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1

The green manure value of seven clover species grown as annual crops on low and high fertility temperate soils.  

SciTech Connect

Annual and perennial clover species may differ in green manure value. Seven clover (Trifolium) species were grown as annual crops on low fertility (Breton) and high fertility 15 (Edmonton) soils in Alberta

Ross, Shirley M.; King, Jane R.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; O'Donovan, John T.

2009-05-01

2

Effects of climatic factors and soil management on the methane flux in soils from annual and perennial energy crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane flux rates were measured on a loamy sand soil within perennial and annual energy crops in northeast Germany. The study\\u000a was performed in closed chambers between 2003 and 2005 with four measurements per week. A mixed linear model including the\\u000a fixed effects of year, rotation period, crop and fertilisation was applied to determine the influence of climatic factors\\u000a and

Jürgen Kern; Hans Jürgen Hellebrand; Michael Gömmel; Christian Ammon; Werner Berg

3

Effect of Potassium on Uptake of 137Cs in Food Crops Grown on Coral Soils: Annual Crops at Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect

In 1954 a radioactive plume from the thermonuclear device code named BRAVO contaminated the principal residential islands, Eneu and Bikini, of Bikini Atoll (11{sup o} 36 minutes N; 165{sup o} 22 minutes E), now part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The resulting soil radioactivity diminished greatly over the three decades before the studies discussed below began. By that time the shorter-lived isotopes had all but disappeared, but strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), and cesium-137, ({sup 137}Cs) were reduced by only one half-life. Minute amounts of the long-lived isotopes, plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), were present in soil, but were found to be inconsequential in the food chain of humans and land animals. Rather, extensive studies demonstrated that the major concern for human health was {sup 137}Cs in the terrestrial food chain (Robison et al., 1983; Robison et al., 1997). The following papers document results from several studies between 1986 and 1997 aimed at minimizing the {sup 137}Cs content of annual food crops. The existing literature on radiocesium in soils and plant uptake is largely a consequence of two events: the worldwide fallout of 1952-58, and the fallout from Chernobyl. The resulting studies have, for the most part, dealt either with soils containing some amount of silicate clays and often with appreciable K, or with the short-term development of plants in nutrient cultures.

Stone, E R; Robinson, W

2002-02-01

4

Crop Production: Annual Summary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) (described in the June 4, 1998 Scout Report for Business and Economics) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has recently released the annual summary of US crop production. Available in text or .pdf format, the summary contains "annual US data for acreage, yield, and production by crop." In addition to statistical tables, the report includes reviews of crop progress and the weather in 1998. Reports from 1995-98 are also available in text format only.

5

An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.  

PubMed

Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900°C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12kg N2O-Nha(-1)yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41g N2O-Nha(-1)day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O. PMID:23490323

Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

2013-03-11

6

Soil compaction in cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil compaction is one of the major problems facing modern agriculture. Overuse of machinery, intensive cropping, short crop rotations, intensive grazing and inappropriate soil management leads to compaction. Soil compaction occurs in a wide range of soils and climates. It is exacerbated by low soil organic matter content and use of tillage or grazing at high soil moisture content. Soil

M. A. Hamza; W. K. Anderson

2005-01-01

7

Winter Annual Cover crops for the Home Food Garden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover crops add organic matter, improve soil fertility, prevent soil erosion and compaction and suppress weeds, but they can be difficult to manage at the home garden scale. Because incorporating the entire cover crop into the soil with garden tools can be problematic, two alternative strategies were explored: 1. clipping and removing aboveground vegetation before spading. 2. killing winter annual

Mark Schonbeck; Peggy Elder; Ralph DeGregorio

1996-01-01

8

Tropical annual cropping systems: Ant ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological role of ants in tropical annual cropping systems is discussed in general and with respect to a specific Mexican agroecosystem Generally, the potential positive contributions of ants to crop yields result from their impact on soil structure, nutrient cycling, and reduction of insect and weed pests In annual wet lowland fields in eastern Mexico, the ant community is simple and dominated by the aggressive fire ant, Solenopsis geminata. The influence of vegetation structure and composition on the ant community and, specifically, on the foraging behavior of S geminata is discussed

Carroll, C. Ronald; Risch, Stephen J.

1983-01-01

9

Simulating phosphorus responses in annual crops using APSIM: model evaluation on contrasting soil types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop simulation models have been used successfully to evaluate many systems and the impact of change on these systems, e.g.\\u000a for climatic risk and the use of alternative management options, including the use of nitrogen fertilisers. However, for low\\u000a input systems in tropical and subtropical regions where organic inputs rather than fertilisers are the predominant nutrient\\u000a management option and other

R. J. Delve; M. E. Probert; J. G. Cobo; J. Ricaurte; M. Rivera; E. Barrios; I. M. Rao

2009-01-01

10

Double-cropping annual ryegrass and bermudagrass to reduce phosphorus levels in soil with history of poultry litter application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term application of poultry litter may result in excessively high soil phosphorus (P). This field study determined the\\u000a potential of ‘Coastal’ bermudagrass overseeded with ‘Marshall’ annual ryegrass and harvested for hay to reduce the level of\\u000a Mehlich-3 extractable P (M3-P) that had accumulated in a Savannah soil due to a 30-year history of broiler litter application\\u000a to bermudagrass, as well

J. J. Read; K. R. Sistani; J. L. Oldham; G. E. Brink

2009-01-01

11

Crop and Soil Response to Long-Term Tillage Practices in the Northern Great Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summer fallow is the most common cultural practice in the northern Great Plains. With proper cultural management, however, annual crop- ping may be feasible and economical. Our objective was to determine crop and soil response to nontraditional annual cropping practices (till and no-till) in lieu of conventional fallow-crop rotation for the produc- tion of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and

J. Kristian Aase; Joseph L. Pikul

1995-01-01

12

Dryland crop sequence and tillage influences on soil water storage: First 15 years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management practices and cropping systems have greatly changed over the past half century. In the northern Great Plains, soil water storage during the non-crop period of annual cropping systems helps to stabilize crop yields. Our objectives were to determine the influences of six crop sequences an...

13

Chemistry and microbial functional diversity differences in biofuel crop and grassland soils in multiple geographies  

EPA Science Inventory

As crop and non-crop lands are increasingly converted to biofuel feedstock production, it is of interest to identify potential impacts of annual and perennial feedstocks on soil ecosystem services. Soil samples were obtained from diverse regionally distributed biofuel cropping si...

14

A simple criterion for successful biological control on annual crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population dynamics of pest insect-natural enemy systems on annual crops is quite different from those seen in classic biological control programes. On an annual crop, for example, the persistence of populations of pest insects is forced to terminate when crops are harvested. Pest control on annual crops aims to suppress the maximum density of the pest below a certain level,

Satoru Urano; Katsuya Shima; Koichi Hongo; Yoshito Suzuki

2003-01-01

15

Soil Carbon Dynamics and Cropping Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increased soil structure problems, ever changing cropping practices, and concern about energy conservation have all focused more attention on the carbon content of agricultural soils. Tillage practices and the amount of nitrogen fertilizer can modify the ...

R. E. Lucas J. B. Holtman L. J. Connor

1976-01-01

16

Crop and Soil Response to Wheel-Track Compaction of a Claypan Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual row crop production on the naturally occurring claypan soils of the eastern Great Plains may require field operations during somewhat wet conditions and this potentially results in soil compaction by the commonly-used, heavy-weight tractors and equipment. The objectives of this experiment were (i) to determine if compaction re- duced yield and growth of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and

Daniel W. Sweeney; M. B. Kirkham; J. B. Sisson

2006-01-01

17

Soil properties and crop yields after 11 years of no tillage farming in wheat–maize cropping system in North China Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil deterioration and the accompanying decline in crop yields are the main factors limiting the further development of agriculture in North China Plain. The long-term effects of no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) on soil properties and crop yields were investigated in annual double cropping system of winter wheat–summer maize in the Gaocheng in Hebei, North China Plain over

Jin He; Hongwen Li; Rabi G. Rasaily; Qingjie Wang; Guohua Cai; Yanbo Su; Xiaodong Qiao; Lijin Liu

2011-01-01

18

Tolerance of Soybean Crops to Soil Waterlogging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Monoculture of irrigated paddy rice, common in the Mississippi delta of the United States and in Asia, diminishes soil nutrients, compacts soils, contaminates water supplies, and increases pest and diseases. While the addition of soybean crops to this cropping ecosystem can attenuate many of these p...

19

Soil water evaporation and crop residues  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

20

Annual Weeds, Alternative Crops for Alternative Fuel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

All cropland acreage in Alabama is infested with one or more species of annual weeds. Weeds are estimated to cost producers in the state approximately 8% of their potential yield, even with the current weed control technology available. Weed management continues to be the most expensive row crop pr...

21

A review of no-till systems and soil management for sustainable crop production in the subhumid and semiarid Pampas of Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western part of the Argentine Pampas is a subhumid and semiarid region consisting of extensive plain with deep sandy and sandy-loam soils. The agricultural system includes pastures in rotation with annual grain crops and grazed crops or continuous annual row cropping. The objective of this review was to present and discuss changes in soil properties due to different soil

Mart??n D??az-Zorita; Gustavo A Duarte; John H Grove

2002-01-01

22

Chemistry and microbial functional diversity differences in biofuel crop and grassland soils in multiple geographies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As crop and non-crop lands are increasingly becoming converted to biofuel feedstock production, it is of interest to identify potential impacts of annual and perennial feedstocks on soil ecosystem services. Soil samples obtained from 6 regional sets of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and 3 regiona...

23

CROPPING MANAGEMENT IMPACTS SOIL QUALITY INDICATORS FOR CLAYPAN SOILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management practices have the potential to either enhance or degrade soil quality, which in turn impact crop production and the environment. The objectives of this study were to investigate how 13 years of cropping and conservation reserve program (CRP) practices have impacted soil quality indicato...

24

Soil Carbon Changes for Bioenergy Crops.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bioenergy crops, which displace fossil fuels when used to produce ethanol, biobased products, and/or electricity, have the potential to further reduce atmospheric carbon levels by building up soil carbon levels, especially when planted on lands where thes...

J. W. Grate O. B. Egorob

2004-01-01

25

Soil carbon changes for bioenergy crops.  

SciTech Connect

Bioenergy crops, which displace fossil fuels when used to produce ethanol, biobased products, and/or electricity, have the potential to further reduce atmospheric carbon levels by building up soil carbon levels, especially when planted on lands where these levels have been reduced by intensive tillage. The purpose of this study is to improve the characterization of the soil carbon (C) sequestration for bioenergy crops (switchgrass, poplars, and willows) in the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model (Wang 1999) by using the latest results reported in the literature and by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Because soil carbon sequestration for bioenergy crops can play a significant role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for cellulosic ethanol, it is important to periodically update the estimates of soil carbon sequestration from bioenergy crops as new and better data become available. We used the three-step process described below to conduct our study.

Andress, D.

2004-04-22

26

Remote sensing of crop residue cover and soil tillage intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop residues on the soil surface reduce soil erosion and affect water infiltration, evaporation, and soil temperatures. Crop residues also influence the flow of nutrients, carbon, water, and energy in agricultural ecosystems. Current methods of measuring crop residue cover are inadequate for monitoring large areas. One promising remote sensing approach for discriminating crop residues from soil is based on a

C. S. T. Daughtry; P. C. Doraiswamy; A. L. Russ

2003-01-01

27

Effects of long-term phosphorus fertilization and winter cover cropping on soil phosphorus transformations in less weathered soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information concerning sources and sinks of available P in soil is needed to improve soil P management and protect water quality. This study, conducted from 1989 to 1998 on a Sultan silt loam soil (Aquantic Xerochrept), determined the annual P removal rate by corn ( Zea mays L.) and P transformation as affected by P rate and winter cover cropping.

S. Kuo; B. Huang; R. Bembenek

2005-01-01

28

Effects of soil erosion on crop productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil erosion and the effects of soil erosion on crop productivity have become emotional issues and have attracted the attention of agriculturists, environmentalists, and the public in general. In spite of heavy investments in research and development, the global rates of accelerated erosion are now presumbly higher than ever before. However, the data from available records obtained by diverse methods

Rattan Lal; William C. Moldenhauer

1987-01-01

29

Crop Residue Removal Impacts on Soil Productivity and Environmental Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop residues are a potential source of renewable feedstocks for cellulosic ethanol production because of their high cellulose content and easy availability. Indiscriminate removal as biofuel may, however, have adverse impacts on soil, environment, and crop production. This article reviews available information on the impacts of crop residue removal on soil properties, crop yields, and soil erosion across a wide

Humberto Blanco-Canqui; R. Lal

2009-01-01

30

Freeze-thaw effects on phosphorus loss in runoff from manured and catch-cropped soils.  

PubMed

Concern over nonpoint source P losses from agricultural lands to surface waters in frigid climates has focused attention on the role of freezing and thawing on P loss from catch crops (cover crops). This study evaluated the effect of freezing and thawing on the fate of P in bare soils, soils mixed with dairy manure, and soils with an established catch crop of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.). Experiments were conducted to evaluate changes in P runoff from packed soil boxes (100 by 20 by 5 cm) and P leaching from intact soil columns (30 cm deep). Before freezing and thawing, total P (TP) in runoff from catch-cropped soils was lower than from manured and bare soils due to lower erosion. Repeated freezing and thawing significantly increased water-extractable P (WEP) from catch crop biomass and resulted in significantly elevated concentrations of dissolved P in runoff (9.7 mg L(-1)) compared with manured (0.18 mg L(-1)) and bare soils (0.14 mg L(-1)). Catch crop WEP was strongly correlated with the number of freeze-thaw cycles. Freezing and thawing did not change the WEP of soils mixed with manures, nor were differences observed in subsurface losses of P between catch-cropped and bare soils before or after manure application. This study illustrates the trade-offs of establishing catch crops in frigid climates, which can enhance P uptake by biomass and reduce erosion potential but increase dissolved P runoff. PMID:16275731

Bechmann, Marianne E; Kleinman, Peter J A; Sharpley, Andrew N; Saporito, Lou S

2005-11-07

31

Influence of crop rotation and tillage intensity on soil physical properties and functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil tillage intensity can vary concerning tillage depth, frequency, power input into the soil and degree of soil turn-over. Conventional tillage systems where a plough is regularly used to turn over the soil can be differentiated from reduced tillage systems without ploughing but with loosening the upper soil and no tillage systems. Between conventional tillage and no tillage is a wide range of more or less reduced tillage systems. In our case the different tillage intensities are not induced by different agricultural machinery or techniques, but result from varying crop rotations with more or less perennial crops and therefore lower or higher tillage frequency. Our experimental area constitutes of quite unstructured substrates, partly heavily compacted. The development of a functioning soil structure and accumulation of nutrients and organic matter are of high importance. Three different crop rotations induce varying tillage intensities and frequencies. The first crop rotation (Alfalfa monoculture) has only experienced seed bed preparation once and subsequently is wheeled once a year to cut and chaff the biomass. The second crop rotation contains perennial and annual crops and has therefore been tilled more often, while the third crop rotation consists only of annual crops with annual seedbed preparation. Our results show that reduced tillage intensity/frequency combined with the intense root growth of Alfalfa creates the most favourable soil physical state of the substrate compared to increased tillage and lower root growth intensity of the other crop rotations. Soil tillage disturbs soil structure development, especially when the substrate is mechanically unstable as in our case. For such problematic locations it is recommendable to reduce tillage intensity and/or frequency to allow the development of soil structure enhanced by root growth and thereby the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients within the rooting zone.

Krümmelbein, Julia

2013-04-01

32

Impacts of soil damage by grazing livestock on crop productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil damage by livestock on cropped land is a concern for mixed crop-livestock producers. The hypothesis that livestock-induced soil damage does not effect subsequent crop productivity was investigated in three ways; a review of existing literature; two experimental studies in southern Australia; and based on these, use of a farming system model to simulate likely consequences of changes to soil

Lindsay W. Bell; John A. Kirkegaard; Antony Swan; James R. Hunt; Neil I. Huth; Neil A. Fettell

2011-01-01

33

Pendimethalin Wash?Off from Cover Crop Residues and Degradation in a Loessial Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tillage and cover crops affect soil biological, chemical and physical properties that control the fate of herbicides in soil. Effects of conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) and either native winter annual vegetation, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) or wheat (Triticum aestivum) on degradation of pendimethalin [N?(1?ethylpropyl)?3,4?dimethyl?2,6?dinitrobenzenamine] were investigated. Effect of pendimethalin sorption on residues of these cover crops on

L. A. Gaston; D. J. Boquet; M. A. Bosch

2003-01-01

34

Nutrient depletion by food crops in Ghana and soil organic nitrogen management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to quantify at the reconnaissance level, in developing agriculture, the depletion of nutrients in soils by annual food crops, and the implications for soil organic nitrogen management. Total nationwide uptakes over 10 years were estimated at 428 700 t of nitrogen, 73 100 t of phosphorus and 414 900 t of potassium. As much

E. R. Rhodes

1995-01-01

35

Cropping Systems Management, Soil Microbial Communities, and Soil Biological Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Consumers are demanding more organic products, in part because of concerns over environmental issues in conventional agriculture.\\u000a Modern, high-input agriculture can cause groundwater contamination, soil erosion, and eutrophication of surface waters. It\\u000a may be possible to enhance natural nutrient cycling and reduce our dependence on inorganic fertilizers in cropping systems.\\u000a To do so, we have to manage our cropping systems

Alison G. Nelson; Dean Spaner

36

Influence of biogas-digester effluent on crop growth and soil biochemical properties under rotational cropping  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-year study investigated the suitability of effluent from an anaerobic biogas digester as a fertiliser for supporting crop growth and maintaining soil biochemical levels under rotational cropping. The soil at the experimental area was predominantly a Fluvaquentic Eutrochrept. Comparisons were made with an inorganic fertiliser and a water-only treatment, using three crops (maize, oats, and kale) grown over a

D. J. Ross; K. R. Tate; T. W. Speir; D. J. Stewart; A. E. Hewitt

1989-01-01

37

Modelling effects of soil structure on the water balance of soil–crop systems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor soil structure, i.e. aggregation and porosity, is widely acknowledged as a major limitation to infiltration, redistribution and storage of water in a soil profile, leading to more runoff and erosion, reduced available water for plants and reduced crop production. Models of soil–crop systems are useful tools for evaluating interactions between soil physical condition, climate, management and crop growth. An

R. D Connolly

1998-01-01

38

Crop-tree interactions in alley cropping systems on alluvial soils of the Upper Amazon Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crop\\/hedgerow interface design was used to test three leguminous species,Inga edulis, Leucaena leucocephala andErythrina sp., for their potential use for alley cropping on alluvial soils in the upper Amazon Basin. Prunings were applied as mulch at three rates 0, 3.3 and 6.7 Mg dry matter\\/ha\\/crop. Competition, crop yields, nutrient budgets, and weed control were monitored for three consecutive crops

A. Salazar; L. T. Szott; C. A. Palm

1993-01-01

39

Linking N Cycling to Microbial Function Within Soil Microenvironments in Cover Crop Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cover crops have emerged as a crop management strategy to achieve agricultural sustainability and maintain environmental quality. Thus, fundamental knowledge of microbial-mediated C and N cycling is vital to understanding soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics in cover cropped agroecosystems. We investigated the effects of short-term cover crop-C input on N processing by microbial communities within SOM microenvironments and in bulk soil, across a gradient of organic to conventional crop management. We hypothesized that cover crop C and N inputs promote soil aggregation, which increases the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and stimulates greater microbial cycling of N within soil microenvironments, thereby leading to potential increases in N stabilization coupled with decreases in N loss. Our hypothesis was tested on the long-term organic, low-input, and conventional maize-tomato rotations at the Center for Integrated Farming Systems experiment (Davis, CA). We collected soil samples (0-15cm) across the cover crop and subsequent maize growing seasons and then isolated three SOM fractions soil: coarse particulate organic matter (cPOM; >250um), microaggregates (53-250um), and silt-and-clay (<53um). Total C and N were measured on both bulk soil and SOM fractions. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers for the functional genes, amoA and nosZ, were employed to quantify AOB and denitrifier population sizes, respectively. We also measured gross ammonification and nitrification rates in short-term 15N-incubations of the bulk soil to link cover crop induced N cycling to N-transforming bacteria. Total soil C and N concentrations and soil aggregation were higher in the organic than conventional and low-input systems. The amoA and no Z copy numbers g-1 dry soil were highest in the microaggregate fraction and similar between the cPOM and silt-and-clay fractions, among all cropping treatments. Abundances of AOB and denitrifiers were lower in bulk soil from the conventional and low- input than organic system. Our study indicates that long-term, annual cover crop inputs to the organic system lead to greater aggregation and development of microaggregate structures. Consequently, the abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers as well as the rates of ammonification and nitrification are augmented in the organic system compared to the conventional, which does not receive a cover crop, and the low-input system, which receives cover crops only in alternate years. These results shed light on the specific mechanisms governing short-term N stabilization versus losses under long-term crop management.

Kong, A. Y.; Scow, K. M.; Hristova, K.; Six, J.

2007-12-01

40

Short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers influences biochemical and microbial characteristics of soils under an annual crop [Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)].  

PubMed

The study was conducted to determine whether short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers influence biochemical and microbial variables reflecting soil quality. For the study, soils were collected from a field experiment conducted on turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) involving organic nutrient management (ONM), chemical nutrient management (CNM) and integrated nutrient management (INM). The findings revealed that application of organic manures and biofertilizers (ONM and INM) positively influenced microbial biomass C, N mineralization, soil respiration and enzymes activities. Contrarily, greater metabolic quotient levels in CNM indicated a stressed soil microbial community. Principal component analysis indicated the strong relationship between microbial activity and the availability of labile and easily mineralizable organic matter. The findings imply that even short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers promoted soil microbial and enzyme activities and these parameters are sensitive enough to detect changes in soil quality due to short-term incorporation of biological fertilizers. PMID:20163953

Dinesh, R; Srinivasan, V; Hamza, S; Manjusha, A

2010-02-18

41

Short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers influences biochemical and microbial characteristics of soils under an annual crop [Turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to determine whether short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers influence biochemical and microbial variables reflecting soil quality. For the study, soils were collected from a field experiment conducted on turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) involving organic nutrient management (ONM), chemical nutrient management (CNM) and integrated nutrient management (INM). The findings revealed that application of organic manures

R. Dinesh; V. Srinivasan; S. Hamza; A. Manjusha

2010-01-01

42

Soil Organic Matter in a West Bengal Inceptisol after 30 Years of Multiple Cropping and Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice-based multiple cropping systems are predominant in the Indo- Gangetic Plains of Indian subcontinent. A decline in yield of such systems has been observed and ascribed to quantitative and qualitative variations of soil organic matter (SOM). We evaluated the impact of the annual rotation: rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), jute (Corchorus olitorius L.), with and without fertilizer

M. C. Manna; A. Swarup; R. H. Wanjari; Y. V. Singh; P. K. Ghosh; K. N. Singh; A. K. Tripathi; M. N. Saha

2006-01-01

43

Daisy: an open soil-crop-atmosphere system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daisy is a well tested dynamic model for simulation of water and nitrogen dynamics and crop growth in agro-ecosystems. The model aims at simulating water balance, nitrogen balance and losses, development in soil organic matter and crop growth and production in crop rotations under alternate management strategies. The software, which recently was rewritten, has been carefully designed to facilitate interaction

Per Abrahamsen; Søren Hansen

2000-01-01

44

Soil physical aspects of integrated crop-livestock systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integrated crop-livestock systems are inherently more complex than the current model of specialized agricultural production in industrialized countries with clear separation of crops and animals. A movement towards integrating crops and livestock will have impacts on soils and the environment; the ...

45

Managing Soil Properties through Dryland Cropping System Intensities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Modification of soil functioning/quality parameters (i.e., organic matter content) is important to improve the capacity of soil as a water storage-reservoir for crop production in dryland. A long-term dryland cropping research study was established at the USDA-ARS farm near Lubbock, Texas in 2003, ...

46

Inter-annual Weather Variation and Crop Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the efiects of rising mean temperatures on agricultural output have been studied extensively, there is limited discussion of the impact of inter-annual weather variation on crop yields. This paper estimates the link between weather and crop yields separating the in?uence of (i) mean weather outcomes (i. e., climate) to which a farmer can adapt from (ii) unpredictable year-to-year weather

Wolfram Schlenker

47

7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The producer must manage crop nutrients and soil fertility through rotations...A producer may manage crop nutrients and soil fertility to maintain or improve...by applying: (1) A crop nutrient or soil amendment included on the...

2009-01-01

48

7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The producer must manage crop nutrients and soil fertility through rotations...A producer may manage crop nutrients and soil fertility to maintain or improve...by applying: (1) A crop nutrient or soil amendment included on the...

2010-01-01

49

Site-Specific Compaction, Soil Physical Property, and Crop Yield Relationships for Claypan Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil compaction is a concern in crop production and environmental protection. Compaction is most often quantified in the field, albeit indirectly, using cone penetrometer measurements of soil strength. The objective of this research was to relate soil compaction to soil physical properties and crop ...

50

Impact of Corn Residue Removal on Crop and Soil Productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over-reliance on imported fuels, increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouses and sustaining food production for a growing population are three of the most important problems facing society in the mid-term. The US Department of Energy and private enterprise are developing technology necessary to use high cellulose feedstock, such as crop residues, for ethanol production. Based on production levels, corn (Zea mays L.) residue has potential as a biofuel feedstock. Crop residues are a renewable and domestic fuel source, which can reduce the rate of fossil fuel use (both imported and domestic) and provide an additional farm commodity. Crop residues protect the soil from wind and water erosion, provide inputs to form soil organic matter (a critical component determining soil quality) and play a role in nutrient cycling. Crop residues impact radiation balance and energy fluxes and reduce evaporation. Therefore, the benefits of using crop residues as fuel, which removes crop residues from the field, must be balanced against negative environmental impacts (e.g. soil erosion), maintaining soil organic matter levels, and preserving or enhancing productivity. All ramifications of new management practices and crop uses must be explored and evaluated fully before an industry is established. There are limited numbers of long-term studies with soil and crop responses to residue removal that range from negative to negligible. The range of crop and soil responses to crop residue removal was attributed to interactions with climate, management and soil type. Within limits, corn residue can be harvested for ethanol production to provide a renewable, domestic source of energy feedstock that reduces greenhouse gases. Removal rates must vary based on regional yield, climatic conditions and cultural practices. Agronomists are challenged to develop a protocol (tool) for recommending maximum permissible removal rates that ensure sustained soil productivity.

Johnson, J. M.; Wilhelm, W. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Voorhees, W. B.; Linden, D.

2003-12-01

51

Aerobic decomposition of crop residues improves N availability and grain yield for three rice soils of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: A screenhouse study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, rice (Oryza sativa, L.) is usually planted two to three times annually. Limited evidence elsewhere suggests that rice crop uptake of soil nitrogen (N) under such intensive cropping can be increased by replacing the customary anaerobic decomposition of crop residues wi...

52

Changes in Soil Water Storage in Winter Fallowed and Cover Cropped Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of winter cover crops to improve the productivity and sustainability of agroecosystems in California has increased during the last decade. Little information exists however, on water use by winter cover crops. This 3-year study was conducted in the Central Valley of California to quantify changes in water storage in winter fallowed and cover cropped soils. Soil water depletions

J. P. Mitchell; D. W. Peters; C. Shennan

1999-01-01

53

SOIL RESPONSES UNDER INTEGRATED CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integration of crops and livestock could be either detrimental or beneficial to soil properties, depending upon timing and intensity of animal traffic and initial condition of the soil surface. We evaluated the surface-soil properties of a Typic Kanhapludult in Georgia during the first three years o...

54

Biomass Crop Production: Benefits for Soil Quality and Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Research at three locations in the southeastern US is quantifying changes in soil quality and soil carbon storage that occur during production of biomass crops compared with row crops. After three growing seasons, soil quality improved and soil carbon storage increased on plots planted to cottonwood, sycamore, sweetgum with a cover crop, switchgrass, and no-till corn. For tree crops, sequestered belowground carbon was found mainly in stumps and large roots. At the TN site, the coarse woody organic matter storage belowground was 1.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}yr{sup {minus}1}, of which 79% was stumps and large roots and 21% fine roots. Switchgrass at the AL site also stored considerable carbon belowground as coarse roots. Most of the carbon storage occurred mainly in the upper 30 cw although coarse roots were found to depths of greater than 60 cm. Biomass crops contributed to improvements in soil physical quality as well as increasing belowground carbon sequestration. The distribution and extent of carbon sequestration depends on the growth characteristics and age of the individual biomass crop species. Time and increasing crop maturity will determine the potential of these biomass crops to significantly contribute to the overall national goal of increasing carbon sequestration and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Bandaranayake, W.; Bock, B.R.; Houston, A.; Joslin, J.D.; Pettry, D.E.; Schoenholtz, S.; Thornton, F.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Tyler, D.

1999-08-29

55

CROP SEQUENCES AND DYNAMIC CROPPING SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A dynamic cropping system is defined as a long-term strategy of annual crop sequencing that optimizes crop and soil use options and the attainment of production, economic, and resource conservation goals by using sound ecological management principles. Development of a dynamic cropping systems rese...

56

The role of soil organic matter in maintaining soil quality in continuous cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintenance and improvement of soil quality in continuous cropping systems is critical to sustaining agricultural productivity and environmental quality for future generations. This review focuses on lessons learned from long-term continuous cropping experiments. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the most often reported attribute from long-term studies and is chosen as the most important indicator of soil quality and agronomic sustainability

D. W. Reeves

1997-01-01

57

Heavy metals in the soil-crop system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on the bulk contents of heavy metals in polluted soils are not quite suitable to judge the ecological situation in an agrocenosis. According to the results of model experiments with artificial contamination of soil, the flux of zinc and lead from the starting point (from a medium loamy leached chernozem) to the final point (wheat grains) sharply decreases. It is possible to obtain an ecologically pure (uncontaminated) grain yield even on a strongly contaminated soil due to the buffering capacity of the latter and due to the self-protective capacity of agricultural crops. The ecological potential of the soil-crop system is formed mostly at the expense of the buffering capacity of soil to heavy metals; the barrier function of plants is less significant. It is argued that the existing ecological standards based on the total contents of heavy metals in soil are of little use for predicting the quality of crops.

Il'in, V. B.

2007-09-01

58

Mineralizable soil nitrogen and labile soil organic matter in diverse long-term cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable soil fertility management depends on long-term integrated strategies that build and maintain soil organic matter\\u000a and mineralizable soil N levels. These strategies increase the portion of crop N needs met by soil N and reduce dependence\\u000a on external N inputs required for crop production. To better understand the impact of management on soil N dynamics, we conducted\\u000a field and

John T. SpargoMichel; Michel A. Cavigelli; Steven B. Mirsky; Jude E. Maul; John J. Meisinger

2011-01-01

59

Coupling Cover Crops and Manure Injection: Soil Inorganic N Changes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integration of a rye/oat cover crop with liquid swine manure application may enhance retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil inorganic N following injection of liquid swine manure to plots seeded with a rye/oat co...

60

Hyperspectral mapping of crop and soils for precision agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precision agriculture requires high spectral and spatial resolution imagery for advanced analyses of crop and soil conditions to increase environmental protection and producers' sustainability. GIS models that anticipate crop responses to nutrients, water, and pesticides require high spatial detail to generate application prescription maps. While the added precision of geo-spatial interpolation to field scouting generates improved zone maps and are

Michael L. Whiting; Susan L. Ustin; Pablo Zarco-Tejada; Alicia Palacios-Orueta; Vern C. Vanderbilt

2006-01-01

61

Soil Nitrogen Response to Coupling Cover Crops with Manure Injection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coupling winter small grain cover crops (CC) with manure (M) application may increase retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this research was to quantify soil N changes after application of liquid swine M (Sus scrofa L.) at target N rates of 112, 224, an...

62

Soil Erodibility Parameters Under Various Cropping Systems of Maize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For four years, runoff and soil loss from seven cropping systems of fodder maize have been measured on experimental plots under natural and simulated rainfall. Besides runoff and soil loss, several variables have also been measured, including rainfall kinetic energy, degree of slaking, surface roughness, aggregate stability, soil moisture content, crop cover, shear strength and topsoil porosity. These variables explain a large part of the variance in measured runoff, soil loss and splash erosion under the various cropping systems. The following conclusions were drawn from the erosion measurements on the experimental plots (these conclusions apply to the spatial level at which the measurements were carried out). (1) Soil tillage after maize harvest strongly reduced surface runoff and soil loss during the winter; sowing of winter rye further reduced winter erosion, though the difference with a merely tilled soil is small. (2) During spring and the growing season, soil loss is reduced strongly if the soil surface is partly covered by plant residues; the presence of plant residue on the surface appeared to be essential in achieving erosion reduction in summer. (3) Soil loss reductions were much higher than runoff reductions; significant runoff reduction is only achieved by the straw system having flat-lying, non-fixed plant residue on the soil surface; the other systems, though effective in reducing soil loss, were not effective in reducing runoff.

van Dijk, P. M.; van der Zijp, M.; Kwaad, F. J. P. M.

1996-08-01

63

Effects of reduced tillage, crop residue management and manure application practices on crop yields and soil carbon sequestration on an Andisol in northern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil carbon sequestration in agricultural lands has been deemed a sustainable option to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 levels. In this context, the effects of different tillage and C input management (residue management and manure application) practices on crop yields, residue C and annual changes in total soil organic C (SOC) (0–30 cm depth) were investigated over one cycle of a 4-year

Nobuhisa Koga; Hiroyuki Tsuji

2009-01-01

64

Annual variations in earthworm surface-casting activity and soil transport by water runoff under a temperate maize agroecosytem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were conducted on both the annual patterns of earthworm casting activity and the annual variations in soil and phosphorus (P) transfers by water runoff, under a temperate maize crop, to determine whether there is any time synchronism over the year between these processes that could increase risk of soil erosion. Cast dynamics were measured at 15-day intervals for 1

R. C. Le Bayon; S. Moreau; C. Gascuel-Odoux; F. Binet

2002-01-01

65

Relating soil biochemistry to sustainable crop production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Amino acids, amino sugars, carbohydrates, phenols, and fatty acids together comprise appreciable proportions of soil organic matter (SOM). Their cycling contribute to soil processes, including nitrogen availability, carbon sequestration and aggregation. For example, soil accumulation of phenols has ...

66

Nitrogen conservation in soil and crop residues as affected by crop rotation and soil disturbance under Mediterranean conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated conservation and cycling of N under oat–oat and lupine–oat rotations in disturbed and undisturbed soil, when\\u000a roots or roots plus aboveground residues were retained. Crop residues were labelled with 15N in Year 1, and differential soil disturbance was imposed after harvest. In Year 2, plant growth, N transfer from residue\\u000a into the various sinks of the second crop

A. de Varennes; M. O. Torres; C. Cunha-Queda; M. J. Goss; C. Carranca

2007-01-01

67

Transfer of Cadmium from Soil to Vegetable Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted in order to study the transfer of Cd from soil to the vegetable crops namely Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), Lal sak (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and Data sak (Amaranthus spinosis L.). The mean transfer factors (concentration in plant dry weight \\/ concentration in soil dry weight) varied from 2.030 to 6.785 in

M. Z. Hossain; S. M. Ullah; S. A. Ahad; M. B. Ullah

2007-01-01

68

Broiler litter fertilization and cropping system impacts on soil properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 3-year study was conducted at the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Verona, MS, in a Catalpa silty clay loam soil (Fine, smectitic, thermic Fluvaquentic Hapludolls) to evaluate soil chemical, physical, and biological changes resulting from cropping systems along with broile...

69

Field dissipation of metamitron in soil and sugar beet crop.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation of herbicides in plant produce may cause ailing effect on animals and human beings through food chain contamination. Thus oblige the investigation of newer herbicide metamitron for its persistence and degradation in sugar beet crop and soil. Metamitron persist in plant up to 15 days while up to 30 days in soil. Its dissipation followed first order reaction kinetics. On day 90, metamitron was detected in the soil at 7.0 kg a.i. ha(-1) treated plot only. It would be concluded that metamitron at 3.5 kg a.i. ha(-1) can be safely applied to the sugar beet crop for weed control. PMID:23135307

Janaki, P; Rathika, S; Chinnusamy, C; Prabhakaran, N K

2012-11-08

70

A simple model for estimating the contribution of nitrogen mineralization to the nitrogen supply of crops from a stabilized pool of soil organic matter and recent organic input  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model was developed to estimate the contribution of nitrogen (N) mineralization to the N supply of crops. In this model the soil organic matter is divided into active and passive pools. Annual soil mineralization of N is derived from the active pool. The active pool comprises stabilized and labile soil organic N. The stabilized N is built up

F. J. Matus; J. Rodríguez

1994-01-01

71

An integrated model of perennial and annual crop production for Sub-Saharan countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop production in sub-Saharan Africa is dominated by smallholders who allocate household labor across annual and perennial crops and, in some cases, to wage labor markets. This paper develops a microeconomic model of household choice which is consistent with observed characteristics of sub-Saharan agricultural systems in terms of: integrated production of annual and perennial crops; price uncertainty in markets that

Robert D. Weaver

1989-01-01

72

INFLUENCE OF COVER CROPS AND SOIL AMENDMENTS ON OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.) PRODUCTION AND SOIL NEMATODES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A pot experiment to determine the effects of summer cover crops and soil amendments on okra yield and population densities of various soil nematode taxa was conducted in two consecutive growing seasons in a subtropical region. Two cover crops, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) and sorghum sudangrass (So...

73

Biological Features of the Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course of study represents the third of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to biological features of soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will: (1) realize the vast amount of life present in the soil, (2) be able to list representative animal and plant life in the soil by size,…

Miller, Larry E.

74

Physical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course of study represents the second of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the subject of physical features of the soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will be able to determine the texture and structural types of soil, list the structural classes of the soil and where they…

Miller, Larry E.

