BRUSSAARD*,1 * Institute for Soil Fertility, P.O. Box 30003, 9750 RA Haren, The Netherlands. ** Present

Boyer, Edmond

69

Crop Performance and Soil Properties in Two Artificially-Eroded Soils in North-Central Alberta  

SciTech Connect

Field experiments were conducted from 1991 to 1995 at Josephburg (Orthic Black Chernozem, Typic Cryoboroll) and Cooking Lake (Orthic Gray Luvisol, Typic Cryoboralf), Alberta, to determine impact of topsoil removal on selected soil properties, N-mineralization potential and crop yield, and effectiveness of various amendments for restoring the productivity of eroded soils. The simulated-erosion levels were established in the autumn of 1990 by removing 20 cm topsoil in 5-cm depth increments. The four amendments were: control, addition of 5 cm of topsoil, fertilizers to supply 100 kg N ha-1 and 20 kg P ha-1, and cattle manure at 75 Mg ha-1. Topsoil and manure were applied once in the autumn of 1990, while fertilizers were applied annually from 1991 to 1995. Available N and P, total C, N and P, and N-mineralization potential decreased, while bulk density increased with increasing depth of topsoil removal. Tiller number, plant height, spike density, thousand kernel weight, and leaf area index decreased with simulated erosion. Grain yield reductions due to simulated soil erosion were either linear or curvilinear functions of nutrient removal. Application of N and P fertilizers and manure improved grain yield and reduced the impact of yield loss due to erosion. Return of 5 cm of topsoil also increased grain yield, but to a lesser extent than manure or fertilizers. Grain yields were maximized when fertilizers were also applied to organic amendment treatments. In conclusion, the findings suggest the importance of integrated use of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers for best crop yields on severely-eroded soils.

Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Malhi, S. S.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E. D.; Quiroga Jakas, Maria C.

2006-09-01

70

Collection Policy: Crop and Soil Sciences Introduction  

E-print Network

, distribution studies using GPS, weed management programs, biopesticides, affects of climate change on invasive and water management o Analytical soil chemistry- tests for trace elements in soil and plant uptake the structure of toxic organic chemicals found as pollutants o Functions and dynamics of soil organic matter o

Angenent, Lars T.

71

Cover crops effectiveness for soil erosion control in Sicilian vineyard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vineyards, which are very common in Mediterranean area, cover crops are becoming increasingly used to reduce soil erosion. Cover crops reduce runoff by increasing infiltration and increasing roughness and then reducing the ovelandflow velocity. The aim of the present study was to quantify soil and water losses under different soil managements systems on vineyards. The study site was a Sauvignon blanc winegrape vineyard located in Southwestern Sicily. Vineyards were managed both traditionally (conventional tillage) and alternative management using cover crops: 1) Vicia faba ; 2) Vicia faba and Vicia sativa; 3) Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra; 4)Trifolium subterraneum, Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina, 5) Triticum durum, 6) Triticum durum and Vicia sativa. To monitor water and sediment yield, a Gerlach trough was installed at each treatment on the vineyard inter-row, with the row vineyard used as a border (topographical border). Runoff was measured after each rainfall event (raingauge 0.2 mm accuracy) from November 2005 to April 2007. And sediments were measured after desiccation. The results show that runoff and erosion were reduced considerably under the treatments with Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra and Trifolium subterraneum, Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina (treatments 3 and 4). The soil losses were reduced by 73% under treatment 4 compared to the tillage plot. Conventional tillage and alternative management using Vicia faba cover crop (treatment 1) result the most ineffective treatment to soil erosion. These results show that the use of a cover crop can be a simple soil and water conservation practice in Sicilian vineyards. Key words: soil erosion, cover crops, vineyard, Mediterranean area.

Gristina, L.; Novara, A.; Saladino, S.; Santoro, A.

2009-04-01

72

[Effects of different cropping modes on crop root growth, yield, and rhizosphere soil microbes' number].  

PubMed

A multi-year field experiment was conducted to study the variation features of rhizosphere environment and crop root growth under the cropping modes of wheat-soybean (A1), wheat-sweet potato (A2), maize (A3), wheat/maize/soybean (A4), and wheat/maize/sweet potato (A). Among the five modes, A4 increased the plant biomass, root activity, and root dry mass of wheat, maize, and soybean at their flowering and maturing stages, and the quantity of rhizosphere soil bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. The biomass and quantity of rhizosphere soil microbes were relay strip intercropping > single cropping, soybean > sweet potato, and fringe row > center row. It was suggested that wheat/maize/soybean relay trip intercropping could improve rhizosphere environment, promote the crops root growth and increase their aboveground biomass, and accordingly, realize yield-increasing. PMID:22489489

Yong, Tai-Wen; Yang, Wen-Yu; Xiang, Da-Bing; Chen, Xiao-Rong

2012-01-01

73

Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. Annual progress report for FY 1985  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1985. HECP emphasizes lignocellulosic forage crops. In FY 1985 screening and selection trails began on seven species of perennial and annual grasses and legumes in five projects in the Southeast and the Midwest-Lake State regions. Research also continued on the development of winter rapeseed as a disel-fuel substitute. Activities in FY 1985 included crosses and selections to incorporate atrazine resistance and reduced vernalization requirements in genotypes with desirable seed and oil qualities. Exploratory research efforts in FY 1985 included the physiology and biochemistry of hydrocarbon production in latex bearing plants, the productivity of cattail stands under sustained harvesting, and the development of tissue culture techniques for hard-to-culture sorghum genotypes. Environmental and economic analyses in FY 1985 included completion of a resource assessment of the southwestern United States, a study on successful new crop introductions, and initiation of studies on near-term markets for lignocellulosic energy crops and on vegetable oil extraction facilities. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Cushman, J.H.; Turhollow, A.F.; Johnston, J.W.

1986-04-01

74

Department of Soil and Crop Sciences Honors Program The Department of Soil and Crop Sciences (SCSC) Honors Program is designed for highly-  

E-print Network

Department of Soil and Crop Sciences Honors Program The Department of Soil and Crop Sciences (SCSC programs, Plant and Environmental Soil Science (PSSC), or Turfgrass Science (TGSC), to enhance learning the distinction of Plant and Environmental Soil Science Honors, or Turfgrass Science Honors. Admission

Behmer, Spencer T.

75

Effect of five tree crops and a cover crop in multi-strata agroforestry at two fertilization levels on soil fertility and soil solution chemistry in central Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal patterns of soil fertility and soil solution chemistry in a multi-strata agroforestry system with perennial\\u000a crops were analysed as indicators for the effects of crop species and management measures on soil conditions under permanent\\u000a agriculture in central Amazonia. The study was carried out in a plantation with locally important tree crop species and a\\u000a leguminous cover crop at

Götz Schroth; Wenceslau Geraldes Teixeira; Rosangela Seixas; Luciana Ferreira da Silva; Michaela Schaller; Jeferson L. V. Macêdo; Wolfgang Zech

2000-01-01

76

Soil carbon sequestration with continuous no-till management of grain cropping systems in the Virginia coastal plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon sequestration in agroecosystems represents a significant opportunity to offset a portion of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Climatic conditions in the Virginia coastal plain and modern production practices make it possible for high annual photosynthetic CO2 fixation. There is potential to sequester a substantial amount of C, and concomitantly improve soil quality, with the elimination of tillage for crop production in

John T. Spargo; Marcus M. Alley; Ronald F. Follett; James V. Wallace

2008-01-01

77

Soil Quality Assessment after Weed-Control Tillage in a No-Till Wheat–Fallow Cropping System  

Microsoft Academic Search

retaining crop residue on the soil surface to reduce ero- sion create an environment favorable for downy brome Adoption of reduced-tillage fallow systems in the western USA is because tillage operations are shallow (or eliminated) limited by winter annual grass weeds such as downy brome (Bromus and downy brome seeds are not buried deep enough to tectorum L.). Moldboard plowing

T. A. Kettler; D. J. Lyon; J. W. Doran; W. L. Powers; W. W. Stroup

2000-01-01

78

A soil moisture availability model for crop stress prediction  

E-print Network

December 1983 Major Subject: Bioengineering A SOIL MOISTURE AVAILABILITY MODEL FOR CROP STRESS PREDICTION A Thesis by ROGER F RANKI IN GAY, JR. Approved as to style and content by: te . . arpe (Co-Chairman of Committee) s1n 1 U (Co... December 1983 Major Subject: Bioengineering A SOIL MOISTURE AVAILABILITY MODEL FOR CROP STRESS PREDICTION A Thesis by ROGER F RANKI IN GAY, JR. Approved as to style and content by: te . . arpe (Co-Chairman of Committee) s1n 1 U (Co...

Gay, Roger Franklin

2012-06-07

79

Contrasting weed species composition in perennial alfalfas and six annual crops: implications for integrated weed management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weed communities are most strongly affected by the characteristics and management of the current crop. Crop rotation may thus\\u000a be used to prevent the repeated selection of particular weed species. While weed communities are frequently compared among\\u000a annual crops, little is known about the differences between annual and perennial crops that may be included in the rotations.\\u000a Moreover, nearly all

Helmut Meiss; Safia Médiène; Rainer Waldhardt; Jacques Caneill; Nicolas Munier-Jolain

2010-01-01

80

Soil, Plant, and Crop Science. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This package contains an instructor's manual, an instructor's resource package, and a student workbook for a course in agricultural production and management as it relates to crop production. The module contains 17 units of instruction, each of which contains some or all of the following components: objective sheet, instructor's guide, information…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

81

Crop Management for Soil Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from agriculture is related to increasing and protecting soil organic matter (SOM) concentration. Agricultural soils can be a significant sink for atmospheric carbon (C) through increase of the SOM concentration. The natural ecosystems such as forests or prairies, where C gains are in equilibrium with losses, lose a large fraction of the antecedent C

Marek K. Jarecki; Rattan Lal

2003-01-01

82

Boron Levels in Soils Cropped to Coffee and their Relationships to some Soil Properties in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on boron levels in soils cropped to coffee were carried out in Ghana due to widespread reports on boron deficiency in soils of some coffee producing countr ies. Leaves and soils were sampled from Cocobod coffee plantations at Bogoso, Suhuma, Manso-Mim, Bunso and Bepong, which represent the main coffee growing areas in the Western, Ashanti and Eastern regions of

A. A. Afrifa; K. Ofori-Frimpong; M. K. Abekoe

83

Penetration of cover crop roots through compacted soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tap-rooted species may penetrate compacted soils better than fibrous-rooted species and therefore be better adapted for use\\u000a in “biological tillage”. We evaluated penetration of compacted soils by roots of three cover crops: FR (forage radish: Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus, cv. ‘Daikon’), rapeseed (Brassica napus, cv. ‘Essex’), two tap-rooted species in the Brassica family, and rye (cereal rye: Secale cereale L.,

Guihua Chen; Ray R. Weil

2010-01-01

84

Tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization effects on dryland soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon content.  

PubMed

Management practices are needed to reduce dryland soil CO(2) emissions and to increase C sequestration. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combinations and N fertilization on dryland crop biomass (stems + leaves) and soil surface CO(2) flux and C content (0- to 120-cm depth) in a Williams loam from May to October, 2006 to 2008, in eastern Montana. Treatments were no-tilled continuous malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) (NTCB), no-tilled malt barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) (NTB-P), no-tilled malt barley-fallow (NTB-F), and conventional-tilled malt barley-fallow (CTB-F), each with 0 and 80 kg N ha(-1). Measurements were made both in Phase I (malt barley in NTCB, pea in NTB-P, and fallow in NTB-F and CTB-F) and Phase II (malt barley in all sequences) of each cropping sequence in every year. Crop biomass varied among years, was greater in the barley than in the pea phase of the NTB-P treatment, and greater in NTCB and NTB-P than in NTB-F and CTB-F in 2 out of 3 yr. Similarly, biomass was greater with 80 than with 0 kg N ha(-1) in 1 out of 3 yr. Soil CO(2) flux increased from 8 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in early May to 239 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in mid-June as temperature increased and then declined to 3 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in September-October. Fluxes peaked immediately following substantial precipitation (>10 mm), especially in NTCB and NTB-P. Cumulative CO(2) flux from May to October was greater in 2006 and 2007 than in 2008, greater in cropping than in fallow phases, and greater in NTCB than in NTB-F. Tillage did not influence crop biomass and CO(2) flux but N fertilization had a variable effect on the flux in 2008. Similarly, soil total C content was not influenced by treatments. Annual cropping increased CO(2) flux compared with crop-fallow probably by increasing crop residue returns to soils and root and rhizosphere respiration. Inclusion of peas in the rotation with malt barley in the no-till system, which have been known to reduce N fertilization rates and sustain malt barley yields, resulted in a CO(2) flux similar to that in the CTB-F sequence. PMID:20400589

Sainju, Upendra M; Jabro, Jalal D; Caesar-Tonthat, Thecan

2010-01-01

85

7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.  

...contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of prohibited...contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of...

2014-01-01

86

Tillage and cropping effects on soil quality indicators in the northern Great Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extreme climate of the northern Great Plains of North America requires cropping systems to possess a resilient soil resource in order to be sustainable. This paper summarizes the interactive effects of tillage, crop sequence, and cropping intensity on soil quality indicators for two long-term cropping system experiments in the northern Great Plains. The experiments, located in central North Dakota,

M. A. Liebig; D. L. Tanaka; B. J. Wienhold

2004-01-01

87

ANIMAL WASTE EFFECTS UPON CROP PRODUCTION, SOIL AND RUNOFF WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This investigation was initiated to study the effects of application of differing rates of manure to land on crops, soil, and runoff water. The study was conducted under field conditions in the sub-humid climate of the Northern Great Plains. Manure application rates included leve...

88

Matrices to Revise Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate curricula for natural resource and agronomic programs have been introduced and revised during the past several decades with a desire to stay current with emerging issues and technologies relevant to constituents. For the past decade, the Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences (CSES) faculty at the University of Arkansas…

Savin, Mary C.; Longer, David; Miller, David M.

2005-01-01

89

DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences Purdue University Five Year Strategic Plan 2004 - 2009 #12;Department of Agronomy Strategic Plan 2004-2009 Mission The mission of the Agronomy Department at Purdue University is to serve our broad- based clientele by providing progressive

90

Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems Soil quality, by definition, reflects the capacity to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and promote plant and animal health. Soil quality assessment is an essential issue in soil management for agriculture and natural resource protection. This study was conducted to detect the effects of four crop rotation systems (rice-rice-rice, soya-rice-rice, fallow-rice and pea-soya-rice) on soil quality indicators (soil moisture, porosity, bulk density, water-filled pore space, pH, extractable P, CEC, OC, OM, microbial respiration, active carbon) in paddy soils of Verona area, Northern Italy. Four adjacent plots which managed almost similarly, over five years were selected. Surface soil samples were collected from each four rotation systems in four times, during growing season. Each soil sample was a composite of sub-samples taken from 3 points within 350 m2 of agricultural land. A total of 48 samples were air-dried and passed through 2mm sieve, for some chemical, biological, and physical measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Statistical results revealed that frequency distribution of most data was normal. The lowest CV% was related to pH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and comparison test showed that there are significant differences in soil quality indicators among crop rotation systems and sampling times. Results of multivariable regression analysis revealed that soil respiration had positively correlation coefficient with soil organic matter, soil moisture and cation exchange capacity. Overall results indicated that the rice rotation with legumes such as bean and soybean improved soil quality over a long time in comparison to rice-fallow rotation, and this is reflected in rice yield. Keywords: Soil quality, Crop Rotation System, Paddy Soils, Italy

Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Bini, Claudio; Haefele, Stephan; Abooei, Monireh

2013-04-01

91

Crop & Soil Science Seminar Series Mondays at 4:00 pm in Ag Life Sciences  

E-print Network

Crop & Soil Science Seminar Series Fall 2013 Mondays at 4:00 pm in Ag Life Sciences 4000 September 30 NO SEMINAR October 7 Dan Sullivan Crop & Soil Science Dept. "Phosphorus: Now and Then" October 14/CSSA/SSSA meetings) November 11 Chris Klatt Crop & Soil Science Dept. "Tracking Microbial Use of C and N

Tullos, Desiree

92

Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata),

Q. R. Wang; Y. C. Li; W. Klassen

2006-01-01

93

A DGGE analysis shows that crop rotation systems influence the bacterial and fungal communities in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A better understanding of the relationships among different cropping systems, their effects on soil microbial ecology, and their effects on crop health and productivity is necessary for the development of more efficient, sustainable crop production systems. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to determine the impacts of crop rotations and crop types on bacterial and fungal communities in the

Chika Suzuki; Makoto Takenaka; Norikuni Oka; Kazunari Nagaoka; Toshihiko Karasawa

2012-01-01

94

Selenium status in soil, water and essential crops of Iran  

PubMed Central

Abstracts As a contributing factor to health, the trace element selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient of special interest for humans and all animals. It is estimated that 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency. In spite of the important role of Se, its concentrations in soil, water and essential crops have not been studied in Iran. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to determine the Se content of soil, water, and essential crops (rice in North, wheat in Center, date, and pistachio in South) of different regions of Iran. Sampling was performed in the North, South, and Central regions of Iran. In each selected area in the three regions, 17 samples of surface soil were collected; samples of water and essential crops were also collected at the same sampling points. Upon preliminary preparation of all samples, the Se concentrations were measured by ICP-OES Model Varian Vista-MPX. The amount of soil-Se was found to be in the range between 0.04 and 0.45 ppm in the studied areas; the Se content of soil in the central region of Iran was the highest compared to other regions (p<0.0001). The average Se concentration in irrigation water of different areas was less than 0.01 mg/L, and the mean concentrations of Se in the rice, wheat, date, and pistachio samples were 0.95, 0.74, 0.46, and 0.40 ppm, respectively. Although Se-soil and water-Se level in different regions were low, the typical levels of Se in the essential crops were relatively high. PMID:23369199

2012-01-01

95

Influence of maize cropping on the soil structure of two soils in the Waikato district, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of soil physical properties resulting from the change of land lise from pasture to various periods of continuous maize cropping on two Waikato soils was investigated. Under present management practices on the two soils, maize cropping produced a deterioration of soil structure as indicated by changes in field properties, a slight increase in dry bulk density, a decrease in

W. E. Cotching; R. F. Allbrook; H. S. Gibbs

1979-01-01

96

Landscape context and habitat type as drivers of bee diversity in European annual crops  

E-print Network

-en-Provence cedex 5, France c Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala 2009 Keywords: Bee biodiversity Annual crops Landscape ecology Apiformes Pollinators Europe A B S T RLandscape context and habitat type as drivers of bee diversity in European annual crops Gabriel

Petanidou, Theodora

97

Threshold dynamics in soil carbon storage for bioenergy crops.  

PubMed

Because of increasing demands for bioenergy, a considerable amount of land in the midwestern United States could be devoted to the cultivation of second-generation bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass and miscanthus. The foliar carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) in these bioenergy crops at harvest is significantly higher than the ratios in replaced crops, such as corn or soybean. We show that there is a critical soil organic matter C/N ratio, where microbial biomass can be impaired as microorganisms become dependent upon net immobilization. The simulation results show that there is a threshold effect in the amount of aboveground litter input in the soil after harvest that will reach a critical organic matter C/N ratio in the soil, triggering a reduction of the soil microbial population, with significant consequences in other microbe-related processes, such as decomposition and mineralization. These thresholds are approximately 25 and 15% of aboveground biomass for switchgrass and miscanthus, respectively. These results suggest that values above these thresholds could result in a significant reduction of decomposition and mineralization, which, in turn, would enhance the sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the topsoil and reduce inorganic nitrogen losses when compared to a corn-corn-soybean rotation. PMID:25207669

Woo, Dong K; Quijano, Juan C; Kumar, Praveen; Chaoka, Sayo; Bernacchi, Carl J

2014-10-21

98

Soil physical properties, water depletion and crop development under traditional and conservation tillage in southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tillage methods affect soil physical properties and, thus, have a direct influence on the replenishment and depletion of soil water storage and crop performance. This study was conducted to determine the effects of traditional and conservation tillage on soil physical properties, soil water replenishment and depletion, and crop development and yield under southern Spanish conditions. The experiments were carried out

F. Moreno; F. Pelegrín; J. E. Fernández; J. M. Murillo

1997-01-01

99

The impact of genetically modified crops on soil microbial communities.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) plants represent a potential benefit for environmentally friendly agriculture and human health. Though, poor knowledge is available on potential hazards posed by unintended modifications occurring during genetic manipulation. The increasing amount of reports on ecological risks and benefits of GM plants stresses the need for experimental works aimed at evaluating the impact of GM crops on natural and agro-ecosystems. Major environmental risks associated with GM crops include their potential impact on non-target soil microorganisms playing a fundamental role in crop residues degradation and in biogeochemical cycles. Recent works assessed the effects of GM crops on soil microbial communities on the basis of case-by-case studies, using multimodal experimental approaches involving different target and non-target organisms. Experimental evidences discussed in this review confirm that a precautionary approach should be adopted, by taking into account the risks associated with the unpredictability of transformation events, of their pleiotropic effects and of the fate of transgenes in natural and agro-ecosystems, weighing benefits against costs. PMID:16440278

Giovannetti, Manuela; Sbrana, Cristiana; Turrini, Alessandra

2005-01-01

100

Toxicity of naturally-contaminated manganese soil to selected crops.  

PubMed

The impact of manganese excess using naturally contaminated soil (Mn-soil, pseudototal Mn 6494 vs 675 ?g g(-1) DW in control soil) in the shoots of four crops was studied. Mn content decreased in the order Brassica napus > Hordeum vulgare > Zea mays > Triticum aestivum. Growth was strongly depressed just in Brassica (containing 13696 ?g Mn g(-1) DW). Some essential metals (Zn, Fe) increased in Mn-cultured Brassica and Zea, while macronutrients (K, Ca, Mg) decreased in almost all species. Toxic metals (Ni and Cd) were rather elevated in Mn-soil. Microscopy of ROS, NO, lipid peroxidation, and thiols revealed stimulation in all Mn-cultured crops, but changes were less visible in Triticum, a species with low shoot Mn (2363 ?g g(-1) DW). Antioxidative enzyme activities were typically enhanced in Mn-cultured plants. Soluble phenols increased in Brassica only while proteins rather decreased in response to Mn excess. Inorganic anions (chloride, sulfate, and phosphate) were less accumulated in almost all Mn-cultured crops, while the nitrate level rather increased. Organic anions (malate, citrate, oxalate, acetate, and formate) decreased or remained unaffected in response to Mn-soil culture in Brassica, Hordeum, and Triticum but not in Zea. However, the role of organic acids in Mn uptake in these species is not assumed. Because control and Mn-soil differed in pH (6.5 and 3.7), we further studied its impact on Mn uptake in solution culture (using Mn concentration ?5 mM deducted from water-soluble fraction of Mn-soil). Shoot Mn contents in Mn-treated plants were similar to those observed in soil culture (high in Brassica and low in Triticum) and pH had negligible impact. Fluorescence indicator of "general ROS" revealed no extensive or pH-dependent impact either in control or Mn-cultured roots. Observed toxicity of Mn excess to common crops urges for selection of cultivars with higher tolerance. PMID:24965550

Ková?ik, Jozef; Št?rbová, Dagmar; Babula, Petr; Švec, Pavel; Hedbavny, Josef

2014-07-23

101

Chemical control of perennial and annual weeds in herbicide resistant soybean crops.  

PubMed

In Romania, the first tests with Roundup Ready on soybean crops were performed in 1998, on 2 soil types: a) at Teleorman Station on chernozem containing 3.5% humus, 4.5% clay b) at Br?ila Station placed in Danube Meadow on alluvial soil containing 3.90% humus and 46% clay. In every locality cultivated soybean cultivar S.2254 was resistant to glyphosate. During the three years of experiments (1998-2000) the crop of soybean was infested with various species of weeds (both annual and perennial) of which the most important are: Sorghum halepense (60-80%), Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria glauca, Amaranthus retroflexus, Solarium nigrum, Yanthium italicum, Abutilon theoprasthi, Sinapis arvensis, Datum stramonium, Polygonum persicaria, Calystegia sepium, Cirsium arvense. In 3 years of experience the best weed control and the highest soybean production were obtained in the variants treated 2 times postemergent with Roundup Ready at a dose of 3 + 3 l/ha. Similar results were also obtained in the farms of the Academy of Agricultural Forestry Sciences, where GMO soybean was cultivated on 1500 hectares. PMID:12425098

Sarpe, N; Roibu, C; Negrila, E; Bodescu, F; Fuia, S; Popa, C; Beraru, C

2001-01-01

102

Using stable isotopes to characterize differential depth of water uptake based on environmental conditions in perennial biofuel and traditional annual crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change related to fossil fuel consumption coupled with the necessity for secure, cost-effective, and renewable domestic energy is continuing to drive the development of a bioenergy industry. Numerous second-generation biofuel crops have been identified that hold promise as sustainable feedstocks for the industry, including perennial grasses that utilize the highly water and energy efficient C4 photosynthetic pathway. Among the perennial grasses, miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) stand out as having high biomass, minimal maintenance, low nutrient input requirements, and positive environmental benefits. These grasses are able to withstand a wide range of growing season temperatures and precipitation regimes, particularly in reference to the annual row crops that they are likely to replace. During the drought of 2012 traditional row crops suffered major reductions in yield whereas the perennial grasses retained relatively high biomass yields. We hypothesize that this is due to the ability of the perennial grasses to access water from deeper soil water relative to the annual row crops. To test this hypothesis, we use isotopic techniques to determine the soil depth from which the various species obtain water. Data from summer 2013 suggests that the perennial grasses preferentially use surface water when available but can extract water from depths that the annual row crops are unable to reach. These results indicate that perennial grasses, with deeper roots, will likely sustain growth under conditions when annual row crops are unable.

Miller, J. N.; Nystrom, R.; Bernacchi, C.

2013-12-01

103

[Effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals].  

PubMed

Transgenic Bt crops are widely planted around the world. With the quick development and extension of genetically modified crops, it is needed to make a deep study on the effects of Bt crops on soil ecosystem. This paper reviewed the research progress on the effects of transgenic Bt crops on the population dynamics and community structure of soil animals, e.g., earthworm, nematode, springtail, mite, and beetle, etc. The development history of Bt crops was introduced, the passway the Bt protein comes into soil as well as the residual and degradation of Bt protein in soil were analyzed, and the critical research fields about the ecological risk analysis of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals in the future were approached, which would provide a reference for the research of the effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals. PMID:20707123

Yuan, Yi-gang; Ge, Feng

2010-05-01

104

Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops

Poffenbarger, Hanna

2010-01-01

105

Department of Crop and Soil Science Internship, Research and Thesis Topic Possibilities  

E-print Network

Assessing long term impact of 6 soil management practices on soil properties Remediating hydrophobic soilDepartment of Crop and Soil Science Internship, Research and Thesis Topic Possibilities Academic-Ridge, Corvallis (Specialty Area: Soils) Mineral identification in rocks and soils using x-ray diffraction Prof

Grünwald, Niklaus J.

106

Response of soil respiration to climate across biofuel crops and land use histories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use change (LUC) due to the worldwide increasing production of biofuel crops creates carbon debt that would require decades to repay. The payback time depends on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and more determined by the carbon loss, such as soil respiration, than photosynthesis offset. Soil respiration is not only an important part of ecosystem respiration, but is also highly correlated with ecosystem production, via substrate subsidies from plants. Both autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration were regulated by climated-induced factors (e.g. soil temperature and soil water content) and also affected by substrate supply. In 2009, three sites in conservation reserve program (CRP) and conventional corn-soybean rotation agricultural lands (AG), were converted to soybean production, in experimental sites at Kellogg Biological Station, MI. In 2010, the three sites of differential previous land uses were then converted to corn (Cr), switchgrass (Sw) and prairie mixture (Pr) production. A reference site has been maintained CRP status since then. We used chamber-based method to assess total and heterotrophic soil respirations rate (SRRt and SRRh) from control treatment (C) and root exclusion treatment (E) at all sites, in 2011 and 2012, to explore how soil respiration rate (SRR) respond to the change of abiotic and biotic factors. Our results show that soil temperature (Ts) are important factors that affect SRR patterns. At the beginning of growing season, SRRs are low (average SRRt and SRRh are 3.19 and 3.11 umol CO2/m2s, respectively, on April 10th, 2011) when soil temperature is low. SRRs in general increased over time in a year, peaked in late July- early August, 1-2 weeks after soil temperature arrive its peak (maximum average SRRt and SRRh are 8.64 and 5.68, respectively, on August 3rd/4th, 2011). Soil water content (VWC) did not affect the time of SRR peak but limited its amount; when VWCs were extremely low in 2012 (average VWC at C and E treatment decreased 2.25% and 8.55%, respectively, in mid-summer between 2011 and 2012), SRRs were also comparatively low (average SRRt and SRRh decreased 5.57 and 3.12 umol CO2/m2s, respectively, in 2012). Besides, substrate supply importantly regulates SRRs; the patterns of SRR coincide that of crop growth through a growing season. SRRs of annual plan (corn) sites have very narrow peaks while SRRs of perennial crops (all of the rest crops in the experiment) have extended periods of highest SRRs. This may be a consequence of the difference between the phenology of annual and perennial crops. Generally, SRRh are lower than SRRt at all AG and reference sites (the difference between SRRh and SRRt are 5.23, 2.32, 3.87 and 6.03 at AG-Cr, AG-Sw, AG-Pr and reference site, respectively) in mid-summer in 2011, however, the difference between SRRh and SRRt are close at CRP sites (the difference are 1.42, 1.87 and -0.07 at CRP-Cr, CRP-Sw and CRP-Pr site). Large amount of carbon released into soil due to land use change at CRP sites would lead to high SRRh.

Su, Y.; Chen, J.; Shao, C.; Shen, W.; Zenone, T.; John, R.; Deal, M.; Hamilton, S. K.; Robertson, G. P.

2013-12-01

107

The Relationship Between Carbon Input, Aggregation, and Soil Organic Carbon Stabilization in Sustainable Cropping Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 10% of the earth's soil C is stored within agricultural soil ecosystems. Because farming systems hold promise for sequestering C, their sustainability, environmental impact, and potential role in mitigating rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations must be addressed. Our current challenges are to provide credible evidence that agricultural practices can sequester significant amounts of C and to quantify the mechanisms, capacity, and longevity of agricultural lands as C sinks. Agronomic practices that influence yield and, therefore, affect the proportion of crop residues returned to the soil (e.g. cover cropping, irrigation, fertilizer addition, and compost application) are likely to influence soil organic carbon (SOC). The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the influence of C input on C sequestration in SOC fractions and (2) to evaluate how aggregation (MWD) relates to SOC and cumulative C input, across 10 different cropping systems. Using SOM fractionation techniques, soil samples from 10 cropping systems at LTRAS (Long-term Research on Agricultural Systems, Davis, CA) were separated into four aggregate size classes (LM: >2000? m, sM: 250-2000? m, m: 53-250? m, and silt&clay: <53? m) and into three SOM fractions within LM and sM (cPOM:250-2000? m, mM: 53-250? m, and silt&clay: <53? m). All fractions were analyzed for their C content. Empirically derived relationships between yield and aboveground biomass-C plus yield and belowground biomass-C were used to quantify C input from corn, wheat, and tomato residues as well as for legume cover crops and compost for the different cropping systems. We found a positive correlation between cumulative C input and SOC (R2=0.45, P<0.0001). After 9 years, MWD increased linearly with greater C input (R2=0.64, P<0.0001) and SOC (R2=0.61, P<0.0001), respectively. We observed that aggregate-C shifts from the microaggregate fraction (53-250? m) in low C input systems to macroaggregate fractions (>2000? m and 250-2000? m) in high C input systems. Our findings indicate that management practices directed towards improving annual production, thereby, increasing residue C input would result in greater aggregate stability and aggregate associated SOC levels and have the capability of long-term C stabilization.

Kong, A. Y.; Six, J.; Bryant, D. C.; Denison, R.; van Kessel, C.

2003-12-01

108

Persistence of metsulfuron-methyl in wheat crop and soil.  

PubMed

Possible bioaccumulation of pesticides in crop produce may cause ailing effect on animal and human. Thus there is a need to evaluate these chemicals in the soil and crop produce at harvest. Metsulfuron-methyl is a post-emergence herbicide. It is highly active to control broad-leaf weeds in cererals, pasture and plantation crops. Metsulfuron-methyl was applied at 3, 4, 5, and 8 g a.i. ha(-1) rates, after 30 days of sowing in wheat as post-emergence herbicide. Soil samples treated with metsulfuron-methyl were collected after 30 and 60 days along with control and at harvest after herbicide application and analyzed for residues by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) using photo diode array detector at 220 nm. Wheat grains and straw samples were sampled at harvest. At harvest the residue level of metsulfuron-methyl in soil was found below the detection limit at 3-5 g a.i. ha(-1) application rates and 0.002 microg g(-1) at 8 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. No residues of metsulfuron-methyl were detected in wheat grains at 3-4 g a.i. ha(-1) rates. However 0.002 microg g(-1) residues were detected in wheat straw at 5 and 8 g a.i. ha(-1) application rates. It can be concluded that metsulfuron-methyl application at 3-4 g a.i. ha(-1) can be safely applied to the wheat crop as post-emergence herbicide. PMID:18224452

Sondhia, Shobha

2008-12-01

109

Effects of weather variability and soil parameter uncertainty on the soil-crop-climate system  

SciTech Connect

The variability of crop and soil states due to uncertain climatic inputs and soil properties is quantified using a mathematical representation of the physiological, biochemical, hydrological, and physical processes related to plant growth. The components of the state-space model of the soil-crop-climate interactions are a plant growth, a moisture transport, and a solute transport model. A linear model for the perturbations of the state and the inputs around the nominal (first-order mean) values is derived. The linear model is used for second-moment uncertainty propagation due to fluctuations of the climatic forcing in time and due to the spatial variability of the soil properties. The most important climatic variables affecting crop production are identified in a case study. Correlation of climatic inputs between days is found to increase the crop yield variance. Significant variance reduction is found in transforming random soil properties to soil-state variables and then to plant-state variables. 31 refs., 4 figs.

Protopapas, A.L. (Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)); Bras, R.L. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States))

1993-04-01

110

Crop residues as soil amendments and feedstock for bioethanol production.  

PubMed

Traditional solid fuels account for more than 90% of the energy supply for 3 billion people in developing countries. However, liquid biofuels (e.g., ethanol) are perceived as an important alternative to fossil fuel. Global crop residue production is estimated at about 4 billion Mg for all crops and 3 billion Mg per annum for lignocellulosic residues of cereals. One Mg of corn stover can produce 280L of ethanol, compared with 400L from 1Mg of corn grains; 1Mg of biomass is also equivalent to 18.5GJ of energy. Thus, 3 billion Mg of residues are equivalent to 840 billion L of ethanol or 56x10(9)GJ of energy. However, removal of crop residues exacerbates soil degradation, increases net emission of CO2, and aggravates food insecurity. Increasing the SOC pool by 1 Mg C ha(-1)yr(-1) through residue retention on soil can increase world food grain production by 24-40 million Mg yr(-1), and root/tuber production by 6-11 million Mg yr(-1). Thus, identifying alternate sources of biofuel feedstock (e.g., biofuel plantations, animal waste, municipal sold waste) is a high priority. Establishing biofuel plantations on agriculturally marginal or degraded lands can off-set 3.5-4 Pg Cyr(-1). PMID:18053700

Lal, R

2008-01-01

111

The influence of long-term fertilization on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soil and its uptake by crops.  

PubMed

Continuous application of organic and inorganic fertilizers can affect soil and food quality with respect to heavy metal concentrations. The risk of cadmium (Cd) contamination in a long-term (over 20 years) experimental field in North China with an annual crop rotation of winter wheat and summer maize was investigated. The long-term experiment had a complete randomized block design with seven fertilizer treatments and four replications. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1) organic compost (OM), (2) half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (OM + NPK), (3) NPK fertilizer (NPK), (4-6) chemical fertilizers without one of the major nutrients (NP, PK, and NK), and (7) an unamended control (CK). Soil samples from 0 to 20 cm were collected in 1989, 1999, and 2009 to characterize Cd and other soil properties. During the past 20 years, various extents of Cd accumulation were observed in the soil, and the accumulation was mainly affected by atmospheric dry and wet deposition and fertilization. In 2009, the average Cd concentration in the soil was 148 ± 15 ?g kg(-1) and decreased in the order of NPK?? OM + NKP ? PK > NP ? NK > OM ? CK. Sequential extraction of Cd showed that the acid-soluble fraction (F1, 32 ± 7 %) and the residual fraction (F4, 31 ± 5 %) were the dominant fractions of Cd in the soil, followed by the reducible fraction (F2, 22 ± 5 %) and oxidizable fraction (F3, 15 ± 6 %). The acid-soluble Cd fraction in the soil and Cd accumulation in the crops increased with soil plant available K. Fraction F3 was increased by soil organic C (SOC) and crop yields, but SOC reduced the uptake of soil Cd by crops. The long-term P fertilization resulted in more Cd buildup in the soil than other treatments, but the uptake of Cd by crops was inhibited by the precipitation of Cd with phosphate in the soil. Although soil Cd was slightly increased over the 20 years of intensive crop production, both soil and grain/kernel Cd concentrations were still below the national standards for environmental and food safety. PMID:24793068

Wang, Qingyun; Zhang, Jiabao; Zhao, Bingzi; Xin, Xiuli; Zhang, Congzhi; Zhang, Hailin

2014-09-01

112

China's crop productivity and soil carbon storage as influenced by multifactor global change.  

PubMed

Much concern has been raised about how multifactor global change has affected food security and carbon sequestration capacity in China. By using a process-based ecosystem model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), in conjunction with the newly developed driving information on multiple environmental factors (climate, atmospheric CO2 , tropospheric ozone, nitrogen deposition, and land cover/land use change), we quantified spatial and temporal patterns of net primary production (NPP) and soil organic carbon storage (SOC) across China's croplands during 1980-2005 and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Simulated results showed that both crop NPP and SOC increased from 1980 to 2005, and the highest annual NPP occurred in the Southeast (SE) region (0.32 Pg C yr(-1) , 35.4% of the total NPP) whereas the largest annual SOC (2.29 Pg C yr(-1) , 35.4% of the total SOC) was found in the Northeast (NE) region. Land management practices, particularly nitrogen fertilizer application, appear to be the most important factor in stimulating increase in NPP and SOC. However, tropospheric ozone pollution and climate change led to NPP reduction and SOC loss. Our results suggest that China's crop productivity and soil carbon storage could be enhanced through minimizing tropospheric ozone pollution and improving nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency. PMID:24501069

Ren, Wei; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Huang, Yao; Pan, Shufen

2012-09-01

113

Effects of irrigation on crops and soils with Raft River geothermal water  

SciTech Connect

The Raft River Irrigation Experiment investigated the suitability of using energy-expended geothermal water for irrigation of selected field-grown crops. Crop and soil behavior on plots sprinkled or surface irrigated with geothermal water was compared to crop and soil behavior on plots receiving water from shallow irrigation wells and the Raft River. In addition, selected crops were produced, using both geothermal irrigation water and special management techniques. Crops irrigated with geothermal water exhibited growth rates, yields, and nutritional values similar to comparison crops. Cereal grains and surface-irrigated forage crops did not exhibit elevated fluoride levels or accumulations of heavy metals. However, forage crops sprinkled with geothermal water did accumulate fluorides, and leaching experiments indicate that new soils receiving geothermal water may experience increased salinity, exchangeable sodium, and decreased permeability. Soil productivity may be maintained by leaching irrigations.

Stanley, N.E.; Schmitt, R.C.

1980-01-01

114

Evaluation of antibiotic mobility in soil associated with swine-slurry soil amendment under cropping conditions.  