75

Physical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The course of study represents the second of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the subject of physical features of the soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will be able to determine the texture and structural types of soil, list the structural classes of the soil and where…

Miller, Larry E.

76

Soil Water: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course of study represents the fourth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil water. Upon completing the three day module, the student will be able to classify water as to its presence in the soil, outline the hydrological cycle, list the ways water is lost from the soil,…

Miller, Larry E.

77

Influence of soil compaction on carbon and nitrogen mineralization of soil organic matter and crop residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the influence of soil compaction in a loamy sand soil on C and N mineralization and nitrification of soil organic\\u000a matter and added crop residues. Samples of unamended soil, and soil amended with leek residues, at six bulk densities ranging\\u000a from 1.2 to 1.6?Mg m–3 and 75% field capacity, were incubated. In the unamended soil, bulk density within

S. De Neve; G. Hofman

2000-01-01

78

Crop Performance and Soil Properties in Two Artificially-Eroded Soils in North-Central Alberta  

SciTech Connect

Field experiments were conducted from 1991 to 1995 at Josephburg (Orthic Black Chernozem, Typic Cryoboroll) and Cooking Lake (Orthic Gray Luvisol, Typic Cryoboralf), Alberta, to determine impact of topsoil removal on selected soil properties, N-mineralization potential and crop yield, and effectiveness of various amendments for restoring the productivity of eroded soils. The simulated-erosion levels were established in the autumn of 1990 by removing 20 cm topsoil in 5-cm depth increments. The four amendments were: control, addition of 5 cm of topsoil, fertilizers to supply 100 kg N ha-1 and 20 kg P ha-1, and cattle manure at 75 Mg ha-1. Topsoil and manure were applied once in the autumn of 1990, while fertilizers were applied annually from 1991 to 1995. Available N and P, total C, N and P, and N-mineralization potential decreased, while bulk density increased with increasing depth of topsoil removal. Tiller number, plant height, spike density, thousand kernel weight, and leaf area index decreased with simulated erosion. Grain yield reductions due to simulated soil erosion were either linear or curvilinear functions of nutrient removal. Application of N and P fertilizers and manure improved grain yield and reduced the impact of yield loss due to erosion. Return of 5 cm of topsoil also increased grain yield, but to a lesser extent than manure or fertilizers. Grain yields were maximized when fertilizers were also applied to organic amendment treatments. In conclusion, the findings suggest the importance of integrated use of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers for best crop yields on severely-eroded soils.

Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Malhi, S. S.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E. D.; Quiroga Jakas, Maria C.

2006-09-01

79

Direct seeding mulch-based cropping increases both the activity and the abundance of denitrifier communities in a tropical soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the impact of direct seeding mulch-based cropping (DMC), as an alternative to conventional tilling (CT), on a functional community involved in N cycling and emission of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). The study was carried out for annual soybean\\/rice crop rotation in the Highlands of Madagascar. The differences between the two soil management strategies (direct seeding with

Ezékiel Baudoin; Laurent Philippot; Dominique Chèneby; Lydie Chapuis-Lardy; Nathalie Fromin; David Bru; Bodovololona Rabary; Alain Brauman

2009-01-01

80

Long-term winter cover cropping effects on corn (Zea mays L.) production and soil nitrogen availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine effects of long-term winter cover cropping with hairy vetch, cereal rye and annual\\u000a ryegrass on soil N availability and corn productivity. From 1987 to 1995, with the exception of the first year of the study,\\u000a the cover crops were seeded each year in late September or early October after the corn harvest and incorporated

S. Kuo; E. J. Jellum

2000-01-01

81

Cover crops effectiveness for soil erosion control in Sicilian vineyard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vineyards, which are very common in Mediterranean area, cover crops are becoming increasingly used to reduce soil erosion. Cover crops reduce runoff by increasing infiltration and increasing roughness and then reducing the ovelandflow velocity. The aim of the present study was to quantify soil and water losses under different soil managements systems on vineyards. The study site was a Sauvignon blanc winegrape vineyard located in Southwestern Sicily. Vineyards were managed both traditionally (conventional tillage) and alternative management using cover crops: 1) Vicia faba ; 2) Vicia faba and Vicia sativa; 3) Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra; 4)Trifolium subterraneum, Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina, 5) Triticum durum, 6) Triticum durum and Vicia sativa. To monitor water and sediment yield, a Gerlach trough was installed at each treatment on the vineyard inter-row, with the row vineyard used as a border (topographical border). Runoff was measured after each rainfall event (raingauge 0.2 mm accuracy) from November 2005 to April 2007. And sediments were measured after desiccation. The results show that runoff and erosion were reduced considerably under the treatments with Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra and Trifolium subterraneum, Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina (treatments 3 and 4). The soil losses were reduced by 73% under treatment 4 compared to the tillage plot. Conventional tillage and alternative management using Vicia faba cover crop (treatment 1) result the most ineffective treatment to soil erosion. These results show that the use of a cover crop can be a simple soil and water conservation practice in Sicilian vineyards. Key words: soil erosion, cover crops, vineyard, Mediterranean area.

Gristina, L.; Novara, A.; Saladino, S.; Santoro, A.

2009-04-01

82

DAYCENT national-scale simulations of nitrous oxide emissions from cropped soils in the United States.  

PubMed

Until recently, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission factor methodology, based on simple empirical relationships, has been used to estimate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes for regional and national inventories. However, the 2005 USEPA greenhouse gas inventory includes estimates of N2O emissions from cultivated soils derived from simulations using DAYCENT, a process-based biogeochemical model. DAYCENT simulated major U.S. crops at county-level resolution and IPCC emission factor methodology was used to estimate emissions for the approximately 14% of cropped land not simulated by DAYCENT. The methodology used to combine DAYCENT simulations and IPCC methodology to estimate direct and indirect N2O emissions is described in detail. Nitrous oxide emissions from simulations of presettlement native vegetation were subtracted from cropped soil N2O to isolate anthropogenic emissions. Meteorological data required to drive DAYCENT were acquired from DAYMET, an algorithm that uses weather station data and accounts for topography to predict daily temperature and precipitation at 1-km2 resolution. Soils data were acquired from the State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO). Weather data and dominant soil texture class that lie closest to the geographical center of the largest cluster of cropped land in each county were used to drive DAYCENT. Land management information was implemented at the agricultural-economic region level, as defined by the Agricultural Sector Model. Maps of model-simulated county-level crop yields were compared with yields estimated by the USDA for quality control. Combining results from DAYCENT simulations of major crops and IPCC methodology for remaining cropland yielded estimates of approximately 109 and approximately 70 Tg CO2 equivalents for direct and indirect, respectively, mean annual anthropogenic N2O emissions for 1990-2003. PMID:16825465

Del Grosso, S J; Parton, W J; Mosier, A R; Walsh, M K; Ojima, D S; Thornton, P E

2006-07-06

83

Tillage and liming effects on crop and labile soil nitrogen in an acid soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited information is available on soil management effects on crop production and nitrogen (N) cycling in acid soils. The effects of conventional tillage (CT) versus no-till (NT) and liming (0 versus 7.5Mgha?1), and their interaction, on labile N pools in an acid soil were evaluated during the 7th to 10th year of a 3-course small grain rotation. Crop production and

Y. K. Soon; M. A. Arshad

2005-01-01

84

Crop effect to soil moisture retrieval at different microwave frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In soil moisture retrieval by microwave remote sensing technology, vegetation effect is important, due to its emission upward as well as masking the soil surface contribution. Because of good penetration characteristics through crop at low frequencies, L-band is often used, where crop is treated as a uniform layer, and 0th-order Brightness Temperature model is used. Higher frequencies upper than L-band, the frequencies both on NASA AQUA AMSR-E and FY-3 to be launched next year in CHINA, may be more informative in SM retrieval. The multiple-scattering effects inside crop and that between crop layer and soil surface will be increasing when frequencies go higher from L-band. In this paper, a Matrix-Doubling model that account for multiple-scattering based on ray tracing technique is used to simulate the microwave emission of vegetated-surface at C- and X-band. The orientation and size of crop element such as leaves and cylinders are accounted for in crop layer, and AIEM is used for calculation of ground surface scattering. Simulation results from this model for corn and SGP99 experiment data are in good agreement. Since complicated theoretical model as used in this paper involves too many parameters, to make SM retrieval more directly, corresponding terms from the developed model are matched with 0th-order,so as to derive effective single scattering albedo and vegetation opacity at C- and X-band.

Zhang, Zhongjun; Luan, Jinzhe

2006-12-01

85

Sunn Hemp: A Cover Crop for Southern and Tropical Farming Systems. Soil Quality-Agronomy Technical Note No. 10.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Do you want a cover crop that will increase organic matter, provide nitrogen, grow in low fertility sandy soils, and does not harbor nematodes. Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a legume that when grown as a summer annual can produce over 5,000 pounds o...

1999-01-01

86

Trace elements in soils and crops.  

PubMed

To demonstrate the total amounts to be expected in soils, the ranges of contents of some 60 trace elements in ten representative Scottish arable surface soils are compared with ranges in soil-forming rocks and with crustal averages. It is, however, the amounts potentially available to plants rather than the total contents that are biologically significant. In temperate climates, trace element mobilization is greatest when weathering takes place under conditions of impeded pedological drainage, leading to the formation of gleyed soils. Mobilized trace elements occur in arable surface soils largely in adsorbed and chelated forms, which are available to plants to a greater or smaller extent depending on the prevailing soil parameters and on the element in question. Different species take up different amounts of trace elements: the proportions in the various plant parts vary with the element and the stage of growth. Information is required about the mobilization and uptake of many elements about which little is at present known but which may affect the functions of essential elements through inter-element interactions. Systematic soil surveys in which soils are mapped by associations related to parent material, with their series related to genetic soil types, provide a useful countrywide guide to trace element status. PMID:43528

Mitchell, R L; Burridge, J C

1979-12-11

87

[Soil respiration variations in winter wheat field in different previous crops and its influencing factors].  

PubMed

This study was to define the Variations of soil respiration, the response of influence factors to soil respiration and carbon sink in the total growing season, in winter wheat field of different previous crops. The results showed that: (1) as soil depth increases, the response of temperature to soil respiration rate also increased with a lag; (2) the soil respiration rate was quadric to soil moisture, phosphorus, potassium, soil urease activity, soil temperature, soil moisture as the main factors had an effect on soil respiration rate; soil temperature had the stronger effect on soil respiration rate when potassium had the weaker effect on soil respiration rate; (3) the average carbon emission rate in wheat filed of different previous crops showed as follow: Pepper of previous crops > celery of previous crops > corn of previous crops > eggplant of previous crops. The intensity of carbon "sink" displayed as follow: eggplant of previous crops > celery of previous crops > corn of previous crops > pepper of previous crops. As for the trials of this study, although the soil respiration rate is highest in the winter wheat filed of previous pepper, the amount of carbon fixed is the most. Its ratio of net primary productivity (NPP) and soil carbon release quantity was highest, so carbon sink was the strongest. If rotation planting was arranged according to the purpose of increasing carbon sink and reducing carbon emissions, pepper was relatively appropriate stubbles crop, followed by corn crop, celery and eggplant. PMID:22295608

Hao, Wang-Lin; Liang, Yin-Li; Wu, Xing; Lin, Xing-Jun; Zhu, Yan-Li; Luo, An-Rong

2011-11-01

88

Integrated soil-crop system management for food security  

PubMed Central

China and other rapidly developing economies face the dual challenge of substantially increasing yields of cereal grains while at the same time reducing the very substantial environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. We used a model-driven integrated soil–crop system management approach to develop a maize production system that achieved mean maize yields of 13.0 t ha?1 on 66 on-farm experimental plots—nearly twice the yield of current farmers’ practices—with no increase in N fertilizer use. Such integrated soil–crop system management systems represent a priority for agricultural research and implementation, especially in rapidly growing economies.

Chen, Xin-Ping; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Vitousek, Peter M.; Cassman, Kenneth G.; Matson, Pamela A.; Bai, Jin-Shun; Meng, Qing-Feng; Hou, Peng; Yue, Shan-Chao; Romheld, Volker; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2011-01-01

89

[Influence of double rice cropping system innovation on paddy soil profile form and soil characteristics].  

PubMed

Field experiments were conducted on the double rice cropping paddy field in red soil area to evaluate the influence of cropping system innovation on soil profile form and related soil characteristics. Four cropping systems of rice-rice-Chinese Milkvetch (Astragalus sinicus Linn.), forage, paddy-upland rotation, and upland were substituted for the double rice cropping system. The results indicated that compared with those under double rice cropping system, the thickness of cultivated horizon under upland cropping system increased by 4 cm, that of plow pan declined by 2 cm, > 2 mm aggregates in wet-sieved particle-size fractions increased by 6.94%, wet-sieved mean-mass diameter increased by 0.37 mm, contents of humic acid carbon and fulvic acid carbon increased by 0.15 and 0.49 g kg(-1), respectively, and quotient of aggregates water stability was 0.78 times higher. Under paddy-upland rotation, the quotient of aggregates water stability was higher (95.86), while soil nutrient contents changed a little. Under rice-rice-Chinese Milkvetch system, soil organic matter content increased by 1.3 g kg(-1), quotient of aggregates water stability declined by 8.82, but other parameters had less changes. Under forage system, the thickness of cultivated and transitional horizons increased by 2 cm and 9 cm, respectively, quotient of aggregates water stability increased by 1.39, while the contents of soil organic matter and total potassium decreased by 5.6 and 2.8 g kg(-1), respectively. Among all test cropping systems, forage system had the greatest changes in soil characteristics. It was completely feasible to substitute the local double rice cropping system for paddy-upland rotation or upland cropping, particularly in the areas where full irrigation was not available. However, attention should be paid to the decrease of soil potassium content when the cropping system innovation was practiced. PMID:18655589

Zeng, Xi-Bai; Sun, Nan; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Li, Lian-Fang; Wang, Bo-Ren; Bai, Ling-Yu

2008-05-01

90

Building Soils for Better Crops. Sustainable Soil Management. Third Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the new emphasis on sustainable agriculture comes a reawakening of interest in soil health. Early scientists, farmers, and gardeners were well aware of the importance of soil quality and organic matter to the productivity of soil. The significance of...

F. Magdoff H. Van Es

2009-01-01

91

Soil, Plant, and Crop Science. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This package contains an instructor's manual, an instructor's resource package, and a student workbook for a course in agricultural production and management as it relates to crop production. The module contains 17 units of instruction, each of which contains some or all of the following components: objective sheet, instructor's guide, information…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

92

Crop Management for Soil Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from agriculture is related to increasing and protecting soil organic matter (SOM) concentration. Agricultural soils can be a significant sink for atmospheric carbon (C) through increase of the SOM concentration. The natural ecosystems such as forests or prairies, where C gains are in equilibrium with losses, lose a large fraction of the antecedent C

Marek K. Jarecki; Rattan Lal

2003-01-01

93

Soil factors associated with zinc deficiency in crops and humans.  

PubMed

Zinc deficiency is the most ubiquitous micronutrient deficiency problem in world crops. Zinc is essential for both plants and animals because it is a structural constituent and regulatory co-factor in enzymes and proteins involved in many biochemical pathways. Millions of hectares of cropland are affected by Zn deficiency and approximately one-third of the human population suffers from an inadequate intake of Zn. The main soil factors affecting the availability of Zn to plants are low total Zn contents, high pH, high calcite and organic matter contents and high concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, bicarbonate and phosphate in the soil solution or in labile forms. Maize is the most susceptible cereal crop, but wheat grown on calcareous soils and lowland rice on flooded soils are also highly prone to Zn deficiency. Zinc fertilizers are used in the prevention of Zn deficiency and in the biofortification of cereal grains. PMID:19291414

Alloway, B J

2009-10-01

94

RELATING SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN SOIL COMPACTION TO SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP YIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil compaction is a concern in crop production and environmental protection. Compaction is most often quantified in the field, albeit indirectly, using cone penetrometer measurements of soil strength, reported as cone index (CI). The objective of this research was to relate soil compaction, measure...

95

Chemical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The course of study represents the fifth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to chemical features of the soil. Upon completing the four day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) list macro- and micro-nutrients, (2) define pH and its effect on plants, (3) outline Cation Exchange of the soil,…

Miller, Larry E.

96

Cropping system and broiler litter application impacts on soil nutrient dynamics and soil quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop rotation and broiler litter applications can influence and maintain high yield production of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), but relative impact of these management practices on soil nutrient dynamics and soil quality is lacking in the literature. The effects on soil of b...

97

Dissipation of some organochlorine insecticides in cropped and uncropped soil.  

PubMed

Dissipation of four organochlorine insecticides, viz. aldrin, HCH, chlordane and heptachlor was studied in a sandy loam soil with and without crops during a period of 10 cropping seasons. Dissipation of all chemicals followed first-order kinetics (r(2)=0.537 - 0.976) with almost similar persistence in cropped and uncropped soils for all the insecticides. The average half-lives, (t(1/2) values) for total residues of aldrin, HCH, chlordane, and heptachlor in cropped treatments were 80.7, 58.8, 93.2, and 110 days. Their respective values in fallow plots were 78.4, 83.8, 154, and 116 days. None of the parent compounds or their isomers could be detected below the 20 cm depth at the termination of the experiment. Highest residue concentrations were observed in the surface 10 cm layer in fallow plots, but in the deeper (10-20 cm) layer in cropped plots. Analysis of plants and grains showed significant residues of all the chemicals. Degradation of these compounds in cropped and uncropped plots is discussed with regard to their volatilization, microbial degradation, leaching, and plant uptake. PMID:15092134

Singh, G; Kathpal, T S; Spencer, W F; Dhankar, J S

1991-01-01

98

Soil Compaction in Conservation Tillage: Crop Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil compaction effects on maize (Zea mays L.) plant population, height, and yield were studied from 2002-2005 in a no-tillage\\/in-row tillage study on a Hublersburg silt loam soil (Typic Hapludult) in Pennsylvania.Soilwascompactedannuallywithathree-axletruckwith 10-Mgaxleloadmountedwithroadtires(700kPainflationpressure)or flotationtires (250kPa).Inanothertreatment, soilwasonlycompacted with road tires in the first year without subsequent compaction. Re- mediation treatments were deep (40 cm) in-row tillage before or after compaction with

Dilraj Sidhu; Sjoerd W. Duiker

2006-01-01

99

Tillage and cropping effects on soil quality indicators in the northern Great Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extreme climate of the northern Great Plains of North America requires cropping systems to possess a resilient soil resource in order to be sustainable. This paper summarizes the interactive effects of tillage, crop sequence, and cropping intensity on soil quality indicators for two long-term cropping system experiments in the northern Great Plains. The experiments, located in central North Dakota,

M. A. Liebig; D. L. Tanaka; B. J. Wienhold

2004-01-01

100

LONG-TERM CROPPING SYSTEM EFFECTS ON SOIL NITROGEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term research can guide agricultural development by identifying the effects of management practices on agronomic performance and soil quality. Long-term experiments on crop rotation, tillage, residue management and fertilization were initiated at the Pendleton Experiment Station in 1931. Whea...

101

CROPPING SYSTEM EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AND SOILBORNE DISEASES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cropping systems, consisting of barley, canola, clover, green bean, soybean, and sweet corn in various combinations in 2- and 3-yr rotations with potato, were established in replicated field plots in Newport and Presque Isle, ME, and effects on soil microbial communities and soilborne diseases evalu...

102

Soil surface carbon dioxide efflux of bioenergy cropping systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bioenergy cropping systems have been proposed as a way to enhance United States energy security. However, research on greenhouse gas emissions from such systems is needed to ensure environmental sustainability in the field. Since soil aeration properties are dynamic, high-resolution data are needed ...

103

Aminopyralid soil residues affect rotational vegetable crops in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field experiments were conducted to determine the sensitivity of bell pepper, eggplant, tomato, muskmelon, and watermelon to aminopyralid soil residues. Aminopyralid was applied at six rates ranging from 0.0014 kg ae ha 1 to 0.0448 kg ae ha 1, and vegetable crops were planted in the treated areas. ...

104

Impact of cover crops on soil coservation in olive orchards under different agroecological conditions combing a conceptual soil water balance model (WABOL) and RUSLE.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of cover crops on soil conservation in olive orchards is evaluated based on a limited set of experiments based on runoff plots and model analysis on erosion models. However, the development of cover crops in olive growing areas is strongly controlled by the climate and soil conditions. These conditions are not completely represented in the empirical approach based on runoff plots, while in the modelling analysis approach (e.g. Gómez at Giráldez, 2009) it is usually necessary to make assumptions on the development of the cover crops to calibrate the erosion models that are poorly understood, such as for instance growing ob biomass and ground cover in areas significant colder or driers that those found in the literature, or its impact on the soil water balance. This communications presents a preliminary evaluation of the impact of cover crops in soil conservation in olive growing areas of Andalusia characterized y different soil, and climate conditions. The basic information has been taken from a recent study at national level (Hrnández, M.P., 2011) from which eight different growing areas characterized by different pluviometric and thermic regimes and soil conditions were selected. For those eight areas annual simulations of soil water content for an standard olive grove at 10x10 m under two different soil management techniques: cover crops with two option of cover crop killing in early or late spring; and conventional tillage, were simulated for a 8 to 10 year period based on a recently developed soil water balance model (WABOL, Abazi et al., 2012) which includes development of the cover crop. These results were used to calibrate RUSLE using the methodology proposed by Gómez et al. (2003) including the effect of different ground cover varying according to the conditions of different zones or climate of a particular year. The results of the simulations were used to compare the impact of the cover crop used in different areas on overall erosion risk and in soil water balance when the soil and climate variability (spatial and inter-annual) is included. The provide guidelines to adaption of cover crop management to the local conditions, although further analysis need to be made to include a broader range of conditions and the impact of irrigation.

Uran, A.; Lorite, I.; Gomez, J. A.

2012-04-01

105

Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems Soil quality, by definition, reflects the capacity to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and promote plant and animal health. Soil quality assessment is an essential issue in soil management for agriculture and natural resource protection. This study was conducted to detect the effects of four crop rotation systems (rice-rice-rice, soya-rice-rice, fallow-rice and pea-soya-rice) on soil quality indicators (soil moisture, porosity, bulk density, water-filled pore space, pH, extractable P, CEC, OC, OM, microbial respiration, active carbon) in paddy soils of Verona area, Northern Italy. Four adjacent plots which managed almost similarly, over five years were selected. Surface soil samples were collected from each four rotation systems in four times, during growing season. Each soil sample was a composite of sub-samples taken from 3 points within 350 m2 of agricultural land. A total of 48 samples were air-dried and passed through 2mm sieve, for some chemical, biological, and physical measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Statistical results revealed that frequency distribution of most data was normal. The lowest CV% was related to pH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and comparison test showed that there are significant differences in soil quality indicators among crop rotation systems and sampling times. Results of multivariable regression analysis revealed that soil respiration had positively correlation coefficient with soil organic matter, soil moisture and cation exchange capacity. Overall results indicated that the rice rotation with legumes such as bean and soybean improved soil quality over a long time in comparison to rice-fallow rotation, and this is reflected in rice yield. Keywords: Soil quality, Crop Rotation System, Paddy Soils, Italy

Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Bini, Claudio; Haefele, Stephan; Abooei, Monireh

2013-04-01

106

Soil water and nitrogen dynamics in dryland cropping systems of Washington State, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the fate of soil water and nitrogen (N) is essential for improving crop yield and optimizing the management of water and N in dryland cropping systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate how conventional (CT) and no-till (NT) cropping systems affect soil water and N dynamics. Soil water and N were monitored in 30cm increments to a

Juan P. Fuentes; Markus Flury; David R. Huggins; David F. Bezdicek

2003-01-01

107

Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata),

Q. R. Wang; Y. C. Li; W. Klassen

2006-01-01

108

Aggregation of a degraded lowland soil during restoration with different cropping and drainage regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rate of change of surface soil aggregation under different cropping and subsurface drainage regimes was studied on a badly degraded lowland soil in the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada. The soil was the silty clay loam Humic Luvic Gleysol. Two cropping practices — continued spring-sown barley underseeded with clover for winter cover cropping and a 3 year grass ley

Bandi Hermawan; Arthur A. Bomke

1996-01-01

109

Soil conservation limitations on re-moval of crop residues for energy production  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Potential soil erosion by water for Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA) in the Corn Belt and by wind in the Great Plains was cal- culated using the Universal Soil Loss Equation and the Wind Erosion Equation for current cropping practices. Crop statistics and compon- ents of the erosion equations were obtained from the States Crop Re- porting Service, Soil

Edwardsville. Lindstrom; E. L. Skidmore; S. C. Gupta; C. A. Onstad

1997-01-01

110

Soil Conservation Limitations on Removal of Crop Residues for Energy Production1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential soil erosion by water for Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA) in the Corn Belt and by wind in the Great Plains was cal- culated using the Universal Soil Loss Equation and the Wind Erosion Equation for current cropping practices. Crop statistics and compon- ents of the erosion equations were obtained from the States Crop Re- porting Service, Soil Conservation

M. J. Lindstrom; E. L. Skidmore; S. C. Gupta; C. A. ONSTADZ

1979-01-01

111

Impacts of Cropping Intensity on Soil C and Net Greenhouse Gas Fluxes for Dryland Cropping in Northeastern Colorado  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1985, land that was traditionally used for conventional tillage wheat/fallow cropping was converted to no till alternative cropping systems to investigate soil carbon changes. After 12 years of average to above average precipitation, continuous no till cropping with out summer fallow had stored ...

112

Soil aggregates and their associated carbon and nitrogen content in winter annual pastures using different tillage management options  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditionally, winter annual pastures are established on grazing areas that are steeply sloping and not regarded as suitable for row-crop production. Using conventional (CT) tillage methods to prepare these fragile lands for winter annual pastures leads to increased erosion and rapid soil degradatio...

113

Selenium status in soil, water and essential crops of Iran  

PubMed Central

Abstracts As a contributing factor to health, the trace element selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient of special interest for humans and all animals. It is estimated that 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency. In spite of the important role of Se, its concentrations in soil, water and essential crops have not been studied in Iran. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to determine the Se content of soil, water, and essential crops (rice in North, wheat in Center, date, and pistachio in South) of different regions of Iran. Sampling was performed in the North, South, and Central regions of Iran. In each selected area in the three regions, 17 samples of surface soil were collected; samples of water and essential crops were also collected at the same sampling points. Upon preliminary preparation of all samples, the Se concentrations were measured by ICP-OES Model Varian Vista-MPX. The amount of soil-Se was found to be in the range between 0.04 and 0.45 ppm in the studied areas; the Se content of soil in the central region of Iran was the highest compared to other regions (p<0.0001). The average Se concentration in irrigation water of different areas was less than 0.01 mg/L, and the mean concentrations of Se in the rice, wheat, date, and pistachio samples were 0.95, 0.74, 0.46, and 0.40 ppm, respectively. Although Se-soil and water-Se level in different regions were low, the typical levels of Se in the essential crops were relatively high.

2012-01-01

114

Soil properties, crop production and greenhouse gas emissions from organic and inorganic fertilizer-based arable cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic and conventional farming practices differ in the use of several management strategies, including use of catch crops, green manure, and fertilization, which may influence soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and productivity of agroecosystems. An 11-yr-old field experiment on a sandy loam soil in Denmark was used to compare several crop rotations with respect to a range of physical, chemical

Ngonidzashe Chirinda; Jørgen E. Olesen; John R. Porter; Per Schjønning

2010-01-01

115

Comparison of Soil Organic?Matter Characteristics under the Energy Crop Giant Reed, Cropping Sequence and Natural Grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine, on the same pedological, topographic, and climatic conditions, the effects of a continuous giant reed cropping (GR), a cropping sequence (CS), and untilled natural grass (NG) on some soil characteristics. Selected characteristics included total soil organic carbon (TOC), light fraction carbon (LFC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). The

Riccardo Riffaldi; Alessandro Saviozzi; Roberto Cardelli; Federica Bulleri; Luciana Angelini

2010-01-01

116

Microbiological parameters as indicators of soil quality under various soil management and crop rotation systems in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to identify soil parameters potentially useful to monitor soil quality under different soil management and crop rotation systems. Microbiological and chemical parameters were evaluated in a field experiment in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil, in response to soil management [no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT)] and crop rotation [including grain (soybean, S; maize,

J. C. Franchini; C. C. Crispino; R. A. Souza; E. Torres; M. Hungria

2007-01-01

117

Organic matter, microbial biomass and enzyme activity of soils under different crop rotations in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter level, soil microbial biomass C, ninhydrin-N, C mineralization, and dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase\\u000a activity were studied in soils under different crop rotations for 6 years. Inclusion of a green manure crop of Sesbania aculeata in the rotation improved soil organic matter status and led to an increase in soil microbial biomass, soil enzyme activity\\u000a and soil respiratory

K. Chander; S. Goyal; M. C. Mundra; K. K. Kapoor

1997-01-01

118

Dissolved and Soil Organic Carbon after Long?Term Conventional and No?Tillage Sorghum Cropping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution of dissolved (DOC) and soil organic carbon (SOC) with depth may indicate soil and crop?management effects on subsurface soil C sequestration. The objectives of this study were to investigate impacts of conventional tillage (CT), no tillage (NT), and cropping sequence on the depth distribution of DOC, SOC, and total nitrogen (N) for a silty clay loam soil after 20

Fugen Dou; Alan L. Wright; Frank M. Hons

2008-01-01

119

7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soil fertility and crop nutrient management...and Handling Requirements § 205.203 Soil fertility and crop nutrient management...chemical, and biological condition of soil and minimize soil erosion. (b)...

2013-01-01

120

Soil Erosion: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course of study represents the last of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil erosion. Upon completion of the two day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) define conservation, (2) understand how erosion takes place, and (3) list ways of controlling wind and water erosion.…

Miller, Larry E.

121

Chemical control of perennial and annual weeds in herbicide resistant soybean crops.  

PubMed

In Romania, the first tests with Roundup Ready on soybean crops were performed in 1998, on 2 soil types: a) at Teleorman Station on chernozem containing 3.5% humus, 4.5% clay b) at Br?ila Station placed in Danube Meadow on alluvial soil containing 3.90% humus and 46% clay. In every locality cultivated soybean cultivar S.2254 was resistant to glyphosate. During the three years of experiments (1998-2000) the crop of soybean was infested with various species of weeds (both annual and perennial) of which the most important are: Sorghum halepense (60-80%), Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria glauca, Amaranthus retroflexus, Solarium nigrum, Yanthium italicum, Abutilon theoprasthi, Sinapis arvensis, Datum stramonium, Polygonum persicaria, Calystegia sepium, Cirsium arvense. In 3 years of experience the best weed control and the highest soybean production were obtained in the variants treated 2 times postemergent with Roundup Ready at a dose of 3 + 3 l/ha. Similar results were also obtained in the farms of the Academy of Agricultural Forestry Sciences, where GMO soybean was cultivated on 1500 hectares. PMID:12425098

Sarpe, N; Roibu, C; Negrila, E; Bodescu, F; Fuia, S; Popa, C; Beraru, C

2001-01-01

122

Soil Carbon Budget During Establishment of Short Rotation Woody Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon budgets were monitored following forest harvest and during re-establishment of short rotation woody crops. Soil CO2 efflux was monitored using infared gas analyzer methods, fine root production was estimated with minirhizotrons, above ground litter inputs were trapped, coarse root inputs were estimated with developed allometric relationships, and soil carbon pools were measured in loblolly pine and cottonwood plantations. Our carbon budget allows evaluation of errors, as well as quantifying pools and fluxes in developing stands during non-steady-state conditions. Soil CO2 efflux was larger than the combined inputs from aboveground litter fall and root production. Fine-root production increased during stand development; however, mortality was not yet equivalent to production, showing the belowground carbon budget was not yet in equilibrium and root carbon standing crop was accruing. Belowground production was greater in cottonwood than pine, but the level of pine soil CO2 efflux was equal to or greater than that of cottonwood, indicating heterotrophic respiration was higher for pine. Comparison of unaccounted efflux with soil organic carbon changes provides verification of loss or accrual.

Coleman, M. D.

2003-12-01

123

Soil management for sustainable crop disease control: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive use of agrochemicals in conventional crop management has caused serious environmental and health problems including\\u000a loss of biodiversity and human disorders. A number of chemical biocides have shown complex chronic effects such as change\\u000a in endocrine functions and immune systems. Application of different chemical biocides to the soil and plants have increased\\u000a substantially over the last five decades. Total

R. Ghorbani; S. Wilcockson; A. Koocheki; C. Leifert

2008-01-01

124

Spatial Variation of Corn Canopy Temperature as Dependent Upon Soil Texture and Crop Rooting Characteristics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A soil plant atmosphere model for corn (Zea mays L.) together with the scaling theory for soil hydraulic heterogeneity are used to study the sensitivity of spatial variation of canopy temperature to field averaged soil texture and crop rooting characteris...

B. J. Choudhury

1983-01-01

125

The partitioning of fertilizer-N between soil and crop: Comparison of ammonium and nitrate applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were carried out in 1987 on winter wheat crops grown on three types of soil. 15N-labelled urea, 15NH4NO3 or NH415NO3 (80 kg N ha-1) was applied at tillering. The soils (chalky soil, hydromorphic loamy soil, sandy clay soil) were chosen to obtain a range of nitrogen dynamics, particularly nitrification. Soil microbial N immobilization and crop N uptake were

Sylvie Recous; J. M. Machet; B. Mary

1992-01-01

126

Using a basin-scale hydrological model to estimate crop transpiration and soil evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing populations and expectations, declining crop yields and the resulting increased competition for water necesitate improvements in irrigation management and productivity. A key factor in defining agricultural productivity is to be able to simulate soil evaporation and crop transpiration. In agribusiness terms, crop transpiration is a useful process while soil and open-water evaporations are wasteful processes. In this study a

G. Kite

2000-01-01

127

Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops

Poffenbarger, Hanna

2010-01-01

128

RUNOFF, EROSION, AND SOIL EORDIBILITY ON CRP LANDS CONVERTED TO CROP AND HAY PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is concern that soil conservation and quality be preserved on CRP lands that are returned to crop production. Purified water was used for rainfall simulation study conducted after crop harvest in central North Dakota on Typic Argiustoll soil that had been converted to crop production 6 years ...

129

SOIL WATER USE AND GRAIN YIELD OF THREE DRYLAND CROPS UNDER DIFFERING TILLAGE SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Combining the use of drought-adapted and early maturing crops with reduced tillage practices in dryland cropping systems can increase soil water storage, water-use efficiency and crop yields. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil water use by cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), grain sorghum [So...

130

Soil Organic Matter Fractions in Humid Tropics as Influenced by Application of Crop Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of crop residues to soil organic matter (SOM) in the sand size (particulate organic matter, POM) and sodium (Na) Iodide light (NAL) fractions were determined from soil samples (0–20 cm) collected from an experiment (April 1997–August 1999) studying the contribution of crop residues in sustaining yields of maize (Zea mays L.) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in a crop

A. R. Mubarak; A. B. Rosenani

2003-01-01

131

Impact of a no-till with mulch soil management strategy on soil macrofauna communities in a cotton cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic exportation, burning of crop residues and decreases in fallow periods have led to a large-scale depletion of soil organic matter and degradation of soil fertility in the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cropping systems of Cameroon. The present study tested whether soil management systems based on a no-till with mulch approach intercropped with cereals, which has been shown to restore

T. Brévault; S. Bikay; J. M. Maldès; K. Naudin

2007-01-01

132

Crop rotation effect on soil carbon and nitrogen stocks under limited irrigation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Limited irrigation management practices are being used in the Central Great Plains to conserve water by optimizing crop water use efficiency. Limited irrigation may reduce total crop biomass production and amount of crop residue returned to the soil. Crop residue production within four no-till (NT...

133

Physical effects of soil drying on roots and crop growth.  

PubMed

The nature and effect of the stresses on root growth in crops subject to drying is reviewed. Drought is a complex stress, impacting on plant growth in a number of interacting ways. In response, there are a number of ways in which the growing plant is able to adapt to or alleviate these stresses. It is suggested that the most significant opportunity for progress in overcoming drought stress and increasing crop yields is to understand and exploit the conditions in soil by which plant roots are able to maximize their use of resources. This may not be straightforward, with multiple stresses, sometimes competing functions of roots, and conditions which impact upon roots very differently depending upon what soil, what depth or what stage of growth the root is at. Several processes and the interaction between these processes in soil have been neglected. It is our view that drought is not a single, simple stress and that agronomic practice which seeks to adapt to climate change must take account of the multiple facets of both the stress induced by insufficient water as well as other interacting stresses such as heat, disease, soil strength, low nutrient status, and even hypoxia. The potential for adaptation is probably large, however. The possible changes in stress as a result of the climate change expected under UK conditions are assessed and it appears possible that wet warm winters will impact on root growth as much if not more than dry warm summers. PMID:19584120

Whitmore, Andrew P; Whalley, W Richard

2009-01-01

134

Use of ERS SAR interferometric coherence and PRI images to evaluate crop height and soil moisture and to identify crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present project was to identify the capabilities of multitemporal ERS SAR interferometric coherence and PRI images to evaluate soil moisture, to estimate crop height and to identify crops for four crop types (winter wheat, potato, sugar beet and maize) and for different pilot fields. The coherence images acquired during the winter and spring seasons can be used to identify bare or nearly bare fields with a threshold value, and then PRI images were used to quantify soil moisture value for each bare field. The coherence images acquired during the growing season were used to evaluate crop height for each studied crop type. Moreover, the coherence image provided some additional information to PRI images for the crop type identification. This study was carried out in the framework of the PRODEX program financed by the Belgian Federal Office for Scientific, Technical and Cultural affairs (OSTC) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

Moeremans, Benoit; Dautrebande, Sylvia

1998-12-01

135

Effects of irrigation on crops and soils with Raft River geothermal water  

SciTech Connect

The Raft River Irrigation Experiment investigated the suitability of using energy-expended geothermal water for irrigation of selected field-grown crops. Crop and soil behavior on plots sprinkled or surface irrigated with geothermal water was compared to crop and soil behavior on plots receiving water from shallow irrigation wells and the Raft River. In addition, selected crops were produced, using both geothermal irrigation water and special management techniques. Crops irrigated with geothermal water exhibited growth rates, yields, and nutritional values similar to comparison crops. Cereal grains and surface-irrigated forage crops did not exhibit elevated fluoride levels or accumulations of heavy metals. However, forage crops sprinkled with geothermal water did accumulate fluorides, and leaching experiments indicate that new soils receiving geothermal water may experience increased salinity, exchangeable sodium, and decreased permeability. Soil productivity may be maintained by leaching irrigations.

Stanley, N.E.; Schmitt, R.C.

1980-01-01

136

Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. Annual Progress Report for FY 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1985. HECP emphasizes lignocellulosic forage crops. In FY 1985 screening and selection trails began on seven species o...

J. H. Cushman A. F. Turhollow J. W. Johnston

1986-01-01

137

Tillage, Cropping Systems, and Nitrogen Fertilizer Source Eff ects on Soil Carbon Sequestration and Fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifi cation of soil carbon (C) cycling as infl uenced by management practices is needed for C sequestration and soil quality improvement. We evaluated the 10-yr eff ects of tillage, cropping system, and N source on crop residue and soil C fractions at 0- to 20-cm depth in Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Paleudults) in northern Alabama, USA.

Upendra M. Sainju; Zachary N. Senwo; Ermson Z. Nyakatawa; Irenus A. Tazisong; K. Chandra

138

Soil survey versus crop production as a measure of soil productivity: Soil-strength effects on row-crop yields. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to examine the use of a recording cone penetrometer as a predictor of crop yield for constructed soils. State-of-the-art reclaimed land in Illinois is capable of producing good corn and soybean yields. Previous research has examined observable features of constructed soils ranging from those which are highly drought sensitive to those which are highly productive for causes of the observed crop performance differences. The studies have made it increasingly evident that poor soil physical condition is the major factor limiting row crop productivity following surface mining in Illinois. Efforts to build significant yield prediction models based on penetrometer data were successful. Too much yield variation remained unaccounted for to use these models alone to predict productivity of reclaimed land for reclamation law enforcement.

Jansen, I.J.; Vance, S.L.; Walker, W.M.

1985-12-30

139

USDA-ARS WHEAT, PEANUT AND FIELD CROPS RESEARCH UNIT ANNUAL REPORT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This annual report is a summary of objectives and current research accomplishments of the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK, concerning aphids and cereal aphid resistance. Personnel and recent publications are also listed. ...

140

The Potato Systems Planner: Integrating Cropping System Impacts on Crop Yield and Quality, Soil Biology, Nutrient Cycling, Diseases, and Economics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Finding and developing profitable cropping systems is a high priority for the potato industry. Consequently, an interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 different rotations for their impacts on crop yield and quality, nutrient availa...

141

Crop nitrogen use and soil mineral nitrogen accumulation under different crop combinations and patterns of strip intercropping in northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing crop nitrogen use efficiency while also simultaneously decreasing nitrogen accumulation in the soil would be key\\u000a steps in controlling nitrogen pollution from agricultural systems. Long-term field experiments were started in 2003 to study\\u000a the effects of intercropping on crop N use and soil mineral N accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv 2014)\\/maize (Zea mays L. cv Shendan16), wheat\\/faba

Chun-Jie Li; Yu-Ying Li; Chang-Bing Yu; Jian-Hao Sun; Peter Christie; Min An; Fu-Suo Zhang; Long Li

2011-01-01

142

Cyclic Colonization in Predictably Ephemeral Habitats: A Template for Biological Control in Annual Crop Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological control strategies that were developed for orchards and forests have had limited success in controling pests in annual crop systems (ACSs). In this paper I will argue that an accurate characterization of the habitat template of ACSs will be a key feature for developing new strategies of biological control for field crops. I argue that ACSs are “predictably ephemeral”

Scott A. Wissinger

1997-01-01

143

Illinois Biomass Resources: Annual Crops and Residues; Canning and Food-Processing Wastes. Preliminary Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to a...

A. A. Antonopoulos

1980-01-01

144

National Crop Loss Assessment network (NCLAN) 1981 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) consists of a group of cooperating organizations engaged in field work, crop modeling, and economic studies to assess the immediate and long-term economic consequences of the effects of air pollution on crop production. The program's primary objectives are (1) to define the relationship between yields of major agricultural crops and does of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and their mixtures using state-of-the-art technology in the field with realistic pollutant exposure regimes and (2) to utilize these relationships in assessing the economic consequences of exposure of agricultural crops to these pollutants.

Heck, W.W.; Taylor, O.C.; Adams, R.M.; Bingham, G.; Miller, J.E.

1983-06-01

145

Annual Medicago: From a Model Crop Challenged by a Spectrum of Necrotrophic Pathogens to a Model Plant to Explore the Nature of Disease Resistance  

PubMed Central

• Background Annual Medicago spp., including M. truncatula, play an important agronomic role in dryland farming regions of the world where they are often an integral component of cropping systems, particularly in regions with a Mediterranean or Mediterranean-type climate where they grow as winter annuals that provide both nitrogen and disease breaks for rotational crops. Necrotrophic foliar and soil-borne pathogens dominate these regions and challenge the productivity of annual Medicago and crop legume species. • Scope This review outlines some of the major and/or widespread diseases these necrotrophic pathogens cause on Medicago spp. It then explores the potential for using the spectrum of necrotrophic pathogen–host interactions, with annual Medicago as the host plant, to better understand and model pathosystems within the diseases caused by nectrotrophic pathogens across forage and grain legume crops. • Conclusions Host resistance clearly offers the best strategy for cost-effective, long-term control of necrotrophic foliar and soil-borne pathogens, particularly as useful resistance to a number of these diseases has been identified. Recently and initially, the annual M. truncatula has emerged as a more appropriate and agronomically relevant substitute to Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant for legumes, and is proving an excellent model to understand the mechanisms of resistance both to individual pathogens and more generally to most forage and grain legume necrotrophic pathogens.

TIVOLI, B.; BARANGER, A.; SIVASITHAMPARAM, K.; BARBETTI, M. J.

2006-01-01

146

Soil and water quality implications of production of herbaceous and woody energy crops  

SciTech Connect

Field-scale studies in three physiographic regions of the Tennessee Valley in the Southeastern US are being used to address the environmental effects of producing biomass energy crops on former agricultural lands. Comparison of erosion, surface water quality and quantity, and subsurface movement of water and nutrients from woody crops, switchgrass and agricultural crops began with crop establishment in 1994. Nutrient cycling, soil physical changes, and productivity of the different crops are also being monitored at the three sites.

Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lindberg, J.E. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, TN (United States); Green, T.H. [Alabama A and M Univ., Normal, AL (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science] [and others

1997-10-01

147

Nitrogen- vs. phosphorus-based dairy manure applications to field crops: nitrate and phosphorus leaching and soil phosphorus accumulation.  

PubMed

Management of animal manures to provide nutrients for crop growth has generally been based on crop N needs. However, because manures have a lower N/P ratio than most harvested crops, N-based manure management often oversupplies the crop-soil system with P, which can be lost into the environment and contribute to eutrophication of water bodies. We examined the effects of N- vs. P-based manure applications on N and P uptake by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.) for silage, and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), leaching below the root zone, and accumulation of P in soil. Treatments included N- and P-based manure rates, with no nutrient input controls and inorganically fertilized plots for comparison. Nitrate concentrations in leachate from inorganic fertilizer or manure treatments averaged 14 mg NO(3)-N L(-1), and did not differ by nutrient treatment. Average annual total P losses in leachate did not exceed 1 kg ha(-1). In the top 5 cm of soil in plots receiving the N-based manure treatment, soil test P increased by 47%, from 85 to 125 mg kg(-1). Nitrogen- and P-based manure applications did not differ in ability to supply nutrients for crop growth, or in losses of nitrate and total P in leachate. However, the N-based manure led to significantly greater accumulation of soil test P in the surface 5 cm of soil. Surface soil P accumulation has implications for increased risk of off-field P movement. PMID:17071901

Toth, John D; Dou, Zhengxia; Ferguson, James D; Galligan, David T; Ramberg, Charles F

2006-10-27

148

Effect of different kinds of crop residues on aggregate-protected soil organic matter fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic matter content of soils determines many important soil properties, such as soil structure, fertility and water-management. To improve its fertility and quality, returning different kinds of organic matter to soil has a long historical tradition. Ameliorating of soil and enhancing its fertility by enhancing its carbon stock with organic matter incorporation (like farmyard manure, crop residues or green manure)

A. Huisz

2009-01-01

149

Carbonaceous soil amendments to biofortify crop plants with zinc.  

PubMed

Carbonaceous soil amendments, comprising mixtures of biosolids and biochar, have been demonstrated to improve fertility while reducing nitrate leaching. We aimed to determine the efficacy of a biosolids/biochar soil amendment in biofortification of vegetables with Zn, an element that is deficient in one third of humanity. We grew beetroot (Beta vulgaris), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus), broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), leek (Allium ampeloprsum), onion (Allium cepa), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), corn (Zea mays), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and courgette (also called zucchini - Cucurbita pepo) in an unamended soil (silt loam, pH5.6), and soil amended (by volume) with 10% biosolids, 20% biochar, and 10% biosolids+20% biochar. The biosolids and biosolids+biochar treatments significantly increased the biomass and Zn concentration of most species, with a large interspecific variation. Beetroot showed the greatest increase, with dry weight Zn concentrations of up to 178 and 1200mgkg(-1) in the bulbs and leaves respectively. Cadmium, Cu and Pb were below guideline levels in all samples, except the leaves of spinach and beetroot, which slightly exceeded the World Health Organisation's maximum permitted concentration of 0.1mgCdkg(-1) fresh weight. A mixture of biosolids and biochar is an effective means to biofortify crops with edible leaves as well as beetroot with Zn. Future research should investigate the efficacy of the system in other soil types and the role of biochar in the immobilisation/inactivation of organic contaminants and pathogens contained within the biosolids. PMID:23146312

Gartler, Jörg; Robinson, Brett; Burton, Karen; Clucas, Lynne

2012-11-10

150

Effects of fertilization and soil management on crop yields and carbon stabilization in soils. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of sustainable land use is complex and long-term experiments are required for a better understanding of the processes\\u000a of carbon stabilization. Objectives were (i) to describe for four long-term experiments the effects of fertilization and soil\\u000a management on crop yields and the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N, and (ii) to discuss the usefulness of

B. Ludwig; D. Geisseler; K. Michel; R. G. Joergensen; E. Schulz; I. Merbach; J. Raupp; R. Rauber; K. Hu; L. Niu; X. Liu

2011-01-01

151

Changes in soil phosphorus fractions in a calcareous paddy soil under intensive rice cropping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a 4-year field experiment on a calcareous paddy soil in Zhejiang province of China to measure the changes in chemically extracted soil P fractions in an irrigated double-cropping rice system. Treatments included four fertilizer combinations (unfertilized control, NK, NP, and NPK) as main-plots and two rice cultivar types (inbred vs. hybrid rice) as sub-plots. Total plant P uptake

Q. Zhang; G. H. Wang; Y. K. Feng; Q. Z. Sun; C. Witt; A. Dobermann

2006-01-01

152

Soil carbon and nitrogen changes as influenced by tillage and cropping systems in some Iowa soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic C (SOC) and total N (TN) contents play a crucial role in sustaining agricultural production systems. Short-term (?10-year) management effects on SOC and TN dynamics are often complex and variable. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate short-term tillage and cropping system effects on SOC and TN within the 0–30cm soil depth across Iowa. The first experiment with no-tillage

Mahdi M. Al-Kaisi; Xinhua Yin; Mark A. Licht

2005-01-01

153

Standing crop and production in annual grass communities in Washington and California: a comparison  

SciTech Connect

An annual grass community in eastern Washington comprised mostly of cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum L., produced a yearly average of 226 g dry wt per m/sup 2/ of shoot biomass over a four-year period. Litter averaged 408 g per m/sup 2/ and belowground biomass 776 g. Total standing crop averaged 1400 g per m/sup 2/. Seventy percent of the root biomass was concentrated in the upper 10 cm of soil profile and 88% was in the upper 20 cm. An annual grass community in the central valley of California was about two times more productive than the cheatgrass community. The major botanical difference between the two communities, other than a more diverse species composition and greater productivity in the California community was the proportion of litter in the total aboveground biomass. The litter component of the cheatgrass community amounted to 30% of aboveground biomass as compared to only 14% for the California community. Litter accumulation in the cheatgrass community may indicate a slower decomposition rate but differences in grazing histories between the Washington cheatgrass and the California communities could have accounted for the difference in litter accumulation. 14 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Rickard, W.H.

1983-07-01

154

Influence of crops, crop residues and manure on amino acid and amino sugar fractions of organic nitrogen in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of: (1) the cultivation of a cereal (pearl millet) and two legumes (mung bean and clusterbean), and (2) incorporation of crop residues and manure in soil, on depletion or enrichment of pools of amino acid-N and amino sugar-N in soil. Both legumes enriched amino acid and amino sugar fractions but

Praveen-Kumar; K. Tripathi; R. Aggarwal

2002-01-01

155

Changes in soil organic carbon under biofuel crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One potentially significant impact of growing biofuel crops will be the sequestration or release of soil organic carbon (SOC), as SOC represents the second largest potential carbon sink in the lifecycle of biofuels and strongly influences soil quality. We assembled and analyzed published estimates of SOC change following conversion of natural or agricultural land to biofuel crops of corn (with stover harvest), sugarcane, Miscanthus x giganteus, switchgrass, or restored prairie. We estimated SOC losses associated with land conversion and rates of change in SOC over time by regressing SOC against age since establishment year. Conversion of uncultivated land to biofuel agriculture resulted in significant SOC losses-an effect that was most pronounced when native land was converted to sugarcane agriculture. Corn stover harvest (at 25-100 percent removal) consistently resulted in SOC losses averaging 3-8 Mg / ha in the top 30 cm, whereas SOC accumulated under all four perennial grasses, with SOC accumulation rates averaging <1 Mg / ha / yr in the top 30 cm. More intensive harvests lead to decreased C gains or increased C losses-an effect that was particularly clear for stover harvest in corn. Direct or indirect conversion of previously uncultivated land for biofuel agriculture will result in SOC losses that counteract the benefits of fossil fuel displacement. Additionally, SOC losses under corn stover harvest imply that its potential to offset C emissions may be overestimated, whereas SOC sequestration under perennial grasses represents an additional benefit that has rarely been accounted for in life cycle analyses of biofuels.

Anderson-Teixei, K.; Davis, S.; Masters, M.; Delucia, E.

2008-12-01

156

DIVISION S-6—SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION Changes in Soil Organic Matter Fractions under Subtropical No-Till Cropping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

s to reduce widespread soil degradation and ero- sion. Tillage intensity reduction and the use of cropping Conservation management systems increase soil C and N pools. systems that maximize residue addition to soil surface However, their effects on particulate (53 m) and mineral-associ- have been efficient agricultural practices to maintain or ated (53 m) soil organic matter (SOM) fractions are

C. Bayer; L. Martin-Neto; J. Mielniczuk; C. N. Pillon; L. Sangoi

157

Tillage-induced seasonal changes in soil physical properties affecting soil CO 2 evolution under intensive cropping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop management practices impact soil productivity by altering the soil environment, which in turn affects microbial growth and decomposition processes that transform plant-produced C to soil organic matter (SOM) or CO2. Reduced tillage increases SOM in the long term, but there is limited information on the in situ seasonal changes in soil physical and biological properties that affect SOM dynamics.

A. J. Franzluebbers; F. M. Hons; D. A. Zuberer

1995-01-01

158

Effects of Long?Term Continuous Cropping, Tillage, and Fertilization on Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen of Black Soils in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation and tillage practices alter soil properties and often lead to decline of soil quality. Adoption of appropriate agricultural management systems, however, may maintain soil productivity. This research examined the effects of long?term continuous cropping, tillage, and fertilization on soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents of black soils in China. Soil samples from 11?year tillage, 11?year continuous cropping,

Xiaobing Liu; Judong Liu; Baoshan Xing; S. J. Herbert; Kai Meng; Xiaozeng Han; Xingyi Zhang

2005-01-01

159

Crop modelling as a tool to separate the influence of the soil and weather on crop yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yield of traditional food and feed crops in a given habitat is controlled by the soil and weather conditions as the main environmental factors. In real world it is not possible to segregate the influences of the soil and the weather on the crop production. Using simulation models there are ways to analyse the effects of the changes of soil characteristics or weather elements separately. The role of different soil characteristics can be studied in a way that the first run is considered as a control, then one of the soil characteristics is changed within a realistic range while all the other soil factors and weather inputs are left original. This way all the soil characteristic and weather elements can be changed one by one or different combinations of them can be used as input series. A more practical approach is when the role of local soils and weather are compared by a series of runs applying observed weather data from different years and real soil profiles from different fields of the selected farm. The results of the simulation can be evaluated from many different aspects: biomass or yield production, vulnerability to nitrate leaching or denitrification and profitability. In this study real Hungarian soil and weather scenarios were used that are significantly different from one another. The two main crops of Hungary were used: maize and wheat plus field pea as an addition. Pea is known as a sensitive crop to weather. 4M-simulation package was used as a modelling tool. Our group at RISSAC based on CERES and CROPGRO models has developed it. The results showed that the weather differences caused more significant changes in yields then soil differences though soils could moderate the effects of the extreme weather scenarios. The measure of reactions is meaningfully different depending on the species and cultivars. Analysis of separated effects of soil and weather factors has not only theoretical and methodological importance, but useful for the practice, too. When new plant species or cultivars are introduced in a country the optimal habitats can be found. The optimal structure for crops (where to seed different crops, and what sequence should be applied) and technology for crops (sawing time, fertilizer application and timing, etc.) can be estimated.

Mathe-Gaspar, Gabriella; Fodor, Nandor; Pokovai, Klara; Kovacs, Geza Janos

160

Crop modelling as a tool to separate the influences of the soil and weather on crop yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yield of traditional food and feed crops in a given habitat is controlled by the soil and weather conditions as the main environmental factors. In real world it is not possible to segregate the influences of the soil and the weather on the crop production. Using simulation models there are ways to analyse the effects of the changes of soil characteristics or weather elements separately. The role of different soil characteristics can be studied in a way that the first run is considered as a control, then one of the soil characteristics is changed within a realistic range while all the other soil factors and weather inputs are left original. This way all the soil characteristic and weather elements can be changed one by one or different combinations of them can be used as input series. A more practical approach is when the role of local soils and weather are compared by a series of runs applying observed weather data from different years and real soil profiles from different fields of the selected farm. The results of the simulation can be evaluated from many different aspects: biomass or yield production, vulnerability to nitrate leaching or denitrification and profitability. In this study real Hungarian soil and weather scenarios were used that are significantly different from one another. The two main crops of Hungary were used: maize and wheat plus field pea as an addition. Pea is known as a sensitive crop to weather. 4M-simulation package was used as a modelling tool. Our group at RISSAC based on CERES and CROPGRO models has developed it. The results showed that the weather differences caused more significant changes in yields then soil differences though soils could moderate the effects of the extreme weather scenarios. The measure of reactions is meaningfully different depending on the species and cultivars. Analysis of separated effects of soil and weather factors has not only theoretical and methodological importance, but useful for the practice, too. When new plant species or cultivars are introduced in a country the optimal habitats can be found. The optimal structure for crops (where to seed different crops, and what sequence should be applied) and technology for crops (sawing time, fertilizer application and timing, etc.) can be estimated.

Mathe-Gaspar, G.; Fodor, N.; Pokovai, K.; Kovacs, G. J.

2003-04-01

161

Thermal stability and activities of soil enzymes as influenced by crop rotations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples were collected to a depth of 10 cm in 1991 and 1993 from a vegetable crop rotation experiment initiated in 1989. The two cropping treatments, with either 0 or 280 kg N ha?1, represented the traditional vegetable rotation (TVR) and an alternative legume vegetable rotation (LVR) when a vegetable crop alternated with a red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

Morten Miller; Richard P. Dick

1995-01-01

162

Depth distribution of soil organic C and N after long-term soybean cropping in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop management practices have potential to enhance subsoil C and N sequestration in the southern U.S., but effects may vary with tillage regime and cropping sequence. The objective of this study was to determine the impacts of tillage and soybean cropping sequence on the depth distribution of soil organic C (SOC), dissolved organic C (DOC), and total N after 20

Fugen Dou; Alan L. Wright; Frank M. Hons

2007-01-01

163

Utilization of Crawfish Peeling Plant Waste as a Soil Amendment for Vegetable Crop Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Crawfish waste applied at proper rates to vegetable crops will provide many of the essential nutrients required for growth and production. The crop response is influenced by rates of application and by the type of crop. The soil analysis reveals definite ...

R. Barry

1980-01-01

164

On-Farm Assessment of Biosolids Effects on Soil and Crop Tissue Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

solids use on soil and crop quality have rarely been monitored in nonresearch situations. Agronomic use of biosolids as a fertilizer material remains contro- Most U.S. states, including Pennsylvania, stipulate versial in part due to public concerns regarding the potential pollution of soils, crop tissue, and ground water by excess nutrients and trace that application of biosolids to agricultural land

Amy L. Shober; Richard C. Stehouwer; Kirsten E. Macneal

2003-01-01

165

Best management practices: Managing cropping systems for soil protection and bioenergy production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in renewable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased. Crop residue such as corn stover or wheat straw can be used for bioenergy including a substitution for natural gas or coal. Harvesting crop residue needs to be managed to protect the soil and future soil productivity. The amount of bi...

166

Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization kinetics in organic and conventional three-year cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific literature regarding the use of C and N mineralization kinetics as a tool to highlight the effects of different cropping systems on soil C and N release is scarce. In this study we aimed to assess the effectiveness of these parameters in evaluating soil C and N potential release in organic (ORG) and conventional (CONV) three-year cropping systems.

S. Marinari; A. Lagomarsino; M. C. Moscatelli; A. Di Tizio; E. Campiglia

2010-01-01

167

Effect of environmentally degraded soil on crop yield: the role of conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the effect of fertile top soil degraded by environmental factors such as acid rain and wind on crop yield is studied by considering a single-sector economic growth model. It is shown that if these environmental factors continue to increase without control, the fertile top soil depth tends to zero and consequently the crop yield becomes negligible. However,

A. Shukla; B. Dubey; J. B. Shukla

1996-01-01

168

Evaluation of the soil carbon budget under different upland cropping systems in central Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the carbon budget in soils under different cropping systems, the carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from soils was measured in a total of 11 upland crop fields within a small watershed in central Hokkaido over the no snow cover months for 3 years. The CO2 flux was measured using a closed chamber method at bare plots established in each field

Zhijian Mu; Sonoko D. Kimura; Yo Toma; Ryusuke Hatano

2008-01-01

169

Soil Microbial, Chemical and Physical Properties in Continuous Cotton and Integrated Crop–Livestock Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

aquifer and that provide more conservative sustainable agricultural practices. Continuous monoculture systems can reduce soil organic matter Crop rotations have positive effects on soil properties because of low organic inputs and disturbance from tillage practices. related to the higher C inputs and diversity of plant resi- Integrated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cropping and livestock pro-

V. Acosta-Martínez; T. M. Zobeck; Vivien Allen

2004-01-01

170

Effects of Grazing Sorghum Stubble on Soil Physical Properties and Subsequent Crop Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two grazing trials were conducted on a Vertosol in central Queensland to assess the effects of stubble grazing by cattle on soil properties and subsequent crop performance. Two adjacent contour bays were selected for two treatments (grazed and u ngrazed) in each trial. Both trials were conducted following a grain sorghum crop. In trial 1 (during 1996) the surface soil

B. J. Radford; D. F. Yule; M. Braunack; C. Playford

2008-01-01

171

COMPARISON OF NITROGEN MINERALIZATION FOLLOWING US AND BRAZILIAN COVER CROPS FOR A SOUTHERN PIEDMONT SOIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Winter cover crops are essential in conservation tillage systems to protect soils from erosion and for improving soil productivity. Black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb) and oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) could be useful cover crops in the Southeastern USA but successful adoption requires underst...

172

Impacts of organic conservation tillage systems on crops, weeds, and soil quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic farming has been identified as promoting soil quality even though tillage is used for weed suppression. Adopting conservation tillage practices can enhance soil quality in cropping systems where synthetic agrichemicals are used for crop nutrition and weed control. Attempts have been made t...

173

Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Rates by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

tices include, but are not limited to, reducing tillage intensity, decreasing or ceasing the fallow period, using Changes in agricultural management can potentially increase the a winter cover crop, changing from monoculture to rota- accumulation rate of soil organic C (SOC), thereby sequestering CO2 from the atmosphere. This study was conducted to quantify potential tion cropping, or altering soil inputs

Tristram O. West; Wilfred M. Post

2002-01-01

174

Developing a Foundation for Constructing New Curricula in Soil, Crop, and Turfgrass Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some soil and crop science university programs undergo curricula revision to maintain relevancy with their profession and/or to attract the best students to such programs. The Department of Soil and Crop Sciences at Texas A&M University completed a thorough data gathering process as part of its revision of the undergraduate curriculum and degree…

Jarvis, Holly D.; Collett, Ryan; Wingenbach, Gary; Heilman, James L.; Fowler, Debra

2012-01-01

175

SOIL CHEMICAL CHANGES OVER 16 YEARS AS INFLUENCED BY NITROGEN FERTILIZATION, TILLAGE, AND CROP SEQUENCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in soil chemical properties due to long-term management can influence plant nutrient availability, crop yield, and environmental quality. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of N fertilzation, tillage, and crop sequence on selected soil chemical properties for a long-te...

176

Soil quality in integrated crop-livestock systems with conservation and conventional tillage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integration of crops and livestock could be either detrimental or beneficial to soil quality, depending upon timing and intensity of animal traffic and residue cover of the soil surface. Key soil properties (reflective of soil quality) of a Typic Kanhapludult in Georgia USA were analyzed in a 12-ha...

177

Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

178

Role of Soil Organic Matter in Maintaining Sustainability of Cropping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter (SOM) has long been recognized as an important indicator of soil productivity. The SOM refers to the organic fraction of the soil exclusive of undecayed plant and animal residues. It plays a crucial role in maintaining sustainability of cropping systems by improving soil physical (texture, structure, bulk density, and water-holding capacity), chemical (nutrient availability, cation exchange capacity,

N. K. Fageria

2012-01-01

179

Soil organic carbon and water content effects on remote crop residue cover estimation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conservation tillage (CT) systems help protect the soil and environment, and improve net farm profitability. CT methods leave increased amounts of crop residue cover (CRC) on the soil surface, minimizing soil erosion and evaporation. CT uses less fuel, disturbs soil less, and requires less fertili...

180

The Role of Soil Organic Matter in Maintaining Sustainability of Cropping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter (SOM) has long been recognized as an important indicator of soil productivity. The SOM refers to the organic fraction of the soil exclusive of undecayed plant and animal residues. It plays a crucial role in maintaining sustainability of cropping systems by improving soil physical (texture, structure, bulk density and water holding capacity), chemical (nutrient availability, cation exchange

N. K. Fageria

2012-01-01

181

Uptake of cesium-137 by crops from contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

The Turkish tea crop was contaminated following the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Finding ways to dispose of the contaminated tea (Camellia sinensis L.) without damaging the environment was the goal of this research conducted at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA). In this study, an investigation was made of {sup 137}Cs activities of the plants and the ratios of transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants when the contaminated tea was applied to the soil. Experiments were conducted in the field and in pots under greenhouse conditions. The activities of the tea applied in the field ranged from 12 500 to 72 800 Bq/m{sup 2}, whereas this activity was constant at 8000 Bq/pot in the greenhouse experiment. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from soil to the plants was between 0.037 and 1.057% for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays indentata Sturt), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and grass (Lolium perenne L.). The ratio of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants increased as the activity {sup 137}Cs in tea applied to soil was increased. The activity in the plants increased due to increased uptake of {sup 137}Cs by plants. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Demirel, H.; Oezer, I.; Celenk, I.; Halitligil, M.B.; Oezmen, A. [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (Turkey)

1994-11-01

182

Dryland residue and soil organic matter as influenced by tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel management practices are needed to increase dryland soil organic matter and crop yields that have been declining due\\u000a to long-term conventional tillage with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system in the northern Great Plains, USA. The effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice were evaluated\\u000a on dryland crop biomass (stems + leaves) yield, surface residue, and soil organic

Upendra M. Sainju; Andrew W. Lenssen; Thecan Caesar-TonThat; Jalal D. Jabro; Robert T. Lartey; Robert G. Evans; Brett L. Allen

2011-01-01

183

Herbaceous energy crops program: Annual progress report for FY 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1987. The HECP is one of three research programs on the production of biomass energy crops supported by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division. It is devoted to research on the development of terrestrial, nonwoody plant species for use as energy feedstocks. Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides field management for the HECP and has overall responsibility for its research. The HECP focuses on the types of crops that appear most promising for producing fuels or feedstocks for fuels. The research program emphasizes lignocellulosic energy crops as feedstocks for biochemical and thermochemical conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels. In FY 1987 screening and selection trials continued for a third year at five institutions in the Southeast and Midwest/Lake States, and two new projects were initiated in the Great Plains. 18 refs., 7 figs., 15 tabs.

Cushman, J.H.; Turhollow, A.F.; Johnston, J.W.

1989-01-01

184

Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. Annual progress report for FY 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1988. The HECP is part of the US Department of Energy's biofuels research program. It supports research that will lead...

A. F. Turhollow J. H. Cushman J. W. Johnston

1990-01-01

185

Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Annual Progress Report for 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the evaluations and accomplishments in the Short Rotation Wood Crops Program (SRWCP) for the year ending September 30, 1984. The program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biomass Energy Technology Division and consists of...

J. W. Ranney L. L. Wright J. L. Trimble R. D. Perlack D. H. Dawson

1985-01-01

186

Short rotation Wood Crops Program. Annual progress report for 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Munici...

L. L. Wright A. R. Ehrenshaft

1990-01-01

187

ACCUMULATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF NITRATE–NITROGEN AND EXTRACTABLE PHOSPHORUS IN THE SOIL PROFILE UNDER VARIOUS ALTERNATIVE CROPPING SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cropping systems can influence the accumulation and distribution of plant nutrients in the soil profile, which can affect their utilization efficiency by crops and pollution potential in the environment. A field experiment was conducted on a Dark Brown loam soil at Scott, Saskatchewan, Canada to assess the effects of input level, cropping diversity and crop phase on the accumulation and

S. S. Malhi; S. A. Brandt; D. Ulrich; R. Lemke; K. S. Gill

2002-01-01

188

Antibiotic uptake by vegetable crops from manure-applied soils.  

PubMed

This study quantified the uptake of five antibiotics (chlortetracycline, monensin, sulfamethazine, tylosin, and virginiamycin) by 11 vegetable crops in two different soils that were fertilized with raw versus composted turkey and hog manures or inorganic fertilizer. Almost all vegetables showed some uptake of antibiotics from manure treatments. However, statistical testing showed that except for a few isolated treatments the concentrations of all antibiotics in vegetable tissues were generally less than the limits of quantification. Further testing of the significant treatments showed that antibiotic concentrations in vegetables from many of these treatments were not significantly different than the corresponding concentrations from the fertilizer treatment (matrix effect). All five antibiotic concentrations in the studied vegetables were <10 ?g kg(-1). On the basis of the standards for maximum residue levels in animal tissues and suggested maximum daily intake based on body weight, this concentration would not pose any health risk unless one is allergic to that particular antibiotic. PMID:24106840

Kang, Dong Hee; Gupta, Satish; Rosen, Carl; Fritz, Vincent; Singh, Ashok; Chander, Yogesh; Murray, Helene; Rohwer, Charlie

2013-10-09

189

Carbon and N mineralization as affected by soil cultivation and crop residue in a calcareous wetland ecosystem in Central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralization of soil organic matter plays a key role in supplying nutrient elements essential to plant growth. Soil cultivation and crop residue affect C mineralization and nutrient availability in wetland ecosystems. This study evaluated the combined impacts of soil cultivation and crop residue on C and N mineralization in a calcareous wetland soil (Luvic Calcisol) in Central Iran. Soil samples

Fayez Raiesi

2006-01-01

190

Quality of soil organic matter and C storage as influenced by cropping systems in northwestern Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop rotations and reduction in tillage are commonly recommended for sustained crop production and enhancing soil quality.\\u000a Our objective was to evaluate the long-term effects of cropping systems (1968–1992) on soil structure, carbon storage and\\u000a the quality of soil organic matter. The study was conducted on a silt clay loam soil (Typic Cryoboralf) near Beaverlodge,\\u000a Alberta, The cropping systems were:

M. A. Arshad; Y. K. Soon; J. A. Ripmeester

2011-01-01

191

No-tillage, crop residue additions, and legume cover cropping effects on soil quality characteristics under maize in Patzcuaro watershed (Mexico)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive maize (Zea mays L.) cropping based on conventional tillage practices has resulted in soil quality degradation in the Patzcuaro Watershed in central Mexico. A field experiment with seven soil management treatments was implemented on a sandy loam Andisol to evaluate the impact on soil quality of maize cropping with conventional tillage, no-tillage with varying percentages of surface residue coverage

A. Roldán; F. Caravaca; M. T. Hernández; C. Garc??a; C. Sánchez-Brito; M. Velásquez; M. Tiscareño

2003-01-01

192

Integration of soil structure variations with time and space into models for crop management. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil structure plays a major role in the design of new crop management systems. For instance, the transition from conventional\\u000a to no-tillage changes soil structure, which, in turn, has implications on crop yield greenhouse gas emissions, and pesticide\\u000a and nitrate leaching. Modelling soil structure at field scale faces two main issues: (1) the spatial variability and (2) the\\u000a temporal variability.

J. Roger-Estrade; G. Richard; A. R. Dexter; H. Boizard; S. De Tourdonnet; M. Bertrand; J. Caneill

2009-01-01

193

Simulation of Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Wheat-cropped Soils using CERES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from arable soils, in relation to crop fertilization, is essential to devise strategies to mitigate the impact\\u000a of agriculture on global warming. This paper presents the development and test of a N2O model resulting from the linkage of a dynamic soil-crop simulation model (CERES) with two sub-models of N2O production and reduction in soils.

B. Gabrielle; P. Laville; C. Hénault; B. Nicoullaud; J. C. Germon

2006-01-01

194

NATIONAL CROP LOSS ASSESSMENT NETWORK (NCLAN) 1984 ANNUAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Research for 1984 involved performance of a preliminary economic assessment of simulated changes in ambient O3 on U.S. agriculture using recent NCLAN response data for six major crops. Four hypothetical ambient O3 levels are measured and compared with a 1980 base situation. The r...

195

Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. Annual Progress Report for 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1984. The goal of the HECP is to provide the technology base that will allow industry to develop systems for producing her...

J. H. Cushman J. L. Elmore A. F. Turhollow

1985-01-01

196

Integrated soil-crop system management: reducing environmental risk while increasing crop productivity and improving nutrient use efficiency in China.  

PubMed

During the past 47 yr (1961-2007), Chinese cereal production has increased by 3.2-fold, successfully feeding 22% of the global human population with only 9% of the world's arable land, but at high environmental cost and resource consumption. Worse, crop production has been stagnant since 1996 while the population and demand for food continue to rise. New advances for sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services will be needed during the coming 50 yr to reduce environmental risk while increasing crop productivity and improving nutrient use efficiency. Here, we advocate and develop integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM). In this approach, the key points are (i) to take all possible soil quality improvement measures into consideration, (ii) to integrate the utilization of various nutrient resources and match nutrient supply to crop requirements, and (iii) to integrate soil and nutrient management with high-yielding cultivation systems. Recent field experiments have shed light on how ISSM can lead to significant increases in crop yields while increasing nutrient use efficiency and reducing environmental risk. PMID:21712573

Zhang, Fusuo; Cui, Zhenling; Fan, Mingsheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Chen, Xinping; Jiang, Rongfeng

197

Soil C change and GHG emissions after land use change to bioenergy crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current process-based models of bioenergy crop growth have only recently begun to include descriptions of soil C change and GHG emissions. These models can be used to explore the interactions between bioenergy crop type, soil type, climate and crop management, to determine likely soil C change and GHG emissions under present and future climate. While such models have been developed and improved against a range of soil C and GHG experimental datasets, few of these originate from the 2nd generation bioenergy crop. In this study, the soil process-based model ECOSSE has been used to simulate soil C change and GHG emissions arising from bioenergy crop land use change. The model has been run using the driving data collected at several sites in UK and Ireland, and soil C change and GHG emissions have been tested against measurements. The implications of previous land use and the time since the energy crops were established have been simulated. The model has been then run for a transition matrix of previous land uses, assuming the following previous land uses: cropland, semi-natural grassland, improved grassland and woodland. Finally, the soil C change and GHG budget of each potential transition at each site have been addressed. The use of detailed driving variables at these well characterised sites form a sound basis for a further application of the model at larger spatial scales.

Dondini, M.; Smith, P.

2012-04-01

198

Model for assessing impact of salinity on soil water availability and crop yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinity condition in the root zone hinders moisture extraction from soil by plants, because of osmotic potential development in soil water due to presence of salts, which ultimately, decreases transpiration of plants and thereby affects crop yield. Therefore, an effort was made in this study to quantify the impact of salinity on soil water availability to plants. The movement

K. Lamsal; Guna N. Paudyal; M. Saeed

1999-01-01

199

Comparative effects of a tree crop (cocoa) and shifting cultivation on a forest soil in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study examines the organic matter and nutrient levels in soils under a 26-year old cocoa plantation and shifting cultivation farmlands cropped with cassava and maize, in Nigeria. The characteristics of soils under the two contrasting agricultural modes were compared with those of soils under rain forest, in order to infer the differential effects. Relative to the forest levels,

A. O. Aweto; O. A. Obe

1993-01-01

200

Chapter 7 Ameliorating Soil Acidity of Tropical Oxisols by Liming For Sustainable Crop Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greatest potential for expanding the world's agricultural frontier lies in the savanna regions of the tropics, which are dominated by Oxisols. Soil acidity and low native fertility, however, are major constraints for crop production on tropical Oxisols. Soil acidification is an ongoing natural process which can be enhanced by human activities or can be controlled by appropriate soil management

N. K. Fageria; V. C. Baligar

2008-01-01

201

VARIATION IN SOIL PROPERTIES AND CROP YIELD ACROSS AN ERODED PRAIRIE LANDSCAPE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intensive tillage moves large quantities of soil, resulting in a pattern of soil redistribution where topsoil is depleted from convex slope positions and deposited in concave positions. In these experiments, the variation in surface soil properties and crop yield were determined in an undulating lan...