PubMed

Interest in identifying pools of antibacterial-resistance genes has grown over the last decade, with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) receiving particular attention. In this paper, a mesoscale study aimed at evaluating the vertical transport of common VAs-namely, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and lincosamides in agricultural soil subjected to drip irrigation-was performed under greenhouse conditions. Accordingly, leachates of cropped and uncropped soil, amended with swine-slurry leading to 19-38 ?g kg(-1) (dry mass) antibiotics in the soil, were analyzed over the course of the productive cycle of a lettuce (42 days) with three sampling campaigns (N?=?24). High lincomycin (LCM) concentrations (30-39 ?g L(-1)) were detected in the leachates collected from the swine-slurry-amended soil. The highest LCM mass recovered in the leachates (30.1?±?1.63 %) was obtained from cropped experimental units. In addition, the LCM leaching constant and its leaching potential as obtained from the first-order model were higher in the leachates from the cropped experimental units. Lower concentrations of sulfadimethoxine were also detected in leachates and in soil. Enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline occurred only in soil, which is consistent with high soil interaction. PMID:24938815

Domínguez, C; Flores, C; Caixach, J; Mita, L; Piña, B; Comas, J; Bayona, J M

2014-11-01

115

Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra  

SciTech Connect

A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States). Center for Tropical Research & Education

2006-04-15

116

CROP ECOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & QUALITY Crop Yield and Nitrogen Accumulation Response to Tillage of a Coastal Plain Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delineation of the benefit derived from either surface or subsoil management of these important crop residues in the south- tillage is important for the advancement of soil-conserving crop pro- duction systems in the Coastal Plain. The objective of this experiment eastern Coastal Plain was difficult because of the coarse- was to measure the impact of surface and subsoil tillage of

P. G. Hunt; P. J. Bauer; T. A. Matheny; W. J. Busscher

117

Soil, Water and Climate Related Constraints for Crop Production in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The crop production situation in Bangladesh is becoming worse due to a range of soil, water and climate related constraints.\\u000a Global warming and climate change phenomena exacerbate this situation. Declining soil fertility, accelerated soil erosion\\u000a and soil salinity are the major soil related constraints to crop production. About 0.87 million hectares (Mha) of land is\\u000a affected by different degrees of

M. Shahabuddin Khan; Ranjit Sen; Shamsun Noor; Habib Mohammad Naser

118

NATIONAL CROP LOSS ASSESSMENT NETWORK (NCLAN) 1985 ANNUAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) consists of a group of organizations cooperating in field work, crop modeling, and economic studies to assess the immediate and long-term economic consequences of air pollution on crop production. Two primary objectives are (1) to...

119

NATIONAL CROP LOSS ASSESSMENT NETWORK (NCLAN) 1983 ANNUAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) consists of a group of organizations cooperating in field work, crop modeling, and economic studies to assess the immediate and long-term consequences of air pollution on crop production. Two primary objectives are (1) to define r...

120

Effects of trefoil cover crop and earthworm inoculation on maize crop and soil organisms in Reunion Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional tree fallows have been abandoned on the western coast of the Reunion Island because of the increasing need for\\u000a cultivated land. Soil fertility is no longer restored and crop yields have decreased drastically. The leguminous plant, Lotus uliginosus (trefoil), used as a cover crop, has made possible the control of erosion, the restoration of soil macrofauna, especially\\u000a earthworms, and

J. Boyer; R. Michellon; A. Chabanne; G. Reversat; R. Tibere

1999-01-01

121

Is soil quality improvement by legume cover crops a function of the initial soil chemical characteristics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study, which was conducted in a humid savannah zone of central Côte d’Ivoire, was to examine changes in the\\u000a quality of soil cultivated with herbaceous legume cover crops as a function of initial soil characteristics. Mucuna pruriens var utilis and Pueraria phaseoloides were used in a two side-by-side location experiment: a shrubby savannah (the savannah site

Armand W. Koné; Jérôme E. Tondoh; Pascal K. T. Angui; France Bernhard-Reversat; Gladys Loranger-Merciris; Didier Brunet; Soumaïla T. K. Brédoumi

2008-01-01

122

Tillage, cover cropping, and poultry litter effects on selected soil chemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation tillage systems such as no-till with winter rye cover cropping change soil chemical properties, which affect crop growth and the environment. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of no-till and mulch-till systems, surface application of poultry litter, and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop on soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM), and N and

E. Z. Nyakatawa; K. C. Reddy; K. R. Sistani

2001-01-01

123

Soil and water quality implications of production of herbaceous and woody energy crops  

SciTech Connect

Field-scale studies in three physiographic regions of the Tennessee Valley in the Southeastern US are being used to address the environmental effects of producing biomass energy crops on former agricultural lands. Comparison of erosion, surface water quality and quantity, and subsurface movement of water and nutrients from woody crops, switchgrass and agricultural crops began with crop establishment in 1994. Nutrient cycling, soil physical changes, and productivity of the different crops are also being monitored at the three sites.

Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lindberg, J.E. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, TN (United States); Green, T.H. [Alabama A and M Univ., Normal, AL (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science] [and others

1997-10-01

124

Reproductive Allocation of Biomass and Nitrogen in Annual and Perennial Lesquerella Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Background and Aims The use of perennial crops could contribute to increase agricultural sustainability. However, almost all of the major grain crops are herbaceous annuals and opportunities to replace them with more long-lived perennials have been poorly explored. This follows the presumption that the perennial life cycle is associated with a lower potential yield, due to a reduced allocation

E. L. PLOSCHUK; G. A. SLAFER; D. A. RAVETTA

2005-01-01

125

Water balance of the olive tree–annual crop association: A modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water transfers within mixed crops systems are complicated to understand due to the large number of complex interactions between the various components. Standard techniques fail to provide the proper assessment of the components of the water balance. Experiments and modeling developments are used to understand the dynamics of water transfers within the association of olive trees with annual crops under

J. Abid Karray; J. P. Lhomme; M. M. Masmoudi; N. Ben Mechlia

2008-01-01

126

Nitrogen- vs. phosphorus-based dairy manure applications to field crops: nitrate and phosphorus leaching and soil phosphorus accumulation.  

PubMed

Management of animal manures to provide nutrients for crop growth has generally been based on crop N needs. However, because manures have a lower N/P ratio than most harvested crops, N-based manure management often oversupplies the crop-soil system with P, which can be lost into the environment and contribute to eutrophication of water bodies. We examined the effects of N- vs. P-based manure applications on N and P uptake by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.) for silage, and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), leaching below the root zone, and accumulation of P in soil. Treatments included N- and P-based manure rates, with no nutrient input controls and inorganically fertilized plots for comparison. Nitrate concentrations in leachate from inorganic fertilizer or manure treatments averaged 14 mg NO(3)-N L(-1), and did not differ by nutrient treatment. Average annual total P losses in leachate did not exceed 1 kg ha(-1). In the top 5 cm of soil in plots receiving the N-based manure treatment, soil test P increased by 47%, from 85 to 125 mg kg(-1). Nitrogen- and P-based manure applications did not differ in ability to supply nutrients for crop growth, or in losses of nitrate and total P in leachate. However, the N-based manure led to significantly greater accumulation of soil test P in the surface 5 cm of soil. Surface soil P accumulation has implications for increased risk of off-field P movement. PMID:17071901

Toth, John D; Dou, Zhengxia; Ferguson, James D; Galligan, David T; Ramberg, Charles F

2006-01-01

127

A comparison of the carbon dioxide fluxes of two annual cropping systems and a perennial hay field in southern Manitoba over 30 months  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eddy-covariance method was used to measure net ecosystem productivity over three adjacent fields from 2009 to 2011: two annual cropping systems (oat-canola-oat and hay-oat-fallow) recently converted from perennial cropping, and a perennial hay/pasture. We compared the management practises, determined the net carbon budget, and examined the effects of inter-annual variability. Carbon accumulation began earlier in the spring and continued later in the fall at the perennial site, compared with the annual crop sites, due to a longer growing season and continual plant cover. Cumulative cropping season net ecosystem productivity at the perennial site ranged from 40 to 240 g C m-2 because of variable weather. Including harvest removals and manure additions, the perennial site gained 120 g carbon m-2 and the annual sites lost 240 and 415 g carbon m-2, respectively, over the 30-month period. This indicates that the annual cropping systems would decrease soil carbon at this location.

Taylor, Amanda M.

128

Separating soil evaporation and crop transpiration to improve crop water use efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network of a FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on "Managing Irrigation Water to Enhance Crop Productivity under Water-Limiting Conditions: A Role for Isotopic Techniques", involving seven countries was implemented from 2007 to 2012, to identify approaches to improve crop water productivity (production per unit of water input) under water-limiting conditions using isotopic and related techniques. This paper presents findings from the two of the studied sites, one in China and another in Morocco, in using both isotopic and conventional techniques to separate soil evaporation (E) and crop transpiration (T) from total water losses in evapotranspiration (ET) for winter wheat grown under different climatic conditions and methods of irrigation management practices. In the North China Plain (NCP), the estimated E/ET of winter wheat by the isotopic method (Keeling plot using delta oxygen-18 (?18O)) was in agreement with that obtained by conventional methods (eddy covariance and micro-lysimeter). The high correlation between these methods (R2=0.85, n=27) showed that the E from wheat-growing field contributes an average of 30% of water losses for the whole growing season (Nov-June), with higher E percentage (68%) can be expected before elongation stage due to incomplete canopy cover. The results also showed that through deficit irrigation and improved irrigation scheduling, soil E losses could be reduced by 10-30% of the total water loss compared with full irrigation. In Morocco, field Keeling plot isotopic E and T separation study was carried out for two days in spring of 2012 at Sidi Rahal. The percentage contribution of T to total ET was approximately 73%. The experimental results obtained from both China and Moroccan sites were used to validate FAO's AquaCrop model for E and T, and for improving irrigation scheduling and agronomic practices. Good correlation (R2=0.83) was obtained between measured (isotopic) and AquaCrop simulated ET from NCP. The measured and simulated E and T results from Morocco also compared well; the difference in E between the two approaches was only 5-12% over the two-day study.

Heng, Lee; Nguyen, Long; Gong, Daozhi; Mei, Xurong; Amenzou, Noureddine

2014-05-01

129

Changes in soil organic carbon under biofuel crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One potentially significant impact of growing biofuel crops will be the sequestration or release of soil organic carbon (SOC), as SOC represents the second largest potential carbon sink in the lifecycle of biofuels and strongly influences soil quality. We assembled and analyzed published estimates of SOC change following conversion of natural or agricultural land to biofuel crops of corn (with stover harvest), sugarcane, Miscanthus x giganteus, switchgrass, or restored prairie. We estimated SOC losses associated with land conversion and rates of change in SOC over time by regressing SOC against age since establishment year. Conversion of uncultivated land to biofuel agriculture resulted in significant SOC losses-an effect that was most pronounced when native land was converted to sugarcane agriculture. Corn stover harvest (at 25-100 percent removal) consistently resulted in SOC losses averaging 3-8 Mg / ha in the top 30 cm, whereas SOC accumulated under all four perennial grasses, with SOC accumulation rates averaging <1 Mg / ha / yr in the top 30 cm. More intensive harvests lead to decreased C gains or increased C losses-an effect that was particularly clear for stover harvest in corn. Direct or indirect conversion of previously uncultivated land for biofuel agriculture will result in SOC losses that counteract the benefits of fossil fuel displacement. Additionally, SOC losses under corn stover harvest imply that its potential to offset C emissions may be overestimated, whereas SOC sequestration under perennial grasses represents an additional benefit that has rarely been accounted for in life cycle analyses of biofuels.

Anderson-Teixei, K.; Davis, S.; Masters, M.; Delucia, E.

2008-12-01

130

Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Gravel and Gravelless Trench Soil Absorption Fields  

E-print Network

Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Gravel and Gravelless Trench Soil Absorption Fields Brad Lee, Don Jones, and Chris Bourke Department of Agronomy and Department into the soil for treatment. Where soil and site conditions permit, many Indiana homeowners use conventional

Holland, Jeffrey

131

Haiti Soil Fertility Analysis and Crop Interpretations for Principal Crops in the Five WINNER Watershed Zones of Intervention  

E-print Network

/Saut D'eau. This report focuses on the soil-test data development, soil-test interpretations, and crop Central Intelligence Agency (US-CIA), data 9.7 million Haitians live within the borders of the 27,750 km2 than two dollars (US) per day, while 56% live in abject poverty on less than one dollar per day

Ma, Lena

132

Annual Crop Type Classification of the U.S. Great Plains for 2000 - 2011: An Application of Classification Tree Modeling using Remote Sensing and Ancillary Environmental Data (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to increase spatial and temporal availability of crop classification data using reliable source data that have the potential of being applied on local, regional, national, and global levels. This study implemented classification tree modeling to map annual crop types throughout the U.S. Great Plains from 2000 - 2011. Classification tree modeling has been shown in numerous studies to be an effective tool for developing classification models. In this study, nearly 18 million crop observation points, derived from annual U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agriculture Statistics Service (NASS) Cropland Data Layers (CDLs), were used in the training, development, and validation of a classification tree crop type model (CTM). Each observation point was further defined by weekly Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) readings, annual climatic conditions, soil conditions, and a number of other biogeophysical environmental characteristics. The CTM accounted for the most prevalent crop types in the area, including, corn, soybeans, winter wheat, spring wheat, cotton, sorghum, and alfalfa. Other crops that did not fit into any of these classes were identified and grouped into a miscellaneous class. An 87% success rate was achieved on the classification of 1.8 million observation points (10% of total observation points) that were withheld from training. The CTM was applied to create annual crop maps of the U.S. Great Plains for 2000 - 2011 at a spatial resolution of 250 meters. Product validation was performed by comparing county acreage derived from the modeled crop maps and county acreage data from the USDA NASS Survey Program for each crop type and each year. Greater than 15,000 county records from 2001 - 2010 were compared with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = 0.87.

Howard, D. M.; Wylie, B. K.

2013-12-01

133

Utilization of Crawfish Peeling Plant Waste as a Soil Amendment for Vegetable Crop Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Crawfish waste applied at proper rates to vegetable crops will provide many of the essential nutrients required for growth and production. The crop response is influenced by rates of application and by the type of crop. The soil analysis reveals definite ...

R. Barry

1980-01-01

134

Populations of methanogenic bacteria in paddy field soil under double cropping conditions (rice-wheat)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanogenic populations able to use H2-CO2, methanol, and acetate were investigated in paddy field soil in situ under double cropping conditions [rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a summer crop under flooded conditions and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as an upland winter crop] over 2 years approximately bimonthly by the most probable number method. Three fields, one without fertilizer, one

S. Asakawa; K. Hayano

1995-01-01

135

Crop modelling as a tool to separate the influence of the soil and weather on crop yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yield of traditional food and feed crops in a given habitat is controlled by the soil and weather conditions as the main environmental factors. In real world it is not possible to segregate the influences of the soil and the weather on the crop production. Using simulation models there are ways to analyse the effects of the changes of soil characteristics or weather elements separately. The role of different soil characteristics can be studied in a way that the first run is considered as a control, then one of the soil characteristics is changed within a realistic range while all the other soil factors and weather inputs are left original. This way all the soil characteristic and weather elements can be changed one by one or different combinations of them can be used as input series. A more practical approach is when the role of local soils and weather are compared by a series of runs applying observed weather data from different years and real soil profiles from different fields of the selected farm. The results of the simulation can be evaluated from many different aspects: biomass or yield production, vulnerability to nitrate leaching or denitrification and profitability. In this study real Hungarian soil and weather scenarios were used that are significantly different from one another. The two main crops of Hungary were used: maize and wheat plus field pea as an addition. Pea is known as a sensitive crop to weather. 4M-simulation package was used as a modelling tool. Our group at RISSAC based on CERES and CROPGRO models has developed it. The results showed that the weather differences caused more significant changes in yields then soil differences though soils could moderate the effects of the extreme weather scenarios. The measure of reactions is meaningfully different depending on the species and cultivars. Analysis of separated effects of soil and weather factors has not only theoretical and methodological importance, but useful for the practice, too. When new plant species or cultivars are introduced in a country the optimal habitats can be found. The optimal structure for crops (where to seed different crops, and what sequence should be applied) and technology for crops (sawing time, fertilizer application and timing, etc.) can be estimated.

Mathe-Gaspar, Gabriella; Fodor, Nandor; Pokovai, Klara; Kovacs, Geza Janos

136

Crop modelling as a tool to separate the influences of the soil and weather on crop yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yield of traditional food and feed crops in a given habitat is controlled by the soil and weather conditions as the main environmental factors. In real world it is not possible to segregate the influences of the soil and the weather on the crop production. Using simulation models there are ways to analyse the effects of the changes of soil characteristics or weather elements separately. The role of different soil characteristics can be studied in a way that the first run is considered as a control, then one of the soil characteristics is changed within a realistic range while all the other soil factors and weather inputs are left original. This way all the soil characteristic and weather elements can be changed one by one or different combinations of them can be used as input series. A more practical approach is when the role of local soils and weather are compared by a series of runs applying observed weather data from different years and real soil profiles from different fields of the selected farm. The results of the simulation can be evaluated from many different aspects: biomass or yield production, vulnerability to nitrate leaching or denitrification and profitability. In this study real Hungarian soil and weather scenarios were used that are significantly different from one another. The two main crops of Hungary were used: maize and wheat plus field pea as an addition. Pea is known as a sensitive crop to weather. 4M-simulation package was used as a modelling tool. Our group at RISSAC based on CERES and CROPGRO models has developed it. The results showed that the weather differences caused more significant changes in yields then soil differences though soils could moderate the effects of the extreme weather scenarios. The measure of reactions is meaningfully different depending on the species and cultivars. Analysis of separated effects of soil and weather factors has not only theoretical and methodological importance, but useful for the practice, too. When new plant species or cultivars are introduced in a country the optimal habitats can be found. The optimal structure for crops (where to seed different crops, and what sequence should be applied) and technology for crops (sawing time, fertilizer application and timing, etc.) can be estimated.

Mathe-Gaspar, G.; Fodor, N.; Pokovai, K.; Kovacs, G. J.

2003-04-01

137

On-Farm Assessment of Biosolids Effects on Soil and Crop Tissue Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

solids use on soil and crop quality have rarely been monitored in nonresearch situations. Agronomic use of biosolids as a fertilizer material remains contro- Most U.S. states, including Pennsylvania, stipulate versial in part due to public concerns regarding the potential pollution of soils, crop tissue, and ground water by excess nutrients and trace that application of biosolids to agricultural land

Amy L. Shober; Richard C. Stehouwer; Kirsten E. Macneal

2003-01-01

138

Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Rates by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

tices include, but are not limited to, reducing tillage intensity, decreasing or ceasing the fallow period, using Changes in agricultural management can potentially increase the a winter cover crop, changing from monoculture to rota- accumulation rate of soil organic C (SOC), thereby sequestering CO2 from the atmosphere. This study was conducted to quantify potential tion cropping, or altering soil inputs

Tristram O. West; Wilfred M. Post

2002-01-01

139

Soil protection value of winter crops and reduced tillage on clay loams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments to reduce soil physical degradation were carried out at Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture over the period 1998-2002. The soil of the experimental site is characterised as glacial lacustrine clay loam on silty clay (Gleyic Cambisol). The following was investigated: Factor A. Crop rotations with different proportions of winter and spring crops (1. Without winter

A. Velykis; A. Satkus

2005-01-01

140

Role of Soil Organic Matter in Maintaining Sustainability of Cropping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter (SOM) has long been recognized as an important indicator of soil productivity. The SOM refers to the organic fraction of the soil exclusive of undecayed plant and animal residues. It plays a crucial role in maintaining sustainability of cropping systems by improving soil physical (texture, structure, bulk density, and water-holding capacity), chemical (nutrient availability, cation exchange capacity,

N. K. Fageria

2012-01-01

141

The Role of Soil Organic Matter in Maintaining Sustainability of Cropping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter (SOM) has long been recognized as an important indicator of soil productivity. The SOM refers to the organic fraction of the soil exclusive of undecayed plant and animal residues. It plays a crucial role in maintaining sustainability of cropping systems by improving soil physical (texture, structure, bulk density and water holding capacity), chemical (nutrient availability, cation exchange

N. K. Fageria

2012-01-01

142

Uptake of cesium-137 by crops from contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

The Turkish tea crop was contaminated following the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Finding ways to dispose of the contaminated tea (Camellia sinensis L.) without damaging the environment was the goal of this research conducted at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA). In this study, an investigation was made of {sup 137}Cs activities of the plants and the ratios of transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants when the contaminated tea was applied to the soil. Experiments were conducted in the field and in pots under greenhouse conditions. The activities of the tea applied in the field ranged from 12 500 to 72 800 Bq/m{sup 2}, whereas this activity was constant at 8000 Bq/pot in the greenhouse experiment. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from soil to the plants was between 0.037 and 1.057% for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays indentata Sturt), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and grass (Lolium perenne L.). The ratio of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants increased as the activity {sup 137}Cs in tea applied to soil was increased. The activity in the plants increased due to increased uptake of {sup 137}Cs by plants. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Demirel, H.; Oezer, I.; Celenk, I.; Halitligil, M.B.; Oezmen, A. [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (Turkey)

1994-11-01

143

Soil PH An Indices For Effective Management Of Soils For Crop Production.  

E-print Network

Abstract:- The PH properties of the soils of the Peter Natter School of Agriculture Ugwuomu, Enugu state were investigated. Soil samples were collected from surface and subsurface horizons 0-20cm and 20-40cm respectively in seven different locations. The two different horizon depths are tagged x and y and soil samples of the same depth in the seven different locations were bulked together as composite samples for soil PH. The PH levels of the soils were analyzed and the characteristics of the soils described. The soils of the study area were predominantly acidic and PH range was 4.9-6.0. The soils of the two horizons depth were also acidic in nature both in H2O and KCl and the charge particles range from 1-3 positive. Generally the results of the soils were below the level adaptable to most of the arable and field crop production as well as nutrient uptake and availability and Microbial activities.

Nweke I. A

144

Spatial dynamics chemical properties in a lowland soil under sugarcane crop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lowland soils are very important to sugarcane crop in rainy coastal zone in Northeast of Brazil. This soil is flat, high yield potential and high natural soil fertility. However, soil salinity problems can be occurred due to incorrect management, poor drainage and seasonal flood. The objective of this study was to evaluate spatial variability of chemical soil properties in a Gley soil under sugarcane crop. The study area is located in Rio Formoso city, Pernambuco (Brazil), at latitude 08°38'91"S and longitude 35°16'08"W, 60.45 m above sea level and average annual rainfall of 2100 mm. The region is characterized by rainy tropical, with dry summer, rainy season between May and August and temperatures ranging from 24 to 29°C. Non-deformed soil samples were collected from the surface layer (0-20 cm) in 5 ha, total of 54 samples. The following chemical properties were studied: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, aluminum, hydrogen + aluminum, sum of bases, cation exchange capacity (CEC), sodicity (ESP), aluminum saturation, bases saturation and total exchangeable bases. Descriptive statistics and geostatistical techniques were used to spatial modeling and construction of maps. Overall, the data appeared to be normally distributed, with the exception of Ca, Mg, K, Al and aluminum saturation. The highest coefficient of variation was found for percentage of aluminum saturation (113%) and the lowest was for Na (26.03%). The attributes that spatially dependent models were fitted to the Gaussian (pH and Ca), exponential (Mg) and spherical (base saturation and CEC), the other attributes denoted a pure nugget effect. The presence of nugget effect for most of the attributes is due of the high water table fluctuation and recharge that acts directly on the spatial distribution of them. The maps of spatial variability of chemical soil proprieties showed that EC have been influenced by different chemical elements, but sodium was the predominant element. Thus, sodium and EC had an inverse relationship.

Pereira da Silva, Wellington; Duarte Guedes Cabral de Almeida, Ceres; Machado Siqueira, Glécio; Patrícia Prazeres Marques, Karina; Medeiros Bezerra, Joel; Gomes de Almeida, Brivaldo

2013-04-01

145

Does agricultural crop diversity enhance soil microbial biomass and organic matter dynamics? A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Our increasing dependence on a small number of agricultural crops, such as corn, is leading to reductions in agricultural biodiversity. Reductions in the number of crops in rotation or the replacement of rotations by monocultures are responsible for this loss of biodiversity. The belowground implications of simplifying agricultural plant communities remain unresolved; however, agroecosystem sustainability will be severely compromised if reductions in biodiversity reduce soil C and N concentrations, alter microbial communities, and degrade soil ecosystem functions as reported in natural communities. We conducted a meta-analysis of 122 studies to examine crop rotation effects on total soil C and N concentrations, and the faster cycling microbial biomass C and N pools that play key roles in soil nutrient cycling and physical processes such as aggregate formation. We specifically examined how rotation crop type and management practices influence C and N dynamics in different climates and soil types. We found that adding one or more crops in rotation to a monoculture increased total soil C by 3.6% and total N by 5.3%, but when rotations included a cover crop (i.e., crops that are not harvested but produced to enrich the soil and capture inorganic N), total C increased by 8.5% and total N 12.8%. Rotations substantially increased the soil microbial biomass C (20.7%) and N (26.1%) pools, and these overwhelming effects on microbial biomass were not moderated by crop type or management practices. Crop rotations, especially those that include cover crops, sustain soil quality and productivity by enhancing soil C, N, and microbial biomass, making them a cornerstone for sustainable agroecosystems. PMID:24834741

McDaniel, M D; Tiemann, L K; Grandy, A S

2014-04-01

146

SOIL ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS - ECOGEN Hierarchical classification of environmental factors and agricultural practices affecting soil fauna under cropping systems using Bt maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The population dynamics of soil organisms under agricultural field conditions are influenced by many factors, such as pedology and climate, but also farming practices such as crop type, tillage and the use of pesticides. To assess the real effects of farming practices on soil organisms it is necessary to rank the influence of all of these parameters. Bt maize

Marko Debeljaka; Paul H. Kroghd; Saso Dzeroskia; Batiment Villemin

147

Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Septic Systems in Flooded and Wet Soil Conditions  

E-print Network

and Wet Soil Conditions Brad Lee and Don Jones Department of Agronomy and Department of Agricultural Systems in Flooded and Wet Soil Conditions--HENV-10-W How to Prepare for a Flood If flooding appearsPurdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Septic Systems in Flooded

Holland, Jeffrey

148

Assessing Soil Quality Under Long?Term Rice?Based Cropping System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Productivity of the rice?based cropping system is low, and it continues to decline in India because of worsening soil?related constraints. Keeping in view the importance of soil quality in rice?based intensive cropping system, the present investigation was undertaken with the objective of identifying several biological, chemical, and physical indicators of soil quality using data collected from a long?term experiment being

Jaladhi Chaudhury; Uttam Kumar Mandal; K. L. Sharma; H. Ghosh; Biswapati Mandal

2005-01-01

149

Soil heterogeneity at the field scale: a challenge for precision crop protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop protection seldom takes into account soil heterogeneity at the field scale. Yet, variable site characteristics affect\\u000a the incidence of pests as well as the efficacy and fate of pesticides in soil. This article reviews crucial starting points\\u000a for incorporating soil information into precision crop protection (PCP). At present, the lack of adequate field maps is a\\u000a major drawback. Conventional

Stefan Patzold; Franz Michael Mertens; Ludger Bornemann; Britta Koleczek; Jonas Franke; Hannes Feilhauer; Gerhard Welp

2008-01-01

150

Integration of Soil Structure Variations with Time and Space into Models for Crop Management: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil structure plays a major role in the design of new crop management systems. For instance, the transition from conventional\\u000a to no-tillage changes soil structure, which, in turn, has implications on crop yield greenhouse gas emissions, and pesticide\\u000a and nitrate leaching. Modelling soil structure at field scale faces two main issues: (1) the spatial variability and (2) the\\u000a temporal variability.

J. Roger-Estrade; G. Richard; A. R. Dexter; H. Boizard; S. Tourdonnet; M. Bertrand; J. Caneill

151

Integration of soil structure variations with time and space into models for crop management. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil structure plays a major role in the design of new crop management systems. For instance, the transition from conventional\\u000a to no-tillage changes soil structure, which, in turn, has implications on crop yield greenhouse gas emissions, and pesticide\\u000a and nitrate leaching. Modelling soil structure at field scale faces two main issues: (1) the spatial variability and (2) the\\u000a temporal variability.

J. Roger-Estrade; G. Richard; A. R. Dexter; H. Boizard; S. De Tourdonnet; M. Bertrand; J. Caneill

2009-01-01

152

Eight years of annual no-till cropping in Washington's winter wheat-summer fallow region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tillage-based winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer fallow (WW-SF) cropping system has dominated dryland farming in the Pacific Northwest USA for 125 years. We conducted a large-scale multidisciplinary 8-year study of annual (i.e., no summer fallow) no-till cropping systems as an alternative to WW-SF. Soft white and hard white classes of winter and spring wheat, spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.),

William F. Schillinger; Ann C. Kennedy; Douglas L. Young

2007-01-01

153

Are landscape complexity and farm specialisation related to land-use intensity of annual crop fields?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the predictive value of landscape complexity and farm specialisation for land-use intensity, although this is critical for regional agri–environmental schemes and conservation of biodiversity. Here, we analysed land-use intensity of annual crop fields of 30 farms in northern Germany that were located in 15 landscapes differing in structural complexity ranging from 65% non-crop habitats. The proportion

Indra Roschewitz; Carsten Thies; Teja Tscharntke

2005-01-01

154

COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF CONTINUOUS CULTIVATION OF SEVEN CROP COMBINATIONS ON SOIL PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN TWO SOILS OF DIFFERENT LAND USE HISTORY IN EASTERN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in 29 soil physicochemical properties resulting from crop cultivation in newly cleared virgin forest were compared with those from previously cultivated land. The aim was to assess the effects of the selected common crop combinations on the soil properties so as to obtain the best option for soil fertility enrichment in each location. The crops selected were those commonly

C. L. A. Asadu; A. G. O. Dixon

2002-01-01

155

Non-Traditional Soil Additives: Can They Improve Crop Production?  

E-print Network

Non-traditional soil additives include soil conditioners such as organic materials and minerals, soil activators that claim to stimulate soil microbes or inoculate soil with new beneficial organisms, and wetting agents that may be marketed...

McFarland, Mark L.; Stichler, Charles; Lemon, Robert G.

2002-06-26

156

Long-term tillage and cropping sequence influence on dryland soil aggregate-carbon dynam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequestration and transformation of soil C as a result of long-term management practices occur mainly in aggregates. This study evaluated the 21-yr effect of tillage and cropping sequence combinations on dryland soil C sequestration and transformation into various C fractions in aggregates at the 0-20 cm depth in eastern Montana, USA. Tillage and cropping sequences were no-tilled continuous spring wheat (NTCW), spring-tilled continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall- and spring-tilled continuous spring wheat (FSTCW), fall- and spring-tilled spring wheat-barley (1984-1999) followed by spring wheat-pea (2000-2004) (FSTW-B/P), and spring-tilled spring wheat-fallow (STW-F). Carbon fractions were soil organic C (SOC), particulate organic C (POC), microbial biomass C (MBC), and potential C mineralization (PCM). Total amount of crop biomass (stems + leaves) residue returned to soil from 1984 to 2004 was lower in STW-F than in other treatments. Aggregate proportion was greater in NTCW than in FSTCW in 4.75-2.00 mm aggregate-size class at 0-5 cm but was greater in STW-F than in STCW in 2.00-0.25 mm size class at 5-20 cm. The SOC and POC were greater in NTCW and STCW than in STW-F in all aggregate-size classes at 0-5 cm and greater in NTCW than in STW-F in 4.75-2.00 mm and <0.25 mm size classes at 5-20 cm. The PCM was greater in STCW and FSTCW than in STW-F in all aggregate-size classes at 0-5 cm and greater in STCW than in NTCW, FSTCW, and STW-F in 4.75-2.00 mm size class at 5-20 cm. Similarly, MBC was greater in NTCW and STCW than in STW-F in <2.00 mm size class at 0-5 cm and greater in STCW and FSTCW than in STW-F in 4.75-0.25 mm class size at 5-20 cm. No-till increased aggregate proportion and POC but reduced PCM and MBC compared with tilled practices in the continuous spring wheat system in 4.75-2.00 mm size class. Aggregate proportion was greater in 2.00-0.25 mm size class than in other aggregate-size classes. The SOC, POC, and PCM were greater in 4.75-2.00 mm than in <0.25 mm at 0-5 cm but MBC was greater in <0.25 mm than in 4.75-0.25 mm size class at both depths. Reduced tillage with annual cropping increased crop residue production, soil aggregation, C sequestration, and microbial biomass and activities in 4.75-0.25 mm size class compared with the conventional system, such as STW-F. Because of greater aggregate proportion and C concentration between 4.75-2.00 mm and <0.25 mm, C sequestration occurred mainly in 2.00-0.25 mm size class but C transformation varied among aggregate-size classes in the dryland cropping system.

Sainju, U.; Tonthat, T.-C.; Jabro, J. D.

2009-04-01

157

Soil microbial activity and crop sustainability in a long-term experiment with three soil-tillage and two crop-rotation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction in soil disturbance can stimulate soil microbial biomass and improve its metabolic efficiency, resulting in better soil quality, which in turn, can increase crop productivity. In this study we evaluated microbial biomass of C (MB-C) by the fumigation-extraction (FE) or fumigation-incubation (FI) method; microbial biomass of N (MB-N); basal respiration (BR) induced or not with sucrose; metabolic quotient (obtained

Mariangela Hungria; Julio Cezar Franchini; Osvaldino Brandão-Junior; Glaciela Kaschuk; Rosinei Aparecida Souza

2009-01-01

158

Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) allelochemicals that interfere with crop growth and the soil microbial community.  

PubMed

Three chemicals, veratric acid, maltol, and (?)-loliolide, were isolated from crabgrass and their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. The chemicals were detected in crabgrass root exudates and rhizosphere soils, and their concentrations ranged from 0.16 to 8.10 ?g/g. At an approximate concentration determined in crabgrass root exudates, all chemicals significantly inhibited the growth of wheat, maize, and soybean and reduced soil microbial biomass carbon. Phospholipid fatty acid profiling showed that veratric acid, maltol, and (?)-loliolide affected the signature lipid biomarkers of soil bacteria, actinobacteria, and fungi, resulting in changes in soil microbial community structures. There were significant relationships between crop growth and soil microbes under the chemicals' application. Chemical-specific changes in the soil microbial community generated negative feedback on crop growth. The results suggest that veratric acid, maltol, and (?)-loliolide released from crabgrass may act as allelochemicals interfering with crop growth and the soil microbial community. PMID:23678893

Zhou, Bin; Kong, Chui-Hua; Li, Yong-Hua; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xiao-Hua

2013-06-01

159

NATIONAL CROP LOSS ASSESSMENT NETWORK (NCLAN) 1984 ANNUAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Research for 1984 involved performance of a preliminary economic assessment of simulated changes in ambient O3 on U.S. agriculture using recent NCLAN response data for six major crops. Four hypothetical ambient O3 levels are measured and compared with a 1980 base situation. The r...

160

Biochar application to temperate soils - effects on soil fertility and crop yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar (BC) application to soil as a potential soil amendment is currently intensively explored. Depending on feedstock and highest treatment temperature (HTT), BC application to soil may contribute to the soil nutrient status by directly adding nutrients to the soil as well as by increasing pH, cation exchange and water holding capacity. These parameters are known to play an important role in the soil nutrient status and nutrient availability. A positive effect on plant growth after BC application to tropical soils has been observed repeatedly; however, the effect of BC application to soils in temperate climate regions is much less explored. We investigated the effect of BC to temperate soils and crop yield using a randomized pot experiment in a greenhouse with three agricultural soils (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) and four BC types (from straw, mixed woodchips and vineyard pruning, all pyrolyzed at 525°C). In order to analyze the effect of pyrolysis temperature, we additionally applied vineyard pruning BC pyrolyzed at 400°C. Selected treatments were planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.), followed by barley (Hordeum vulgare). Soil sampling was carried out after barley harvest. Investigated soil parameters included pH, electrical conductivity (EC), C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity (CEC), CAL-extractable P and K, EDTA extractable Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn as well as nitrogen supplying potential (NSP). Biomass production of the two crops was determined as well as its elemental composition. Biochar application (3% wood-based BC) caused a considerable pH increase for the acidic Planosol. The effect of BC application on CEC was dependent on the original status of the soil, notably soil pH and texture. 3 % BC application (wood) decreased CEC by 3.5 % and 10 % for the Chernozem and Cambisol, respectively, but increased CEC by 35 % for the acidic, sandy Planosol, which may be due to the strong liming effect found for the Planosol. BC application significantly raised CAL-extractable K for all soils. CAL-extractable P only increased in the Planosol and Cambisol at 3% application rate. Mustard yield decreased by 67% for vineyard pruning BC if nitrogen deficiency was not compensated for, straw-derived BC only caused a 2 % decrease of mustard yield. Barley yield was still significantly lower in most BC-treated pots compared to the controls, however, plant yields were less reduced for the second crop. Only straw-derived BC treatments showed a significantly higher barley yield (1955 ± 40 g m-2) compared to the control (1837 ± 70 g m-2). The results of the elemental composition of the barley grains showed that Al uptake in the Planosol significantly decreased after application of wood and straw BC, which may be due to the pH increase after BC application. In addition, Ca uptake in barley grains was significantly higher in the 3% wood BC treatment compared to the control. This may be caused by a higher Ca content of the wood BC as revealed by XRF. Mn uptake, on the other hand, was significantly reduced after BC application.

Kloss, S.; Zehetner, F.; Feichtmair, S.; Wimmer, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Kitzler, B.; Watzinger, A.; Soja, G.

2012-04-01

161

Distribution of antibiotics in wastewater-irrigated soils and their accumulation in vegetable crops in the pearl river delta, southern china.  

PubMed

Wastewater is increasingly being used to irrigate agricultural land in many countries around the world. However, limited research has examined the occurrence of antibiotics in soil irrigated with wastewater and their accumulation in plants. This study aimed to determine the distribution of various types of antibiotics in different environmental matrices in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and to evaluate their accumulation and translocation in edible crops. Samples were collected from six sites in the PRD where either domestic wastewater or fishpond water was used for irrigation. Results showed that fishpond water irrigated soils had higher concentrations of antibiotics than wastewater-irrigated soils. Different trends were observed in the accumulation of antibiotics in the different edible parts of various crops. Despite the low human annual exposure to antibiotics through the consumption of edible crops (1.10 to 7950 ?g/y), the potential adverse effects of antibiotics along the food chain should not be neglected. PMID:25356527

Pan, Min; Wong, Chris K C; Chu, L M

2014-11-19

162

Soil respiration and microbial biomass in a pecan — cotton alley cropping system in Southern USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available on soil respiration and microbial biomass in soils under agroforestry systems. We measured soil respiration rate and microbial biomass under two age classes (young and old) of a pecan (Carya illinoinensis) — cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) alley cropping system, two age classes of pecan orchards, and a cotton monoculture on a well-drained, Redbay sandy loam (a fine-loamy,

K.-H. Lee; S. Jose

2003-01-01

163

Predicting greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon from changing pasture to an energy crop.  

PubMed

Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46-76 Mg dry mass · ha(-1)). Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq · m(-2) over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions. PMID:23991028

Duval, Benjamin D; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Davis, Sarah C; Keogh, Cindy; Long, Stephen P; Parton, William J; DeLucia, Evan H

2013-01-01

164

Native prairie filter strips reduce runoff from hillslopes under annual row-crop systems in Iowa, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryIntensively managed annual cropping systems have produced high crop yields but have often produced significant ecosystem services alteration, in particular hydrologic regulation loss. Reconversion of annual agricultural systems to perennial vegetation can lead to hydrologic function restoration, but its effect is still not well understood. Therefore, our objective was to assess the effects of strategic introduction of different amounts and location of native prairie vegetation (NPV) within agricultural landscapes on hydrological regulation. The study was conducted in Iowa (USA), and consisted of a fully balanced, replicated, incomplete block design whereby 12 zero-order ephemeral flow watersheds received four treatments consisting of varying proportions (0%, 10%, and 20%) of prairie vegetation located in different watershed positions (footslope vs. contour strips). Runoff volume and rate were measured from 2008 to 2010 (April-October) with an H-Flume installed in each catchment, and automated ISCO samplers. Over the entire study period, we observed a total of 129 runoff events with an average runoff volume reduction of 37% based on the three treatments with NPV compared to watersheds with row crops. We observed a progressively greater reduction across the 3 years of the study as the perennial strips became established with the greatest differences among treatments occurring in 2010. The differences among the watersheds were attributed mainly to NPV amount and position, with the 10% NPV at footslope treatment having the greatest runoff reduction probably because the portion of NPV filter strip that actually contacted watershed runoff was greater with the 10% NPV at footslope. We observed greater reductions in runoff in spring and fall likely because perennial prairie plants were active and crops were absent or not fully established. High antecedent soil moisture sometimes led to little benefit of the NPV treatments but in general the NPV treatments were effective during both small and large events. We conclude that, small amounts of NPV strategically incorporated into corn-soybean watersheds in the Midwest US can be used to effectively reduce runoff.