202

Variability of soil properties and crop yield in landscapes affected by long-term tillage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intensive tillage moves large quantities of soil, resulting in a pattern of soil redistribution where topsoil is depleted from convex slope positions and deposited in concave positions. In these experiments, the variation in erosion estimates, soil properties, and crop yield were determined in a hil...

203

Soil respiration and microbial biomass in a pecan — cotton alley cropping system in Southern USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available on soil respiration and microbial biomass in soils under agroforestry systems. We measured soil respiration rate and microbial biomass under two age classes (young and old) of a pecan (Carya illinoinensis) — cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) alley cropping system, two age classes of pecan orchards, and a cotton monoculture on a well-drained, Redbay sandy loam (a fine-loamy,

K.-H. Lee; S. Jose

2003-01-01

204

Soil sustainability as measured by carbon sequestration using carbon isotopes from crop-livestock management systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is an integral part of maintaining and measuring soil sustainability. This study was undertaken to document and better understand the relationships between two livestock-crop-forage systems and the sequestration of SOC with regards to soil sustainability and was conducted o...

205

PREDICTING SOIL MOISTURE DYNAMICS AND CROP YIELD USING ELECTRICAL GEOPHYSICAL METHODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our research at the USDA's Agricultural Research Center (OPE3 field site) located in Beltsville, MD is motivated by the need to develop efficient and non-invasive methods for characterizing the soil properties that control soil moisture dynamics and crop yield. Soil moisture dynamics are controlled ...

206

Continuous Cropping Systems Reduce Near-Surface Maximum Compaction in No-Till Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because of increased concerns over compaction in NT soils, it is important to assess how continuous cropping systems influence risks of soil compaction across a range of soils and NT management systems. We quantified differences in maximum bulk density (BDmax) and critical water content (CWC) by the...

207

Water extractable phosphorus in soils as impacted by cropping system, tillage practice, and amendment history  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water extracted phosphorus (P) is the most labile P pool in soil. Thus, the level of water extracted P is an important parameter in evaluating the runoff potential of soil P. This work compared the water extracted inorganic P (WEPi) and organic P (WEPo) levels in three soils as impacted by crop man...

208

Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop  

PubMed Central

Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46–76 Mg dry mass?ha?1). Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq?m?2 over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions.

Duval, Benjamin D.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Davis, Sarah C.; Keogh, Cindy; Long, Stephen P.; Parton, William J.; DeLucia, Evan H.

2013-01-01

209

Predicting greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon from changing pasture to an energy crop.  

PubMed

Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46-76 Mg dry mass?ha(-1)). Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq?m(-2) over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions. PMID:23991028

Duval, Benjamin D; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Davis, Sarah C; Keogh, Cindy; Long, Stephen P; Parton, William J; Delucia, Evan H

2013-08-21

210

Effect of crop sequence, soil sample location and depth on soil water holding capacity under center pivot irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the changes that may occur to the soil water holding capacity under center pivot irrigation systems when grown with different crop patterns over a long period of time. The changes of water holding capacity were checked as affected by crop location and depth. The study was carried out in a dominantly sandy loam

Yousef A. Al-Rumikhani

2002-01-01

211

Alley cropping in the moist savanna of West-Africa: III. Soil organic matter fractionation and soil productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cropping systems with limited amounts of external inputs, the soil organic matter pool (SOM) may contribute significantly\\u000a to plant nutrition. The impact of organic inputs on total SOM and particulate organic matter (POM) N contents as affected\\u000a by soil type and the relationships between sources of N and maize N uptake were assessed for a set of alley cropping

B. Vanlauwe; S. Aman; K. Aihou; B. K. Tossah; V. Adebiyi; N. Sanginga; O. Lyasse; J. Diels; R. Merckx

1998-01-01

212

CROP RESIDUE PRODUCTION AFTER CONVERSION FROM PERENNIAL VEGETATION TO ANNUAL CROPPING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) was established by the Food Security Act of 1985 to assist producers with highly erodible land (HEL). After ten years in permanent vegetation, these lands could be put into crop production. One of the concerns was whether CRP lands could be managed to conserv...

213

Occurrence of Chloramphenicol in Crops through Natural Production by Bacteria in Soil.  

PubMed

Due to the unexpected findings of the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol in products of animal origin, feed, and straw, the hypothesis was studied that the drug is naturally present in soil, through production by soil bacteria, and subsequently can be transferred to crops. First, the stability of chloramphenicol in soil was studied. The fate of chloramphenicol highly depends on soil type and showed a half-life of approximately one day in nonsterile topsoil. It was found to be more stable in subsoil and sterile soils. Second, the production of chloramphenicol in soil was studied, and it was confirmed that Streptomyces venezuelae can produce chloramphenicol at appreciable amounts in nonsterile soil. Third, a transfer study was carried out using wheat and maize grown on three different soils that were weekly exposed to aqueous chloramphenicol solutions at different levels. Chloramphenicol was taken up by crops as determined by chiral liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometric analysis, and the levels in crops were found to be bioavailability related. It was concluded that chloramphenicol residues can occur naturally in crops as a result of the production of chloramphenicol by soil bacteria in their natural environment and subsequent uptake by crops. PMID:23570678

Berendsen, Bjorn; Pikkemaat, Mariel; Römkens, Paul; Wegh, Robin; van Sisseren, Maarten; Stolker, Linda; Nielen, Michel

2013-04-19

214

Microbial community composition and carbon cycling within soil microenvironments of conventional, low-input, and organic cropping systems.  

PubMed

This study coupled stable isotope probing with phospholipid fatty acid analysis ((13)C-PLFA) to describe the role of microbial community composition in the short-term processing (i.e., C incorporation into microbial biomass and/or deposition or respiration of C) of root- versus residue-C and, ultimately, in long-term C sequestration in conventional (annual synthetic fertilizer applications), low-input (synthetic fertilizer and cover crop applied in alternating years), and organic (annual composted manure and cover crop additions) maize-tomato (Zea mays - Lycopersicum esculentum) cropping systems. During the maize growing season, we traced (13)C-labeled hairy vetch (Vicia dasycarpa) roots and residues into PLFAs extracted from soil microaggregates (53-250 ?m) and silt-and-clay (<53 ?m) particles. Total PLFA biomass was greatest in the organic (41.4 nmol g(-1) soil) and similar between the conventional and low-input systems (31.0 and 30.1 nmol g(-1) soil, respectively), with Gram-positive bacterial PLFA dominating the microbial communities in all systems. Although total PLFA-C derived from roots was over four times greater than from residues, relative distributions (mol%) of root- and residue-derived C into the microbial communities were not different among the three cropping systems. Additionally, neither the PLFA profiles nor the amount of root- and residue-C incorporation into the PLFAs of the microaggregates were consistently different when compared with the silt-and-clay particles. More fungal PLFA-C was measured, however, in microaggregates compared with silt-and-clay. The lack of differences between the mol% within the microbial communities of the cropping systems and between the PLFA-C in the microaggregates and the silt-and-clay may have been due to (i) insufficient differences in quality between roots and residues and/or (ii) the high N availability in these N-fertilized cropping systems that augmented the abilities of the microbial communities to process a wide range of substrate qualities. The main implications of this study are that (i) the greater short-term microbial processing of root- than residue-C can be a mechanistic explanation for the higher relative retention of root- over residue-C, but microbial community composition did not influence long-term C sequestration trends in the three cropping systems and (ii) in spite of the similarity between the microbial community profiles of the microaggregates and the silt-and-clay, more C was processed in the microaggregates by fungi, suggesting that the microaggregate is a relatively unique microenvironment for fungal activity. PMID:22267876

Kong, Angela Y Y; Scow, Kate M; Córdova-Kreylos, Ana Lucía; Holmes, William E; Six, Johan

2011-01-01

215

[Phytoavailability and chemical speciation of cadmium in different Cd-contaminated soils with crop root return].  

PubMed

Pot experiments were conducted under greenhouse condition to investigate the effects of crop root return on succeeding crops growth, Cd uptake and soil Cd speciation in Cd-contaminated soil and artificial Cd-contaminated soil. The results showed that the amount of root residue returned to soil by corn and kidney bean growth successive for 3 times was 0.4%-1.1%. The Cd returned to soil by root residue was 1.3%-3.5% to the total soil Cd. There was no significant difference in the shoot dry weights of winter wheat and Chinese cabbage grown on the 2 Cd-contaminated soils with and without root return. While Cd concentration of Chinese cabbage increased significantly in the Cd-contaminated soil with corn or kidney bean root return. Light fraction of soil organic matter increased with root return in both of the Cd-contaminated soils. The percentage of Cd in the light fraction of soil organic matter increased with root return in the artificial Cd-contaminated soil. Soil carbonates-bound Cd concentration decreased significantly with corn root return in the Cd-contaminated soil. Soil exchangeable Cd concentration decreased and soil Fe-Mn oxide-bound Cd concentration increased significantly with kidney bean root return in the artificial Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:23668141

Zhang, Jing; Yu, Ling-Ling; Xin, Shu-Zhen; Su, De-Chun

2013-02-01

216

Soil organic carbon dynamics and crop yield for different crop rotations in a degraded ferruginous tropical soil in a semi-arid region: a simulation approach  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In recent years, simulation models have been used as a complementary tool for research and for quantifying soil carbon sequestration under widely varying conditions. This has improved the understanding and prediction of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and crop yield responses to soil and climate conditions and crop management scenarios. The goal of the present study was to estimate the changes in SOC for different cropping systems in West Africa using a simulation model. A crop rotation experiment conducted in Farakô-Ba, Burkina Faso was used to evaluate the performance of the cropping system model (CSM) of the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) for simulating yield of different crops. Eight crop rotations that included cotton, sorghum, peanut, maize and fallow, and three different management scenarios, one without N (control), one with chemical fertilizer (N) and one with manure applications, were studied. The CSM was able to simulate the yield trends of various crops, with inconsistencies for a few years. The simulated SOC increased slightly across the years for the sorghum–fallow rotation with manure application. However, SOC decreased for all other rotations except for the continuous fallow (native grassland), in which the SOC remained stable. The model simulated SOC for the continuous fallow system with a high degree of accuracy normalized root mean square error (RMSE)=0·001, while for the other crop rotations the simulated SOC values were generally within the standard deviation (s.d.) range of the observed data. The crop rotations that included a supplemental N-fertilizer or manure application showed an increase in the average simulated aboveground biomass for all crops. The incorporation of this biomass into the soil after harvest reduced the loss of SOC. In the present study, the observed SOC data were used for characterization of production systems with different SOC dynamics. Following careful evaluation of the CSM with observed soil organic matter (SOM) data similar to the study presented here, there are many opportunities for the application of the CSM for carbon sequestration and resource management in Sub-Saharan Africa.

SOLER, C. M. TOJO; BADO, V. B.; TRAORE, K.; BOSTICK, W. MCNAIR; JONES, J. W.; HOOGENBOOM, G.

2011-01-01

217

Adapting the CROPGRO model for saline soils: the case for a common bean crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water scarcity and severe environmental degradation are causing water managers in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan to re-evaluate\\u000a irrigation water use. Crop models could play an important role in helping farmers decide which systems (crops and irrigation\\u000a technologies) are feasible. CROPGRO is a physiologically robust agronomic model, although the current version does not consider\\u000a the effects of soil salinity on crop

H. A. Webber; C. A. Madramootoo; M. Bourgault; M. G. Horst; G. Stulina; D. L. Smith

2010-01-01

218

[Application of ICP-MS to detection of heavy metals in soil from different cropping systems].  

PubMed

With the rapid development of the society, more and more attention has been paid to the influence of human activity on environment and food pollution. Soils of different cropping systems, sampled from Daxing district of Beijing, were analyzed in terms of the contents of heavy metals (Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) by the method of ICP-MS to determine the influence of cropping system on environment. The results showed that the contents of nine heavy metals in soils from the cropping systems (fruits and maize/wheat) were several times higher than those from vegetable system. Contents of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Cd were the highest in soils from fruit system, while Ti and Pb the highest in soils from maize/wheat system. The causes of the above differences could be the different harvest organs for different crops. PMID:17763792

Rui, Yu-Kui; Kong, Xiang-Bin; Qin, Jing

2007-06-01

219

Climate change and the flowering time of annual crops.  

PubMed

Crop production is inherently sensitive to variability in climate. Temperature is a major determinant of the rate of plant development and, under climate change, warmer temperatures that shorten development stages of determinate crops will most probably reduce the yield of a given variety. Earlier crop flowering and maturity have been observed and documented in recent decades, and these are often associated with warmer (spring) temperatures. However, farm management practices have also changed and the attribution of observed changes in phenology to climate change per se is difficult. Increases in atmospheric [CO(2)] often advance the time of flowering by a few days, but measurements in FACE (free air CO(2) enrichment) field-based experiments suggest that elevated [CO(2)] has little or no effect on the rate of development other than small advances in development associated with a warmer canopy temperature. The rate of development (inverse of the duration from sowing to flowering) is largely determined by responses to temperature and photoperiod, and the effects of temperature and of photoperiod at optimum and suboptimum temperatures can be quantified and predicted. However, responses to temperature, and more particularly photoperiod, at supraoptimal temperature are not well understood. Analysis of a comprehensive data set of time to tassel initiation in maize (Zea mays) with a wide range of photoperiods above and below the optimum suggests that photoperiod modulates the negative effects of temperature above the optimum. A simulation analysis of the effects of prescribed increases in temperature (0-6 degrees C in +1 degree C steps) and temperature variability (0% and +50%) on days to tassel initiation showed that tassel initiation occurs later, and variability was increased, as the temperature exceeds the optimum in models both with and without photoperiod sensitivity. However, the inclusion of photoperiod sensitivity above the optimum temperature resulted in a higher apparent optimum temperature and less variability in the time of tassel initiation. Given the importance of changes in plant development for crop yield under climate change, the effects of photoperiod and temperature on development rates above the optimum temperature clearly merit further research, and some of the knowledge gaps are identified herein. PMID:19505929

Craufurd, P Q; Wheeler, T R

2009-01-01

220

TILLAGE, COVER CROP, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER SOURCE EFFECTS ON SOIL CARBON AND NITROGEN SEQUESTRATION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 10-yr effect of combinations of tillage (no-till, mulch till, and conventional till), cover crop (rye vs. none), and N fertilization source and rate (0 and 100 kg N ha-1 from NH4NO3 and 100 and 200 kg N ha-1 from poultry manure) was evaluated on crop residues and soil organic C (SOC) and organic...

221

REMOTE SENSING METHODS FOR MEASUREMENT OF SOIL AND CROP WATER STATUS IN A HUMID ENVIRONMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the increased need to insure adequate crop production, producers are increasingly relying on supplemental irrigation. Remote sensing has potential as an accurate indicator of crop moisture status. While the water potential of the soil and individual leaves or plants can be measured with a fair ...

222

The threat of soil erosion to long-term crop production  

Microsoft Academic Search

National increases in row crops at the expense of hay and pasture crops, particularly on steeper slopes, have made the control of erosion a difficult prospect. Management practices that fit the various field conditions are needed to accomplish effective erosion control. These measures should be selected on the basis of soil characteristics, landscape type, and the amount of ongoing erosion.

W. E. Larson; F. J. Pierce; R. H. Dowdy

1983-01-01

223

Crop yield and rooting as affected by fragipan depth in loess soils in the southeast USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of soil erosion and restrictive subsurface features can adversely influence root growth and crop productivity. The effects of depth to a restrictive layer on yield and root development were determined for soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and corn (Zea mays L.) grown on Grenada silt loam (Oxyaquic Fraglossudalfs) in West Tennessee. Seven sites were selected in a cropped

J. G Graveel; D. D Tyler; J. R Jones; W. W McFee

2002-01-01

224

YIELD POTENTIAL AND SOIL QUALITY UNDER ALTERNATIVE CROP PRODUCTION PRACTICES FOR FRESH MARKET PEPPER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Replicated field plots were established in sites with differing histories of crop production to measure parameters of soil quality and the yield potential of fresh market pepper (Capsicum annum) under alternative crop production practices and organic amendments. Site 'O' was an organic vegetable far...

225

BOOK REVIEW: CROP-SOIL SIMULATION MODELS: APPLICATIONS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book provides a comprehensive review of the applications of crop-soil simulation models to problems encountered in developing countries - how such models have been used for solving problems related to crop managment, their limiations, and areas where they can be further used. It is the first gl...

226

Long-term tillage and cropping sequence effects on dryland residue and soil carbon fractions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dryland soil N conservation and mineralization as influenced by long-term management practices is needed to reduce N fertilization rate, N leaching, and N2O (a greenhouse gas) emission. We evaluated the 21-yr effects of combinations of tillage and cropping sequences on dryland crop biomass (stems + ...

227

Soil micronutrient availability to crops as affected by long-term inorganic and organic fertilizer applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micronutrient status in soils and crops can be affected by different fertilization practices during a long-term field experiment. This paper investigated the effects of different fertilization treatments on total and DTPA-extractable micronutrients in soils and micronutrients in crops after 16 year fertilization experiments in Fengqiu County, Henan Province, China. The treatments of the long-term experiment included combinations of various rates

B. Y. Li; D. M. Zhou; L. Cang; H. L. Zhang; X. H. Fan; S. W. Qin

2007-01-01

228

Soil and Crop Contamination Through Wastewater Irrigation and Options for Risk Reduction in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Wastewater irrigation is becoming a global phenomenon, as a result of global water scarcity and increased pollution of water\\u000a sources. While this practice offers many opportunities, human health risks from contaminated soils and crops irrigated with\\u000a wastewater pose the greatest challenges to this practice. In this chapter, contaminants in wastewater of most relevance to\\u000a soil and crop, such as pathogens,

Robert C. Abaidoo; Bernard Keraita; Pay Drechsel; Priyanka Dissanayake; Akple S. Maxwell

229

Studies of sensitivity of a dynamic model of grain crop productivity to soil-hydrophysical information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between a target function of a mathematical model of grain crop growth and development—yield—and variations\\u000a in the soil and hydrophysical information expressed by variations in the soil water-retention function is considered. The\\u000a function is approximated with a formula based on soil-hydrological constants. The soil profile in the model is represented\\u000a by a three-layer structure. Each layer has its

B. I. Bakalenko; A. M. Globus; R. A. Poluektov

2008-01-01

230

Transfer of cadmium, lead, and zinc from industrially contaminated soil to crop plants: A field study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The documeneed adverse health effects of soil Cd and Pb have led to public concern over soil contamination with metals. A 4-year field experiment was conducted to study the transfer of Cd, Pb, and Zn from soil contaminated by smelter flue-dust to crop plants grown in a rotation. The soil was amended with Pb?Zn smelter flue-dust (2–66.8 kg per 10

S. Dudka; M. Piotrowska; H. Terelak

1996-01-01

231

Dissipation and mobility of flumetsulam in the soil of corn crops.  

PubMed

The triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilide herbicide flumetsulam has been applied pre- or post-emergence at the rate of 20 g a.i. ha-1 on corn crops grown on sandy-loam or loamy-sand soils. A procedure has been developed for the analysis of flumetsulam in soil using gas-chromatography and gas-chromatography combined with mass spectrometry, after methylation of flumetsulam and purification of the soil extracts by repeated thin-layer chromatographies. The dissipation of flumetsulam in the 0-8 cm surface soil layer followed a first order kinetics. The flumetsulam soil half-life was about 41 days for the crops grown on sandy-loam soil, and 30 days for the crop grown on loamy-sand soil. At the corn harvest in September, only 9 to 13% of the applied dose of flumetsulam remained in soil, what is a common value for the herbicides at the crop harvest. The heavy rains and the soft temperatures of the autumn should dissipate these low residues within the one or two months period after the harvest. When applied at the rate of 20 g a.i. ha-1, the persistence of flumetsulam in field soil thus was moderate. During the crops and until the harvest, in the 8-15 cm surface soil layer, low concentrations of flumetsulam at the limit of the analytical sensitivity (0.3 microgram flumetsulam kg-1 dry soil) were observed temporarily; in the 15-20 cm surface soil layer, flumetsulam was never detected, showing that flumetsulam was strongly adsorbed onto the soil and its organic matter. PMID:12696407

Rouchaud, J; Neus, O; Eelen, H; Bulcke, R

2002-01-01

232

Effects of cropping systems on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium forms and soil organic carbon in a Gray Luvisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of up to 23 years of agricultural cropping of a boreal forest soil on soil organic carbon (SOC) and N, P, and K pools were studied. The cropping systems studied were: (a) continuous barley, (b) continuous forage bromegrass, (c) continuous forage legume, and (d) barley\\/grass-legume forage rotation. Continuous bromegrass increased while other cropping systems decreased SOC in the

Y. K. Soon; M. A. Arshad

1996-01-01

233

Effects of gully erosion and gully filling on soil depth and crop production in the black soil region, northeast China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gully erosion has affected the crop yield in the black soil region of China and become a potential threat to Chan’s food security. This paper aimed to quantify the effects of gully erosion on soil depth and soybean yield. An ephemeral gully (74 m) and a classic gully (52 m) connected at the gully’s ...

234

Estimating Evaporation from Bare Soil and the Crop Coefficient for the Initial Period Using Common Soils Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crop coefficient during the initial period sKc inid varies with wetting frequency, evaporative demand, and water-holding capacity of the upper soil layer. It is possible to develop a semitheoretical integrated function to predict the average Kc ini representing the initial period of a growing season when the soil is mostly bare and that incorporates these three factors. The function

Richard G. Allen; William O. Pruitt; Dirk Raes; Martin Smith

2005-01-01

235

NonTraditional Soil Additives: Can They Improve Crop Production?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural producers are con- stantly seeking the most efficient and economical production sys- tems.The use of soil additives such as soil conditioners, soil activators, wetting agents, soil inoculants, microbial enhancers, soil stimu- lants, etc., has been promoted since at least the late 1800s. Increasing production costs, espe- cially for fertilizers, have renewed producers' interest in these materi- als. However, many

Mark L. McFarland; Charles Stichler; Robert G. Lemon

236

Differentiating Soil Types Using Electromagnetic Conductivity and Crop Yield Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

soil maps. Robert (1993) discusses the viability and cost- effectiveness of a number of options available for creat- Variable rate technology enables management of individual soil ing these maps. In the mid-Atlantic coastal plain, soil types within fields. However, correct classification of soil types for mid-Atlantic coastal plain soils are currently impractically expensive property changes within fields are often abrupt

C. M. Anderson-Cook; M. M. Alley; J. K. F. Roygard; R. Khosla; R. B. Noble; J. A. Doolittle

2002-01-01

237

Interseeded Winter Annual Rye in Dry Bean Cropping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public concern over herbicide contamination of water, surfactant effects on amphibians, and herbicide-resistant weeds has led to increased interest in alternative weed-control systems. In addition, direct-cut harvest-associated yield losses of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are of concern to some growers. Often there is difficulty operating combine mechanisms near soil surfaces to reach the lowermost bean pods. The objectives of

Steven A. Wagstaff; K. D. Thelen

2011-01-01

238

Detecting crop yield reduction due to irrigation-induced soil salinization in South-West Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South-European part of the Russian Federation has experienced serious land degradation in the form of soil salinization since the 1960s. This land degradation was caused by intensive, large-scale irrigation on reclaimed land in combination with the salt-rich nature of the substrate. Alkaline soil salinity is believed to be an important factor decreasing crop yield in this area. A large research effort has been directed to the effects of soil salinity on crops, there is a need for simple, easily determinable indicators of crop health and soil salinity in irrigated systems, that can help to detect crop water stress in an early stage. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of soil salinity and vegetation water stress on the performance of alfalfa crop yield and physiological crop properties, and to study the possibility to measure soil salinity and alkalinity and the crop water stress index at plot level using a thermal gun and a regular digital camera. The study area was located in Saratov District, in the South-West part of Russia. Variables on the surface energy balance, crop properties, soil properties and visible reflectance were measured on plots with alfalfa cultures in two fields with and without signs of alkaline soil salinity, and with and without irrigation in July 2009. The research showed no clear adverse effects of soil salinity and soil alkalinity on crop yield and physiological crop properties. Soil salinity, as reflected by the electric conductivity, positively affected the root biomass of alfalfa in the range of 0.15 to 1.52 dS/m . This was a result of EC levels being below the documented threshold to negatively affect Alfalfa, as would be the case in truly saline soils. The soil pH also showed a positive correlation with root biomass within the range of pH 6.2 and 8.5 . From the literature these pH values are generally believed to be too high to exhibit a positive relationship with root biomass. No relationship was found between EC and pH on the one hand , and soil moisture content on the other. However, soil moisture content in the topsoil appeared to have a major influence on the crop water stress index, which on its turn affected the leaf area index, the fresh biomass and the mean plant height. The crop leaf color as detected by a regular digital camera appeared to be correlated with pH and EC properties of the soil. The visible light band ratios red/green and blue/green correlated well with the crop water stress index. More research is necessary to prove if this relation is applicable in different environments, and for different crops. A confirmation of these findings would offer scope to increase the spatial support of this technique using satellite images.

Argaman, E.; Beets, W.; Croes, J.; Keesstra, S.; Verzandvoort, S.; Zeiliguer, A.

2012-04-01

239

Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When soil nitrate levels are low, plants suffer nitrogen (N) deficiency but when the levels are excessive, soil nitrates can pollute surface and subsurface waters. Strategies to reduce the nitrate pollution are necessary to reach a sustainable use of resources such as soil, water and plant. Buffer strips and cover crops can contribute to the management of soil nitrates, but little is known of their effectiveness in semiarid vineyards plantations. The research was carried out in the south coast of Sicily (Italy) to evaluate nitrate trends in a vineyard managed both conventionally and using two different cover crops (Triticum durum and Vicia sativa cover crop). A 10 m-wide buffer strip was seeded with Lolium perenne at the bottom of the vineyard. Soil nitrate was measured monthly and nitrate movement was monitored by application of a 15N tracer to a narrow strip between the bottom of vineyard and the buffer and non-buffer strips. Lolium perenne biomass yield in the buffer strips and its isotopic nitrogen content were monitored. Vicia sativa cover crop management contributed with an excess of nitrogen, and the soil management determined the nitrogen content at the buffer areas. A 6 m buffer strip reduced the nitrate by 42% with and by 46% with a 9 m buffer strip. Thanks to catch crops, farmers can manage the N content and its distribution into the soil over the year, can reduced fertilizer wastage and reduce N pollution of surface and groundwater.

Novara, A.; Gristina, L.; Guaitoli, F.; Santoro, A.; Cerdà, A.

2013-08-01

240

GREAT PLAINS CROPPING SYSTEM STUDIES FOR SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interactions between environmental conditions and management practices can significantly affect soil function. Soil quality assessments may improve our understanding of how soils interact with the hydrosphere and atmosphere. This information can then be used to develop management practices that impr...

241

Replacing methyl bromide in annual strawberry production with glucosinolate-containing green manure crops.  

PubMed

The use of biocidal green manure crops is an agronomic technique for amending soil with fresh organic matter containing volatile compounds active in controlling some soil-borne pests and diseases. Two new selections of the Brassicaceae family were cultivated, incorporated before planting strawberries and tested as an alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. Two biocidal green manure crops (Brassica juncea L sel ISCI20, Eruca sativa Mill cv Nemat) containing glucosinolate-myrosinase systems, a conventional green manure (barley), untreated soil and a fumigated control were evaluated during two seasons. The effect of these soil management systems on subsequent strawberry performance was evaluated by monitoring yield and plant growth parameters. In both years, biocidal plant green manure treatments led to a fruit yield lower than with methyl bromide, but higher than with conventional green manure or untreated soil. These results confirm the good prospects for biocidal green manures, not only as an environmentally friendly alternative to methyl bromide in conventional agriculture, but also in organic agriculture as an alternative to conventional green manure crops. PMID:12974349

Lazzeri, Luca; Baruzzi, Gianluca; Malaguti, Lorena; Antoniacci, Loredana

2003-09-01

242

The impact of a low humus level in arable soils on microbial properties, soil organic matter quality and crop yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

In arable soils in Schleswig-Holstein (Northwest Germany) nearly 30% of the total organic C (TOC) stored in former times\\u000a in the soil has been mineralized in the last 20 years. Microbial biomass, enzyme activities and the soil organic matter (SOM)\\u000a composition were investigated in order to elucidate if a low TOC level affects microbial parameters, SOM quality and crop\\u000a yield.

L. Beyer; K. Sieling; K. Pingpank

1999-01-01

243

Alleu cropping sequentially cropped maize and cowpea with Leucaena on a sandy soil in Southern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The potential of alley cropping maize and cowpea with the giant Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit) cultivar K-28 was studied on an Entisol (Psammentic Ustorthent) in Southern Nigeria. In this trial the crops were grown in 4 m wide alleys formed by periodically pruned leucaena hedgerows. The effect of application of leucaena prunings, nitrogen fertilizer and tillage was

B. T. Kang; H. Grimme; T. L. Lawson

1985-01-01

244

Members of soil bacterial communities sensitive to tillage and crop rotation.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microorganisms play a major role in soil fertility and agricultural practices are known to exert influences on the community diversity of soil microorganisms. By using high-throughput sequencing approaches, we examined microbial populations in four cultivation and crop rotation treatments from a lon...

245

Tillage, Cover Crop, and Kill-Planting Date Effects on Corn Yield and Soil Nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

ha2 1 (Sainju and Singh, 1997). In addition, hairy vetch can improve soil and water quality compared with bare Tillage and spring kill date may affect cover crop N accumulation fallow by reducing erosion; NO3 leaching during fall, and subsequent N release to the soil, thereby influencing corn (Zea mays L.) N uptake and yield. We examined the influence of

Upendra M. Sainju; Bharat P. Singh

2001-01-01

246

Effects of cropping and tillage systems on soil erosion under climate change in Oklahoma  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil erosion under future climate change is very likely to increase due to projected increases in frequency and magnitude of heavy storms. The objective of this study is to quantify the effects of common cropping and tillage systems on soil erosion and surface runoff during 2010-2039 in central Okl...

247

Cropping and tillage systems effects on soil erosion under climate change in Oklahoma  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil erosion under future climate change is very likely to increase due to projected increases in frequency and magnitude of heavy storms. The objective of this study is to quantify the effects of common cropping and tillage systems on soil erosion and surface runoff during 2010-2039 in central Okl...

248

Won’t soil be damaged if cattle graze cover crops?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integration of crops and livestock could provide economic benefits to producers by intensifying land use and improving resource efficiency, but how this management might affect soil compaction, water infiltration, and soil strength has not been well documented. Key factors in balancing cattle produ...

249

Tillage, Cropping Sequence, and Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Dryland Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission and Carbon Content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management practices are needed to reduce dryland soil CO2 emission and increase C sequestration that can influence global warming. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland soil surface CO2 flux, temperature and water content at the 0- to 1...

250

Cropping System and Broiler Litter Application Impacts on Soil Nutrient Dynamics and Quality Characteristics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop rotation and broiler litter applications influence and maintain high yield production of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), but relative impact of these management practices on soil nutrient dynamics and soil quality is lacking in the literature particularly in the Mississip...

251

Microbial community composition as affected by dryland cropping systems and tillage in a semiarid sandy soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated microbial communities of soil (0-10 cm) as affected by dryland cropping systems under different tillage practices after 5 years. The soil is an Olton sandy loam (Fine, mixed, superactive, thermic Aridic Paleustolls) with an average of 16.4% clay, 67.6% sand and 0.65 g kg-1 of O...

252

CROPPING SYSTEMS INFLUENCES ON SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN THE GREAT PLAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural systems produce both detrimental and beneficial effects on soil quality (SQ). We compared soil physical properties of long-term conventional (CON) and alternative (ALT) cropping systems near Akron, CO; Brookings, SD; Bushland, TX; Fargo, ND; Mandan, ND; Mead, NE; Sidney, MT; and Swift C...

253

Long term effects of profile-modifying deep plowing on soil properties and crop yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insufficient plant available soil water limits dryland crop yields on the semiarid Southern Great Plains. Deep plowing to eliminate dense subsoil layers may increase soil water by increased infiltration and rooting, but the duration of treatment effects must be sufficiently long to recoup plowing co...

254

Soil microbial activity under different grass species: Underground impacts of biofuel cropping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial and plant communities interact to determine local nutrient cycling rates. As lands are converted to bioenergy crops, including corn and cellulosic grasses, focus has been on changes in soil carbon sequestration. Little attention has been paid to impacts of such land conversion on the activity of belowground communities. We hypothesized that in addition to affecting soil organic carbon (SOC),

Richard L. Haney; James R. Kiniry; Mari-Vaughn V. Johnson

2010-01-01

255

CARBON STORAGE IN SOILS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT PLAINS: EFFECT OF CROPPING FREQUENCY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Summer fallow (fallow) is still widely used on the North American Great Plains to replenish soil moisture between crops. Our objective was to examine how fallowing affects soil organic carbon (SOC) in various agronomic and climate settings by reviewing long-term studies in the midwestern USA (five s...

256

Crop and soil responses to using corn stover as a bioenergy feedstock: Observations from the Northern US Corn Belt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A sustainable bioenergy depends upon soil resources to sustain and increase crop production. This study examined soil (erosion, soil C, and microbial indicators) and crop response to stover removal treatments [Full Residue Returned (FullRR), Moderate Residue Returned (ModRR) and Low Residue Returned...

257

Relative Agronomic Merit of Fused Calcium Phosphate: III. Forms of Phosphorus in Soils Repeatedly Cropped in Pot Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivated acid clay, sandy clay, silt loam and sandy loam soils were homogenized with 0, 12, 36 and 108 mg P kg (soil dry wt.), applied as fused calcium phosphate (FP) or single superphosphate (SP), repeatedly cropped in a greenhouse and sampled after harvesting the third and fourth crops to study P disposition. Each soil sample was sequentially extracted with

Erasmus Otabbong; Jan Persson

1994-01-01

258

Tillage, residue burning and crop rotation alter soil fungal community and water-stable aggregation in arable fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil microbiology is a key factor in soil organic matter decomposition, and nutrient turnover and availability in agricultural soils, which can be markedly influenced by management practices, such as placement of crop residues, tillage and crop rotation. The present field study was designed as long-term experiment in an experimental farm located in the suburb of Shanghai, China, to study the

Yin Wang; Jie Xu; Jianhua Shen; Yongming Luo; Stefan Scheu; Xin Ke

2010-01-01

259

Effect of soil acidity factors on yields and foliar composition of tropical root crops  

SciTech Connect

Tropical root crops, a major source of food for subsistence farmers, varied in their sensitivity to soil acidity factors. Tolerance to soil acidity is an important characteristic of crops for the humid tropics where soils are often very acid and lime-scarce and expensive. Experiments on two Ultisols and an Oxisol showed that three tropical root crops differed markedly in sensitivity to soil acicity factors. Yams (Dioscorea alata L.) were very sensitive to soil acidity with yields on a Ultisol decreasing from 70% of maximum when Al saturation of the effective cation exchange capacity of the soil was 10 to 25% of maximum when Al saturation was 40%. On the other hand, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was very tolerant to high levels of soil acidity, yielding about 85% of maximum with 60% Al saturation. Taniers (Xanthosoma sp.) were intermediate between yams and cassava in their tolerance to soil acidity yielding about 60% of maximum with 50% Al saturation of the soil. Foliar composition of cassava was not affected by soil acidity levels and that of yams and taniers was also unaffected except for Ca content which decreased with decreasing soil pH and increasing Al saturation.Response of these tropical root crops to soil acidity components was far more striking on Ultisols than on the Oxisol. For yams, soils should be limed to about pH 5.5 with essentially no exhangeable Al/sup 3 +/ present whereas high yields of taniers can be obtained at about pH 4.8 with 20% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/ and of cassava at pH as low as 4.5 with 60% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/.

Abruna-Rodriguez, F.; Vicente-Chandler, J.I. Rivera, E.; Rodriguez, J.

1982-09-01

260

[Effects of straw returning on the integrated soil fertility and crop yield in southern China].  