Hernandez-Santana, V.; Zhou, X.; Helmers, M. J.; Asbjornsen, H.; Kolka, R.; Tomer, M.

2013-01-01

165

Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments of edible crops grown in biosolids-amended soils.  

PubMed

Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids-amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA; 232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root-soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with increasing chain length (0.11 to 0.36 log decrease per CF2 group). The biggest decrease (0.54-0.58 log decrease per CF2 group) was seen in fruit-soil concentration factors (FCFs). Crop anatomy and PFAA properties were utilized to explain data trends. In general, fruit crops were found to accumulate fewer long-chain PFAAs than shoot or root crops presumably due to an increasing number of biological barriers as the contaminant is transported throughout the plant (roots to shoots to fruits). These data were incorporated into a preliminary conceptual framework for PFAA accumulation in edible crops. In addition, these data suggest that edible crops grown in soils conventionally amended for nutrients with biosolids (that are not impacted by PFAA industries) are unlikely a significant source of long-chain PFAA exposure to humans. PMID:24918303

Blaine, Andrea C; Rich, Courtney D; Sedlacko, Erin M; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Kumar, Kuldip; Lau, Christopher; Mills, Marc A; Harris, Kimberly M; Higgins, Christopher P

2014-07-15

166

[Phytoavailability and chemical speciation of cadmium in different Cd-contaminated soils with crop root return].  

PubMed

Pot experiments were conducted under greenhouse condition to investigate the effects of crop root return on succeeding crops growth, Cd uptake and soil Cd speciation in Cd-contaminated soil and artificial Cd-contaminated soil. The results showed that the amount of root residue returned to soil by corn and kidney bean growth successive for 3 times was 0.4%-1.1%. The Cd returned to soil by root residue was 1.3%-3.5% to the total soil Cd. There was no significant difference in the shoot dry weights of winter wheat and Chinese cabbage grown on the 2 Cd-contaminated soils with and without root return. While Cd concentration of Chinese cabbage increased significantly in the Cd-contaminated soil with corn or kidney bean root return. Light fraction of soil organic matter increased with root return in both of the Cd-contaminated soils. The percentage of Cd in the light fraction of soil organic matter increased with root return in the artificial Cd-contaminated soil. Soil carbonates-bound Cd concentration decreased significantly with corn root return in the Cd-contaminated soil. Soil exchangeable Cd concentration decreased and soil Fe-Mn oxide-bound Cd concentration increased significantly with kidney bean root return in the artificial Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:23668141

Zhang, Jing; Yu, Ling-Ling; Xin, Shu-Zhen; Su, De-Chun

2013-02-01

167

Soil organic carbon dynamics and crop yield for different crop rotations in a degraded ferruginous tropical soil in a semi-arid region: a simulation approach.  

PubMed

In recent years, simulation models have been used as a complementary tool for research and for quantifying soil carbon sequestration under widely varying conditions. This has improved the understanding and prediction of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and crop yield responses to soil and climate conditions and crop management scenarios. The goal of the present study was to estimate the changes in SOC for different cropping systems in West Africa using a simulation model. A crop rotation experiment conducted in Farakô-Ba, Burkina Faso was used to evaluate the performance of the cropping system model (CSM) of the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) for simulating yield of different crops. Eight crop rotations that included cotton, sorghum, peanut, maize and fallow, and three different management scenarios, one without N (control), one with chemical fertilizer (N) and one with manure applications, were studied. The CSM was able to simulate the yield trends of various crops, with inconsistencies for a few years. The simulated SOC increased slightly across the years for the sorghum-fallow rotation with manure application. However, SOC decreased for all other rotations except for the continuous fallow (native grassland), in which the SOC remained stable. The model simulated SOC for the continuous fallow system with a high degree of accuracy normalized root mean square error (RMSE)=0·001, while for the other crop rotations the simulated SOC values were generally within the standard deviation (s.d.) range of the observed data. The crop rotations that included a supplemental N-fertilizer or manure application showed an increase in the average simulated aboveground biomass for all crops. The incorporation of this biomass into the soil after harvest reduced the loss of SOC. In the present study, the observed SOC data were used for characterization of production systems with different SOC dynamics. Following careful evaluation of the CSM with observed soil organic matter (SOM) data similar to the study presented here, there are many opportunities for the application of the CSM for carbon sequestration and resource management in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22505776

Soler, C M Tojo; Bado, V B; Traore, K; Bostick, W McNair; Jones, J W; Hoogenboom, G

2011-10-01

168

Soil organic carbon dynamics and crop yield for different crop rotations in a degraded ferruginous tropical soil in a semi-arid region: a simulation approach  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In recent years, simulation models have been used as a complementary tool for research and for quantifying soil carbon sequestration under widely varying conditions. This has improved the understanding and prediction of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and crop yield responses to soil and climate conditions and crop management scenarios. The goal of the present study was to estimate the changes in SOC for different cropping systems in West Africa using a simulation model. A crop rotation experiment conducted in Farakô-Ba, Burkina Faso was used to evaluate the performance of the cropping system model (CSM) of the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) for simulating yield of different crops. Eight crop rotations that included cotton, sorghum, peanut, maize and fallow, and three different management scenarios, one without N (control), one with chemical fertilizer (N) and one with manure applications, were studied. The CSM was able to simulate the yield trends of various crops, with inconsistencies for a few years. The simulated SOC increased slightly across the years for the sorghum–fallow rotation with manure application. However, SOC decreased for all other rotations except for the continuous fallow (native grassland), in which the SOC remained stable. The model simulated SOC for the continuous fallow system with a high degree of accuracy normalized root mean square error (RMSE)=0·001, while for the other crop rotations the simulated SOC values were generally within the standard deviation (s.d.) range of the observed data. The crop rotations that included a supplemental N-fertilizer or manure application showed an increase in the average simulated aboveground biomass for all crops. The incorporation of this biomass into the soil after harvest reduced the loss of SOC. In the present study, the observed SOC data were used for characterization of production systems with different SOC dynamics. Following careful evaluation of the CSM with observed soil organic matter (SOM) data similar to the study presented here, there are many opportunities for the application of the CSM for carbon sequestration and resource management in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22505776

SOLER, C. M. TOJO; BADO, V. B.; TRAORE, K.; BOSTICK, W. MCNAIR; JONES, J. W.; HOOGENBOOM, G.

2011-01-01

169

Influence of tillage, residue management, and crop rotation on soil microbial biomass and catabolic diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The densely populated, intensively cropped subtropical highlands of the world have agricultural sustainability problems from soil erosion and fertility decline. In 1991, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) initiated a long-term field experiment at its semi-arid highland experiment station in Mexico (2240masl; 19.31°N, 98.50°W; Cumulic Phaeozem) to investigate the long-term effects of tillage\\/seeding practices, crop rotations, and crop

Bram Govaerts; Monica Mezzalama; Yusuke Unno; Ken D. Sayre; Marco Luna-Guido; Katrien Vanherck; Luc Dendooven; Jozef Deckers

2007-01-01

170

Collection Policy: SOIL, CROP AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Subject Scope | Priority Tables | Other policies . . .  

E-print Network

genetic engineering of crop and microbial species, simulation modeling and data acquisition, storage statistics, soil mechanics, engineering related to flow in porous media, groundwater hydrology, microbiology. q Microclimatology. q Air pollution. q Atmospheric modeling. q The Engineering Library has

Angenent, Lars T.

171

Using Legumes to Enhance Sustainability of Sorghum Cropping Systems in the East Texas Pineywoods Ecoregion: Impacts on Soil Nitrogen, Soil Carbon, and Crop Yields  

E-print Network

(Trifolium incarnatum L.) is a cool-season legume that replaced up to 120 kg ha-1 of N fertilizer for grain sorghum on a sandy loam soil in Georgia (Hargrove, 1986). In a study conducted in North Carolina, Wagger (1989a) found that a subsequent corn crop... (Trifolium incarnatum L.) is a cool-season legume that replaced up to 120 kg ha-1 of N fertilizer for grain sorghum on a sandy loam soil in Georgia (Hargrove, 1986). In a study conducted in North Carolina, Wagger (1989a) found that a subsequent corn crop...

Neely, Clark B

2013-05-03

172

Improvement of Soil Phosphorus Availability by Green Fertilization with Catch Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient use of phosphorus (P) is a main task in sustainable agriculture. In pot and field experiments, the effects of green fertilization with catch crops and P supply with organic and inorganic fertilizers on plant and soil parameters were investigated on a P?poor loamy sand. For the field experiment, the catch crops were sown in September and remained on

Renata Gaj; Ewald Schnug

2009-01-01

173

Influence of agricultural traffic and crop management on collembola and microbial biomass in arable soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collembola and microbial biomass C were investigated in a field experiment with controlled agricultural traffic and crop rotation over a period of 27 months. The wheel-induced compactive efforts were applied according to management practices within the crop rotation of sugar beet, winter wheat, and winter barley. Increasing wheel traffic produced increasing soil compaction, mainly due to a reduction in surface

Claus Heisler; Ernst-August Kaiser

1995-01-01

174

Winter cover crops influence on cotton yield and selected soil properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter cover crop studies were conducted for 17 years with cotton grown on a Dubbs?Dundee soil complex at the University of Arkansas Delta Branch Experiment Station. This experiment was established in 1972 to investigate the changes induced by winter cover crops of rye, vetch, and lupine. The rye and lupine were later changed to rye + vetch and rye +

T. C. Keisling; H. D. Scott; B. A. Waddle; W. Williams; R. E. Frans

1994-01-01

175

Evapotranspiration and regional probabilities of soil moisture stress in rainfed crops, southern India  

E-print Network

Evapotranspiration and regional probabilities of soil moisture stress in rainfed crops, southern basin in southern India (258,948 km2 ). Measurements of actual evapotranspiration (Ea) from 90 lysimeter evapo- transpiration (Ep). Crops included sorghum, pulses (mung bean, chickpea, soybean, pigeon- pea

Biggs, Trent

176

Integration of soil, crop and weed management in low-external-input farming systems  

E-print Network

Integration of soil, crop and weed management in low-external-input farming systems M LIEBMAN diversi®cation are basic components of LEI systems. Weed scientists can improve the use of these practices for weed management by improving knowledge of four relevant ecological mechanisms. First, multispecies crop

Sims, Gerald K.

177

MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI AND FIELD CROPS Mycorrhizal fungi are very common soil microor-  

E-print Network

MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI AND FIELD CROPS Mycorrhizal fungi are very common soil microor- ganisms a symbiotic association called a mycorrhiza, which means "fungus root". Mycorrhizal fungi produce structures source of energy. What are mycorrhizal fungi? How do they impact crops? Numerous studies have shown

Kaye, Jason P.

178

A GPS Backpack System for Mapping Soil and Crop Parameters in Agricultural Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farmers are having to gather increasing amounts of data on their soils and crops. Precision agriculture metre-by-metre is based on a knowledge of the spatial variation of soil and crop parameters across a field. The data has to be spatially located and GPS is an effective way of doing this. A backpack data logging system with GPS position tagging is described which has been designed to aid a fanner in the manual collection of data.

Stafford, J. V.; Lebars, J. M.

179

Use of soil moisture depletion models and rainfall probability in predicting the irrigation requirements of crops  

E-print Network

fulfillment of requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIFiVCE Z!ay 1969 )Zajor Subject: Agricultural Engineering USE OF SOIL MOISTURE DEPLETION MODELS AND RAINFALL PROBABILITY IN PREDICTING THE IRRIGATION REQUIREMENTS OF CROPS A Thesis by Wilfredo P... of the Philippines Directed by: Dr. E. A. Uiler A continuous soil moisture accounting model based on soil moisture depletion equations and soil moisture depletion constants was developed. The model was adapted to an 18. 6-acre experimental watershed and was used...

David, Wilfredo P

2012-06-07

180

Role of manures and crop residue in alleviating soil fertility constraints to crop production: With special reference to the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the West African semi-arid tropics (WASAT), continuous cultivation leads to drastically reduced levels of soil organic matter. Such reductions in the level of soil organic matter have resulted in decreased soil productivity. The addition of organic materials either in the form of manures or crop residue has beneficial effects on the soils' chemical and physical properties. For many of

A. Bationo; A. U. Mokwunye

1991-01-01

181

Estimating soil moisture and the relationship with crop yield using surface temperature and vegetation index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture availability affects rainfed crop yield. Therefore, the development of methods for pre-harvest yield prediction is essential for the food security. A study was carried out to estimate regional crop yield using the Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI). Triangular scatters from land surface temperature (LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) space from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) were utilized to obtain TVDI and to estimate soil moisture availability. Then soybean and wheat crops yield was estimated on four agro-climatic zones of Argentine Pampas. TVDI showed a strong correlation with soil moisture measurements, with R2 values ranged from 0.61 to 0.83 and also it was in agreement with spatial pattern of soil moisture. Moreover, results showed that TVDI data can be used effectively to predict crop yield on the Argentine Pampas. Depending on the agro-climatic zone, R2 values ranged from 0.68 to 0.79 for soybean crop and 0.76 to 0.81 for wheat. The RMSE values were 366 and 380 kg ha-1 for soybean and they varied between 300 and 550 kg ha-1 in the case of wheat crop. When expressed as percentages of actual yield, the RMSE values ranged from 12% to 13% for soybean and 14% to 22% for wheat. The bias values indicated that the obtained models underestimated soybean and wheat yield. Accurate crop grain yield forecast using the developed regression models was achieved one to three months before harvest. In many cases the results were better than others obtained using only a vegetation index, showing the aptitude of surface temperature and vegetation index combination to reflect the crop water condition. Finally, the analysis of a wide range of soil moisture availability allowed us to develop a generalized model of crop yield and dryness index relationship which could be applicable in other regions and crops at regional scale.

Holzman, M. E.; Rivas, R.; Piccolo, M. C.

2014-05-01

182

Detecting crop yield reduction due to irrigation-induced soil salinization in South-West Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South-European part of the Russian Federation has experienced serious land degradation in the form of soil salinization since the 1960s. This land degradation was caused by intensive, large-scale irrigation on reclaimed land in combination with the salt-rich nature of the substrate. Alkaline soil salinity is believed to be an important factor decreasing crop yield in this area. A large research effort has been directed to the effects of soil salinity on crops, there is a need for simple, easily determinable indicators of crop health and soil salinity in irrigated systems, that can help to detect crop water stress in an early stage. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of soil salinity and vegetation water stress on the performance of alfalfa crop yield and physiological crop properties, and to study the possibility to measure soil salinity and alkalinity and the crop water stress index at plot level using a thermal gun and a regular digital camera. The study area was located in Saratov District, in the South-West part of Russia. Variables on the surface energy balance, crop properties, soil properties and visible reflectance were measured on plots with alfalfa cultures in two fields with and without signs of alkaline soil salinity, and with and without irrigation in July 2009. The research showed no clear adverse effects of soil salinity and soil alkalinity on crop yield and physiological crop properties. Soil salinity, as reflected by the electric conductivity, positively affected the root biomass of alfalfa in the range of 0.15 to 1.52 dS/m . This was a result of EC levels being below the documented threshold to negatively affect Alfalfa, as would be the case in truly saline soils. The soil pH also showed a positive correlation with root biomass within the range of pH 6.2 and 8.5 . From the literature these pH values are generally believed to be too high to exhibit a positive relationship with root biomass. No relationship was found between EC and pH on the one hand , and soil moisture content on the other. However, soil moisture content in the topsoil appeared to have a major influence on the crop water stress index, which on its turn affected the leaf area index, the fresh biomass and the mean plant height. The crop leaf color as detected by a regular digital camera appeared to be correlated with pH and EC properties of the soil. The visible light band ratios red/green and blue/green correlated well with the crop water stress index. More research is necessary to prove if this relation is applicable in different environments, and for different crops. A confirmation of these findings would offer scope to increase the spatial support of this technique using satellite images.

Argaman, E.; Beets, W.; Croes, J.; Keesstra, S.; Verzandvoort, S.; Zeiliguer, A.

2012-04-01

183

Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When soil nitrate levels are low, plants suffer nitrogen (N) deficiency but when the levels are excessive, soil nitrates can pollute surface and subsurface waters. Strategies to reduce the nitrate pollution are necessary to reach a sustainable use of resources such as soil, water and plant. Buffer strips and cover crops can contribute to the management of soil nitrates, but little is known of their effectiveness in semiarid vineyards plantations. The research was carried out in the south coast of Sicily (Italy) to evaluate nitrate trends in a vineyard managed both conventionally and using two different cover crops (Triticum durum and Vicia sativa cover crop). A 10 m-wide buffer strip was seeded with Lolium perenne at the bottom of the vineyard. Soil nitrate was measured monthly and nitrate movement was monitored by application of a 15N tracer to a narrow strip between the bottom of vineyard and the buffer and non-buffer strips. Lolium perenne biomass yield in the buffer strips and its isotopic nitrogen content were monitored. Vicia sativa cover crop management contributed with an excess of nitrogen, and the soil management determined the nitrogen content at the buffer areas. A 6 m buffer strip reduced the nitrate by 42% with and by 46% with a 9 m buffer strip. Thanks to catch crops, farmers can manage the N content and its distribution into the soil over the year, can reduced fertilizer wastage and reduce N pollution of surface and groundwater.

Novara, A.; Gristina, L.; Guaitoli, F.; Santoro, A.; Cerdà, A.

2013-08-01

184

Evaluation of fly ash as a soil amendment for the Atlantic Coastal Plain: II. Soil chemical properties and crop growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop yields in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the U.S.A. are limited by the low moisture-holding capacities of the sandy soils common to the region. Corn was grown in a Hammonton loamy sand soil amended with fly ash (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40%) to determine if the ash rates required to improve soil moisture holding capacity would adversely

J. T. Sims; B. L. Vasilas; M. Ghodrati

1995-01-01

185

The impact of a low humus level in arable soils on microbial properties, soil organic matter quality and crop yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

In arable soils in Schleswig-Holstein (Northwest Germany) nearly 30% of the total organic C (TOC) stored in former times\\u000a in the soil has been mineralized in the last 20 years. Microbial biomass, enzyme activities and the soil organic matter (SOM)\\u000a composition were investigated in order to elucidate if a low TOC level affects microbial parameters, SOM quality and crop\\u000a yield.

L. Beyer; K. Sieling; K. Pingpank

1999-01-01

186

Salt and N leaching and soil accumulation due to cover cropping practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate leaching beyond the root zone can increase water contamination hazards and decrease crop available N. Cover crops used in spite of fallow are an alternative to reduce nitrate contamination in the vadose zone, because reducing drainage and soil mineral N accumulation. Cover crops can improve important characteristics in irrigated land as water retention capacity or soil aggregate stability. However, increasing evapotranspiration and consequent drainage below the root system reduction, could lead to soil salt accumulation. Salinity affects more than 80 million ha of arable land in many areas of the world, and one of the principal causes for yield reduction and even land degradation in the Mediterranean region. Few studies dealt with both problems at the same time. Therefore, it is necessary a long-term evaluation of the potential effect on soil salinity and nitrate leaching, in order to ensure that potential disadvantages that could originate from soil salt accumulation are compensated with all advantages of cover cropping. A study of the soil salinity and nitrate leaching was conducted during 4 years in a semiarid irrigated agricultural area of Central Spain. Three treatments were studied during the intercropping period of maize (Zea mays L.): barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), vetch (Vicia villosa L.) and fallow. Cover crops were killed in March allowing seeding of maize of the entire trial in April, and all treatments were irrigated and fertilised following the same procedure. Before sowing, and after harvesting maize and cover crops, soil salt and nitrate accumulation was determined along the soil profile. Soil analysis was conducted at six depths every 0.20 m in each plot in samples from four 0 to 1.2-m depth holes dug. The electrical conductivity of the saturated paste extract and soil mineral nitrogen was measured in each soil sample. A numerical model based on the Richards water balance equation was applied in order to calculate drainage at 1.2 m depth, using daily soil water content measurements, based on calibrated capacitance probes. Our results showed that drainage during the irrigated period was minimized, because irrigation water was adjusted to crop needs, leading to soil salt and nitrate accumulation on the upper layers after maize harvest. Then, during the intercrop period, most of salt and nitrate leaching occurred. Cover crops use led to shorter drainage period, lower drainage water amount and lower nitrate and salt leaching than treatment with fallow. These effects were related with a larger nitrate accumulation in the upper layers of the soil after cover crop treatments. But there was not soil salt accumulation increase in treatments with cover crops, and even decreased after years with a large cover crop biomass production. Then, adoption of cover crops in this kind of irrigated cropping system reduced water drainage beyond the root zone, salt and nitrate leaching diminished as a consequence but did not lead to salt accumulation in the upper soil layers. Acknowledgements: Financial support by CICYT, Spain (ref. AGL2005-00163 and AGL 2011-24732) and Comunidad de Madrid (project AGRISOST, S2009/AGR-1630).

Gabriel, J. L.; Quemada, M.

2012-04-01

187

Dynamic Succession of Soil Bacterial Community during Continuous Cropping of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Plant health and soil fertility are affected by plant–microbial interactions in soils. Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability, but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses were used to study the succession of soil bacterial communities under continuous peanut cultivation. Six libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and during its seedling and pod-maturing growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil bacterial assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. The diversity of bacterial sequences identified in each growth stage library of the three peanut cropping cycles was high and these sequences were affiliated with 21 bacterial groups. Eight phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were dominant. The related bacterial phylotypes dynamic changed during continuous cropping progress of peanut. This study demonstrated that the bacterial populations especially the beneficial populations were positively selected. The simplification of the beneficial microbial communities such as the phylotypes of Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut yield under continuous cropping. The microbial phylotypes that did not successively changed with continuous cropping, such as populations related to Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales, could potentially resist stress due to continuous cropping and deserve attention. In addition, some phylotypes, such as Acidobacteriales, Chromatiales and Gemmatimonadales, showed a contrary tendency, their abundance or diversity increased with continuous peanut cropping progress. Some bacterial phylotypes including Acidobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Bdellovibrionales, and so on, also were affected by plant age. PMID:25010658

Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

2014-01-01

188

Effects of different 3-year cropping systems on soil microbial communities and rhizoctonia diseases of potato.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Eight different 3-year cropping systems, consisting of soybean-canola, soybean-barley, sweet corn-canola, sweet corn-soybean, green bean-sweet corn, canola-sweet corn, barley-clover, and continuous potato (non-rotation control) followed by potato as the third crop in all systems, were established in replicated field plots with two rotation entry points in Presque Isle, ME, in 1998. Cropping system effects on soil microbial community characteristics based on culturable soil microbial populations, single carbon source substrate utilization (SU) profiles, and whole-soil fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles were evaluated in association with the development of soilborne diseases of potato in the 2000 and 2001 field seasons. Soil populations of culturable bacteria and overall microbial activity were highest following barley, canola, and sweet corn crops, and lowest following continuous potato. The SU profiles derived from BIOLOG ECO plates indicated higher substrate richness and diversity and greater utilization of certain carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids associated with barley, canola, and some sweet corn rotations, indicating distinct differences in functional attributes of microbial communities among cropping systems. Soil FAME profiles also demonstrated distinct differences among cropping systems in their relative composition of fatty acid types and classes, representing structural attributes of microbial communities. Fatty acids most responsible for differentiation among cropping systems included 12:0, 16:1 omega5c, 16:1 omega7c, 18:1 omega9c, and 18:2omega6c. Based on FAME biomarkers, barley rotations resulted in higher fungi-to-bacteria ratios, sweet corn resulted in greater mycorrhizae populations, and continuous potato produced the lowest amounts of these and other biomarker traits. Incidence and severity of stem and stolon canker and black scurf of potato, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, were reduced for most rotations relative to the continuous potato control. Potato crops following canola, barley, or sweet corn provided the lowest levels of Rhizoctonia disease and best tuber quality, whereas potato crops following clover or soybean resulted in disease problems in some years. Both rotation crop and cropping sequence were important in shaping the microbial characteristics, soilborne disease, and tuber qualities. Several microbial parameters, including microbial populations and SU and FAME profile characteristics, were correlated with potato disease or yield measurements in one or both harvest years. In this study, we have demonstrated distinctive effects of specific rotation crops and cropping sequences on microbial communities and have begun to relate the implications of these changes to crop health and productivity. PMID:18944206

Larkin, Robert P; Honeycutt, C Wayne

2006-01-01

189

PHYTOEXTRACTION OF METAL POLLUTED SOILS AROUND A Pb-Zn MINE BY CROP PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess their practical capability for the absorption and accumulation of Pb, Zn, and Cu, five common crop plants, i.e. maize (Zea mays), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), canola (Brassica napus), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and White lupine (Lupinus albus) were tested in pot experiments using six soil samples taken from mine tailings, pasture and arable soils around an old Pb-Zn

E. Ruiz; L. Rodríguez; J. Alonso-Azcárate; J. Rincón

2009-01-01

190

Effects of cropping-system-related soil moisture and nutrient dynamics on the sustainability of semiarid dryland agriculture  

E-print Network

Effects of cropping-system-related soil moisture and nutrient dynamics on the sustainability that reduce or eliminate fallow have potential for both, but altered soil moisture and nutrient dynamics of semiarid dryland agriculture Project Summary We propose to investigate cropping-system-related soil

Norton, Jay B.

191

Effects of cover crop quality and quantity on nematode-based soil food webs and nutrient cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil food webs cycle nutrients and regulate parasites and pathogens, services essential for both agricultural productivity and ecosystem health. Nematodes provide useful indicators of soil food web dynamics. This study was conducted to determine if nematode soil food web indicators and crop yield can be enhanced by combinations of cover crops in a conservation tillage system. The effects of three

S. Tianna DuPont; Howard Ferris; Mark Van Horn

2009-01-01

192

Changes in soil properties and crop production due to pipeline construction  

SciTech Connect

Trenching and backfilling during pipeline construction disturb the soil, causing temporary or permanent changes in edaphic conditions that may influence plant growth and crop yields. Three edaphic and crop production studies are a part of the Right-of-Way Research Program being conducted by Argonne National Laboratory for the Gas Research Institute. Study sites are located in Beaver County, Oklahoma; Kankakee and Iroquois Counties, Illinois; and Midland County, Michigan. Soil profiles from the pipe ditch, working side, and an adjacent undisturbed area are sampled, analyzed, and compared, using accepted methods. Wheat and grain sorghum yields were also measured at the Beaver County site. Results indicate that (1) pipe-ditch soils can differ significantly from adjacent undisturbed soil in bulk density, particle-size distribution, and available moisture capacity and (2) organic matter and plant nutrients are redistributed in the new pipe-ditch soil. Properties of the new pipe-ditch soil reflect the concentrations and relative volumes of the soil horizons in the adjacent undisturbed soil. These altered edaphic conditions have not caused a decline in soil productivity or crop yields. Data from these studies provide a better understanding of the changes that can occur in pipe-ditch soils because of pipeline construction and can be used in responding to concerns of regulatory agencies and ROW owners. 23 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Zellmer, S.D.; Taylor, J.D.; Johnson, D.O.

1989-01-01

193

Microbial mediation of biogeochemical cycles revealed by simulation of global changes with soil transplant and cropping.  

PubMed

Despite microbes' key roles in driving biogeochemical cycles, the mechanism of microbe-mediated feedbacks to global changes remains elusive. Recently, soil transplant has been successfully established as a proxy to simulate climate changes, as the current trend of global warming coherently causes range shifts toward higher latitudes. Four years after southward soil transplant over large transects in China, we found that microbial functional diversity was increased, in addition to concurrent changes in microbial biomass, soil nutrient content and functional processes involved in the nitrogen cycle. However, soil transplant effects could be overridden by maize cropping, which was attributed to a negative interaction. Strikingly, abundances of nitrogen and carbon cycle genes were increased by these field experiments simulating global change, coinciding with higher soil nitrification potential and carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux. Further investigation revealed strong correlations between carbon cycle genes and CO2 efflux in bare soil but not cropped soil, and between nitrogen cycle genes and nitrification. These findings suggest that changes of soil carbon and nitrogen cycles by soil transplant and cropping were predictable by measuring microbial functional potentials, contributing to a better mechanistic understanding of these soil functional processes and suggesting a potential to incorporate microbial communities in greenhouse gas emission modeling. PMID:24694714

Zhao, Mengxin; Xue, Kai; Wang, Feng; Liu, Shanshan; Bai, Shijie; Sun, Bo; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

2014-10-01

194

Influence of cropping system and nitrogen input on soil fauna and microorganisms in a Swedish arable soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a number of components was analysed in an agro-ecosystem study with four cropping regimens, barley without and with N fertilization, grass ley, and lucerne. A great variation in N inputs (1–39 g N m-2 year-1) and cropping systems produced a variation in primary production (260–790 g C m-2 year-1) and input of organic material to the soil

B. Sohlenius

1990-01-01

195

Crop production and soil water storage in long-term winter wheat–fallow tillage experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil water is the major limiting factor in dryland crop production in the Central Great Plains. No-till fallow management increases soil water storage and reduces soil erosion potential. Two experiments were initiated in 1969 and 1970 near Sidney, NE to compare effects of moldboard plow (Plow), sub-tillage (Sub-till) and no-tillage (No-till) fallow systems on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

Drew J. Lyon; Walter W. Stroup; Randall E. Brown

1998-01-01

196

Soil microbial diversity and community structure under wheat as influenced by tillage and crop rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil microbial diversity is important to sustainable agriculture because microbes mediate many processes that support agricultural production. The BIOLOG™ system for detection of specific patterns of substrate utilization by bacteria was used to investigate the effects of tillage and crop rotation on the diversity and community structure of soil bacteria. In each of 2yr, soil was sampled (0–7.5cm) in the

N. Z. Lupwayi; W. A. Rice; G. W. Clayton

1998-01-01

197

Effect of tillage practices on soil properties and crop productivity in wheat-mungbean-rice cropping system under subtropical climatic conditions.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to know cropping cycles required to improve OM status in soil and to investigate the effects of medium-term tillage practices on soil properties and crop yields in Grey Terrace soil of Bangladesh under wheat-mungbean-T. aman cropping system. Four different tillage practices, namely, zero tillage (ZT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT), and deep tillage (DT), were studied in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replications. Tillage practices showed positive effects on soil properties and crop yields. After four cropping cycles, the highest OM accumulation, the maximum root mass density (0-15 cm soil depth), and the improved physical and chemical properties were recorded in the conservational tillage practices. Bulk and particle densities were decreased due to tillage practices, having the highest reduction of these properties and the highest increase of porosity and field capacity in zero tillage. The highest total N, P, K, and S in their available forms were recorded in zero tillage. All tillage practices showed similar yield after four years of cropping cycles. Therefore, we conclude that zero tillage with 20% residue retention was found to be suitable for soil health and achieving optimum yield under the cropping system in Grey Terrace soil (Aeric Albaquept). PMID:25197702

Alam, Md Khairul; Islam, Md Monirul; Salahin, Nazmus; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

2014-01-01

198

Crop residues as soil amendments and feedstock for bioethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional solid fuels account for more than 90% of the energy supply for 3 billion people in developing countries. However, liquid biofuels (e.g., ethanol) are perceived as an important alternative to fossil fuel. Global crop residue production is estimated at about 4billionMg for all crops and 3billionMg per annum for lignocellulosic residues of cereals. One Mg of corn stover can

R. Lal

2008-01-01

199

Effects of soil tillage and management of crop residues on soil properties: abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms, soil structure and nutrient evolutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The living soil is represented by soil biota that interacts with aboveground biota and with the abiotic environment, soil structure, soil reaction, organic matter, nutrient contents, aso. Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is an important issue to conciliate soil quality and agricultural productivity. Earthworms are key actors in soil structure formation through the production of casts and the incorporation of soil organic matter in the soil. Research is still needed about the interactive effects of various tillage and crop residue management practices on earthworm populations and physical and chemical properties of soil. To investigate the impacts of two tillage management systems and two cropping systems on earthworm populations, soil structure evolution and nutrient dynamics, we carried out a three years study in an experimental field. The aims of this experimentation, were to assess the effects of the tillage systems (ploughing versus reduced tillage) and the availability of crop residues (export versus no export) on (i) the abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms, on the soil structure and on the temporal variation of water extractable nutrients and organic carbon. The first results show that tillage management did significantly affect earthworm abundance and biomass. However, crop residue management did not affect abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms. Regarding soil physical properties, the tillage affected the compaction profiles within the top 30cm. The analysis of nutrient and organic carbon dynamics show divergent trends (decrease of calcium and magnesium, increase of hot water extractable carbon and phosphorus…) but no clear effect of the studied factors could be identified. The question of the initial soil variability raised as a crucial point in the discussion.

lemtiri, Aboulkacem

2013-04-01

200

Towards understanding the effects of crop production practices on soil nitrogen fixation and denitrification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil productivity can be highly influenced by the composition and activity of its microbial communities. Certain crop production practices suppress microbial processes, e.g. nitrogen fixation is suppressed due to excessive application of chemical supplements of N (ammonium, nitrate), whereas removal of nitrogen by denitrification may be enhanced by such conditions. We optimise and use PCR-based techniques to analyse the soil potential for nitrogen fixation and denitrification and seek ways to enhance microbial nitrogen fixation by managing the amount and form of N applied to the soil. These techniques are being optimised for Australian cotton production soils and will also be useful for determining the effects of different crop production strategies on microbial nitrogen cycling in such soils.

Pereg, Lily; McMillan, Mary; Renz, Katrin

2014-05-01

201

Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When soil nitrate levels are inadequate, plants suffer nitrogen deficiency but when the levels are excessive, nitrates (NO3-N) can pollute surface and subsurface waters. Strategies to reduce the nitrate pollution are necessary to reach a sustainable use of resources such as soil, water and plant. Buffer strips and cover crops can contribute to the management of soil nitrates, but little is known of their effectiveness in semiarid vineyards plantations. The experimental site, a 10 m wide and 80 m long area at the bottom of a vineyard was selected in Sicily. The soil between vine rows and upslope of the buffer strip (seeded with Lolium perenne) and non-buffer strips (control) was managed conventionally and with one of two cover crops (Triticum durum and Vicia sativa cover crop). Soil nitrate was measured monthly and nitrate movement was monitored by application of a 15N tracer to a narrow strip between the bottom of vineyard and the buffer and non-buffer strips. L. perenne biomass yield in the buffer strips and its isotopic nitrogen content were monitored. V. sativa cover crop management contribute with an excess of nitrogen, and the soil management determined the nitrogen content at the buffer areas. A 6 m buffer strip reduce the nitrate by 42% with and by 46% with a 9 m buffer strip.

Novara, A.; Gristina, L.; Guaitoli, F.; Santoro, A.; Cerdà, A.

2013-04-01

202

Food crop accumulation and bioavailability assessment for antimony (Sb) compared with arsenic (As) in contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Field samples and a 9-week glasshouse growth trial were used to investigate the accumulation of mining derived arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in vegetable crops growing on the Macleay River Floodplain in Northern New South Wales, Australia. The soils were also extracted using EDTA to assess the potential for this extractant to be used as a predictor of As and Sb uptake in vegetables, and a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) to understand potential for uptake in the human gut with soil ingestion. Metalloids were not detected in any field vegetables sampled. Antimony was not detected in the growth trial vegetable crops over the 9-week greenhouse trial. Arsenic accumulation in edible vegetable parts was <10 % total soil-borne As with concentrations less than the current Australian maximum residue concentration for cereals. The results indicate that risk of exposure through short-term vegetable crops is low. The data also demonstrate that uptake pathways for Sb and As in the vegetables were different with uptake strongly impacted by soil properties. A fraction of soil-borne metalloid was soluble in the different soils resulting in Sb soil solution concentration (10.75 ± 0.52 ?g L(-1)) that could present concern for contamination of water resources. EDTA proved a poor predictor of As and Sb phytoavailability. Oral bioaccessibility, as measured by SBET, was <7 % for total As and <3 % total Sb which is important to consider when estimating the real risk from soil borne As and Sb in the floodplain environment. PMID:24499989

Wilson, Susan C; Tighe, Matthew; Paterson, Ewan; Ashley, Paul M

2014-10-01

203

Effect of long-term phosphorus fertilization on soil Se and transfer of soil Se to crops in northern Japan.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) fertilizer can potentially serve as a source for Se accumulation in croplands. Furthermore, it has been reported that the addition of P fertilizer to soil may enhance Se availability. Japanese agricultural soils are typically enriched in P as a result of long-term, excessive P fertilization. Therefore, we conducted a three-year field experiment in order to evaluate the effect of P fertilization on the Se content of soils and crops. Potato, wheat and barley were cultivated with and without P fertilization at two field sites in Hokkaido (northern Japan) with different levels of historical P accumulation. The first field site consisted of an Andosol soil with low available P and the second site, a Cambisol soil with high available P. The three years of continuous P fertilization over the course of the experiment did not result in a significant increase in the Se content of soils or plants. The Se content of soils and plants, however, was higher in soil samples from the Cambisol field site than from the Andosol field site, and total soil Se was significantly correlated with available soil P. Soluble soil Se and the soil-plant transfer factor for Se were not affected by P fertilization. Thus, we concluded that the higher plant Se content at the Cambisol field site was primarily due to the higher levels of accumulated Se in the soil at the site and that historical excess P fertilization typical of agricultural soils in Japan contributes to increased Se uptake by crops. PMID:24875865

Altansuvd, Javkhlantuya; Nakamaru, Yasuo M; Kasajima, Shinya; Ito, Hirotake; Yoshida, Hozumi

2014-07-01

204

Management of Lignite Fly Ash for Improving Soil Fertility and Crop Productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and biofertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. The highest yield LFA dose was 200 t/ha for one-time and repeat applications, the maximum yield being with crop III (combination treatment). One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy-metal contents and in the level of ?-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner.

Ram, Lal C.; Srivastava, Nishant K.; Jha, Sangeet K.; Sinha, Awadhesh K.; Masto, Reginald E.; Selvi, Vetrivel A.

2007-09-01

205

Effect of cropping systems on adsorption of metals by soils: I. Single-metal adsorption  

SciTech Connect

The effect of long-term cropping systems on adsorption of metals was studied for soils obtained from two sites, Clarion-Webster Research Center (CWRC site) at Kanawha and Galva-Primghar Research Center (GPRC site) at Sutherland, under long-term rotation experiments in Iowa. Each experiment consisted of three cropping systems: continuous corn (CCCC), corn-soybean-corn-soybean (CSCS), and corn-oats-meadow-meadow (COMM), and treated with (+N) and without (0 N) ammoniacal fertilizer. In general, CSCS and COMM cropping systems did not significantly affect the metal adsorption maxima of soils obtained from both sites. Cadmium, Cu, and Pb adsorption were significantly correlated with pH and percentage base saturation for soils from both sites.

Basta, N.T.; Tabatabai, M.A. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

1992-02-01

206

Variation of Microbial Communities in Soil, Rhizosphere, and Rhizoplane in Response to Crop Species, Soil Type, and Crop Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of plant species, soil type, and plant development time on the shaping of microbial communities in soil and in association with roots. The sample group consisted of a total of 32 microcosms in three habitats: soil, rhizosphere, and rhizoplane. Communities were represented by the patterns of a sequence-specific separation of rRNA target sequences. Effects of experimental

GABRIELE WIELAND; REGINE NEUMANN; HORST BACKHAUS

2001-01-01

207

Spatial Variation in Carbon and Nitrogen in Cultivated Soils in Henan Province, China: Potential Effect on Crop Yield  

PubMed Central

Improved management of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in agro-ecosystems represents an important strategy for ensuring food security and sustainable agricultural development in China. Accurate estimates of the distribution of soil C and N stores and their relationship to crop yield are crucial to developing appropriate cropland management policies. The current study examined the spatial variation of soil organic C (SOC), total soil N (TSN), and associated variables in the surface layer (0–40 cm) of soils from intensive agricultural systems in 19 counties within Henan Province, China, and compared these patterns with crop yield. Mean soil C and N concentrations were 14.9 g kg?1 and 1.37 g kg?1, respectively, whereas soil C and N stores were 4.1 kg m?2 and 0.4 kg m?2, respectively. Total crop production of each county was significantly, positively related to SOC, TSN, soil C and N store, and soil C and N stock. Soil C and N were positively correlated with soil bulk density but negatively correlated with soil porosity. These results indicate that variations in soil C could regulate crop yield in intensive agricultural systems, and that spatial patterns of C and N levels in soils may be regulated by both climatic factors and agro-ecosystem management. When developing suitable management programs, the importance of soil C and N stores and their effects on crop yield should be considered. PMID:25289703

Zhang, Xuelin; Wang, Qun; Gilliam, Frank S.; Wang, Yilun; Cha, Feina; Li, Chaohai

2014-01-01

208

Tillage and crop effects on seasonal dynamics of soil CO 2 evolution, water content, temperature, and bulk density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop management practices impact soil productivity by altering the soil environment, which in turn affects microbial growth and decomposition processes that transform plant-produced C to soil organic matter (SOM) or CO2. Long-term reduced tillage increases SOM, but little is known about the seasonal dynamics of soil CO2 evolution as affected by tillage and crop. The objectives were as follows: (1)

A. J. Franzluebbers; F. M. Hons; D. A. Zuberer

1995-01-01

209

Soil and Crop management: Lessons from the laboratory biosphere 2002-2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the years 2002 and 2003, three closed system experiments were carried out in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility located in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The program involved experimentation with "Hoyt" Soy Beans, USU Apogee Wheat and TU-82-155 sweet potato using a 5.37 m2 soil planting bed which was 30 cm deep. The soil texture, 40% clay, 31% sand and 28% silt (a clay loam), was collected from an organic farm in New Mexico to avoid chemical residues. Soil management practices involved minimal tillage, mulching and returning crop residues to the soil after each experiment. Between experiment #2 and #3, the top 15 cm of the soil was amended using a mix of peat moss, green sand, humates and pumice to improve soil texture, lower soil pH and increase nutrient availability. Soil analyses for all three experiments are presented to show how the soils have changed with time and how the changes relate to crop selection and rotation, soil selection and management, water management and pest control. The experience and information gained from these experiments are being applied to the future design of the Mars On Earth facility.

Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J.

210

Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes  

PubMed Central

Soil respiration (SR) constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT), irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10). We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P) is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET), annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle. PMID:23293656

Bahn, M.; Reichstein, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Grunzweig, J.; Jung, M.; Carbone, M. S.; Epron, D.; Misson, L.; Nouvellon, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Savage, K.; Trumbore, S. E.; Gimeno, C.; Yuste, J. Curiel; Tang, J.; Vargas, R.; Janssens, I. A.

2011-01-01

211

Oregon State University Extension Service http://cropandsoil.oregonstate.edu/newsnotes/ CROP and SOIL  

E-print Network

Oregon State University Extension Service http://cropandsoil.oregonstate.edu/newsnotes/ CROP _____________________________________________________________________________ * Oregon Seed Growers League 2008 Annual Meeting * All Things Clearfield Wheat * ORCF-101 � Clearfield and Energy Prices: US Food Policy at a Crossroads," Corvallis. October 21-22 � Oregon Society of Weed Science

Grünwald, Niklaus J.

212

Effects of winter cover crops residue returning on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial community in double-cropping rice fields.  

PubMed

Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice-rice-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice-rice-rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice-rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The ?-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of ?-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality. PMID:24956152

Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

2014-01-01

213

Effects of Winter Cover Crops Residue Returning on Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Microbial Community in Double-Cropping Rice Fields  

PubMed Central

Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice–rice–ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice–rice–Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice–rice–rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice–rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The ?-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of ?-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality. PMID:24956152

Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

2014-01-01

214

Modelling soil borne fungal pathogens of arable crops under climate change.  

PubMed

Soil-borne fungal plant pathogens, agents of crown and root rot, are seldom considered in studies on climate change and agriculture due both to the complexity of the soil system and to the incomplete knowledge of their response to environmental drivers. A controlled chamber set of experiments was carried out to quantify the response of six soil-borne fungi to temperature, and a species-generic model to simulate their response was developed. The model was linked to a soil temperature model inclusive of components able to simulate soil water content also as resulting from crop water uptake. Pathogen relative growth was simulated over Europe using the IPCC A1B emission scenario derived from the Hadley-CM3 global climate model. Climate scenarios of soil temperature in 2020 and 2030 were compared to the baseline centred in the year 2000. The general trend of the response of soil-borne pathogens shows increasing growth in the coldest areas of Europe; however, a larger rate of increase is shown from 2020 to 2030 compared to that of 2000 to 2020. Projections of pathogens of winter cereals indicate a marked increase of growth rate in the soils of northern European and Baltic states. Fungal pathogens of spring sowing crops show unchanged conditions for their growth in soils of the Mediterranean countries, whereas an increase of suitable conditions was estimated for the areals of central Europe which represent the coldest limit areas where the host crops are currently grown. Differences across fungal species are shown, indicating that crop-specific analyses should be ran. PMID:24615638

Manici, L M; Bregaglio, S; Fumagalli, D; Donatelli, M

2014-12-01

215

Modelling soil borne fungal pathogens of arable crops under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil-borne fungal plant pathogens, agents of crown and root rot, are seldom considered in studies on climate change and agriculture due both to the complexity of the soil system and to the incomplete knowledge of their response to environmental drivers. A controlled chamber set of experiments was carried out to quantify the response of six soil-borne fungi to temperature, and a species-generic model to simulate their response was developed. The model was linked to a soil temperature model inclusive of components able to simulate soil water content also as resulting from crop water uptake. Pathogen relative growth was simulated over Europe using the IPCC A1B emission scenario derived from the Hadley-CM3 global climate model. Climate scenarios of soil temperature in 2020 and 2030 were compared to the baseline centred in the year 2000. The general trend of the response of soil-borne pathogens shows increasing growth in the coldest areas of Europe; however, a larger rate of increase is shown from 2020 to 2030 compared to that of 2000 to 2020. Projections of pathogens of winter cereals indicate a marked increase of growth rate in the soils of northern European and Baltic states. Fungal pathogens of spring sowing crops show unchanged conditions for their growth in soils of the Mediterranean countries, whereas an increase of suitable conditions was estimated for the areals of central Europe which represent the coldest limit areas where the host crops are currently grown. Differences across fungal species are shown, indicating that crop-specific analyses should be ran.

Manici, L. M.; Bregaglio, S.; Fumagalli, D.; Donatelli, M.

2014-03-01

216

Preliminary note on potential use of forage crops for soil phytoremediation of dieldrin.  

PubMed

The aim of this trial was to evaluate the feasibility of using tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) for phytoremediation of dieldrin. Experimental trial was carried out in greenhouse with temperature and light control. Each tested crop were seeded in individual pots (10 plants/pot) filled with contaminated soil (47 microg/kg dieldrin) and uncontaminated soil collected in sites located in the province of Latina (Italy). Samples of soil, root, and aerial part of plants were analysed at 3 and 6 months after seeding. The analytical determinations in soil and plant samples were carried out by GLC-ECD and confirmed by GLC-MS. After 6 months in the greenhouse, recoveries of dieldrin from soil planted with tall fescue and alfalfa were significantly lower than recoveries in unplanted control soil. Dieldrin residue values in root did not differ between the two different sampling times for each forage crop tested, but they were always higher in fescue than in alfalfa. Residue levels in aerial part were low (< 10 microg/kg) in the two forage crops. Preliminary results seem to confirm the ability of tested plants to enhance dissipation of dieldrin in soil at low level of contamination. PMID:21542488

Donnarumma, L; Annesi, T; Pompi, V; Rosati, S; Conte, E

2010-01-01

217

Impact of Corn Residue Removal on Crop and Soil Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over-reliance on imported fuels, increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouses and sustaining food production for a growing population are three of the most important problems facing society in the mid-term. The US Department of Energy and private enterprise are developing technology necessary to use high cellulose feedstock, such as crop residues, for ethanol production. Based on production levels, corn (Zea mays

J. M. Johnson; W. W. Wilhelm; J. L. Hatfield; W. B. Voorhees; D. Linden

2003-01-01

218

Effects of topsoil and subsoil thickness on soil water content and crop production on a disturbed soil  

SciTech Connect

Data which can quantify effects of soil depth upon productivity from controlled experiments are essentially lacking for semiarid regions. In connection with mined land-reclamation research in North Dakota, an experiment was established in which soil was reconstructed by building a wedge with productive subsoil (B and upper C horizon) on top of leveled sodic mine spoils derived from shale. Thickness of the subsoil wedge ranged from 0 to 210 cm. Topsoil (A horizon) was then spread over the subsoil wedge to provide a topsoil either 0, 20, or 60 cm thick. A fourth treatment consisted of mixing subsoil and topsoil within the wedge in a 3:1 ratio (no topsoil on the surface). Four crops - alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum), native warm-season grasses (Bouteloua gracilis and Bouteloua curtipendula), and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) - were grown each year on these plots from 1975 through 1979. Yields of all crops increased as total soil thickness (topsoil plus subsoil) increased to the 90- to 150-cm range. Highest yields equaled or exceeded yields that would be expected in these years on similar undisturbed soil types under good management in the same county. Water was extracted from the upper 30 to 90 cm of spoils when the soil-spoil interface was within 90 cm of the soil surface. Thickness of topsoil had no influence on depth of water extraction. There was no evidence of any accumulation of soil water just above the soil-spoil interface under any situation.

Power, J.F.; Sandoval, F.M.; Ries, R.E.; Merrill, S.D.

1981-01-01

219

CROP RESPONSE TO SOIL TEST P & K AND  

E-print Network

;#12;Introduction · Frequent reports of K deficiency. · More often seen in no-till. · Do current soil test K (1993 & 1995 ­ spring disked & chisel plowed) to expand the range of soil test levels. · No-till in 1994

Balser, Teri C.

220

Effect of Cropping History on Water Retention Characteristics of Clayey Paddy Soil under Low Water Potential Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water content and water potential of soil samples from paddy fields with varied cropping histories were measured under low water potential conditions. The relationships between the water content and the water potential were fitted to power equations. Analyses of the results for the fresh soils showed that the coefficient a (the water content at water potential of -1MPa) (CA) and the absolute value of the exponential index b (AB) of the fitted power equation was smaller in the soils under the cultivation of upland crops than the wetland rice. On the other hand, the difference in CA and AB for air-dried soil was not revealed between the soils under the upland crop cultivation and the soils under the wetland rice cultivation. The difference in CA for the fresh soil and for the air-dried soil and the difference in AB for the fresh soil and for air-dried soil were found to increase with continuous cropping of wetland rice, and decrease in response to continuous cropping of upland crops. These finding suggest these indices can presume cropping histories of rotational paddy fields.

Adachi, Kazuhide; Yoshida, Shuichiro; Ohno, Satoshi; Obara, Hiroshi

221

Changes in soil quality and below-ground carbon storage with conversion of traditional agricultural crop lands to bioenergy crop production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berm-isolated (0.5 ha) plots have been used since 1995 to quantify changes in soil and water quality with conversion from agricultural to bioenergy crops. Soil quality improvements, including increases in soil carbon storage, have occurred on sites planted to woody or herbaceous species, and no-till corn compared with tilled corn or cotton. Initial increases in soil carbon occurred within the

V. R Tolbert; D. E Todd; L. K Mann; C. M Jawdy; D. A Mays; R Malik; W Bandaranayake; A Houston; D Tyler; D. E Pettry

2002-01-01

222

Role of manures and crop residue in alleviating soil fertility constraints to crop production: With special reference to the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the West African semi-arid tropics (WASAT), continuous cultivation leads to drastically reduced levels of soil organic\\u000a matter. Such reductions in the level of soil organic matter have resulted in decreased soil productivity. The addition of\\u000a organic materials either in the form of manures or crop residue has beneficial effects on the soils’ chemical and physical\\u000a properties. For many of

A. Bationo; A. U. Mokwunye

223

Crop water use efficiency following biochar application on maize cropping systems on sandy soils of tropical semiarid eastern Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biochar on crop water use efficiency under three consecutive maize cropping system on sandy loam of Lombok, eastern Indonesia from December 2010 to October 2011.The treatments tested were: coconut shell- biochar (CSB), cattle dung-biochar (CDB), cattle manure applied at only early first crop (CM1) and cattle manure applied at every planting time (CM2) and no organic amendment as the control. Evaluation after the end of third maize, the application of organic amendments (biochar and cattle manure) slightly altered the pore size distribution resulting changes in water retention and the available water capacity. The available water capacity was relatively comparable between biochar treated soils (0.206 cm3 cm-3) and soil treated with cattle manure applied at every planting time (0.220 cm3 cm-3). Water use efficiency (WUE) of maize under biochars were 9.44 kg/mm (CSB) and 9.24 kg/mm (CDB) while WUE for CM1 and CM2 were 8.54 and 9.97 kg/mm respectively, and control was 8.08 kg/mm. Thus, biochars as well as cattle manure applied at every planting time improved water use efficiency by 16.83% and 23.39 respectively compared to control. Overall, this study confirms that biochar and cattle manure are both valuable amendments for improving water use efficiency and to sustain maize production in the sandy loam soils of semiarid North Lombok, eastern Indonesia. However, unlike bicohar, in order to maintain its posivtive effect, cattle manure should be applied at every planting time, and this make cattle manure application is more costly. Keywords: Biochar, organic management, catle manure, water retention, maize yield

Sukartono, S.; Utomo, W.

2012-04-01

224

Global scale DAYCENT model analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation strategies for cropped soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conversion of native vegetation to cropland and intensification of agriculture typically result in increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (mainly N 2O and CH 4) and more NO 3 leached below the root zone and into waterways. Agricultural soils are often a source but can also be a sink of CO 2. Regional and larger scale estimates of GHG emissions are usually obtained using IPCC emission factor methodology, which is associated with high uncertainty. To more realistically represent GHG emissions we used the DAYCENT biogeochemical model for non-rice major crop types (corn, wheat, soybean). IPCC methodology estimates N losses from croplands based solely on N inputs. In contrast, DAYCENT accounts for soil class, daily weather, historical vegetation cover, and land management practices such as crop type, fertilizer additions, and cultivation events. Global datasets of weather, soils, native vegetation, and cropping fractions were mapped to a 1.9° × 1.9° resolution. Non-spatial data (e.g., rates and dates of fertilizer applications) were assumed to be identical within crop types across regions. We compared model generated baseline GHG emissions and N losses for irrigated and rainfed cropping with land management alternatives intended to mitigate GHG emissions. Reduced fertilizer resulted in lower N losses, but crop yields were reduced by a similar proportion. Use of nitrification inhibitors and split fertilizer applications both led to increased (~ 6%) crop yields but the inhibitor led to a larger reduction in N losses (~ 10%). No-till cultivation, which led to C storage, combined with nitrification inhibitors, resulted in reduced GHG emissions of ~ 50% and increased crop yields of ~ 7%.

Del Grosso, Stephen J.; Ojima, Dennis S.; Parton, William J.; Stehfest, Elke; Heistemann, Maik; DeAngelo, Benjamin; Rose, Steven

2009-05-01

225

Short-term effects of crop rotation, residue management, and soil water on carbon mineralization in a tropical cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of maize (Zea mays)-fallow rotation, residue management, and soil water on carbon mineralization in a tropical cropping system in Ghana. After\\u000a 15 months of the trial, maize–legume rotation treatments had significantly (P?C\\u000a 0 (?g CO2–C g?1) than maize–elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) rotations. The C\\u000a 0 for maize–grass rotation treatments was

S. G. K. Adiku; S. Narh; J. W. Jones; K. B. Laryea; G. N. Dowuona

2008-01-01

226

Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in soil, crops, and ensiled feed following manure spreading on infected dairy farms  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to determine the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in soil, crops, and ensiled feeds following manure spreading. This bacterium was often found in soil samples, but less frequently in harvested feeds and silage. Spreading of manure on fields used for crop harvest is preferred to spreading on grazing pastures. PMID:24179246

Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Hovingh, Ernest; Whitlock, Robert H.; Sweeney, Raymond W.

2013-01-01

227

Experimental determination and modelling of the soil water extraction capacities of crops of maize, sunflower, soya bean, sorghum and wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of soil water reserves is essential for irrigation management. The usual way of calculating these reserves, held between the soil moisture content at field capacity and the classical limit of -1.5 MPa considered as the lower limit of available water, over the rooting depth of the crop, does not correspond with the real behaviour of crops as regards

M. Cabelguenne; P. Debaeke

1998-01-01

228

Interactions between Bt transgenic crops and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: a new urgent issue of soil ecology in agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species, varieties and area of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) transgenic crops have increased rapidly worldwide in the past 11 years (1996–2006) for economic, environmental and health benefits. However, the ecological risks of Bt transgenic crops were critically highlighted for potential adverse effects on agroecosystems, in particular, non-target effects on soil microorganisms. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important soil microorganisms providing a

Liu Wenke; Du Lianfeng

2008-01-01

229

Impact of organic residues and mineral fertilizer application on soil-crop systems I: yield and nutrients content  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five seasons experiment was initiated to study the effects of recycling of some organic residues on soil-crop system of a guar- wheat rotation in a sandy clay loam soil located in the semiarid tropics of Sudan. Treatments included: incorporation of crop residues alone after harvest (Cr), with (FCr) or without (FCr) inorganic fertilizer, sewage sludge (SS) and humentos (H).

F. A. M. Rezig; E. A. Ehadi; A. R. Mubarak

2012-01-01

230

Management of lignite fly ash for improving soil fertility and crop productivity  

SciTech Connect

Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and bioferfertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy metal contents and in the level of gamma-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner.

Ram, L.C.; Srivastava, N.K.; Jha, S.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Masto, R.E.; Selvi, V.A. [Central Fuel Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

2007-09-15

231

Plant uptake and in-soil degradation of PCB-5 under varying cropping conditions.  

PubMed

A 60-d greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake and in-soil degradation of PCB-5 under single cropping and intercropping conditions involving three crop plant species: pumpkin, soybean and corn. Volatilization of PCB-5 from the soil surface was also tested. The results show that while uptake of PCB-5 by the test plant species is possible and the root concentration of PCB-5 had a control on the upward transport of PCB-5 to the above-ground portion of the plants, the PCB-5 extracted by the plants mainly accumulated in the root materials. Phytoextraction contributed insignificantly toward the loss of the soil-borne PCB-5. Volatilization of PCB-5 from the soil was recorded but it appeared that this did not result in a marked loss of PCB-5 in the bulk soil though it might cause remarkable removal of PCB-5 in a thin layer of the topsoil (1 mm). It is likely that the in-soil biodegradation contributed markedly to the observed reduction in soil-borne PCB-5. The in-soil biodegradation of PCB-5 was significantly enhanced under intercropping conditions, which appeared to be related to increased microbial activities, particularly bacterial activities. The soil residual PCB-5 was correlated with the activity of the following enzymes: catalase (CAT), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). PMID:21724228

Li, Huashou; Liu, Longyuan; Lin, Chuxia; Wang, Shaorui

2011-08-01

232

Mapping Surface Soil Organic Carbon for Crop Fields with Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organic C concentration of surface soil can be used in agricultural fields to vary crop production inputs. Organic C is often highly spatially variable, so that maps of soil organic C can be used to vary crop production inputs using precision farming technology. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping soil organic C on three fields, using remotely sensed images of the fields with a bare surface. Enough soil samples covering the range in soil organic C must be taken from each field to develop a satisfactory relationship between soil organic C content and image reflectance values. The number of soil samples analyzed in the three fields varied from 22 to 26. The regression equations differed between fields, but gave highly significant relationships with R2 values of 0.93, 0.95, and 0.89 for the three fields. A comparison of predicted and measured values of soil organic C for an independent set of 2 soil samples taken on one of the fields gave highly satisfactory results, with a comparison equation of % organic C measured + 1.02% organic C predicted, with r2 = 0.87.

Chen, Feng; Kissel, David E.; West, Larry T.; Rickman, Doug; Luvall, J. C.; Adkins, Wayne

2004-01-01

233

Carbon sequestration in soil aggregates under different crop rotations and nitrogen fertilization in an inceptisol in southeastern Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of crop rotation and fertilization (nitrogen and manure) on concentrations of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TSN) in bulk soil and in soil aggregates were investigated in a long-term field experiment established in 1953 at Ås, Norway. The effect of these management practices on SOC sequestration was estimated. The experiment had three six-course rotations: (I) continuous

H. Holeplass; B. R. Singh; R. Lal

2004-01-01

234

Purdue extension Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCrop, Soil, and EnvironmEntal SCiEnCES  

E-print Network

Purdue extension RW-2-W Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCrop, Soil, and EnvironmEntal SCiEnCES Soil be functioning properly to effectively remove contaminants from the wastewater and disperse it into the soil. Central to septic system performance is soil hydraulic conductivity, or the rate water flows through

Holland, Jeffrey

235

The impact of long-term nitrogen fertilizer applications on soil organic carbon in a dryland cereal cropping system of the Loess Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns over food security and global climate change require an improved understanding of how to achieve optimal crop yields whilst minimizing net greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. In the semi-arid Loess Plateau region of China, as elsewhere, fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs are necessary to increase yields and improve local food security. In a dryland annual cropping system, we evaluated the effects of N fertilizers on crop yield, its long term impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations and stock sizes, and the distribution of carbon (C) within various aggregate-size fractions. A current version (RothC) of the Rothamsted model for the turnover of organic C in soil was used to simulate SOC measurements. Five N application rates [0 (N0), 45 (N45), 90 (N90), 135 (N135), and 180 (N180) kg N ha-1] were applied to plots for 25 years (1984-2009) on a loam soil (Cumulic Haplustoll) at the Changwu State Key Agro-Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, China. Crop yield varied with year, but increased over time in the fertilized plots. Average annual grain yields were 1.15, 2.46, 3.11, 3.49, and 3.55 Mg ha-1 with the increasing N application rates, respectively. Long-term N fertilizer application significantly (P<0.05) increased SOC concentrations and stocks in the 0-20 cm horizon. Using RothC, the calculated annual inputs of plant C (in roots, stubble, root exudates, etc.) to the soil were 0.61, 0.74, 0.78, 0.86, and 0.97 t C ha-1 year-1 in N0, N45, N90, N135 and N180 treatments, respectively. The modeled turnover time of SOC (excluding inert organic C) in the continuous wheat cropping system was 26 years. The SOC accumulation rate was estimated to be 40.0, 48.0, 68.0, and 100.0 kg C ha-1 year-1 for the N45, N90, N135 and N180 treatments over 25 years, respectively. As aboveground biomass was removed, the increases in SOC stocks with higher N application are attributed to increased inputs of root biomass and root exudates. Increasing N application rates significantly improved C concentrations in the macroaggregate fractions (>1 mm). The increase in SOC with N fertilizer applications contributed to improved soil quality as well as crop productivity.

Guo, S.

2011-12-01

236

Dryland cropping systems influence the microbial biomass and enzyme activities in a semiarid sandy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indicators of soil quality, such as microbial biomass C and N (MBC, MBN) and enzyme activities (EAs), involved in C, P, N,\\u000a and S cycling, as affected by dryland cropping systems under conventional (ct) and no tillage (nt) practices were evaluated\\u000a for 5 years. The soil is sandy loam with an average of 16.4% clay, 67.6% sand, and 0.65 g kg?1 OM

Veronica Acosta-Martínez; Robert Lascano; Francisco Calderón; Jill D. Booker; Ted M. Zobeck; Dan R. Upchurch

237

Field measurement of net nitrogen mineralization of manured soil cropped to maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the in situ net nitrogen (N) mineralization in a soil cropped to maize and fertilized for 11 years with cattle\\u000a slurry or farmyard manure, both common on livestock farms of the Po River valley in Northern Italy. The net N mineralization\\u000a of the tilled soil layer was measured in six consecutive incubation periods after manure application, for a total

Stefano Monaco; Dario Sacco; Teresa Borda; Carlo Grignani

2010-01-01

238

Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe

2010-01-01

239

PHYTOEXTRACTION OF Pb AND Cd FROM A SUPERFUND SOIL: EFFECTS OF AMENDMENTS AND CROPPINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a growth chamber, maize (Zea mays) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were grown over two croppings in soil from a Superfund site (PbTotal = 65,200 mg\\/kg and CdTotal = 52 mg\\/kg). Soil treatments consisted of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium citrate and composted sewage sludge, each at two rates (EDTA .05%, EDTA .2%, citrate .05%, citrate .2%, CSS 5% and CSS

Timothy J. Bricker; John Pichtel; Hugh J. Brown; Misty Simmons

2001-01-01

240

A comparison of measured and simulated soil water depletion in the crop root zone  

E-print Network

A COMPARISON OF MEASURED AND SIMULATED SOIL WATER DEPLETION IN THE CRGP ROOT ZONE A Thesis by ROBERTO LASCANG A. Submitted to the Graduate Col;ege Qf Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Agronomy A COMPARISON OF MEASURED AND SIMULATED SOIL WATER DEPLETION IN THE CROP ROOT ZONE A Thesis ROBERTO LASCANO A. Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head o epartm t Member...

Lascano A., Roberto

2012-06-07

241

The impact of roots on soil organic carbon dynamics in annual and perennial agricultural systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying and developing agricultural systems capable of transferring large quantities of carbon (C) to the soil and sustaining ecosystem processes and services is a priority for ecological researchers and land managers. Temperate grasslands have extensive root systems and transfer large quantities of C to the soil organic C (SOC) pool, which has lead to widespread interest in utilizing perennial grasses as both bioenergy crops and as a model for perennial grains. This study examined five sites in north central Kansas (U.S.A.) that contain the unique land use pairing of tall grass prairie meadows (PM) that have been harvested annually for hay for the past 75 years and annual grain (wheat) production fields (AG) that have been cultivated for a similar length of time, all on deep alluvial soils. Specific research objectives included: 1) To quantify below-ground biomass pools and root C contributions in the two systems; 2) To analyze and compare SOC pools and SOC concentration in primary particle size fractions in the two systems; 3) To utilize natural abundance ?13C signatures to determine the source and turnover of SOC in the soils of the AG sites; and 4) To elucidate the relationship of roots to both SOC pools and nematode food webs. Soil core samples were collected to a depth of 1 m in May and June 2008. Soil samples were analyzed for SOC, microbial biomass C (MBC), nematodes, and a particle size fractionation of SOC in coarse (>250 ?m), particulate organic matter (POM) (53-250 ?m), silt (2-53 ?m), and clay (<2 ?m) sized fractions. Root biomass, root length and root C were also analyzed to a depth of 1 m. Natural abundance ?13C values were obtained for all C parameters. Soils under PM had 4 times as much root C as AG soils to 1 m depth in mid May (PM 2.8 Mg ha-1 and AG 0.7 Mg ha-1) and 7 times as much root C to 1 m depth in late June (PM 3.5 Mg ha-1 and AG 0.5 Mg ha-1). The MBC pools were significantly larger in grassland soils to a depth of 60 cm in May and 80 cm in June and MBC/SOC ratios in soils under PM averaged 0.0275 across all sampling depths, while those under AG averaged 0.013. Natural abundance ?13C signatures indicated significant turnover of SOC sources to 80 cm across all particle size fractions after 75 years of annual agriculture and recent inputs of root C to significant depth in the cropland soils, suggesting that some subsoil C is actively turning over and is influenced by root growth. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and regression analyses both suggest that roots play a primary role in both SOC and nematode food web dynamics at these sites. Collectively, the data presented in this study demonstrate the potential of production systems based on perennial grasses to transfer greater quantities of C to SOC pools than annual crops, through larger C allocations to root and microbial pools.

Beniston, J.; Dupont, T.; Glover, J.; Lal, R.

2012-12-01

242

Macronutrients and trace metals in soil and food crops of Isfahan Province, Iran.  

PubMed

The distribution of 10 macronutrients and trace metals in the arable soils of Isfahan Province, their phytoavailability, and associated health risks were investigated; 134 plant and 114 soil samples (from 114 crop fields) were collected and analyzed at harvesting time. Calculation of the soil pollution index (SPI) revealed that arable soil polluted by metals was more severe in the north and southwest of the study area. The results of cluster analysis indicated that Pb, Zn, and Cu share a similar origin from industries and traffic. The concentrations of macronutrients and trace metals in the sampled crops were found in the order of K?>?Ca?>?S?>?Mg?>?P and Fe?>?Mn?>?Zn?>?Cu?>?Pb, respectively, whereas calculation of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the accumulation of the investigated elements in crops was generally in the order of S???K?>?P?>?Mg?>?Ca and Zn?>?Cu?>?Mn?>?Pb?>?Fe, respectively. Thus, various parameters including crop species and the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil also affected the bioavailability of the elements besides the total element contents in soil. Daily intake (DI) values of elements were lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI) levels in rice grains except for Fe and Mn, but for wheat grains, all elements displayed DI values higher than the RDI. Moreover, based on the hazard index (HI) values, inhabitants are experiencing a significant potential health risk solely due to the consumption of wheat and rice grains (particularly wheat grains). Mn health quotient (HQ) also indicated a high risk of Mn absorption for crop consumer inhabitants. PMID:25416129

Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Ansari, Maryam; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Kaabi, Helena; Kermani, Maryam

2015-01-01

243

How do soil physical conditions for crop growth vary over time under established contrasting tillage regimes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When plant breeders develop modern cereal varieties for the sustainable intensification of agriculture, insufficient thought is given to the impact of tillage on soil physical conditions for crop production. In earlier work, we demonstrated that barley varieties that perform best in ploughed soil (the approach traditionally used for breeding trials) were not the same as those performing best under shallow non-inversion or zero-tillage. We also found that the Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with improved phosphorus uptake, and hence useful for marker assisted breeding, were not robust between different tillage regimes. The impact of the soil environment had greater impact than the genetics in GxE interactions. It is obvious that soil tillage should be considered when breeding the next generation of crops. Tillage may also have important impacts on carbon storage, but we found that despite greater soil carbon at shallow depths under non-inversion tillage, the carbon stored throughout the soil profile was not affected by tillage. Studies on soil tillage impacts to crop productivity and soil quality are often performed in one season, on single sites that have had insufficient time to develop. Our current research explores multiple sites, on different soils, with temporal measurements of soil physical conditions under contrasting tillage regimes. We use the oldest established contemporary tillage experiments in the United Kingdom, with all sites sharing ploughed and shallow (7cm) non-inversion tillage treatments. In eastern Scotland (Mid Pilmore), the site also has zero tillage and deep ploughing (40 cm) treatments, and was established 11 years ago. In east England there are two sites, both also having a deep non-inversion tillage treatment, and they were established 6 (New Farm Systems) and 8 (STAR) years ago. We measure a range of crop and soil properties at sowing, one month after sowing and post-harvest, including rapid lab based assays that allow high-throughput. Samples are taken over the rooting zone in the topsoil, plough pan and subsoil. The first year's dataset from this comprehensive project will be presented. Early data identified plough pans under shallow non-inversion tillage that will limit root growth at all sites. Aggregate stabilities vary as expected, with plough soils at shallow depth being less stable than non-inversion tillage, but greater stability in plough soils at greater depth due to incorporated organic matter. Very rapidly following cultivation, the seedbeds coalesce, resulting in a more challenging physical environment for crop growth. We are exploring the mechanisms in soil structure temporal dynamics in greater detail, including the resilience of seedbeds to structural degradation through natural weathering and the action of plants. These profound differences in soil conditions will impact the root ideotype of crops for these different conditions. This has implications for the way in which breeding and genotype selection is performed in the future. Ultimately, we aim to identify crop varieties suited to local soil conditions and management, possibly with root traits that boost yields and soil physical quality.

Hallett, Paul; Stobart, Ron; Valentine, Tracy; George, Timothy; Morris, Nathan; Newton, Adrian; McKenzie, Blair

2014-05-01

244

Identification of "ever-cropped" land (1984-2010) using Landsat annual maximum NDVI image composites: Southwestern Kansas case study.  

PubMed

A time series of 230 intra- and inter-annual Landsat Thematic Mapper images was used to identify land that was ever cropped during the years 1984 through 2010 for a five county region in southwestern Kansas. Annual maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image composites (NDVI(ann-max)) were used to evaluate the inter-annual dynamics of cropped and non-cropped land. Three feature images were derived from the 27-year NDVI(ann-max) image time series and used in the classification: 1) maximum NDVI value that occurred over the entire 27 year time span (NDVI(max)), 2) standard deviation of the annual maximum NDVI values for all years (NDVI(sd)), and 3) standard deviation of the annual maximum NDVI values for years 1984-1986 (NDVI(sd84-86)) to improve Conservation Reserve Program land discrimination.Results of the classification were compared to three reference data sets: County-level USDA Census records (1982-2007) and two digital land cover maps (Kansas 2005 and USGS Trends Program maps (1986-2000)). Area of ever-cropped land for the five counties was on average 11.8 % higher than the area estimated from Census records. Overall agreement between the ever-cropped land map and the 2005 Kansas map was 91.9% and 97.2% for the Trends maps. Converting the intra-annual Landsat data set to a single annual maximum NDVI image composite considerably reduced the data set size, eliminated clouds and cloud-shadow affects, yet maintained information important for discriminating cropped land. Our results suggest that Landsat annual maximum NDVI image composites will be useful for characterizing land use and land cover change for many applications. PMID:22423150

Maxwell, Susan K; Sylvester, Kenneth M

2012-06-01

245

PRESERVATION OF PEAT SOIL BY CULTIVATION OF PERENNIAL HERBAGE CROPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

On a peat-soil of the reclaimed Hula Valley swamp containing 30-40% organic matter,, 1.5% of N, C\\/N ratio of 10 and pH = 6-6.5 three varieties of Guinea grass, alfalfa and Rhodes grass were grown. The aim of the research was to preserve the peat-soil from the prevailing aerobic oxidation, wind and water erosion and minimize the typical nitrate accumulation,

Dan Levanon; Israel Levin

246

Soil Carbon Changes in Transitional Grain Crop Production Systems in South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corn-C (Zea Mays L.), soybean-S (Glycine max L.) and spring wheat-W (Triticum aestivum L.) crops were seeded as a component of either a C-S, S-W, or C-S-W crop rotation on silt-loam textured soils ranging from 3.0-5.0% organic matter. Conservation tillage(chisel plow-field cultivator) was applied to half of the plots. The other plots were direct seeded as a no-till (zero-tillage) treatment. Grain yield and surface crop residues were weighed from each treatment plot. Crop residue (stover and straw) was removed from half of the plots. After four years, soil samples were removed at various increments of depth and soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) was measured. The ranking of crop residue weights occurred by the order corn>>soybean>wheat. Surface residue accumulation was also greatest with residue treatments that were returned to the plots, those rotations in which maize was a component, and those without tillage. Mean soil organic carbon levels in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.41% to 3.19% (- 0.22%) with conventional tillage (chisel plow/field cultivator) as compared to a decrease from 3.19% to 3.05% (-0.14%) in plots without tillage over a four year period. Organic carbon in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.21% to 3.01% (- 0.20%) after residue removed as compared to a decrease from 3.39% to 3.23% (-0.17%) in plots without tillage applied after four years. The soil C:N ratio (0-7.5cm) decreased from 10.63 to 10.37 (-0.26 (unitless)) in the tilled plots over a four-year period. Soil C:N ratio at the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 10.72 to 10.04 (-0.68) in the no-till plots over a four year period. Differences in the soil C:N ratio comparing residue removed and residue returned were similar (-0.51 vs. -0.43 respectively). These soils are highly buffered for organic carbon changes. Many cropping cycles are required to determine how soil carbon storage is significantly impacted by production systems.

Woodard, H. J.

2004-12-01

247

Simulation of nitrogen in soil and winter wheat crops: Modelling nitrogen turnover through organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer model is described that simulates leaching, organic matter turnover and nitrogen uptake by a winter wheat crop. The model is assessed against a data set from the Netherlands where winter wheat was grown in two seasons (1982–3 and 1983–4) on three different soils in two different parts of the country. The model satisfactorily simulated the growth, N uptake

A. P. Whitmore; K. W. Coleman; N. J. Bradbury; T. M. Addiscott

1991-01-01

248

Integrated Field Crop, Soil and Pest Management Program Work Team FY 2011 Member Listing  

E-print Network

.edu Bill Cox Cornell - Crop & Soil Science wjc3@cornell.edu Larry Geohring of Rensselaer Co. aew24@cornell.edu Todd DuMond DuMond Farm dumond.todd@gmail.com Mike McMahon E-Z Acres Farm ezacres@verizon.net Seth Pritchard Catalpa Farm

Lazzaro, Brian

249

Effect of preceding crop, soil tillage and herbicide application on weed and winter wheat yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes results obtained in three years of experiments (2001-2003) carried out at farm Dobele Agra SIA located in the Dobele region of Latvia. Trials were established in two different crop rotations (Factor A): 1. winter wheat sown after winter wheat, 2. winter wheat sown after winter rape. Three different soil tillage and sowing methods were compared (Factor B):

E. Stasinskis; LV Jelgava

250

What Does Undergraduate Enrollment in Soil and Crop Sciences Mean for the Future of Agronomy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and crop science programs at land-grant colleges have histori- cally relied on appropriated funding from state and federal sources and tuition to support the tripartite mission of research, extension, and teaching. However, due to declining funding from state and federal sources, tuition and fees are becoming increasingly important sources. As tuition revenue becomes more important, student enrollment be- comes

Neil Hansen; Sarah Ward; Raj Khosla; Jack Fenwick; Bill Moore

2007-01-01

251

Crude extract of Astragalus mongholicus root inhibits crop seed germination and soil nitrifying activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astragalus mongholicus has been of medicinal use within the traditional Chinese system for centuries. However, little information is available on its allelopathic effects on other crop plants and soil biochemical properties. Field experiment showed that the extracted residues of A. mongholicus root inhibited seed germination of wheat. Inhibition of seed germination was further confirmed in laboratory using the same crude

Jian Mao; Linzhang Yang; Yuming Shi; Jian Hu; Zhe Piao; Lijuan Mei; Shixue Yin

2006-01-01

252

An investigation of radionuclide uptake into food crops grown in soils treated with bauxite mining residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandy soils of the coastal plain area of Western Australia have poor phosphorous retention capacity which leads to pollution of surface water bodies in the region. Application of bauxite mining residues (termed red mud) to vegetable and crops has been proposed as a solution to increase the phosphorous and water retention and thereby reduce the leaching of nutrients. The thorium

M. B. Cooper; P. C. Clarke; W. Robertson; I. R. McPharlin; R. C. Jeffrey

1995-01-01

253

Impact of Genetically Modified Crops and Their Management on Soil Microbially Mediated Plant Nutrient Transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ing that year 46% of the world's total soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) area, 7% of the corn (Zea mays L.) One of the potential environmental effects of the recent rapid area, and 20% of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) increase in the global agricultural area cultivated with transgenic crops is a change in soil microbially mediated processes and functions.

P. P. Motavalli; R. J. Kremer; M. Fang; N. E. Means

2004-01-01

254

Fertilizer Facts: January 1997, Number 9 Nitrates in Soil and Ground Water Under Irrigated Crops  

E-print Network

Fertilizer Facts: January 1997, Number 9 Nitrates in Soil and Ground Water Under Irrigated Crops J. Nitrate-N concentration of ground water under grassland and forest is generally 2 ppm or less. In contrast is shallow (4-20 ft). Nitrate-N concentrations in the ground water under sugarbeet fields at the Eastern

Lawrence, Rick L.

255

Water, carbon and nitrogen cycling in a rendzina soil cropped with winter oilseed rape  

E-print Network

Short note Water, carbon and nitrogen cycling in a rendzina soil cropped with winter oilseed rape: the Châlons Oilseed Rape Database Ghislain Gosse Pierre Cellier Pascal Denoroy Benoit Gabriellea Patricia January 1999) Abstract - The Châlons Oilseed Rape Database holds the results of a comprehensive experiment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

256

Effects of coal-fired thermal power plant discharges on agricultural soil and crop plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical properties of the upstream and downstream waters from the Upper Ganga canal, discharged cooling tower water, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents of a 530 MW Kasimpur coal-fired thermal power plant have been determined, and their effects directly on fertile soil and indirectly on pea (Pisum sativam) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops have also been studied.