PubMed

Based on the data from 94 experiments of straw returning in Anhui, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Guangxi, Sichuan, and Chongqing, and by using mathematic modeling approach, this paper evaluated the effects of straw returning on the soil fertility and crop yield in southern China. Obvious regional differences were observed in the soil fertility index (SFI) and crop yield response. In study area, the croplands with the SFI of Grade III and Grade IV were predominant, occupying 69.1% and 21.3% of the total, respectively. Averagely, straw returning increased the SFI and crop yield by 6.8% and 4.4%, respectively, as compared with the control (no straw returning). The SFI was significantly linearly correlated with rice yield, and could well reflect the integrated soil fertility in study area. At present, straw returning with decomposing agent added is one of the most important measures to improve the integrated soil fertility in southern China, which should be widely popularized. PMID:23431788

Yang, Fan; Dong, Yan; Xu, Ming-Gang; Bao, Yao-Xian

2012-11-01

261

Crop-assimilative carbon in the farmland ecosystem – an important source for carbon turnover in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop-assimilated carbon (C), an important source of soil organic carbon (SOC), represents a key linked component of the C cycle in the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum. In the farmland ecosystem, however, the quantitative characterization and mechanism involved in the distribution and transformation of the assimilated C in soil over the plant's life cycle are problems relatively easily ignored. Research in this area

Sanan Nie; Tida Ge; Chang Liu; Heai Xiao

2011-01-01

262

Crop production and soil water storage in long-term winter wheat–fallow tillage experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil water is the major limiting factor in dryland crop production in the Central Great Plains. No-till fallow management increases soil water storage and reduces soil erosion potential. Two experiments were initiated in 1969 and 1970 near Sidney, NE to compare effects of moldboard plow (Plow), sub-tillage (Sub-till) and no-tillage (No-till) fallow systems on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

Drew J. Lyon; Walter W. Stroup; Randall E. Brown

1998-01-01

263

Chemical changes in a saline-sodic soil after gypsum application and cropping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reclamation is needed on three million ha of slowly permeable saline-sodic soils in the Indus Plain of Pakistan. Previous studies measured an increased field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) in the soil under study with cropping and gypsum application. This field experiment was conducted on a low permeability, saline-sodic soil (a fine-loamy, mixed thermic Typic Natrustalf) to compare the leaching of sodium

M. Ilyas; R. H. Qureshi; M. A. Qadir

1997-01-01

264

Capacity of biochar application to maintain energy crop productivity: soil chemistry, sorghum growth, and runoff water quality effects.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis of crop biomass generates a by-product, biochar, which can be recycled to sustain nutrient and organic C concentrations in biomass production fields. We evaluated effects of biochar rate and application method on soil properties, nutrient balance, biomass production, and water quality. Three replications of eight sorghum [ (L.) Moench] treatments were installed in box lysimeters under greenhouse conditions. Treatments comprised increasing rates (0, 1.5, and 3.0 Mg ha) of topdressed or incorporated biochar supplemented with N fertilizer or N, P, and K fertilizer. Simulated rain was applied at 21 and 34 d after planting, and mass runoff loss of N, P, and K was measured. A mass balance of total N, P, and K was performed after 45 d. Returning 3.0 Mg ha of biochar did not affect sorghum biomass, soil total, or Mehlich-3-extractable nutrients compared to control soil. Yet, biochar contributed to increased concentration of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and mass loss of total phosphorus (TP) in simulated runoff, especially if topdressed. It was estimated that up to 20% of TP in topdressed biochar was lost in surface runoff after two rain events. Poor recovery of nutrients during pyrolysis and excessive runoff loss of nutrients for topdressed biochar, especially K, resulted in negative nutrient balances. Efforts to conserve nutrients during pyrolysis and incorporation of biochar at rates derived from annual biomass yields will be necessary for biochar use in sustainable energy crop production. PMID:22751046

Schnell, Ronnie W; Vietor, Donald M; Provin, Tony L; Munster, Clyde L; Capareda, Sergio

265

[Effect of reclaimed water used for irrigation on the quality of crops and soil].  

PubMed

Effect of different water (tertiary effluent, secondary effluent, raw sewage as well as tap water as control) used for irrigation on the qualities of crops (cucumber, cabbage and corn) and soil was investigated; meanwhile, the contents of residual chlorine ion, phosphate, nitrate and nitrite as well as residual heavy metals present in crops were studied respectively. The results demonstrated that the secondary effluent and tertiary effluent had no significant effect on the crop quality. In contrast, irrigation with raw sewage could lead to increase of partial nutrient components in the crops. If protein contents were taken as an example, the proteins for three crops corresponding to different water sources were in the range of 0.736 2 - 0.812 5 mg/kg for cucumber, 0.134 8 - 0.164 5 mg/kg for cabbage and 10.28 - 10.84 mg/kg for corn, respectively. Irrigation with sewage produced more accumulation of nitrates (554.4 mg/kg for cabbage). Considerable effects of irrigation with secondary effluent and tertiary effluent were not observed; however, sewage was not suitable for irrigation due to an apparent accumulation of heavy metals in crops. During short-period irrigation, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values of soil ranged from 3.5 to 4.5, suggesting that there was no concern on soil basification. As well, obvious accumulation of heavy metals in soils was not detectable. PMID:17489208

Zhao, Qing-Liang; Zhang, Jin-Na; Liu, Zhi-Gang; You, Shi-Jie; Wang, Shao-Hua; Wang, Li-Na; Xue, Shuang

2007-02-01

266

Crop response to localized organic amendment in soils with limiting physical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This 2-year study evaluated the use of rice husk as a localized organic amendment in a soil with limiting physical properties. The research was conducted in a commercial peach orchard planted in 2011 using a ridge planting system. Six soil and water management treatments were evaluated in 18 experimental units, which were set up in the field using a randomized complete block design. The treatments were compared both in terms of soil physical properties and crop response. Soil amendment with rice husk was the most effective technique. It improved soil conditions (soil infiltration and soil porosity), providing a better soil environment for root activity and thereby resulted in better crop performance. Concerning growth parameters, the amended treatment presented the highest overall values without negatively affecting crop water status. These techniques were suitable for mitigating the effects of soils with limiting physical conditions. Localized applications of amendments, as proposed in this work, imply an important reduction in application rates. It is important to consider an efficient use of by-products since there is a growing interest in industrial and agronomical exploitations.

Lordan, Joan; Pascual, Miquel; Fonseca, Francisco; Villar, Josep Maria; Montilla, Victor; Papió, Josep; Rufat, Josep

2013-04-01

267

EUBACTERIAL COMMUNITIES IN DIFFERENT SOIL MACROAGGREGATE ENVIRONMENTS AND CROPPING SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Different positions within soil macroaggregates, and macroaggregates of different sizes, have different chemical and physical properties which could affect microbial growth and interactions among taxa. The hypothesis that these soil aggregate fractions contain different eubacterial communities was ...

268

Effects of crop rotation and management system on water-extractable organic matter concentration, structure, and bioavailability in a chernozemic agricultural soil.  

PubMed

Water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) in soil affects contaminant mobility and toxicity, heterotrophic production, and nutrient cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This study focuses on the influences of land use history and agricultural management practices on the water extractability of organic matter and nutrients from soils. Water-extractable organic matter was extracted from soils under different crop rotations (an annual rotation of wheat-pea/bean-wheat-flax or a perennial-based rotation of wheat-alfalfa-alfalfa-flax) and management systems (organic or conventional) and examined for its concentration, composition, and biodegradability. The results show that crop rotations including perennial legumes increased the concentration of water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) and water-extractable organic nitrogen (WEON) and the biodegradability of WEOC in soil but depleted the quantity of water-extractable organic phosphorus (WEOP) and water-extractable reactive phosphorus. The 30-d incubation experiments showed that bioavailable WEOC varied from 12.5% in annual systems to 22% for perennial systems. The value of bioavailable WEOC was found to positively correlate with WEON concentrations and to negatively correlate with C:N ratio and the specific ultraviolet absorbance of WEOM. No significant treatment effect was present with the conventional and organic management practices, which suggested that WEOM, as the relatively labile pool in soil organic matter, is more responsive to the change in crop rotation than to mineral fertilizer application. Our results indicated that agricultural landscapes with contrasting crop rotations are likely to differentially affect rates of microbial cycling of organic matter leached to soil waters. PMID:23673753

Xu, Na; Wilson, Henry F; Saiers, James E; Entz, Martin

269

Towards a Process-based Representation of Annual Crops Within the Land Surface Model JULES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is to introduce a generic crop structure within the Joint UK Land surface Exchange Scheme JULES (Cox, 1998) that is able to evaluate the interaction between growing crops and the environment at large scales for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. JULES was designed to simulate land surface processes in natural ecosystems. The importance of representing agricultural land within global biosphere models has been pointed out in many studies (De Noblet-Ducoudre et al., 2004; Bondeau 2005 et al.). Prior to any model development, the sensitivity of JULES to morphological and physiological differences between natural vegetation and crops has been investigated by reparameterising a natural C3 grass into a C3 crop. For a case study of fallow versus wheat at Grignon (France), the model output shows important soil water savings after crop harvest at the beginning of the summer. Owing to the lack of a rooting system, the deeper soil moisture cannot contribute anymore to the moisture flux to the atmosphere. On a shorter timescale, the harvest, and by consequence the sudden appearance of bare soil, also disrupt the energy and momentum fluxes between surface and atmosphere. Having established the sensitivity of the JULES system to a crop-like forcing, some components from the crop model SUCROS (Goudriaan and van Laar, 1994) that are relevant to the global water, energy and carbon cycles, have been introduced in JULES. The new version of JULES, denoted by JULES-SUCROS, incorporates crops and natural vegetation within a single modelling framework, without discontinuity in the photosynthesis-assimilation scheme between both vegetation types. Simulations have been performed with JULES-SUCROS for wheat at the Grignon site in current and doubled CO2 atmospheric conditions. Changing atmospheric conditions in JULES-SUCROS affects the sowing date and the length of the growing season. The results show that the positive effect of the CO2 fertilisation partly counterbalances the negative effect on biomass production of a shorter season due to higher temperatures. Each plant organ however responds differently to these changes. The growth of an organ is affected by the environmental conditions, such as moisture availablity, temperature, atmospheric humudity deficit, amount of photosynthetic active radiation, at the time of its development, which is organ specific. The energy and momentum fluxes respond also to the faster and earlier crop development. Finally important water savings are noticed in the deeper soil layers; the crop is now harvested before the evaporative demand of the atmosphere becomes very large. This model structure allows for further development into crop management and environmental change impact studies. Once coupled back to a General Circulation Model, the fully calibrated and validated JULES-SUCROS can be used to analyse the feedback of crop production on the ecosystem with an emphasis on water availability and sustainability.

van den Hoof, C.; Vidale, P.

2008-05-01

270

CROP MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON WATER INFILTRATION FOR CLAYPAN SOILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant water and nutrient use for claypan soils are restricted by an argillic horizon (clay content > 500 g/kg) that typically occurs 20 to 40 cm below the soil surface. Identifying water infiltration characteristics for claypan soils under different management provides crucial information needed to ...

271

Strip-tilled Cover Cropping for Managing Nematodes, Soil Mesoarthropods, and Weeds in a Bitter Melon Agroecosystem  

PubMed Central

A field trial was conducted to examine whether strip-tilled cover cropping followed by living mulch practice could suppress root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and enhance beneficial nematodes and other soil mesofauna, while suppressing weeds throughout two vegetable cropping seasons. Sunn hemp (SH), Crotalaria juncea, and French marigold (MG), Tagetes patula, were grown for three months, strip-tilled, and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seedlings were transplanted into the tilled strips; the experiment was conducted twice (Season I and II). Strip-tilled cover cropping with SH prolonged M. incognita suppression in Season I but not in Season II where suppression was counteracted with enhanced crop growth. Sunn hemp also consistently enhanced bacterivorous and fungivorous nematode population densities prior to cash crop planting, prolonged enhancement of the Enrichment Index towards the end of both cash crop cycles, and increased numbers of soil mesoarthropods. Strip-tilled cover cropping of SH followed by clipping of the living mulch as surface mulch also reduced broadleaf weed populations up to 3 to 4 weeks after cash crop planting. However, SH failed to reduce soil disturbance as indicated by the Structure Index. Marigold suppressed M. incognita efficiently when planted immediately following a M. incognita-susceptible crop, but did not enhance beneficial soil mesofauna including free-living nematodes and soil mesoarthropods. Strip-tilled cover cropping of MG reduced broadleaf weed populations prior to cash crop planting in Season II, but this weed suppression did not last beyond the initial cash crop cycle.

Wang, Koon-Hui; Sipes, Brent S.; Hooks, Cerruti R.R.

2010-01-01

272

Soil carbon stabilization and turnover at alley-cropping systems, Eastern Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alley-cropping system is seen as a viable land-use practice for mitigation of greenhouse gas CO2, energy-wood production and soil carbon sequestration. The extent to which carbon is stored in soil varies between ecosystems, and depends on tree species, soil types and on the extent of physical protection of carbon within soil aggregates. This study investigates soil carbon sequestration at alley-cropping systems presented by alleys of fast growing tree species (black locust and poplar) and maize, in Brandenburg, Eastern Germany. Carbon accumulation and turnover are assessed by measuring carbon fractions differing in decomposition rates. For this purpose soil samples were fractionated into labile and recalcitrant soil-size fractions by wet-sieving: macro (>250 µm), micro (53-250 µm) and clay + silt (<53 µm), followed by determination of organic carbon and nitrogen by gas-chromatography. Soil samples were also analysed for the total C&N content, cold-water extractable OC, and microbial C. Litter decomposition was evaluated by litter bags experiment. Soil CO2 flux was measured by LiCor automated device LI-8100A. No differences for the total and stable (clay+silt, <53 µm) carbon fraction were observed between treatment. While cold water-extractable carbon was significantly higher at maize alley compared to black locust alley. This may indicate faster turnover of organic matter at maize alley due to tillage, which influenced greater incorporation of plant residues into the soil, greater soil respiration and microbial activity.

Medinski, T.; Freese, D.

2012-04-01

273

[Effects of fertilization on aquic brown soil potassium budget and crop potassium allocation].  

PubMed

Through a consecutive 15 years field trial on the aquic brown soil in Shenyang suburb of Northeast China, this paper studied the soil potassium budget and crop potassium allocation under effects of different fertilization systems. The results indicated that applying nitrogen or nitrogen plus phosphorous without potassium application accelerated the deficit of soil potassium. The potassium concentration in soybean grain and stalk was higher under potassium application than with no potassium supply, while that in maize grain had no significant difference in different fertilization treatments. The reutilization of recycled nutrients in farming system could mitigate the deficit of soil potassium budget, and such reutilization assorted with appropriate amount of potassium fertilization could not only produce high crop yield, but also balance soil potassium budget. PMID:17330476

Jiang, Zishao; Yu, Wantai; Zhang, Lu

2006-12-01

274

Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When soil nitrate levels are inadequate, plants suffer nitrogen deficiency but when the levels are excessive, nitrates (NO3-N) can pollute surface and subsurface waters. Strategies to reduce the nitrate pollution are necessary to reach a sustainable use of resources such as soil, water and plant. Buffer strips and cover crops can contribute to the management of soil nitrates, but little is known of their effectiveness in semiarid vineyards plantations. The experimental site, a 10 m wide and 80 m long area at the bottom of a vineyard was selected in Sicily. The soil between vine rows and upslope of the buffer strip (seeded with Lolium perenne) and non-buffer strips (control) was managed conventionally and with one of two cover crops (Triticum durum and Vicia sativa cover crop). Soil nitrate was measured monthly and nitrate movement was monitored by application of a 15N tracer to a narrow strip between the bottom of vineyard and the buffer and non-buffer strips. L. perenne biomass yield in the buffer strips and its isotopic nitrogen content were monitored. V. sativa cover crop management contribute with an excess of nitrogen, and the soil management determined the nitrogen content at the buffer areas. A 6 m buffer strip reduce the nitrate by 42% with and by 46% with a 9 m buffer strip.

Novara, A.; Gristina, L.; Guaitoli, F.; Santoro, A.; Cerdà, A.

2013-04-01

275

Soil quality response to tillage and crop residue removal under subarctic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the long-term effects of tillage and crop residue management on soil quality and organic matter conservation in subarctic regions. Therefore, we quantified wet aggregate stability, bulk density, pH, total organic C and N, inorganic N, microbial biomass C and N, microbial biomass C:N ratio, microbial quotient, and potential C and N mineralization for a tillage\\/crop residue

Stephen D. Sparrow; Carol E. Lewis; Charles W. Knight

2006-01-01

276

Salt tolerance classification of crops according to soil salinity and to water stress day index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observations of a long-term experiment on the use of saline water were used to compare the crop tolerance to salinity. Salinity affected significantly yield, evapotranspiration, pre-dawn leaf water potential and stomatal conductance. The higher the salinity, the lower the yield, evapotranspiration, pre-dawn leaf water potential and stomatal resistance. The crop classification, based on soil salinity, corresponds with the classification

N. Katerji; J. W. van Hoorn; A. Hamdy; M. Mastrorilli

2000-01-01

277

Axle load and tillage effects on crop yield for two soils in central Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A load of 5–20Mg on a single axle cart is a common practice for spreading manure and harvesting grains in the US Corn Belt. Yet, effects of such a load used for a long time of 5–10 years on crop yield are not known for predominant soils of the region. Further, axle load effects on crop yield may depend on

R Lal; M Ahmadi

2000-01-01

278

Nitrous oxide release from arable soil: Importance of N-fertilization, crops and temporal variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout 33months nitrous oxide (N2O) release rates were measured from a field experiment comparing crop and N-fertilization treatments laid out on a luvisol derived from loess. Winter wheat, winter barley, winter rape and sugar beet were cultivated using conventional soil management. Each crop was fertilized at three rates of N application (N 1.0: usual, N 0.5: 50% of usual, N

E.-A. Kaiser; K. Kohrs; M. Kücke; E. Schnug; O. Heinemeyer; J. C. Munch

1998-01-01

279

Soil Physical Properties Web Database for GOSSYM and GLYCIM Crop Simulation Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT,information(CaldeiraandPinto,1998),especiallymecha- nistic types of models,like GOSSYM and,GLYCIM. Knowledge ofsoil physicalproperties is neededfor variouskinds of In general, both dynamic and static types of data are environmental studies, including crop simulation where the intended users are agronomists, consultants, and growers. However, acquiring required to run a crop model. A dynamic data set in- and tabulating a complete set of soils analysis al.,

Ishtiaq Ali; Frank D. Whisler; Javed Iqbal; Johnie N. Jenkins; James M. Mckinion

2004-01-01

280

[Crop-soil nitrogen cycling and soil organic carbon balance in black soil zone of Jilin Province based on DSSAT model].  

PubMed

By using the CERES-Maize crop model and Century soil model in Decision Support System of Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) model, this paper studied the effects of crop management parameters, fertilizer N application rate, soil initial N supply, and crop residue application on the maize growth, crop-soil N cycling, and soil organic C and N ecological balance in black soil (Mollisol) zone of Jilin Province, Northeast China. Taking 12,000-15,000 kg x hm(-2) as the target yield of maize, the optimum N application rate was 200-240 kg N x hm(-2). Under this fertilization, the aboveground part N uptake was 250-290 kg N x hm(-2), among which, 120-140 kg N x hm(-2) came from soil, and 130-150 kg N x hm(-2) came from fertilizer. Increasing the N application rate (250-420 kg N x hm(-2)) induced an obvious increase of soil residual N (63-183 kg x hm(-2)); delaying the N topdressing date also induced the increase of the residual N. When the crop residue application exceeded 6000 kg x hm(-2), the soil active organic C and N could maintain the supply/demand balance during maize growth season. To achieve the target maize yield and maintain the ecological balance of soil organic C and N in black soil zone of Jilin Province, the chemical N application rate would be controlled in the range of 200-240 kg N x hm(-2), topdressing N should be at proper date, and the application amount of crop residue would be up to 6000 kg x hm(-2). PMID:22097370

Yang, Jing-min; Dou, Sen; Yang, Jing-yi; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Zhong-qing; Jiang, Hong-wei; Jia, Li-hui

2011-08-01

281

Influence of crop rotation, intermediate crops, and organic fertilizers on the soil enzymatic activity and humus content in organic farming systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of crop rotation systems with different portions of nitrogen-fixing crops, intermediate crops, and organic fertilizers on the enzymatic activity and humus content of soils in organic farming was studied. The highest activity of the urease and invertase enzymes was determined in the soil under the crop rotation with 43% nitrogen-fixing crops and with perennial grasses applied twice per rotation. The application of manure and the growing of intermediate crops for green fertilizers did not provide any significant increase in the content of humus. The activity of urease slightly correlated with the humus content ( r = 0.30 at the significance level of 0.05 and r = 0.39 at the significance level of 0.01).

Marcinkeviciene, A.; Boguzas, V.; Balnyte, S.; Pupaliene, R.; Velicka, R.

2013-02-01

282

Management of lignite fly ash for improving soil fertility and crop productivity.  

PubMed

Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and biofertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. The highest yield LFA dose was 200 t/ha for one-time and repeat applications, the maximum yield being with crop III (combination treatment). One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy-metal contents and in the level of gamma-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner. PMID:17705037

Ram, Lal C; Srivastava, Nishant K; Jha, Sangeet K; Sinha, Awadhesh K; Masto, Reginald E; Selvi, Vetrivel A

2007-06-28

283

Management of Lignite Fly Ash for Improving Soil Fertility and Crop Productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and biofertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. The highest yield LFA dose was 200 t/ha for one-time and repeat applications, the maximum yield being with crop III (combination treatment). One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy-metal contents and in the level of ?-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner.

Ram, Lal C.; Srivastava, Nishant K.; Jha, Sangeet K.; Sinha, Awadhesh K.; Masto, Reginald E.; Selvi, Vetrivel A.

2007-09-01

284

Simulation of crop yield variability by improved root-soil-interaction modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the processes and factors that govern the within-field variability in crop yield has attached great importance due to applications in precision agriculture. Crop response to environment at field scale is a complex dynamic process involving the interactions of soil characteristics, weather conditions and crop management. The numerous static factors combined with temporal variations make it very difficult to identify and manage the variability pattern. Therefore, crop simulation models are considered to be useful tools in analyzing separately the effects of change in soil or weather conditions on the spatial variability, in order to identify the cause of yield variability and to quantify the spatial and temporal variation. However, tests showed that usual crop models such as CERES-Wheat and CERES-Maize were not able to quantify the observed within-field yield variability, while their performance on crop growth simulation under more homogeneous and mainly non-limiting conditions was sufficent to simulate average yields at the field-scale. On a study site in South Germany, within-field variability in crop growth has been documented since years. After detailed analysis and classification of the soil patterns, two site specific factors, the plant-available-water and the O2 deficiency, were considered as the main causes of the crop growth variability in this field. Based on our measurement of root distribution in the soil profile, we hypothesize that in our case the insufficiency of the applied crop models to simulate the yield variability can be due to the oversimplification of the involved root models which fail to be sensitive to different soil conditions. In this study, the root growth model described by Jones et al. (1991) was adapted by using data of root distributions in the field and linking the adapted root model to the CERES crop model. The ability of the new root model to increase the sensitivity of the CERES crop models to different enviromental conditions was then evaluated by means of comparison of the simualtion results with measured data and by scenario calculations.

Duan, X.; Gayler, S.; Priesack, E.

2009-04-01

285

Tillage, cropping systems, and nitrogen fertilizer source effects on soil carbon sequestration and fractions.  

PubMed

Quantification of soil carbon (C) cycling as influenced by management practices is needed for C sequestration and soil quality improvement. We evaluated the 10-yr effects of tillage, cropping system, and N source on crop residue and soil C fractions at 0- to 20-cm depth in Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Paleudults) in northern Alabama, USA. Treatments were incomplete factorial combinations of three tillage practices (no-till [NT], mulch till [MT], and conventional till [CT]), two cropping systems (cotton [Gossypium hirsutum L.]-cotton-corn [Zea mays L.] and rye [Secale cereale L.]/cotton-rye/cotton-corn), and two N fertilization sources and rates (0 and 100 kg N ha(-1) from NH(4)NO(3) and 100 and 200 kg N ha(-1) from poultry litter). Carbon fractions were soil organic C (SOC), particulate organic C (POC), microbial biomass C (MBC), and potential C mineralization (PCM). Crop residue varied among treatments and years and total residue from 1997 to 2005 was greater in rye/cotton-rye/cotton-corn than in cotton-cotton-corn and greater with NH(4)NO(3) than with poultry litter at 100 kg N ha(-1). The SOC content at 0 to 20 cm after 10 yr was greater with poultry litter than with NH(4)NO(3) in NT and CT, resulting in a C sequestration rate of 510 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) with poultry litter compared with -120 to 147 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) with NH(4)NO(3). Poultry litter also increased PCM and MBC compared with NH(4)NO(3). Cropping increased SOC, POC, and PCM compared with fallow in NT. Long-term poultry litter application or continuous cropping increased soil C storage and microbial biomass and activity compared with inorganic N fertilization or fallow, indicating that these management practices can sequester C, offset atmospheric CO(2) levels, and improve soil and environmental quality. PMID:18453410

Sainju, Upendra M; Senwo, Zachary N; Nyakatawa, Ermson Z; Tazisong, Irenus A; Reddy, K Chandra

2008-05-02

286

Annual-scale adaptation of a soil heterotrophic respiration model to three agricultural sites in Belgium and South-Western France.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims at modelling soil heterotrophic respiration fluxes at an annual timescale over three agricultural sites situated in Belgium (Lonzée) and in France (Auradé and Lamasquère). These sites present many climatic, edaphic and crop management differences. This will allow investigating the impacts of temperature, soil moisture content, soil texture and cultural practices. To reach these objectives, a daily-time step model derived from CENTURY was parameterized, initialized and calibrated for each of the three sites. Biochemical features were taken from the literature while the soil characteristics and the crop residue quantities were based on field estimations at the three sites. In a first step, the model was used to study annual to inter-annual soil heterotrophic respiration variations. The initialization phase was necessary to distribute the total soil carbon content into the model pools. The model was seen to be very sensitive to this carbon repartition between pools. First comparisons between the model outputs and field soil chamber measurements (either automatic in Lonzée or manual in Lamasquère and Auradé) performed on bare soil in 2007 were carried out at each site. At the Lonzée site, the model showed a fairly good agreement with field data. Soil temperature was found to be the most important driver. In order to study long term soil carbon dynamics, the model will also be calibrated using soil respiration and soil carbon content measurements performed at the Liroux experimental site situated near Lonzée in Belgium. At this site, a long term comparison of crop management techniques has been developed since 1959, different plots being submitted to different residue restitutions. Manual soil chamber measurements will be carried out on these plots, which will allow assessing the influence of crop residue management techniques on soil carbon dynamics and on the associated fluxes. To go further with the soil heterotrophic respiration model development, its validation with flux data will be continued and the potential model-data discrepancies will be analyzed. This sub model is intended to be part of a more complete soil respiration model focused on agricultural ecosystems and developed at the annual and ecosystem scales. Later, autotrophic respiration will also be included. Keywords: Soil heterotrophic respiration, Agricultural soils, Semi-mechanistic model, Calibrations.

Buysse, Pauline; Le Dantec, Valérie; Mordelet, Patrick; Debacq, Alain; Aubinet, Marc

2010-05-01

287

Soil and Crop management: Lessons from the laboratory biosphere 2002-2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the years 2002 and 2003, three closed system experiments were carried out in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility located in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The program involved experimentation with "Hoyt" Soy Beans, USU Apogee Wheat and TU-82-155 sweet potato using a 5.37 m2 soil planting bed which was 30 cm deep. The soil texture, 40% clay, 31% sand and 28% silt (a clay loam), was collected from an organic farm in New Mexico to avoid chemical residues. Soil management practices involved minimal tillage, mulching and returning crop residues to the soil after each experiment. Between experiment #2 and #3, the top 15 cm of the soil was amended using a mix of peat moss, green sand, humates and pumice to improve soil texture, lower soil pH and increase nutrient availability. Soil analyses for all three experiments are presented to show how the soils have changed with time and how the changes relate to crop selection and rotation, soil selection and management, water management and pest control. The experience and information gained from these experiments are being applied to the future design of the Mars On Earth facility.

Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J.

288

Volatilisation of crop protection chemicals from crop and soil surfaces under controlled conditions—prediction of volatile losses from physico-chemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatilisation of crop protection chemicals from soil and crop surfaces is one of a number of processes that may contribute to their dissipation in the environment. Therefore, information on the potential of a chemical to volatilise from these surfaces is required by international and national registration authorities. This paper reports the results of more than 190 experiments, which were carried

J. A. Guth; F. J. Reischmann; R. Allen; D. Arnold; J. Hassink; C. R. Leake; M. W. Skidmore; G. L. Reeves

2004-01-01

289

Effects of cropping systems on soil organic matter in a pair of conventional and biodynamic mixed cropping farms in Canterbury, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of cropping systems on soil organic matter (SOM) in a pair of conventional and biodynamic mixed cropping farms were\\u000a investigated. Soil samples (0–75 and 75–150-mm depths) were analysed for total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial\\u000a biomass C (BC) and microbial biomass N (BN), and sequentially extracted for labile and stable SOM using cold water, hot water,\\u000a acid mixtures

T. Murata; K. M. Goh

1997-01-01

290

Changes in soil quality and below-ground carbon storage with conversion of traditional agricultural crop lands to bioenergy crop production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berm-isolated (0.5 ha) plots have been used since 1995 to quantify changes in soil and water quality with conversion from agricultural to bioenergy crops. Soil quality improvements, including increases in soil carbon storage, have occurred on sites planted to woody or herbaceous species, and no-till corn compared with tilled corn or cotton. Initial increases in soil carbon occurred within the

V. R Tolbert; D. E Todd; L. K Mann; C. M Jawdy; D. A Mays; R Malik; W Bandaranayake; A Houston; D Tyler; D. E Pettry

2002-01-01

291

Effects of crop residue on soil and plant water evaporation in a dryland cotton system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dryland agricultural cropping systems emphasize sustaining crop yields with limited use of fertilizer while conserving both rain water and the soil. Conservation of these resources may be achieved with management systems that retain residues at the soil surface simultaneously modifying both its energy and water balance. A conservation practice used with cotton grown on erodible soils of the Texas High Plains is to plant cotton into chemically terminated wheat residues. In this study, the partitioning of daily and seasonal evapotranspiration ( E t) into soil and plant water evaporation was compared for a conventional and a terminated-wheat cotton crop using the numerical model ENWATBAL. The model was configured to account for the effects of residue on the radiative fluxes and by introducing an additional resistance to latent and sensible heat fluxes derived from measurements of wind speed and vapor conductance from a soil covered with wheat-stubble. Our results showed that seasonal E t was similar in both systems and that cumulative soil water evaporation was 50% of E t in conventional cotton and 31% of E t in the wheat-stubble cotton. Calculated values of E t were in agreement with measured values. The main benefit of the wheat residues was to suppress soil water evaporation by intercepting irradiance early in the growing season when the crop leaf area index (LAI) was low. In semiarid regions LAI of dryland cotton seldom exceeds 2 and residues can improve water conservation. Measured soil temperatures showed that early in the season residues reduced temperature at 0.1 m depth by as much as 5°C and that differences between systems diminished with depth and over time. Residues increased lint yield per unit of E t while not modifying seasonal E t and reducing cumulative soil water evaporation.

Lascano, R. J.; Baumhardt, R. L.

1996-03-01

292

Preliminary note on potential use of forage crops for soil phytoremediation of dieldrin.  

PubMed

The aim of this trial was to evaluate the feasibility of using tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) for phytoremediation of dieldrin. Experimental trial was carried out in greenhouse with temperature and light control. Each tested crop were seeded in individual pots (10 plants/pot) filled with contaminated soil (47 microg/kg dieldrin) and uncontaminated soil collected in sites located in the province of Latina (Italy). Samples of soil, root, and aerial part of plants were analysed at 3 and 6 months after seeding. The analytical determinations in soil and plant samples were carried out by GLC-ECD and confirmed by GLC-MS. After 6 months in the greenhouse, recoveries of dieldrin from soil planted with tall fescue and alfalfa were significantly lower than recoveries in unplanted control soil. Dieldrin residue values in root did not differ between the two different sampling times for each forage crop tested, but they were always higher in fescue than in alfalfa. Residue levels in aerial part were low (< 10 microg/kg) in the two forage crops. Preliminary results seem to confirm the ability of tested plants to enhance dissipation of dieldrin in soil at low level of contamination. PMID:21542488

Donnarumma, L; Annesi, T; Pompi, V; Rosati, S; Conte, E

2010-01-01

293

Determination of potential management zones from soil electrical conductivity, yield and crop data*  

PubMed Central

One approach to apply precision agriculture to optimize crop production and environmental quality is identifying management zones. In this paper, the variables of soil electrical conductivity (EC) data, cotton yield data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in an about 15 ha field in a coastal saline land were selected as data resources, and their spatial variabilities were firstly analyzed and spatial distribution maps constructed with geostatistics technique. Then fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to define management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 224 georeferenced soil and yield sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. The results reveal that the optimal number of management zones for the present study area was 3 and the defined management zones provided a better description of soil properties and yield variation. Statistical analyses indicate significant differences between the chemical properties of soil samples and crop yield in each management zone, and management zone 3 presented the highest nutrient level and potential crop productivity, whereas management zone 1 the lowest. Based on these findings, we conclude that fuzzy c-means clustering approach can be used to delineate management zones by using the given three variables in the coastal saline soils, and the defined management zones form an objective basis for targeting soil samples for nutrient analysis and development of site-specific application strategies.

Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Ci-fang; Li, Hong-yi; Li, Feng

2008-01-01

294

Assimilation of AMSR-E Soil Moisture Retrievals into the USDA Global Crop Production Decision Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil moisture is a fundamental data source used in crop growth stage and crop stress models. The accuracy of these models is highly dependent upon the data sources used; particularly the accuracy, consistency, and spatial and temporal coverage of the land and climatic forcing data. The U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division (PECAD) state

J. Bolten; W. Crow; X. Zhan; T. Jackson; C. Reynolds; B. Doorn

2006-01-01

295

Gap filling strategies and error in estimating annual soil respiration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil respiration (Rsoil) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap-filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. While many gap-filling methodologies have been employed, there is ...

296

Potential soil quality impact of harvesting crop residues for biofuels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Humankind is in the midst of one of the greatest technological, environmental and social transitions since the industrial revolution, as we strive to replace fossil energy with renewable biomass resources. This presentation will (1) briefly review increased public interest in harvesting crop residue...

297

MANAGING SOIL FERTILITY IN DIVERSE DRYLAND CROPPING SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management of fertilizer in intensive no-till dryland cropping systems is important to their economic and environmental sustainability. In the past, much work has been done on the fertilizer requirements of traditional stubble-mulch tillage wheat-fallow (WF). However, with the increase in biomass pr...

298

The effects of crop rotation and fertilization on soil xylanase activity in a soil of the southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Xylanase activity was determined in soils from a 3-year rotation with corn, (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) as summer crops at Auburn, Alabama, in the southeastern U.S.A. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) followed corn and a period of winter fallow as maintained after soybeans. A combination of common vetch (vicia sativa

R. RODRIGUEZ-KABANA

1982-01-01

299

Root Length Growth of Eight Crop Species in Haplustoll Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root growth of a plant species has a potential pattern set by genetics, but there is a variable plastic component Quantifying the dynamics of root growth is necessary for knowledge of root growth that responds to conditions of the soil about development of rhizoplane and rhizosphere structure, and will indicate potentials for soil C sequestration and for water and nutrient

Stephen D. Merrill; Donald L. Tanaka; Jonathan D. Hanson

2002-01-01

300

Alley cropping—soil productivity and nutrient recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few decades there has been growing concern about the exhaustibility of non-renewable soil resources in developing countries in the tropics to meet the needs of present and future generations. Land degradation is a major problem in many parts of the tropics, including subSaharan Africa, mainly owing to overexploitation of vegetation and soil resources and adoption of inappropiate

B. T. Kang

1997-01-01

301

Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of food crops contaminated with heavy metals is a major food chain route for human exposure. We studied the health risks of heavy metals in contaminated food crops irrigated with wastewater. Results indicate that there is a substantial buildup of heavy metals in wastewater-irrigated soils, collected from Beijing, China. Heavy metal concentrations in plants grown in wastewater-irrigated soils were

S. Khan; Q. Cao; Y. M. Zheng; Y. Z. Huang; Y. G. Zhu

2008-01-01

302

DRYLAND PLANT BIOMASS AND SOIL CARBON AND NITROGEN FRACTIONS ON TRANSIENT LAND AS INFLUENCED BY TILLAGE AND CROP ROTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil and crop management practices may alter quality, quantity, timing, and placement of crop residues in the soil that influence turnover rate of organic matter, microbial activities, and N mineralization. We examined the effects of two tillage practices [conventional till (CT) and no-till (NT)], f...

303

Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in soil, crops, and ensiled feed following manure spreading on infected dairy farms.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in soil, crops, and ensiled feeds following manure spreading. This bacterium was often found in soil samples, but less frequently in harvested feeds and silage. Spreading of manure on fields used for crop harvest is preferred to spreading on grazing pastures. PMID:24179246

Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Hovingh, Ernest; Whitlock, Robert H; Sweeney, Raymond W

2013-11-01

304

Soil organic C and N fractions under continuous cropping with contrasting tillage systems on mollisols of the southeastern Pampas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cropping alters soil quality, and tillage intensity and residue input affects soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON). The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in SOC and SON, of their particulate fractions (POC and PON), mineralizable N (anaerobic incubations, AN), and corn yield, in response to tillage systems and N fertilization under continuous cropping. Such variables

Germán F. Domínguez; Natalia V. Diovisalvi; Guillermo A. Studdert; M. Gloria Monterubbianesi

2009-01-01

305

Use of compost to improve soil properties and crop productivity under low input agricultural system in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of adequate nutrient supply and poor soil structure are the principal constraints to crop production under low input agriculture systems of West Africa. Experiments at two sites (Mediga and Yimtenga) were conducted in Burkina Faso to assess the impact of compost on improving crop production and soil properties. In the first experiment, compost was applied at the rate of

E. Ouédraogo; A. Mando; N. P. Zombré

2001-01-01

306

Maize\\/Herbaceous Legume Inter-Crops and Soil Properties in the Northern Guinea Savanna Zone, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils of the West African Savanna dominated by kaolinite clays are inherently poor in fertility, fragile, and rapidly degraded under continuous cropping and livestock production systems. To ensure sustainable production, causes of soil degradation must be checked and other sources of fertility provided for crops. To achieve this, the use of herbaceous and forage legumes intercropped with maize were evaluated.