M. Ajmal; M. A. Khan

1986-01-01

257

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TILLAGE METHODS ON SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP YIELD OF MELON (Cucumis melo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different tillage methods on soil physical properties and crop yield of melon. Tillage treatments in the study were moldboard plow + two passes of disk harrow as conventional tillage (CT), two passes of disk harrow as reduced tillage (RT), one pass of disk harrow as minimum tillage (MT)

Majid Rashidi; Fereydoun Keshavarzpour

258

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TILLAGE METHODS ON SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP YIELD OF WATERMELON (Citrullus Vulgaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different tillage methods on soil physical properties and crop yield of watermelon. Tillage treatments in the study were moldboard plow + two passes of disk harrow as conventional tillage (CT), two passes of disk harrow as reduced tillage (RT), one pass of disk harrow as minimum tillage (MT)

Majid Rashidi; Fereydoun Keshavarzpour

259

SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY OF AN ERODED SOIL AMENDED WITH CATTLE MANURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erosion changes soil properties, especially physical properties, mainly because it removes surface soil rich in organic materials and exposes lower soil layers. In 1988, a study was established to determine the effects of soil erosion and long-term manure applications on selected soil phys­ ical properties and corn (Zea mays L.) production. After 10 years of an­ nual manure applications, soil

Francisco J. Arriaga; Birl Lowery

2003-01-01

260

Effects of coal-fired thermal power plant discharges on agricultural soil and crop plants  

SciTech Connect

The physicochemical properties of the upstream and downstream waters from the Upper Ganga canal, discharged cooling tower water, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents of a 530 MW Kasimpur coal-fired thermal power plant have been determined, and their effects directly on fertile soil and indirectly on pea (Pisum sativam) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops have also been studied. The effluents were alkaline in nature. The scrubber and bottom ash effluent contained large amounts of solids and had high biochemical and chemical oxygen demands. The soils irrigated with the different effluents exhibited an increase in pH, organic matter, calcium carbonate, water-soluble salts, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, and nitrogen and phosphorus contents while potassium content decreased. The effects of 100, 50, and 0% (tap water control) dilutions of cooling tower, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents on the germination and growth of pea and wheat crops were also monitored. Using the undiluted effluents, there was 100% germination for both crops when irrigation was done with cooling tower effluent. Germination was restricted to 90% for the two crops when irrigated with machine washings effluent, and to 80 and 70% for pea and wheat, respectively, when irrigated with scrubber and bottom ash effluent. Samples of upstream and downstream canal water were also used for irrigating soils with and without crop plants in order to ascertain the impact of effluents on canal water and its subsequent effect on crops. The soils irrigated with downstream canal water were found to contain slightly more calcium carbonate, phosphorus, and ammonia-nitrogen than those receiving upstream canal water. Though 100% germination was obtained in both cases, the growth of plants irrigated with the downstream canal water was slightly reduced.

Ajmal, M.; Khan, M.A.

1986-04-01

261

Changes in N-Transforming Archaea and Bacteria in Soil during the Establishment of Bioenergy Crops  

PubMed Central

Widespread adaptation of biomass production for bioenergy may influence important biogeochemical functions in the landscape, which are mainly carried out by soil microbes. Here we explore the impact of four potential bioenergy feedstock crops (maize, switchgrass, Miscanthus X giganteus, and mixed tallgrass prairie) on nitrogen cycling microorganisms in the soil by monitoring the changes in the quantity (real-time PCR) and diversity (barcoded pyrosequencing) of key functional genes (nifH, bacterial/archaeal amoA and nosZ) and 16S rRNA genes over two years after bioenergy crop establishment. The quantities of these N-cycling genes were relatively stable in all four crops, except maize (the only fertilized crop), in which the population size of AOB doubled in less than 3 months. The nitrification rate was significantly correlated with the quantity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) not bacteria (AOB), indicating that archaea were the major ammonia oxidizers. Deep sequencing revealed high diversity of nifH, archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA, nosZ and 16S rRNA genes, with 229, 309, 330, 331 and 8989 OTUs observed, respectively. Rarefaction analysis revealed the diversity of archaeal amoA in maize markedly decreased in the second year. Ordination analysis of T-RFLP and pyrosequencing results showed that the N-transforming microbial community structures in the soil under these crops gradually differentiated. Thus far, our two-year study has shown that specific N-transforming microbial communities develop in the soil in response to planting different bioenergy crops, and each functional group responded in a different way. Our results also suggest that cultivation of maize with N-fertilization increases the abundance of AOB and denitrifiers, reduces the diversity of AOA, and results in significant changes in the structure of denitrification community. PMID:21935454

Mao, Yuejian; Yannarell, Anthony C.; Mackie, Roderick I.

2011-01-01

262

Variations in thematic mapper spectra of soil related to tillage and crop residue management - Initial evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cooperative research project was initiated in 1982 to study differences in thematic mapper spectral characteristics caused by variable tillage and crop residue practices. Initial evaluations of radiometric data suggest that spectral separability of variably tilled soils can be confounded by moisture and weathering effects. Separability of bare tilled soils from those with significant amounts of corn residue is enhanced by wet conditions, but still possible under dry conditions when recent tillage operations have occurred. In addition, thematic mapper data may provide an alternative method to study the radiant energy balance at the soil surface in conjunction with variable tillage systems.

Seeley, M. W.; Ruschy, D. L.; Linden, D. R.

1983-01-01

263

Interactions of soil conditioner with other limiting factors to achieve high crop yields. [Lycopersicon esculentum  

SciTech Connect

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Tropic) was used as a test plant in evaluating the interactions for simultaneously correcting deficiencies of N and P and improving physical properties of soil with a soil conditioner. The three limiting factors were improved singly and in all possible combinations. There was response to each input. The least response to the soil conditioner was with N and P, and the most response was when N and P were also used. The combined effect appeared to be synergistic. The results emphasize that the best crop management system involves overcoming as many limiting factors as possible. This is the key to high-yield agriculture.

Wallace, A.; Abouzamzam, A.M.

1986-05-01

264

The influence of cover crops and tillage on actual and potential soil erosion in an olive grove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study was carried out in an olive grove in central Spain (South of Madrid; Tagus River Basin). In this semi-arid zone, the annual mean temperature is 13.8 ºC and the annual precipitation is 395 mm. Olive groves are planted in an erosion prone area due to steep slopes up to 15%. Soil is classified as Typic Haploxerept with clay loam texture. The land studied was formerly a vineyard, but it was replaced by the studied olive grove in 2004. It covers approximately 3 ha and olive trees are planted every 6 x 7 metres. They were usually managed by tillage to decrease weed competition. This conventional practice results in a wide surface of bare soil prone to erosion processes. In the long term soil degradation may lead to increase the desertification risk in the area. Storms have important consequences in this shallow and vulnerable soil, as more than 90 Mg ha-1 have been measured after one day with 40 mm of rainfall. In order to avoid this situation, cover crops between the olive trees were planted three years ago: sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and purple false brome (Brachypodium distachyon), and they were compared with annual spontaneous vegetation after a minimum tillage treatment (ASV). The results regarding erosion control were positive. We observed (Oct. 2012/Sept. 2013) annual soil loss up to 11 Mg ha-1 in ASV, but this figure was reduced in the sown covers, being 8 Mg ha-1 in sainfoin treatment, 3,7 Mg ha-1 in barley treatment, and only 1,5 Mg ha-1 in false brome treatment. Those results are used to predict the risk of erosion in long term. Moreover, soil organic carbon (SOC) increased with treatments, this is significant as it reduces soil erodibility. The increases were found both in topsoil (up to 5 cm) and more in depth, in the root zone (from 5 to 10 cm depth). From higher to lower SOC values we found the false brome (1.05%), barley (0.92%), ASV (0.79%) and sainfoin (0.71%) regarding topsoil. In the root zone (5-10 cm depth) we found 0.76% in false brome and ASV, 0.70% in barley and 0.58% in sainfoin. Other important variable to estimate erosion processes is soil permeability. During the period of study there were no significant differences between treatments. An average of 45±20 mm h-1 was measured. This study addresses the comparison between soil erosion rates measured on the ground with soil erosion risk estimated by models. Mapping soil risk can provide the evidence to demonstrate that economic investments in research, good practices and agri-environment payments are worth to achieve sustainable land management. The use of case studies is usually recommended to help in the dissemination of research. This case also includes the influence of treatments in production and quality of olive oil to respond to the needs of land users.

Sastre, Blanca; Bienes, Ramón; García-Díaz, Andrés; Panagopoulos, Thomas; José Marqués, Maria

2014-05-01

265

Effect of crop residue harvest on long-term crop yield, soil erosion, and carbon balance: tradeoffs for a sustainable bioenergy feedstock  

SciTech Connect

Agricultural residues are a potential feedstock for bioenergy production, if residue harvest can be done sustainably. The relationship between crop residue harvest, soil erosion, crop yield and carbon balance was modeled with the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator/ Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) using a factorial design. Four crop rotations (winter wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – sunflower [Helianthus annuus]; spring wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – canola [Brassica napus]; corn [Zea mays L.] – soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]; and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum] – peanut [Arachis hypogaea]) were simulated at four US locations each, under different topographies (0-10% slope), and management practices [crop residue removal rates (0-75%), conservation practices (no till, contour cropping, strip cropping, terracing)].

Gregg, Jay S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

2010-08-26

266

Microbial activity, organic C accumulation and 13C abundance in soils under alley cropping systems after 9 years of recultivation of quaternary deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of alley cropping on post lignite mine soils developing from quaternary deposits after 9 years of recultivation was evaluated on the basis of microbial indicators, organic C and total N contents, and the isotope characteristics of soil C. Soils were sampled at the 0 to 3, 3 to 10 and 10 to 30 cm depths under black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), poplar clone (Populus spp.), the transition zone and in the middle of alley under rye (Secale cereale). There was no significant effect of vegetation on microbial properties presumably, due to the high spatial variability, whereas organic C and total N contents at the 0 to 3 cm layer were significantly higher under black locust and poplar than in the transition zone and rye field. Organic C total N contents, and basal respiration, microbial biomass and microbial quotient decreased with soil depth. Soil organic C and total N contents were more than doubled after 9 years of recultivation, with annual C and N accretion rate of 162 g Corg m-2 yr-1 and 6 g Nt m-2 yr-1. Microbial properties indicated that the soils are in early stages of development; the C isotope characteristics confirmed that the sequestered C was predominantly from C3 plants of the alley cropping.

Nii-Annang, S.; Grünewald, H.; Freese, D.; Hüttl, R. F.; Dilly, O.

2009-04-01

267

Soil physical and hydrological properties under three biofuel crops in Ohio  

SciTech Connect

While biofuel crops are widely studied and compared for their energy and carbon footprints, less is known about their effects on other soil properties, particularly hydrologic characteristics. Soils under three biofuel crops, corn (Zea mays), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and willow (Salix spp.), were analyzed seven years after establishment to assess the effects on soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), penetration resistance (PR), water-holding capacity, and infiltration characteristics. The PR was the highest under corn, along with the lowest associated water content, while PR was 50-60% lower under switchgrass. In accordance with PR data, surface (0-10 cm) bulk density also tended to be lower under switchgrass. Both water infiltration rates and cumulative infiltration amounts varied widely among and within the three crops. Because the Philip model did not fit the data, results were analyzed using the Kostiakov model instead. Switchgrass plots had an average cumulative infiltration of 69 cm over 3 hours with a constant infiltration rate of 0.28 cm min{sup -1}, compared with 37 cm and 0.11 cm min{sup -1} for corn, and 26 cm and 0.06 cm min{sup -1} for willow, respectively. Results suggest that significant changes in soil physical and hydrologic properties may require more time to develop. Soils under switchgrass may have lower surface bulk density, higher field water capacity, and a more rapid water infiltration rate than those under corn or willow.

Bonin, Catherine [Ohio State University; Lal, Dr. Rattan [Ohio State University; Schmitz, Matthias [Rheinsche Friedrich/Wilhelms Universitaet Boon; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2012-01-01

268

AgRISTARS: Soil moisture/early warning and crop condition assessment. Interface control document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interactions and support functions required between the early warning/crop condition assessment (EW/CCA) project and soil moisture (SM) project are defined. The EW Project aims to develop, test and evaluate techniques and procedures for adapting remote sensing technology to provide early warning of events and the timely assessment of those factors which affect the quality and quantity of production of economically important crops. Those techniques to augment and reinforce the current assessment activities are to be developed to improve the definition of the relationship between the plant(s) and its environment. This assessment and evaluation will certainly include the need for soil moisture measurement and estimation. The SM Project aims to develop, test, and evaluate techniques and procedures to measure or predict soil moisture in the root zone using both contact and remote sensors.

1980-01-01

269

Soil and crop responses to different tillage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out over eight consecutive years at three sites, on clay or clay loam soils. In a split-plot design, two main treatments (mouldboard ploughing to 25 cm depth and disc or spring- tine cultivation to 13 cm depth) were combined with two seedbed preparation treatments (three passes with a conventional harrow vs. one pass with a power

Reynaldo A. Comia; Maria Stenberg; Paul Nelson; Tomas Rydberg; I HAKANSSON

1994-01-01

270

Purdue AgronomyPurdue Agronomy CROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES  

E-print Network

of the tank and soil absorption field. Using the permit as a guide, you can insert a fiberglass tile probe student Kelli Hart uses a fiberglass tile probe in a lawn to locate a septic tank.probe in a lawn

Holland, Jeffrey

271

Soil carbon inventories under a bioenergy crop (switchgrass): Measurement limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 5 yr after planting, coarse root carbon (C) and soil organic C (SOC) inventories were compared under different types of plant cover at four switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production field trials in the southeastern USA. There was significantly more coarse root C under switchgrass (Alamo variety) and forest cover than tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), corn (Zea mays L.),

Charles T Garten Jr; Stan D Wullschleger

1999-01-01

272

Non-Traditional Soil Additives: Can They Improve Crop Production?  

E-print Network

potassium), and gypsum or sand. 3) Mined humates or humic acids. These are prehistoric organic deposits in the advanced stages of transfor- mation into coal which are normally discarded during mining. Liquid humates (sea weed) or whey. Humates and/or humic acid are good examples of non-traditional soil conditioners

Mukhtar, Saqib

273

Gap filling strategies and error in estimating annual soil respiration.  

PubMed

Soil respiration (Rsoil ) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. Although many gap filling methodologies have been employed, there is no standardized procedure for producing defensible estimates of annual Rsoil . Here, we test the reliability of nine different gap filling techniques by inserting artificial gaps into 20 automated Rsoil records and comparing gap filling Rsoil estimates of each technique to measured values. We show that although the most commonly used techniques do not, on average, produce large systematic biases, gap filling accuracy may be significantly improved through application of the most reliable methods. All methods performed best at lower gap fractions and had relatively high, systematic errors for simulated survey measurements. Overall, the most accurate technique estimated Rsoil based on the soil temperature dependence of Rsoil by assuming constant temperature sensitivity and linearly interpolating reference respiration (Rsoil at 10 °C) across gaps. The linear interpolation method was the second best-performing method. In contrast, estimating Rsoil based on a single annual Rsoil - Tsoil relationship, which is currently the most commonly used technique, was among the most poorly-performing methods. Thus, our analysis demonstrates that gap filling accuracy may be improved substantially without sacrificing computational simplicity. Improved and standardized techniques for estimation of annual Rsoil will be valuable for understanding the role of Rsoil in the global C cycle. PMID:23504959

Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina; Zeri, Marcelo; Bernacchi, Carl J; DeLucia, Evan H

2013-06-01

274

Removal of arsenic from Janghang smelter site and energy crops-grown soil with soil washing using magnetic iron oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic compounds are considered carcinogen and easily enter drinking water supplies with their natural abundance. US Environmental Protection Agency is finalizing a regulation to reduce the public health risks from arsenic in drinking water by revising the current drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 ppb to 10 ppb in 2001 (USEPA, 2001). Therefore, soil remediation is also growing field to prevent contamination of groundwater as well as crop cultivation. Soil washing is adjusted as ex-situ soil remediation technique which reduces volume of the contaminated soil. The technique is composed of physical separation and chemical extraction to extract target metal contamination in the soil. Chemical extraction methods have been developed solubilizing contaminants containing reagents such as acids or chelating agents. And acid extraction is proven as the most commonly used technology to treat heavy metals in soil, sediment, and sludge (FRTR, 2007). Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, magnetic iron oxide have been used in diverse areas including information technology and biomedicine. Magnetic iron oxides also can be used as adsorbent to heavy metal enhancing removal efficiency of arsenic concentration. In this study, magnetite is used as the washing agent with acid extraction condition so that the injected oxide can be separated by magnetic field. Soil samples were collected from three separate areas in the Janghang smelter site and energy crops-grown soil to have synergy effect with phytoremediation. Each sample was air-dried and sieved (2mm). Soil washing condition was adjusted on pH in the range of 0-12 with hydrogen chloride and sodium hydroxide. After performing soil washing procedure, arsenic-extracted samples were analyzed for arsenic concentration by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). All the soils have exceeded worrisome level of soil contamination for region 1 (25mg/kg) so the soil remediation techniques are needed to be applied. The objective of this study is to investigate soil washing efficiency using magnetic iron oxide and derive the availability of the washing technique to the arsenic-contaminated field soils. Acknowledgement This study was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as 'Knowledge-based environmental service (Waste to Energy) Human Resource Development Project'.

Han, Jaemaro; Zhao, Xin; Lee, Jong Keun; Kim, Jae Young

2014-05-01

275

Implementation of Sustainable Soil Management Practices to Improve Crop Production in the Different Ethiopian Agro Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture in Ethiopia is one of first priority since close to 10 In this context, the Ethiopian crop production faces to the following soil management challenges: lack of updated soil data, macro and micro nutrient depletion, acidity, salinity and soil surface erosion and crusting. One of the biggest issues is the loss of arable land, above 137 T/yr, reaching during some particularly dried periods until 300 T/yr. In this context, the authors constituted a working group of experts from Spanish and Ethiopian universities, local producers and international and governmental organisms to analyse the problems related to the different agro ecological zones found in Ethiopia and the management practices of different local producers. The study produced the trends to implement in the different areas to improve soil management practices in order to contribute to increase the crop production mainly to achieve food security problems. The analyse produced different working fields for the next years for addressing soil degradation, improving land resources management practices, increasing agricultural productivity, updating the available soil data, developing an international program of education, transferring of knowledge from similar study cases and implementing economical tools to help producers to assure income after severe edapho-climatic events. The practical work and the projects developed for the next period is addressed to smallholder farms belonging to the different 34 agro ecological zones identified in Ethiopia, each of them with very specific environmental, cultural and soil management practices.

García Moreno, R.; Gameda, S.; Diaz Alvarez, M. C.; Selasie, Y. G.

2012-04-01

276

Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment  

SciTech Connect

Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

Antonopoulos, A A

1980-06-01

277

Crop Productivity and Surface Soil Properties of a Severely Wind-Eroded Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind erosion degrades soil quality by modifying soil properties important for optimum plant growth and productivity. In this study we evaluated soil properties and plant productivity of an Amarillo fine sandy loam soil that had been severely wind-eroded for 9 years, causing a loss of about 10 cm (over 1300 mt ha -1 ) of the soil surface. Cotton, kenaf,

T. M. Zobeck; J. D. Bilbro

278

Soil nitrate accumulation, leaching and crop nitrogen use as influenced by fertilization and irrigation in an intensive wheat–maize double cropping system in the North China Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing concern about excessive nitrogen (N) and water use in agricultural systems in North China due to the reduced\\u000a resource use efficiency and increased groundwater pollution. A two-year experiment with two soil moisture by four N treatments\\u000a was conducted to investigate the effects of N application rates and soil moisture on soil N dynamics, crop yield, N

Quanxiao Fang; Qiang Yu; Enli Wang; Yuhai Chen; Guoliang Zhang; Jing Wang; Longhui Li

2006-01-01

279

Soil, Water, and Greenhouse-gas Impacts of Alternative Biomass Cropping Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the 2008 Energy Independence and Security Act and other state and federal mandates, the U.S. is embarking on an aggressive agenda to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. While grain-derived ethanol will be used to largely meet initial renewable fuels targets, advanced biofuels derived from lignocellulosic materials are expected to comprise a growing proportion of the renewable energy portfolio and provide a more sustainable solution. As part of our interdisciplinary research, we are assessing the environmental impacts of four lignocellulosic biomass cropping systems and comparing them to a conventional corn cropping system. This comparison is conducted using a randomized, replicated experiment initiated in fall 2008, which compares the five cropping systems across a toposequence (i.e., floodplain, toeslope, backslope, shoulder, summit). In addition to assessing herbaceous and woody biomass yields, we are evaluating the environmental performance of these systems through changes in water quality, greenhouse-gas emissions, and carbon pools. Initial results document baseline soil parameters, including the capacity of the soils to sequester carbon across the toposequence, and the impacts of landscape heterogeneity and cropping system on soil moisture and nitrate-nitrogen levels in the vadose zone. Additional results on greenhouse-gas emissions and carbon dynamics are forthcoming from this year’s field research. The fuller understanding of the environmental performance of these systems will help inform federal and state policies seeking to incentivize the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry.

Schulte Moore, L. A.; Bach, E.; Cambardella, C.; Hargreaves, S.; Helmers, M.; Hofmockel, K.; Isenhart, T.; Kolka, R. K.; Ontl, T.; Welsh, W.; Williams, R.; Landscape Biomass Team

2010-12-01

280

Effects of changes in land use on soil physical properties and soil organic carbon content in a wheat-corn-sunflower crop sequence, in a loam soil of Argentina.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Argentinean Humid Pampas extend over about 60 million hectares, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The Southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampas, it covers over 1,206,162 hectares, the mean annual temperature is 13.3 °C and the climate is sub-humid. At the present only 6% of the lands are used for pasture. The main activities are agriculture and cattle production. The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The tillage systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP generates decreases in the levels of soil organic carbon (SOC). The magnitude of such decrease depends on the intensity of the tillage system, the tillage timeliness and the amount and quality of the residues. Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, there are evidences that, under NT, the bulk density (?b) in the superficial layers of the soil increases. The soil compaction causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. With this scenario and the tendency to increase the surface under NT in the Southeast Humid Pampas, we evaluated the evolution of some soil physical properties and the SOC in a 10-year experiment with a wheat-corn-sunflower rotation. The experiment was carried out in four localities at farmer? fields under three different tillage systems: MP, CP and NT in a randomized complete block design, considering each locality as a block. Each plot had 50 m in width by 100 m length and the treatments were: NT, MP and CP. The results of this experiment have allowed us to verify that: i) the wheat-corn-sunflower crop sequence showed a tendency to reduce the values of bulk density (?b) but NT increased ?b in the superficial soil layers; ii) the more intensive the tillage system, the higher the change in the mean weight diameter (MP > CP > NT); iii) the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) showed interaction with time and only was significantly different between the tillage systems in the year 2007; iv) the SOC was statistically higher in NT than in MP and CP, time had no significant effect on SOC, and vi) the tillage system did not affect the yields of the wheat-corn-sunflower crop rotation.

Aparicio, V.; Costa, J. L.

2012-04-01

281

Molybdenum uptake by forage crops grown on sewage sludge -- Amended soils in the field and greenhouse  

SciTech Connect

Molybdenum (Mo) is a plant-available element in soils that can adversely affect the health of farm animals. There is a need for more information on its uptake into forage crops from waste materials, such as sewage sludge, applied to agricultural land. Field and greenhouse experiments with several crops grown on long-term sewage sludge-amended soils as well as soils recently amended with dewatered (DW) and alkaline-stabilized (ALK) sludges indicated that Mo supplied from sludge is readily taken up by legumes in particular. Excessive uptake into red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) was seen in a soil that had been heavily amended with sewage sludge 20 yr earlier, where the soil contained about 3 mg Mo/kg soil, three times the background soil concentration. The greenhouse and field studies indicated that Mo can have a long residual availability in sludge-amended soils. The effect of sludge application was to decrease Cu to Mo ratios in legume forages, canola (Brassica napus var. napus) and soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] below the recommended limit of 2:1 for ruminant diets, a consequence of high bioavailability of Mo and low uptake of Cu added in sludge. Molybdenum uptake coefficients (UCs) for ALK sludge were higher than for DW sludge, presumably due to the greater solubility of Mo measured in the more alkaline sludges and soils. Based on these UCs, it is tentatively recommended that cumulative Mo loadings on forages grown on nonacid soils should not exceed 1.0 kg/ha from ALK sludge or 4.0 kg/ha from DW sludge.

McBride, M.B.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.; Spiers, G.

2000-06-01

282

Evaluating energy sorghum harvest thresholds and tillage cropping systems to offset negative environmental impacts and harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) could be the ideal feedstock for the cellulosic ethanol industry because of its robust establishment, broader adaptability and drought tolerance, water and nutrient use efficiency, and the relatively high annual biomass yields. Of concern, however, is the limited research data on harvest thresholds, subsequent environmental impacts and the potential cumulative effects of harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction. Indiscriminate harvests of the high volume wet energy sorghum biomass, coupled with repeated field passes, could cause irreparable damage to the soil due to compaction. Furthermore, biomass harvests result in lower soil organic matter returns to the soil, making the soil even more susceptible to soil compaction. Compacted soils result in poor root zone aeration and drainage, more losses of nitrogen from denitrification, and restricted root growth, which reduces yields. Given the many positive attributes of conservation tillage and crop residue retention, our research and extension expectations are that sustainable energy sorghum cropping systems ought to include some form of conservation tillage. The challenge is to select cropping and harvesting systems that optimize feedstock production while ensuring adequate residue biomass to sustainably maintain soil structure and productivity. Producers may have to periodically subsoil-till or plow-back their lands to alleviate problems of soil compaction and drainage, weeds, insects and disease infestations. Little, however, is known about the potential impact of these tillage changes on soil productivity, environmental integrity, and sustainability of bioenergy agro-ecosystems. Furthermore, 'safe' energy sorghum feedstock removal thresholds have yet to be established. We will apply the ALMANAC biophysical model to evaluate permissible energy sorghum feedstock harvest thresholds and the effects of subsoil tillage and periodically plowing no-tilled (NT) energy sorghum fields. The presentation will provide long-term insights into the sustainability of the proposed interventions with regards to 'safe' harvest thresholds, feedstock yields, SOC storage and rate of change, and sediment and nutrient (N&P) losses. Model calibration and validation datasets have already been compiled from rainfed and irrigated energy sorghum field studies conducted in Arkansas and Alabama during the years: 2008 to 2010. We compiled energy sorghum crop parameters based on data extracted from the literature, expert judgment and field experiments. Simulations will be made for combinations of biomass harvest rates, tillage systems, weather, soil type, and dryland production over a 51-year time series (1960-2010).

Meki, M. N.; Snider, J. L.; Kiniry, J. R.; Raper, R. L.; Rocateli, A. C.

2011-12-01

283

Determine metrics and set targets for soil quality on agriculture residue and energy crop pathways  

SciTech Connect

There are three objectives for this project: 1) support OBP in meeting MYPP stated performance goals for the Sustainability Platform, 2) develop integrated feedstock production system designs that increase total productivity of the land, decrease delivered feedstock cost to the conversion facilities, and increase environmental performance of the production system, and 3) deliver to the bioenergy community robust datasets and flexible analysis tools for establishing sustainable and viable use of agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops. The key project outcome to date has been the development and deployment of a sustainable agricultural residue removal decision support framework. The modeling framework has been used to produce a revised national assessment of sustainable residue removal potential. The national assessment datasets are being used to update national resource assessment supply curves using POLYSIS. The residue removal modeling framework has also been enhanced to support high fidelity sub-field scale sustainable removal analyses. The framework has been deployed through a web application and a mobile application. The mobile application is being used extensively in the field with industry, research, and USDA NRCS partners to support and validate sustainable residue removal decisions. The results detailed in this report have set targets for increasing soil sustainability by focusing on primary soil quality indicators (total organic carbon and erosion) in two agricultural residue management pathways and a dedicated energy crop pathway. The two residue pathway targets were set to, 1) increase residue removal by 50% while maintaining soil quality, and 2) increase soil quality by 5% as measured by Soil Management Assessment Framework indicators. The energy crop pathway was set to increase soil quality by 10% using these same indicators. To demonstrate the feasibility and impact of each of these targets, seven case studies spanning the US are presented. The analysis has shown that the feedstock production systems are capable of simultaneously increasing productivity and soil sustainability.

Ian Bonner; David Muth

2013-09-01

284

Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Seasonally High Water Tables and Septic Systems  

E-print Network

Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Seasonally High Water Tables Environment Indiana law requires septic systems to discharge wastewater into the soil for treatment and dispersal. The soil must be aerobic (contain oxygen) for treatment to occur. According to current state law

Holland, Jeffrey

285

Cover crops under different managements vs. frequent tillage in almond orchards in semiarid conditions: Effects on soil quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent tillage has been widely used in rainfed orchards in SE Spain in order to impede weed establishment and to increase water reposition in the soil profile. However, this practice may lead to soil degradation by decreasing structural stability, organic carbon content and microbial activity. This work examines the effect of different cover crop managements and frequent tillage on soil

María E. Ramos; Emilio Benítez; Pedro A. García; Ana B. Robles

2010-01-01

286

Soil microbial activities in tree-based cropping systems and natural forests of the Central Amazon, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available about the factors controlling soil C and N transformations in natural tropical forests and tree-based cropping systems. The aim of this work was to study the effects of single trees on soil microbiological activities from plantations of timber and non-timber species as well as species of primary and secondary forests in the Central Amazon. Soil samples

Oleg V. Menyailo; Johannes Lehmann; Manoel da Silva Cravo; Wolfgang Zech

2003-01-01

287

Influence of field histories of continuous soil insecticide treatments on the rate of soil biodegradation of Carbofuran in cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage and sugar beet crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the soil of cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage and sugar beet crops, carbofuran was metabolized into the insecticide compounds 3?hydroxycarbofuran and 3?ketocarbofuran, and into the non insecticide carbofuran phenol and 3?ketocarbofuran phenol. The rate of soil biodegradation of carbofuran and of the sum of insecticide carbamate compounds was multiplied by 3 when continuous monoculture and soil treatments with organophosphorus

Jean Rouchaud; Marc Metsue; Frans van de Steene; Christian Pelerents; Frans Benoit; Norbert Ceustermans; Luc Vanparys; Joël Gillet; Edgard Seutin

1989-01-01

288

Scenarios of organic amendment use to increase soil carbon stocks and nitrogen availability in cropped soils at the territory scale: spatial and temporal simulations with the NCSOIL/CERES-EGC crop model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of Exogenous Organic Matter (EOM) on cropped soils is a promising way to increase soil organic carbon and available nitrogen for crops while recycling organic agricultural and urban wastes. In peri-urban territories where the specialization of agriculture limits the resource in organic amendments since livestock farming is scarce, a better management of EOM land application from all origins at the territory scale could be thought to maximize their benefits. The objective was to predict the effect of various EOM types and uses on C and N fluxes and crop production for each homogeneous spatial unit of the territory, first step for the territorial optimization of EOM land application. The study area, located 30km west of Paris, covers 221km² and is mostly characterized by croplands. The effects of repeated EOM applications were studied using a mechanistic crop model: CERES-EGC accounting for soil characteristics, crop production systems, and climate. The whole territory was divided into homogeneous spatial units, each defined by soil and crop production system characteristics. Four different soil types were characterized, mapped and parameterized in the model. Kinetics of C and N mineralization during soil incubations were used to optimize soil organic matter characteristics and parameters in the sub-model NCSOIL of CERES-EGC. Crop production systems were defined and spatially inferred using the French land parcel identification system. Climatic data measured on the territory were used to make a 20 year-meteorological scenario. Based on these initial informations, crop yields and C and N fluxes were simulated for the actual crop productions and soil type combinations of the territory. Then, different scenarios of EOM uses were also simulated based on different EOM types, added quantities and frequencies of application within the crop successions respecting the 170kgN/ha/yr legal limit. All the parameters studied, crop yields, N outputs, carbon storage increased with increasing amounts of applied EOM but to different extents depending on added EOM, soil type and crop production system. Based on all the simulated results obtained, the EOM land application will be optimized to maximize carbon storage, crop production and limit N pollutions at the territory scale, taking into account other constraints such as EOM availability.

Noirot-Cosson, Paul-Emile; Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Aubry, Christine; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Gabrielle, Benoît; Houot, Sabine

2014-05-01

289

Assessing effects of transgenic crops on soil microbial communities.  

PubMed

Deleterious effects of transgenic plants on soils represent an often expressed concern, which has catalyzed numerous studies in the recent past. In this literature review, studies addressing this question have been compiled. A total of 60 studies has been found, and their findings as well as their analytical approaches are summarized. These studies analyzed the effects of seven different types of genetically engineered traits, i.e., herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, virus resistance, proteinase inhibitors, antimicrobial activity, environmental application, and biomolecule production. Sixteen genetically engineered plant species were investigated in these studies including corn, canola, soybean, cotton, potato, tobacco, alfalfa, wheat, rice, tomato, papaya, aubergine, and silver birch. Many of these plants and traits have not been commercialized and represent experimental model systems. Effects on soil microbial characteristics have been described in various studies, indicating the sensitivity and feasibility of the analytical approaches applied. However, classification of the observed effects into acceptable and unacceptable ones has not been possible so far. Establishment of validated indicators for adverse effects represents a scientific challenge for the near future, and will assist risk assessment and regulation of transgenic plants commercially released to the field. PMID:17522827

Widmer, Franco

2007-01-01

290

Soil carbon inventories under a bioenergy crop (switchgrass): Measurement limitations  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 5 yr after planting, coarse root carbon (C) and soil organic C (SOC) inventories were compared under different types of plant cover at four switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production field trials in the southeastern USA. There was significantly more coarse root C under switchgrass (Alamo variety) and forest cover than tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), corn (Zea mays L.), or native pastures of mixed grasses. Inventories of SOC under switchgrass were not significantly greater than SOC inventories under other plant covers. At some locations the statistical power associated with ANOVA of SOC inventories was low, which raised questions about whether differences in SOC could be detected statistically. A minimum detectable difference (MDD) for SOC inventories was calculated. The MDD is the smallest detectable difference between treatment means once the variation, significance level, statistical power, and sample size are specified. The analysis indicated that a difference of {approx}50 mg SOC/cm{sup 2} or 5 Mg SOC/ha, which is {approx}10 to 15% of existing SOC, could be detected with reasonable sample sizes and good statistical power. The smallest difference in SOC inventories that can be detected, and only with exceedingly large sample sizes, is {approx}2 to 3%. These measurement limitations have implications for monitoring and verification of proposals to ameliorate increasing global atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations by sequestering C in soils.

Garten, C.T. Jr.; Wullschleger, S.D.

1999-08-01

291

Selected soil physical and hydraulic properties for different crop successions under no tillage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No tillage is now widely widespread in Argentina in response to several circumstances, including limited runoff and a drop in soil erosion. Crop residues left on the soil surface help both natural rainfall and irrigation water infiltrate and also limits evaporation, conserving water for plant growth. This notwithstanding, wide differences in runoff rates between crop succession have been observed under no tillage. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of the main crop successions of Entre Ríos province, Argentina on selected soil physic and hydraulic properties. Results obtained on no-till plots were compared with those recorded on a 10-years old grassland plot and on a conventionally tilled plot left bare, both of them taken as references. The study soil was classified as an Aquic Argiudoll. Treatments were: maize and soybean, both cropped as monoculture, succession wheat/soybean or wheat/maize, grassland and conventionally tilled soil left bare. Soil runoff was recorded on experimental plots 100 m2 in surface. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Khc) and sorptivity were measured in field conditions using a disc permeameter. Bulk density (Bd), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kh) total porosity (TP) and pore size distributions were determined on undisturbed cores sampled at the 0-4 and 4-8 cm depth with five replications. Maximum water losses were recorded in bare soils conventionally tilled. Under maize and soybean monocultures water losses were six time higher than under grassland. Water losses under successions wheat/soybean-maize were lower than under monoculture but not significantly different. Field saturated hydraulic conductivity (Khc) was highest under grassland and the remaining treatments don't showed significant differences. Differences in sorptivity between plots were not significantly different. A significant relationship was found between saturated hydraulic conductivity measured in field conditions (Khc) and determined in soil cores (Kh) and on average the later was 2.5 times higher than the former. Soil pore space with diameters >50 m was higher under grassland at both sampling depths and showed no significant differences between other treatments. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Khc), TP and Bd showed a significant relationship at the 0-4 cm depth. Runoff variance was explained by TP and partial porosity

Sasal, M. C.; Castiglioni, M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Wilson, M. G.; Oszust, J.

2009-04-01

292

Ecosystem-service tradeoffs associated with switching from annual to perennial energy crops in riparian zones of the US Midwest.  

PubMed

Integration of energy crops into agricultural landscapes could promote sustainability if they are placed in ways that foster multiple ecosystem services and mitigate ecosystem disservices from existing crops. We conducted a modeling study to investigate how replacing annual energy crops with perennial energy crops along Wisconsin waterways could affect a variety of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. We found that a switch from continuous corn production to perennial-grass production decreased annual income provisioning by 75%, although it increased annual energy provisioning by 33%, decreased annual phosphorous loading to surface water by 29%, increased below-ground carbon sequestration by 30%, decreased annual nitrous oxide emissions by 84%, increased an index of pollinator abundance by an average of 11%, and increased an index of biocontrol potential by an average of 6%. We expressed the tradeoffs between income provisioning and other ecosystem services as benefit-cost ratios. Benefit-cost ratios averaged 12.06 GJ of additional net energy, 0.84 kg of avoided phosphorus pollution, 18.97 Mg of sequestered carbon, and 1.99 kg of avoided nitrous oxide emissions for every $1,000 reduction in income. These ratios varied spatially, from 2- to 70-fold depending on the ecosystem service. Benefit-cost ratios for different ecosystem services were generally correlated within watersheds, suggesting the presence of hotspots--watersheds where increases in multiple ecosystem services would come at lower-than-average opportunity costs. When assessing the monetary value of ecosystem services relative to existing conservation programs and environmental markets, the overall value of enhanced services associated with adoption of perennial energy crops was far lower than the opportunity cost. However, when we monitized services using estimates for the social costs of pollution, the value of enhanced services far exceeded the opportunity cost. This disparity between recoverable costs and social value represents a fundamental challenge to expansion of perennial energy crops and sustainable agricultural landscapes. PMID:24223215

Meehan, Timothy D; Gratton, Claudio; Diehl, Erica; Hunt, Natalie D; Mooney, Daniel F; Ventura, Stephen J; Barham, Bradford L; Jackson, Randall D

2013-01-01

293

Ecosystem-Service Tradeoffs Associated with Switching from Annual to Perennial Energy Crops in Riparian Zones of the US Midwest  

PubMed Central

Integration of energy crops into agricultural landscapes could promote sustainability if they are placed in ways that foster multiple ecosystem services and mitigate ecosystem disservices from existing crops. We conducted a modeling study to investigate how replacing annual energy crops with perennial energy crops along Wisconsin waterways could affect a variety of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. We found that a switch from continuous corn production to perennial-grass production decreased annual income provisioning by 75%, although it increased annual energy provisioning by 33%, decreased annual phosphorous loading to surface water by 29%, increased below-ground carbon sequestration by 30%, decreased annual nitrous oxide emissions by 84%, increased an index of pollinator abundance by an average of 11%, and increased an index of biocontrol potential by an average of 6%. We expressed the tradeoffs between income provisioning and other ecosystem services as benefit-cost ratios. Benefit-cost ratios averaged 12.06 GJ of additional net energy, 0.84 kg of avoided phosphorus pollution, 18.97 Mg of sequestered carbon, and 1.99 kg of avoided nitrous oxide emissions for every $1,000 reduction in income. These ratios varied spatially, from 2- to 70-fold depending on the ecosystem service. Benefit-cost ratios for different ecosystem services were generally correlated within watersheds, suggesting the presence of hotspots – watersheds where increases in multiple ecosystem services would come at lower-than-average opportunity costs. When assessing the monetary value of ecosystem services relative to existing conservation programs and environmental markets, the overall value of enhanced services associated with adoption of perennial energy crops was far lower than the opportunity cost. However, when we monitized services using estimates for the social costs of pollution, the value of enhanced services far exceeded the opportunity cost. This disparity between recoverable costs and social value represents a fundamental challenge to expansion of perennial energy crops and sustainable agricultural landscapes. PMID:24223215

Meehan, Timothy D.; Gratton, Claudio; Diehl, Erica; Hunt, Natalie D.; Mooney, Daniel F.; Ventura, Stephen J.; Barham, Bradford L.; Jackson, Randall D.