A. C. Odunze; E. N. O. Iwuafor; V. O. Chude

2002-01-01

307

Comparison of partial and complete soil K budgets under intensive rice cropping in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop response to added fertilizer K was often found to be small in trials conducted on favorable soils of tropical rice ecosystems. Hence, applications of only fertilizer N and P were recommended. This has resulted in soil K mining in intensive cropping systems in China, India and other Asian countries. Prediction of possible K deficiency in the future requires knowledge

Nguyen My Hoa; Bert H. Janssen; Oene Oenema; Achim Dobermann

2006-01-01

308

Accumulation of heavy metals in soil and paddy crop (Oryza sativa), irrigated with water of Ramgarh Lake, Gorakhpur, UP, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals, a highly polluting group of constituents known to exert adverse effects, tend to accumulate in living organisms. The objective of this study was to determine the accumulation and translocation of heavy metals in soil and in paddy crop irrigated with lake water compared to soil and paddy crop irrigated with bore-well water. The quantities of heavy metals (Cd,

Jaswant Singh; Suraj K. Upadhyay; Rajaneesh K. Pathak; Vidhu Gupta

2011-01-01

309

Carbon sequestration in soil aggregates under different crop rotations and nitrogen fertilization in an inceptisol in southeastern Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of crop rotation and fertilization (nitrogen and manure) on concentrations of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TSN) in bulk soil and in soil aggregates were investigated in a long-term field experiment established in 1953 at Ås, Norway. The effect of these management practices on SOC sequestration was estimated. The experiment had three six-course rotations: (I) continuous

H. Holeplass; B. R. Singh; R. Lal

2004-01-01

310

Management of lignite fly ash for improving soil fertility and crop productivity  

SciTech Connect

Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and bioferfertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy metal contents and in the level of gamma-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner.

Ram, L.C.; Srivastava, N.K.; Jha, S.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Masto, R.E.; Selvi, V.A. [Central Fuel Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

2007-09-15

311

Field measurement of net nitrogen mineralization of manured soil cropped to maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the in situ net nitrogen (N) mineralization in a soil cropped to maize and fertilized for 11 years with cattle\\u000a slurry or farmyard manure, both common on livestock farms of the Po River valley in Northern Italy. The net N mineralization\\u000a of the tilled soil layer was measured in six consecutive incubation periods after manure application, for a total

Stefano Monaco; Dario Sacco; Teresa Borda; Carlo Grignani

2010-01-01

312

Comparison of Soil Bacterial Communities Under Diverse Agricultural Land Management and Crop Production Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and structure of bacterial communities were examined in soil subjected to a range of diverse agricultural\\u000a land management and crop production practices. Length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) of bacterial DNA extracted\\u000a from soil was used to generate amplicon profiles that were analyzed with univariate and multivariate statistical methods.\\u000a Five land management programs were initiated in July 2000:

Tiehang Wu; Dan O. Chellemi; Jim H. Graham; Kendall J. Martin; Erin N. Rosskopf

2008-01-01

313

Rooting depth and soil water extraction patterns of different crops in a silty loam Haplustoll  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out: (i) to estimate from soil water depletion curves the apparent rooting depth (RD) for several crops; (ii) to calculate the soil water extraction parameters; and (iii) to compare inter- and intraspecific differences in the water extraction parameters. Experiments were conducted at the Manfredi Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina (31°49?S, 63°48?W), and at the Institute of Phytopathology

J. L. Dardanelli; O. A. Bachmeier; R. Sereno; R. Gil

1997-01-01

314

Bioavailability and crop uptake of trace elements in soil columns amended with sewage sludge products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the potential impact of long-term sewage sludge application on soil health, the equivalent of about 25 years of agronomic applications of low-metal (`EQ') sewage sludge products were made to greenhouse soil columns. After a 6-year period of `equilibration', during which time successive crops were grown with irrigation by simulated acid rain, the plant-available quantities of trace elements

M. B. McBride; B. K. Richards; T. Steenhuis

2004-01-01

315

Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe

2010-01-01

316

Modeling long-term crop response to fertilizer and soil nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple nitrogen balance model to calculate long-term changes in soil organic nitrogen, nitrogen uptake by the crop and recovery\\u000a of applied nitrogen, is presented. It functions with time intervals of one year or one growing season. In the model a labile\\u000a and a stable pool of soil organic nitrogen are distinguished. Transfer coefficients for the various inputs of nitrogen

J. Wolf; C. T. De Wit; H. Van Keulen

1989-01-01

317

Changes in soil organic matter with cropping as measured by organic carbon fractions and 13 C natural isotope abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline in soil organic matter with cropping is a major factor affecting the sustainability of cropping systems. Changes in total C levels are relativelyinsensitive as a sustainability measure. Oxidation with different strength KMnO4 has been shown to be a more sensitive indicator of change. The relative size of soil C fractions oxidised by 333 mM KMnO4 declined with cropping,

Rod D. B. Lefroy; Graeme J. Blair; Wayne M. Strong

1993-01-01

318

Soil and crop management strategies to prevent iron deficiency in crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants and humans cannot easily acquire iron from their nutrient sources although it is abundant in nature. Thus, iron deficiency\\u000a is one of the major limiting factors affecting crop yields, food quality and human nutrition. Therefore, approaches need to\\u000a be developed to increase Fe uptake by roots, transfer to edible plant portions and absorption by humans from plant food sources.

Yuanmei Zuo; Fusuo Zhang

2011-01-01

319

The influence of municipal solid waste compost on yield, soil phosphorus availability and uptake by two vegetable crops grown in a Pugwash sandy loam soil in Nova Scotia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic materials applied to soils can influence soil phosphorus (P) dynamics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost on soil P availability and uptake by potato (Solanum tuberosum) and sweet corn (Zea mays) crops grown in a Pugwash sandy loam soil in Nova Scotia, Canada. Three rates of compost (MSW1, MSW2

M. S. Mkhabela; P. R. Warman

2005-01-01

320

Breeding for the perennial cropping systems of the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture's impact on the Earth has been amplified by industrial farming, but the fundamental problem has its origins 10,000 years ago, in the domestication of those annual crops that are still the staples of the global food supply. Annual crops, with ephemeral, often low-density root systems, have a lower capacity than do perennials to foster microbial ecosystems in the soil

Stan Cox

321

Soil phosphorus dynamics in cropping systems managed according to conventional and biological agricultural methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of conventional and biological farming systems on soil P dynamics were studied by measuring some microbiological parameters after 13 years of different cropping systems. The treatments included control, biodynamic, bio-organic, and conventional plots and a mineral fertilizer treatment. The farming systems differed mainly in the form and quantity of nutrients applied and in the plant protection strategies. The

A. Oberson; J. C. Fardeau; J. M. Besson; H. Sticher

1993-01-01

322

SPATIAL VARIATION OF SOIL ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND MICROBIAL FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY IN TEMPERATE ALLEY CROPPING SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spatially dependent patterns in microbial properties may exist in temperate alley cropping systems due to differences in litter quality and microclimate in areas under trees compared to those in the alleys. The effect of tree row location was evaluated for its impact on soil enzyme activities and su...

323

Testing of Ristech Material for Management of Brackish Groundwater for Soil Reclamation and Crop Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economy of Pakistan is mainly based on agriculture. Freshwater resources however, are depleting to meet the crop water requirements to sustain irrigated agriculture, compelling the farmers to use brackish groundwater. This situation has further aggravated the existing problem of soil salinity\\/sodicity. In order to control this problem, it is highly desirable to evolve cost effective technologies for safe use

S. Ahmed; J. Mohyuddin; R. A. Mughal; M. N. Bhutta

324

Impact of Genetically Modified Crops and Their Management on Soil Microbially Mediated Plant Nutrient Transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ing that year 46% of the world's total soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) area, 7% of the corn (Zea mays L.) One of the potential environmental effects of the recent rapid area, and 20% of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) increase in the global agricultural area cultivated with transgenic crops is a change in soil microbially mediated processes and functions.

P. P. Motavalli; R. J. Kremer; M. Fang; N. E. Means

2004-01-01

325

Crude extract of Astragalus mongholicus root inhibits crop seed germination and soil nitrifying activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astragalus mongholicus has been of medicinal use within the traditional Chinese system for centuries. However, little information is available on its allelopathic effects on other crop plants and soil biochemical properties. Field experiment showed that the extracted residues of A. mongholicus root inhibited seed germination of wheat. Inhibition of seed germination was further confirmed in laboratory using the same crude

Jian Mao; Linzhang Yang; Yuming Shi; Jian Hu; Zhe Piao; Lijuan Mei; Shixue Yin

2006-01-01

326

AFOS (Automation of Field Operations and Services) Crop and Soil Information Report Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For 31 weeks, beginning in April, Great Falls WSFO prepares a Crop and Soil Information report for 41 stations in Montana which is forwarded to the Department of Agriculture in Helena. Each week, the following information is submitted for each station: Hi...

K. Mielke

1979-01-01

327

DOES SOIL QUALITY SHOW AN ECONOMIC BENEFIT FOR LONG-TERM CROP ROTATION?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several soil quality indicators at three long-term crop rotation sites were measured, used to compute indices, and evaluated against net US Dollar (USD) returns. Without government payments, returns ranged from 41 USD/ha for a corn-oat/alfalfa-alfalfa-alfalfa rotation to -285 USD/ha for continuous c...

328

SUITABILITY OF SELECTED CROPS AND SOIL FOR GARDEN SYMPHYLAN (SYMPHYLA, SCUTIGERELLIDAE: SCUTIGERELLA IMMACULATA NEWPORT) POPULATION GROWTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The suitability of selected crops and soil for garden symphylan (Scutigerella immaculata Newport) population growth was studied in the laboratory and field. In the laboratory, we measured the population increase of S. immaculata after 8 w from a starting density of 35 in pots of spinach (Spinacia o...

329

Effect of shifting crop production for biofuel demand on soil and water quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of shifting cropping systems to dominantly corn for biofuels, in particular ethanol production, could have serious implications on soil and water quality. Proper land management for biofuels production in agriculture is critical to achieve because of maintaining the sustainability of lan...

330

Addition of cover crops enhances no-till potential for improving soil physical properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in the use of cover crops (CC) is growing. Inclusion of CC may be a potential strategy to boost no-till performance by improving soil physical properties. To assess this potential, we utilized a wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)]-grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] rotation, four N rate...

331

What Does Undergraduate Enrollment in Soil and Crop Sciences Mean for the Future of Agronomy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and crop science programs at land-grant colleges have histori- cally relied on appropriated funding from state and federal sources and tuition to support the tripartite mission of research, extension, and teaching. However, due to declining funding from state and federal sources, tuition and fees are becoming increasingly important sources. As tuition revenue becomes more important, student enrollment be- comes

Neil Hansen; Sarah Ward; Raj Khosla; Jack Fenwick; Bill Moore

2007-01-01

332

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TILLAGE METHODS ON SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP YIELD OF WATERMELON (Citrullus Vulgaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different tillage methods on soil physical properties and crop yield of watermelon. Tillage treatments in the study were moldboard plow + two passes of disk harrow as conventional tillage (CT), two passes of disk harrow as reduced tillage (RT), one pass of disk harrow as minimum tillage (MT)

Majid Rashidi; Fereydoun Keshavarzpour

333

Soil nitrogen storage and fractions as influenced by tillage, cropping system, and nitrogen source  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management practices are needed to increase soil N storage and reduce N fertilization rate and N leaching by replacing inorganic N fertilizer by organic manure, such as poultry litter. We evaluated the 10-yr effects of tillage [No-till (NT), mulch till (MT), and conventional till (CT)], cropping sys...

334

SOIL ERODIBILITY AND PM10 EMISSIONS FOLLOWING TILLAGE IN A DRYLAND WHEAT-FALLOW CROPPING SYSTEM.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditional agronomic practices in the conventional wheat-fallow rotation employed in the Columbia Plateau of central Washington include multiple passes with tillage implements during the fallow portion of the cropping cycle, both to create a dust mulch layer to retard soil moisture losses and to ma...

335

Evaluation of Crop Water Stress Based On Soil Moisture, Evapotranspiration, and Canopy Temperature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prediction of plant water status is a key issue of water management. Water stress on crop may alter energy balance at the soil-atmosphere interface, and the change in canopy temperature, which in turn affects transpiration and photosynthesis. An experiment was conducted at the Yucheng Integrated...

336

SOIL NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINED FOOD CROP PRODUCTION IN UPLAND FARMING SYSTEMS IN THE TROPICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most soils in the tropical region are highly weathered and infertile. A sustainable crop production system must adopt an ecological approach, using balanced nutrient inputs from inor- ganic, organic and biological sources. Achieving food security for a rapidly expanding popula- tion in the tropics means intensifying food production on existing cropland through enhanced nu- trient input and recycling. While nitrogen

Lloyd R. Hossner; Anthony S. R. Juo

337

Impact of topography and soil factors on crop suitability in two Mediterranean areas (Egypt and Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this research is to study the influence of topography and soil factors on crop suitability two Mediterranean areas: Sevilla (southern Spain) and El-Fayoum (northern Egypt). The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) images were processed using ENVI 4.7 software to extract elevation data, slope gradient and slope direction. North-south toposequences from both areas were extracted and studied using Arc-GIS 9.3 software. Soil characteristics along these toposequences were extracted from regional soil maps, as well as land surveying and laboratory analyses. The Almagra model (included in the agro-ecological system MicroLEIS DSS) was used to evaluate agricultural soil suitability using soil factors of useful depth, texture, drainage, carbonate content, salinity, sodium saturation, and degree of development of the profile. Changes of soil characteristics through the toposequences are discussed. The results of Almagra model indicate that the crop suitability main limiting factors are soil texture, drainage, soil salinity and sodium saturation percent and topography factors elevation, slope gradient, slope direction.

Abd-Elmabod, S. K.; Jordán, A.; Anaya-Romero, M.; Ali, R. R.; Muñoz-Rojas, M.; Zavala, L. M.; de la Rosa, D.

2012-04-01

338

SELF-SEEDING WINTER CEREAL COVER CROPS IN SOYBEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The soil protection and nutrient scavenging benefits of cover crops have been widely reported. Nevertheless, adoption of cover crops in agronomic farming systems is low. Cover crop systems that do not require annual planting may increase their adoption. The objectives of this study were to compare s...

339

Winter rye cover crop management influences on soil water, soil nitrate, and corn development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop can be seeded after corn (Zea mays L.) silage to mitigate some of the environmental concerns associated with this cropping system. Rye can be managed as a cover crop by chemical termination or harvested as for forage. A field study was conducted in Morris,...

340

SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY OF AN ERODED SOIL AMENDED WITH CATTLE MANURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erosion changes soil properties, especially physical properties, mainly because it removes surface soil rich in organic materials and exposes lower soil layers. In 1988, a study was established to determine the effects of soil erosion and long-term manure applications on selected soil phys­ ical properties and corn (Zea mays L.) production. After 10 years of an­ nual manure applications, soil

Francisco J. Arriaga; Birl Lowery

2003-01-01

341

Crop residue management to conserve soil organic matter content in sugarcane-based crop rotations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rice-plant cane-ratoon cane and cowpea-plant cane-ratoon cane rotations, rice produced a significantly greater root biomass (1·5 t\\/ha) than cowpea (0·7 t\\/ha), but, overall, the cowpea-plant cane-ratoon cane rotation added little more residues (7·9 t\\/ha) to the soil than the rice-plant cane-ratoon cane rotation (7·5 t\\/ha). Organic matter (OM) and total N in the soil not only increased more after

R. L. Yadav; R. P. Verma

1995-01-01

342

Spatial distribution and controlling factors of heavy metals contents in paddy soil and crop grains of rice-wheat cropping system along highway in East China.  

PubMed

There is consensus concerning the heavy metal pollution from traffic emission on roadside agricultural land. However, few efforts have been paid on examining the contamination characteristics of heavy metals in roadside paddy-upland rotation field, and especially in combination with detailed quantitative analysis. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn) in soil and crop grains of the rice-wheat cropping system along a major highway in East China in 2008 and analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of heavy metals and their influencing factors with GIS and Classification and Regression Trees (CART). Significantly elevated levels of heavy metals in soil, rice and wheat grains indicated the heavy metals contamination of traffic emission in roadside rice-wheat rotation field. The contamination levels of Cd, Cr and Zn in wheat grain were higher than rice grain, while that of Pb showed an opposite trend. Obvious dissimilarities in the spatial distributions of heavy metals contents were found between in the soil, rice and wheat grains, indicating that the heavy metals contents in the roadside crop grains were not only determined by the concentrations of heavy metals in the paddy soil. Results of CART analysis showed that the spatial variation of the heavy metals contents in crop grains was mainly affected by the soil organic matter or soil pH, followed by the distance from highway and wind direction. Our findings have important implications for the environmental assessment and crop planning for food security along the highway. PMID:22527116

Feng, Jinfei; Zhao, Jian; Bian, Xinmin; Zhang, Weijian

2012-04-17

343

[Changes of crop yield and soil fertility under long-term application of fertilizer and recycled nutrients in manure on a black soil III. Soil nutrient budget].  

PubMed

The nutrient budget of fertilization models under different treatments was calculated using data from a field experiment over the period of 1985-1999. The results indicated that application of nitrogen fertilizer accelerated a large deficit of soil phosphorus, and the use of nitrogen and phosphorus accelerated the deficit of potassium. The experimental data demonstrated the appearance of a large area of soil deficit of phosphorus from 1970s and of potassium from 1980s in China. Nutrient recycled in farming system improved soil nutrient budget, but could not meet the nutrient requirements from high-yield crops. The use of recycled nutrients with an appropriate use of fertilizers according to the soil fertility could produce higher crop yields, balance soil nutrient budget, and not cause surplus nutrients to emit into environment. PMID:12624995

Liu, Hongxiang; Wang, Delu; Wang, Shouyu; Meng, Kai; Han, Xiaozeng; Zhang, Lu; Shen, Shanmin

2002-11-01

344

Microbial activity, organic C accumulation and 13C abundance in soils under alley cropping systems after 9 years of recultivation of quaternary deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of alley cropping on post lignite mine soils developing from quaternary deposits after 9 years of recultivation was evaluated on the basis of microbial indicators, organic C and total N contents, and the isotope characteristics of soil C. Soils were sampled at the 0 to 3, 3 to 10 and 10 to 30 cm depths under black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), poplar clone (Populus spp.), the transition zone and in the middle of alley under rye (Secale cereale). There was no significant effect of vegetation on microbial properties presumably, due to the high spatial variability, whereas organic C and total N contents at the 0 to 3 cm layer were significantly higher under black locust and poplar than in the transition zone and rye field. Organic C total N contents, and basal respiration, microbial biomass and microbial quotient decreased with soil depth. Soil organic C and total N contents were more than doubled after 9 years of recultivation, with annual C and N accretion rate of 162 g Corg m-2 yr-1 and 6 g Nt m-2 yr-1. Microbial properties indicated that the soils are in early stages of development; the C isotope characteristics confirmed that the sequestered C was predominantly from C3 plants of the alley cropping.

Nii-Annang, S.; Grünewald, H.; Freese, D.; Hüttl, R. F.; Dilly, O.

2009-04-01

345

Effect of crop residue harvest on long-term crop yield, soil erosion, and carbon balance: tradeoffs for a sustainable bioenergy feedstock  

SciTech Connect

Agricultural residues are a potential feedstock for bioenergy production, if residue harvest can be done sustainably. The relationship between crop residue harvest, soil erosion, crop yield and carbon balance was modeled with the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator/ Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) using a factorial design. Four crop rotations (winter wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – sunflower [Helianthus annuus]; spring wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – canola [Brassica napus]; corn [Zea mays L.] – soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]; and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum] – peanut [Arachis hypogaea]) were simulated at four US locations each, under different topographies (0-10% slope), and management practices [crop residue removal rates (0-75%), conservation practices (no till, contour cropping, strip cropping, terracing)].

Gregg, Jay S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

2010-08-26

346

Effect of land use change from paddy rice cultivation to upland crop cultivation on soil carbon budget of a cropland in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of land use change from paddy rice cultivation to upland crop cultivation on soil carbon budget (SCB) was studied by comparing three types of cropping system (single cropping of paddy rice (PR), single cropping of upland rice (UR) and double cropping of soybean and wheat (SW)) in an experimental field having the same history as consecutively cultivated paddy rice

Seiichi Nishimura; Seiichiro Yonemura; Takuji Sawamoto; Yasuhito Shirato; Hiroko Akiyama; Shigeto Sudo; Kazuyuki Yagi

2008-01-01

347

Impact of different bioenergy crops on N-cycling bacterial and archaeal communities in soil.  

PubMed

Biomass production for bioenergy may change soil microbes and influence ecosystem properties. To explore the impact of different bioenergy cropping systems on soil microorganisms, the compositions and quantities of soil microbial communities (16S rRNA gene) and N-cycling functional groups (nifH, bacterial amoA, archaeal amoA and nosZ genes) were assessed under maize, switchgrass and Miscanthus x giganteus at seven sites representing a climate gradient (precipitation and temperature) in Illinois, USA. Overall, the site-to-site variation in community composition surpassed the variation due to plant type, and microbial communities under each crop did not converge on a 'typical' species assemblage. Fewer than 5% of archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA, nifH and nosZ OTUs were significantly different among these crops, but the largest differences observed at each site were found between maize and the two perennial grasses. Quantitative PCR revealed that the abundance of the nifH gene was significantly higher in the perennial grasses than in maize, and we also found significantly higher total N in the perennial grass soils than in maize. Thus, we conclude that cultivation of these perennial grasses, instead of maize, as bioenergy feedstocks can improve soil ecosystem nitrogen sustainability by increasing the population size of N-fixing bacteria. PMID:22891790

Mao, Yuejian; Yannarell, Anthony C; Davis, Sarah C; Mackie, Roderick I

2012-08-14

348

Soil physical and hydrological properties under three biofuel crops in Ohio  

SciTech Connect

While biofuel crops are widely studied and compared for their energy and carbon footprints, less is known about their effects on other soil properties, particularly hydrologic characteristics. Soils under three biofuel crops, corn (Zea mays), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and willow (Salix spp.), were analyzed seven years after establishment to assess the effects on soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), penetration resistance (PR), water-holding capacity, and infiltration characteristics. The PR was the highest under corn, along with the lowest associated water content, while PR was 50-60% lower under switchgrass. In accordance with PR data, surface (0-10 cm) bulk density also tended to be lower under switchgrass. Both water infiltration rates and cumulative infiltration amounts varied widely among and within the three crops. Because the Philip model did not fit the data, results were analyzed using the Kostiakov model instead. Switchgrass plots had an average cumulative infiltration of 69 cm over 3 hours with a constant infiltration rate of 0.28 cm min{sup -1}, compared with 37 cm and 0.11 cm min{sup -1} for corn, and 26 cm and 0.06 cm min{sup -1} for willow, respectively. Results suggest that significant changes in soil physical and hydrologic properties may require more time to develop. Soils under switchgrass may have lower surface bulk density, higher field water capacity, and a more rapid water infiltration rate than those under corn or willow.

Bonin, Catherine [Ohio State University; Lal, Dr. Rattan [Ohio State University; Schmitz, Matthias [Rheinsche Friedrich/Wilhelms Universitaet Boon; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2012-01-01

349

Soil Fertility Management Strategies -- Philosophies, Crop Response and Costs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When it comes to soil fertility, farmers are likely to encounter different “paradigms” or philosophies that ask different questions. This project was designed to document the short- to medium-term outcomes that producers can expect from adopting the SLAN (sufficiency level of available nutrients) or...

350

VALUE OF SOIL TEST INFORMATION FOR CROP PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the value of independent and joint nitrogen and phosphorus soil tests. Generalized stochastic dominance was used to estimate the value of information. Combined information from both the nitrogen and phosphorus tests was substantially more valuable than the knowledge of only one of the tests.

Vladimir Lukin; Francis M. Epplin

1999-01-01

351

Soil carbon inventories under a bioenergy crop (switchgrass): Measurement limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 5 yr after planting, coarse root carbon (C) and soil organic C (SOC) inventories were compared under different types of plant cover at four switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production field trials in the southeastern USA. There was significantly more coarse root C under switchgrass (Alamo variety) and forest cover than tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), corn (Zea mays L.),

Charles T Garten Jr; Stan D Wullschleger

1999-01-01

352

Effects of herbicide and insecticide interaction on soil entomofauna under maize crop.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the herbicide mixture nicosulfuron + atrazine, with or without the insecticide chlorpyrifos, onto soil entomofauna under maize crop. The treatments, applied 25 days after maize emergence, were represented by a weeded control without insecticide and herbicide, a weeded control with chlorpyrifos, and mixtures of nicosulfuron + atrazine, with or without chlorpyrifos. Arthropods populations, on the soil surface, as well as inside the soil under maize, were principally represented by mites (Arachnida: Acari), decomposer collembolans (Hexapoda:Parainsecta:Collembola) and predator ants (Hymenoptera:Formicidae). The nicosulfuron + atrazine mixture with chlorpyrifos and the isolated chlorpyrifos reduced the population dynamics of all insect groups on the soil surface compared to the weeded control. In the soil, mite and ant populations were reduced after application of the herbicide mixture with chlorpyrifos and of the isolated chlorpyrifos. PMID:15656161

Pereira, Jardel Lopes; da Silva, Antonio Alberto; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho; de Barros, Emerson Cristi; Jakelaitis, Adriano

2005-01-01

353

Soil organic matter, microbial properties, and aggregate stability under annual and perennial pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of annually sown pastures to provide winter forage is common in dairy farming in many regions of the world. Loss of organic matter and soil structural stability due to annual tillage under this management may be contributing to soil degradation. The comparative effects of annual ryegrass pastures (conventionally tilled and resown each year), permanent kikuyu pastures and undisturbed

R. M. Milne; R. J. Haynes

2004-01-01

354

Black oat cover crop management effects on soil temperature and biological properties on a Mollisol in Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of a black oat (Avena strigosa [Schreb.]) cover crop by mowing method (none, flail mowing, or sickle bar mowing) affected soil micro environmental conditions and soil microbial and chemical properties. Soil temperatures at depths of 0, 5, 10 and 20 cm were highest in flail mowed treatment plots (up to near 45 °C at 5 cm depth), followed by sickle bar mowed

L. M. Zibilske; D. J. Makus

2009-01-01

355

Effect of tillage, fertilizer and green manure cropping on soil quality at an abandoned brick making site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils at abandoned brick production sites are inherently low in fertility and have poor physical conditions. In order to develop efficient soil management practices for rapid restoration of these seriously degraded soils, a field experiment was conducted on an abandoned brick production site in Shaoxing county, Zhejiang province, southeast China. Amelioration methods, including tillage, fertilization and green manure (GM) cropping,

Ming-Kui Zhang; Li-ping Fang

2007-01-01

356

SOIL CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION AS AFFECTED BY IRRIGATION, TILLAGE, CROPPING SYSTEM, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management practices can influence soil CO2 emission and C sequestration in cropland and therefore on global warming. We examined the effects of irrigation systems (irrigated vs. non-irrigated) and soil and crop management practices on soil CO2 flux, temperature, and water and C contents at the 0 to...

357

MODELING EFFECTS OF TILL/NO-TILL AND SURFACE CROP RESIDUES ON SOIL WATER, TEMPERATURE AND ENERGY BALANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

No-tillage and crop residue management is an important practice for conserving soil and water. Surface residue amount and architecture (flat vs. standing) significantly impact infiltration, runoff, and erosion, as well as evaporation, soil water storage, and soil temperature.Residue effects on the s...

358

Determination of potential management zones from soil electrical conductivity, yield and crop data.  

PubMed

One approach to apply precision agriculture to optimize crop production and environmental quality is identifying management zones. In this paper, the variables of soil electrical conductivity (EC) data, cotton yield data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in an about 15 ha field in a coastal saline land were selected as data resources, and their spatial variabilities were firstly analyzed and spatial distribution maps constructed with geostatistics technique. Then fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to define management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 224 georeferenced soil and yield sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. The results reveal that the optimal number of management zones for the present study area was 3 and the defined management zones provided a better description of soil properties and yield variation. Statistical analyses indicate significant differences between the chemical properties of soil samples and crop yield in each management zone, and management zone 3 presented the highest nutrient level and potential crop productivity, whereas management zone 1 the lowest. Based on these findings, we conclude that fuzzy c-means clustering approach can be used to delineate management zones by using the given three variables in the coastal saline soils, and the defined management zones form an objective basis for targeting soil samples for nutrient analysis and development of site-specific application strategies. PMID:18196615

Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Ci-fang; Li, Hong-yi; Li, Feng

2008-01-01

359

Molecular characterization of fungal communities in non-tilled, cover-cropped upland rice field soils.  

PubMed

This study aimed to characterize soil fungal communities in upland rice fields managed with tillage/non-tillage and winter cover-cropping (hairy vetch and cereal rye) practices, using PCR-based molecular methods. The study plots were maintained as upland fields for 5 years and the soils sampled in the second and fifth years were analyzed using T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) profiling and clone libraries with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and domain 1 (D1) of the fungal large-subunit (fLSU) rRNA (D1(fLSU)) as the target DNA sequence. From the 2nd-year-sample, 372 cloned sequences of fungal ITS-D1(fLSU) were obtained and clustered into 80 nonredundant fungal OTUs (operational taxonomic units) in 4 fungal phyla. The T-RFLP profiling was performed with the 2nd- and 5th-year-samples and the major T-RFs (terminal restriction fragments) were identified using a theoretical fragment analysis of the ITS-D1(fLSU) clones. These molecular analyses showed that the fungal community was influenced more strongly by the cover-cropping than tillage practices. Moreover, the non-tilled, cover-cropped soil was characterized by a predominance of Cryptococcus sp. in the phylum Basidiomycota. We provided a genetic database of the fungal ITS-D1(fLSU)s in the differently managed soils of upland rice fields. PMID:21597240

Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Zhaorigetu; Komatsuzaki, Masakazu; Sato, Yoshinori; Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Ohta, Hiroyuki

2010-01-01

360

Soil survey versus crop production as a measure of soil productivity: Soil characteristics as predictors of corn and soybean yields, NCSS (National Cooperative Soil Survey) data base. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Information has been assembled concerning land as a resource for farming and other endeavors. Major land resources areas (MLRAs) consist of geographically associated land resource units characterized by particular patterns of soil, climate, use and type of farming. The National Cooperative Soil Survey data base contains information concerned with crop yield and soil characteristics associated with MLRAs. Within MLRAs are various soils that have different chemical and physical properties such as soil pH, percent organic matter and texture, and that have different characteristics such as erosion and slope. A major objective of the project was to establish and evaluate a general, quantitative relationship between soil characteristics and yields for MLRAs in Iowa and Illinois. Statistical model building procedures were the methodology used in the evaluation and the test crops were corn and soybeans since these crops are widely produced in both states and on most soils.

Jansen, I.J.; Vance, S.L.; Walker, W.M.

1985-12-30

361

Relationships between crop yields and soil mapping units using a GIS for potential applications in precision farming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of precision agriculture is to divide crop fields into management units of similar production potentials. Without the high resolution crop yield data from yield monitors it has been difficult to document the actual yield of a crop in different parts of a field or include soil mapping units in the development of site specific farming criteria. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the optimum resolution of yield monitor data for the development of crop yield based management units and (2) evaluate the feasibility of using soil mapping units to develop crop yield management maps. Crop yield data were aggregated and classified within a Geographical Information System for the development of crop yield management units for one field each of corn (131 acres), soybean (45 acres) and wheat (63 acres) within Kent county, Maryland. Methodologies were developed to spatially average crop yields within grids of 1.50, 1.00, 0.50 and 0.25 acres and comparisons were made to determine the effectiveness of this aggregation. Crop yield means of aggregated units were almost identical to means obtained using the original yields. Aggregation into 1.00 acre grids and classification into 20 bushels/acre for corn, 10 bushels/acre for wheat and 5 bushels/acre for soybean represented 8--10% of the average yields and resulted in the crop yield management maps that seemed optimum for field scale management. The feasibility of using soil mapping units for crop production management was evaluated by testing for differences with original and aggregated crop yields within land areas enclosed by mapping unit delineations using statistical t-tests. The results indicated that though significant differences existed between land areas enclosed by soil mapping unit polygons, there were considerable variation within mapping unit delineations. The absence of adequate information from soil survey data, and the inherent variability associated with crop yields and soil properties made it difficult to directly support the use of soil mapping units in developing crop yield management maps. Field mapping of crop yield variations seemed to have more practical utility over the use of 1:15,840 scale soil survey information for the implementation of spatially selective field operations.

Radhakrishnan, Jayakumar

362

An examination of direct ground wave soil moisture monitoring over an annual cycle of soil conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct ground wave (DGW) measurements obtained with ground-penetrating radar have been used in a number of previous studies to estimate volumetric water content in the shallow soil zone; however, these studies have generally involved controlled field experiments or measurements collected across limited natural ranges of soil moisture conditions. To further investigate the capacity of this method, we have undertaken an extensive field study using multifrequency (i.e., 225, 450, and 900 MHz) DGW measurements to monitor a complete annual cycle of soil water content variations typical of midlatitude climates at three sites with different soil textures. The use of common-midpoint surveys allowed us to understand the nature and evolution of the near-surface electromagnetic wavefields and their impact on DGW moisture predictions. We present the novel characterization of a wide-range of seasonal moisture dynamics including soil freezing and thawing process using multifrequency DGW measurements for a range of soil textures. These data showed significant temporal variations in both the near-surface wavefield and multifrequency DGW velocities corresponding to both seasonal and shorter-term variations in soil conditions. Although all of the measurement sites displayed similar temporal responses, the rate and magnitude of these velocity variations corresponded to varying soil water contents, which were controlled by the soil textural properties. Although there were no observed systematic differences in DGW velocities due to frequency dispersion for the 225-900 MHz range, the DGW measurements obtained using higher-frequency antennas was less impacted by near-surface wavefield interference due to their shorter signal pulse duration. DGW velocity measurements combined with an appropriate dielectric mixing formula provided quantitative predictions of soil water content that accurately replicated the soil sample data over the annual cycle of moisture conditions.

Steelman, Colby M.; Endres, Anthony L.

2010-11-01

363

Rainfall and tillage effects on soil structure after alfalfa conversion to maize on a clay loam soil in New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil degradation is accelerated when perennial crops are converted to annual row crops, primarily due to increased soil disturbance from tillage. Subsequent heavy rainfall may induce soil settling, reduce macroporosity and increase hardsetting upon drying. An experiment involving plow and no-tillage and two simulated rainfall treatments (‘wet’ and ‘dry’) was conducted on Kingsbury clay loam soil in northern New York

U. P. Karunatilake; H. M van Es

2002-01-01

364

Anaerobic digestate from biogas production as a resource for improving soil fertility: effects on crop yield and soil properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil fertility is fundamental in determining crops productivity in all farming systems. Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of energy crops generates residues that can represent a valuable resource to sustain and improve soil fertility and to increase soil organic matter content. Residues from anaerobic digestion contain organic fractions and available nutrients, that can thus be returned to the cultivation soil as fertilizer and soil conditioner. However, some unknown aspects of digested residues utilization remain to explore: i) the nutrient supply and the real potential for mineral fertilization substitution, ii) the impact on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities, iii) the direct and indirect effects on soil structure, organic matter and C mineralization. The aim of the present research was to gain a better understanding of these aspects, evaluating the effects of anaerobic digestate application on soil properties and maize yield. With the main focus of comparing mineral fertilization (250 Kg N ha-1) with digested residues addition (at the dose of 25 % and 50 % of mineral fertilizer), a triplicate sets of plots were designed in a field experiment on a silty-clay loam soil in the southern Po Valley (Italy). The amount of applied residues was calculated according to its N content in order to fertilizer each plots with the same amount of total nitrogen. Residues from digestion showed a N content of 0.4 % (60 % as N-NH4) and a C/N ratio of 3. Changes in soil quality after residues application were studied with a holistic approach, involving microbiological, physical and chemical aspects of soil fertility. In particular, we determined: the abundance and diversity of bacterial and fungal soil communities; the soil organic matter content, its distribution within soil aggregates and the C mineralization potential; cation exchange capacity; the main macro and micro nutrients; bulk density; aggregate stability. No significant differences among treatments were registered in the above ground maize biomass. Molecular analysis conducted on microbial soil communities suggested that the application of digested residues to soil contributes to substantial modifications of both bacterial and fungal community structure. Soil organic C and total N increased in soils treated with digested residues addition, with no significant differences between the two doses of digestate. Cation exchange capacity did not show significant differences among treatments, remaining stable during the maize vegetative cycle. Differently, some variations occurred in the exchangeable cation pool. In particular, K content increased under digestate treatments, while Na and Mg contents increased with time irrespective of the fertilization treatment. No significant variations were observed in soil microelement levels, except for an increase in Zn content at the highest digestate dose. Moreover, digested residue addition had a positive impact on aggregates stability. From the first results, the absence of negative effects in plant productivity and soil fertility after residues application, at both doses, is a promising indication for the potential use of anaerobic digestate as substitute of mineral fertilizers.

Pastorelli, Roberta; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Papini, Rossella; Fabiani, Arturo; Simoncini, Stefania; Mocali, Stefano; Piccolo, Raimondo

2013-04-01

365

Genetic diversity within Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from peanut-cropped soils in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity of Aspergillus flavus populations isolated from the peanut-cropped soils in the peanut-growing region at Cordoba Province was evaluated by analysis of vegetative compatibility group (VCG). VCGs were determined through complementation assays between nitrate-nonutilizing (NNO) mutants. Fifty-six VCGs were identified from 100 isolates. Twenty-five VCGs contained two or more isolates and 31 VCGs contained only a single isolate.

G. G. Barros; A. M. Torres; M. I. Rodriguez; S. N. Chulze

2006-01-01

366

An Artificial Neural Network Model for Crop Yield Responding to Soil Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents an artificial neural network model for crop yield responding to soil parameters. The experimental data\\u000a had been obtained via a precision agriculture experiment, which is carried out by PAC in a demo farm locating in Shunyi district,\\u000a Beijing in 2000. The model has been established by training a back propagation neural network with 58 samples and tested

Gang Liu; Xuehong Yang; Minzan Li

2005-01-01

367

Interannual variation in soybean yield: interaction among rainfall, soil depth and crop management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from large, grower-managed fields we investigated the variation in yield of dryland soybean in an area with low and variable summer rainfall, and soils that are variable in depth and poor in phosphorus (P). First, using data from unfertilised, wide-row (0.7m) crops grown under standard management between 1989 and 1992 (Series 1), we quantified the relationship between yield

P. A Calviño; V. O Sadras

1999-01-01

368

Bacterial indicator of agricultural management for soil under no-till crop production.  