2013-01-01

294

Cadmium and lead uptake by edible crops grown in a silt loam soil  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing public concern about health effects resulting from ingestion of food containing toxic metals such as Cd and Pb. For example, a wide range of metabolic disorders and neuropsychological deficits in children have been noted, and chronic exposure to Cd has been linked to kidney failure and bone disease. The potential harm posed by the uptake of heavy metals such as Cd and Pb by plants is dependent on their abundance, mobility and bioaccumulation. Plant uptake of heavy metals was also influenced by soil pH. There is a linear relationship between soil concentrations of heavy metal and concentrations in vegetation around a zinc-lead tailing pond. The ability of the soil to retain metals depends on several factors; pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter content, and their specific geochemical properties. Overall, the metal burden of a crop depends on: (a) uptake via the root system; (b) direct foliar uptake and translocation within the plant; and (c) surface deposition of particulate matter. Numerous studies have been conducted with agronomic crops regarding heavy metals in soils and plant uptake from sewage sludge, but only a few studies have dealt with the uptake of heavy metal mixtures in vegetables. This paper reports on germination/emergence, biomass and uptake of Cd and Pb in lettuce and radish grown in a loam soil spiked with known mixtures of CdCl{sub 2} and Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Lettuce and radish have been used in this study because they are among the two groups of vegetable crops (leafy and root) consumed by humans. Also, earlier studies have reported that lettuce and radish bioaccumulate Cd and Pb from heavy metal polluted soils. 38 refs., 7 tabs.

Nwosu, J.U.; Linder, G. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Harding, A.K. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-04-01

295

Managing soil microbial communities in grain production systems through cropping practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cropping practices can significantly influence the composition and activity of soil microbial communities with consequences to plant growth and production. Plant type can affect functional capacity of different groups of biota in the soil surrounding their roots, rhizosphere, influencing plant nutrition, beneficial symbioses, pests and diseases and overall plant health and crop production. The interaction between different players in the rhizosphere is due to the plethora of carbon and nutritional compounds, root-specific chemical signals and growth regulators that originate from the plant and are modulated by the physico-chemical properties of soils. A number of plant and environmental factors and management practices can influence the quantity and quality of rhizodeposition and in turn affect the composition of rhizosphere biota communities, microbe-fauna interactions and biological processes. Some of the examples of rhizosphere interactions that are currently considered important are: proliferation of plant and variety specific genera or groups of microbiota, induction of genes involved in symbiosis and virulence, promoter activity in biocontrol agents and genes correlated with root adhesion and border cell quality and quantity. The observation of variety-based differences in rhizodeposition and associated changes in rhizosphere microbial diversity and function suggests the possibility for the development of varieties with specific root-microbe interactions targeted for soil type and environment i.e. designer rhizospheres. Spatial location of microorganisms in the heterogeneous field soil matrix can have significant impacts on biological processes. Therefore, for rhizosphere research to be effective in variable seasonal climate and soil conditions, it must be evaluated in the field and within a farming systems context. With the current focus on security of food to feed the growing global populations through sustainable agricultural production systems there is a need to develop innovative cropping systems that are both economically and environmentally sustainable.

Gupta, Vadakattu

2013-04-01

296

Anaerobic digestate from biogas production as a resource for improving soil fertility: effects on crop yield and soil properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil fertility is fundamental in determining crops productivity in all farming systems. Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of energy crops generates residues that can represent a valuable resource to sustain and improve soil fertility and to increase soil organic matter content. Residues from anaerobic digestion contain organic fractions and available nutrients, that can thus be returned to the cultivation soil as fertilizer and soil conditioner. However, some unknown aspects of digested residues utilization remain to explore: i) the nutrient supply and the real potential for mineral fertilization substitution, ii) the impact on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities, iii) the direct and indirect effects on soil structure, organic matter and C mineralization. The aim of the present research was to gain a better understanding of these aspects, evaluating the effects of anaerobic digestate application on soil properties and maize yield. With the main focus of comparing mineral fertilization (250 Kg N ha-1) with digested residues addition (at the dose of 25 % and 50 % of mineral fertilizer), a triplicate sets of plots were designed in a field experiment on a silty-clay loam soil in the southern Po Valley (Italy). The amount of applied residues was calculated according to its N content in order to fertilizer each plots with the same amount of total nitrogen. Residues from digestion showed a N content of 0.4 % (60 % as N-NH4) and a C/N ratio of 3. Changes in soil quality after residues application were studied with a holistic approach, involving microbiological, physical and chemical aspects of soil fertility. In particular, we determined: the abundance and diversity of bacterial and fungal soil communities; the soil organic matter content, its distribution within soil aggregates and the C mineralization potential; cation exchange capacity; the main macro and micro nutrients; bulk density; aggregate stability. No significant differences among treatments were registered in the above ground maize biomass. Molecular analysis conducted on microbial soil communities suggested that the application of digested residues to soil contributes to substantial modifications of both bacterial and fungal community structure. Soil organic C and total N increased in soils treated with digested residues addition, with no significant differences between the two doses of digestate. Cation exchange capacity did not show significant differences among treatments, remaining stable during the maize vegetative cycle. Differently, some variations occurred in the exchangeable cation pool. In particular, K content increased under digestate treatments, while Na and Mg contents increased with time irrespective of the fertilization treatment. No significant variations were observed in soil microelement levels, except for an increase in Zn content at the highest digestate dose. Moreover, digested residue addition had a positive impact on aggregates stability. From the first results, the absence of negative effects in plant productivity and soil fertility after residues application, at both doses, is a promising indication for the potential use of anaerobic digestate as substitute of mineral fertilizers.

Pastorelli, Roberta; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Papini, Rossella; Fabiani, Arturo; Simoncini, Stefania; Mocali, Stefano; Piccolo, Raimondo

2013-04-01

297

Soil carbon inventories under a bioenergy crop (switchgrass): measurement limitations  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 5 yr after planting, coarse root (>2 mm) carbon (C) and soil organic C (SOC) inventories (0-40 cm deep) were compared under different types of plant cover at four switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production field trials in the southeastern USA. There was significantly (p {le} 0.05) more coarse root C under switchgrass (Alamo variety) and forest cover than under tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), corn (Zea mays L.), or native pastures of mixed grasses. Inventories of SOC under switchgrass were not significantly greater than SOC inventories under other plant covers. At some locations the statistical power associated with ANOVA of SOC inventories was low, which raised questions about whether differences in SOC could be detected statistically. A minimum detectable difference (MDD) for SOC inventories was calculated. The MDD is the smallest detectable difference between treatment means once the variation, significance level, statistical power, and sample size are specified. The analysis indicated that a difference of {approx}50 mg SOC/cm{sup 2} or 5 Mg SOC/ha, which is {approx}10 to 15% of existing SOC, could be detected with reasonable sample sizes (n = 16) and good statistical power (1-{beta} = 0.90). The smallest difference in SOC inventories that can be detected, and only with exceedingly large sample sizes (n > 100), is {approx}2 to 3% ({approx}10 mg SOC/cm{sup 2} or 1 Mg SOC/ha). These measurement limitations have implications for monitoring and verification of proposals to ameliorate increasing global atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations by sequestering C in soils.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

1999-07-01

298

Procedures for the description of agricultural crops and soils in optical and microwave remote sensing studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes procedures for characterizing agricultural crops and soils in remote sensing studies. The procedures are based on the accumulated experience of a number of researchers active in this field. Therefore, they represent a compromise between the theoretically desirable and the practically feasible, and should thus be an effective aid in further studies of this type. Although the guidelines were prepared specifically for microwave studies, adjustments were made to render the procedures applicable to optical studies as well. Given the increasing number of research teams involved in remote sensing applied to agriculture, there is an opportunity to acquire a broad data base on soils and crops in various geographic regions. To allow intercomparisons of such data, they must be obtained in a consistent manner. By following the proposed procedures and reporting results using the parameters described here, such intercomparisons should be possible on a continental or a global scale.

Cihlar, J.; Dobson, M. C.; Schmugge, T.; Hoogeboom, P.; Janse, A. R. P.

1987-01-01

299

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Soil Physical Properties and Crop Productivity under a Maize (Zea mays)–Mustard (Brassica campestris) Cropping Sequence in Acidic Soils of Northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five-year (2001\\/02–2006\\/07) field experiment was carried out on acidic clay loam soil classified as Typic Hapludalf with a maize–mustard crop sequence to study the effect of continuous application of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) fertilizers alone and in combination with lime, farmyard manure (FYM), and biofertilizers on soil physical properties, soil organic carbon (SOC), soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC),

R. Saha; V. K. Mishra; B. Majumdar; K. Laxminarayana; P. K. Ghosh

2010-01-01

300

The Effects of Manure and Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications on Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a High-Input Cropping System  

PubMed Central

With the goal of improving N fertilizer management to maximize soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and minimize N losses in high-intensity cropping system, a 6-years greenhouse vegetable experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2010 in Shouguang, northern China. Treatment tested the effects of organic manure and N fertilizer on SOC, total N (TN) pool and annual apparent N losses. The results demonstrated that SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-10cm soil layer decreased significantly without organic manure and mineral N applications, primarily because of the decomposition of stable C. Increasing C inputs through wheat straw and chicken manure incorporation couldn't increase SOC pools over the 4 year duration of the experiment. In contrast to the organic manure treatment, the SOC and TN pools were not increased with the combination of organic manure and N fertilizer. However, the soil labile carbon fractions increased significantly when both chicken manure and N fertilizer were applied together. Additionally, lower optimized N fertilizer inputs did not decrease SOC and TN accumulation compared with conventional N applications. Despite the annual apparent N losses for the optimized N treatment were significantly lower than that for the conventional N treatment, the unchanged SOC over the past 6 years might limit N storage in the soil and more surplus N were lost to the environment. Consequently, optimized N fertilizer inputs according to root-zone N management did not influence the accumulation of SOC and TN in soil; but beneficial in reducing apparent N losses. N fertilizer management in a greenhouse cropping system should not only identify how to reduce N fertilizer input but should also be more attentive to improving soil fertility with better management of organic manure. PMID:24830463

Ren, Tao; Wang, Jingguo; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Fusuo; Lu, Shuchang

2014-01-01

301

Effect of different kinds of crop residues on aggregate-protected soil organic matter fractions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter content of soils determines many important soil properties, such as soil structure, fertility and water-management. To improve its fertility and quality, returning different kinds of organic matter to soil has a long historical tradition. Ameliorating of soil and enhancing its fertility by enhancing its carbon stock with organic matter incorporation (like farmyard manure, crop residues or green manure) are general practices, but the extent of the amelioration depends much on several factors such as quantity, quality of the used organic matters. Quality of soil organic matters is affected by their chemical build-up, which differs by their origin (i.e. plant species); and their decomposability is affected by particle-size, protection by soil aggregates and the extent of their association to mineral surfaces. In our paper we investigated the effect of three different kinds of organic matter incorporation on aggregate-protected organic matter fractions: (1) Maize stem (M), (2) Wheat straw (W), and (3) Maize stem & Wheat straw (MW). Our samples were originated from Keszthely, Western Hungary, where the texture of the investigated soil is Sandy loam, the type of soil is Eutric Cambisol (soil type FAO), or Alfisol (soil type USDA). SOM fractions might be isolated and measured by physical fractionation of soil (Cambardella and Elliott (1992), Jensen et al. (1992)). Firstly, microaggregates were separated according to their particle-size with physical fractionation (i.e. wet sieving) (Six et al. (2000a)). Each sample was pre-treated by capillary wetting and was sieved for 2 min in an analytic sieve shaker machine with the following aperture sizes: 2 mm, 250 ?m, 53 ?m. Therefore 4 fractions were resulted: (1) the >2000 ?m large macro-, (2) the 250-2000 ?m small macro-, (3) the 53-250 ?m microaggregates, and (4) the

Huisz, A.

2009-04-01

302

Soil respiration, labile carbon pools, and enzyme activities as affected by tillage practices in a tropical rice-maize-cowpea cropping system.  

PubMed

In order to identify the viable option of tillage practices in rice-maize-cowpea cropping system that could cut down soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission, sustain grain yield, and maintain better soil quality in tropical low land rice ecology soil respiration in terms of CO2 emission, labile carbon (C) pools, water-stable aggregate C fractions, and enzymatic activities were investigated in a sandy clay loam soil. Soil respiration is the major pathway of gaseous C efflux from terrestrial systems and acts as an important index of ecosystem functioning. The CO2-C emissions were quantified in between plants and rows throughout the year in rice-maize-cowpea cropping sequence both under conventional tillage (CT) and minimum tillage (MT) practices along with soil moisture and temperature. The CO2-C emissions, as a whole, were 24 % higher in between plants than in rows, and were in the range of 23.4-78.1, 37.1-128.1, and 28.6-101.2 mg m(-2) h(-1) under CT and 10.7-60.3, 17.3-99.1, and 17.2-79.1 mg m(-2) h(-1) under MT in rice, maize, and cowpea, respectively. The CO2-C emission was found highest under maize (44 %) followed by rice (33 %) and cowpea (23 %) irrespective of CT and MT practices. In CT system, the CO2-C emission increased significantly by 37.1 % with respect to MT on cumulative annual basis including fallow. The CO2-C emission per unit yield was at par in rice and cowpea signifying the beneficial effect of MT in maintaining soil quality and reduction of CO2 emission. The microbial biomass C (MBC), readily mineralizable C (RMC), water-soluble C (WSC), and permanganate-oxidizable C (PMOC) were 19.4, 20.4, 39.5, and 15.1 % higher under MT than CT. The C contents in soil aggregate fraction were significantly higher in MT than CT. Soil enzymatic activities like, dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate, and ?-glucosidase were significantly higher by 13.8, 15.4, and 27.4 % under MT compared to CT. The soil labile C pools, enzymatic activities, and heterotrophic microbial populations were in the order of maize?>?cowpea?>?rice, irrespective of the tillage treatments. Environmental sustainability point of view, minimum tillage practices in rice-maize-cowpea cropping system in tropical low land soil could be adopted to minimize CO2-C emission, sustain yield, and maintain soil health. PMID:24609455

Neogi, S; Bhattacharyya, P; Roy, K S; Panda, B B; Nayak, A K; Rao, K S; Manna, M C

2014-07-01

303

Earthworm populations as affected by crop practices on clay loam soil in a Mediterranean climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms influence soil fertility, and their population is known to be influenced by fertilization. The objective of this study is to characterize the abundance of earthworms under three different kinds of rotation-crops (Rotation: cereals–legumes for green manure-cotton), three tillage systems (Conventional Tillage CT, Minimum Tillage MT, & No-Tillage NT) and fertilization (NP: inorganic and FYM: farmyard manure-organic). Significantly higher populations

D. Bilalis; N. Sidiras; E. Vavoulidou; A. Konstantas

2009-01-01

304

Changes in methanotrophic community composition after rice crop harvest in tropical soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four selected tropical field sites from India were studied to assess the diversity and community structure of methanotrophs\\u000a in rice fields following crop harvest. The rate of methane oxidation ranged from 0.04 to 0.11 µmol L?1 h?1 g?1 dry weight in soils. Methanotrophic population size was high for the agriculture farm of Banaras Hindu University (BHU) site\\u000a followed by agriculture farm

P. Vishwakarma; M. Singh; S. K. Dubey

2010-01-01

305

Role of Soil, Crop Debris, and a Plant Pathogen in Salmonella enterica Contamination of Tomato Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In the U.S., tomatoes have become the most implicated vehicle for produce-associated Salmonellosis with 12 outbreaks since 1998. Although unconfirmed, trace backs suggest pre-harvest contamination with Salmonella enterica. Routes of tomato crop contamination by S. enterica in the absence of direct artificial inoculation have not been investigated. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: This work examined the role of contaminated soil, the potential

Jeri D. Barak; Anita S. Liang

2008-01-01

306

Bacterial Indicator of Agricultural Management for Soil under No-Till Crop Production  

PubMed Central

The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP) were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism, the distribution of a few taxa was shaped as well by environmental conditions related to agricultural management practices. A statistically supported approach was used to define candidates for management-indicator organisms, subsequently validated using quantitative PCR. We suggest that the ratio between the normalized abundance of a selected group of bacteria within the GP1 group of the phylum Acidobacteria and the genus Rubellimicrobium of the Alphaproteobacteria may serve as a potential management-indicator to discriminate between sustainable vs. non-sustainable agricultural practices in the Pampa region. PMID:23226466

Rosa, Silvina M.; Simonetti, Leandro; Duval, Matias E.; Galantini, Juan A.; Bedano, Jose C.; Wall, Luis G.; Erijman, Leonardo

2012-01-01

307

Bacterial indicator of agricultural management for soil under no-till crop production.  

PubMed

The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP) were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism, the distribution of a few taxa was shaped as well by environmental conditions related to agricultural management practices. A statistically supported approach was used to define candidates for management-indicator organisms, subsequently validated using quantitative PCR. We suggest that the ratio between the normalized abundance of a selected group of bacteria within the GP1 group of the phylum Acidobacteria and the genus Rubellimicrobium of the Alphaproteobacteria may serve as a potential management-indicator to discriminate between sustainable vs. non-sustainable agricultural practices in the Pampa region. PMID:23226466

Figuerola, Eva L M; Guerrero, Leandro D; Rosa, Silvina M; Simonetti, Leandro; Duval, Matías E; Galantini, Juan A; Bedano, José C; Wall, Luis G; Erijman, Leonardo

2012-01-01

308

Selenium concentrations of common weeds and agricultural crops grown in the seleniferous soils of northwestern India.  

PubMed

The plants grown in seleniferous soils constitute a major source of toxic selenium levels in the food chain of animals and human beings. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to study selenium concentrations of weeds, forages and cereals grown on seleniferous soils located between 31.0417 degrees to 31.2175 degrees N and 76.1363 degrees to 76.4147 degrees E in northwestern India. Eleven winter season (November-April) weed plants were grown in the greenhouse in a soil treated with different levels of selenate-Se. Selenium concentrations of weed plants increased progressively with the levels of selenate-Se in soil. The highest Se concentration was recorded by Silene gallica (246 mgkg(-1)) and the lowest by Avena ludoviciana (47 mgkg(-1)) at 2.5 mg Sekg(-1) soil. A.ludoviciana and Spergula arvensis proved highly tolerant to the presence of 1.25 and 2.5 mg selenate-Sekg(-1) soil and the remaining weeds were sensitive to Se. Dry matter yield of Se-sensitive weed plants was 25 to 62% of the yield in the no-Se control at 1.25mg selenate-Sekg(-1) and 6 to 40% at 2.5mg selenate-Sekg(-1) soil. Other symptoms like change in leaf colour and size, burning of leaf tips and margins, and delayed flowering were also observed due to Se. Dry matter yield of Se-sensitive weed plants expressed as percentage of yield in the no-Se control at both the Se levels was inversely correlated with their Se content (r=-0.731, p<0.01, N=17). Among the weed plants grown in seleniferous soils under field situations, Mentha longifolia accumulated the highest Se (365 mgkg(-1)) and Phalaris minor the lowest (34 mgkg(-1)). Among agricultural crops grown on a naturally contaminated soil in the greenhouse, Se concentrations were the highest for oilseed crops (19-29 mgkg(-1)), followed by legumes (6-13 mgkg(-1)) and cereals (2-18 mgkg(-1)). Helianthus annuus among the oilseed crops, A.ludoviciana among the winter season weeds, M.longifolia among the summer season (May-October) weeds and Cirsium arvense among the perennial weeds can be used for phytoremediation of seleniferous soils as these accumulate the highest amounts of Se. PMID:19800657

Dhillon, Karaj S; Dhillon, Surjit K

2009-12-01

309

Conservation Tillage and Cover Crop Influences on Cotton Production on a Southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding cover crop and tillage system interactions within specific environments can help maximize productivity and economic returns of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) produced on sandy coastal plain soils of the southeastern USA. A strip-plot design with three replications was used to evaluate the cover crops Austrian winter pea (Pisum sativum L. ssp. arvense (L.)), balansa clover (Trifolium michelianum Savi), crimson

Harry H. Schomberg; Richard G. McDaniel; Eddie Mallard; Dinku M. Endale; Dwight S. Fisher; Miguel L. Cabrera

2006-01-01

310

Assessing the effect of soil management on soil functioning: a meta-regression analysis on European crop yields under conservation agriculture.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many strategies exist to combat soil degradation through erosion and compaction on agricultural fields. One of these strategies is conservation agriculture (CA). Reduced or zero tillage techniques, together with crop residue management and crop rotation are the pillars of CA. The term reduced tillage covers a range of tillage practices but it never involves inverting the soil. In this way, soil disturbance is minimised and crop residues are left on the soil. As CA also requires less wheel traffic that can increase soil bulk density and reduces infiltration rates, CA has the potential to reduce degradation and improve soil functioning. Studies in many European countries have shown that CA can indeed be very effective in combating soil erosion. However, soil and water conservation do not appear as main drivers in farmers' decisions to shift or not to CA. Economic factors tend to be more important, but there are a lot of uncertainties on this domain. Studies show that production costs are mostly reduced, mainly by reduced fuel costs. However, on production outcome, i.e. crop yield, a lot of uncertainties exist. To ensure proper functioning of agricultural soils that are prone to degradation, it is clear that these uncertainties have to be quantified. Many European studies have investigated the effect of reduced soil tillage on crop yields. However, the anecdotic evidence is often contradictory and therefore difficult to interpret. Most of them only cover a small range of field experiments, in one region. We present a meta-regression analysis (47 European studies, 565 observations) that compares crop yields under conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT) and zero tillage (ZT) techniques. We analysed the possible influence on the relative yield ((RT or ZT)/CT) of crop type, tillage depth, climate, CT yield and length of application of RT/ZT. ZT reduces crop yield on average with 8.5%. However, RT leads to a reduction in crop yields for maize and winter cereals only. By applying a linear mixed model, the importance of tillage depth and crop type as classification effects could be confirmed. Our analysis also allowed to identify some effects that are not always in agreement with common beliefs. For instance, yields under CA tend to decline with time, especially for monoculture maize. An effect of climate on relative crop yields could only be distinguished in the case of zero tillage: there is a positive relationship between crop yield and the seasonal water balance, contradicting the idea that CA is more efficient in dry areas due to more efficient water conservation.

van den Putte, An; Govers, Gerard; Diels, Jan; Gillijns, Katleen; Demuzere, Matthias

2010-05-01

311

[Variations of microbial biomass and hydrolase activities in purple soil under different cropping modes as affected by ginger planting].  

PubMed

This paper studied the variations of soil microbial biomass C, N, and P contents and soil hydrolase activities under different cropping modes, i.e., corn + sweet potato intercropping (CS), soybean mono-cropping (SM), continuous cropping of ginger (CG), and rice-milk vetch rotation (RM) , after ginger planting in the purple soil area at the lower reaches of Minjiang River. Ginger planting decreased the soil microbial biomass C, N and P contents significantly. The decrement of the soil microbial biomass C and N contents after ginger planting was lesser under CS and RM than under SM and CG, but the soil microbial biomass P content was in adverse. Ginger planting also decreased the soil acid phosphatase activity significantly, and the decrement was the greatest under CS but the least under RM. The soil invertase activity decreased significantly under CG, and the soil urease activity had a significant decrease under SM, CG and RM. After ginger planting, the soil urease and intervase activities under CS were higher, as compared with those under the other cropping modes. PMID:22586969

Wang, Xu-Xi; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Wang, Ao

2012-02-01

312

Soil Organic Matter Quality of an Oxisol Affected by Plant Residues and Crop Sequence under No-Tillage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant residues are considered the primarily resource for soil organic matter (SOM) formation and the amounts and properties of plant litter are important controlling factors for the SOM quality. We determined the amounts, quality and decomposition rate of plant residues and the effects of summer and winter crop sequences on soil organic C (TOC) content, both particulate organic C (POC) and mineral-associated organic C (MOC) pools and humic substances in a Brazilian Rhodic Eutrudox soil under a no-tillage system. The organic C analysis in specifics pools used in this study was effective and should be adopted in tropical climates to evaluate the soil quality and the sustainability of various cropping systems. Continuous growth of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) on summer provided higher contents of soil POC and continuous growth of maize (Zea mays L.) provided higher soil humic acid and MOC contents. Summer soybean-maize rotation provided the higher plant diversity, which likely improved the soil microbial activity and the soil organic C consumption. The winter sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) enhanced the soil MOC, a finding that is attributable to the higher N content of the crop residue. Sunn hemp and pigeon pea provided the higher soil POC content. Sunn hemp showed better performance and positive effects on the SOM quality, making it a suitable winter crop choice for tropical conditions with a warm and dry winter.

Cora, Jose; Marcelo, Adolfo

2013-04-01

313

Effect of deep and shallow root systems on the dynamics of soil inorganic N during 3-year crop rotations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unused inorganic nitrogen (Ninorg) left in agricultural soils will typically leach to deeper soil layers. If it moves below the root zone it will be lost from the system, but the depth of the root zone depends on the crop species grown. In this experiment we studied the effect of 3-year crop sequences, with different combinations of deep-rooted and shallow-rooted

Kristian Thorup-Kristensen

2006-01-01

314

Process-based modeling of nitrous oxide emissions from wheat-cropped soils at the subregional scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arable soils are a large source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, making up half of the biogenic emissions worldwide. Estimating their source strength requires methods capable of capturing the spatial and temporal variability of N2O emissions, along with the effects of crop management. Here we applied a process-based model, Crop Environmental REsources Synthesis (CERES), with geo-referenced input data on soils,

B. Gabrielle; P. Laville; O. Duval; B. Nicoullaud; J. C. Germon; C. Hénault

2006-01-01

315

Cover crops influence soil properties and tree performance in an organic apple ( Malus domestica Borkh) orchard in northern Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the effects of cover crops on soil properties in organic orchards. To fill this gap, this work aimed\\u000a at examining the effects of several cover crops on soil fertility, nitrate dynamics, populations of nematodes and tree performance\\u000a in an organic orchard of apple cv. Royal Gala\\/EM 26 planted in 1994 at 4 × 2 m. In 1999 the following

E. E. Sánchez; A. Giayetto; L. Cichón; D. Fernández; M. C. Aruani; M. Curetti

2007-01-01

316

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and crops after irrigation of wastewater discharged from domestic sewage treatment plants.  

PubMed

The effects of domestic wastewater application on the translocation and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and crops (rice, lettuce, and barley) were investigated by Wagner's pot experiment. In the soils and crops after domestic wastewater irrigation, high-molecular weight PAHs (5 to 6 ring) were not detected, but low-molecular weight PAHs (3 to 4 ring) were only detected at trace levels. PMID:18483782

Chung, N J; Cho, J Y; Park, S W; Park, B J; Hwang, S A; Park, T I

2008-08-01

317

Comparison of Two Chamber Methods for Measuring Soil Trace-gas Fluxes in Bioenergy Cropping Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas emissions from soils are often measured using trace-gas flux chamber techniques without a standardized protocol, raising concerns about measurement accuracy and consistency. To address this, we compared measurements from non-steady-state non-through-flow (NTF) chambers with a non-steady-state through-flow (TF) chamber system in three bioenergy cropping systems located in Wisconsin. Additionally, we investigated the effects of NTF flux calculation method and deployment time on flux measurements. In all cropping systems, when NTF chambers were deployed for 60 min and a linear (LR) flux calculation was used, soil CO2 and N2O fluxes were, on average, 18% and 12% lower, respectively, than fluxes measured with a 15 min deployment. Fluxes calculated with the HMR method, a hybrid of non-linear and linear approaches, showed no deployment time effects for CO2 and N2O and produced 27-32% higher CO2 fluxes and 28-33% higher N2O fluxes in all crops than the LR approach with 60 min deployment. Across all crops, CO2 fluxes measured with the TF chamber system were higher by 24.4 to 84.9 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, than fluxes measured with NTF chambers using either flux calculation method. These results suggest NTF chamber deployment time should be shortened if the LR approach is used though detection limits should be considered, and the HMR approach may be more appropriate when long deployment times are necessary. Significant differences in absolute flux values with different chamber types highlight the need for significant effort in determining the accuracy of methods or alternative flux measurement technologies. N2O fluxes with chamber deployment time for (a) all crops (switchgrass, corn, hybrid poplar) using both linear (LR) and HMR flux calculation methods, (b) each crop individually using LR approach, and (c) each crop individually using HMR approach. Given are seasonal (May-August) means + standard error. Letters indicate significant differences among deployment times (p<0.05, Tukey-Kramer test). Because there were no significant crop x deployment time interactions, significance letters are not shown in (b) and (c).

Duran, B. E.; Kucharik, C. J.

2013-12-01

318

Effects of crops on the humus accumulation process in the grey forest soils of Priangarye.  

PubMed

The influence of a number of agricultural plants in the crop rotation on the grey forest soils in the Irkutsk Region upon the intensity of the humification process was investigated by means of microbiological and biochemical tests. The synthesis, decomposition, and the accumulation ratio of humus were concluded from the phenoloxidase activity. The cellulose-decomposing microflora and algaeflora were taken into consideration as well. The humus synthesis processes were most active in the wheat and lucerne plots, they were less effective in the fallow and virgin soils. The lack of organic matter in the permanent fallow soil cuts down the humus accumulation ratio and the counts of microorganisms. The soil cultivation intensifies the humus synthesis processes and changes the composition of microorganisms in the soil. Algae which are mainly represented by green and blue-green species are an additional source of organic substance in the soil. Decomposition of organic substances in the soil proceeds with an active participation of cellulose decomposers which are mainly represented by fungal and bacterial flora. In rare cases actinomycetes can be found. Application of mineral fertilizers intensifies the humus accumulation process and improves the qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora in all the plots under investigation. PMID:103337

Kislitsina, V P; Zhdanova, E M; Sudakova, E A

1978-01-01

319

Turnover of organic carbon and nitrogen in soil assessed from ?13C and ?15N changes under pasture and cropping practices and estimates of greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

The continuing clearance of native vegetation for pasture, and especially cropping, is a concern due to declines in soil organic C (SOC) and N, deteriorating soil health, and adverse environment impact such as increased emissions of major greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4). There is a need to quantify the rates of SOC and N budget changes, and the impact on greenhouse gas emissions from land use change in semi-arid subtropical regions where such data are scarce, so as to assist in developing appropriate management practices. We quantified the turnover rate of SOC from changes in ?(13)C following the conversion of C3 native vegetation to C4 perennial pasture and mixed C3/C4 cereal cropping (wheat/sorghum), as well as ?(15)N changes following the conversion of legume native vegetation to non-legume systems over 23 years. Perennial pasture (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela) maintained SOC but lost total N by more than 20% in the top 0-0.3m depth of soil, resulting in reduced animal productivity from the grazed pasture. Annual cropping depleted both SOC and total soil N by 34% and 38%, respectively, and resulted in decreasing cereal crop yields. Most of these losses of SOC and total N occurred from the >250 ?m fraction of soil. Moreover, this fraction had almost a magnitude higher turnover rates than the 250-53 ?m and <53 ?m fractions. Loss of SOC during the cropping period contributed two-orders of magnitude more CO2-e to the atmosphere than the pasture system. Even then, the pasture system is not considered as a benchmark of agricultural sustainability because of its decreasing productivity in this semi-arid subtropical environment. Introduction of legumes (for N2 fixation) into perennial pastures may arrest the productivity decline of this system. Restoration of SOC in the cropped system will require land use change to perennial ecosystems such as legume-grass pastures or native vegetation. PMID:23721610

Dalal, Ram C; Thornton, Craig M; Cowie, Bruce A

2013-11-01

320

[Pathways of soil sulfur input and output in agro-ecosystem under different cropping rotations].  

PubMed

This paper mainly dealt with the pathways of sulfur (S) input and output in agro-ecosystems under general cropping rotations in northern China. The results indicated that in a typical corn-wheat rotation system, S output by the crop products was 26.4 kg.hm-2, and 6.8 kg.hm-2 of S was returned to the soil through root and plant residues. Under wheat-soybean rotation, 24.4 kg.hm-2 of S was removed from and 7.2 kg.hm-2 of S were returned to the soil. Under the rotation of corn with rape, up to 45.4 kg.hm2 was taken out from and only 8.7 kg.hm-2 returned to the soil, respectively. 7.9, 6.4, 6.7 and 18.9 kg.hm-2 of S output by products and 2.6, 1.8, 4.3 and 5.6 kg.hm-2 of S input by residues were obtained in cotton, sorghum, peanuts and paddy rice, respectively. Through estimation of S balance for these systems, 6, 8.5, 24 and 7.1 kg.hm-2.yr-1 of S was lost from soil by growing wheat, corn, rape and paddy rice, respectively. PMID:12974000

Wang, Qingren; Cui, Yanshan

2003-06-01

321

Transfer of wastewater associated pharmaceuticals and personal care products to crop plants from biosolids treated soil.  

PubMed

The plant uptake of emerging organic contaminants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is receiving increased attention. Biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment have been previously identified as a major source for PPCPs. Thus, plant uptake of PPCPs from biosolids applied soils needs to be understood. In the present study, the uptake of carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, and triclocarban by five vegetable crop plants was examined in a field experiment. At the time of harvest, three compounds were detected in all plants grown in biosolids-treated soils. Calculated root concentration factor (RCF) and shoot concentration factor (SCF) are the highest for carbamazepine followed by triclocarban and diphenhydramine. Positive correlation between RCF and root lipid content was observed for carbamazepine but not for diphenhydramine and triclocarban. The results demonstrate the ability of crop plants to accumulate PPCPs from contaminated soils. The plant uptake processes of PPCPs are likely affected by their physico-chemical properties, and their interaction with soil. The difference uptake behavior between plant species could not solely be attributed to the root lipid content. PMID:22921256

Wu, Chenxi; Spongberg, Alison L; Witter, Jason D; Sridhar, B B Maruthi

2012-11-01

322

Spatial variation in soil penetration resistance according to the structural states of the soil and soybean crop yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil penetration resistance (PR) is used to identify and characterize soil layers densified by effects of tilling, and the results obtained are related to root growth and crop productivity. The aims of this work were: (i) to analyze the spatial variation in PR through resistance isolines in an Aquic Argiudoll with different long-term cropping sequences under no tillage (NT), (ii) to compare the information generated from the lines with the same PR values with the analysis of the cultural profile and (iii) to study the spatial variability in the PR and the bulk density (BD) in a 10-ha plot, and their relationship with soybean crop yield. An experiment was carried out in an Aquic Argiudoll in 100-m2 plots (4 m wide x 25 m long), with different long-term cropping sequences, under NT for 15 years. The treatments tested were: soybean and maize monocultures, wheat/soybean, wheat/soybean-maize and a permanent pasture as a reference. A digital penetrologger Eijkelkamp ® was used to take 20 measurements of the PR in each plot, through the design of a grid 5 m long and 0.66 m wide, centimeter-wise until 20 cm, totaling n= 400. In addition, an observation well (1 m wide by 30 cm deep) was analyzed by means of the technique of the cultural profiles. Besides, two sampling grids in a 10-ha plot with maize-wheat/soybean sequence were used to measure PR every 30 m and BD every 60 m. The variability in the soil properties was assessed using descriptive statistical analysis, determining normality and spatial variability with the adjustment to the theoretical semivariograms. At 10-15 and 15-20 cm, wheat/soybean-maize and wheat/soybean showed the highest PR values, differentiating from the soybeans and maize monocultures and pasture. The lines with the same PR values allowed observing structural changes in the soil profile, such as surface granular structures and subsequent layers of laminar structure, sometimes discontinuous, from 1.0 to 1.5 MPa between 5 and 8 cm in depth, and massive structures located in the profile up to 2.6 MPa. In the 10-ha plot, the PR identified a hardened layer at 05-12 cm, with a maximum value of 1.45 MPa; the PR also showed greater spatial variation in the plot than the BD, with maximum values of 2.58 MPa and 1.52 g cm-3, respectively. Although with varying thickness, platy structures were present in all the treatments of the crop sequences under NT. The identification of compaction areas at subsurface level, with reduction of macropores, coincided with the traffic. The crop sequences that presented high compaction were wheat/soybean and wheat/soybean-maize, attributable to the greater number of passes of agricultural machinery in the plot. We thus recommend controlled traffic. The results provide tools to identify areas for homogeneous soil management and detect constraints on soybean crop yield.

Wilson, Marcelo; Sasal, María Carolina; Oszust, José; Gabioud, Emmanuel; Melchiori, Ricardo

2013-04-01

323

Linking the planting of cover crops to soil and water nutrient dynamics in Shatto Ditch Watershed, IN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tile drainage systems are common in the Midwest, and facilitate the transfer of excess inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agricultural soils to adjacent streams. These non-point sources contribute to elevated nutrient loads to tributaries in the Mississippi River Basin, which have been linked to widespread hypoxia and associated ecological and economic problems in the Gulf of Mexico. In agricultural areas dominated by row-crops, the planting of cover crops after the cash crop has been harvested offers a potential mechanism to reduce nutrient leaching from fields to tile drains in the off-season. In general, cover crops retain nutrients on fields and increase soil organic matter (SOM) content after they are harvested. The planting of cover crops also promotes immobilization of soil N and reduction in losses of dissolved P from soils due to reduced erosion, resulting in significantly less leaching to surface waters through tile drains. As part of a demonstration project in the Shatto Ditch Watershed, located in the Tippecanoe River Basin, IN, we are testing whether the planting of cover crops will influence soil nutrient and organic matter, and how cover crops alter the dynamics of nutrient leaching from tile drains. We have been sampling tile drain outflows on a twice-monthly sampling regime and have been measuring dissolved inorganic N and P concentrations in tile water since November 2012. During Spring 2013, tile drain nitrate concentrations sampled synoptically throughout the watershed ranged from 2.6 - 38.9 mg NO3- L -1 (mean = 17.2 +/- 1.6 mg NO3- L -1) with the lowest concentrations coming from fields planted in cover crops (range = 2.6 - 19.0 mg NO3- L -1, mean = 9.7 +/- 1.5 mg NO3- L -1). In contrast, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations were much lower in tile drain water and ranged from 7.5 - 182.7 ?g L-1 (mean = 24.5 +/- 5.0 ?g L-1 SRP) and preliminary data suggest that there were no differences between fields with and without cover crops. In July 2012, we also sampled soils for SOM and inorganic N and P, 6 weeks after cover crop planting because the net effects of mineralization, leaching, and other potential losses that may have occurred since the cover crop was harvested are most accurately assessed at this time. Preliminary results suggest SOM content in the near-surface soil layer (i.e., 0 - 5 cm) in 3 fields planted in cover crops were similar (mean = 4.6 % +/- 0.3 %) to the mean SOM across the other 17 fields sampled without cover crops (mean = 5.8 % +/- 0.9 %). Finally, based on nutrient signatures in the tile drain samples, we predict that soil nitrate concentrations will be lower in soils planted with cover crops, but there will be little difference in soil extractable P between cover crop and non-cover crop fields. The combined sampling of both tile water and field soils will help assess whether cover crops provide a management compromise that allows farmers to improve their soil health, while at the same time improving adjacent stream water quality.

Christopher, S. F.; Tank, J. L.; Hanrahan, B. R.; Mahl, U. H.; Huang, K.

2013-12-01

324

Annual soil respiration in broadleaf forests of northern Wisconsin: influence of moisture and site biological, chemical, and physical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil temperature and moisture influence soil respiration at a range of temporal and spatial scales. Although soil temperature and moisture may be seasonally correlated, intra and inter-annual variations in soil moisture do occur. There are few direct observations of the influence of local variation in species composition or other stand\\/site characteristics on seasonal and annual variations in soil moisture, and

Jonathan G. Martin; Paul V. Bolstad

2005-01-01

325

Predicting soil erosion in conservation tillage cotton production systems using the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite being one of the most profitable crops for the southeastern USA, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is considered to create a greater soil erosion hazard than other annual crops such as corn (Zea mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Reduced tillage systems and cover cropping can reduce soil erosion and leaching of nutrients into ground water. The objectives

E. Z Nyakatawa; K. C Reddy; J. L Lemunyon

2001-01-01

326

Soil Chemical Property Changes in Eggplant/Garlic Relay Intercropping Systems under Continuous Cropping  

PubMed Central

Soil sickness is a critical problem for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under continuous cropping that affects sustainable eggplant production. Relay intercropping is a significant technique on promoting soil quality, improving eco-environment, and raising output. Field experiments were conducted from September 2010 to November 2012 in northwest China to determine the effects of relay intercropping eggplant with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on soil enzyme activities, available nutrient contents, and pH value under a plastic tunnel. Three treatments were in triplicate using randomized block design: eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG) and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). The major results are as follows: (1) the activities of soil invertase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase were generally enhanced in NG and GG treatments; (2) relay intercropping significantly increased the soil available nutrient contents, and they were mostly higher in GG than NG. On April 11, 2011, the eggplant/garlic co-growth stage, the available nitrogen content in GG was 76.30 mg·kg?1, significantly higher than 61.95 mg·kg?1 in NG. For available potassium on April 17, 2012, they were 398.48 and 387.97 mg·kg?1 in NG and GG, both were significantly higher than 314.84 mg·kg?1 in CK; (3) the soil pH showed a significantly higher level in NG treatment, but lower in GG treatment compared with CK. For the last samples in 2012, soil pH in NG and GG were 7.70 and 7.46, the highest and lowest one among them; (4) the alkaline phosphatase activity and pH displayed a similar decreasing trend with continuous cropping. These findings indicate that relay intercropping eggplant with garlic could be an ideal farming system to effectively improve soil nutrient content, increase soil fertility, and alleviate soil sickness to some extent. These findings are important in helping to develop sustainable eggplant production. PMID:25340875

Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Zhang, Mengru; Zhang, Hongjing

2014-01-01

327

Soil Chemical Property Changes in Eggplant/Garlic Relay Intercropping Systems under Continuous Cropping.  

PubMed

Soil sickness is a critical problem for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under continuous cropping that affects sustainable eggplant production. Relay intercropping is a significant technique on promoting soil quality, improving eco-environment, and raising output. Field experiments were conducted from September 2010 to November 2012 in northwest China to determine the effects of relay intercropping eggplant with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on soil enzyme activities, available nutrient contents, and pH value under a plastic tunnel. Three treatments were in triplicate using randomized block design: eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG) and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). The major results are as follows: (1) the activities of soil invertase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase were generally enhanced in NG and GG treatments; (2) relay intercropping significantly increased the soil available nutrient contents, and they were mostly higher in GG than NG. On April 11, 2011, the eggplant/garlic co-growth stage, the available nitrogen content in GG was 76.30 mg·kg-1, significantly higher than 61.95 mg·kg-1 in NG. For available potassium on April 17, 2012, they were 398.48 and 387.97 mg·kg-1 in NG and GG, both were significantly higher than 314.84 mg·kg-1 in CK; (3) the soil pH showed a significantly higher level in NG treatment, but lower in GG treatment compared with CK. For the last samples in 2012, soil pH in NG and GG were 7.70 and 7.46, the highest and lowest one among them; (4) the alkaline phosphatase activity and pH displayed a similar decreasing trend with continuous cropping. These findings indicate that relay intercropping eggplant with garlic could be an ideal farming system to effectively improve soil nutrient content, increase soil fertility, and alleviate soil sickness to some extent. These findings are important in helping to develop sustainable eggplant production. PMID:25340875

Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Zhang, Mengru; Zhang, Hongjing

2014-01-01

328

Use of arsenic contaminated irrigation water for lettuce cropping: effects on soil, groundwater, and vegetal.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effects of using arsenic (As) contaminated irrigation water in Lactuca sativa L. cropping. Two different arsenic concentrations, i.e., 25 and 85 ?g L(-1) and two different soils, i.e., sandy and clay loam, were taken into account. We determined the arsenic mobility in the different soil fractions, its amount in groundwater, and the phytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) were used to assess the lettuce metabolic profile changes and the arsenic uptake by the plant, respectively, as a function of the various conditions studied, i.e., As content and type of soil. Data indicated that at both concentrations in sandy soil, arsenic is in part quickly leached and thus present in groundwater and in part absorbed by the vegetable, being therefore readily available for assimilation by consumption. NMR results reported a large modification of the metabolic pattern, which was depending on the pollutant amount. In clay loam soil, the groundwater had a low As content with respect to sandy soil, and NMR and ICP performed on the lettuce did not reveal severe changes related to As, most likely because the metalloid is bound to the colloidal fraction. PMID:20882365

Beni, Claudio; Marconi, Simona; Boccia, Priscilla; Ciampa, Alessandra; Diana, Giampietro; Aromolo, Rita; Sturchio, Elena; Neri, Ulderico; Sequi, Paolo; Valentini, Massimiliano

2011-10-01

329

Use of domestic greywater for small-scale irrigation of food crops: Effects on plants and soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of greywater presents a problem in areas served with on-site sanitation or in areas with poor service provision. Such areas often also face challenges with respect to food security. Use of greywater for irrigation of food crops represents a possible beneficial use of greywater which can contribute to household food supply and to informal income generation. In this study, an above-ground crop (Swiss chard, Betavulgaris var. cicla) and a below-ground crop (carrot, Daucus carota) were irrigated in pots with mixed greywater sourced from households in an informal settlement. A simple form of sub-surface irrigation was used. Plant growth, crop yield, and levels of macro- and micronutrients in crops and soil were monitored through six growth cycles. Equivalent treatments, irrigated with either tap water or a hydroponic nutrient solution, were conducted for comparison. The same soil was used throughout to allow accumulation of greywater-derived substances in soil to be detected. The results indicated that: (i) irrigation with greywater increased plant growth and yield relative to crops irrigated with tap water only, although crops irrigated with hydroponic nutrient solution yielded the highest growth and yield; (ii) irrigation with greywater improved plant nutrient content relative to crops irrigated with tap water; (iii) soil irrigated with greywater showed increased electrical conductivity and increased concentrations of metals over time, coupled with an increase in sodium and metal concentrations in crops. Thus, provided precautions are taken with regard to salt and metal accumulation, greywater offers a potential source of water for household crop irrigation which additionally shows some fertiliser properties.

Rodda, N.; Salukazana, L.; Jackson, S. A. F.; Smith, M. T.

330

Carbon mineralization, fungal and bacterial growth, and enzyme activities as affected by contact between crop residues and soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of contact between crop residues and the soil matrix, as determined by the method of residue incorporation, affects decomposition dynamics both under natural and experimental conditions. In microcosm experiments we tested the hypothesis that poor residue-soil contact reduces the decomposition of structural plant constituents through delayed colonization by microorganisms degrading cellulose and hemicellulose. Barley straw or red clover

Trond M. Henriksen; Tor A. Breland

2002-01-01

331

Legume cover cropping effects on early growth and soil nitrogen supply in eucalypt plantations in south-western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and soil N supply in young Eucalyptus tereticornis stands at two sites in Kerala, India, were examined in response to cover cropping with three legume species ( Pueraria phaseoloides, Stylosanthes hamata, and Mucuna bracteata). The effects of legume residues on soil N supply were investigated in a long-term (392 day) laboratory incubation using leaching micro-lysimeters. Residues from the eucalypt and

D. S. Mendham; S. Kumaraswamy; M. Balasundaran; K. V. Sankaran; M. Corbeels; T. S. Grove; A. M. O’Connell; S. J. Rance

2004-01-01

332

Evaluation of soil water content in tilled and cover-cropped olive orchards by the geoelectrical technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) was performed in southern Italy, under semi-arid climate, on a Haplic Calcisol soil of two rainfed olive orchards managed according to different soil management (Tillage – T, and Cover Cropping – CC), applied for 8years. The main aim was to test the usefulness of such geoelectrical method for the assessment of spatial and temporal variability of

G. Celano; A. M. Palese; A. Ciucci; E. Martorella; N. Vignozzi; C. Xiloyannis

2011-01-01

333

Changes in Fractions of Iron, Manganese, Copper, and Zinc in Soil under Continuous Cropping for More Than Three Decades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of continuous cropping with maize and wheat on soil characteristics and various forms of micronutrient cations in an Incetisol over the years was studied in an ongoing long?term experiment in New Delhi, India. The soil samples collected in the years of 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, and 2004 were analyzed for different fractions of iron (Fe), manganese

Sanjib Kumar Behera; Dhyan Singh; Brahma Swaroop Dwivedi

2009-01-01

334

DIVISION S-6—SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION Tillage and Crop Influences on Physical Properties for an Epiaqualf  

Microsoft Academic Search

tillage usually has been found to increase b compared with moldboard and chisel plow (Kitur et al., 1993; Lal, Tillage impacts on soil properties differ among soils. This study 1999). Bulk density usually is lowest immediately after investigated tillage, cropping, and wheel traffic (WT) effects of 13-yr of no-tillage (NT), chisel plow (CP), and moldboard plow (MP) under tillage and

Humberto Blanco-Canqui; C. J. Gantzer; S. H. Anderson; E. E. Alberts

335

A minimum data set for soil quality assessment of wheat and maize cropping in the highlands of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to establish a minimum soil quality dataset for a long-term tillage, residue management and rotation trial for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) production systems. Based on this soil quality evaluation, sustainable management practices could be selected for transferring technologies to farmers in the region. A long-term experiment was conducted with 16 different crop

Bram Govaerts; Ken D. Sayre; Jozef Deckers

2006-01-01

336

Soil Eukaryotic Microorganism Succession as Affected by Continuous Cropping of Peanut - Pathogenic and Beneficial Fungi were Selected  

PubMed Central

Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping. PMID:22808226

Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

2012-01-01

337

The estimation of soil parameters using observations on crop biophysical variables and the crop model STICS improve the predictions of agro environmental variables.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic crop models are very useful to predict the behavior of crops in their environment and are widely used in a lot of agro-environmental work. These models have many parameters and their spatial application require a good knowledge of these parameters, especially of the soil parameters. These parameters can be estimated from soil analysis at different points but this is very costly and requires a lot of experimental work. Nevertheless, observations on crops provided by new techniques like remote sensing or yield monitoring, is a possibility for estimating soil parameters through the inversion of crop models. In this work, the STICS crop model is studied for the wheat and the sugar beet and it includes more than 200 parameters. After a previous work based on a large experimental database for calibrate parameters related to the characteristics of the crop, a global sensitivity analysis of the observed variables (leaf area index LAI and absorbed nitrogen QN provided by remote sensing data, and yield at harvest provided by yield monitoring) to the soil parameters is made, in order to determine which of them have to be estimated. This study was made in different climatic and agronomic conditions and it reveals that 7 soil parameters (4 related to the water and 3 related to the nitrogen) have a clearly influence on the variance of the observed variables and have to be therefore estimated. For estimating these 7 soil parameters, a Bayesian data assimilation method is chosen (because of available prior information on these parameters) named Importance Sampling by using observations, on wheat and sugar beet crop, of LAI and QN at various dates and yield at harvest acquired on different climatic and agronomic conditions. The quality of parameter estimation is then determined by comparing the result of parameter estimation with only prior information and the result with the posterior information provided by the Bayesian data assimilation method. The result of the parameter estimation shows that the whole set of parameter is better estimated when data assimilation is made, and the quality of estimation is better when the data assimilation is performed with observations on sugar beet than on wheat crop. The prediction of the crop behavior when estimating the soil parameters is then studied. Indeed, the quality of prediction of agro environmental variables of the STICS crop model (yield, protein of the grain and nitrogen balance at harvest) is determined by comparing the result of the prediction using the prior information on the parameters and the result using the posterior information. As for the estimation of soil parameters, the prediction of the variable is made on different climatic and agronomic conditions. According to the result of parameter estimation, the quality of prediction is better when using parameter values estimated with data assimilation than using the prior information. Moreover the results show that the quality of prediction is better when the data assimilation is performed with observations on sugar beet than on wheat crop.

Varella, H.-V.

2009-04-01

338

Medium-term effects of corn biochar addition on soil biota activities and functions in a temperate soil cropped to corn  

E-print Network

Medium-term effects of corn biochar addition on soil biota activities and functions in a temperate the medium-term impact of biochar addition on microbial and faunal activities in a temperate soil cropped Biochar is a carbon(C) -rich product obtained by thermal decomposition of biomass at relatively low

Lehmann, Johannes

339

Characteristics of synthetic soil aggregates produced by mixing acidic “Kunigami Mahji” soil with coal fly ash and their utilization as a medium for crop growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to examine the characteristics and potential utilization of synthetic soil aggregates (SSA) produced by mixing acidic “Kunigami Mahji” soil in Okinawa, Japan, with waste materials, such as coal fly ash, used paper and starch, as media for crop growth. A series of different SSA were produced by incorporating various percentages (i.e. 0, 20, 40, 60,

Guttila Yugantha Jayasinghe; Yoshihiro Tokashiki; Makoto Kitou

2008-01-01

340

Soil bulk density and crop yield under eleven consecutive years of corn with different tillage and residue practices in a sandy loam soil in central Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different tillage and residue practices could potentially lead to significant differences in both crop production and soil properties, especially if both practices are implemented over a long time period and on continuous monoculture corn (Zea mays L.). The objective of this research was to determine how differing tillage practices and corn residues affected soil bulk density, corn emergence rates and

R. F. Dam; B. B. Mehdi; M. S. E. Burgess; C. A. Madramootoo; G. R. Mehuys; I. R. Callum

2005-01-01

341

DMSION S-4- SOIL FERTILITY & PLANT NUTRITION Nitrate Dynamics during the Aerobic Soil Phase in Lowland Rice-Based Cropping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tropical rice (Orym soriva L.) lowlands, soil NO, is lost during the transition from the dry to the wet season. To understand how soil and crop management influences NO, loss, we examined NO, dynam- ics during a 2-yr period in an Alfisol in the Philippines: weedy, weed- free, and frequently tilled main plots during the February to May dry

T. George; J. K. Ladha; R. J. Buresh; D. P. Garrity

342

Evaluation of land surface model simulations of evapotranspiration over a 12 year crop succession: impact of the soil hydraulic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration has been recognized as one of the most uncertain term in the surface water balance simulated by land surface models. In this study, the SURFEX/ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration are assessed at local scale over a 12 year Mediterranean crop succession. The model is evaluated in its standard implementation which relies on the use of the ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil properties. The originality of this work consists in explicitly representing the succession of crop cycles and inter-crop bare soil periods in the simulations and assessing its impact on the dynamic of simulated and measured evapotranspiration over a long period of time. The analysis focuses on key soil parameters which drive the simulation of evapotranspiration, namely the rooting depth, the soil moisture at saturation, the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at wilting point. The simulations achieved with the standard values of these parameters are compared to those achieved with the in situ values. The portability of the ISBA pedotransfer functions is evaluated over a typical Mediterranean crop site. Various in situ estimates of the soil parameters are considered and distinct parametrization strategies are tested to represent the evapotranspiration dynamic over the crop succession. This work shows that evapotranspiration mainly results from the soil evaporation when it is continuously simulated over a Mediterranean crop succession. The evapotranspiration simulated with the standard surface and soil parameters of the model is largely underestimated. The deficit in cumulative evapotranspiration amounts to 24% over 12 years. The bias in daily daytime evapotranspiration is -0.24 mm day-1. The ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil moisture at saturation and at wilting point are overestimated which explains most of the evapotranspiration underestimation. The overestimation of the soil moisture at wilting point causes the underestimation of transpiration at the end of the crop cycles. The overestimation of the soil moisture at saturation triggers the underestimation of the soil evaporation during the wet soil periods. The use of field capacity values derived from laboratory retention measurements leads to inaccurate simulation of soil evaporation due to the lack of representativeness of the soil structure variability at the field scale. The most accurate simulation is achieved with the values of the soil hydraulic properties derived from field measured soil moisture. Their temporal analysis over each crop cycle provides meaningful estimates of the wilting point, the field capacity and the rooting depth to represent the crop water needs and accurately simulate the evapotranspiration over the crop succession. We showed that the uncertainties in the eddy-covariance measurements are significant and can explain a large part of the unresolved random differences between the simulations and the measurements of evapotranspiration. Other possible model shortcomings include the lack of representation of soil vertical heterogeneity and root profile along with inaccurate energy balance partitioning between the soil and the vegetation at low LAI.

Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Lafont, S.; Moulin, S.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Renard, D.

2014-10-01

343

Assessment of inceptisols soil quality following long-term cropping in a calcareous environment.  

PubMed

The combination of morphological, clay mineralogy, physicochemical, and fertilitical properties of inceptisols were compared for monitoring soil quality response following long-term agricultural activities. For this target, fifty-nine paired surface soils belonging to five subgroups of inceptisols from the major sugar beet growing area and the adjoining virgin lands were described, sampled, and analyzed. The soils were alkaline and calcareous as characterized by high pH, ranging from 7.2 to 8, and calcium carbonate equivalent, ranging from 60 to 300 g kg(-1). Following long-term sugar beet cultivation, morphological properties modifications were reflected as weakening of structure, hardening of consistency, and brightening of soil color. Although, the quantity of clay minerals did not significantly change through long-term cropping, some modifications in the XRD pattern of illite and smectite were observed in the cultivated soils compared to the adjoining virgin lands mainly as a result of potassium depletion. Without significant variation, sand content decreased by 4-55% and silt and clay increased by 3-22% and 2-15%, respectively, in the cultivated soils than to that of the virgin lands. Both negative and positive aspects of soil quality were reflected regarding soil chemical and fertilitical properties and the role of negative effects far exceeded the role of positive effects. Typic calcixerepts was known to be more degraded through a significant decrease (P ? 0.001) in mean value of soil organic carbon (a drop of 24%), total N (a drop of 23%), available K (a drop of 42%), exchangeable K (a drop of 45%), potassium adsorption ratio and potassium saturation ratio (a drop of 44% and 42%, respectively) and a significant increase (P ? 0.001) in EC (a rise of 53%). Soil quality index, calculated based on nine soil properties [coarse fragments, pH, SOC, total N, ESP, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, and K), and available phosphorus], indicated that 60% of the all soil types studied had negative changes, 20% had positive changes, and 20% produced no changes in soil heath. PMID:21499699

Rezapour, Salar; Samadi, A

2012-03-01

344

Short-term cover crop decomposition in organic and conventional soils: Soil microbial and nutrient cycling indicator variables associated with different levels of soil suppressiveness to Pythium aphanidermatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stages of oat-vetch cover crop decomposition were characterized over\\u000a time in terms of carbon and nitrogen cycling, microbial activity and\\u000a community dynamics in organically and conventionally managed soils in a\\u000a field experiment and a laboratory incubation experiment. We subsequently\\u000a determined which variables describing soil microbial community dynamics,\\u000a C and N cycling could be used as predictors of Pythium aphanidermatum\\u000a damping-off

N. J. Grünwald; S. Hu; A. H. C. van Bruggen

2000-01-01

345

Effects of soil type and genotype on cadmium accumulation by rootstalk crops: implications for phytomanagement.  

PubMed

The variations of Cd accumulation in three rootstalk crop species (radish, carrot and potato) were investigated by using twelve cultivars grown in acidic Ferralsols and neutral Cambisols under two Cd treatments (0.3 and 0.6 mg kg(-1)) in a pot experiment The result showed that the total Cd uptake was significantly affected by genotype, soil type and interaction between them, suggesting the importance of selecting proper cultivars for phytoextraction in a given soil type. Among the cultivars tested, potato cultivar Luyin No.1 in Ferralsols and radish cultivar Zhedachang in Cambisols exhibited the highest Cd phytoextraction efficiency in aerial parts (4.45% and 0.59%, respectively) under 0.6 mg kg-1 Cd treatment. Furthermore, the Cd concentrations in their edible parts were below the National Food Hygiene Standard of China (0.1 mg kg(-1), fresh weight). Therefore, phytomanagement of slightly Cd-contaminated soils using rootstalk crops for safe food production combined with long-term phytoextraction was feasible, and potato cultivar Luyin No.1 for Ferralsols and radish cultivar Zhedachang for Cambisols were promising candidates for this approach. PMID:24933899

Ding, Changfeng; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Fen; Yang, Yiru; Yin, Yunlong

2014-01-01

346

Impact of untreated wastewater irrigation on soils and crops in Shiraz suburban area, SW Iran.  

PubMed

In this study an assessment is made of the negative impacts of wastewater irrigation on soils and crops sampled along the Khoshk River channel in suburban area of Shiraz City, SW Iran. For this purpose, samples of soil profiles (0-60 cm in depth) and crops were collected from two wastewater irrigated sites and a tube well-irrigated (control) site. Total concentrations of the five heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cr) and their phytoavailable contents were determined. The Pollution Load Indexes (PLIs) and Contamination Factors (CFs) for soils and Hazard quotients (Sigma HQ) for some vegetables were also calculated. The results showed the use of untreated wastewater has caused the following changes as compared to control site: (1) a 20-30% increase in organic matter content of soil; (2) increase in pH by 2-3 units; (3) significant concentration increase in Ex-Ca especially in top layers of soil resulting in high CEC; (4) build up of heavy metals (notably Pb and Ni) in topsoil above Maximum Permissible Limits (MPLs) indicating a moderate contamination (PLI > 1, CF > 2.5); (5) contamination of some vegetables (spinach and lettuce) with Cd due to its high phytoavailability in topsoil causing a HQ > 1; (6) excessive accumulation of Ni and Pb in wheat due to continual addition of heavy metals through long-term wastewater application. The study concludes that strict protection measures, stringent guidelines and an integrated system for the treatment and recycling of wastewater are needed to minimize the negative impacts of wastewater irrigation in the study area. PMID:17891508

Qishlaqi, Afshin; Moore, Farid; Forghani, Giti

2008-06-01

347

Effects of soil and water conservation on crop productivity: Evidences from Anjenie watershed, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread soil and water conservation activities have been implemented in many parts of eastern Africa to control soil erosion by water and improve land productivity for the last few decades. Following the 1974 severe drought, soil and water conservation became more important to Ethiopia and the approach shifted to watershed based land management initiatives since the 1980s. To capture long-term impacts of these initiatives, a study was conducted in Anjenie Watershed of Ethiopia, assessing fanya juu terraces and grass strips constructed in a pilot project in 1984, and which are still functional nearly 30 years later. Data were collected from government records, field observations and questionnaire surveys administered to 60 farmers. Half of the respondents had terraced farms in the watershed former project area (with terrace technology) and the rest were outside the terraced area. The crops assessed were teff, barley and maize. Cost-benefit analyses were used to determine the economic benefits with and without terraces, including gross and net profit values, returns on labour, water productivity and impacts on poverty. The results indicated that soil and water conservation had improved crop productivity. The average yield on terraced fields was 0.95 t ha-1 for teff (control 0.49), 1.86 t ha-1 for barley (control 0.61), and 1.73 t ha-1 for maize (control 0.77). The net benefit was significantly higher on terraced fields, recording US 20.9 (US -112 control) for teff, US 185 (US -41 control) for barley and US -34.5 (US - 101 control) ha-1 yr-1 for maize. The returns on family labour were 2.33 for barley, 1.01 for teff, and 0.739 US per person-day for maize grown on terraced plots, compared to US 0.44, 0.27 and 0.16 per person-day for plots without terraces, respectively. Using a discount rate of 10%, the average net present value (NPV) of barley production with terrace was found to be about US 1542 over a period of 50 years. In addition, the average financial internal rate of return (FIRR) was 301%. Other long-term impacts of terracing included farmers' growing of maize on terraced fields as a result of water conservation. Currently, farmers also grow barley on terraced fields for two crop seasons per year unlike the experiences on farms without terraces. Household incomes and food security had improved and soil erosion drastically reduced. Many farmers had adopted terracing doubling the original area under the soil conservation pilot project and consequently improving environmental conservation in the watershed.

Adgo, Enyew; Teshome, Akalu

2014-05-01

348

Assessing the USLE crop and management factor C for soil erosion modeling in a large mountainous watershed in Central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the impoundment of the Yangtze River, the Three Gorges Dam in China fosters high land-use dynamics. Soil erosion is\\u000a expected to increase dramatically. One of the key factors in soil erosion control is the vegetation cover and crop type. However,\\u000a determining these factors adequately for the use in soil erosion modeling is very time-consuming especially for large mountainous

Sarah Schönbrodt; Patrick Saumer; Thorsten Behrens; Christoph Seeber; Thomas Scholten

2010-01-01

349

Effect of different proceding crops on yield, quality of cucumber and soil enzyme activity in solar greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic changes in cucumber yield, quality, soil respiration and enzyme activity were studied under different proced- ing crops in different growing seasons in Yan'an solar greenhouse. The results show that cucumber yield and soil alkaline phos- phatase activity are high under cowpea-cucumber rotation. Soil respiration and cucumber soluble sugar content significantly increase under tomato-cucumber rotation. Vc content of cucumber improves

HE Li-Na; LIANG Yin-Li; XIONG Ya-Mei; ZHOU Mao-Juan; GAO Jing; WEI Ze-Xiu

350

Contrasted nitrogen utilization in annual C 3 grass and legume crops: Physiological explorations and ecological considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is well known that legumes have unusually high levels of nitrogen in both reproductive and vegetative organs, the physiological implications of this pattern have been poorly assessed. We conducted a literature survey and used data from two (unpublished) experiments on annual legumes and C 3 grasses in order to test whether these high nitrogen concentrations in legumes are correlated to high rates of carbon gain. Three different temporal/spatial scales were considered: full growing season/stand, days to month/whole plant and seconds/leaf. At the stand level, and for plants grown under both extratropical and tropical settings, biomass per unit organic-nitrogen was lower in legume than in grass crops. At a shorter time scale, the relative growth rate per unit plant nitrogen (`nitrogen productivity') was lower in faba bean ( Vicia faba var. minor cv. Tina) than in wheat ( Triticum aestivum cv. Alexandria), and this was confirmed in a comparison of two wild, circum-Mediterranean annuals - Medicago minima, a legume, and Bromus madritensis, a grass. Finally, at the leaf level, a synthesis of published data comparing soybean ( Glycine max) and rice ( Oryza sativa) on the one hand, and our own data on faba bean and wheat on the other hand, demonstrates that the photosynthetic rate per unit leaf nitrogen (the photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency) is consistently lower in legumes than in grasses. These results demonstrate that, regardless of the scale considered and although the organic-nitrogen concentration in vegetative organs of legumes is higher than in grasses, this does not lead to higher rates of carbon gain in the former. Various physiological factors affecting the efficiency of nitrogen utilization at the three time scales considered are discussed. The suggestion is made that the ecological significance of the high nitrogen concentration in legumes may be related to a high nitrogen demand for high quality seed production at a time when nitrogen fixation is shut off rather than to a high production potential.

Del Pozo, Alejandro; Garnier, Eric; Aronson, James

2000-01-01

351

Pruning management effects on soil carbon and nitrogen in contour-hedgerow cropping with Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit on sloping land in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of hedgerow prunings to the soil in alley cropping ispracticed to sustain crop yield but information is lacking on effects ofhedgerow management on soil C and N dynamics under continuous cropping.Cumulative effects of 3.5 years of leucaena [Leucaenaleucocephala (Lam.) De Wit] hedgerow management on soil organic CandN and potential C and N mineralization were determined in an alley croppingexperiment

L. Isaac; C. W. Wood; D. A. Shannon

2003-01-01

352

Sustainability of soil fertility and the use of lignocellulosic crop harvest residues for the production of biofuels: a literature review.  

PubMed

Use of lignocellulosic crop harvest residues for liquid or gaseous biofuel production may impact soil quality, long-term soil fertility and the major determinants of the latter, stocks of soil organic carbon and nutrients. When soil organic carbon stocks of mineral cropland soils are to be maintained, there is scope for the removal of lignocellulosic harvest residues in several systems with much reduced tillage or no tillage. The scope for such removal might be increased when suitably treated residues from the conversion of harvest residues into biofuel are returned to cropland soils. For mineral cropland soils under conventional tillage, the scope for the production of liquid biofuels from harvest residues is likely to be less than in the case of no-till systems. When fertility of cropland soils is to be sustainable, nutrients present in suitably treated biofuel production residues have to be returned to these soils. Apparently, the actual return of carbon and nutrients present in residues of biofuel production from crop harvest residues to arable soils currently predominantly concerns the application of digestates of anaerobic digestion. The effects thereof on soil fertility and quality need further clarification. Further clarification about the effects on soil fertility and quality of chars and of co-products of lignocellulosic ethanol production is also needed. PMID:24350430

Reijnders, L

2013-01-01

353

Soil CO2 flux in alley-cropping systems composed of black locust and poplar trees, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of soil carbon dynamics after establishment of alley-cropping systems is crucial for mitigation of greenhouse CO2 gas. This study investigates soil CO2 fluxes in alley-cropping systems composed of strips of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and poplar (Max 1) trees and adjacent to them crop strips (Lupinus). Soil CO2 flux was measured monthly over a period from March to November 2012, using a LI-COR LI-8100A automated device. Concurrently with CO2 flux measurements, soil and air temperature and soil moisture were recorded within 10 cm of each collar. Soil samples were collected nearby each soil collar for microbial C and hot water-extractable C analyses. At each study plot, root biomass was measured to a depth of 15 cm. In all vegetation types, soil CO2 flux increased from May to August, showing a significant positive correlation with air and soil temperature, which can be a reflection of increase in photosynthesis over the warm summer months. CO2 flux was the highest in poplar followed by black locust and lupines. The relationships between CO2 flux, microbial biomass and hot water-extractable carbon were not straightforward. Among the measured parameters, root density was found to be the main factor to explain the higher CO2 flux in tree strips.

Medinski, Tetiana; Freese, Dirk; Boehm, Christian

2013-04-01

354

Potential of carbon accumulation in no-till soils with intensive use and cover crops in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The area under no-till (NT) in Brazil reached 22 million ha in 2004-2005, of which approximately 45% was located in the southern states. From the 1970s to the mid-1980s, this region was a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to decrease of soil carbon (C) stocks and high consumption of fuel by intensive tillage. Since then, NT has partially restored the soil C lost and reduced the consumption of fossil fuels. To assess the potential of C accumulation in NT soils, four long-term experiments (7-19 yr) in subtropical soils (Paleudult, Paleudalf, and Hapludox) varying in soil texture (87-760 g kg(-1) of clay) in agroecologic southern Brazil zones (central region, northwest basaltic plateau in Rio Grande Sul, and west basaltic plateau in Santa Catarina) and with different cropping systems (soybean and maize) were investigated. The lability of soil organic matter (SOM) was calculated as the ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) to particulate organic carbon (POC), and the role of physical protection on stability of SOM was evaluated. In general, TOC and POC stocks in native grass correlated closely with clay content. Conversely, there was no clear effect of soil texture on C accumulation rates in NT soils, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). The C accumulation was higher in NT than in conventional-till (CT) soils. The legume cover crops pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] and velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy) in NT maize cropping systems had the highest C accumulation rates (0.38-0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). The intensive cropping systems also were effective in increasing the C accumulation rates in NT soils (0.25-0.34 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) when compared to the double-crop system used by farmers. These results stress the role of N fixation in improving the tropical and subtropical cropping systems. The physical protection of SOM within soil aggregates was an important mechanism of C accumulation in the sandy clay loam Paleudult under NT. The cropping system and NT effects on C stocks were attributed to an increase in the lability of SOM, as evidenced by the higher POC to TOC ratio, which is very important to C and energy flux through the soil. PMID:16825480

Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Bayer, Cimélio; Conceição, Paulo Cesar; Spagnollo, Evandro; de Campos, Ben-Hur Costa; da Veiga, Milton

2006-01-01

355

Influence of soil properties and climate characteristics on transpirable soil water for two varieties with differences in their crop cycle timing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an analysis of soil water content in two vineyards planted with Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Penedès Designation of Origin (DO). Climate is Mediterranean with maritime influence. The main soil types are Typic Xerorthent and Fluventic Haploxerept and soil is bare most of the time to avoid the competition of weeds for water. The plantation pattern was uniform in both cultivars, 1.3*3m. Soil moisture was analysed at each area from 10 to 90 cm every 20 cm, using TDF probes during two crop growing cycles (2010-2012). Soil water balance for years with different rainfall amount and distribution throughout the year was simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Differences in phenology of about one month existed among both varieties. In addition, the soil hydrological properties variability, resulted from land levelling operations before vineyard establishment, affects crop's soil water availability. These two facts made that, under the same rainfall amount and distribution, water available during the crop cycle were different for both varieties. The transpirable soil water fraction reached very low values, close to 0.1, particularly in the variety with early phenology timing. This pattern was repeated in different years depending on rainfall distribution, which affected grape production with significant yield reductions (up to 38% in relation to the average were found in some years).

Ramos, Maria C.

2014-05-01

356

Understanding the potential impact of climate change on long term soil carbon dynamics in tropical cropping systems - evidence from West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long term experiments offer a unique opportunity to assess sustainability and temporal dynamics of biogeochemical cycles in agriculture, as well as the gradual impact on these of relatively slow processes such as climate change. Two long term experiments on annual cropping systems representing locally common crop rotations and cultural practices were established on two contrasting agroecological zones in Ivory Coast (in 1971) and in Mali (in 1965). These experiments were designed to assess the long-term productivity of these systems under different organic matter and nutrient management regimes, applying organic and mineral soil amendments alone or in combination. Organic soil amendments - such as animal manure, compost or plant material collected from the surroundings - were included in the experiments with the double purpose of adding nutrients for immediate crop production and adding organic matter inputs to the soil to restore (or maintain) its organic C content. Here, we provide an overview of the major trends in crop productivity and soil organic C observed in these experiments that illustrates the potential impact of climate change on the effectiveness of different measures to sustain agricultural productivity. Materials and methods Both experiments compared crop productivity on control plots without any soil amendment versus plots receiving organic matter, mineral fertilisers or both combined. The experiment at Gagnoa (southern Ivory Coast) was conducted during 23 years in a zone characterised by a bimodal rainfall regime (c. 1300 mm year-1) that allows two cropping seasons per year (Alfisols 15% clay). Every year maize was planted during the first rainy season. Organic matter was added as compost at a rate of 10 t ha-1 year-1, with or without application of 160 kg N ha-1 year-1 in mineral fertiliser (Chabalier, 1986). The experiment at N'Tarla (southern Mali) was conducted during 24 years in a zone of mono-modal rainfall (c. 900 mm year-1); Alfisols 5% clay), and consisted of quadrennial/triennial rotations of cotton (2x), sorghum and groundnuts. Organic matter was added as straw collected from adjacent fallow fields at a rate of 15 t ha-1 every three years, with and without application of N-P-K mineral fertilisers at an average rate of 30, 20 and 40 kg ha-1 year-1, respectively (Kone, 1989). In both experiments crop residues were incorporated in the soil every year. Results At both sites yields of the main crops were larger than the control on plots receiving organic and/or mineral soil amendments, and in both experiments crop yields were comparable when either organic or mineral fertilisers were applied. In the case of maize, partial additive effects of organic and mineral fertilisers applied in combination were observed. In the case of cotton, plots receiving only mineral fertilisers tended to yield less than those receiving organic amendments during the second half of the experiment. Soil organic C declined in control plots and in those receiving only mineral fertilisers in Gagnoa (Ivory Coast), and less markedly also in N'Tarla (Mali). Addition of 10 t ha-1 year-1 of organic matter with or without addition of mineral N led to greater soil C contents in Gagnoa, but yet a decline was observed over the 23 years. Addition of 15 t ha-1 year-1 of organic matter with or without fertilisers in N'Tarla had only a marginal effect on soil C content. In spite of the observed decline in soil C contents, maize yields tended to increase in Gagnoa in the last years of the experiment. Discussion Important differences were observed between sites in the size of the stocks and flows of carbon in and through the cropping system, which were the result of a different agroecological potential. Maize is a C4 species that produces large amounts of biomass; two cropping seasons per year allow fixing greater amounts of C from the atmosphere through photosynthesis. Although soil C inputs via crop residues were thus larger in Gagnoa, climatic conditions at this site favoured also a faster mineralisation of soil organic matter. The addit

Cretenet, Michel; Tittonell, Pablo; Guibert, Herve

2010-05-01

357

Water Erosion in Relation with Soil Management System and Crop Sequence during 20 Years on an Inceptisol in South Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion still remains persistent at the world scale, even if big efforts have been done to control and reduce it, mainly using soil crop residues to protect soil surface. Although in South Brazil the main management system for most crops is no tillage and direct drilling, water erosion prevails as the most important soil erosion type, which is due both, to the high erosivity and the evenly distribution of rainfall over the year. Moreover, some crops are still grown under soil tillage systems consisting of ploughing, harrowing and less frequently chiselling. Starting 1992, a field experiment under natural rainfall has been conducted on an Inceptisol located in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, which objective was to assess rainfall water erosion. Two soil cover conditions and four soil management systems were studied: I) a crop rotation, which included oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), common vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under the following soil management types: 1) ploughing plus two levelling operations (CT), chiselling plus levelling (RT) and direct drilling with no tillage (NT), and II) bare soil (BS) without crop cover tilled by ploughing plus two levelling. In more than 90% of the study cases, soil losses were collected for single rain events with erosive power, whose erosivity was calculated. Total rain recorded during the 20 year experimental period was approximately 66,400 mm, which is equivalent to roughly 105,700, MJ mm ha-1 h-1 (EI30), whereas soil losses in the BS treatment were higher than 1,700 t.ha-1. On average, soil losses under RT treatment showed a 92% reduction in relation with BS, whereas under CT the reduction in relation to BS was about 66%. Soil management by direct drilling (NT) was the most efficient system to minimize water erosion, as soil losses decreased about 98% when compared with BS. Moreover, soil management systems with a crop rotation, i.e., RT, CT, and NT, showed a lower efficiency in the reduction of water losses with regard to the efficiency of soil losses decrease. So many rainfall events during our experimental period showed similar water losses for all the management and crop systems, which was mainly true for rainfalls causing high volumes of runoff and with a small time interval between successive events. During the autumn-winter seasons water losses were lower than in the spring-summer seasons, whereas greater soil losses in the spring-summer season were solely recorded in the CT and BS treatments. Heavy water losses by runoff recorder under conservation tillage, specifically in the NT management system suggest the need for adoption of additional structural conservation practices, such as for example terracing, in order to supplement the positive effect of soil cover by crop residues in controlling water erosion. Soil losses showed a positive correlation with rainfall erosivity and the significance of this relationship decreased as the efficiency of soil management system for the control of soil erosion increased.

Bertol, I.; Schick, J.; Barbosa, F. T.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Flores, M. T.; Paz González, A.

2012-04-01

358

Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three vegetated treatments, CT, MT and NT showed a lower efficiency in reducing water losses than soil losses. Water losses by runoff during a number of events were of the same order of magnitude for all the management systems studied here; which was mainly true when the volume of rainfall was high and the lag between successive events was small. In general, soil losses in the autumn-winter seasons were lower than under the spring-summer seasons. Soil losses showed a positive correlation with rainfall erosivity. However, the degree of dependence between these two variables decreased as the efficiency of soil management in controlling soil erosion increased. The large soil and water losses in the BS and CT treatments suggest that there is a need to implement soil conservation measures in the study region. In this context soil conservation would take advantage from soil cover by previous crop residue as well as from terrace building. Acknowledgement: This work was partly supported by Spanish Ministry of Education (Project CGL2005-08219-C02).

Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

2010-05-01

359

Soil Labile Organic Matter under Long-term Crop Rotation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate grassland soils, typically Mollisols, have remained agriculturally productive with limited inputs for many years, despite the mining of energy and nutrients reserves contained within the soil organic fraction (Janzen, 1987; Tiessen et al., 1994). Such system can be considered resilient, at least initially, but one must question for how long such systems can be sustained. Effect of long-term land-use on biologically active fractions of soil organic matter is not well understood. Investigations were conducted in more than 40-year static experiments in northern Kazakhstan. We examined five fallow-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping systems with different frequencies of the fallow phase: continuous wheat (CW), 6-y rotation (6R), 4-y rotation (4R), 2-y rotation (2R) and continuous fallow (CF). A unique sample from nationally protected virgin steppe near the experimental field was sampled for comparison with long-term cultivated soils. Soil samples were collected from the two phases of each rotation, pre- and post-fallow, and analyzed for biological soil properties that are potentially mineralizable C (PMC), potentially mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) and "light fraction" C (LFC) and N (LFN). Potentially mineralizable C was inversely proportional to the frequency of fallow and was highest in CW. Potentially mineralizable N was more responsive to rotation phase than other indices of SOM. Light fraction OM was negatively correlated to the frequency of fallow and was higher in pre-fallow than in post-fallow phases. All studied biological characteristics were drastically greater in the soil from the natural steppe. The results suggested that the yearly input of plant residues in a less frequently fallowed system built up more PMC, whereas PMN was closely correlated to recent inputs of substrate added as plant residue. We concluded that a frequent fallowing for long period may deplete SOM via accelerated mineralization. The results may provide prediction of SOM response to fallow frequency in wheat-fallow based cropping systems in semi-arid regions.