PubMed

The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP) were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism, the distribution of a few taxa was shaped as well by environmental conditions related to agricultural management practices. A statistically supported approach was used to define candidates for management-indicator organisms, subsequently validated using quantitative PCR. We suggest that the ratio between the normalized abundance of a selected group of bacteria within the GP1 group of the phylum Acidobacteria and the genus Rubellimicrobium of the Alphaproteobacteria may serve as a potential management-indicator to discriminate between sustainable vs. non-sustainable agricultural practices in the Pampa region. PMID:23226466

Figuerola, Eva L M; Guerrero, Leandro D; Rosa, Silvina M; Simonetti, Leandro; Duval, Matías E; Galantini, Juan A; Bedano, José C; Wall, Luis G; Erijman, Leonardo

2012-11-30

369

NOCTURNAL PREDATORS AND THEIR IMPACT ON LEPIDOPTERAN EGGS IN ANNUAL CROPS: WHAT WE DON'T SEE DOES HELP US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation is often a key factor maintaining insect populations below pest status in annual crops. However, in many cases, the predators causing significant mortality to particular pests in the field are not well understood. In particular, the complex of nocturnally active preda- tors feeding on pest species is usually unknown. The predator complexes attacking lepidopteran eggs in cotton, corn and

Robert S. PFANNENSTIEL

370

Modifying DSSAT Crop Models for Low-Input Agricultural Systems Using a Soil Organic Matter–Residue Module from CENTURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

soil organic matter (SOM) and residue turnover, the applicability of DSSAT (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer) crop DSSAT version 3.5 incorporates 16 crops {maize (Zea simulation models is limited because (i) it recognizes only one type mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza of SOM (i.e., humus) and recently added, but not yet humified, resi- sativa L.), sorghum

Arjan J. Gijsman; Gerrit Hoogenboom; William J. Parton; Peter C. Kerridge

2002-01-01

371

Nutrient uptake and soil erosion losses in cassava and six other crops in a Psamment in eastern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total nutrient uptake and nutrients removed in harvested plant parts were determined for cassava grown for either root or forage production, maize, sorghum, peanut, mungbean, pineapple and sugarcane. All crops were grown in replicated plots on 7% slope on a sandy loam soil in Sri Racha, Thailand, during a 4 1\\/2-year period. Erosion losses associated with each crop were also

S Putthacharoen; R. H Howeler; S Jantawat; V Vichukit

1998-01-01

372

Influence of tillage, crop rotation and nitrogen fertilization on soil organic matter and nitrogen under rain-fed Mediterranean conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term effects of cropping systems and management practices on soil properties provide essential information for assessing sustainability and environmental impact. Field experiments were undertaken in southern Spain to evaluate the long-term effects of tillage, crop rotation and nitrogen (N) fertilization on the organic matter (OM) and mineral nitrogen (Nmin) contents of soil in a rain-fed Mediterranean agricultural system over

L. López-Bellido; F. J. López-Garrido; M. Fuentes; J. E. Castillo; E. J. Fernández

1997-01-01

373

Process-based modeling of nitrous oxide emissions from wheat-cropped soils at the subregional scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arable soils are a large source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, making up half of the biogenic emissions worldwide. Estimating their source strength requires methods capable of capturing the spatial and temporal variability of N2O emissions, along with the effects of crop management. Here we applied a process-based model, Crop Environmental REsources Synthesis (CERES), with geo-referenced input data on soils,

B. Gabrielle; P. Laville; O. Duval; B. Nicoullaud; J. C. Germon; C. Hénault

2006-01-01

374

The effect of bulk application of lime under two tillage depths on soil pH and crop yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of lime rates at two tillage depths on soil pH and yield of maize, sorghum and groundnut in an acid sandy soil were investigated. Mean increases in soil pH after the first cropping season ranged from 0.85 to 2.11 for the lowest (2 t\\/ha) and highert (20 t\\/ha) lime levels respectively. The mean top-soil pH was 0.25

K. B. Adeoye; L. Singh

1985-01-01

375

Effects of Cover Crop Systems on Soil Physical Properties and Carbon/Nitrogen Relationships in Coastal Plain Soils under Conservation Tillage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Uncertainty exists concerning the impact of cover crops with conservation tillage on the total agricultural environment. A study conducted from 2002 – 2005 by USDA-ARS and the University of Georgia assessed the effects of cover crops on C/N sequestration and soil physical properties in a sandy coa...

376

Effects of crops on the humus accumulation process in the grey forest soils of Priangarye.  

PubMed

The influence of a number of agricultural plants in the crop rotation on the grey forest soils in the Irkutsk Region upon the intensity of the humification process was investigated by means of microbiological and biochemical tests. The synthesis, decomposition, and the accumulation ratio of humus were concluded from the phenoloxidase activity. The cellulose-decomposing microflora and algaeflora were taken into consideration as well. The humus synthesis processes were most active in the wheat and lucerne plots, they were less effective in the fallow and virgin soils. The lack of organic matter in the permanent fallow soil cuts down the humus accumulation ratio and the counts of microorganisms. The soil cultivation intensifies the humus synthesis processes and changes the composition of microorganisms in the soil. Algae which are mainly represented by green and blue-green species are an additional source of organic substance in the soil. Decomposition of organic substances in the soil proceeds with an active participation of cellulose decomposers which are mainly represented by fungal and bacterial flora. In rare cases actinomycetes can be found. Application of mineral fertilizers intensifies the humus accumulation process and improves the qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora in all the plots under investigation. PMID:103337

Kislitsina, V P; Zhdanova, E M; Sudakova, E A

1978-01-01

377

[Modeling transfer and partitioning of potentially toxic pollutants in soil-crop system for human food security].  

PubMed

Human exposure to potential toxic pollutants and the associated health risk is a focus of current environmental and medical studies. However, the transfer and partitioning of the pollutants in the soil-crop systems turns to be a key problem for evaluating the food intake of the pollutants. This paper deals with the methodology and the approach of computer modeling of the soil-crop partitioning of the pollutants under agricultural systems for human food security and the elaboration of guidelines for soil protection. Two major models, crop ecological model and soil environmental chemical model, are discussed respectively. These models may be valuable for the research of agricultural environment protection and the development of guidelines for soil protection in China. PMID:12385218

Pan, Genxing; Chang, Andrew C; Page, Albert L

2002-07-01

378

Soil organic carbon quality in forested mineral wetlands at different mean annual temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forested mineral soil wetlands (FMSW) store large stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), but little is known on: (i) whether the quality of SOC stored in these soils (proportion of active versus more resistant SOC compounds) differs from SOC in upland soils; (ii) how the quality of SOC in FMSW varies with mean annual temperature (MAT); and (iii) whether SOC

Cinzia Fissore; Christian P. Giardina; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin

2009-01-01

379

Continuous rice cropping has been sequestering carbon in soils in Java and South Korea for the past 30 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil system represents the dominant terrestrial reservoir of carbon in the biosphere. Deforestation, poor land management, and excessive cropping lead to a decrease in soil carbon stocks, but intensive cropping can reverse this trend. We discuss long-term soil organic carbon data from two major rice-growing areas: Java (Indonesia) and South Korea. Soil organic carbon content in the top 15 cm for both countries has increased in recent decades. In South Korea, the top 15 cm of soils store about 31 Tg (1012 g) of carbon (C) with a sequestration rate of 0.3 Tg C per year. In Java, the agricultural topsoils accumulated more than 1.7 Tg C per year over the period 1990-2010. We attribute the increase in measured SOC mainly to increases in above- and below- ground biomass due to fertilization. Good agronomic practices can maintain and increase soil carbon, which ensures soil security to produce food and fiber.

Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex B.; Hong, Suk Young; Sulaeman, Yiyi; Kim, Myung Sook; Zhang, Yong Seon; Kim, Yi Hyun; Han, Kyung Hwa

2012-09-01

380

Use of arsenic contaminated irrigation water for lettuce cropping: effects on soil, groundwater, and vegetal.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effects of using arsenic (As) contaminated irrigation water in Lactuca sativa L. cropping. Two different arsenic concentrations, i.e., 25 and 85 ?g L(-1) and two different soils, i.e., sandy and clay loam, were taken into account. We determined the arsenic mobility in the different soil fractions, its amount in groundwater, and the phytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) were used to assess the lettuce metabolic profile changes and the arsenic uptake by the plant, respectively, as a function of the various conditions studied, i.e., As content and type of soil. Data indicated that at both concentrations in sandy soil, arsenic is in part quickly leached and thus present in groundwater and in part absorbed by the vegetable, being therefore readily available for assimilation by consumption. NMR results reported a large modification of the metabolic pattern, which was depending on the pollutant amount. In clay loam soil, the groundwater had a low As content with respect to sandy soil, and NMR and ICP performed on the lettuce did not reveal severe changes related to As, most likely because the metalloid is bound to the colloidal fraction. PMID:20882365

Beni, Claudio; Marconi, Simona; Boccia, Priscilla; Ciampa, Alessandra; Diana, Giampietro; Aromolo, Rita; Sturchio, Elena; Neri, Ulderico; Sequi, Paolo; Valentini, Massimiliano

2010-09-30

381

Estimating Soil Erosion and Carbon Mineralization by Rainfall Erosion for Select Management Practices in Corn-based Cropping Rotations: A Case Study for Iowa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents estimates of changes in rainfall-induced soil erosion and soil carbon mineralization of individual land capability class I-VIII soil types in Iowa. Land management considered in this analysis includes various quantities of corn stover removal on continuous corn and corn-soybean rotations that are subject to conventional, reduced, and no-till tillage practices. For each rotation and tillage scenario, calculations of soil erosion and carbon mineralization were made for: 1) a ``baseline'' case (e.g., the annual quantity of rainfall-induced soil erosion (tons per acre) that would have occurred with no corn stover removal), 2) a minimum residue level at harvest such that the USDA-NRCS prescribed tolerable soil loss limit (T) is not exceeded for each individual soil type, and 3) a minimum residue at harvest set at 50 bushels corn stover equivalent. Results indicate a large variation in soil erosion and soil carbon mineralization, with this variation depending on rotation, tillage, residue level at harvest, stover removal, physical characteristics of individual soil types, field topology (average % slope), and localized climate. For each county, soil erosion and carbon mineralization increased within a set tillage practice in the corn-soybean rotation versus continuous corn with a range of 11.5% to nearly 600%. Also, an expected decrease in soil erosion and carbon mineralization occurred as tillage decreased in intensity from conventional to conservation/reduced to no-till. Moving from conventional to no-till in continuous corn and corn/soybean rotations with no stover removal, for example, resulted in average decreases of soil erosion of 60% and 88% respectively, and an average decrease of 0.084 tons of carbon dioxide efflux per acre between the two rotations. Allowing a minimum stover level at harvest based either on T or 50 bushels per acre stover equivalent resulted in average increases in soil erosion and carbon mineralization between 27% to over 1,000%, depending upon rotation and tillage practice. A case study at the individual soil type level for Adair County, Iowa is presented to demonstrate differences in soil erosion and carbon mineralization within a single county subject to differing crop rotations, tillage management, and residue removal. This case study will illustrate the significance of including estimates of carbon dioxide efflux from soil erosion in regional carbon accounting and in bottom-up carbon modeling scenarios.

Nelson, R. G.; Sheehan, J. J.; West, T. O.

2005-12-01

382

Quantifying soil water effects on nitrogen mineralization from soil organic matter and from fresh crop residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A loamy sand was incubated with and without addition of carrot leaves at six different water contents ranging from 6% to 20% (g 100 g-1 dry soil) and N mineralization was monitored during 98 days. We calculated zero- and first-order rates for mineralization in the unamended soil and first-order rates for N mineralization in the residue-amended soil. Although N mineralization

Stefaan De Neve; Georges Hofman

2002-01-01

383

Effects of Cropping Sequences on Population Densities of Meloidogyne hapla and Carrot Yield in Organic Soil.  

PubMed

The influence of various cropping sequences on population densities of Meloidogyne hapla and carrot yield was studied in organic soil under microplot-and field conditions. Spinach, radish, barley, oat, and wheat were poor or nonhosts for M. hapla. Population densities of M. hapla were maintained or increased on cabbage, celery, lettuce, leek, marigold, and potato. Marketable percent-age and root weight of carrots were greater following spinach, oat, radish, and fallow-onion than those following two crops of onion or carrot in microplots. Under field conditions, the carrot-onion-oat-carrot cropping sequence decreased M. hapla population densities and provided a 282% increase in marketable yield of carrot compared to a carrot monoculture. Two consecutive years of onion increased M. hapla population densities causing severe root galling and a 50% yield loss in the following crop of carrot. Based on root-gall indices, carrots could be grown economically for 2 years following radish, spinach, and oat, but not following onion and carrot without the use of nematicides. PMID:19283022

Bélair, G

1992-09-01

384

Black oat cover crop management effects on soil temperature and biological properties on a Mollisol in Texas, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This field experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of mowing (no mowing, flail mowing, or sickle mowing) management of a black oat (Avena strigosa [Schreb.]) cover crop on soil microenvironmental conditions and on microbial biomass, dissolved organic C (DOC), soil inorganic N, resin-extractable...

385

The influence of the different members of a crop-rotation system on the biodynamics of soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The thought that a soil under prevailing climatic conditions receives the most significant impulse from its vegetational cover together with the biochemical activity of micro-organisms living in it, has suggested the study of soil biodynamics under the different members of a crop-rotation system.

F. W. Pauli

1968-01-01

386

TOTAL AND EXTRACTABLE LEAD AND ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN US LONG-TERM ORCHARD SOILS AND POTENTIAL ACCUMULATION BY VEGETABLE CROPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lead arsenate was used as an insecticide in the U.S. from 1900 to 1950 to control Codling moth in apple orchards. As a result, these soils are contaminated with lead (Pb) and arsenic (As). Concerns have been raised about conversion of land use of such Pb and As rich soils, either for vegetable crops...

387

An Algorithm for Estimating Amounts of Rock Phosphate Needed to Meet Crop Phosphorus Requirements in West African Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An incubation study was conducted (i) to investigate the influence of soil properties on the dissolution of Tilemsi rock phosphate (PNT) and extractability of phosphorus (P) after dissolution and (ii) to develop an algorithm for estimating amounts of rock P needed to meet crop P requirements in West African soils. Subsequently, the amount of phosphate rock (PR) that had dissolved

Aminata S. Diarra; Russell S. Yost; Mamadou D. Doumbia; Tasnee Attanandana; Adama Bagayoko; Aliou B. Kouyate; Richard Kablan; Xinmin Wang

2004-01-01

388

Modelling of water and nitrogen utilization of layered soil profiles under a wheat-maize cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding water and nutrient utilization in agricultural layered soils is very important for improvement of agricultural management and protection of the environment. The objective of this paper was to determine the effect of layered soil profiles on crop yield and water and fertilizer nitrogen (N) utilization. Firstly, a water and nitrogen management model (WNMM) was calibrated and validated under a

Y. He; K. L. Hu; H. Wang; Y. F. Huang; D. Chen; B. G. Li; Y. Li

389

Cover crops and sampling date effect on on-farm soil carbon pools under conservation tillage cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cover crops may influence soil C sequestration and microbial activities by providing additional residue C to soil. We examined the influence of legume (crimson clover), nonlegume (rye), blend (a mixture of legumes containing balansa clover, hairy vetch, and crimson clover], and rye + blend mixture c...

390

Selection pressure, cropping system and rhizosphere proximity affect atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soils are likely affected by interactions among and (or) between s-triazine application frequency, crop production system, and proximity to the rhizosphere. A field study was conducted on an s-triazine adapted soil to determine the ef...

391

A COMPARISON OF EXPLICIT AND IMPLICIT SPATIAL DOWNSCALING OF GCM OUTPUT FOR SOIL EROSION AND CROP PRODUCTION ASSESSMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spatial downscaling of climate change scenarios can be a significant source of uncertainty in simulating climatic impact on soil erosion, hydrology, and crop production. The objective of this study is to compare responses of simulated soil erosion, surface hydrology, and wheat and maize yields to t...

392

Soil Eukaryotic Microorganism Succession as Affected by Continuous Cropping of Peanut - Pathogenic and Beneficial Fungi were Selected  

PubMed Central

Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping.

Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

2012-01-01

393

Soil eukaryotic microorganism succession as affected by continuous cropping of peanut--pathogenic and beneficial fungi were selected.  

PubMed

Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping. PMID:22808226

Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

2012-07-10

394

Assessment of inceptisols soil quality following long-term cropping in a calcareous environment.  

PubMed

The combination of morphological, clay mineralogy, physicochemical, and fertilitical properties of inceptisols were compared for monitoring soil quality response following long-term agricultural activities. For this target, fifty-nine paired surface soils belonging to five subgroups of inceptisols from the major sugar beet growing area and the adjoining virgin lands were described, sampled, and analyzed. The soils were alkaline and calcareous as characterized by high pH, ranging from 7.2 to 8, and calcium carbonate equivalent, ranging from 60 to 300 g kg(-1). Following long-term sugar beet cultivation, morphological properties modifications were reflected as weakening of structure, hardening of consistency, and brightening of soil color. Although, the quantity of clay minerals did not significantly change through long-term cropping, some modifications in the XRD pattern of illite and smectite were observed in the cultivated soils compared to the adjoining virgin lands mainly as a result of potassium depletion. Without significant variation, sand content decreased by 4-55% and silt and clay increased by 3-22% and 2-15%, respectively, in the cultivated soils than to that of the virgin lands. Both negative and positive aspects of soil quality were reflected regarding soil chemical and fertilitical properties and the role of negative effects far exceeded the role of positive effects. Typic calcixerepts was known to be more degraded through a significant decrease (P ? 0.001) in mean value of soil organic carbon (a drop of 24%), total N (a drop of 23%), available K (a drop of 42%), exchangeable K (a drop of 45%), potassium adsorption ratio and potassium saturation ratio (a drop of 44% and 42%, respectively) and a significant increase (P ? 0.001) in EC (a rise of 53%). Soil quality index, calculated based on nine soil properties [coarse fragments, pH, SOC, total N, ESP, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, and K), and available phosphorus], indicated that 60% of the all soil types studied had negative changes, 20% had positive changes, and 20% produced no changes in soil heath. PMID:21499699

Rezapour, Salar; Samadi, A

2011-04-16

395

Characterization and crop production efficiency of diazotrophic bacterial isolates from coastal saline soils.  

PubMed

Use of eco-friendly area specific salt tolerant bioinoculants is better alternatives to chemical fertilizer for sustainable agriculture in coastal saline soils. We isolated diverse groups of diazotrophic bacteria from coastal saline soils of different forest and agricultural lands in the Sundarbans, West Bengal, India, to study their effect on crop productivity in saline soils. Phenotypic, biochemical and molecular identifications of the isolates were performed. The isolates produced indole acetic acid, phosphatase, and solubilized insoluble phosphates. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA identified the SUND_BDU1 strain as Agrobacterium and the strains SUND_LM2, Can4 and Can6 belonging to the genus Bacillus. The ARA activity, dinitrogen fixation and presence of nifH genes indicated they were diazotrophs. Field trials with these strains as bioinoculants were carried out during 2007-2009, with rice during August-December followed by Lady's finger during April-June. Microplots, amended with FYM inoculated with four bioinoculants individually were compared against sole FYM (5 t ha(-1)) and a sole chemical fertilizer (60:30:30 kg ha(-1) NPK) treated plot. The strain Can6 was by far the best performer in respect of yield attributes and productivity of studied crops. PMID:21596539

Barua, Shilajit; Tripathi, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Ashis; Ghosh, Sagarmoy; Chakrabarti, Kalyan

2011-05-18

396

Chemical Fractionation of Trace Elements in Biosolid?Amended Soils and Correlation with Trace Elements in Crop Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous study indicated that agricultural biosolid applications increased the concentration of EPA3050?digestible trace elements in soils on Pennsylvania production farms but could not indicate potential trace?element environmental availability. This study was conducted to determine if biosolid application had altered the distribution of trace?elements among operationally defined soil fractions and the relationship of trace element concentrations in soil and crop

Amy L. Shober; Richard C. Stehouwer; Kirsten E. MacNeal

2007-01-01

397

Responses of several forage and field crops to subsurface soil warming and sewage effluent spray irrigation. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of soil warming and sewage waste water irrigation on winter survival, maturation, yield, quality, and pest relationships of various crops was evaluated. An electric power plant-soil warming system was simulated by circulating hot water from an oil-fired boiler through a pipe network buried at a 30-cm depth and 60-cm spacing. Treatments consisted of soil temperature regimes which were

1978-01-01

398

Tillage and cropping system effects on soil humic acid characteristics as determined by electron spin resonance and fluorescence spectroscopies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term (5- and 9-year) effects were evaluated of two tillage regimes (conventional tillage: CT; and no-tillage: NT) and two cropping systems (oat\\/maize: O\\/M; and oat+vetch\\/maize+cowpea: O+V\\/M+C) on characteristics of humic acids (HAs) from surface layer (0 to 25 mm) of a subtropical Brazilian Paleudult soil. Generally, soil HA samples from conservation management systems with no soil disturbance (NT) and high

Cimélio Bayer; Ladislau Martin-Neto; João Mielniczuk; Sérgio da C Saab; Débora M. P Milori; Vanderlei S Bagnato

2002-01-01

399

How effective are soil and water conservation techniques in reducing annual plot runoff and soil loss? A pan-European and Mediterranean review and analysis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While a substantial number of experimental studies on the effectiveness of soil and water conservation techniques (SWCTs) in reducing annual runoff (Ra) and annual soil loss (SLa) at plot scales in Europe and the Mediterranean exists, a comprehensive overview and analysis of plot Ra and SLa data is lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of SWCT in reducing Ra and SLa in Europe and the Mediterranean, as well as to explore the factors that determine SWCT effectiveness. In the framework of the FP6 project DESIRE (http://www.desire-project.eu), a comprehensive plot database was compiled based on an extensive literature review covering 101 reports and publications. The database contains Ra and SLa data measured on runoff plots, where various SWCTs were tested in the Euro-Mediterranean region. The total database contains 353 plots, corresponding to 2 093 plot-years from 103 plot measuring stations throughout Europe and the Mediterranean. For 224 of these plots (corresponding to 1 567 plot-years), Ra and/or SLa from a paired plot with the same dimensions, land use and measuring period, but without the application SWCT was available, allowing to assess the effectiveness of the applied SWCTs. Documented SWCTs include cover crops, mulching, grass buffer strips, strip cropping, exclosure, no-tillage, reduced tillage, contour tillage, deep tillage, drainage, soil amendment, terraces, contour bunds and geotextiles. Analyses of the database shows that there are clear differences in effectiveness in reducing Ra and SLa between different SWCTs. Techniques related to crop and vegetation management like mulching (median reduction of Ra to 32% and SLa to 23% of the corresponding values measured on the plot without SWCT) and cover crops (36% for Ra and 14% for SLa) are more effective than soil management techniques like no-tillage (85% for Ra and 57% for SLa) or reduced tillage (90% for Ra and 68% for SLa). While these techniques are commonly referred to as soil and water conservation techniques, these figures also show that they are less effective in reducing Ra than in reducing SLa. Furthermore, analysis of time series of multiple consecutive years of Ra and/or SLa measurements show that no-tillage and conservation tillage become less effective in reducing Ra over time, but no such effect is observed for annual SLa. This has important consequences for the use of these techniques in e.g. drought-prone areas where water conservation is a key issue and also needs to be considered in the assessment of the effects of SWCTs at larger scales. Furthermore, effectiveness of different SWCTs is found to be highly variable and requires further analysis of the factors controlling SWCT effectiveness. All SWCTs show a more consistent and effective reduction of both Ra and SLa with increasing magnitude of Ra and SLa, which is attributed to the reduced influence of measurement uncertainties with increasing Ra and SLa. No general relations between SWCT effectiveness in reducing Ra and SLa and plot slope length, slope gradient or annual precipitation were found. Keywords: soil and water conservation techniques, runoff reduction, soil loss reduction, plot scale, Europe and the Mediterranean

Maetens, W.; Poesen, J.; Vanmaercke, M.

2012-04-01

400

Soil invertebrates in durum wheat ( Triticum durum L.) cropping system under Mediterranean semi arid conditions: A comparison between conventional and no-tillage management  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges of research in soil ecology is to assess the impact of tillage managements on soil invertebrates. It is known that tillage practices change soil water content, temperature, the degree of mixing of crop residues within the soil matrix and the physico-chemical environment for soil organisms. The present study tested whether no-tillage (NT) or a conventional tillage

Faïek Errouissi; Sihem Ben Moussa-Machraoui; Moncef Ben-Hammouda; Saïd Nouira

2011-01-01

401

Linear Crop Response Functions to Soil Salinity With a Threshold Salinity Level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response function of a crop yield to soil salinity level is essential in decision-making in regard to irrigation with saline water. A switching regression approach to estimate the piecewise linear response function with critical threshold level is presented, and the asymptotical stochastic properties of the estimates are described. The empirical estimates, based on grapefruit yield data, are compared with those of a recent published study by Maas and Hoffman (1977) and the statistical significance of the differences is discussed. Finally, the threshold hypothesis is tested empirically against some alternative formulations. It turns out that the `threshold hypothesis' is confirmed.

Feinerman, E.; Yaron, D.; Bielorai, H.

1982-02-01

402

Understanding the potential impact of climate change on long term soil carbon dynamics in tropical cropping systems - evidence from West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long term experiments offer a unique opportunity to assess sustainability and temporal dynamics of biogeochemical cycles in agriculture, as well as the gradual impact on these of relatively slow processes such as climate change. Two long term experiments on annual cropping systems representing locally common crop rotations and cultural practices were established on two contrasting agroecological zones in Ivory Coast (in 1971) and in Mali (in 1965). These experiments were designed to assess the long-term productivity of these systems under different organic matter and nutrient management regimes, applying organic and mineral soil amendments alone or in combination. Organic soil amendments - such as animal manure, compost or plant material collected from the surroundings - were included in the experiments with the double purpose of adding nutrients for immediate crop production and adding organic matter inputs to the soil to restore (or maintain) its organic C content. Here, we provide an overview of the major trends in crop productivity and soil organic C observed in these experiments that illustrates the potential impact of climate change on the effectiveness of different measures to sustain agricultural productivity. Materials and methods Both experiments compared crop productivity on control plots without any soil amendment versus plots receiving organic matter, mineral fertilisers or both combined. The experiment at Gagnoa (southern Ivory Coast) was conducted during 23 years in a zone characterised by a bimodal rainfall regime (c. 1300 mm year-1) that allows two cropping seasons per year (Alfisols 15% clay). Every year maize was planted during the first rainy season. Organic matter was added as compost at a rate of 10 t ha-1 year-1, with or without application of 160 kg N ha-1 year-1 in mineral fertiliser (Chabalier, 1986). The experiment at N'Tarla (southern Mali) was conducted during 24 years in a zone of mono-modal rainfall (c. 900 mm year-1); Alfisols 5% clay), and consisted of quadrennial/triennial rotations of cotton (2x), sorghum and groundnuts. Organic matter was added as straw collected from adjacent fallow fields at a rate of 15 t ha-1 every three years, with and without application of N-P-K mineral fertilisers at an average rate of 30, 20 and 40 kg ha-1 year-1, respectively (Kone, 1989). In both experiments crop residues were incorporated in the soil every year. Results At both sites yields of the main crops were larger than the control on plots receiving organic and/or mineral soil amendments, and in both experiments crop yields were comparable when either organic or mineral fertilisers were applied. In the case of maize, partial additive effects of organic and mineral fertilisers applied in combination were observed. In the case of cotton, plots receiving only mineral fertilisers tended to yield less than those receiving organic amendments during the second half of the experiment. Soil organic C declined in control plots and in those receiving only mineral fertilisers in Gagnoa (Ivory Coast), and less markedly also in N'Tarla (Mali). Addition of 10 t ha-1 year-1 of organic matter with or without addition of mineral N led to greater soil C contents in Gagnoa, but yet a decline was observed over the 23 years. Addition of 15 t ha-1 year-1 of organic matter with or without fertilisers in N'Tarla had only a marginal effect on soil C content. In spite of the observed decline in soil C contents, maize yields tended to increase in Gagnoa in the last years of the experiment. Discussion Important differences were observed between sites in the size of the stocks and flows of carbon in and through the cropping system, which were the result of a different agroecological potential. Maize is a C4 species that produces large amounts of biomass; two cropping seasons per year allow fixing greater amounts of C from the atmosphere through photosynthesis. Although soil C inputs via crop residues were thus larger in Gagnoa, climatic conditions at this site favoured also a faster mineralisation of soil organic matter. The addit

Cretenet, Michel; Tittonell, Pablo; Guibert, Herve

2010-05-01

403

Soil Labile Organic Matter under Long-term Crop Rotation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate grassland soils, typically Mollisols, have remained agriculturally productive with limited inputs for many years, despite the mining of energy and nutrients reserves contained within the soil organic fraction (Janzen, 1987; Tiessen et al., 1994). Such system can be considered resilient, at least initially, but one must question for how long such systems can be sustained. Effect of long-term land-use on biologically active fractions of soil organic matter is not well understood. Investigations were conducted in more than 40-year static experiments in northern Kazakhstan. We examined five fallow-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping systems with different frequencies of the fallow phase: continuous wheat (CW), 6-y rotation (6R), 4-y rotation (4R), 2-y rotation (2R) and continuous fallow (CF). A unique sample from nationally protected virgin steppe near the experimental field was sampled for comparison with long-term cultivated soils. Soil samples were collected from the two phases of each rotation, pre- and post-fallow, and analyzed for biological soil properties that are potentially mineralizable C (PMC), potentially mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) and "light fraction" C (LFC) and N (LFN). Potentially mineralizable C was inversely proportional to the frequency of fallow and was highest in CW. Potentially mineralizable N was more responsive to rotation phase than other indices of SOM. Light fraction OM was negatively correlated to the frequency of fallow and was higher in pre-fallow than in post-fallow phases. All studied biological characteristics were drastically greater in the soil from the natural steppe. The results suggested that the yearly input of plant residues in a less frequently fallowed system built up more PMC, whereas PMN was closely correlated to recent inputs of substrate added as plant residue. We concluded that a frequent fallowing for long period may deplete SOM via accelerated mineralization. The results may provide prediction of SOM response to fallow frequency in wheat-fallow based cropping systems in semi-arid regions.

Saljnikov, E.

2009-04-01

404

DYNAMIC CROPPING SYSTEMS FOR EFFECTIVE USE OF WATER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The principles of dynamic cropping systems require that producers consider climatic, market, ecological, and other factors on an annual basis in making crop choices. One of the factors that must be considered in dryland management is that the different amounts of water depleted from the soil by diff...

405

Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by tillage, crop residue, and nitrogen application in rice–wheat rotation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite being a major domain of global food supply, rice–wheat cropping system is questioned for its contribution to carbon\\u000a flux. Enhancing the organic carbon pool in this system is therefore necessary to reduce environmental degradation and maintain\\u000a agricultural productivity. A field experiment (November 2002–March 2006) evaluated the effects of soil management practices\\u000a such as tillage, crop residue, and timing of

Rajan Ghimire; Keshav Raj Adhikari; Zueng-Sang Chen; Shree Chandra Shah; Khem Raj Dahal

406

Phosphorus benefits from grain-legume crops to subsequent maize grown on acid soils of southern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted field experiments over 2 years on two acid soils of southern Cameroon to test whether efficient uptake and use\\u000a of phosphorus (P) from less available sources by grain legume genotypes could benefit subsequent rotational maize. We grew\\u000a two crops each year. For the first crop we grew 4 genotypes of soybean and of cowpea, plus maize. For the second

M. Jemo; R. C. Abaidoo; C. Nolte; M. Tchienkoua; N. Sanginga; W. J. Horst

2006-01-01

407

DISPERSION OF REACTIVE FUMIGANT GASES IN SOIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil fumigation is often used for control of soilborne diseases and plant pathogens in perennial nursery and orchard/vineyard crops. Because perennial crops have relatively deeper rooting depth than annual crops and, in replant situations, may be in close proximity to existing growing plants, there...

408

Changes in soil carbon cycling accompanying conversion of row-crop fields to grazing dairy pastures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly, the dairy industry in the eastern US is transitioning from total confinement dairy systems (TCD) toward pasture-based, management intensive grazing dairy (MiGD) systems. This transition is driven by the fact that MiGDs require substantially less operating capital and are more economically efficient than TCD systems. Consequently, the impact of this transition and shift in land-use practice on carbon dynamics may be considerable. Land-use in a Management intensive Grazing Dairy (MiGD) system is fundamentally different than conventional confinement dairies and conventional no-till pastures. The forage system involves rotational grazing at optimal digestibility, when the plants are immature (~20-days) and consequently protein-rich. MiGD cows spend >90% of their time in the field and deposit > 90% of their waste directly to the soil surface. Thus, little above ground plant residues are directly returned to the soil, but rather substantial C inputs derive from bovine manure. We sampled a MiGD-chronosequence of row-crop to MiGD conversion established in 2007 in eastern Georgia. All soils across the MiGD-chronosequence, all occur in relative (40 km) close proximity to one another, are deep, well-drained, fine and fine sandy loam Ultisols formed on Coastal Plain sediments. Prior to MiGD established, the soils were farmed for > 50 yrs using conventional tillage techniques. Our current sampling to 1m depths captures fields at 0, 2, 3, and 5 yrs since conversion. Total soil carbon (C) and the carbon concentration of the clay fraction increased following conversion, with the greatest increases occurring between 3 and 5 yrs since conversion. These C increases were limited to the upper 40cm of the soil, with minimal change occurring at depth. Characterization of the protein and ligand content of these soils via 13C NMR and chemolytic techniques as a function of soil particle density and size is in progress and will be presented along with estimates of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes across the MiGD chronosequence. Our broad goal is to quantify ruminal methane emissions and changes to soil C-stocks and stability associated with this land-use shift. Our preliminary data suggest such a land-use change will likely improve soil health and increase C-stocks. Balancing this against potential increases in methane emissions is a key knowledge gap for future southeastern U.S. C-cycling estimates.

Thompson, A.; Kramer, M. G.; Hill, N.; Machmuller, M. B.; Cyle, K.

2011-12-01

409

Characterisation of phosphate solubilising bacteria in sandy loam soil under chickpea cropping system.  

PubMed

With the aim to explore the possible role of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in phosphorus (P) cycling in agricultural soils, we isolated PSB inhabiting naturally in the sandy loam soils under chickpea cropping of Patiala (Punjab State). A total of 31 bacterial isolates showing solubilizing activities were isolated on Pikovskaya agar plates. The potent phosphate solubilizers were selected for further characterization. These isolates were shown to belong to the genera Pseudomonas and Serratia by partial sequencing analysis of their respective 16S rDNA genes. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting was done for tracking the survival of introduced populations of the PSB during mass inoculation of these strains under chickpea plots. The results showed positive correlation (r(2) = 0.853) among soil phosphatase activity and phosphate solubilizers population, which was also positively correlated (r(2) = 0.730) to available phosphorus. Identification and characterization of soil PSB for the effective plant growth-promotion broadens the spectrum of phosphate solubilizers available for field application. PMID:23729877

Singh, Machiavelli; Tejo Prakash, N

2011-08-17

410

Simply Obtained Global Radiation, Soil Temperature and SoilMoisture in an Alley Cropping System in Semi-Arid Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture data were obtained from a 4-6 year old Cassia siamea/maize (CM) alley cropping (or hedgerow intercropping) system, at a semi-arid site at Machakos, Kenya, in the late eighties. With the growing need to explore and manage variations in agro-ecosystems these results deserve new attention. They quantify, in a simple but detailed manner, the influence of hedgerows on the microclimate of their intercrop and for comparison provide a sole maize (SM) control. Due to inhomogeneity of Cassia and maize, as well as limited budgets, the sampling methodology and the choice of appropriate equipment, including the sensors, demanded special attention. The diurnal patterns of soil temperatures at 7.5cm depth represented well the shading patterns of the hedgerows. This can be developed into an operational auxiliary methodology of integrated shade quantification. With proper precautions, the developed sampling methodologies showed appropriately the time integrated values of the three microclimatic parameters with enough detail to understand yield differences between treatments and between rows. This approach may therefore be recommended for on-farm quantification of even greater spatial variability of parameters. The limitations of the selected methods are highlighted. Experiences with some alternative methods are also discussed.

Mungai, D. N.; Stigter, C. J.; Coulson, C. L.; Ng'ang'a, J. K.

411

Effects of Legume Live-Mulch on Crop Performance, Soil Available Nitrogen and Crop N Status in Intensive Tropical Vegetable Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to introduce legume green manure to intensive tropical vegetable production, we studied the effects of live-mulch. Soil nitrogen, crop-N status, and yields were closely monitored in a continuous, year-round vegetable sequence from 1992 to 1995 in the rice-based lowland environment of southern Taiwan. When live-mulch was newly established at high density, vegetable yields were negatively affected. With

V. Kleinhenz; W. H. Schnitzler; D. J. Midmore

1997-01-01

412

RISK ASSESSMENT FOR SOIL CD SHOULD CONSIDER SOIL AND CROP VARIATION AND CD BIOAVAILABILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Human disease from soil Cd was first recognized in 1969 in Toyoma, Japan where farm families subsisting on rice experienced both renal tubular dysfunction and osteomalacia. Agricultural and nutritional scientists conducted significant research to understand better the specifics of this case. How did...

413

Spatial and temporal monitoring of soil water content with an irrigated corn crop cover using surface electrical resistivity tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nondestructive and spatially integrated multielectrode method for measuring soil electrical resistivity was tested in the Beauce region of France during a period of corn crop irrigation to monitor soil water flow over time and in two-dimensional (2-D) with simultaneous measurements of soil moisture and thermal profiles. The results suggested the potential of surface electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) for improving soil science and agronomy studies. The method was able to produce a 2-D delimitation of soil horizons as well as to monitor soil water movement. Soil drainage through water uptake by the roots, the progression of the infiltration front with preferential flow zones, and the drainage of the plowed horizon were well identified. At the studied stage of corn development (3 months) the soil zones where infiltration and drainage occurred were mainly located under the corn rows. The structural soil characteristics resulting from agricultural practices or the passage of agricultural equipment were also shown. Two-dimensional sections of soil moisture content were calculated using ERT. The estimates were made by using independently established "in situ" calibration relationships between the moisture and electrical resistivity of typical soil horizons. The thermal soil profile was also considered in the modeling. The results showed a reliable linear relationship between the calculated and measured water contents in the crop horizon. The precision of the calculation of the specific soil water content, quantified by the root mean square error (RMSE), was 3.63% with a bias corresponding to an overestimation of 1.45%. The analysis and monitoring of the spatial variability of the soil moisture content with ERT represent two components of a significant tool for better management of soil water reserves and rational irrigation practices.

Michot, Didier; Benderitter, Yves; Dorigny, Abel; Nicoullaud, Bernard; King, Dominique; Tabbagh, Alain

2003-05-01

414

Crop uptake and extractability of cadmium in soils naturally high in metals at different pH levels  

SciTech Connect

A greenhouse experiment was conducted for three years to study the effect of different pH levels on metal concentrations in plants and the cadmium (Cd) extractability by DTPA and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}. The soils used were an alum shale (clay loam) and a moraine (loam), which were adjusted to pH levels of 5.5, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.5. Wheat (Triticum aestivum), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were grown as test crops. Crop yields were not consistently affected at increasing soil pH levels. The concentration of Cd in plant species decreased with increasing soil pH in both soils and in all three years. Significant concentration differences between soil pH levels were only seen in wheat and carrot crops. Increasing soil pH also decreased the nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in plants in the first year crop but the copper (Cu) concentration was not consistently affected by soil pH. The effect of pH was more pronounced in the moraine then the alum shale soil. The DTPA-and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-extractable Cd was decreased with the increasing soil pH and the pH effect was more pronounced with NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} extractable Cd. Both extractants were found equally effective in relation to the Cd concentration in plants in this study. 33 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Singh, B.R.; Almas, A.; Narwal, R.P. [Haryana Agric. Univ., Hisar (India); Jeng, A.S.

1995-12-01

415

Miscanthus Establishment and Overwintering in the Midwest USA: A Regional Modeling Study of Crop Residue Management on Critical Minimum Soil Temperatures  

PubMed Central

Miscanthus is an intriguing cellulosic bioenergy feedstock because its aboveground productivity is high for low amounts of agrochemical inputs, but soil temperatures below ?3.5°C could threaten successful cultivation in temperate regions. We used a combination of observed soil temperatures and the Agro-IBIS model to investigate how strategic residue management could reduce the risk of rhizome threatening soil temperatures. This objective was addressed using a historical (1978–2007) reconstruction of extreme minimum 10 cm soil temperatures experienced across the Midwest US and model sensitivity studies that quantified the impact of crop residue on soil temperatures. At observation sites and for simulations that had bare soil, two critical soil temperature thresholds (50% rhizome winterkill at ?3.5°C and ?6.0°C for different Miscanthus genotypes) were reached at rhizome planting depth (10 cm) over large geographic areas. The coldest average annual extreme 10 cm soil temperatures were between ?8°C to ?11°C across North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Large portions of the region experienced 10 cm soil temperatures below ?3.5°C in 75% or greater for all years, and portions of North and South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin experienced soil temperatures below ?6.0°C in 50–60% of all years. For simulated management options that established varied thicknesses (1–5 cm) of miscanthus straw following harvest, extreme minimum soil temperatures increased by 2.5°C to 6°C compared to bare soil, with the greatest warming associated with thicker residue layers. While the likelihood of 10 cm soil temperatures reaching ?3.5°C was greatly reduced with 2–5 cm of surface residue, portions of the Dakotas, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Wisconsin still experienced temperatures colder than ?3.5°C in 50–80% of all years. Nonetheless, strategic residue management could help increase the likelihood of overwintering of miscanthus rhizomes in the first few years after establishment, although low productivity and biomass availability during these early stages could hamper such efforts.

Kucharik, Christopher J.; VanLoocke, Andy; Lenters, John D.; Motew, Melissa M.

2013-01-01

416

KURA CLOVER INTERCROPPED IN A PECAN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM IMPROVES SOIL QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intercropping the alleys of agroforestry systems is desirable to provide income from the field until the tree crop begins to yield. However, cultivation of annual crops in the alleys may decrease soil organic matter and increase soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintai...

417

A multiisotope C and N modeling analysis of soil organic matter turnover and transport as a function of soil depth in a California annual grassland soil chronosequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and transport using C and N isotopes in soil profiles sampled circa 1949, 1978, and 1998 (a period spanning pulse thermonuclear 14C enrichment of the atmosphere) along a 3-million-year annual grassland soil chronosequence. Temporal differences in soil 14C profiles indicate that inputs of recently living organic matter (OM) occur primarily in the upper

W. T. Baisden; R. Amundson; D. L. Brenner; A. C. Cook; C. Kendall; J. W. Harden

2002-01-01

418

Evaluation of preservation methods for improving biogas production and enzymatic conversion yields of annual crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The use of energy crops and agricultural residues is expected to increase to fulfil the legislative demands of bio-based components\\u000a in transport fuels. Ensiling methods, adapted from the feed sector, are suitable storage methods to preserve fresh crops throughout\\u000a the year for, for example, biogas production. Various preservation methods, namely ensiling with and without acid addition\\u000a for whole crop maize,

Annukka Pakarinen; Pekka Maijala; Seija Jaakkola; Frederick L Stoddard; Maritta Kymäläinen; Liisa Viikari

2011-01-01

419

Resource-Poor Farmers' Constraints regarding Integrated Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Crop Production: A farm level study in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable crop production requires a judicious management of soil resources and of all plant nutrient sources available in a farm or a village. The main focus of the study was to determine the constraints faced by the resource-poor farmers regarding integrated soil fertility and nutrient management for sustainable crop production. Field work was conducted in eight villages of four districts

M. Golam Farouque; Hiroyuki Takeya

2007-01-01

420

EFFECTS OF TILLAGE SYSTEMS AND WINTER COVER CROPS ON YIELD AND MATURITY OF COTTON ON A LOESS SOIL IN NORTHEAST LOUISIANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTlON Cotton is the major cash crop grown on the loess soils of the Macon Ridge in northeast Louisiana. Soils of this region are typically low in organic matter and have poor physical structure due to many years of continuous row crop production. The topography of the Macor Ridge is gently undulating with maximum slopes of 3 to 5% (Martin

R. L. Hutchinson; R. A. Brown; B. R. Leonard; C. W. Kennedy

421

Modeling crop production on the soil-like substrate in CELSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of plants and soils in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is accompanied by mod-eling of nutrient dynamics and gas exchange to analyze data and plan the experiments. In this connection a mathematical model, based on a deterministic differential equation framework, was developed. Our simulations were validated by comparing their predictions with the results obtained during the laboratory experiments with wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The components of the model were the atmospheric carbon dioxide, humus, mineral nitrogen, microbial biomass and extracellular enzymes of SLS as well as the foliage, stems, roots, grains, straw and root exudates of wheat. Impact of photoperiod, daily photosynthetic photon flux, atmospheric volume, carbon and nitrogen content of SLS, decom-position rate of SLS organic matter on the crop production was simulated. When available SLS nitrogen content was sufficient and circulating carbon mass of BLSS was constant, the increase of light intensity from the certain level provoked the decrease of plant harvest index. Decompo-sition rate of SLS organic matter could be increased under nitrogen limiting conditions owing to active synthesis of extracellular microbial enzymes. Possible applications of the modeling for the improvement of plant growing in BLSS are discussed. Keywords: wheat, soil-like substrate, modeling, nitrogen

Polonskiy, Vadim; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

422

Plant-Based Assessment of Inherent Soil Productivity and Contributions to China's Cereal Crop Yield Increase since 1980  

PubMed Central

Objective China’s food production has increased 6-fold during the past half-century, thanks to increased yields resulting from the management intensification, accomplished through greater inputs of fertilizer, water, new crop strains, and other Green Revolution’s technologies. Yet, changes in underlying quality of soils and their effects on yield increase remain to be determined. Here, we provide a first attempt to quantify historical changes in inherent soil productivity and their contributions to the increase in yield. Methods The assessment was conducted based on data-set derived from 7410 on-farm trials, 8 long-term experiments and an inventory of soil organic matter concentrations of arable land. Results Results show that even without organic and inorganic fertilizer addition crop yield from on-farm trials conducted in the 2000s was significantly higher compared with those in the 1980s — the increase ranged from 0.73 to 1.76 Mg/ha for China’s major irrigated cereal-based cropping systems. The increase in on-farm yield in control plot since 1980s was due primarily to the enhancement of soil-related factors, and reflected inherent soil productivity improvement. The latter led to higher and stable yield with adoption of improved management practices, and contributed 43% to the increase in yield for wheat and 22% for maize in the north China, and, 31%, 35% and 22% for early and late rice in south China and for single rice crop in the Yangtze River Basin since 1980. Conclusions Thus, without an improvement in inherent soil productivity, the ‘Agricultural Miracle in China’ would not have happened. A comprehensive strategy of inherent soil productivity improvement in China, accomplished through combining engineering-based measures with biological-approaches, may be an important lesson for the developing world. We propose that advancing food security in 21st century for both China and other parts of world will depend on continuously improving inherent soil productivity.

Fan, Mingsheng; Lal, Rattan; Cao, Jian; Qiao, Lei; Su, Yansen; Jiang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Fusuo

2013-01-01

423

Crop yield and soil water restoration on 9-year-old alfalfa pasture in the semiarid Loess Plateau of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alfalfa pastureland in the semiarid Loess Plateau region of Northwest China usually has dry soil layers. A field experiment was conducted from October 2000 to October 2004 to examine soil water recovery and crop productivity on a 9-year-old alfalfa pasture. This experiment included six treatments: alfalfa pasture for 10–14 years, a conventional farming system without prior alfalfa planting, and

Xiao-Ling Wang; Guo-Jun Sun; Yu Jia; Feng-Min Li; Jin-Zhang Xu

2008-01-01

424

Improving crop biomass through asynchronous assimilation of LAI and soil moisture during multiple growing seasons of corn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop biomass is an important indicator of the health of a plant and is also critical for various remote sensing algorithms. In addition, it determines water uptake by the roots, affecting the root zone soil moisture (RZSM). Typically, crop models are used to simulate growth and development in a growing season and estimate biomass and yield. However large uncertainties in these estimates occur over time due to errors in computation, initialization conditions, forcings, and model parameters. Such uncertainties can be significantly reduced by assimilating in situ and/or remotely sensed observations. Satellite-based LAI and near-surface soil moisture (SM) are available weekly and 3 days, respectively. In this study, an EnKF-based assimilation algorithm was implemented to improve crop biomass using the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) Cropping System Model. In situ observations of weekly LAI and every 3-day SM were assimilated asynchronously to update model estimates of LAI, RZSM, and crop biomass. The in situ observations were obtained from intensive field experiments during three seasons of sweet corn grown in North Central Florida. The impact of different assimilation scenarios for crop biomass was determined by the root mean squared difference and the standard deviation between the model estimates and observations during the seasons.

Bongiovanni, T. E.; Nagarajan, K.; Jones, J. W.; Monsivais Huertero, A.; Judge, J.

2010-12-01

425

Release and recovery of nitrogen from winter annual cover crops in no?till corn production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate and temporal pattern of ? mineralization from decomposing residues of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) and rye (Secale cereale L.) were compared with the pattern of ? uptake by corn (Zea mays L.) planted under no?tillage into these cover crops in the field. In a second field study where no corn crop was grown, the pattern of ?

T. G. Huntington; J. H. Grove; W. W. Frye

1985-01-01

426

The Effects of Different Tillages on Crop Residue Sequestration, Soil Available Nutrients and Some Biochemical Properties in the Chinese Black Soil Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-year field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different tillage operations after harvest on crop residues sequestration and their subsequent effects on soil available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), some soil biochemical properties, and three enzymatic activities during the following growing seasons in a soybean (Glycine max)-soybean-corn (Zea mays) rotation farming system in Northeast China. Two different managements were

Xiao-li LIU; Qiu-wen CHEN; Zhao-xia ZENG

2011-01-01

427

Effects of different potato cropping system approaches and water management on soilborne diseases and soil microbial communities.  

PubMed

Four different potato cropping systems, designed to address specific management goals of soil conservation, soil improvement, disease suppression, and a status quo standard rotation control, were evaluated for their effects on soilborne diseases of potato and soil microbial community characteristics. The status quo system (SQ) consisted of barley underseeded with red clover followed by potato (2-year). The soil-conserving system (SC) featured an additional year of forage grass and reduced tillage (3-year, barley/timothy-timothy-potato). The soil-improving system (SI) added yearly compost amendments to the SC rotation, and the disease-suppressive system (DS) featured diverse crops with known disease-suppressive capability (3-year, mustard/rapeseed-sudangrass/rye-potato). Each system was also compared with a continuous potato control (PP) and evaluated under both irrigated and nonirrigated conditions. Data collected over three potato seasons following full rotation cycles demonstrated that all rotations reduced stem canker (10 to 50%) relative to PP. The SQ, SC, and DS systems reduced black scurf (18 to 58%) relative to PP; SI reduced scurf under nonirrigated but not irrigated conditions; and scurf was lower in DS than all other systems. The SQ, SC, and DS systems also reduced common scab (15 to 45%), and scab was lower in DS than all other systems. Irrigation increased black scurf and common scab but also resulted in higher yields for most rotations. SI produced the highest yields under nonirrigated conditions, and DS produced high yields and low disease under both irrigation regimes. Each cropping system resulted in distinctive changes in soil microbial community characteristics as represented by microbial populations, substrate utilization, and fatty acid methyl-ester (FAME) profiles. SI tended to increase soil moisture, microbial populations, and activity, as well result in higher proportions of monounsaturated FAMEs and the FAME biomarker for mycorrhizae (16:1 ?6c) relative to most other rotations. DS resulted in moderate microbial populations and activity but higher substrate richness and diversity in substrate utilization profiles. DS also resulted in relatively higher proportions of FAME biomarkers for fungi (18:2 ?6c), actinomycetes, and gram-positive bacteria than most other systems, whereas PP resulted in the lowest microbial populations and activity; substrate richness and diversity; proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAME classes; and fungal, mycorrhizae, and actinomycete FAME biomarkers of all cropping systems. Overall, soil water, soil quality, and soilborne diseases were all important factors affecting productivity, and cropping systems addressing these constraints improved production. Cropping system approaches will need to balance these factors to achieve sustainable production and disease management. PMID:20839965

Larkin, Robert P; Honeycutt, C Wayne; Griffin, Timothy S; Olanya, O Modesto; Halloran, John M; He, Zhongqi

2011-01-01

428

NITROGEN-BONDED AROMATICS IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR A YIELD DECLINE IN INTENSIVE RICE CROPPING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Significant amounts of nitrogen bonded to aromatic rings were detected by **14N-**13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in a humic acid fraction extracted from a continually submerged, triple-cropped lowland rice soil. Quantitative **13C NMR combined with spectral editing sho...

429

Yield, energy production, and nitrogen loss potential of grain and switchgrass cropping systems compared over claypan soil landscapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A better understanding of production and production efficiency as soil-landscapes vary is needed for bioenergy crops like corn (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). The objective of this research was to examine the impact of topsoil depth overtop a dominant argillic ...

430

Changes in soil arthropod functional group in a wheat crop under conventional and no tillage systems in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different functional groups of soil arthropodofauna present in the agro-ecosystem can be severely modified by tillage practices. The abundance of different trophic groups subject to conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) practices were evaluated compared to a natural field boundary (FB) in a wheat crop. Arthropods were captured using pitfall traps and collected every 20 days during 10 months,

M. E Marasas; S. J Sarandón; A. C Cicchino

2001-01-01

431

Using the RZWQM to Simulate the Fate of Nitrogen in Field Soil - Crop Environment in the Mediterranean Region  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water and Nitrogen (N) balances in agricultural systems are important for evaluating management effects on environmental quality. This paper presents an evaluation of the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) for assessing the fate of N in the soil-crop environment at the field scale in Portugal und...

432

Seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations in soil and some selected crops at a landfill in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the seasonal variations in concentrations of the heavy metals - As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn - in soil and crops from a farm near the refuse dump site of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria were investigated during the two major seasons of Nigeria. This was done to assess the pollution status

E. A. Oluyemi; G. Feuyit; J. A. O. Oyekunle; A. O. Ogunfowokan

2008-01-01

433

Crop yields and properties of a sodic soil as influenced by s?containing amendments under draining and nondraining conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of rice and a subsequent wheat crop along with changes in properties of a sodic soil treated with gypsum, pressmud (sugar factory waste), and pyrite was studied under draining and nondraining conditions in a greenhouse experiment. The highest rice yield was obtained with pressmud applied at a rate of 50 and 75 % gypsum requirement (GR). In wheat the

K. P. Patel; Bhajan Singh; I. M. Chhibba

1990-01-01

434

EFFECTS OF FALL APPLICATION OF BROILER LITTER AND RYE WINTER COVER CROP ON COTTON YIELD AND SOIL N DYNAMICS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This experiment was conducted on a Leeper silty clay loam soil at Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experimental Station (MAFES), Mississippi State, MS, in 2003 and will continue to 2006 to identify if rye winter cover crop over seeded to fall applied broiler litter benefits cotton growth and yi...

435

Effects of living mulches or residue amendments on soil microbial properties in direct seeded cropping systems of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing recognition for the need to study the impact of agricultural land uses on biological and biochemical properties of soils. In Madagascar, cropping systems based on direct seeding with permanent vegetation cover provide a new means for sustainable agriculture to protect the environment and make the most of natural resources. This study assessed the effects of different direct

Bodovololona Rabary; Saidou Sall; Philippe Letourmy; Olivier Husson; Eliane Ralambofetra; Narcisse Moussa; Jean-Luc Chotte

2008-01-01

436

Nitrogen and irrigation management for direct seeded rice on light soils in a rice-wheat cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct seeded rice is becoming very prominent in Southeast Asia. However, the practice is not being adapted to South Asia in the same extent. In a sandy loam soil of NW Bangladesh, four years of experiments were conducted using a two-crop system per year, as is the practice in that area. However instead of transplanting the rice, the rice was

437

Modeling water and soil quality environmental impacts associated with bioenergy crop production and biomass removal in the midwest usa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The removal of corn stover or herbaceous crops such as switchgrass as feedstocks for bioenergy purposes has been shown to have significant benefits from energy and climate change perspectives. There is a potential, however, to adversely impact water and soil quality, especially in Midwestern USA sta...

438

Changes in seasonal evapotranspiration, soil water content, and crop coefficients in sugarcane, cassava, and maize fields in Northeast Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to examine seasonal changes in evapotranspiration (ET), soil water content, and crop coefficients (Kc) for sugarcane, cassava, and maize fields in Northeast Thailand. ET rates during the rainy season varied between 2 and 6mm per day but remained around 1mm per day in the dry season. The normal dry season ET was much greater than the

Kota Watanabe; Takashi Yamamoto; Takashi Yamada; Tetsuo Sakuratani; Eiji Nawata; Chairat Noichana; Akadet Sributta; Hirokazu Higuchi

2004-01-01

439

No-till and cover crop impacts on soil carbon and associated properties on Pennsylvania dairy farms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of conservation practices in crop production, especially no-till planting, is generally expected to result in sequestration of C as soil organic matter and contribute to the reduction of CO2 inputs to the atmosphere. However, expectations are almost exclusively based on findings from plot-s...

440

Soil quality differences among long-term no-till irrigated crop rotations to replace burning and plowing continuous wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heavy residue in irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in the Inland Pacific Northwest of the United States (PNW) is a problem often resolved by burning. We investigated the soil quality benefits of a diversified no-till crop rotation with various residue management practices compared t...

441

The effect of dandelion or a cover crop on mycorrhiza inoculum potential, soil aggregation and yield of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to observe the influence of a cover crop (winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L.), and a perennial weed (dandelion, Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wigg.), on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) inoculum potential, soil aggregation, and maize yield after one season. Mycorrhizal colonization of maize roots was higher following the autumn planting of either winter wheat or dandelion compared

Z. Kabir; R. T. Koide

2000-01-01

442

Effect of soils, cropping system and host phenotype on incidence and severity of Striga gesnerioides on cowpea in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Striga gesnerioides, a plant parasitic phanerogam, is a known constraint to cowpea production in the sahelian and northern guinea savanna zones of West and Central Africa. A survey was done in 1990 across six countries to collect data on soil types, cowpea phenotype, and cropping systems with relation to incidence and severity of striga on cowpea. Of the 153 fields

K. F. Cardwell

1995-01-01

443

Soil nematode responses to crop management and conversion to native grasses.  

PubMed

Soil nematode community response to treatments of three, four-year crop rotations (spring wheat-pea-spring wheat-flax, spring wheat-green manure-spring wheat-flax, and spring wheat-alfalfa-alfalfa-flax) under conventional and organic management, and native tall grass restoration (restored prairie) were assessed in June 2003, and July and August 2004. The research site was the Glenlea Long-term Rotation and Crop Management Study, in the Red River Valley, Manitoba, established in 1992. The nematode community varied more with sample occasion than management and rotation. The restored prairie favored high colonizer-persister (c-p) value omnivores and carnivores, and fungivores but less bacterivores. The restored prairie soil food web was highly structured, mature and low-to-moderately enriched as indicated by structure (SI), maturity (MI) and enrichment (EI) index values, respectively. Higher abundance of fungivores and channel index (CI) values suggested fungal-dominated decomposition. Nematode diversity was low even after more than a decade of restoration. A longer time may be required to attain higher diversity for this restored fragmented prairie site distant from native prairies. No consistent differences were found between organic and conventional management for nematode trophic abundance, with the exception of enrichment opportunists of the c-p 1 group which were favored by conventional management. Although EI was lower and SI was higher for organic than conventional their absolute values suggested decomposition channels to be primarily bacterial, and fewer trophic links with both management scenarios. A high abundance of fungivores in the rotation including the green manure indicates greater fungal decomposition. PMID:23481374

Briar, Shabeg S; Barker, Corinne; Tenuta, Mario; Entz, Martin H

2012-09-01

444

Soil Nematode Responses to Crop Management and Conversion to Native Grasses  

PubMed Central

Soil nematode community response to treatments of three, four-year crop rotations (spring wheat-pea-spring wheat-flax, spring wheat-green manure-spring wheat-flax, and spring wheat-alfalfa-alfalfa-flax) under conventional and organic management, and native tall grass restoration (restored prairie) were assessed in June 2003, and July and August 2004. The research site was the Glenlea Long-term Rotation and Crop Management Study, in the Red River Valley, Manitoba, established in 1992. The nematode community varied more with sample occasion than management and rotation. The restored prairie favored high colonizer-persister (c-p) value omnivores and carnivores, and fungivores but less bacterivores. The restored prairie soil food web was highly structured, mature and low-to-moderately enriched as indicated by structure (SI), maturity (MI) and enrichment (EI) index values, respectively. Higher abundance of fungivores and channel index (CI) values suggested fungal-dominated decomposition. Nematode diversity was low even after more than a decade of restoration. A longer time may be required to attain higher diversity for this restored fragmented prairie site distant from native prairies. No consistent differences were found between organic and conventional management for nematode trophic abundance, with the exception of enrichment opportunists of the c-p 1 group which were favored by conventional management. Although EI was lower and SI was higher for organic than conventional their absolute values suggested decomposition channels to be primarily bacterial, and fewer trophic links with both management scenarios. A high abundance of fungivores in the rotation including the green manure indicates greater fungal decomposition.

Briar, Shabeg S.; Barker, Corinne; Tenuta, Mario; Entz, Martin H.

2012-01-01

445

Soil-to-Crop Transfer Factors of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides and Stable Elements for Long-Term Dose Assessment  

SciTech Connect

A soil-to-crop transfer factor, TF, is a key parameter that directly affects the internal dose assessment for the ingestion pathway, however, obtaining TFs of various long-lived radionuclides occurred during operation of nuclear power plants is difficult because most of them could not be found in natural environments. In this study, therefore, we collected crops and their associated soils throughout Japan and measured more than 50 elements to obtain TFs under equilibrium conditions. The TFs were calculated for 42 elements (Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Sn, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tl, Pb, Th and U) from their concentrations in both crop and soil samples. The TF is defined as the concentration of an isotope in a crop (in Bq/kg or mg/kg dry weight) divided by the concentration of the isotope in soil (in Bq.kg or mg/kg dry weight). Probability distributions of TFs for 62 upland field crops were usually log-normal type so that geometric means (GMs) were calculated. The values for the elements of interest from the viewpoint of long-term dose assessment were 2.5E-02 for Se, 7.9E-02 for Sr, 3.1E-03 for Cs, 4.2E-04 for Th and 4.6E-04 for U. Leafy vegetable showed the highest TFs for all the elements among the crop groups. It was clear that these data were usually within the 95% confidence limits of TFs compiled by IAEA in Technical Report Series 364. (authors)

Uchida, S.; Tagami, K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba (Japan)

2007-07-01

446

HARVESTING ANNUAL RYEGRASS TO REMOVE EXCESS SOIL NUTRIENTS IN A BERMUDAGRASS PASTURE FERTILIZED WITH BROILER LITTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forage producers in the southeast USA often overseed bermudagrass with annual ryegrass in order to enhance annual dry matter (DM) production. As a result, this practice has potential to increase the removal rate of excess phosphorus (P) from manure-impacted soils. This research compared the fate of ...

447

Effects of Cover Crop Systems on Soil Physical Properties and Carbon/Nitrogen Sequestration in Coastal Plain Soils Under Conservation Tillage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conservation practices are needed to prevent erosion and preserve soil and water quality. Conservation tillage has been found to be an effective environmental practice. Uncertainty exists concerning the impact of cover crops with conservation tillage on the total agricultural environment. A study...

448

Competition for soil water between annual plants and blue oak ( Quercus douglasii ) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the competitive effects of two annual species on soil water potential and blue oak (Quercus douglasii Hook & Arn.) seedling growth and water relations. Two densities of the annual grass Bromus diandrus (Roth.) (100\\/dm2, 3.6\\/dm2) and one density of the annual forb Erodium botrys (Cav.) (3.6\\/dm2) comprised plant neighborhoods around the oak seedlings grown in 1 m deep

D. R. Gordon; J. M. Menke; K. J. Rice

1989-01-01

449

Effects of cropping history and peat amendments on the quality of a silt soil cropped with strawberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term field experiments are invaluable sites for studying changes in soil quality due to management practices. We utilized a field experiment on silt soil with 18 years (1982–1999) of conventional and organic farming systems for studying long-term impacts of farming system on soil properties. During 2000–2002, strawberries were grown on the whole area. Some conventional and organic plots were amended

Mauritz Vestberg; Sanna Kukkonen; Kaisa Saari; Tuomo Tuovinen; Ansa Palojärvi; Timo Pitkänen; Timo Hurme; Milja Vepsäläinen; Maarit Niemi

2009-01-01

450

CropSyst, a cropping systems simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

CropSyst is a multi-year, multi-crop, daily time step cropping systems simulation model developed to serve as an analytical tool to study the effect of climate, soils, and management on cropping systems productivity and the environment. CropSyst simulates the soil water and nitrogen budgets, crop growth and development, crop yield, residue production and decomposition, soil erosion by water, and salinity. The

Claudio O. Stöckle; Marcello Donatelli; Roger Nelson

2003-01-01

451

The effect of soil texture on the water use efficiency of irrigated crops: Results of a multi-year experiment carried out in the Mediterranean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of soil texture on water use efficiency (WUE) was analyzed for six crops cultivated on loam and clay soils. Results were obtained after a long-term study, carried out in a lysimetric set-up, in conditions of experimental neutrality (climate, agro-techniques, and variety were the same for each crop) with the sole exception of the soil texture, which was the

Nader Katerji; Marcello Mastrorilli

2009-01-01

452

Managing soil nitrogen to restore annual grass-infested plant communities: effective strategy or incomplete framework?  

PubMed

Theoretical and empirical work has established a positive relationship between resource availability and habitat invasibility. For nonnative invasive annual grasses, similar to other invasive species, invader success has been tied most often to increased nitrogen (N) availability. These observations have led to the logical assumption that managing soils for low N availability will facilitate restoration of invasive plant-dominated systems. Although invasive annual grasses pose a serious threat to a number of perennial-dominated ecosystems worldwide, there has been no quantitative synthesis evaluating the degree to which soil N management may facilitate restoration efforts. We used meta-analysis to evaluate the degree to which soil N management impacts growth and competitive ability of annual and perennial grass seedlings. We then link our analysis to current theories of plant ecological strategies and community assembly to improve our ability to understand how soil N management may be used to restore annual grass-dominated communities. Across studies, annual grasses maintained higher growth rates and greater biomass and tiller production than perennials under low and high N availability. We found no evidence that lowering N availability fundamentally alters competitive interactions between annual and perennial grass seedlings. Competitive effects of annual neighbors on perennial targets were similar under low and high N availability. Moreover, in most cases perennials grown under competition in high-N soils produced more biomass than perennials grown under competition in low-N soils. While these findings counter current restoration and soil N management assumptions, these results are consistent with current plant ecological strategy and community assembly theory. Based on our results and these theories we argue that, in restoration scenarios in which the native plant community is being reassembled from seed, soil N management will have no direct positive effect on native plant establishment unless invasive plant propagule pools and priority effects are controlled the first growing season. PMID:21563579

James, J J; Drenovsky, R E; Monaco, T A; Rinella, M J

2011-03-01

453

An Image Segmentation Based on a Genetic Algorithm for Determining Soil Coverage by Crop Residues  

PubMed Central

Determination of the soil coverage by crop residues after ploughing is a fundamental element of Conservation Agriculture. This paper presents the application of genetic algorithms employed during the fine tuning of the segmentation process of a digital image with the aim of automatically quantifying the residue coverage. In other words, the objective is to achieve a segmentation that would permit the discrimination of the texture of the residue so that the output of the segmentation process is a binary image in which residue zones are isolated from the rest. The RGB images used come from a sample of images in which sections of terrain were photographed with a conventional camera positioned in zenith orientation atop a tripod. The images were taken outdoors under uncontrolled lighting conditions. Up to 92% similarity was achieved between the images obtained by the segmentation process proposed in this paper and the templates made by an elaborate manual tracing process. In addition to the proposed segmentation procedure and the fine tuning procedure that was developed, a global quantification of the soil coverage by residues for the sampled area was achieved that differed by only 0.85% from the quantification obtained using template images. Moreover, the proposed method does not depend on the type of residue present in the image. The study was conducted at the experimental farm “El Encín” in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid, Spain).

Ribeiro, Angela; Ranz, Juan; Burgos-Artizzu, Xavier P.; Pajares, Gonzalo; Sanchez del Arco, Maria J.; Navarrete, Luis

2011-01-01

454

ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics) Annual Report, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) focuses on sorghum, millet, chickpeas, pigeon peas, and groundnuts. The report provides comprehensive coverage of research conducted during 1984 at ICRISAT Center a...

1985-01-01

455

Using Biome-BGC to estimate production in annual crops - A study in Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Biome-BGC ecosystem process model (Version 4.1.2) has been used successfully in many ecosystems, but was not developed for use with agricultural crops. Therefore, program modifications are needed for use with crops, including the addition of carbon allocation to fruiting and the inclusion of springtime planting. The program has been modified and tested using both C3 (soybean) and C4 (maize)

F. A. Heinsch; W. M. Jolly; J. S. Kimball; W. C. Oechel; S. B. Verma

2004-01-01

456

Impacts of soil and groundwater salinization on tree crop performance in post-tsunami Aceh Barat, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004 had far reaching consequences for agriculture in Aceh province, Indonesia, and particularly in Aceh Barat district, 150 km from the seaquake epicentre. In this study, the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of soil and groundwater salinity and their impact on tree crops were monitored in Aceh Barat from 2006 to 2008. On 48 sampling points along ten transects, covering 40 km of coastline, soil and groundwater salinity were measured and related to mortality and yield depression of the locally most important tree crops. Given a yearly rainfall of over 3000 mm, initial groundwater salinity declined rapidly from over 10 to less than 2 mS cm-1 within two years. On the other hand, seasonal dynamics of the groundwater table in combination with intrusion of saline water into the groundwater body led to recurring elevated salinity, sufficient to affect crops. Tree mortality and yield depression in the flooded area varied considerably between tree species. Damage to coconut (65% trees damaged) was related to tsunami run-up height, while rubber (50% trees damaged) was mainly affected by groundwater salinity. Coconut yields (-35% in average) were constrained by groundwater Ca2+ and Mg2+, while rubber yields (-65% on average) were related to groundwater chloride, pH and soil sodium. These findings have implications on planting deep-rooted tree crops as growth will be constrained by ongoing oscillations of the groundwater table and salinity.

Marohn, C.; Distel, A.; Dercon, G.; Wahyunto; Tomlinson, R.; Noordwijk, M. v.; Cadisch, G.

2012-09-01

457

Effects of snow-cover on annual and seasonal soil respiration from a temperate mountain forest soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change will alter the duration and magnitude of snow cover, especially in temperate areas at lower altitude, where wintertime air temperatures often fluctuate around freezing. A five years time series of consecutive soil respiration measurements was used to assess the effects of duration and magnitude of cold season snow-cover on annual and seasonal soil CO2 efflux. The temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 efflux during the cold season was assessed from seasonal data as well as from high frequency measurements during periods when air/soil temperatures showed high fluctuation. Substrate limitation as a potential driver of soil CO2 efflux during the cold season was tested by periodic amendment of sucrose followed by measurement and determination of the isotopic signature (13C) of the substrate induced soil respiration in the field. First results will be presented at the conference.

Schindlbacher, Andreas; Jandl, Robert; Schindlbacher, Sabine

2013-04-01

458

[Effects of tillage-cropping systems on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agro-ecosystems in a purple paddy soil].  

PubMed

Using the static opaque chamber method, a field experiment, located in the Key Field Station for Monitoring of Eco-Environment of Purple Soil of the Ministry of Agriculture of China in the farm of Southwest University (30 degrees 26'N, 106 degrees 26'E) in Chongqing, was conducted in situ for one year to study the effect of different tillage systems on CH4 and N2O emission from ago-ecosystems in a purple paddy soil. In this paper, four tillage treatments including conventional tillage with rice only system (CT), conventional tillage with rotation of rice and rape system (CTR), no-till and plain culture with rotation of rice and rape system (NTP) and no-till and ridge culture with rotation of rice and rape system (NTR) were selected as research objectives. The results showed that the annual CH4 and N2O emissions were mainly occurred in the rice growing period, and were about 77.6% and 55.0% of the total annual of them emitted from this period. The total annual CH4 under CT was higher than that of other treatments. The annual average flux of CH4[CH4, mg x (m2 x h)(-1)] order was CT (2.96 +/- 0.04) >NTR (1.83 +/- 0.21) >NTP (1.42 +/- 0.01) >CTR (0.96 +/- 0.09); the annual average flux of N2O[N2O, microg x (m2 x h)(-1)] order was CTR (123.6 +/- 47.1) > NTR (115.2 +/- 22.1) > NTP (100.5 +/- 25.8) > CT (81.3 +/- 13.5), and the total annual N2O under CTR was higher than that of CT. The global warming potentials (GWPs) of CH4 and N2O emissions under different tillage-cropping systems were assessed in an integrated way. The results showed that the integrated GWPs of CH4 and N2O emission were in the following sequence: CT > NTR > NTP > CTR, and CTR was the best treatment for decrease the integrated GWPs in this area. PMID:22946185

Zhang, Jun-Ke; Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Hao, Qing-Ju; Tang, Qi-Wen; Cheng, Bing-Hong; Li, Hui; Chen, Lu-Hao

2012-06-01

459

Microbial community composition and carbon cycling within soil microenvironments of conventional, low-input, and organic cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study coupled stable isotope probing with phospholipid fatty acid analysis (13C-PLFA) to describe the role of microbial community composition in the short-term processing (i.e., C incorporation into microbial biomass and\\/or deposition or respiration of C) of root- versus residue-C and, ultimately, in long-term C sequestration in conventional (annual synthetic fertilizer applications), low-input (synthetic fertilizer and cover crop applied in

Angela Y. Y. Kong; Kate M. Scow; Ana Lucía Córdova-Kreylos; William E. Holmes; Johan Six

2011-01-01

460

Effect of Effective Microorganism Application on Crop Growth, Yield, and Nutrition in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek in Different Soil Amendment Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted in heat-sterilized soil to evaluate the effect of effective microorganism (EM) application on growth, yield, and nutrient uptake in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek var. NIAB Mung 98 in different soil amendment systems. Pot soil was amended with farmyard manure (FYM), Trifolium alexanrinum L. crop residues (TCR), and half (½NPK) and recommended dose (NPK) of chemical

Arshad Javaid; Rukhsana Bajwa

2011-01-01

461

Differentiating the early impacts of topsoil removal and soil amendments on crop performance\\/productivity of corn and soybean in eroded farmland of Chinese Mollisols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmland soil erosion affects crop productivity. Field experiments were conducted from 2005 to 2006 on a typical Chinese Mollisol at a farm in Hailun, Heilongjiang, China, to differentiate the early impact of topsoil removal on corn and soybean yield, and to determine the effectiveness of soil amendments for restoring the productivity of eroded soils. The simulated erosion levels were established

Yueyu Sui; Xiaobing Liu; Jian Jin; Shaoliang Zhang; Xingyi Zhang; Stephen J. Herbert; Guangwei Ding

2009-01-01

462

Impact of irrigation with As rich groundwater on soil and crops: A geochemical case study in West Bengal Delta Plain, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of As was explored in soils and crops in order to investigate the influence of irrigation with As rich groundwater on the soil–plant system, and to determine its impact on the environment and human health. The study was carried out in an intensively cu