Saljnikov, E.

2009-04-01

360

Plot scale continuous modelling of runoff in a maize cropping system with dynamic soil surface properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe evaluation of the hydrological impact of crop management practices requires models sensitive to temporal changes in surface properties and especially to changes in surface roughness and saturated hydraulic conductivity. This study reports on the development and application of a new, continuous, physically-based, spatially-distributed and plot-scale runoff model that required only five adjusted parameters. The results of the model were compared with runoff measurements taken over two years on 90 m 2 runoff plots in a continuous maize cropping system with and without winter cover crop. On the basis of the daily predicted runoff, the model gave good fits for the intercropping period (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient from 0.80 to 0.94) and poor to reasonable fits for the maize period (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient from less than 0 up to 0.33). The poor results are in part attributed to the fact that only decreases in hydraulic conductivity can be modelled at present, whereas this property may in reality increase over time in some cases. Moreover, runoff hydrograms for individual storms are relatively well predicted dynamically. The large impact of semi-permanent wheel tracks on runoff production is also pointed out. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed and the relevance of incorporating dynamic soil properties in continuous modelling of runoff is underlined.

Laloy, E.; Bielders, C. L.

2008-02-01

361

Earth System Models that simulate crops underestimate CO2 emissions from land use by neglecting soil disturbance due to cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Community Land Model (CLM) can simulate planting and harvesting of crops but does not include effects of cultivation on soil carbon decomposition. The biogeochemistry model DayCent does account for cultivation and provides a baseline for evaluating the CLM. With the goal of representing cultivation effects on soil carbon decomposition, we implemented the DayCent cultivation parameterization in the CLM and compared CLM and DayCent simulations at eight Midwestern United States sites with and without the cultivation parameterization. Cultivation decreases soil carbon by about 1350 g C m-2 in the CLM and 1660 g C m-2 in DayCent across the eight sites from first cultivation (early 1900s) to 2010. CLM crop simulations without cultivation have soil carbon gain, not loss, over this period, in contrast to the expected declining trends in agricultural soil carbon. A global cultivation simulation for 1973-2004 reduces ecosystem carbon by 0.4 Pg yr-1 over temperate corn, soybean, and cereal crop areas, which occupy approximately 1/3 of global crop area. Earth System Models may improve their atmospheric CO2 and soil carbon simulations by accounting for enhanced decomposition from cultivation.

Levis, S.; Hartman, M. D.; Bonan, G. B.

2013-12-01

362

Modelling crop canopy and residue rainfall interception effects on soil hydrological components for semi-arid agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop canopies and residues have been shown to intercept a significant amount of rainfall. However, rainfall or irrigation interception by crops and residues has often been overlooked in hydrologic modelling. Crop canopy interception is controlled by canopy density and rainfall intensity and duration. Crop residue interception is a function of crop residue type, residue density and cover, and rainfall intensity and duration. We account for these controlling factors and present a model for both interception components based on Merriam's approach. The modified Merriam model and the current modelling approaches were examined and compared with two field studies and one laboratory study. The Merriam model is shown to agree well with measurements and was implemented within the Agricultural Research Service's Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM). Using this enhanced version of RZWQM, three simulation studies were performed to examine the quantitative effects of rainfall interception by corn and wheat canopies and residues on soil hydrological components. Study I consisted of 10 separate hypothetical growing seasons (1991-2000) for canopy effects and 10 separate non-growing seasons (1991-2000) for residue effects for eastern Colorado conditions. For actual management practices in a no-till wheat-corn-fallow cropping sequence at Akron, Colorado (study II), a continuous 10-year RZWQM simulation was performed to examine the cumulative changes on water balance components and crop growth caused by canopy and residue rainfall interception. Finally, to examine a higher precipitation environment, a hypothetical, no-till wheat-corn-fallow rotation scenario at Corvallis, Oregon, was simulated (study III). For all studies, interception was shown to decrease infiltration, runoff, evapotranspiration from soil, deep seepage of water and chemical transport, macropore flow, leaf area index, and crop/grain yield. Because interception decreased both infiltration and soil evapotranspiration, no significant change in soil water storage was simulated. Nonetheless, these findings and the new interception models are significant new contributions for hydrologists. Published in 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Kozak, Joseph A.; Ahuja, Lajpat R.; Green, Timothy R.; Ma, Liwang

2007-01-01

363

Linking spatio-temporal variation of crop response with sediment deposition along paddy rice terraces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tropical mountainous regions of South East Asia, intensive cultivation of annual crops on steep slopes makes the area prone to erosion resulting in decreasing soil fertility. Sediment deposition in the valleys, however, can enhance soil fertility, depending on the quality of the sediments, and influence crop productivity. The aim of the study was to assess (i) the spatio-temporal variation

P. Schmitter; G. Dercon; T. Hilger; M. Hertel; J. Treffner; N. Lam; T. Duc Vien; G. Cadisch

2011-01-01

364

Changes in soil carbon cycling accompanying conversion of row-crop fields to grazing dairy pastures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly, the dairy industry in the eastern US is transitioning from total confinement dairy systems (TCD) toward pasture-based, management intensive grazing dairy (MiGD) systems. This transition is driven by the fact that MiGDs require substantially less operating capital and are more economically efficient than TCD systems. Consequently, the impact of this transition and shift in land-use practice on carbon dynamics may be considerable. Land-use in a Management intensive Grazing Dairy (MiGD) system is fundamentally different than conventional confinement dairies and conventional no-till pastures. The forage system involves rotational grazing at optimal digestibility, when the plants are immature (~20-days) and consequently protein-rich. MiGD cows spend >90% of their time in the field and deposit > 90% of their waste directly to the soil surface. Thus, little above ground plant residues are directly returned to the soil, but rather substantial C inputs derive from bovine manure. We sampled a MiGD-chronosequence of row-crop to MiGD conversion established in 2007 in eastern Georgia. All soils across the MiGD-chronosequence, all occur in relative (40 km) close proximity to one another, are deep, well-drained, fine and fine sandy loam Ultisols formed on Coastal Plain sediments. Prior to MiGD established, the soils were farmed for > 50 yrs using conventional tillage techniques. Our current sampling to 1m depths captures fields at 0, 2, 3, and 5 yrs since conversion. Total soil carbon (C) and the carbon concentration of the clay fraction increased following conversion, with the greatest increases occurring between 3 and 5 yrs since conversion. These C increases were limited to the upper 40cm of the soil, with minimal change occurring at depth. Characterization of the protein and ligand content of these soils via 13C NMR and chemolytic techniques as a function of soil particle density and size is in progress and will be presented along with estimates of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes across the MiGD chronosequence. Our broad goal is to quantify ruminal methane emissions and changes to soil C-stocks and stability associated with this land-use shift. Our preliminary data suggest such a land-use change will likely improve soil health and increase C-stocks. Balancing this against potential increases in methane emissions is a key knowledge gap for future southeastern U.S. C-cycling estimates.

Thompson, A.; Kramer, M. G.; Hill, N.; Machmuller, M. B.; Cyle, K.

2011-12-01

365

Combating wind erosion of sandy soils and crop damage in the coastal deserts: Wind tunnel experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the western Negev desert of Israel frequent sandstorms cause heavy damage to young lettuce, carrot, peanut and potato plants during the planting season. The damage of plants is based mainly on the mechanical impact of saltating sand particles, which causes irreversible injuries to the plant leaves. Current agro-technique measures taken to prevent wind damage to crop in Israel are based on high frequency irrigation. Although the high-frequency irrigation helps bind soil particles together by forming a soil crust, it is associated with the large waste of water, which is not practical under the arid conditions. Application of polyacrylamide (PAM) as a chemical stabilizer has proved to be effective for prevention of soil erosion, saving irrigation water and a stable growth of plants in the early stages. Although the technique of PAM application is not yet used commercially in Israel, the preliminary studies suggested that it might have the potential to reduce the damage to the plant leaves by sandstorms, providing both environmental and agricultural benefits. In this study the effectiveness of PAM for preventing sandstorms in the western Negev was also investigated. Optimal concentration and volume of PAM solution per hectare of bare sandy soil were determined. For this purpose a wind tunnel was used to determine wind velocities of the first and continuous detachment of particles. The ability of PAM application to minimize the damage of plants by sandstorms was experimentally verified using image analysis tools.

Genis, Arthur; Vulfson, Leonid; Ben-Asher, Jiftah

2013-06-01

366

Feed the crop not the soil: rethinking phosphorus management in the food chain.  

PubMed

Society relies heavily on inorganic phosphorus (P) compounds throughout its food chain. This dependency is not only very inefficient and increasingly costly but is depleting finite global reserves of rock phosphate. It has also left a legacy of P accumulation in soils, sediments and wastes that is leaking into our surface waters and contributing to widespread eutrophication. We argue for a new, more precise but more challenging paradigm in P fertilizer management that seeks to develop more sustainable food chains that maintain P availability to crops and livestock but with reduced amounts of imported mineral P and improved soil function. This new strategy requires greater public awareness of the environmental consequences of dietary choice, better understanding of soil-plant-animal P dynamics, increased recovery of both used P and unutilized legacy soil P, and new innovative technologies to improve fertilizer P recovery. In combination, they are expected to deliver significant economic, environmental, and resource-protection gains, and contribute to future global P stewardship. PMID:24840064

Withers, Paul J A; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Jones, Davey L; Healey, John R; Talboys, Peter J

2014-06-17

367

Simply Obtained Global Radiation, Soil Temperature and SoilMoisture in an Alley Cropping System in Semi-Arid Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture data were obtained from a 4-6 year old Cassia siamea/maize (CM) alley cropping (or hedgerow intercropping) system, at a semi-arid site at Machakos, Kenya, in the late eighties. With the growing need to explore and manage variations in agro-ecosystems these results deserve new attention. They quantify, in a simple but detailed manner, the influence of hedgerows on the microclimate of their intercrop and for comparison provide a sole maize (SM) control. Due to inhomogeneity of Cassia and maize, as well as limited budgets, the sampling methodology and the choice of appropriate equipment, including the sensors, demanded special attention. The diurnal patterns of soil temperatures at 7.5cm depth represented well the shading patterns of the hedgerows. This can be developed into an operational auxiliary methodology of integrated shade quantification. With proper precautions, the developed sampling methodologies showed appropriately the time integrated values of the three microclimatic parameters with enough detail to understand yield differences between treatments and between rows. This approach may therefore be recommended for on-farm quantification of even greater spatial variability of parameters. The limitations of the selected methods are highlighted. Experiences with some alternative methods are also discussed.

Mungai, D. N.; Stigter, C. J.; Coulson, C. L.; Ng'ang'a, J. K.

368

Bioavailability of Cd to Food crops in relation to heavy metal content of sludge-amended soil.  

PubMed

Results of greenhouse and laboratory experiments on factors influencing uptake and accumulation of Cd by economic crops are summarized.Tolerance to Cd is highly crop-specific. For example, 21 different economic crops were grown in pots filled with a calcareous soil treated with increasing amounts of Cd. Yields versus Cd addition rate relations showed yield reductions to occur with Cd sensitive plants (spinach, soybean, curlycress, and lettuce) at addition rates varying from 5 to 15 mug Cd/g soil, whereas tolerant crops (tomato, squash, cabbage, and rice) did not suffer a yield reduction when treated at rates less than 150 mug Cd/g soil. Nutrient solution experiments likewise revealed marked differences in growth of crops. Corn, turnip, beets, bean, and tomato plants grown in solution cultures containing 0.1 mug Cd/ml accumulated different amounts of Cd in leaf tissue depending upon crop species; leaf Cd concentrations ranged from a low of 9 mug Cd/g leaf for beans to 200 mug Cd/g leaf for beets. Large differences also occur with regard to distribution of Cd within the plant. Fruit and seed tissue contain less Cd than leaves. Experiments comparing the toxicity of Cd to Cu, Ni, and Zn in an acid soil +/- lime showed Cd to be the most phytotoxic. While interactive effects occur with regard to metal uptake and accumulation by plants, Cd uptake is essentially dependent upon the Cd concentration of the soil. Studies of chemical speciation of Cd in relation to Cd availability indicate that the free Cd(2+) concentration correlates better with Cd uptake than Cd total of the soil solution. PMID:39746

Bingham, F T

1979-02-01

369

Spatial and temporal monitoring of soil water content with an irrigated corn crop cover using surface electrical resistivity tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nondestructive and spatially integrated multielectrode method for measuring soil electrical resistivity was tested in the Beauce region of France during a period of corn crop irrigation to monitor soil water flow over time and in two-dimensional (2-D) with simultaneous measurements of soil moisture and thermal profiles. The results suggested the potential of surface electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) for improving soil science and agronomy studies. The method was able to produce a 2-D delimitation of soil horizons as well as to monitor soil water movement. Soil drainage through water uptake by the roots, the progression of the infiltration front with preferential flow zones, and the drainage of the plowed horizon were well identified. At the studied stage of corn development (3 months) the soil zones where infiltration and drainage occurred were mainly located under the corn rows. The structural soil characteristics resulting from agricultural practices or the passage of agricultural equipment were also shown. Two-dimensional sections of soil moisture content were calculated using ERT. The estimates were made by using independently established "in situ" calibration relationships between the moisture and electrical resistivity of typical soil horizons. The thermal soil profile was also considered in the modeling. The results showed a reliable linear relationship between the calculated and measured water contents in the crop horizon. The precision of the calculation of the specific soil water content, quantified by the root mean square error (RMSE), was 3.63% with a bias corresponding to an overestimation of 1.45%. The analysis and monitoring of the spatial variability of the soil moisture content with ERT represent two components of a significant tool for better management of soil water reserves and rational irrigation practices.

Michot, Didier; Benderitter, Yves; Dorigny, Abel; Nicoullaud, Bernard; King, Dominique; Tabbagh, Alain

2003-05-01

370

Identification of crop-growing seasons of semi-arid Kenya by analyses of the soil moisture patterns  

E-print Network

IDENTIFICATION OF CROP-GROWING SEASONS OF SEMI-ARID KENYA EY ANALYSES OF THE SOIL MOISTURE PATTERNS A Thesis by DAVID KASINA MUSEMBI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major Subj ect: Meteorology IDENTIFICATION OF CROP-GROWING SEASONS OF SEMI-ARID KENYA BY ANALYSES OF THE SOIL MOISTURE PATTERNS A Thesis by DAVID KASINA MUSEMBI Approved as to style and content by: John F. G...

Musembi, David Kasina

2012-06-07

371

Co-composting of acid waste bentonites and their effects on soil properties and crop biomass.  

PubMed

Acid waste bentonite is a byproduct from vegetable oil bleaching that is acidic (pH < 3.0) and hydrophobic. These materials are currently disposed of in landfills and could potentially have a negative impact on the effective function of microbes that are intolerant of acidic conditions. A study was undertaken using three different sources of acid waste bentonites, namely soybean oil bentonite (SB), palm oil bentonite (PB), and rice bran oil bentonite (RB). These materials were co-composted with rice husk, rice husk ash, and chicken litter to eliminate their acid reactivity and hydrophobic nature. The organic carbon (OC) content, pH, exchangeable cations, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the acid-activated bentonites increased significantly after the co-composting phase. In addition, the hydrophobic nature of these materials as measured using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) decreased from >10 800 s to 16 to 80 s after composting. Furthermore, these composted materials showed positive impacts on soil physical attributes including specific surface area, bulk density, and available water content for crop growth. Highly significant increases in maize biomass (Zea mays L.) production over two consecutive cropping cycles was observed in treatments receiving co-composted bentonite. The study clearly demonstrates the potential for converting an environmentally hazardous material into a high-quality soil conditioner using readily available agricultural byproducts. It is envisaged that the application of these composted acid waste bentonites to degraded soils will increase productivity and on-farm income, thus contributing toward food security and poverty alleviation. PMID:17071900

Soda, Wannipa; Noble, Andrew D; Suzuki, Shinji; Simmons, Robert; Sindhusen, La-Ait; Bhuthorndharaj, Suwannee

2006-01-01

372

Crop uptake and extractability of cadmium in soils naturally high in metals at different pH levels  

SciTech Connect

A greenhouse experiment was conducted for three years to study the effect of different pH levels on metal concentrations in plants and the cadmium (Cd) extractability by DTPA and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}. The soils used were an alum shale (clay loam) and a moraine (loam), which were adjusted to pH levels of 5.5, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.5. Wheat (Triticum aestivum), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were grown as test crops. Crop yields were not consistently affected at increasing soil pH levels. The concentration of Cd in plant species decreased with increasing soil pH in both soils and in all three years. Significant concentration differences between soil pH levels were only seen in wheat and carrot crops. Increasing soil pH also decreased the nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in plants in the first year crop but the copper (Cu) concentration was not consistently affected by soil pH. The effect of pH was more pronounced in the moraine then the alum shale soil. The DTPA-and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-extractable Cd was decreased with the increasing soil pH and the pH effect was more pronounced with NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} extractable Cd. Both extractants were found equally effective in relation to the Cd concentration in plants in this study. 33 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Singh, B.R.; Almas, A.; Narwal, R.P. [Haryana Agric. Univ., Hisar (India); Jeng, A.S.

1995-12-01

373

Miscanthus Establishment and Overwintering in the Midwest USA: A Regional Modeling Study of Crop Residue Management on Critical Minimum Soil Temperatures  

PubMed Central

Miscanthus is an intriguing cellulosic bioenergy feedstock because its aboveground productivity is high for low amounts of agrochemical inputs, but soil temperatures below ?3.5°C could threaten successful cultivation in temperate regions. We used a combination of observed soil temperatures and the Agro-IBIS model to investigate how strategic residue management could reduce the risk of rhizome threatening soil temperatures. This objective was addressed using a historical (1978–2007) reconstruction of extreme minimum 10 cm soil temperatures experienced across the Midwest US and model sensitivity studies that quantified the impact of crop residue on soil temperatures. At observation sites and for simulations that had bare soil, two critical soil temperature thresholds (50% rhizome winterkill at ?3.5°C and ?6.0°C for different Miscanthus genotypes) were reached at rhizome planting depth (10 cm) over large geographic areas. The coldest average annual extreme 10 cm soil temperatures were between ?8°C to ?11°C across North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Large portions of the region experienced 10 cm soil temperatures below ?3.5°C in 75% or greater for all years, and portions of North and South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin experienced soil temperatures below ?6.0°C in 50–60% of all years. For simulated management options that established varied thicknesses (1–5 cm) of miscanthus straw following harvest, extreme minimum soil temperatures increased by 2.5°C to 6°C compared to bare soil, with the greatest warming associated with thicker residue layers. While the likelihood of 10 cm soil temperatures reaching ?3.5°C was greatly reduced with 2–5 cm of surface residue, portions of the Dakotas, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Wisconsin still experienced temperatures colder than ?3.5°C in 50–80% of all years. Nonetheless, strategic residue management could help increase the likelihood of overwintering of miscanthus rhizomes in the first few years after establishment, although low productivity and biomass availability during these early stages could hamper such efforts. PMID:23844244

Kucharik, Christopher J.; VanLoocke, Andy; Lenters, John D.; Motew, Melissa M.

2013-01-01

374

Fate and effects of insect-resistant Bt crops in soil ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent applications of biotechnology, especially genetic engineering, have revolutionized crop improvement and increased the availability of valuable new traits. A current example is the use of the insecticidal Cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), to improve crops, known as Bt crops, by reducing injury from various crop pests. The adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops has increased dramatically

Isik Icoz; Guenther Stotzky

2008-01-01

375

Soil PhysicoChemical Properties and Crop Yield Improvement Following Lantana Mulching and Reduced Tillage in Rainfed Croplands in the Indian Himalayan Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the rainfed crop fields of the Central Himalayan Mountains in India, low soil moisture and low soil fertility are the two major constraints on crop yield. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis of whether mixing a high-quality (high foliar N, P, and K and low lignin) organic residue (Lantana camara leaves) with the relatively low-quality leaf

Pramod Kumar; Madhuri Pant; G. C. S. Negi

2009-01-01

376

EFFECTS OF TILLAGE SYSTEMS AND WINTER COVER CROPS ON YIELD AND MATURITY OF COTTON ON A LOESS SOIL IN NORTHEAST LOUISIANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTlON Cotton is the major cash crop grown on the loess soils of the Macon Ridge in northeast Louisiana. Soils of this region are typically low in organic matter and have poor physical structure due to many years of continuous row crop production. The topography of the Macor Ridge is gently undulating with maximum slopes of 3 to 5% (Martin

R. L. Hutchinson; R. A. Brown; B. R. Leonard; C. W. Kennedy

377

The soil moisture regimes beneath forest and an agricultural crop in southern India--Measurement and modelling  

SciTech Connect

The environmental effects of plantations of fast growing tree species has been a subject of some controversy in recent years. Extensive soil moisture measurements were made at three sites in Karnataka, southern India. At each site measurements were made beneath a number of vegetation types. These included fast growing tree species (Eucalyptus, Casuarina and Leucaena), degraded natural forest and an agricultural crop (ragi). The measurements indicate that beneath mature forest the available soil water is exhausted towards the end of the dry season, usually by March. The soil only becomes completely wetted if the subsequent monsoon has above average rainfall; during the weak monsoon of 1989 the soil remained approximately 150 mm below field capacity. After the monsoon (and during breaks in the monsoon) soil moisture depletion is between three and five mm per day. This rate decreases as the soil drys out. All the mature forest types show a similar soil water regime. This contrasts strongly with that of the agricultural crop, which shows much smaller changes. A range of soil water accounting models was applied to these data. The most successful are those which use the Penman formulation to estimate the potential evaporation and include a two-layer soil water depletion model. The more general Penman-Monteith formulation was also tested.

Harding, R.J.; Hall, R.L. [Inst. of Hydrology, Wallingford (United Kingdom); Swaminath, M.H. [Karnataka Forest Dept., Bangalore (India); Murthy, K.V. [Mysore Paper Mills, Shimoga (India)

1992-12-31

378

Copyright 2012 -Copyright Information, Privacy Statement, and Terms of Use American Society of Agronomy | Crop Science Society of America | Soil Science Society of America  

E-print Network

of Agronomy | Crop Science Society of America | Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Road | Madison. Magdi M. Selim, School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Science, Louisiana State University Agricultural in Soils: Miscible Displacement and Modeling. See more from this Division: S01 Soil Physics See more from

Sparks, Donald L.

379

Long-term tillage and cropping effects on microbiological properties associated with aggregation in a semi-arid soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the long-term tillage and cropping management effects on the microbiologically derived factors that\\u000a influence macroaggregates in semi-arid soil. We tested the hypothesis that differences in macro-aggregation are due to changes\\u000a in soil structure related to management treatment-induced microbiological changes. In an experiment, microbiological factors\\u000a consisting of aggregate stability, glomalin, russuloid basidiomycete fungi, uronic acids, total organic

TheCan Caesar-TonThat; Upendra M. Sainju; Sara F. Wright; Weilin L. Shelver; Robert L. Kolberg; Mark West

2011-01-01

380

Texas Panhandle soil-crop-beef food chain for uranium: a dynamic model validated by experimental data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term simulations of uranium transport in the soil-crop-beef food chain were performed using the BIOTRAN model. Experimental data means from an extensive Pantex beef cattle study are presented. Experimental data were used to validate the computer model. Measurements of uranium in air, soil, water, range grasses, feed, and cattle tissues are compared to simulated uranium output values in these matrices

W. J. Wenzel; K. M. Wallwork-Barber; J. C. Rodgers; A. F. Gallegos

1982-01-01

381

Potential Long-Term Benefits of No-Tillage and Organic Cropping Systems for Grain Production and Soil Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been few comparisons of the performance of no-tillage cropping systems vs. organic farming systems, particularly on erod- ible, droughty soils where reduced-tillage systems are recommended. In particular, there is skepticism whether organic farming can im- prove soils as well as conventional no-tillage systems because of the requirement for tillage associated with many organic farming opera- tions. A 9-yr

John R. Teasdale; Charles B. Coffman; Ruth W. Mangum

2007-01-01

382

Impact of sewage irrigation on speciation of nickel in soils and its accumulation in crops of industrial towns of Punjab.  

PubMed

Analysis of soil samples collected from sewage and tube well irrigated soils of Ludhiana, Amritsar Jalandhar and Mandi Gobindgarh, revealed that Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid extractable nickel ( DTPA-Ni) was found to be higher in sewage fed soils. Sewage irrigation increased soil DTPA-Ni content by 3.04 times over the tube well irrigated soils. The content of DTPA-Ni showed decreasing trend with depth. Hydrogen concentration (pH) was negatively and significantly correlated with DTPA-Ni nickel whereas, organic carbon and total Ni show positive and significant correlation. Sequential fractionation was carried out to partition Ni in to fractions namely exchangeable and water soluble, organic bound, carbonate bound, Mn oxides bound, amorphous Fe oxides, crystalline Fe oxides bound and residual. Plant availability of these fractions is believed to decrease in the above order. Sequential fractionation indicated that every extracted fraction exhibited increase in Ni content with sewage irrigation with most prominent increases occurring in the organic and oxide fractions. The lowest amount of Ni in exchangeable and water soluble and the highest in residual pools testify that plants grown on these soils may not suffer from Ni toxicity. Though all the crops irrigated with sewage water had appreciably higher concentration of Ni as compared to the crops raised with tube-well water yet raya (Brassica juncea) and toria (Brassica campestris) accumulated higher content of heavy metals as compared to other crops, with higher content in roots than shoots. Transport index suggested that major part of taken up Ni is translocated to top parts of plant. Based on values of transport indices, different crops maybe arranged as toria > raya = maize > bajra > lady finger. As the plants take up nickel readily and there is danger of its excessive accumulation in plant organs and devaluation of the plant products. This is topical issue particularly in crops used for direct consumption. PMID:19295085

Khurana, M P S; Bansal, R L

2008-09-01

383

Comparing annual and perennial energy cropping systems with different management intensities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the political targets, it can be expected that in Europe, energy production from agricultural land will increase and that improved systems for its production are needed. Therefore, a four year field trial was conducted on one site in south-western Germany to compare and evaluate the biomass and energy yield performance of important energy crops. Six energy cropping systems with

Constanze Boehmel; Iris Lewandowski; Wilhelm Claupein

2008-01-01

384

Competition for soil water between annual plants and blue oak ( Quercus douglasii ) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the competitive effects of two annual species on soil water potential and blue oak (Quercus douglasii Hook & Arn.) seedling growth and water relations. Two densities of the annual grass Bromus diandrus (Roth.) (100\\/dm2, 3.6\\/dm2) and one density of the annual forb Erodium botrys (Cav.) (3.6\\/dm2) comprised plant neighborhoods around the oak seedlings grown in 1 m deep

D. R. Gordon; J. M. Menke; K. J. Rice

1989-01-01

385

Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine spill (Hunan, China)  

E-print Network

human exposure through food chains. The results showed that the physical­ chemical properties grown in the affected three sites and arsenic at SZY and GYB exceeded the RDA (Recommended dietary, Zn and Cu contamination. Keywords: Heavy metals; Arsenic; Soil; Crop; Contamination; Lead/zinc mine

Mailhes, Corinne

386

Influence of Legume Cropping Patterns and Organic\\/inorganic Soil Amendments on Striga Seedbank and Subsequent Sorghum Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involved the combined use of trapcrop (cowpea), organic (poultry manure) and inorganic (urea) soil amendments and ethylene injection wi th vari ous cropping pa tterns (Cps) to provide an integrated management strategy for Striga hermonthica control. Medium maturing cowpea vari ety identified from preliminary screening to stimulate high Striga seed germination in IITA Ibadan, Striga laboratory, and medium

Felix O. Ikie; Alphonse M. Emechebe; Adeniyi O. Togun

387

Calibration of a water uptake simulation model under varying soil moisture regime and nitrogen level for wheat crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop production is directly related to the time-depth status of soil water which is often predicted with the help of a simulation model avoiding time-consuming deterministic procedures. In the present study, the accuracy of a mathematical simulation model has been tested by comparing the simulated profile water content with its measured counterpart in a field experiment conducted with winter wheat

B. D. Sharma; S. Kar; S. Sarkar

1997-01-01

388

The detection and determination of some chlorinated pesticide residues in crops, soils and animal tissues by gas-liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A rapid method for the identification and determination of traces of chlorinated pesticides in crops, soils and animal tissues by gas-liquid chromatography with electron capture ionisation detection will be outlined. Only conventional G. L. C. equipment is required and neither preliminary „clean-up” nor concentration of the extract solution of the pesticide is, in general, necessary. In most cases the

R. Goulden

1964-01-01

389

Arbuscular-mycorrhizal inoculation of five tropical fodder crops and inoculum production in marginal soil amended with organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five fodder crops, Zea mays, Medicago sativa, Trifolium alexandrinum, Avena sativa, and Sorghum vulgare were inoculated with a consortia of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in non-sterile PO43- deficient sandy loam soil amended with organic matter under field conditions. Shoot and root dry weights and total uptake of P and N of all the test plants were significantly increased by

Atimanav Gaur; Alok Adholeya

2002-01-01

390

IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT FOR DOUBLE-CROPPED FRESH-MARKET TOMATOES ON A HIGH-WATER-TABLE SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) experiments were conducted for two years on a south- eastern Coastal Plain soil that has a high, fluctuating water table. In one experiment, two methods for managing microirrigation were compared to a treatment that received only rainfall by measuring marketable fruit yields for spring and fall cropping seasons. Irrigation increased yields for both seasons in

C. R. Camp; M. L. Robbins; D. L. Karlen; R. E. Sojka

391

Soil nematode responses to crop management and conversion to native grasses.  

PubMed

Soil nematode community response to treatments of three, four-year crop rotations (spring wheat-pea-spring wheat-flax, spring wheat-green manure-spring wheat-flax, and spring wheat-alfalfa-alfalfa-flax) under conventional and organic management, and native tall grass restoration (restored prairie) were assessed in June 2003, and July and August 2004. The research site was the Glenlea Long-term Rotation and Crop Management Study, in the Red River Valley, Manitoba, established in 1992. The nematode community varied more with sample occasion than management and rotation. The restored prairie favored high colonizer-persister (c-p) value omnivores and carnivores, and fungivores but less bacterivores. The restored prairie soil food web was highly structured, mature and low-to-moderately enriched as indicated by structure (SI), maturity (MI) and enrichment (EI) index values, respectively. Higher abundance of fungivores and channel index (CI) values suggested fungal-dominated decomposition. Nematode diversity was low even after more than a decade of restoration. A longer time may be required to attain higher diversity for this restored fragmented prairie site distant from native prairies. No consistent differences were found between organic and conventional management for nematode trophic abundance, with the exception of enrichment opportunists of the c-p 1 group which were favored by conventional management. Although EI was lower and SI was higher for organic than conventional their absolute values suggested decomposition channels to be primarily bacterial, and fewer trophic links with both management scenarios. A high abundance of fungivores in the rotation including the green manure indicates greater fungal decomposition. PMID:23481374

Briar, Shabeg S; Barker, Corinne; Tenuta, Mario; Entz, Martin H

2012-09-01

392

Soil Nematode Responses to Crop Management and Conversion to Native Grasses  

PubMed Central

Soil nematode community response to treatments of three, four-year crop rotations (spring wheat-pea-spring wheat-flax, spring wheat-green manure-spring wheat-flax, and spring wheat-alfalfa-alfalfa-flax) under conventional and organic management, and native tall grass restoration (restored prairie) were assessed in June 2003, and July and August 2004. The research site was the Glenlea Long-term Rotation and Crop Management Study, in the Red River Valley, Manitoba, established in 1992. The nematode community varied more with sample occasion than management and rotation. The restored prairie favored high colonizer-persister (c-p) value omnivores and carnivores, and fungivores but less bacterivores. The restored prairie soil food web was highly structured, mature and low-to-moderately enriched as indicated by structure (SI), maturity (MI) and enrichment (EI) index values, respectively. Higher abundance of fungivores and channel index (CI) values suggested fungal-dominated decomposition. Nematode diversity was low even after more than a decade of restoration. A longer time may be required to attain higher diversity for this restored fragmented prairie site distant from native prairies. No consistent differences were found between organic and conventional management for nematode trophic abundance, with the exception of enrichment opportunists of the c-p 1 group which were favored by conventional management. Although EI was lower and SI was higher for organic than conventional their absolute values suggested decomposition channels to be primarily bacterial, and fewer trophic links with both management scenarios. A high abundance of fungivores in the rotation including the green manure indicates greater fungal decomposition. PMID:23481374

Briar, Shabeg S.; Barker, Corinne; Tenuta, Mario; Entz, Martin H.

2012-01-01

393

Assimilation of Downscaled SMOS Soil Moisture for Quantifying Drought Impacts on Crop Yield in Agricultural Regions in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable soil moisture (SM) information in the root zone (RZSM) is critical for quantification of agricultural drought impacts on crop yields and for recommending management and adaptation strategies for crop management, commodity trading and food security.The recently launched European Space Agency-Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (ESA-SMOS) and the near-future National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Soil Moisture Active Passive (NASA-SMAP) missions provide SM at unprecedented spatial resolutions of 10-25 km, but these resolutions are still too coarse for agricultural applications in heterogeneous landscapes, making downscaling a necessity. This downscaled near-surface SM can be merged with crop growth models in a data assimilation framework to provide optimal estimates of RZSM and crop yield. The objectives of the study include: 1) to implement a novel downscalingalgorithm based on the Information theoretical learning principlesto downscale SMOS soil moisture at 25 km to 1km in the Brazilian La Plata Basin region and2) to assimilate the 1km-soil moisture in the crop model for a normal and a drought year to understand the impact on crop yield. In this study, a novel downscaling algorithm based on the Principle of Relevant Information (PRI) was applied to in-situ and remotely sensed precipitation, SM, land surface temperature and leaf area index in the Brazilian Lower La Plata region in South America. An Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) based assimilation algorithm was used to assimilate the downscaled soil moisture to update both states and parameters. The downscaled soil moisture for two growing seasons in2010-2011 and 2011-2012 was assimilated into the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) Cropping System Model over 161 km2 rain-fed region in the Brazilian LPB regionto improve the estimates of soybean yield. The first season experienced normal precipitation, while the second season was impacted by drought. Assimilation improved yield during both the seasons compared to the open-loop and matched well with the published yield statistics in the region.

Chakrabarti, S.; Bongiovanni, T. E.; Judge, J.; Principe, J. C.; Fraisse, C.

2013-12-01

394

Soil-to-Crop Transfer Factors of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides and Stable Elements for Long-Term Dose Assessment  

SciTech Connect

A soil-to-crop transfer factor, TF, is a key parameter that directly affects the internal dose assessment for the ingestion pathway, however, obtaining TFs of various long-lived radionuclides occurred during operation of nuclear power plants is difficult because most of them could not be found in natural environments. In this study, therefore, we collected crops and their associated soils throughout Japan and measured more than 50 elements to obtain TFs under equilibrium conditions. The TFs were calculated for 42 elements (Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Sn, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tl, Pb, Th and U) from their concentrations in both crop and soil samples. The TF is defined as the concentration of an isotope in a crop (in Bq/kg or mg/kg dry weight) divided by the concentration of the isotope in soil (in Bq.kg or mg/kg dry weight). Probability distributions of TFs for 62 upland field crops were usually log-normal type so that geometric means (GMs) were calculated. The values for the elements of interest from the viewpoint of long-term dose assessment were 2.5E-02 for Se, 7.9E-02 for Sr, 3.1E-03 for Cs, 4.2E-04 for Th and 4.6E-04 for U. Leafy vegetable showed the highest TFs for all the elements among the crop groups. It was clear that these data were usually within the 95% confidence limits of TFs compiled by IAEA in Technical Report Series 364. (authors)

Uchida, S.; Tagami, K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba (Japan)

2007-07-01

395

Remote sensing-based estimates of annual and seasonal emissions from crop residue burning in the contiguous United States.  

PubMed

Crop residue burning is an extensive agricultural practice in the contiguous United States (CONUS). This analysis presents the results of a remote sensing-based study of crop residue burning emissions in the CONUS for the time period 2003-2007 for the atmospheric species of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2), PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter). Cropland burned area and associated crop types were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. Emission factors, fuel load, and combustion completeness estimates were derived from the scientific literature, governmental reports, and expert knowledge. Emissions were calculated using the bottom-up approach in which emissions are the product of burned area, fuel load, and combustion completeness for each specific crop type. On average, annual crop residue burning in the CONUS emitted 6.1 Tg of CO2, 8.9 Gg of CH4, 232.4 Gg of CO, 10.6 Gg of NO2, 4.4 Gg of SO2, 20.9 Gg of PM2.5, and 28.5 Gg of PM10. These emissions remained fairly consistent, with an average interannual variability of crop residue burning emissions of +/- 10%. The states with the highest emissions were Arkansas, California, Florida, Idaho, Texas, and Washington. Most emissions were clustered in the southeastern United States, the Great Plains, and the Pacific Northwest. Air quality and carbon emissions were concentrated in the spring, summer, and fall, with an exception because of winter harvesting of sugarcane in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Sugarcane, wheat, and rice residues accounted for approximately 70% of all crop residue burning and associated emissions. Estimates of CO and CH4 from agricultural waste burning by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were 73 and 78% higher than the CO and CH4 emission estimates from this analysis, respectively. This analysis also showed that crop residue burning emissions are a minor source of CH4 emissions (< 1%) compared with the CH4 emissions from other agricultural sources, specifically enteric fermentation, manure management, and rice cultivation. PMID:21305885

McCarty, Jessica L

2011-01-01

396

The influence of annual precipitation, topography, and vegetative cover on soil moisture and summer drought in southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of annual precipitation and vegetation cover on soil moisture and on the length of the summer drought was estimated quantitatively using 9 years of soil moisture data collected at Echo Valley in southern California. The measurements support the conclusions that in the semi-arid mediterranean climate a soil drought will occur regardless of vegetation cover and annual precipitation, but

P. C. Miller; D. K. Poole

1983-01-01

397

Production of CO2 in Soil Profiles of a California Annual Grassland  

E-print Network

Production of CO2 in Soil Profiles of a California Annual Grassland Noah Fierer,1 * Oliver A play a key role in the global cycling of carbon (C), storing organic C, and releasing CO2 to the atmosphere. Although a large number of studies have focused on the CO2 flux at the soil­air inter- face

Fierer, Noah

398

Short communication Litter contribution to diurnal and annual soil respiration in a tropical  

E-print Network

Short communication Litter contribution to diurnal and annual soil respiration in a tropical Universidad San Antonio Abad, Cusco, Peru a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 10 October 2008 soil respiration variation Tropical montane cloud forest Litter respiration a b s t r a c t Respiration

Malhi, Yadvinder

399

Effects of cropping history and peat amendments on the quality of a silt soil cropped with strawberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term field experiments are invaluable sites for studying changes in soil quality due to management practices. We utilized a field experiment on silt soil with 18 years (1982–1999) of conventional and organic farming systems for studying long-term impacts of farming system on soil properties. During 2000–2002, strawberries were grown on the whole area. Some conventional and organic plots were amended

Mauritz Vestberg; Sanna Kukkonen; Kaisa Saari; Tuomo Tuovinen; Ansa Palojärvi; Timo Pitkänen; Timo Hurme; Milja Vepsäläinen; Maarit Niemi

2009-01-01

400

Texas Panhandle soil-crop-beef food chain for uranium: a dynamic model validated by experimental data  

SciTech Connect

Long-term simulations of uranium transport in the soil-crop-beef food chain were performed using the BIOTRAN model. Experimental data means from an extensive Pantex beef cattle study are presented. Experimental data were used to validate the computer model. Measurements of uranium in air, soil, water, range grasses, feed, and cattle tissues are compared to simulated uranium output values in these matrices when the BIOTRAN model was set at the measured soil and air values. The simulations agreed well with experimental data even though metabolic details for ruminants and uranium chemical form in the environment remain to be studied.

Wenzel, W.J.; Wallwork-Barber, K.M.; Rodgers, J.C.; Gallegos, A.F.

1982-01-01

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